Science.gov

Sample records for environmental aspects latest

  1. Dredging: Technology and environmental aspects. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and environmental impacts of dredging. Equipment, including semi-submersible cutter platforms, is described. Other topics include sediment movement, factors affecting sediment movement, the disposal of dredged material, and computer models predicting the fate of the dredged materials. The environmental impacts of the dredged areas and the effects of ocean dumping of dredged material are also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Dredging: Technology and environmental aspects. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and environmental impacts of dredging. Equipment, including semi-submersible cutter platforms, is described. Other topics include sediment movement, factors affecting sediment movement, the disposal of dredged material, and computer models predicting the fate of the dredged materials. The environmental impacts of the dredged areas and the effects of ocean dumping of dredged material are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. (The latest developments of the physical aspects of electrochemistry)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.H.

    1990-09-24

    The author was one of 26 invited lecturers to discuss the latest developments of the physical aspects of electrochemistry. He interacted extensively with other lecturers and many participants from developing countries. He also visited with the Director of the Italian Synchrotron Radiation Source now under construction in Trieste, Italy.

  4. Latest aspects of aldosterone actions on the heart muscle.

    PubMed

    Kritis, A A; Gouta, C P; Liaretidou, E I; Kallaras, K I

    2016-02-01

    The genomic action of aldosterone has already been known to the scientific community and is well-documented to a satisfactory degree. However, the existence of rapid, non-genomic aldosterone actions has repeatedly been proven. These actions are apparent to a lot of tissues, among which the cardiac tissue, with the cardiac cells being responsible for the secretion of endogenous aldosterone. In the genomic pathway, the connection between the hormone and its receptor results increased reabsorption of sodium and water and excretion of potassium. Thus, the genomic procedure reacts indirectly on cardiovascular system by altering the blood pressure. New studies have shed light on unknown aspects of the non-genomic mechanism, which is sometimes performed by means of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), while others through an MR-independent pathway. It is believed that aldosterone exerts its non-genomic action with the help of a different receptor, probably a G protein coupled receptor. A possible target is protein kinase C (PKC), and PKCε is postulated increase the permeability of the membrane of the cardiac cells to sodium, resulting in delayed repolarization and prolongation of action potential. These findings totally agree with and account for the serendipitous finding of our laboratory, that there is a positive correlation between plasma aldosterone levels and left ventricle (LV) contraction duration. Also, aldosterone has been proven to exacerbate the oxidative stress and induce vasoconstriction by acting on the vascular resistance and the cardiac output. Finally, this article deals with the role of aldosterone in cardiac fibrosis and the latest aspects of aldosterone actions on the heart muscle as well as providing a historical overview of the landmarks pertaining aldosterone's research.

  5. The aSPECT experiment - an overview and latest results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Christian; Aspect Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The aSPECT retardation spectrometer measures the β- ν angular correlation coefficient a in free neutron β-decay. This measurement can be used to determine the ratio gA/gV of the weak coupling constants, as well as to search for physics beyond the Standard Model. In 2013 aSPECT had a successful beam time at the Institut Laue-Langevin. The goal of this beam time is to improve the current uncertainty of a from Δa / a 5 % to about 1%. The data analysis is in its final stage and nearly finished. In order to achieve an uncertainty of 1%, the systematics of aSPECT have to be understood accordingly. This is achieved by systematic tests and measurements of a with different parameter settings for the spectrometer during the beam time. Additionally, offline measurements have been performed to determine the effect on the systematics, e.g. work-function fluctuations of the electrodes. These measurements are used as input for on-going simulations of the spectrometer to understand and reduce the systematic uncertainties further. In this talk aSPECT will be introduced and the current status of the data analysis will be reported, including a preliminary error budget of the systematic uncertainties.

  6. Environmental aspects of wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunil; Choudhary, Mahendra Pratap

    2007-07-01

    The population is increasing rapidly and the demand for water by cities, industries and agriculture has tended to grow even faster than the population. Wastewater reclamation consists of a combination of conventional and advanced treatment processes employed to return a wastewater to nearly original quality, reclaiming the water. The environmental health aspects associated with reclamation of wastewater include quality aspects and public health aspects. An attempt has been made in the present paper to describe these aspects and to suggest appropriate solutions.

  7. Environmental legislation. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning legislation related to the environment and pollution. Topics include various aspects of air pollution, environmental surveys, hazardous materials, radiation, and waste disposal. Also covered are acid rain, coal, electricity, fossil fuel power plants, ground water, and industrial plants. (Contains a minimum of 142 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Environmental aspects of congenital scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Yu, Xin; Shen, Jianxiong

    2015-04-01

    Growing evidence has proved that many aspects of our lifestyle and the environment contribute to the development of congenital disease. Congenital spinal deformities are due to anomalous development of the vertebrae including failure of formation and segmentation during embryogenesis. The causes of congenital scoliosis have not been fully identified. A variety of factors are implicated in the development of vertebral abnormalities. Previous studies have demonstrated that both genetics and environmental factors are implicated in the development of vertebral abnormalities. However, no specific cause for congenital scoliosis has been identified. In our review, we focus on the environmental factors for the development of congenital scoliosis. Various maternal exposures during pregnancy including hypoxia, alcohol use, vitamin deficiency, valproic acid, boric acid, and hyperthermia have been observed to be associated with the occurrence of congenital scoliosis. This review describes the major environmental contributors of congenital scoliosis with an emphasis on treatment aspects associated with environmental disposition in congenital scoliosis.

  9. Environmental Aspects, Objectives and Targets Identification Process

    SciTech Connect

    R. Green

    2002-07-29

    The purpose of this report is to document the environmental aspects and associated environmental impacts of the Bechtel SAIC Company (BSC) scope of work, evaluate the significance of those environmental aspects based on established criteria, and establish environmental objectives and targets for specific environmental aspects. This report is intended to be used by environmental staff in the evaluation of BSC work packages during the annual risk-based planning process. This report shall be fully reviewed and revised annually during the annual work planning process to reflect changes in BSC operations, facilities, and scope of work. Planned BSC work will be evaluated to determine if the work is covered by a previously defined activity, product or service (see Table 2); if work activities require redefinition or addition of a new activity; and if the significant evaluation for each environment aspect is still valid based on scope of planned work. New workscope initiated during the fiscal year through the Baseline Change Proposal process (i.e., not as part of the annual work plan) also will be reviewed for new environmental aspects and determination of whether the new workscope would change the significance rating of any environmental aspect. If a new environmental aspect is identified in a new work activity, product, or service but the aspect is not determined to be significant (see Section 4), then this report can be changed through an interim change notice (ICN). This report can be changed five times through an ICN before a full revision is required. However, if new workscope causes an environmental aspect to be graded as significant using the evaluation process in Section 4, this report shall be revised though a full review and revision.

  10. Economical Aspects of Environmental Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusko, Miroslav; Andrejovský, Pavol; Bosák, Martin; Rovňák, Martin

    2010-01-01

    After transition to market economy, information about environmental condition has been accessible and the findings of such "inventory control" are being published. There is a space for slowing-down the growth of economics damages on environment and for disposal of old environmental loads, the solution to which requires around 3.3 - 4.3 billion Euro in conditions of the Slovak Republic. This space is formed in difficult socio-economic conditions, mainly regarding the shortage of investment for solving these problems, but also due to the insufficient legislation and its slow approximation to the European Union requirements, as well as the insufficient environmental appreciation and low awareness of "satiation of our own future".

  11. Environmental aspects of solar energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Strojan, C.L.

    1980-09-01

    Solar energy technologies have environmental effects, and these may be positive or negative compared with current ways of producing energy. In this respect, solar energy technologies are no different from other energy systems. Where solar energy technologies differ is that no unresolvable technological problems (e.g., CO/sub 2/ emissions) or sociopolitical barriers (e.g., waste disposal, catastrophic accidents) have been identified. This report reviews some of the environmental aspects of solar energy technologies and ongoing research designed to identify and resolve potential environmental concerns. It is important to continue research and assessment of environmental aspects of solar energy to ensure that unanticipated problems do not arise. It is also important that the knowledge gained through such environmental research be incorporated into technology development programs and policy initiatives.

  12. Environmental health aspects of lubricant additives.

    PubMed

    Hewstone, R K

    1994-12-01

    This paper describes briefly the industrial hygiene aspects of the manufacture and use of lubricant additives and gives some details concerning the acute, chronic and environmental toxicity of important additive types. It also addresses the need to communicate information about product hazards and draws attention to some special points of concern which the additives industry in general has with existing and developing environmental health regulations. Finally, it takes a crystal ball to the long-term future of additives manufacture.

  13. Environmental health aspects of the microelectronics industry.

    PubMed

    Himmelstein, J S; Levy, B S

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews examples of contamination to the surface or groundwater, the ambient air, and soil resulting from the microelectronics industry. The potential effects on human health arising from such environmental contamination are discussed, as well as aspects of their diagnosis, treatment, and related public health implications. Given the high costs of pollution control, the emphasis must be on prevention, which can be facilitated by a high level of suspicion and by the design of safety and pollution control into manufacturing processes.

  14. Latest Cretaceous climatic and environmental change in the South Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woelders, L.; Vellekoop, J.; Kroon, D.; Smit, J.; Casadío, S.; Prámparo, M. B.; Dinarès-Turell, J.; Peterse, F.; Sluijs, A.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Speijer, R. P.

    2017-05-01

    Latest Maastrichtian climate change caused by Deccan volcanism has been invoked as a cause of mass extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary ( 66.0 Ma). Yet late Maastrichtian climate and ecological changes are poorly documented, in particular on the Southern Hemisphere. Here we present upper Maastrichtian-lower Danian climate and biotic records from the Bajada del Jagüel (BJ) shelf site (Neuquén Basin, Argentina), employing the TEX86 paleothermometer, marine palynology (dinoflagellate cysts), and micropaleontology (foraminifera). These records are correlated to the astronomically tuned Ocean Drilling Program Site 1262 (Walvis Ridge). Collectively, we use these records to assess climatic and ecological effects of Deccan volcanism in the Southern Atlantic region. Both the TEX86-based sea surface temperature (SST) record at BJ and the bulk carbonate δ18O-based SST record of Site 1262 show a latest Maastrichtian warming of 2.5-4°C, at 450 to 150 kyr before the K-Pg boundary, coinciding with the a large Deccan outpouring phase. Benthic foraminiferal and dinocyst assemblage changes indicate that this warming resulted in enhanced runoff and stratification of the water column, likely resulting from more humid climate conditions in the Neuquén Basin. These climate conditions could have been caused by an expanding and strengthening thermal low over the South American continent. Biotic changes in response to late Maastrichtian environmental changes are rather limited, when compared to the major turnovers observed at many K-Pg boundary sites worldwide. This suggests that environmental perturbations during the latest Maastrichtian warming event were less severe than those following the K-Pg boundary impact.

  15. Latest Cretaceous Climatic and Environmental Change in the South Atlantic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woelders, L.; Vellekoop, J.; Smit, J.; Kroon, D.; Casadío, S.; Prámparo, M.; Dinarès-turell, J.; Peterse, F.; Sluijs, A.; Speijer, R. P.

    2016-12-01

    It is generally assumed that the Chicxulub impact resulted in the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary mass extinction ( 66 Ma). However, there is continuing debate about the contribution of latest Maastrichtian climate changes, possibly caused by Deccan volcanism, to this mass extinction event. This debate is complicated because of the lack of high quality latest Maastrichtian climatological and ecological reconstructions. Here we present an astronomically tuned late Maastrichtian - early Danian record of bulk carbonate δ18O, a proxy record of sea surface temperature (SST), from Southern Atlantic Ocean Drilling Program Site 1262 (Walvis Ridge) and a late Maastrichtian TEX86 sea surface temperature record from the Bajada del Jagüel site in the Neuquén Basin (Argentina). The combination of these inferred temperature records with foraminiferal and organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) data from Bajada del Jagüel allows to reconstruct environmental changes across this time interval in a mid-latitude, Southern Atlantic setting. Our results show that latest Maastrichtian warming of 2.5-4°C started gradually around 66.7 Ma, culminating in the interval between 450 to 150 kyr before the K-Pg boundary. Highest temperatures occurred 200 kyr before the K-Pg boundary. During the last 150 kyr of the Maastrichtian, the temperature trend reversed again at both sites. Benthic foraminiferal and dinocyst assemblage changes indicate that late Maastrichtian warming resulted in more humid climate conditions in the Neuquén basin, causing enhanced runoff and stratification of the water column. Vice versa, the subsequent cooling induced again a drier climate in the basin, resulting in reduced salinity stratification and better ventilation of the basin. We conclude that late Maastrichtian climate and sea level change caused distinct environmental perturbations in the Neuquén basin, although it remains uncertain to which extent late Maastrichtian climatological changes

  16. Oil spills: Legal aspects. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the legal aspects of oil spills. Topics include general perspectives on oil spills, EPA's response to oil spills, legal and corporate response to oil spills, public interest groups' attitudes on oil spills, and economic and political approaches to the problems caused by oil spills. Federal, state and local legislation dealing with these problems is emphasized. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Teaching the Ethical Aspects of Environmental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palinkas, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental and societal issues are often inherently linked, especially in coastal and estuarine environments, and science and social values must often be balanced in ecosystem management and decision-making. A new seminar course has been developed for the Marine Estuarine and Environmental Science (MEES) graduate program, an inter-institutional program within the University System of Maryland, to examine these issues. This 1-credit course, offered for the first time in Spring 2015, takes a complex systems perspective on major environmental and societal challenges to examine these linked issues in a variety of contexts. After a brief introduction to the emerging field of "geoethics," students develop a list of issues to examine throughout the seminar. Example topics could include fracking, offshore wind technology, dam removal, and iron fertilization, among others. A case-study approach is taken, with each class meeting focusing on one issue. For each case study, students are asked to 1) identify relevant scientific principles and major knowledge gaps, 2) predict potential outcomes, 3) identify stakeholders and likely viewpoints, and 4) construct communication plans to disseminate findings to these stakeholders. At the end of the semester, students give a brief presentation of the ethical aspects of their own research topics.

  18. International Aspects of Environmental Education. Monographs in Environmental Education and Environmental Studies. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, John H., Ed.; And Others

    This document contains four sections which deal with various aspects of international environmental education. Section 1 includes papers that describe environmental education projects and programs in South America, Europe, India, Scotland, the Arab states, and the Sudan. An additional article in this chapter compares the environmental education…

  19. International Aspects of Environmental Education. Monographs in Environmental Education and Environmental Studies. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, John H., Ed.; And Others

    This document contains four sections which deal with various aspects of international environmental education. Section 1 includes papers that describe environmental education projects and programs in South America, Europe, India, Scotland, the Arab states, and the Sudan. An additional article in this chapter compares the environmental education…

  20. Latest Advances in Plant Development and Environmental Response: The Inaugural Cold Spring Harbor Asia Plant Biology Meeting in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ikeuchi, Momoko; Rhodes, Jack

    2017-08-01

    With stunning ocean views over Osaka Bay, Awaji Island played host to the first Cold Spring Harbor Asia Plant Biology meeting in Japan. The meeting, 'Latest Advances in Plant Development and Environmental Response' (CSHAPB), provided a platform to promote scientific communication and collaboration in the pan-pacific region. The event welcomed almost 200 scientists from around the world to showcase their cutting-edge research. Exemplary speakers from diverse research fields presented their latest discoveries, ranging from developmental mechanisms to host-pathogen interactions, environmental responses and stress memory. Here we seek to review the meeting and highlight some of the salient themes that emerged over the course of the 3 d. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A procedure for identifying significant environmental aspects in sea ports.

    PubMed

    Darbra, R M; Ronza, A; Stojanovic, T A; Wooldridge, C; Casal, J

    2005-08-01

    A new methodology has been designed to identify and rank the significant environmental aspects in sea ports. The main objective of the Strategic Overview of Significant Environmental Aspects (SOSEA) is to help port managers to identify significant environmental aspects and to reinforce the awareness about them in order to prioritise work in environmental management. Developed in close collaboration with port environmental managers and tested in a set of ports, it is a user-friendly tool that can be applied in approximately half a working day. It is based on ISO 14001 vocabulary and requirements and it can be considered as the base for the implementation of any Environmental Management System for port communities.

  2. Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials: Environmental Aspects

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is always a search for reliable and environmentally friendly processes to manufacture metal and metal oxide nanoparticles minimizing or even eliminating the use of hazardous chemicals. The only way to develop these “green” processes is to adapt benign synthesis approaches t...

  3. Environmental aspects of marine transport operations

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, I.J.; Reader, G.T.; Bowen, C.E.

    1995-12-31

    The oceans have been used for almost five thousand years for military purposes, for the transportation of goods and people and, especially in this century, for recreational activities. Today the oceanic seaways still provide a vitally important transportation system and probably always will. They also contain rich resources of food, energy and minerals which have yet to be fully exploited but there is already growing concern that they are being contaminated by pollution originating not only from the populated coastal areas but also from the actual use of the seas by marine vehicles. The waste generated in shipping activities has invariably been dumped into the oceans, often indiscriminately and in ignorance of the effects. However, increasing environmental awareness has now led the civilian and military marine transportation sectors to focus on the elimination of ship based environmental hazards. These hazards can take the form of atmospheric pollution, such as exhaust gases, or seawater pollution, such as sewage discharge and garbage disposal. The environmentally unfriendly discharges from vessels are not always intentional, for example, grease from the steering mechanism and erosion of the toxic anti-fouling hull paint have only been recently identified as harmful agents. The purpose of this paper is to review the actual and potential environmental problem associated with the operation of both surface ships and underwater vehicles. In addition, techniques and problems associated with the control or elimination of the hazards are discussed and areas for future research identified.

  4. Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials: Environmental Aspects

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is always a search for reliable and environmentally friendly processes to manufacture metal and metal oxide nanoparticles minimizing or even eliminating the use of hazardous chemicals. The only way to develop these “green” processes is to adapt benign synthesis approaches t...

  5. Environmental and health aspects of lighting: Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Clear, R.; Berman, S.

    1993-07-01

    Most discharge lamps, including fluorescent lamps, metal halide lamps, and high pressure sodium lamps, contain Mercury, a toxic chemical. Lighting professionals need to be able to respond to questions about the direct hazards of Mercury from accidentally breaking lamps, and the potential environmental hazards of lamp operation and disposal. We calculated the exposures that could occur from an accidental breakage of lamps. Acute poisoning appears almost impossible. Under some circumstances a sealed environment, such as a space station, could be contaminated enough to make it unhealthy for long-term occupation. Mercury becomes a potential environmental hazard after it becomes methylated. Mercury is methylated in aquatic environments, where it may accumulate in fish, eventually rendering them toxic to people and other animals. Lighting causes Mercury to enter the environment directly from lamp disposal, and indirectly from power plant emissions. The environmental tradeoffs between incandescent and discharge lamps depend upon the amounts released by these two sources, their local concentrations, and their probabilities of being methylated. Indirect environmental effects of lighting also include the release of other heavy metals (Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic), and other air pollutants and carbon dioxide that are emitted by fossil fuel power plants. For a given light output, the level of power plant emissions depends upon the efficacy of the light source, and is thus much larger for incandescent lamps than for fluorescent or discharge lamps. As disposal and control technologies change the relative direct and indirect emissions from discharge and incandescent lamps will change.

  6. Environmental aspects of ethical animal production.

    PubMed

    Siegford, J M; Powers, W; Grimes-Casey, H G

    2008-02-01

    Livestock and poultry producers face a number of challenges including pressure from the public to be good environmental stewards and adopt welfare-friendly practices. In response, producers often implement practices beyond those required for regulatory compliance to meet consumer demands. However, environmental stewardship and animal welfare may have conflicting objectives. Examples include pasture-based dairy and beef cattle production where high-fiber diets increase methane emissions compared with grain feeding practices in confinement. Grazing systems can contribute to nitrate contamination of surface and groundwater in some areas of the world where grazing is the predominant land use. Similarly, hoop housing for sows, an alternative to indoor gestation crates, can increase the risk of nutrient leaching into soil and groundwater. Direct air emissions may also increase with unconfined animal production as a result of less opportunity to trap and treat emissions, as well as the result of increased cage space and greater surface area per mass of excreta. Coupling welfare-friendly and organic production practices may require greater nutrient inputs to reach the same production end point, resulting in less efficient nutrient use and greater losses to the environment. Dual systems might additionally increase environmental contamination by pathogens. When swine are housed in welfare-friendly huts, Salmonella may cycle more freely between swine and their environment; however, population numbers of pathogenic bacteria may not be different between the indoor and outdoor systems evaluated. Alternatively, these dual purpose systems may reduce antibiotic and hormonal releases to the environment. Finally, intensity of resource use may be different under welfare-friendly and organic practices. In most situations, welfare-friendly production will require more land area per animal or per unit of product. Energy inputs into such systems, from feed production to rearing to product

  7. Obesity: genetic, molecular, and environmental aspects.

    PubMed

    Barness, Lewis A; Opitz, John M; Gilbert-Barness, Enid

    2007-12-15

    Obesity has emerged as one of the most serious public health concerns in the 21st century. Obese children tend to become obese adults. The dramatic rise in pediatric obesity closely parallels the rapid increase in the prevalence of adult obesity. As overweight children become adults they face the multitude of health problems associated with obesity at younger ages. The morbidity and mortality associated with obesity continue to increase. Obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable death. Complications of obesity include cardiovascular risks, hypertension, dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance, acanthosis nigricans, hepatic steatosis, premature puberty, hypogonadism and polycystic ovary syndrome, obstructive sleep disorder, orthopedic complications, cholelithiasis and pseudotumor cerebri. Genetic and molecular and environmental factors play an important role in the assessment and management of obesity.

  8. Environmental and Energy Aspects of Construction Industry and Green Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauskale, L.; Geipele, I.; Zeltins, N.; Lecis, I.

    2017-04-01

    Green building is an important component of sustainable real estate market development, and one of the reasons is that the construction industry consumes a high amount of resources. Energy consumption of construction industry results in greenhouse gas emissions, so green buildings, energy systems, building technologies and other aspects play an important role in sustainable development of real estate market, construction and environmental development. The aim of the research is to analyse environmental aspects of sustainable real estate market development, focusing on importance of green buildings at the industry level and related energy aspects. Literature review, historical, statistical data analysis and logical access methods have been used in the research. The conducted research resulted in high environmental rationale and importance of environment-friendly buildings, and there are many green building benefits during the building life cycle. Future research direction is environmental information process and its models.

  9. ASPECT

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Able to deploy within one hour of notification, EPA's Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) is the nation’s only airborne real-time chemical and radiological detection, infrared and photographic imagery platform.

  10. Environmental impacts: Computer analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of computer software and algorithms to analyze the environmental impact of human activities. Topics describe and evaluate specific simulation programs treating the transport of radioactive pollutants, noise pollution effects, and site analyses. Plume migration in water, air pollution studies, and the analysis of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are among the applications considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Oil spills: Environmental effects. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning environmental impacts of oil spills primarily resulting from ship wrecks and oil drilling or exploration. Oil spills in temperate, tropic and arctic zones which affect fresh water, estuarine, and marine environments are included. Cleanup operations and priorities, computer modeling and simulation of oil spills, oil spill investigations, and prediction of oil slick movement in high traffic shipping lanes are among the topics discussed. Microbial degradation of oils, and toxicity studies of oils and oil dispersants affecting aquatic plant and animal life are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Oil spills: Environmental effects. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning environmental impacts of oil spills primarily resulting from ship wrecks and oil drilling or exploration. Oil spills in temperate, tropic and arctic zones which affect fresh water, estuarine, and marine environments are included. Cleanup operations and priorities, computer modeling and simulation of oil spills, oil spill investigations, and prediction of oil slick movement in high traffic shipping lanes are among the topics discussed. Microbial degradation of oils, and toxicity studies of oils and oil dispersants affecting aquatic plant and animal life are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Evaluation of environmental aspects significance in ISO 14001.

    PubMed

    Põder, Tõnis

    2006-05-01

    The methodological framework set by standards ISO 14001 and ISO 14004 gives only general principles for environmental aspects assessment, which is regarded as one of the most critical stages of implementing environmental management system. In Estonia, about 100 organizations have been certified to the ISO 14001. Experience obtained from numerous companies has demonstrated that limited transparency and reproducibility of the assessment process serves as a common shortcoming. Despite rather complicated assessment schemes sometimes used, the evaluation procedures have been largely based on subjective judgments because of ill-defined and inadequate assessment criteria. A comparison with some similar studies in other countries indicates a general nature of observed inconsistencies. The diversity of approaches to the aspects' assessment in concept literature and to the related problems has been discussed. The general structure of basic assessment criteria, compatible with environmental impact assessment and environmental risk analysis has also been outlined. Based on this general structure, the article presents a tiered approach to help organize the assessment in a more consistent manner.

  14. Environmental change and cultural adaptation in the southern Caucasus: latest results from Aghitu-3 Cave, Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Andrew; Gasparyan, Boris; Bruch, Angela; Nahapetyan, Samvel; Weissbrod, Lior

    2014-05-01

    The well stratified locality of Aghitu-3 Cave in the southern Caucasus provides a glimpse into the daily lives of the earliest known Upper Paleolithic inhabitants of Armenia. With three main phases of sedimentation serving as a backdrop to human settlement, the locality provides an excellent stratigraphic record documenting environmental change between about 40,000 and 24,000 cal BP. From the end of MIS 3 with its warm and humid climate, early modern humans made use of the cave with increasing frequency during the colder and drier MIS 2. People produced stone tools from obsidian and chert, hunted medium sized ungulates and equids, and used bone tools to make clothing. The archaeological finds from Aghitu-3 suggest that mobile groups of Upper Paleolithic people used this high altitude (1601 m) cave as a seasonal camp with increasing frequency over time. Carnivores and birds of prey also made use of the cave, likely when humans were not present. The paleoenvironmental indicators confirm a warmer and more humid climate during the first sedimentary phase between about 40,000 and 33,000 cal BP. At about 35,000 cal BP the pollen profile indicates a vegetation of mixed deciduous and steppic species. The presence of green algae supports the interpretation that more humid conditions prevailed. Geological analysis indicates uniform, fine-grained deposition along the banks of a slow moving stream. This and the general lack of rock falls confirm a warmer and more humid climate. The spectrum of micromammals shows a higher proportion of golden hamster, also supporting a favorable climate. However, starting about 33,000 cal BP, we observe a second phase of deposition characterized by coarser sediment with evidence of rill washing, cycles of erosion and frequent large basalt rock falls. These observations suggest a dramatic cooling trend as the climate began to deteriorate. The third depositional phase starts about 29,000 cal BP and is marked by mainly aeolian deposition

  15. Latest Paleocene benthic foraminiferal extinction and environmental changes at Tawanui, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiho, Kunio; Arinobu, Tetsuya; Ishiwatari, Ryoshi; Morgans, Hugh E. G.; Okada, Hisatake; Takeda, Nobuyori; Tazaki, Kazue; Zhou, Gouping; Kajiwara, Yoshimichi; Matsumoto, Ryo; Hirai, Akio; Niitsuma, Nobuaki; Wada, Hideki

    1996-08-01

    preceeding the extinction and the development of dysaerobia in the sea, coinciding with the major benthic extinction and decrease in δ13C and δ34S in New Zealand. Global warming of deep and intermediate waters may have caused decomposition of methane hydrate in sediments, resulting in a strongly decreased δ13C of marine carbonates, promoting dysaerobia in the ocean, and warming global climate by increased methane concentrations in the atmosphere. Upwelling of WSDW, occurring soon after it became dominant in high-latitude areas, is likely responsible for the recovery of normal salinity and the concomitant recovery of planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannoplankton productivity in high-latitude surface waters. Minor benthic foraminiferal extinctions (9% of species) occurred ˜40 kyr after the major extinctions, lasted ≤ ˜6 kyr, and coincided with the initiation of environmental recovery.

  16. Institutional and environmental aspects of geothermal energy development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Citron, O. R.

    1977-01-01

    Until recently, the majority of work in geothermal energy development has been devoted to technical considerations of resource identification and extraction technologies. The increasing interest in exploiting the variety of geothermal resources has prompted an examination of the institutional barriers to their introduction for commercial use. A significant effort was undertaken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a part of a national study to identify existing constraints to geothermal development and possible remedial actions. These aspects included legislative and legal parameters plus environmental, social, and economic considerations.

  17. Institutional and environmental aspects of geothermal energy development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Citron, O. R.

    1977-01-01

    Until recently, the majority of work in geothermal energy development has been devoted to technical considerations of resource identification and extraction technologies. The increasing interest in exploiting the variety of geothermal resources has prompted an examination of the institutional barriers to their introduction for commercial use. A significant effort was undertaken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a part of a national study to identify existing constraints to geothermal development and possible remedial actions. These aspects included legislative and legal parameters plus environmental, social, and economic considerations.

  18. Environmental, operational, and economic aspects of thirteen selected energy technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, L.; Noren, S. E.; Holt, E. C., Jr.

    1980-09-01

    The environmental operational and economic aspects of thirteen current and developing technologies are examined as applied to the generation of electric power, steam generation, and the conversion of fossil energy into alternative forms. The following technologies are addressed: (1) Conventional Boiler; (2) Diesel Engine; (3) Fluidized Bed Combustion; (4) Combined Cycle Systems; (5) Low/Medium Btu Gasification; (6) Chemically Active Fluid Bed; (7) Indirect Coal Liquefaction; (8) High Btu Gasification; (9) Surface Shale Oil Processing; (10) In situ Shale Oil Processing; (11) Direct Coal Liquefaction; (12) Fuel Cells; and (13) Magnetohydrodynamics.

  19. Environmental and geographical aspects in HVdc electrode design

    SciTech Connect

    Tykeson, K.; Nyman, A.; Carlsson, H.

    1996-10-01

    An essential element in HVdc electrode design is to minimize all environmental stresses in order to meet and verify conformance to the laws and regulations associated with the concessions granted by the authorities. The environmental disturbance caused in anode or cathode operation is more or less entirely dependent on the materials used, the geographical location and the electrode size. The electrode materials and the related electrochemical process in the surrounding medium are discussed in the paper in order to shed further light on the chemical properties of different materials in an electrolyte process. The geographical location of an electrode is described, taking into account new aspects such as the impact of the earth`s magnetic field and the interaction with existing HVdc electrodes. The experiences described in this paper are based on the design, tests and operation of the electrodes in the Baltic Cable HVdc link and other Scandinavian HVdc links.

  20. Ranking environmental aspects in environmental management systems: a new method tested on local authorities.

    PubMed

    Marazza, Diego; Bandini, Vittoria; Contin, Andrea

    2010-02-01

    A new method is described to determine and to rank the significance of the environmental aspects of a local authority, as a basis for the implementation of an environmental management system (EMS). The method is especially important as for the requirements of the EU "Environmental Management and Audit Scheme" (EMAS), a standard open to all sectors including public authorities. The method has been applied to the Municipalities of Faenza (a large town with 54,000 inhabitants) and of the small towns of Riolo Terme, Brisighella, Casola Valsenio (RA, Italy), which obtained or are on the way to get the EMAS certification. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characteristics and environmental aspects of slag: a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Parsons, Michael B.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2015-01-01

    sulfides. Because of its characteristics, ferrous slag is commonly used for construction and environmental applications, whereas both non-ferrous and ferrous slag may be reprocessed for secondary metal recovery. Both types of slag have been a source of some environmental contamination. Research into the environmental aspects of slag will continue to be an important topic whether the goal is its reuse, recycling, or remediation.

  2. Green city Banda Aceh: city planning approach and environmental aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    Banda Aceh as the capital of Aceh Province is the region with the tsunami disaster that occurred on December 26, 2004 the most severe of which over 60% of the city area were destroyed mainly coastal region and settlements. One product plan for rehabilitation and reconstruction of Banda Aceh is made of Banda Aceh as Green City. To realize the Green City Banda Aceh, urban development process should be conducted in a planned and integrated way with attention to spatial and environmental aspects to ensure an efficient urban management and to create a healthy, beautiful and comfortable environment. There is a weakness of the process in urban planning and development that occurred at present where cities tend to minimize the development of green open space and land conversion into a commercial district, residential areas, industrial areas, transport networks and infrastructure and facilities for other cities. Another tendency that occurs is urban environment only developed economically but not ecologically, whereas ecological balance is as important as the development of the economic value of urban areas. Such conditions have caused unbalance of urban ecosystems including increased air temperature, air pollution, declining water table, flooding, salt water intrusion and increased content of heavy metals in the soil. From an ecological perspective, unfavorable microclimate, high-temperature increase due to the lack of trees as a sieve / filter against heavy rain, can cause flooding. These conditions result in inconvienient, arid and less beautiful urban areas. The author identifies the elements contained in the Green City Banda Aceh and how the efforts and approaches must be made toward Green City Banda Aceh.

  3. Direct use of hydrothermal energy: a review of environmental aspects

    SciTech Connect

    O'Banion, K.; Layton, D.

    1981-08-28

    The potential environmental impacts of the exploration, development, and production of hydrothermal geothermal energy for direct use applications are reviewed and evaluated. Mitigation strategies and research and development needs are included. (MHR)

  4. ASPECT (Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology) Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This multi-sensor screening tool provides infrared and photographic images with geospatial, chemical, and radiological data within minutes to support emergency responses, home-land security missions, environmental surveys, and climate monitoring missions.

  5. ASPECT (Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology) Brochure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This multi-sensor screening tool provides infrared and photographic images with geospatial, chemical, and radiological data within minutes to support emergency responses, home-land security missions, environmental surveys, and climate monitoring missions.

  6. Environmental and regulatory aspects of compressed-air energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Beckwith, M.A.; Mathur, J.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of fuel regulations, environmental protection laws, the National Environmental Policy Act, underground injection regulations, and state regulations on the development of compressed air storage systems and power plants are discussed. It is concluded that environmental regulatory concerns of conventional energy technologies are often different from those associated with new technologies such as compressed air energy storage (CAES). Confusion and uncertainty often results when the current environmental regulatory system is applied to new technologies. Evolution of the regulatory system must accompany and rapidly accommodate technological development if the benefits of such development are to be fully realized in a timely manner. Those responsible for technological development in the energy field must be aware of these disparities and conduct their efforts accordingly.

  7. The assessment of aesthetic and perceptual aspects within environmental impact assessment of renewable energy projects in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Tolli, Michela; Recanatesi, Fabio; Piccinno, Matteo; Leone, Antonio

    2016-02-15

    The main aim of this paper is to explore how perceptual and aesthetic impact analyses are considered in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), with specific reference to Italian renewable energy projects. To investigate this topic, the paper starts by establishing which factors are linked with perceptual and aesthetic impacts and why it is important to analyze these aspects, which are also related to legislative provisions and procedures in Europe and in Italy. In particular the paper refers to renewable energy projects because environmental policies are encouraging more and more investment in this kind of primary resource. The growing interest in this type of energy is leading to the realization of projects which change the governance of territories, with inevitable effects on the landscape from the aesthetic and perceptual points of view. Legislative references to EIA, including the latest directive regarding this topic show the importance of integrating the assessment of environmental and perceptual impacts, thus there is a need to improve EIA methodological approaches to this purpose. This paper proposes a profile of aesthetic and perceptual impact analysis in EIA for renewable energy projects in Italy, and concludes with recommendations as to how this kind of analysis could be improved. - Highlights: • We analyze 29 EIA Reports of Italian renewable energy projects. • We examine esthetic and perceptual aspects present in Italian EIA reports. • We identified inconsistency in use of methods for esthetic and perceptual aspects. • Local populations are rarely included as stakeholders in EIAs. • A shared understanding of perceptual and esthetic issues in EIA proceedings is required.

  8. Winter Outdoor Trekking: Spiritual Aspects of Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirásek, Ivo; Veselský, Pavel; Poslt, Jirí

    2017-01-01

    This text deals with the potential spiritual aspects of being outdoors within the framework of non-formal and informal education. The course being examined was organized by the Vacation School of Lipnice--Outward Bound Czech Republic, and the participants in this course made up the research sample. While the research was not directly focused on…

  9. Winter Outdoor Trekking: Spiritual Aspects of Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirásek, Ivo; Veselský, Pavel; Poslt, Jirí

    2017-01-01

    This text deals with the potential spiritual aspects of being outdoors within the framework of non-formal and informal education. The course being examined was organized by the Vacation School of Lipnice--Outward Bound Czech Republic, and the participants in this course made up the research sample. While the research was not directly focused on…

  10. Environmental and health aspects of biomass energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Braunstein, H. M.; Kornegay, F. C.

    1980-01-01

    In a recent study undertaken to ensure the early incorporation of environmental considerations in decisions concerning biomass-to-energy systems, a number of issues emerged indicating the need for early attention to environmental, socioeconomic and health concerns. Both production of biomass as well as conversion can lead to environmental impact, and although most impacts will be site-specific, some generic effects can be identified. The most important potential impacts arise first, from the need for large-scale commitment of resources for production, and second, from uncontrolled widespread small-scale utilization. Because biomass-related impacts cover a very broad spectrum of materials, processes, end products, and effects, the discussion presented here, except for an overview of generic effects and comment on production impacts, will be directed primarily to those resulting from residential wood combustion.

  11. Editorial: Organic wastes in soils: Biogeochemical and Environmental Aspects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This special issue of Soil Biology and Biochemistry presents papers from the Second General Annual Conference of European Geosciences Union, Session SSS12 Recycling of Organic Wastes in Soils: Biogeochemical and Environmental Issues, held at the Austria Center Vienna, 24-29 April 2005. Session SSS12...

  12. The Development of Written Language Awareness-Environmental Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Nancy E.; And Others

    A project to design and implement a print rich classroom environment where all children could learn to read naturally was carried out as a result of federal funding under a Pre-elementary Right-to-Read grant. The project was designed to translate into practice theory-based propositions about environmental conditions that facilitate literacy…

  13. Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Moreira, Ma Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2012-11-01

    A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile.

  14. Dynamical Aspects in the Adoption of Agri-Environmental Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisbuch, Gérard; Boudjema, GeEacuterRard

    We describe a simple model of the dynamics of adoption of agri-environmental measures by farmers in Europe. Farmers choices are based on their evaluation of the economic advantages of taking environmental premiums in exchange for environment friendly practices, plus imitation terms taking into account the information that they get from neighbors which have already made their own choice. We show that under a large set of social network topologies and hypotheses on distribution of farmers characteristics, the outcome of the social processes, namely premium uptaken rate, depends upon local characteristics of farmers and their network. It is not directly related to average characteristics. Some conclusions and recommendations about policy implementation can then be driven.

  15. Environmental aspects of engineering geological mapping in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radbruch-Hall, Dorothy H.

    1979-01-01

    Many engineering geological maps at different scales have been prepared for various engineering and environmental purposes in regions of diverse geological conditions in the United States. They include maps of individual geological hazards and maps showing the effect of land development on the environment. An approach to assessing the environmental impact of land development that is used increasingly in the United States is the study of a single area by scientists from several disciplines, including geology. A study of this type has been made for the National Petroleum Reserve in northern Alaska. In the San Francisco Bay area, a technique has been worked out for evaluating the cost of different types of construction and land development in terms of the cost of a number of kinds of earth science factors. ?? 1979 International Association of Engineering Geology.

  16. [Medical and environmental aspects of the drinking water supply crisis].

    PubMed

    Él'piner, L I

    2013-01-01

    Modern data determining drinking water supply crisis in Russia have been considered. The probability of influence of drinking water quality used by population on current negative demographic indices was shown. The necessity of taking into account interests of public health care in the process of formation of water management decisions was grounded. To achieve this goal the application of medical ecological interdisciplinary approach was proposed Its use is mostly effective in construction of goal-directed medical ecological sections for territorial schemes of the rational use and protection of water resources. Stages of the elaboration of these sections, providing the basing of evaluation and prognostic medical and environmental constructions on similar engineering studies of related disciplinary areas (hydrological, hydrogeological, hydrobiological, hydrochemical, environmental, socio-economic, technical and technological) were determined.

  17. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): Water and environmental samples. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning analyses of water by high pressure, high speed, high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC). Environmental-related samples such as wastewaters, sewage sludge, and sediment are also covered. HPLC techniques are discussed and equipment such as detectors and columns is evaluated. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Hot-dry-rock energy: review of environmental aspects

    SciTech Connect

    O'Banion, K.

    1981-10-13

    The potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the production of energy contained in hot dry rock (HDR) is surveyed here. In general, careful siting and timing and routine control measures should be adequate to prevent significant environmental harm; sites of particular ecological or visual and recreational value, however, may require more extensive (and more expensive) precautions such as using multiwell pads to reduce land disturbance and dry or wet and dry cooling towers to reduce or eliminate the consumptive use of water. The most important uncertainty among the environmental concerns is the seismic response of HDR formations to short-duration fluid injections at pressures above fracture thresholds; continued monitoring at HDR development sites is necessary. The direct socioeconomic impacts of HDR development should be relatively minor, owing to its capital-intensive nature. Of greater potential importance are the indirect jobs resulting from such development, which could cause significant demographic (and thus fiscal and social) impacts in sparsely populated regions. However, such indirect growth is not expected to begin until a large, stable HDR industry is established in a region, and thus its impacts are expected to be permanent rather than transient.

  19. Collaboration of local government and experts responding to increase in environmental radiation level due to the nuclear disaster: focusing on their activities and latest radiological discussion.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Nunokawa, J; Fujii, H; Takashima, R; Hashimoto, M; Fukuhara, T; Yajima, T; Matsuzawa, H; Kurosawa, K; Yanagawa, Y; Someya, S

    2015-11-01

    Activities were introduced in Kashiwa city in the Tokyo metropolitan area to correspond to the elevated environmental radiation level after the disaster of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. These were based on a strong cooperation between local governments and experts. Ambient dose rate and radioactivity of foodstuff produced inside of the city have been monitored. Representative ambient dose rates around living environments have almost already become their original levels of the pre-accident because of the decontamination activity, natural washout and effective half-lives of radioactivity. The internal annual dose due to radioactive cesium under the policy of 'Local Production for Local Consumption' is estimated as extremely low comparing the variation range due to natural radioactivity. Systematic survey around a retention basin has been started. All of these latest monitoring data would be one of the core information for the policy making as well as a cost-benefit discussion and risk communication.

  20. Code development incorporating environmental, safety, and economic aspects of fusion reactors (FY 89--91)

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, S.K.; Fowler, T.K.; Holdren, J.P.

    1991-11-01

    This report discusses the following aspects of Fusion reactors.: Activation Analysis; Tritium Inventory; Environmental and Safety Indices and Their Graphical Representation; Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Decision Analysis; Plasma Burn Control -- Application to ITER; and Other Applications.

  1. Ergonomic aspects simulation digital online: an educational game proposal to promote environmental education.

    PubMed

    Arbex, D F; Jappur, R; Selig, P; Varvakis, G

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the ergonomic criteria that guide the construction of an educational game called Environmental Simulator. The focus is on environment navigation considering aspects of content architecture and its esthetics functionality.

  2. Ethylene dibromide: Biochemical effects and environmental concerns. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxicity and environmental issues pertaining to the fumigant ethylene dibromide. Topics include effects on liver activity, respiratory systems and DNA synthesis in laboratory animals, comparisons and synergistic effects with other pesticides, and occupational health considerations. The distribution of the compound in the environment and its effectiveness as a fumigant are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 100 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Biological effects and environmental fate of antifouling substances. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the environmental effects and eventual fate of antifouling substances used to control biofouling. Topics include toxicity studies, the effects of regulations on pollution distribution, bioaccumulation and sediment accumulation, resistant organisms, and biodeterioration of antifouling substances. Antifouling materials considered include copper, nickel, and organotin compounds. Marine fouling, cooling system fouling, and antifouling paints are discussed in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Integration of environmental, agronomic, and economic aspects of fertilizer management

    PubMed

    Matson; Naylor; Ortiz-Monasterio

    1998-04-03

    Nitrogen fertilization is a substantial source of nitrogen-containing trace gases that have both regional and global consequences. In the intensive wheat systems of Mexico, typical fertilization practices lead to extremely high fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO). In experiments, lower rates of nitrogen fertilizer, applied later in the crop cycle, reduced the loss of nitrogen without affecting yield and grain quality. Economic analyses projected this alternative practice to save 12 to 17 percent of after-tax profits. A knowledge-intensive approach to fertilizer management can substitute for higher levels of inputs, saving farmers money and reducing environmental costs.

  5. Planned Environmental Microbiology Aspects of Future Lunar and Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark; Castro, Victoria A.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2006-01-01

    With the establishment of the Constellation Program, NASA has initiated efforts designed similar to the Apollo Program to return to the moon and subsequently travel to Mars. Early lunar sorties will take 4 crewmembers to the moon for 4 to 7 days. Later missions will increase in duration up to 6 months as a lunar habitat is constructed. These missions and vehicle designs are the forerunners of further missions destined for human exploration of Mars. Throughout the planning and design process, lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS) and past programs will be implemented toward future exploration goals. The standards and requirements for these missions will vary depending on life support systems, mission duration, crew activities, and payloads. From a microbiological perspective, preventative measures will remain the primary techniques to mitigate microbial risk. Thus, most of the effort will focus on stringent preflight monitoring requirements and engineering controls designed into the vehicle, such as HEPA air filters. Due to volume constraints in the CEV, in-flight monitoring will be limited for short-duration missions to the measurement of biocide concentration for water potability. Once long-duration habitation begins on the lunar surface, a more extensive environmental monitoring plan will be initiated. However, limited in-flight volume constraints and the inability to return samples to Earth will increase the need for crew capabilities in determining the nature of contamination problems and method of remediation. In addition, limited shelf life of current monitoring hardware consumables and limited capabilities to dispose of biohazardous trash will drive flight hardware toward non-culture based methodologies, such as hardware that rapidly distinguishes biotic versus abiotic surface contamination. As missions progress to Mars, environmental systems will depend heavily on regeneration of air and water and biological waste remediation and

  6. Planned Environmental Microbiology Aspects of Future Lunar and Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark; Castro, Victoria A.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2006-01-01

    With the establishment of the Constellation Program, NASA has initiated efforts designed similar to the Apollo Program to return to the moon and subsequently travel to Mars. Early lunar sorties will take 4 crewmembers to the moon for 4 to 7 days. Later missions will increase in duration up to 6 months as a lunar habitat is constructed. These missions and vehicle designs are the forerunners of further missions destined for human exploration of Mars. Throughout the planning and design process, lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS) and past programs will be implemented toward future exploration goals. The standards and requirements for these missions will vary depending on life support systems, mission duration, crew activities, and payloads. From a microbiological perspective, preventative measures will remain the primary techniques to mitigate microbial risk. Thus, most of the effort will focus on stringent preflight monitoring requirements and engineering controls designed into the vehicle, such as HEPA air filters. Due to volume constraints in the CEV, in-flight monitoring will be limited for short-duration missions to the measurement of biocide concentration for water potability. Once long-duration habitation begins on the lunar surface, a more extensive environmental monitoring plan will be initiated. However, limited in-flight volume constraints and the inability to return samples to Earth will increase the need for crew capabilities in determining the nature of contamination problems and method of remediation. In addition, limited shelf life of current monitoring hardware consumables and limited capabilities to dispose of biohazardous trash will drive flight hardware toward non-culture based methodologies, such as hardware that rapidly distinguishes biotic versus abiotic surface contamination. As missions progress to Mars, environmental systems will depend heavily on regeneration of air and water and biological waste remediation and

  7. Hydrology and environmental aspects of Erie Canal (1817-99)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langbein, Walter Basil

    1976-01-01

    As the first major water project in the United States, the old Erie Canal provides an example of the hydrological and environmental consequences of water development. The available record shows that the project aroused environmental fears that the canal might be impaired by the adverse hydrologic effects of land development induced by the canal. Water requirements proved greater than anticipated, and problems of floods and hydraulic inefficiencies beset navigation throughout its history. The Erie Canal proved the practicality of major hydraulic works to the extent that operations and maintenance could cope with the burdens of deficiencies in design. The weight of prior experience that upland streams, such as the Potomac and Mohawk Rivers, had proved unsatisfactory for dependable navigation, led to a decision to build an independent canal which freed the location from the constraints of river channels and made possible a cross-country water route directly to Lake Erie. The decision on dimensioning the canal prism--chiefly width and depth-involved balance between a fear of building too small and thus not achieving the economic potentials, and a fear of building too expensively. The constraints proved effective, and for the first part of its history the revenues collected were sufficient to repay all costs. So great was the economic advantage of the canal that the rising trend in traffic soon induced an enlargement of the canal cross section, based upon a new but riskier objective-build as large as the projected trend in toll revenues would finance. The increased revenues did not materialize. Water supplies were a primary concern for both the planners and the operators of the canal. Water required for lockage, although the most obvious to the planners, proved to be a relatively minor item compared with the amounts of water that were required to compensate for leakage through the bed and banks of the canal. Leakage amounted to about 8 inches of depth per day. The total

  8. Selenium deficiency in subtropical littoral pampas: environmental and dietary aspects.

    PubMed

    Mirlean, N; Seus-Arrache, E R; Vlasova, O

    2017-04-11

    Se deficiency has a critical effect on human health. The littoral near Patos Lagoon in the south of Brazil is composed of Quaternary sandy deposits and nutrient-deficient soils, which contribute to Se deficiency in the surrounding environment. The average concentration of Se in littoral soils is six times lower than the metalloid deficiency threshold of 0.5 mg kg(-1) and is close to that in countries where Keshan disease is registered. The sediments in the Patos Estuary are also notably lower in Se than near-shore marine sediments. Foodstuffs produced in the littoral pampas are characterised by extremely low Se concentrations compared with the same alimentary products reported worldwide. The total daily dietary intake of Se in the region is 24 μg day(-1), which is half the Estimated Average Requirement for adults. Black beans in the local diet provide over 40% of daily Se intake. Prescriptive addition of Se to prevalent products seems the most effective solution to the problem of metalloid dietary deficiency in the region. Similar environmental conditions and significant concentration of the population in the littoral zone suggest that the problem of Se deficiency probably affects a large proportion of the population along the Atlantic coast of Brazil.

  9. Environmental, resource conservation, and economic aspects of used oil recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.; Weinstein, N.J.; Emmerson, H.R.

    1981-04-01

    In order to provide current and updated information, the case for burning used automotive lubricating oil versus re-refining it has been reevaluated based upon the 1980 American economy and energy conservation posture. In these comparisons, the environment is considered within four scenarios ranging from unrestricted burning of used oil without government constraints to complete prohibition of burning thereby funneling all used automotive lube oils to re-refining. Two other areas have been reevaluated in the context of burning versus re-refining of automotive lube oils in the US. These are the material and energy advantages to be realized in terms of resource conservation through either burning or re-refining and an estimation of the economics and profit potential currently available in the disposition of used lube oil. It was found that environmental concerns as presently regulated do not alone provide a persuasive case for re-refining over burning of used automotive lubricating oil. However, in view of the increased use of paraffinic crude oil for the manufacture of automotive lubricating oil, production costs will rise and product yields will be lower. In this context, this study shows that the energy required to produce. As a produce a gallon of lube oil from paraffinic crude oil is greater than that to produce a gallon of lube oil from used lubricating oil. As a result, the re-refining of collectible used automotive lube oil could conserve 43 to 76 trillion Btu's per year, equivalent to 7 to 12 million barrels of imported crude oil worth between a quarter and a half billion dollars. Additionally, this study indicates that new technology such as solvent/distillation re-refining would provide a 26 percent after-tax return on investment based upon 1980 markets and costs.

  10. Environmental management aspects for TBT antifouling wastes from the shipyards.

    PubMed

    Kotrikla, Anna

    2009-02-01

    Tributyltin (TBT)-based antifouling paints have been successfully used for over 40 years to protect a ship's hull from biofouling. However, due to its high toxicity to marine organisms, the International Maritime Organization (IMO), in 1990, adopted a resolution recommending governments to adopt measures to eliminate antifouling paints containing TBT. High concentrations of TBT are detected in the vicinity of ports and shipyards. TBT is also usually detected in the sediment, in which it accumulates. This study reviews recent literature for the best management practices (BMPs) in order to minimize the environmental effects of TBT. The paper focuses on the evaluation of the available techniques for the removal of TBT from shipyard wastes and from the sediment. The most effective treatment methods are highlighted. BMPs include recycling of abrasive materials, use of cleaner abrasive materials, reuse of spent abrasive materials, substitution of hydroblasting by vacuum blasting or containment or ultra-high-pressure water blasting and confinement of pollution by enclosure and containment systems. The treatment of the TBT wastes by conventional biological wastewater treatment processes is probably not suitable, because the concentrations of TBT found in shipyards' wastewaters are toxic to microorganisms. Advanced technologies such as activated carbon adsorption and dissolved air flotation, in combination with filtration and coagulation-clarification, photodegradation and electrochemical treatment, are required to remove TBT. However, advanced methods should be further optimized to meet the regulatory limit of 200 ng/L. To date, only one published work examines the efficiency of incineration for the treatment of solid sandblast wastes. Regarding the treatment of sediment, land deposition of the less polluted fraction of sediment is a feasible option. Such treatment must take into account the risk of contamination of groundwater and the surroundings, and it requires

  11. The Role of Measuring in the Learning of Environmental Occupations and Some Aspects of Environmental Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    István, Lüko

    2016-01-01

    The methodology neglected area of pedagogy, within the environmental specialist teaching methodology cultivating the best part is incomplete. In this article I shall attempt to environmental methodology presented in one part of the University of West Environmental Education workshop, based on the measurement of experiential learning as an…

  12. The Effect of Considering Environmental Aspect to Distribution Planning: A Case in Logistics SME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prambudia, Yudha; Andrian Nur, Andri

    2016-01-01

    Environmental aspect is often neglected in traditional distribution planning process of a product. Especially in small-medium enterprises (SME) of developing countries where cost efficiency is the predominant factor. Bearing in mind that there is a large number of SME's performing logistics activities, the consideration of environmental aspect in their distribution planning process would be beneficial to climate change mitigation efforts. The purpose of this paper is to show the impact of environmental aspect should it be considered as a contributing factor in distribution planning. In this research, an adoption of CO2-emission factor in an SME's distribution planning in Indonesia was simulated. The outputs of distribution planning with and without the factor consideration are then compared. The result shows that adoption of CO2-emission factor would change the priority of delivery route.

  13. Simplified LCA and matrix methods in identifying the environmental aspects of a product system.

    PubMed

    Hur, Tak; Lee, Jiyong; Ryu, Jiyeon; Kwon, Eunsun

    2005-05-01

    In order to effectively integrate environmental attributes into the product design and development processes, it is crucial to identify the significant environmental aspects related to a product system within a relatively short period of time. In this study, the usefulness of life cycle assessment (LCA) and a matrix method as tools for identifying the key environmental issues of a product system were examined. For this, a simplified LCA (SLCA) method that can be applied to Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) was developed to efficiently identify their significant environmental aspects for eco-design, since a full scale LCA study is usually very detailed, expensive and time-consuming. The environmentally responsible product assessment (ERPA) method, which is one of the matrix methods, was also analyzed. Then, the usefulness of each method in eco-design processes was evaluated and compared using the case studies of the cellular phone and vacuum cleaner systems. It was found that the SLCA and the ERPA methods provided different information but they complemented each other to some extent. The SLCA method generated more information on the inherent environmental characteristics of a product system so that it might be useful for new design/eco-innovation when developing a completely new product or method where environmental considerations play a major role from the beginning. On the other hand, the ERPA method gave more information on the potential for improving a product so that it could be effectively used in eco-redesign which intends to alleviate environmental impacts of an existing product or process.

  14. Summary of the 1st International Workshop on Environmental, Safety and Economic Aspects of Fusion Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Stevens, E.; Kim, K.; Maisonnier, D.; Kalashnikov, A.; Tobita, K.; Jackson, D.; Alejaldre, C.; Perrault, D.; Panayotov, D.; Merrill, B.; Grisolia, C.; Zucchetti, M.; Pinna, T.; van Houtte, D.; Konishi, S.; Kolbasov, B.

    2016-12-01

    The 1st International workshop on Environmental, Safety and Economic Aspects of Fusion Power (ESEFP) was held on 13 September 2015 at Jeju Island, South Korea. The workshop was initiated by the International Energy Agency Implementing Agreement on a Co-operative Program on ESEFP. The workshop was well attended with about forty participants representing twelve institutions in ten countries. The presentations covered safety issues and environmental impacts, availability improvement and risk control and socio-economic aspects of fusion power. Safety and licensing gaps between DEMO and ITER were discussed in depth with the consensus output presented as a plenary presentation at the 12th International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology (ISFNT-12). The next workshop is planned to be held in conjunction with the ISFNT-13 in 2017.

  15. Global energy in transition: environmental aspects of new and renewable sources for development

    SciTech Connect

    Bassan, E.

    1981-07-01

    Technical, development, and environmental aspects of the following alternative sources are assessed: solar energy, wind energy, energy from the oceans, hydropower, geothermal energy, biomass, fuelwood and charcoal, peat, oil shale and tar sands, and draft animal power. Policy issues for energy planning and development are presented for: rural energy, industry and transport, and financing new and renewable sources of energy. Summaries of the following national reports are included: China, Federal Republic of Germany, Hungary, Jamaica, Korea, Pakistan, Peru, Sudan, and United States. (MHR)

  16. Eco-innovative design approach: Integrating quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving engineering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakroun, Mahmoud; Gogu, Grigore; Pacaud, Thomas; Thirion, François

    2014-09-01

    This study proposes an eco-innovative design process taking into consideration quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving technical engineering problems. This approach provides a synergy between the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the nonquality matrix, the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), morphological analysis and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). In the sequence of these tools, LCA assesses the environmental impacts generated by the system. Then, for a better consideration of environmental aspects, a new tool is developed, the non-quality matrix, which defines the problem to be solved first from an environmental point of view. The TRIZ method allows the generation of new concepts and contradiction resolution. Then, the morphological analysis offers the possibility of extending the search space of solutions in a design problem in a systematic way. Finally, the AHP identifies the promising solution(s) by providing a clear logic for the choice made. Their usefulness has been demonstrated through their application to a case study involving a centrifugal spreader with spinning discs.

  17. Environmental Management in Swedish Higher Education: Directives, Driving Forces, Hindrances, Environmental Aspects and Environmental Co-Ordinators in Swedish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammalisto, Kaisu; Arvidsson, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study of environment management systems implementation in Swedish universities contributes to the dialogue about the role of management systems as tools in developing sustainability in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical study is based on Government directives that make environmental management systems…

  18. Environmental Management in Swedish Higher Education: Directives, Driving Forces, Hindrances, Environmental Aspects and Environmental Co-Ordinators in Swedish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammalisto, Kaisu; Arvidsson, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study of environment management systems implementation in Swedish universities contributes to the dialogue about the role of management systems as tools in developing sustainability in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical study is based on Government directives that make environmental management systems…

  19. Latest Research: Genetic Links

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Latest Research: Genetic Links Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents ... laboratories is one way the NEI is expanding genetic testing of eye diseases. Photo courtesy of National ...

  20. Assessment of secondary materials for pavement construction: Technical and environmental aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Nunes, M.C.M. |; Bridges, M.G.; Dawson, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    Current research at the University of Nottingham to enable the use of secondary materials in road construction covers technical aspects, mechanical properties of waste materials and the environmental implications of their use. Materials studied are minestone, china clay sand, slate waste, pulverized fuel ash and furnace bottom ash. The laboratory program set up for this research and the methodologies suggested for the study of the properties of these materials are presented. The test methods currently used to select pavement aggregates are presented along with current methods for the assessment of the environmental impact of secondary aggregates. The potential of the secondary aggregates is assessed within the current technical and environmental procedures previously presented. Two new methodologies are presented, one for the mechanical examination of secondary aggregates and one for the environmental assessment. The mechanical assessment encompasses conventional characterization and classification tests on both unbound and lightly treated pavement materials, and fundamental tests such as repeated load triaxial tests (RLTT) and repeated load indirect tensile tests (RLITT). Some sample results are presented, suggesting the feasibility and adequacy of this methodology for material discrimination, and evaluation of mechanical properties for design purposes. The environmental assessment indicates how the leaching concentration of contaminants from intensive testing can be used as the first step in assessing the environmental acceptability of a secondary material, and the means of determining a more realistic measure of in situ performance is discussed. The advantages and advancements of the presented methodologies over the basic and inappropriate techniques currently used to assess the suitability of secondary aggregates for use as pavement construction materials are discussed.

  1. Code development incorporating environmental, safety, and economic aspects of fusion reactors (FY 89--91). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, S.K.; Fowler, T.K.; Holdren, J.P.

    1991-11-01

    This report discusses the following aspects of Fusion reactors.: Activation Analysis; Tritium Inventory; Environmental and Safety Indices and Their Graphical Representation; Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Decision Analysis; Plasma Burn Control -- Application to ITER; and Other Applications.

  2. Environmental and economic aspects of water kiosks: case study of a medium-sized Italian town.

    PubMed

    Torretta, Vincenzo

    2013-05-01

    The consumption of bottled water in Italy began in the 1970s. Since then, this usage has grown considerably, also as a result of changes in habits. The environmental impact as a result of the water production chain is very significant; it would be considered, for example, the use of plastic bottles, the consumption of oil in the production of the bottles, the emission of air from the vehicles that transport the bottles, non-recycled plastic packaging, etc. In this study, considering the comparison between two situations, use of bottled water and use of water kiosk (WK), an environmental and economic impact evaluation has been done. The study considered the production of a WK in a town with 9000 inhabitants, which supplies controlled, still and sparkling water, with an organoleptic quality higher than tap water coming from the aqueduct. In particular, taking into consideration the environmental aspects, specific attention was paid both to CO2 emissions and PET bottle waste reduction. The economic impact evaluation was carried out from the consumer's point of view. In order to provide a supply service that was economically sustainable, a calculation was done with the aim of determining a specific fee for the supplied water. Moreover, a comparison has been made between quality parameters achieved with the analysis of water from aqueducts with the limits established in the Italian legislation and the parameters of several Italian water brands. The study has the aim at considering the opportunity to follow a different people's habits, closer to the concept of sustainability, reducing the environmental charge related to the realization, transport and consumption of plastic water bottles without significant reduction of the quality of the service and with convenient and interesting economic implications. In fact the results of the study show that the alternative of WKs is more efficient in economic and environmental terms respect to the use of bottled water. Copyright

  3. Environmental and economic aspects of water kiosks: Case study of a medium-sized Italian town

    SciTech Connect

    Torretta, Vincenzo

    2013-05-15

    The consumption of bottled water in Italy began in the 1970s. Since then, this usage has grown considerably, also as a result of changes in habits. The environmental impact as a result of the water production chain is very significant; it would be considered, for example, the use of plastic bottles, the consumption of oil in the production of the bottles, the emission of air from the vehicles that transport the bottles, non-recycled plastic packaging, etc. In this study, considering the comparison between two situations, use of bottled water and use of water kiosk (WK), an environmental and economic impact evaluation has been done. The study considered the production of a WK in a town with 9000 inhabitants, which supplies controlled, still and sparkling water, with an organoleptic quality higher than tap water coming from the aqueduct. In particular, taking into consideration the environmental aspects, specific attention was paid both to CO{sub 2} emissions and PET bottle waste reduction. The economic impact evaluation was carried out from the consumer’s point of view. In order to provide a supply service that was economically sustainable, a calculation was done with the aim of determining a specific fee for the supplied water. Moreover, a comparison has been made between quality parameters achieved with the analysis of water from aqueducts with the limits established in the Italian legislation and the parameters of several Italian water brands. The study has the aim at considering the opportunity to follow a different people’s habits, closer to the concept of sustainability, reducing the environmental charge related to the realization, transport and consumption of plastic water bottles without significant reduction of the quality of the service and with convenient and interesting economic implications. In fact the results of the study show that the alternative of WKs is more efficient in economic and environmental terms respect to the use of bottled water.

  4. The river basins of Pirapó, Paranapanema 3 and Paranapanema 4: socioeconomic and environmental aspects.

    PubMed

    Godoy, A M G; Sousa, M L L

    2015-12-01

    Scarcity of water in the world, virtually, has two sources: the quality and the quantity made available for populations. In the area covered by this study, the selected municipalities from the river basins 3 e 4 of the Paranapanema River and from the basin of the Pirapó River, availability is always greater than the demand and the environmental problems are more often linked to the quality than to the quantity of water. To check the socioeconomic aspects and the daily practices involving water resources and environmental problems we selected a representative sample of families from 10 studied municipalities. The main conclusions point to the existence of key municipalities, regarded as foci of pollution, i. e., the municipalities do not contribute in equal measure to the pollution of rivers from their regions and some stand out in economic activities and inherited cultural practices. However, respondents did not always relate the environmental impacts with their routine and productive activities. Thus, although the new legal environment imposes new practices, there are still cultural heritages, which require more incisive and continuous public interventions.

  5. Engineering and environmental aspects of recycled materials for highway construction. Appendix 1. Final report, September 1992-June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, D.; Diamond, G.; Oden, M.; Ruth, B.; Tia, M.

    1993-07-01

    The report presents an assessment of environmental aspects and engineering factors related to the utilization of recycled materials in highway construction. A basic overview and assessment of different technologies, processes, and methods for recycling of various material into highway appurtenances and for highway construction are presented with consideration of environmental/health risks.

  6. Delphes 3: Latest Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaggi, Michele

    2016-10-01

    Latest developments in Delphes 3, such as the implementation of photons conversions into electron positron pairs, as well as a renovated energy-flow algorithm, which has been specifically designed to reconstruct complex boosted objects using all the available detector information, are described in this note.

  7. Contaminated sediments: Lectures on environmental aspects of particle-associated chemicals in aquatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Forstner, U.

    1989-01-01

    Sediments are increasingly recognized as both a carrier and a possible source of contaminants in aquatic systems. Since the early part of the century, limnological research on eutrophication problems and acidification indicated that particle-interactions can affect aquatic ecosystems. In contrast to the eutrophication and acidification problems, research on toxic chemicals has included sediment aspects from its beginning. In the lecture notes, following the description of priority pollutants related to sedimentary phases, four aspects were covered, which in an overlapping succession also reflect the development of knowledge in particle-associated pollutants during the past 25 years: the identification, surveillance, monitoring and control of sources and distribution of pollutants; the evaluation of solid/solution relations of contaminants in surface waters; the study of in-situ processes and mechanisms in pollutant transfer in various compartments of the aquatic ecosystems and, the assessment of the environmental impact of particle-bound contaminants. The last chapter focuses on dredged materials, including their disposal and the treatment of strongly contaminated sediments. Cases studies include the Niagara River/Lake Ontario pollution; solid speciation of metals in river sediments; the Rhine River; Puget Sound; Rotterdam Harbor; and the mobilization of cadmium from tidal river sediments.

  8. Environmental Aspects of Two Volatile Organic Compound Groundwater Treatment Designs at the Rocky Flats Site - 13135

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, Casey C.; DiSalvo, Rick; Boylan, John

    2013-07-01

    DOE's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado is a former nuclear weapons production facility that began operations in the early 1950's. Because of releases of hazardous substances to the environment, the federally owned property and adjacent offsite areas were placed on the CERCLA National Priorities List in 1989. The final remedy was selected in 2006. Engineered components of the remedy include four groundwater treatment systems that were installed before closure as CERCLA-accelerated actions. Two of the systems, the Mound Site Plume Treatment System and the East Trenches Plume Treatment System, remove low levels of volatile organic compounds using zero-valent iron media, thereby reducing the loading of volatile organic compounds in surface water resulting from the groundwater pathway. However, the zero-valent iron treatment does not reliably reduce all volatile organic compounds to consistently meet water quality goals. While adding additional zero-valent iron media capacity could improve volatile organic compound removal capability, installation of a solar powered air-stripper has proven an effective treatment optimization in further reducing volatile organic compound concentrations. A comparison of the air stripper to the alternative of adding additional zero-valent iron capacity to improve Mound Site Plume Treatment System and East Trenches Plume Treatment System treatment based on several key sustainable remediation aspects indicates the air stripper is also more 'environmentally friendly'. These key aspects include air pollutant emissions, water quality, waste management, transportation, and costs. (authors)

  9. A soil biotechnology system for wastewater treatment: technical, hygiene, environmental LCA and economic aspects.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Sheetal Jaisingh; Chakravarthy, Yogita; Singh, Anju; Chubilleau, Caroline; Starkl, Markus; Bawa, Itee

    2017-05-01

    Soil biotechnology (SBT) is a green engineering approach for wastewater treatment and recycling. Five SBT units located in the Mumbai region were under consideration of which holistic assessment of two SBT plants was carried out considering its technical, environmental and economic aspects and was compared with published research of other three. LCA has been done to evaluate the environmental impacts of construction and operation phase of SBT. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) removal of more than 90% can be achieved using this technology. Also, the nutrient removal proficiency (nitrate, nitrite, ammoniacal nitrogen, TKN, total nitrogen and phosphates) of this technique is good. On the other hand, SBT has low annual operation and maintenance cost, comparable to land-based systems and lower than conventional or advanced technologies. From the life cycle impact assessment, the main contributors for overall impact from the plant were identified as electricity consumption, discharges of COD, P-PO4(3-) and N-NH4(+) and disposal of sludge. The construction phase was found to have significantly more impact than the operation phase of the plant. This study suggests plant I is not relatively as efficient enough regarding sanitation. SBT provides several benefits over other conventional technologies for wastewater treatment. It is based on a bio-conversion process and is practically maintenance free. It does not produce any odorous bio-sludge and consumes the least energy.

  10. An Analytic Network Process approach for the environmental aspect selection problem — A case study for a hand blender

    SciTech Connect

    Bereketli Zafeirakopoulos, Ilke Erol Genevois, Mujde

    2015-09-15

    Life Cycle Assessment is a tool to assess, in a systematic way, the environmental aspects and its potential environmental impacts and resources used throughout a product's life cycle. It is widely accepted and considered as one of the most powerful tools to support decision-making processes used in ecodesign and sustainable production in order to learn about the most problematic parts and life cycle phases of a product and to have a projection for future improvements. However, since Life Cycle Assessment is a cost and time intensive method, companies do not intend to carry out a full version of it, except for large corporate ones. Especially for small and medium sized enterprises, which do not have enough budget for and knowledge on sustainable production and ecodesign approaches, focusing only on the most important possible environmental aspect is unavoidable. In this direction, finding the right environmental aspect to work on is crucial for the companies. In this study, a multi-criteria decision-making methodology, Analytic Network Process is proposed to select the most relevant environmental aspect. The proposed methodology aims at providing a simplified environmental assessment to producers. It is applied for a hand blender, which is a member of the Electrical and Electronic Equipment family. The decision criteria for the environmental aspects and relations of dependence are defined. The evaluation is made by the Analytic Network Process in order to create a realistic approach to inter-dependencies among the criteria. The results are computed via the Super Decisions software. Finally, it is observed that the procedure is completed in less time, with less data, with less cost and in a less subjective way than conventional approaches. - Highlights: • We present a simplified environmental assessment methodology to support LCA. • ANP is proposed to select the most relevant environmental aspect. • ANP deals well with the interdependencies between aspects and

  11. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare.

    PubMed

    Stella, Judith L; Croney, Candace C

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats' needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas.

  12. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Judith L.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats' needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas. PMID:27774506

  13. Electrophilic bromination of alkenes: environmental, health and safety aspects of new alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Eissen, Marco; Lenoir, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    More than twenty new alternative methods for bromination of alkenes have been evaluated taking into consideration their resource demands, waste production as well as environmental, health and safety aspects. The cost of bromine and the substances designated to circumvent the application of molecular bromine have also been taken into account. As bromine is only one of several problematic substances being used, its avoidance-by applying bromine supported on solid material or by performing the in situ generation of bromine-does not significantly reduce the technological requirements. On the contrary, the resource demands and amount of waste produced by most new methods are significantly higher compared to the standard methods, especially if the recycling of a carrying agent is not efficient. The method using hydrobromic acid and hydrogen peroxide can be regarded as a competitive alternative to the standard method. The application of certain carrying agents could be interesting, because solvents such as carbon tetrachloride or chloroform used during synthesis could be replaced with less problematic ones during work-up. However, problems associated with these alternatives are not resolved as yet.

  14. Physiology of immunity in the water flea Daphnia magna: environmental and genetic aspects of phenoloxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Mucklow, Patrick T; Ebert, Dieter

    2003-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the ecological correlates of immunocompetence in Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera), we tested for variation in immune function in relation to feeding conditions, host conditions, and host genotype. We investigated both phenotypic (environmental dependent and condition dependent) as well as genotypic aspects of the prophenoloxidase activating system (Pro-POAS), which has been described as a key factor in invertebrate immunity. Daphnia magna is an ideal study system to disentangle phenotypic and genetic variation because females can reproduce clonally. Well-fed Daphnia showed higher phenoloxidase (PO) activity than Daphnia kept at a low food level. Wounding provoked a higher level of PO activity, indicating that the Pro-POAS was condition dependent. Further, we found clonal variation in PO activity among four clones of D. magna isolated from four different populations. The same four clones were tested for their resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pasteuria ramosa. High resistance corresponded to high PO activity. Our results suggest adaptive variation in PO activity and suggest that its expression is costly. These costs may influence the evolution of the PO activity level and the maintenance of its genotypic variation.

  15. Registered nurses' perceptions of conditions for patient education - focusing on organisational, environmental and professional cooperation aspects.

    PubMed

    Bergh, Anne-Louise; Karlsson, Jan; Persson, Eva; Friberg, Febe

    2012-09-01

    To describe nurses' perceptions of conditions for patient education, focusing on organisational, environmental and professional cooperation aspects, and to determine any differences between primary, municipal and hospital care. Although patient education is an important part of daily nursing practice, the conditions for this work are unclear and require clarification. A stratified random sample of 701 (83%) nurses working in primary, municipal and hospital care completed a 60-item questionnaire. The study is part of a larger project. The study items relating to organisation, environment and professional cooperation were analysed using descriptive statistics, non-parametric tests and content analysis. Conditions for patient education differ. Nurses in primary care had better conditions and more managerial support, for example in the allocation of undisturbed time. Conditions related to organisation, environment and cooperation need to be developed further. In this process, managerial support is important, and nurses must ask for better conditions in order to carry through patient education. Managerial support for the development of visible patient education routines (e.g. allocation of time, place and guidelines) is required. One recommendation is to designate a person to oversee educational work. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Progress in safety and environmental aspects of inertial fusion energy at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Reyes, S; Meier, W R

    2000-06-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is making significant progress in several areas related to the safety and environmental (S and E) aspects of inertial fusion energy (IFE). A detailed accident analysis has been completed for the HYLIFE-II power plant design. Additional accident analyses are underway for both the HYLIFE-II and Sombrero designs. Other S and E work at LLNL has addressed the issue of the driver-chamber interface and its importance for both heavy-ion and laser-driven IFE. Radiation doses and fluences have been calculated for final focusing mirrors and magnets and shielding optimization is underway to extend the anticipated lifetimes for key components. Target designers/fabrication specialists have been provided with ranking information related to the S and E characteristics of candidate target materials (e.g., ability to recycle, accident consequences, and waste management). Ongoing work in this area will help guide research directions and the selection of target materials. Published and continuing work on fast ignition has demonstrated some of the potentially attractive S and E features of such designs. In addition to reducing total driver energies, fast ignition may ease target fabrication requirements, reduce radiation damage rates, and enable the practical use of advanced (e.g., tritium-lean) labels with significantly reduced neutron production rates, the possibility of self-breeding targets, and dramatically increased flexibility in blanket design. Domestic and international collaborations are key to success in the above areas. A brief summary of each area is given and plans for future work are outlined.

  17. Study of the environmental health aspects of swimming pools in Alexandria City.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Mamdouh H M; Akel, Mekkawy M A; El-Shal, Wafaa I; El-Naggar, Amel S S

    2005-01-01

    There has been a rapid increase in the number of public as well as private swimming pools in recent years. This is because the general public is now much more health and fitness-oriented, and swimming is thought by many to be the perfect form of exercise. Assessment of the environmental and health aspects of some of Alexandria swimming pools was carried out through the present study. All the recorded temperatures during the present study agreed with the Infectious Diseases Regulations. As regards turbidity, although the annual mean values of most pools had shown compliance with the allowable limit of the decree, there were many violations of the limit values in some individual results recorded during the different months. Most of the residual chlorine results recorded at the different pools during the different months showed that the operators were adding the Cl2 in a haphazard way. The low pH values could be attributed to the addition of slug doses of Cl2 which hydrolyze, producing high concentrations of hydrochloric and hydrochlorous acids. The high incidence of recorded itching and redness of the eyes followed by ear infections was attributed to the exposure to excess chlorine, and to the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. As regards the awareness and practice to pool hygienic instructions, the low percentage of swimmers using head caps during swimming (30.1%) was mainly comprised of females. It could be concluded that the majority of the users followed some of the hygienic instructions, like showering, washing the feet before entering the pool, and wearing bathing suites instead of private clothes. The frequencies of health problems observed among users were related to many factors, like age, marital status, occupation, frequency, and duration of use of the swimming pool.

  18. Coral-algal phase shifts on coral reefs: Ecological and environmental aspects [review article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManus, John W.; Polsenberg, Johanna F.

    2004-02-01

    This paper briefly reviews coral-algal phase shifts on coral reefs, with particular regard to summarizing the exogenous and endogenous factors in support of a proposed conceptual model, and to identifying critical information gaps. A phase shift occurs on a coral reef when the cover of a substrate by scleractinian corals is reduced in favor of macroalgal dominance, and resilience of the former condition is retarded because of ecological processes and/or environmental conditions. The change is often, but not always, associated with a perturbation such as coral bleaching, outbreaks of a coral-eating species, or storm damage. The new state is generally associated with some combination of reduced herbivory (from disease and/or fishing) and nutrient enrichment, although the relative importance of these factors is under debate and may vary among locations and even across single reefs. Disturbances that result in a state of generally low biotic three-dimensional structural complexity often precede a phase shift. Following such a disturbance, the system will pass to a state of higher biotic structural complexity, with either macroalgae or coral dominating. As the community progresses towards larger and more three-dimensionally complex corals or macroalgae, it exhibits greater resistance to shifting dominance from one state to the other. Studies of the phase-shift phenomena have been generally conducted at scales that are small relative to the sizes and inherent variability of whole coral reefs and systems of reefs. There is an urgent need for studies aimed at quantifying and simulating cause and effect aspects of the phase shift, including human-environment coupling, particularly in support of coral reef decision-making.

  19. Regulatory Aspects on the Use of Fish Embryos in Environmental Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal alternative tests are gaining consideration in an array of environmental sciences, particularly as they relate to sound management of chemicals and wastewater discharges. The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute and the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and To...

  20. Regulatory Aspects on the Use of Fish Embryos in Environmental Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal alternative tests are gaining consideration in an array of environmental sciences, particularly as they relate to sound management of chemicals and wastewater discharges. The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute and the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and To...

  1. The Integration of Pedagogical Aspects in Environmental Management Systems in Selected South African Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanyimba, Alex; Richter, Barry; Raath, Schalk

    2015-01-01

    Environmental management systems implemented in schools are regarded by many as a mechanism for the integration of environmental matters in all the operational functions of the school. The links, however, between environmental management and curriculum practice have not been adequately addressed in the literature. This article reports on the…

  2. The Integration of Pedagogical Aspects in Environmental Management Systems in Selected South African Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanyimba, Alex; Richter, Barry; Raath, Schalk

    2015-01-01

    Environmental management systems implemented in schools are regarded by many as a mechanism for the integration of environmental matters in all the operational functions of the school. The links, however, between environmental management and curriculum practice have not been adequately addressed in the literature. This article reports on the…

  3. Environmental benefits and concerns on safety: communicating latest results on nanotechnology safety research-the project DaNa(2.0).

    PubMed

    Kühnel, D; Marquardt, C; Nau, K; Krug, H F; Paul, F; Steinbach, C

    2017-04-01

    The use of nanotechnology and advanced materials promises to revolutionise many areas of technology and improve our daily life. In that respect, many positive effects on the environment are expected, either directly, by developing new technologies for remediation, filtering techniques or energy generation, or indirectly, by e.g. saving resources due to lower consumption of raw materials, or lower energy and fuel consumption due to reduced weight of vehicles. However, such beneficial effects of new technologies are often confronted by concerns regarding the safety of novel substances or materials. During the past 10 years, great effort has been put into research on potential hazards of nanomaterials towards environmental organisms. As the methodology for reliable assessment of nanomaterials was immature, many studies reporting contradictory results have been published, hindering both risk assessment for nanomaterials, as well as the knowledge communication to all involved stakeholders. Thus, DaNa(2.0) serves as a platform to implement trusted knowledge on nanomaterials for an objective discussion.

  4. Chemical aspects of environmentally enhanced crack growth in nickel-based superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Christopher Francis

    The research presented in this dissertation is a surface chemistry study of the chemical aspects of environmentally enhanced crack growth (EECG) in commercial, Ni-based superalloys. Previous studies have shown that oxygen increases the crack growth rates in superalloys at high temperatures, compared to those observed in an inert environment. Proposed mechanisms have attributed this enhancement to (a) the preferential oxidation of Ni and Fe at the crack tip to form an oxide "wedge" and (b) the oxidation of carbon and metallic carbides at grain boundaries to form high, internal pressures of CO and CO2. These mechanisms, however, cannot explain the observed differences in fracture surface morphology and crack growth kinetics for several superalloys. An alternative mechanism, therefore, was proposed which attributes EECG to oxygen penetration ahead of the crack tip during crack growth and the subsequent oxidation of NbC (and possibly Ni3Nb) on grain boundary surfaces. To assess these mechanisms, a surface chemistry study was undertaken to determine the relative reactivity of several superalloys and grain boundary phases (such as NbC, Ni3Nb, Ni3Ti and Ni3Al) with oxygen at elevated temperatures, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS analyses were also made of fracture surfaces that were produced during crack growth studies in oxygen. The results showed the first direct confirmation of oxygen penetration ahead of the crack tip, leading to the oxidation of Cr, NbC, Ni3Nb, Ni3Ti and Ni 3Al on grain boundary surfaces. These observations are consistent with the high temperature oxidation studies for each alloy and pure phase, and support crack growth enhancement mechanisms that involve the oxidation of alloying phases ahead of the crack tip. Qualitative models were then developed, based on the results of this dissertation research, that considered the role of internal oxidation in oxygen enhanced crack growth. From these models, it was concluded that oxygen atoms

  5. Some aspects of the environmental labour market in five European countries and conclusions with respect to environmental curricula.

    PubMed

    Fettig, J

    2004-01-01

    The environmental labour market in the Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, Sweden and the Netherlands was evaluated by analysing up to 120 job advertisements in each country. The conditions and requirements were grouped into 11 categories showing clear similarities and differences between the five countries. Further evaluation of the data gives evidence that the private sector plays a significant role for technical environmental professionals in Europe. As a central task, conclusions regarding degree and knowledge requirements, respectively, and the importance of a variety of skills are drawn. Suggestions are made how the findings can be accounted for in environmental curricula. Furthermore the role of networks for the graduates' entry into the labour market is emphasized.

  6. Assessment of the environmental aspects of the DOE phosphoric acid fuel cell program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundblad, H. L.; Cavagrotti, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    The likely facets of a nationwide phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plant commercial system are described. The beneficial and adverse environmental impacts produced by the system are assessed. Eleven specific system activities are characterized and evaluated. Also included is a review of fuel cell technology and a description of DOE's National Fuel Cell Program. Based on current and reasonably foreseeable PAFC characteristics, no environmental or energy impact factor was identified that would significantly inhibit the commercialization of PAFC power plant technology.

  7. Latest developments in contraception.

    PubMed

    Gold, J

    1983-05-28

    The 10th Annual Symposium on Latest Developments in Contraception, organized by the Biological Science Committee of the Australian Federation of Family Planning Associations, was held in February 1983 and provided an update on the current status of contraceptive technology. In a review of steroidal contraception, it was proposed that the Silastic vaginal ring is the most promising of the fertility control devices not requiring continual involvement of the couple. Product development costs, the length of time required for safety trials have hindered development of the perfect contraceptive device. In a discussion of IUD use, it was reported that there are fewer expulsions and a lower incidence of infection when the device is inserted between the 11th and 17th days of the menstrual cycle. Although it is current practice to reinsert copper IUDs every 2 years, no increase in failure rates has been observed after 5 years of continual use. It is recommended that IUD insertion be delayed until 8 weeks postpartum. Another participant asserted that there is no empirical evidence to justify the use of spermicides with diaphragms. Unknown factors of vaginal physiology and its interaction with sperm must be elucidated before a good barrier method can be introduced. Concern was expressed with the numbers of women seeking reanastomosis of the Fallopian tubes after tubal ligation. Success of reanastomosis depends on the type of initial procedure and the time elapsed. 7% of Australian men have had vasectomies, and the request rate for reversal is 2-3/1000/year. In a review of immunological contraception, it was noted that long-lasting, non-pharmacologically active agents are the most promising substances for future research, but their potential hazards are great. Dr. Evelyn Billings reported that the ovulation method of natural family planning is superior to the basal-body-temperature or rhythm methods since it takes stress-induced fluctuations in ovulation into account. The

  8. Educational and Psychological Aspects of Environmental Awareness and a Sense of Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rode, Ojars

    2015-01-01

    The research problem concerns the sphere of relationships with the environment and an individual's awareness in the aspect of satisfying the need for belonging. This research aims to determine the conditions of relationships with the environment and an individual's awareness in the process of personality formation. The research is constituted by…

  9. Environmental aspects of the proposed UCG project site in Washington state

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, M.; Tonnessen, K.

    1980-05-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is conducting an environmental assessment of the proposed underground coal gasification experiment in the Tono Basin near Centralia, Washington. This analysis is funded by the Department of Energy. To satisfy the provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the following elements are included in the assessment: (1) description of the proposed action and alternatives; (2) description of the existing environment; (3) potential environmental impacts of the project; and (4) agencies consulted to ensure coordination in evaluating effective mitigation measures. Field reconnaissance and environmental data collected from both state and county agencies and from local individuals and organizations form the basis for an evaluation of the potential impact of the project on this riparian ecosystem. A cultural resource survey was also conducted as part of the site evaluation. Principal areas of concern include the potential for damage due to air emissions and groundwater contamination, maintenance of surface water quality and minimization of disruption of wildlife habitat. Possible mitigation measures to protect environmental quality are recommended.

  10. Summary of the report of the Senior Committee on Environmental, Safety, and Economic Aspects of Magnetic Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Holdren, J.P.; Berwald, D.H.; Budnitz, R.J.; Crocker, J.G.; Delene, J.G.; Endicott, R.D.; Kazimi, M.S.; Krakowski, R.A.; Logan, B.G.; Schultz, K.R.

    1987-09-10

    The Senior Committee on Environmental, Safety, and Economic Aspects of Magnetic Fusion Energy (ESECOM) has assessed magnetic fusion energy's prospects for providing energy with economic, environmental, and safety characteristics that would be attractive compared with other energy sources (mainly fission) available in the year 2015 and beyond. ESECOM gives particular attention to the interaction of environmental, safety, and economic characteristics of a variety of magnetic fusion reactors, and compares them with a variety of fission cases. Eight fusion cases, two fusion-fission hybrid cases, and four fission cases are examined, using consistent economic and safety models. These models permit exploration of the environmental, safety, and economic potential of fusion concepts using a wide range of possible materials choices, power densities, power conversion schemes, and fuel cycles. The ESECOM analysis indicates that magnetic fusion energy systems have the potential to achieve costs-of-electricity comparable to those of present and future fission systems, coupled with significant safety and environmental advantages. 75 refs., 2 figs., 24 tabs.

  11. Contamination of vineyard soils with fungicides: a review of environmental and toxicological aspects.

    PubMed

    Komárek, Michael; Cadková, Eva; Chrastný, Vladislav; Bordas, François; Bollinger, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The contamination of agricultural soils with inorganic (Cu-based) and organic pesticides (including their residues) presents a major environmental and toxicological concern. This review summarizes available studies published on the contamination of vineyard soils throughout the world with Cu-based and synthetic organic fungicides. It focuses on the behavior of these contaminants in vineyard soils and the associated environmental and toxicological risks. The concentrations of Cu in soils exceed the legislative limits valid in the EU in the vast majority of the studied vineyards. Regarding the environmental and toxicological hazards associated with the extensive use of fungicides, the choice of fungicides should be performed carefully according to the physico-chemical properties of the soils and climatic and hydrogeological characteristics of the vine-growing regions.

  12. Comparing dynamic connective tissue in echinoderms and sponges: morphological and mechanical aspects and environmental sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sugni, Michela; Fassini, Dario; Barbaglio, Alice; Biressi, Anna; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Tricarico, Serena; Bonasoro, Francesco; Wilkie, Iain C; Candia Carnevali, Maria Daniela

    2014-02-01

    Echinoderms and sponges share a unique feature that helps them face predators and other environmental pressures. They both possess collagenous tissues with adaptable viscoelastic properties. In terms of morphology these structures are typical connective tissues containing collagen fibrils, fibroblast- and fibroclast-like cells, as well as unusual components such as, in echinoderms, neurosecretory-like cells that receive motor innervation. The mechanisms underpinning the adaptability of these tissues are not completely understood. Biomechanical changes can lead to an abrupt increase in stiffness (increasing protection against predation) or to the detachment of body parts (in response to a predator or to adverse environmental conditions) that are regenerated. Apart from these advantages, the responsiveness of echinoderm and sponge collagenous tissues to ionic composition and temperature makes them potentially vulnerable to global environmental changes.

  13. Latest results from JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    JET Team; JET Team*

    1992-12-01

    Plasma-wall interactions have been important in many aspects of JET's programme during the past year. A major achievement has been the first production of significant fusion power from the deuterium-tritium reaction. Techniques of tritium handling and recovery have been developed and tested. The tokamak has operated extensively in the X-point configuration and comparisons have been made between carbon and beryllium target materials. Experiments have been made to ameliorate the heat load on the divertor targets by strong gas puffing as well as by careful tile design and alignment. ELMs have been utilized to produce a quasi steady-state H-mode with duration of about 20 s.

  14. Physiological and Molecular Aspects of Tolerance to Environmental Constraints in Grain and Forage Legumes.

    PubMed

    Adnane, Bargaz; Mainassara, Zaman-Allah; Mohamed, Farissi; Mohamed, Lazali; Jean-Jacques, Drevon; Rim, Maougal T; Georg, Carlsson

    2015-08-13

    Despite the agronomical and environmental advantages of the cultivation of legumes, their production is limited by various environmental constraints such as water or nutrient limitation, frost or heat stress and soil salinity, which may be the result of pedoclimatic conditions, intensive use of agricultural lands, decline in soil fertility and environmental degradation. The development of more sustainable agroecosystems that are resilient to environmental constraints will therefore require better understanding of the key mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to abiotic constraints. This review provides highlights of legume tolerance to abiotic constraints with a focus on soil nutrient deficiencies, drought, and salinity. More specifically, recent advances in the physiological and molecular levels of the adaptation of grain and forage legumes to abiotic constraints are discussed. Such adaptation involves complex multigene controlled-traits which also involve multiple sub-traits that are likely regulated under the control of a number of candidate genes. This multi-genetic control of tolerance traits might also be multifunctional, with extended action in response to a number of abiotic constraints. Thus, concrete efforts are required to breed for multifunctional candidate genes in order to boost plant stability under various abiotic constraints.

  15. Physiological and Molecular Aspects of Tolerance to Environmental Constraints in Grain and Forage Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Bargaz, Adnane; Zaman-Allah, Mainassara; Farissi, Mohamed; Lazali, Mohamed; Drevon, Jean-Jacques; Maougal, Rim T.; Carlsson, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Despite the agronomical and environmental advantages of the cultivation of legumes, their production is limited by various environmental constraints such as water or nutrient limitation, frost or heat stress and soil salinity, which may be the result of pedoclimatic conditions, intensive use of agricultural lands, decline in soil fertility and environmental degradation. The development of more sustainable agroecosystems that are resilient to environmental constraints will therefore require better understanding of the key mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to abiotic constraints. This review provides highlights of legume tolerance to abiotic constraints with a focus on soil nutrient deficiencies, drought, and salinity. More specifically, recent advances in the physiological and molecular levels of the adaptation of grain and forage legumes to abiotic constraints are discussed. Such adaptation involves complex multigene controlled-traits which also involve multiple sub-traits that are likely regulated under the control of a number of candidate genes. This multi-genetic control of tolerance traits might also be multifunctional, with extended action in response to a number of abiotic constraints. Thus, concrete efforts are required to breed for multifunctional candidate genes in order to boost plant stability under various abiotic constraints. PMID:26287163

  16. Lead Poisoning: Historical Aspects of a Paradigmatic "Occupational and Environmental Disease"

    PubMed Central

    Lafranconi, Alessandra; D'Orso, Marco Italo; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2012-01-01

    Lead poisoning is one of the earliest identified and most known occupational disease. Its acute effects have been recognized from antiquity when this condition principally afflicted manual workers and slaves, actually scarcely considered by the medicine of that time. The Industrial Revolution caused an epidemic of metal intoxication, urging scientists and physician of that period to study and identify specific symptoms and organ alterations related to chronic lead poisoning. During the 20th century, the acknowledgment of occupational and environmental toxicity of lead fostered public awareness and legislation to protect health. More recently, the identification of sub-clinical effects have greatly modified the concept of lead poisoning and the approaches of medicine towards this condition. Nowadays, lead poisoning is rarely seen in developed countries, but it still represents a major environmental problem in certain areas. Consequently, it may appear as a paradigm of "occupational and environmental disease," and the history of this condition seems to parallel the historical development of modern "Occupational and Environmental Health" as a more complete medical discipline. PMID:22953225

  17. Environmental and health aspects of copper-indium-diselenide thin-film photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberger, H.; Thumm, W.; Freitag, R.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Chapin, R.

    1994-12-31

    Copper-indium-diselenide (CIS) is a semiconductor compound that can be used to produce thin-film photovoltaic modules. There is on-going research being conducted by various federal agencies and private industries to demonstrate the commercial viability of this material. Because this is a new technology, and because scant information about the health and environmental hazards associated with the use of this material is available, studies have been initiated to characterize the environmental mobility and environmental toxicology of this compound. The objective of these studies is to identify the environmental and health hazards associated with the production, use, and disposal of CIS thin-film photovoltaic modules. The program includes both experimental and theoretical components. Theoretical studies are being undertaken to estimate material flows through the environment for a range of production options as well as use and disposal scenarios. The experimental programs characterize the physical, chemical e.g. leachability and biological parameters e.g. EC{sub 50} in daphnia and algae, and feeding studies in rats.

  18. Multi-criteria assessment of socio-environmental aspects in shrinking cities. Experiences from eastern Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Schetke, Sophie Haase, Dagmar

    2008-10-15

    Demographic change and economic decline produce modified urban land use pattern and densities. Compared to the beginning of the 90s after the German reunification, nowadays massive housing and commercial vacancies followed by demolition and perforation come to pass in many cities of the former GDR. In consequence, a considerable surplus of urban brownfields has been created. Furthermore, the decline in the urban fabric affects social infrastructure and urban greenery of local neighbourhoods. Here, urban planning enters into 'uncharted territory' since it needs to assess the socio-environmental impact of shrinkage. In order to carry out such an evaluation quantitatively, a multi-criteria assessment scheme (MCA) was developed and applied. Firstly, we identified infrastructure and land use changes related to vacancy and demolition. Secondly, demolition scenarios for the coming 20 years were applied in order to give an idea for a long-term monitoring approach at the local district level. A multi-criteria indicator matrix quantifies the socio-environmental impact on both urban greenery and residents. Using it, we set demolition scenarios against urban 'quality of life' targets. Empirical evidence comes from Leipzig, in eastern Germany, a representative case study for urban shrinkage processes. The results show that shrinkage implies socio-environmental changes of residential livelihoods, however, does not simply increase or decrease the overall urban quality of life. The integrated assessment of all indicators identifies environmental and social opportunities, as well as the challenges a shrinking city is faced with.

  19. Understanding the Attitude-Action Gap: Functional Integration of Environmental Aspects in Car Purchase Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mairesse, Olivier; Macharis, Cathy; Lebeau, Kenneth; Turcksin, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at understanding how a general positive attitude toward the environment results in a limited purchase of environmentally friendlier cars, often referred to as the attitude-action gap. In a first experiment 27 volunteers performed a judgment task on car purchase intention. Participants were asked to evaluate the probability of…

  20. Climatic and environmental aspects of the Mongol withdrawal from Hungary in 1242 CE

    PubMed Central

    Büntgen, Ulf; Di Cosmo, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The Mongol invasion of Eastern Europe, and especially its sudden withdrawal from Hungary in 1242 CE, has generated much speculation and an array of controversial theories. None of them, however, considered multifaceted environmental drivers and the coupled analysis of historical reports and natural archives. Here we investigate annually resolved, absolutely dated and spatially explicit paleoclimatic evidence between 1230 and 1250 CE. Documentary sources and tree-ring chronologies reveal warm and dry summers from 1238–1241, followed by cold and wet conditions in early-1242. Marshy terrain across the Hungarian plain most likely reduced pastureland and decreased mobility, as well as the military effectiveness of the Mongol cavalry, while despoliation and depopulation ostensibly contributed to widespread famine. These circumstances arguably contributed to the determination of the Mongols to abandon Hungary and return to Russia. While overcoming deterministic and reductionist arguments, our ‘environmental hypothesis’ demonstrates the importance of minor climatic fluctuations on major historical events. PMID:27228400

  1. Climatic and environmental aspects of the Mongol withdrawal from Hungary in 1242 CE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büntgen, Ulf; di Cosmo, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    The Mongol invasion of Eastern Europe, and especially its sudden withdrawal from Hungary in 1242 CE, has generated much speculation and an array of controversial theories. None of them, however, considered multifaceted environmental drivers and the coupled analysis of historical reports and natural archives. Here we investigate annually resolved, absolutely dated and spatially explicit paleoclimatic evidence between 1230 and 1250 CE. Documentary sources and tree-ring chronologies reveal warm and dry summers from 1238–1241, followed by cold and wet conditions in early-1242. Marshy terrain across the Hungarian plain most likely reduced pastureland and decreased mobility, as well as the military effectiveness of the Mongol cavalry, while despoliation and depopulation ostensibly contributed to widespread famine. These circumstances arguably contributed to the determination of the Mongols to abandon Hungary and return to Russia. While overcoming deterministic and reductionist arguments, our ‘environmental hypothesis’ demonstrates the importance of minor climatic fluctuations on major historical events.

  2. Environmental and economic aspects of hydrogen production and utilization in fuel cell vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granovskii, Mikhail; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    A smooth transition from gasoline-powered internal combustion engine vehicles to ecologically clean hydrogen fuel cell vehicles depends on the process used for hydrogen production. Three technologies for hydrogen production are considered here: traditional hydrogen production via natural gas reforming, and the use of two renewable technologies (wind and solar electricity generation) to produce hydrogen via water electrolysis. It is shown that a decrease of environmental impact (air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions) as a result of hydrogen implementation as a fuel is accompanied by a decline in the economic efficiency (as measured by capital investments effectiveness). A mathematical procedure is proposed to obtain numerical estimates of environmental and economic criteria interactions in the form of sustainability indexes. On the basis of the obtained sustainability indexes, it is concluded that hydrogen production from wind energy via electrolysis is more advantageous for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and traditional natural gas reforming is more favorable for reducing air pollution.

  3. Green Aspects of Techniques for the Determination of Currently Used Pesticides in Environmental Samples

    PubMed Central

    Stocka, Jolanta; Tankiewicz, Maciej; Biziuk, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides are among the most dangerous environmental pollutants because of their stability, mobility and long-term effects on living organisms. Their presence in the environment is a particular danger. It is therefore crucial to monitor pesticide residues using all available analytical methods. The analysis of environmental samples for the presence of pesticides is very difficult: the processes involved in sample preparation are labor-intensive and time-consuming. To date, it has been standard practice to use large quantities of organic solvents in the sample preparation process; but as these solvents are themselves hazardous, solvent-less and solvent-minimized techniques are becoming popular. The application of Green Chemistry principles to sample preparation is primarily leading to the miniaturization of procedures and the use of solvent-less techniques, and these are discussed in the paper. PMID:22174632

  4. Climatic and environmental aspects of the Mongol withdrawal from Hungary in 1242 CE.

    PubMed

    Büntgen, Ulf; Di Cosmo, Nicola

    2016-05-26

    The Mongol invasion of Eastern Europe, and especially its sudden withdrawal from Hungary in 1242 CE, has generated much speculation and an array of controversial theories. None of them, however, considered multifaceted environmental drivers and the coupled analysis of historical reports and natural archives. Here we investigate annually resolved, absolutely dated and spatially explicit paleoclimatic evidence between 1230 and 1250 CE. Documentary sources and tree-ring chronologies reveal warm and dry summers from 1238-1241, followed by cold and wet conditions in early-1242. Marshy terrain across the Hungarian plain most likely reduced pastureland and decreased mobility, as well as the military effectiveness of the Mongol cavalry, while despoliation and depopulation ostensibly contributed to widespread famine. These circumstances arguably contributed to the determination of the Mongols to abandon Hungary and return to Russia. While overcoming deterministic and reductionist arguments, our 'environmental hypothesis' demonstrates the importance of minor climatic fluctuations on major historical events.

  5. Food safety/food security aspects related to the environmental release of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; Testa, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    The environmental presence of pharmaceuticals in top soil and in water where extensive animal farming occurs may represent an involuntary source of residues in food that might affect both food safety and food security. We modelled the presence of residues in animal matrices from the inventoried environmental concentration of selected drugs in surface waters (range: 0.1-10μgL(-1)) and agriculture soils (range: 1-100μgkg(-1) dry weight), accounting for animal production parameters (i.e., forages, water intake and milk and egg production) and drug pharmacokinetics. The results indicate that the contamination of tetracyclines in top soil may represent a major issue both for the compliance with maximum residue levels in food (100-300ngg(-1)) and for the claim of organic products. via surface water, animals may be vulnerable to the intake of anabolics and growth-promoting agents, such as 17-beta estradiol and clenbuterol, only under a worst-case scenario. Their identification, which is currently achievable at a pgg(-1) level in animal specimens, is considered proof of illegal treatment and can lead to the prosecution of farmers. The Environmental Quality Standards that have been proposed for priority substances in surface waters may also be considered protective in terms of food security/food safety; however, a broad-spectrum characterisation of drugs within the agriculture context could be envisaged to refine the uncertainties in the risk assessment and for combined intakes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anaerobic digestion of bio-waste: A mini-review focusing on territorial and environmental aspects.

    PubMed

    Cecchi, Franco; Cavinato, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    Scientific and industrial experiences, together with economical and policies changes of last 30 years, bring anaerobic digestion among the most environmental friendly and economically advantageous technologies for organic waste treatment and management in Europe. In this short review, the role of anaerobic digestion of organic wastes is discussed, considering the opportunity of a territorial friendly approach, without barriers, where different organic wastes are co-treated. This objective can be achieved through two proposed strategies: one is the anaerobic digestion applied as a service for the agricultural and farming sector; the other as a service for citizen (biowaste, diapers and wastewater treatment integration). The union of these two strategies is an environmental- and territorial-friendly process that aims to produce renewable energy and fertiliser material, with a low greenhouse gas emission and nutrients recovery. The advantage of forthcoming application of anaerobic digestion of organic wastes, even for added value bioproducts production and new energy carriers, are finally discussed. Among several advantages of anaerobic digestion, the role of the environmental controller was evaluated, considering the ability of minimising the impacts exploiting the biochemical equilibrium and sensitivity as a quality assurance for digestate.

  7. Mesenchymal Stem Cells as Therapeutics Agents: Quality and Environmental Regulatory Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Sabata, Roger; Verges, Josep; Zugaza, José L.; Ruiz, Adolfina; Clares, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the main stem cells that have been used for advanced therapies and regenerative medicine. To carry out the translational clinical application of MSCs, their manufacturing and administration in human must be controlled; therefore they should be considered as medicine: stem cell-based medicinal products (SCMPs). The development of MSCs as SCMPs represents complicated therapeutics due to their extreme complex nature and rigorous regulatory oversights. The manufacturing process of MSCs needs to be addressed in clean environments in compliance with requirements of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). Facilities should maintain these GMP conditions according to international and national medicinal regulatory frameworks that introduce a number of specifications in order to produce MSCs as safe SCMPs. One of these important and complex requirements is the environmental monitoring. Although a number of environmental requirements are clearly defined, some others are provided as recommendations. In this review we aim to outline the current issues with regard to international guidelines which impact environmental monitoring in cleanrooms and clean areas for the manufacturing of MSCs. PMID:27999600

  8. Environmental safety aspects of the new spent nuclear fuel management and storage system at Ignalina NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Poskas, P.; Ragaisis, V.; Adomaitis, J. E.

    2007-07-01

    In the framework of the preparation for the decommissioning of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) a new Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility (ISFSF) will be built in the existing sanitary protection zone (SPZ) of INPP. In addition to the ISFSF, the new spent nuclear fuel management activity will include all necessary spent nuclear fuel retrieval and packaging operations at the Reactor Units, transfer of storage casks to the ISFSF, and other activities appropriate to the chosen design solution and required for the safe removal of the existing spent nuclear fuel from storage pools and insertion into the new ISFSF. The Republic of Lithuania regulations require that the average annual dose to the critical group members of population due to operation of nuclear facility shall not exceed dose constraint. If several nuclear facilities are located in the same SPZ, the same dose constraint shall envelope radiological impacts from all operating and planned nuclear facilities. The paper discusses radiological safety assessment aspects as relevant for the new nuclear activity to be implemented in the SPZ of INPP considering specificity of Lithuanian regulatory requirements. The safety assessment methodology aspects, results and conclusions as concern public exposure are outlined and discussed. (authors)

  9. Environmental and economic aspects of indirect coal liquefaction processes: a report emphasizing the relationship between product mix and efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, L.

    1981-09-01

    This report covers environmental and economic aspects of three indirect liquefaction processes. Specifically, the following are addressed: U.S. coal resources; the Lurgi/Methanol, Lurgi/Methanol/Mobil M, and the Lurgi/Fischer-Tropsch indirect coal liquefaction processes; and environmental and economic aspects associated with the considered processes. Even though our coal resources are considered very large, the life expectancy of currently defined reserves would be quite limited if we were to derive an appreciable part of our fossil-fuel-derived energy from coal. The conservation of coal resources would be affected by conversion efficiencies, which vary with process and product mix. For the processes considered, for similar liquid-to-gas ratio values (product mix), the coal-to-methanol is the most efficient while the Fischer-Tropsch is the least efficient. For these processes, the cost per Btu of product at reasonable equivalent liquid/gas ratios is greatest for Fischer-Tropsch and the least for the coal-to-methanol process.

  10. Women targeted and women negated. An aspect of the environmental movement in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mannan, M

    1996-05-01

    There are many ways to solve environmental problems. In this article the issue of energy consumption in Bangladesh and the rapid introduction of improved stove projects illustrates the importance of involving women in decision making that directly involves their lives. 82% of total energy consumption is based on traditional, renewable resources such as firewood, agricultural residues, tree residues, and dung. It is argued that resource depletion is related to population growth, the introduction of high yield seeds and related agricultural practices, and the lack of a sound basis for social and natural forestry. Improved stoves were introduced in order to reduce the depletion of resources. It was assumed that women would understand the value of preserving national natural resources and that energy resources for cooking were becoming scarce. The improved technology had the advantage of saving energy and saving women's time and effort in biomass and fuelwood collection. What was not considered in the decision was the design of the stove which was not adaptable to traditional cooking tools and pots and was more time consuming. The new stoves produced ash too quickly that needed to be removed before the combustion process was obstructed. The stove required straight straw or fuelwood, when available supplies were irregularly shaped. The ash residues could not be recycled, whereas potash could be used as fertilizer. Stoves required the use of a trained and sophisticated user. Stoves were expensive commodities. Women's time was obstructed because the stove needed tending and the usual chores could not be performed while food was cooking. The women in several projects rejected the stoves based on technological, cultural, and economic factors. It is argued that the environmental movement in Bangladesh conceptualized the environmental problem in economic terms but solved the problem technologically. The failure was in imposing new technology on women and in an inappropriate

  11. Lead: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of lead compound contamination of environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of lead toxicity in the Hawaiian environment was conducted. It was determined that lead enters the environment as an industrial contaminant resulting from the combustion of leaded gasoline. The amount of lead absorbed by the plants in various parts of the Hawaiian Islands is reported. The disposition of lead in the sediments of canals and yacht basins was investigated. The methods for conducting the surveys of lead content are described. Possible consequences of continued environmental pollution by burning leaded gasoline are discussed.

  12. Global energy in transition. Environmental aspects of new and renewable sources for development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The Sierra Club's compendium summarizes many of the documents presented at the United Nations Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy, Nairobi, Kenya, August 1981. The summaries give special attention to the environmental benefits of many energy sources - solar, wind, ocean thermal, hydroelectric, geothermal, biomass, wood, peat, oil shale, tar sands, and draft animal. The Sierra Club also discusses the policy issues involved in energy planning and development and includes summaries of selected national reports on energy in China, Hungary, Jamaica, Korea, Pakistan, Peru, Sudan, the US and West Germany.

  13. Small Scale Solar Cooling Unit in Climate Conditions of Latvia: Environmental and Economical Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaunzems, Dzintars; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2010-01-01

    The paper contributes to the analyses from the environmental and economical point of view of small scale solar cooling system in climate conditions of Latvia. Cost analyses show that buildings with a higher cooling load and full load hours have lower costs. For high internal gains, cooling costs are around 1,7 €/kWh and 2,5 €/kWh for buildings with lower internal gains. Despite the fact that solar cooling systems have significant potential to reduce CO2 emissions due to a reduction of electricity consumption, the economic feasibility and attractiveness of solar cooling system is still low.

  14. Environmental and health aspects of CIS-module production, use and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Thumm, W.; Finke, A.; Neumeier, B.; Beck, B.; Kettrup, A.; Steinberger, H.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Chapin, R.

    1994-12-31

    Copper indium diselenide (CIS) is one of the most promising compounds in thin film technology. Since there is scant information available about environmental and health hazards, a study was initiated to characterize risks associated with the production, use and disposal of thin film photovoltaic modules. Data available from literature and developers of this technology contribute to an assessment of potential risks during production. In laboratory experiments the release of hazardous materials during operation caused by accidents or false handling and after disposal are simulated. In biological experiments the possible impact on living matter is established. These experiments comprise toxicity tests with aquatic organisms and rats representing mammals.

  15. Environmental aspects of large-scale wind-power systems in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, A.

    1984-11-01

    Environmental issues relating to the introduction of large, MW-scale wind turbines at land-based sites in the UK are discussed. Noise, television interference, hazards to bird life, and visual effects are considered. Areas of uncertainty are identified, but enough is known from experience elsewhere in the world to enable the first UK machines to be introduced in a safe and environementally acceptable manner. Research to establish siting criteria more clearly, and significantly increase the potential wind-energy resource is mentioned. Studies of the comparative risk of energy systems are shown to be overpessimistic for UK wind turbines.

  16. Regulatory aspects on the use of fish embryos in environmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Halder, Marlies; Léonard, Marc; Iguchi, Taisen; Oris, James T; Ryder, Kathy; Belanger, Scott E; Braunbeck, Thomas A; Embry, Michelle R; Whale, Graham; Norberg-King, Teresa; Lillicrap, Adam

    2010-07-01

    Animal alternative tests are gaining serious consideration in an array of environmental sciences, particularly as they relate to sound management of chemicals and wastewater discharges. The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute and the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) held an International Workshop on the Application of the Fish Embryo Test in March, 2008. This relatively young discipline is following advances in animal alternatives for human safety sciences, and it is advisable to develop a broad comparison of how animal alternative tests involving fish are viewed in a regulatory context over a wide array of authorities or advising bodies. These include OECD, Western Europe, North America, and Japan. This paper summarizes representative practices from these regions. Presently, the global regulatory environment has varying stances regarding the protection of fish for use as an experimental animal. Such differences have a long-term potential to lead to a lack of harmony in approaches to fish toxicity testing, especially for chemicals in commerce across multiple geographic regions. Implementation of alternative methods and approaches will be most successful if accepted globally, including methods of fish toxicity testing. An important area for harmonization would be in the interpretation of protected and nonprotected life stages of fish. Use of fish embryos represent a promising alternative and allow bridging to more technically challenging alternatives with longer prospective timelines, including cell-based assays, ecotoxicogenomics, and QSARs. (c) 2010 SETAC.

  17. Code development incorporating environmental, safety, and economic aspects of fusion reactors (FY 92--94). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, S.K.; Fowler, T.K.; Holdren, J.P.

    1994-11-01

    This is the Final Report for a three-year (FY 92--94) study of the Environmental, Safety, and Economic (ESE) aspects of fusion energy systems, emphasizing development of computerized approaches suitable for incorporation as modules in fusion system design codes. First, as is reported in Section 2, the authors now have operating a simplified but complete environment and safety evaluation code, BESAFE. The first tests of BESAFE as a module of the SUPERCODE, a design optimization systems code at LLNL, are reported in Section 3. Secondly, as reported in Section 4, the authors have maintained a strong effort in developing fast calculational schemes for activation inventory evaluation. In addition to these major accomplishments, considerable progress has been made on research on specific topics as follows. A tritium modeling code TRIDYN was developed in collaboration with the TSTA group at LANL and the Fusion Nuclear Technology group at UCLA. A simplified algorithm has been derived to calculate the transient temperature profiles in the blanket during accidents. The scheme solves iteratively a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations describing about 10 regions of the blanket by preserving energy balance. The authors have studied the physics and engineering aspects of divertor modeling for safety applications. Several modifications in the automation and characterization of environmental and safety indices have been made. They have applied this work to the environmental and safety comparisons of stainless steel with alternative structural materials for fusion reactors. A methodology in decision analysis utilizing influence and decision diagrams has been developed to model fusion reactor design problems. Most of the work during this funding period has been reported in 26 publications including theses, journal publications, conference papers, and technical reports, as listed in Section 11.

  18. Environmental aspects of the Brandon woods coal ash site. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, R.W.; Price, R.

    1994-05-01

    The Maryland Power Plant Research Program (PPRP) has evaluated the potential environmental effects of coal ash used as structural fill material at the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (BG E) Brandon Woods Energy Business Park. The main purpose of the evaluation was to assess the potential for leachate constituents derived from the coal ash to affect ground and surface water quality. Ground water conditions at the site were evaluated using the water level readings collected from 21 shallow and deep monitoring wells installed by BG E prior to site development, and ground water quality data collected from the time the facility began coal ash filling operations in 1982 to December 1990. The absence of ground water quality degradation downgradient of the ash indicates that several site conditions minimize potential adverse enviromental impacts from leachate generation.

  19. Environmental aspects of alternative wet technologies for producing energy/fuel from peat. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.T.

    1981-05-01

    Peat in situ contains up to 90% moisture, with about 50% of this moisture trapped as a colloidal gel. This colloidal moisture cannot be removed by conventional dewatering methods (filter presses, etc.) and must be removed by thermal drying, solvent extraction, or solar drying before the peat can be utilized as a fuel feedstock for direct combustion or gasification. To circumvent the drying problem, alternative technologies such as wet oxidation, wet carbonization, and biogasification are possible for producing energy or enhanced fuel from peat. This report describes these three alternative technologies, calculates material balances for given raw peat feed rates of 1000 tph, and evaluates the environmental consequences of all process effluent discharges. Wastewater discharges represent the most significant effluent due to the relatively large quantities of water removed during processing. Treated process water returned to the harvested bog may force in situ, acidic bog water into recieving streams, disrupting local aquatic ecosystems.

  20. Trace metals in the coals of the East Siberia: Distribution, utilization and environmental aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Pashkov, G.L.; Kuznetsov, P.N.; Kuzmin, V.I.; Boiko, Y.V.; Kontsevoi, A.A.

    1998-12-31

    Three coal basins in East Siberia, the Russia Lena, Kansk-Achinsk and South-Yakutsk basins, are huge coal basins which contain various sorts of both brown and high quality subbituminous and bituminous coals with low ash and sulfur content. The coals have great industrial significance for the production of energy, coke and chemicals. However, these coals are less characterized in terms of the content and distribution of trace metals, some of which are of industrial significance, other metals are toxic and radioactive. The data on the distribution of trace metals in these three coal basins, their geochemical occurrence and the behavior in chemical treatment and burning are presented in the paper. Separate coals were found to contain a large amount of valuable metals such as Ge (up to 1,400 g/ton of ash), V (up to 1,400 g/t), Sc (up to 220 g/t), Nb (up to 280 g/t), Cr (up to 1,300 g/t), Co (up to 320 g/t), Ni (580 g/t) and thus could be an industrial source of metal production. The methods for the extraction of Ge, Sc, Y, Nb and other metals prior or after combustion are described. The aspects of coal characterization in terms of toxic and radioactive impact on the environment are discussed.

  1. [Disease versus disorder. Medical and socio-environmental aspects of mental suffering].

    PubMed

    Heinz, A

    2015-01-01

    A disease concept should be broad enough to provide social protection for all subjects suffering from this malady but at the same time it needs to be narrow enough to avoid pathologization of behavior that is merely socially undesirable. From a medical perspective a"disease" is present if functions are impaired that are relevant for individual survival. In the field of psychiatry and psychotherapy, such medically relevant functions include the ability to be alert and fully oriented, to ascribe one's own intentions to oneself and to modulate affects according to the situation. Beyond such medically relevant symptoms of a disease, any clinically relevant dysfunction should also be harmful for the individual if a mental malady is to be diagnosed. One such harmful consequence of a disease can be that the person feels ill and suffers from this state, another negative consequence for the individual can be due to an impairment of activities of daily living and social participation. These harmful consequences of a disease are usually discussed under the heading of the"illness experience" and the"sickness aspect" of any disorder. Beyond mental maladies characterized by disease symptoms that are accompanied either by an illness experience or impaired activities of daily living and social participation (sickness), there are many states of human suffering which can be objectified and classified but do not constitute a disease in the medical sense and should more aptly be named a disorder.

  2. A potential source for cellulolytic enzyme discovery and environmental aspects revealed through metagenomics of Brazilian mangroves.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Claudia Elizabeth; Beys-da-Silva, Walter Orlando; Santi, Lucélia; Berger, Markus; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; Guima Rães, Jorge Almeida; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

    2013-10-26

    The mangroves are among the most productive and biologically important environments. The possible presence of cellulolytic enzymes and microorganisms useful for biomass degradation as well as taxonomic and functional aspects of two Brazilian mangroves were evaluated using cultivation and metagenomic approaches. From a total of 296 microorganisms with visual differences in colony morphology and growth (including bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungus), 179 (60.5%) and 117 (39.5%) were isolated from the Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and Bahia (BA) samples, respectively. RJ metagenome showed the higher number of microbial isolates, which is consistent with its most conserved state and higher diversity. The metagenomic sequencing data showed similar predominant bacterial phyla in the BA and RJ mangroves with an abundance of Proteobacteria (57.8% and 44.6%), Firmicutes (11% and 12.3%) and Actinobacteria (8.4% and 7.5%). A higher number of enzymes involved in the degradation of polycyclic aromatic compounds were found in the BA mangrove. Specific sequences involved in the cellulolytic degradation, belonging to cellulases, hemicellulases, carbohydrate binding domains, dockerins and cohesins were identified, and it was possible to isolate cultivable fungi and bacteria related to biomass decomposition and with potential applications for the production of biofuels. These results showed that the mangroves possess all fundamental molecular tools required for building the cellulosome, which is required for the efficient degradation of cellulose material and sugar release.

  3. A potential source for cellulolytic enzyme discovery and environmental aspects revealed through metagenomics of Brazilian mangroves

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The mangroves are among the most productive and biologically important environments. The possible presence of cellulolytic enzymes and microorganisms useful for biomass degradation as well as taxonomic and functional aspects of two Brazilian mangroves were evaluated using cultivation and metagenomic approaches. From a total of 296 microorganisms with visual differences in colony morphology and growth (including bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungus), 179 (60.5%) and 117 (39.5%) were isolated from the Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and Bahia (BA) samples, respectively. RJ metagenome showed the higher number of microbial isolates, which is consistent with its most conserved state and higher diversity. The metagenomic sequencing data showed similar predominant bacterial phyla in the BA and RJ mangroves with an abundance of Proteobacteria (57.8% and 44.6%), Firmicutes (11% and 12.3%) and Actinobacteria (8.4% and 7.5%). A higher number of enzymes involved in the degradation of polycyclic aromatic compounds were found in the BA mangrove. Specific sequences involved in the cellulolytic degradation, belonging to cellulases, hemicellulases, carbohydrate binding domains, dockerins and cohesins were identified, and it was possible to isolate cultivable fungi and bacteria related to biomass decomposition and with potential applications for the production of biofuels. These results showed that the mangroves possess all fundamental molecular tools required for building the cellulosome, which is required for the efficient degradation of cellulose material and sugar release. PMID:24160319

  4. Chemical and metallurgical aspects of environmentally assisted fatigue crack growth in 7075-T651 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ming; Wei, R. P.; Pao, P. S.

    1988-07-01

    A comprehensive study has been carried out on a 7075-T651 alloy to examine the influence of water vapor on fatigue crack growth. The kinetics of fatigue crack growth were determined as a function of water vapor pressure at room temperature and at 353 K. Detailed fractographic analyses and surface chemistry studies were carried out to identify the micromechanisms and to quantify the chemical interactions for corrosion fatigue crack growth in this alloy. Experiments were also carried out in ultra-high vacuum and in oxygen to provide for comparisons. Two regions of fatigue crack growth response were identified. In the low pressure region (below 67 Pa at 5 Hz), crack growth is controlled by the rate of transport of water vapor to the crack tip, and the response can be described by a model for transport controlled crack growth. At pressures above 67 Pa, additional increases in crack growth rate occurred, which are attributed to the further reactions of water vapor with segregated magnesium in this alloy. Different micromechanisms for crack growth have been identified for vacuum, oxygen, and water vapor. These micromechanisms are considered in relation to the environmental parameters through a modified superposition model for corrosion fatigue.

  5. Environmental and agronomic aspects of municipal-solid-waste heavy fraction used for turfgrass production

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    In a field plot experiment using Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), measurements of sod strength taken 8.5 and 9.5 months after seeding were greater for sod grown in topsoil amended with heavy fraction than for turf grown in topsoil only. In a container study, physical properties of a loam topsoil were altered 16 months after addition of heavy fraction. Bulk density and particle density were reduced and organic matter content increased by soil incorporation of this by-product. Total porosity and air porosity of the topsoil increased whereas water porosity decreased with increasing amount of applied heavy fraction. Soil fertility was enhanced and soil pH raised by addition of heavy fraction. Concentrations of extractable NH[sub 4]-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn in soil were increased by the application of heavy fraction, as were concentrations of K, Ca, S, Mg, and Mn in leachate collected in lysimeter studies. Improved fertility resulted in greater aesthetic quality, clipping yields, and tissue N content for tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Lysimeter studies indicted that the greatest environmental concern associated with the use of heavy fraction for turfgrass production appears to be the potential for leaching of NO[sub 3]-N during turf establishment.

  6. Environmental aspects of health care in the Grampian NHS region and the place of telehealth

    PubMed Central

    Wootton, Richard; Tait, Alex; Croft, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Detailed information about the composition of the carbon footprint of the NHS in the Grampian health region, and in Scotland generally, is not available at present. Based on the limited information available, our best guess is that travel emissions in Grampian are substantial, perhaps 49,000 tonnes CO2 per year. This is equivalent to 233 million km of car travel per year. A well-established telemedicine network in the Grampian region, which saves over 2000 patient journeys a year from community hospitals, avoids about 260,000 km travel per year, or about 59 tonnes CO2 per year. Therefore using telehealth as it has been used historically (primarily to facilitate hospital-to-hospital interactions) seems unlikely to have a major environmental impact – although of course there may be other good reasons for persevering with conventional telehealth. On the other hand, telehealth might be useful in reducing staff travel and to a lesser extent, visitor travel. It looks particularly promising for reducing outpatient travel, where substantial carbon savings might be made by reconfiguring the way that certain services are provided. PMID:20511579

  7. Aspects of nitrogen dioxide toxicity in environmental urban concentrations in human nasal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, C.; Ginzkey, C.; Friehs, G.; Hackenberg, S.; Froelich, K.; Scherzed, A.; Burghartz, M.; Kessler, M.; Kleinsasser, N.

    2010-06-01

    Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) as part of urban exhaust pollution are widely discussed as potential hazards to human health. This study focuses on toxic effects of NO{sub 2} in realistic environmental concentrations with respect to the current limit values in a human target tissue of volatile xenobiotics, the epithelium of the upper aerodigestive tract. Nasal epithelial cells of 10 patients were cultured as an air-liquid interface and exposed to 0.01 ppm NO{sub 2}, 0.1 ppm NO{sub 2}, 1 ppm NO{sub 2}, 10 ppm NO{sub 2} and synthetic air for half an hour. After exposure, genotoxicity was evaluated by the alkaline single-cell microgel electophoresis (Comet) assay and by induction of micronuclei in the micronucleus test. Depression of proliferation and cytotoxic effects were determined using the micronucleus assay and trypan blue exclusion assay, respectively. The experiments revealed genotoxic effects by DNA fragmentation starting at 0.01 ppm NO{sub 2} in the Comet assay, but no micronucleus inductions, no changes in proliferation, no signs of necrosis or apoptosis in the micronucleus assay, nor did the trypan blue exclusion assay show any changes in viability. The present data reveal a possible genotoxicity of NO{sub 2} in urban concentrations in a screening test. However, permanent DNA damage as indicated by the induction of micronuclei was not observed. Further research should elucidate the effects of prolonged exposure.

  8. Aspects of decontamination of ivermectin and praziquantel from environmental waters using advanced oxidation technology.

    PubMed

    Havlíková, Lucie; Šatínský, Dalibor; Solich, Petr

    2016-02-01

    Recently performed environmental risk assessments of ivermectin demonstrated the need to complete the information regarding the fate of ivermectin in environment. There is also a lack of information concerning the fate and stability of praziquantel. The forced degradation study and photocatalytic degradation pathways in aqueous TiO2 suspensions of the two anthelmintics ivermectin and praziquantel were investigated and compared. The degradation efficiency increased for both compounds with the increase in the TiO2 concentration from 0.25 to 2.00 g L(-1), and then remained constant. The estimated k-values were from 0.36 h(-1) to 0.64 h(-1) for IVE and from 0.29 h(-1) to 0.47 h(-1) for PZQ, respectively. The degradation rate was not significantly impacted by the change of the pH value (pH 3, 5, 7, and 9) at 2.0 g L(-1) of TiO2. The photo degradation was about 90% for both compounds after 5 h of irradiation and it was significantly inhibited in the presence of iodide anion and isopropyl alcohol, which indicated, that hydroxyl radicals as well as holes contributed to the degradation of both anthelmintics. The contribution of hydroxyl radicals and holes was 92.1% for IVE and 93.2% for PZQ, respectively. Photocatalytic process of ivermectin resulted in three degradation intermediates; another two were formed during acidic and basic hydrolysis. Praziquantel underwent degradation to six degradation intermediates; four of them were formed under photocatalytic irradiation. The intermediates were identified using UHPLC-MS/MS. UV/TiO2 photolysis has been found as an effective advanced oxidation technology for the decontamination of ivermectin and praziquantel.

  9. Systems engineering aspects of a preliminary conceptual design of the space station environmental control and life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. H.; Meyer, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    The systems engineering aspects of developing a conceptual design of the Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) are discussed. Topics covered include defining system requirements and groundrules for approach, formulating possible cycle closure options, and establishing a system-level mass balance on the essential materials processed in oxygen and water cycles. Consideration is also given to the performance of a system trade-off study to determine the best degree of cycle closure for the ECLSS, and the construction of a conceptual design of the ECLSS with subsystem performance specifications and candidate concepts. For the optimum balance between development costs, technological risks, and resupply penalties, a partially closed cycle ECLSS option is suggested.

  10. Systems engineering aspects of a preliminary conceptual design of the space station environmental control and life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. H.; Meyer, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    The systems engineering aspects of developing a conceptual design of the Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) are discussed. Topics covered include defining system requirements and groundrules for approach, formulating possible cycle closure options, and establishing a system-level mass balance on the essential materials processed in oxygen and water cycles. Consideration is also given to the performance of a system trade-off study to determine the best degree of cycle closure for the ECLSS, and the construction of a conceptual design of the ECLSS with subsystem performance specifications and candidate concepts. For the optimum balance between development costs, technological risks, and resupply penalties, a partially closed cycle ECLSS option is suggested.

  11. Latest Electroweak Results from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, Mark

    2010-05-01

    The latest results in electroweak physics from proton anti-proton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron recorded by the CDF detector are presented. The results provide constraints on parton distribution functions, the mass of the Higgs boson and beyond the Standard Model physics.

  12. Aspects of environmental degradation and fracture in polymer films and fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Peter J.

    This thesis is focused in three areas: An investigation of a thermodynamic criterion for failure by environmental stress cracking using observations of the wetting behavior of stress-cracking liquids on glassy polymer substrates; Determination of the dominant chemical and physical degradation mechanisms associated with exposure of poly-p-phenylenebisbenzoxazole fiber to moisture moisture and UV-Vis spectrum light; And finally, the effect of constraint on fracture at a bi-material interface is investigated using a model epoxy-metallic adherend specimen. The wetting behavior of an ESC liquid on polycarbonate substrates has been evaluated as a function of substrate stress using a variation of Contact Adhesion Testing, a novel method of measuring small contact angles by refraction and conventional goniometry. The inelastic and elastic strain condition and time to the onset of crazing were also observed. A normalization of the time to onset of crazing using stress state, solubility difference and diffusion coefficients was shown to collapse the kinetic observations. A comprehensive study of the degradation mechanisms of PBO AS fiber exposed in a controlled manner to challenging chemical environments, moisture and UV-Visible spectrum light was undertaken. Fibers were characterized using a broad range of mechanical and physical tests including tensile testing, Elemental Analysis, scanning electron microscopy, small angle X-ray diffraction, wide angle X-ray diffraction and attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy. Degradation by moisture is found to be primarily due to a loosening of the fiber's fibrillar structure. Degradation by UV-Visible spectrum light is found to be chemical in nature involving hydrolytic disruption of the oxazole ring and possible subsequent conversion to an amide bond. Approaches to alleviation of PBO AS fiber degradation were studied including super-critical carbon dioxide extraction of residual acid, the use of UV-Vis blocking coatings

  13. Herbicide resistance and biodiversity: agronomic and environmental aspects of genetically modified herbicide-resistant plants.

    PubMed

    Schütte, Gesine; Eckerstorfer, Michael; Rastelli, Valentina; Reichenbecher, Wolfram; Restrepo-Vassalli, Sara; Ruohonen-Lehto, Marja; Saucy, Anne-Gabrielle Wuest; Mertens, Martha

    2017-01-01

    to avoid. For that reason, and in order to comply with international agreements to protect and enhance biodiversity, agriculture needs to focus on practices that are more environmentally friendly, including an overall reduction in pesticide use. (Pesticides are used for agricultural as well non-agricultural purposes. Most commonly they are used as plant protection products and regarded as a synonym for it and so also in this text.).

  14. A multi-objective optimization approach for the selection of working fluids of geothermal facilities: Economic, environmental and social aspects.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Gomez, Juan; Peña-Lamas, Javier; Martín, Mariano; Ponce-Ortega, José María

    2017-12-01

    The selection of the working fluid for Organic Rankine Cycles has traditionally been addressed from systematic heuristic methods, which perform a characterization and prior selection considering mainly one objective, thus avoiding a selection considering simultaneously the objectives related to sustainability and safety. The objective of this work is to propose a methodology for the optimal selection of the working fluid for Organic Rankine Cycles. The model is presented as a multi-objective approach, which simultaneously considers the economic, environmental and safety aspects. The economic objective function considers the profit obtained by selling the energy produced. Safety was evaluated in terms of individual risk for each of the components of the Organic Rankine Cycles and it was formulated as a function of the operating conditions and hazardous properties of each working fluid. The environmental function is based on carbon dioxide emissions, considering carbon dioxide mitigation, emission due to the use of cooling water as well emissions due material release. The methodology was applied to the case of geothermal facilities to select the optimal working fluid although it can be extended to waste heat recovery. The results show that the hydrocarbons represent better solutions, thus among a list of 24 working fluids, toluene is selected as the best fluid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanistic aspects regarding the direct aqueous environmental photochemistry of phenol and its simple halogenated derivatives. A review.

    PubMed

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya; Friesen, Ken J

    2009-02-01

    We have reviewed the mechanistic aspects regarding the direct aqueous phase environmental photochemistry of phenol and its simple halogenated derivatives. These compounds are important industrial and natural products, are ubiquitous in aquatic systems, and their acute and chronic toxicity makes their environmental fate of interest. Work over the past two decades has unified the photochemistry of phenol and its simple halogenated derivatives. In general, three photochemical pathways dominate in aqueous solution depending on the nature of the substrate: (1) photoionization, (2) photochemical aryl-halogen bond homolysis, and (3) photochemical aryl-halogen bond heterolysis. Photoionization typically results in an array of biaryl radical coupling products which are only relevant for highly concentrated waste streams. Photolytic aryl-halogen bond homolysis will primarily give photoreduction products where reducing agents such as dissolved organic matter or reduced metal cations are present, and radical coupling products in highly concentrated waste streams. The 2- and 4-substituted halophenols may undergo photochemical aryl-halogen bond heterolysis upon irradiation to give an aryl cation. The aryl cation can be attacked by water to give the corresponding hydroxylated derivative, or may deprotonate to generate alpha- and gamma-ketocarbenes, respectively. Following their formation, the singlet alpha-ketocarbenes may undergo Wolff rearrangements to cyclopentadiene-ketenes that are subsequently hydrolyzed to cyclopentadiene carboxylic acids. The triplet alpha- and gamma-ketocarbenes are attacked by oxygen and hydrolyzed to give benzoquinones, directly hydrolyzed to yield hydroquinones, reduced to give phenols, or could take part in coupling reactions in highly concentrated waste streams to give dimers and hydroxybiaryl complexes. Additional studies in natural water samples are required to assess the relative importance of these direct irradiation mechanisms relative to

  16. Energy, environmental and operation aspects of a SRF-fired fluidized bed waste-to-energy plant.

    PubMed

    De Gisi, Sabino; Chiarelli, Agnese; Tagliente, Luca; Notarnicola, Michele

    2017-05-05

    -scale data highlighted how the lower the rate of fluff in the mixture was, the greater the number of plant shutdown due to sand bed de-fluidization was. Finally, the aspects in terms of the energy, environmental protection and raw material consumption have been discussed with reference to similar WtE plants such as Robbins (Chicago, USA), Lidköping (Sweden), Toshima (Tokyo, Japan), Madrid (Spain), Dundee (Scotland, UK) and Valene (Mantes la Jolie, France). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydropower and Environmental Resource Assessment (HERA): a computational tool for the assessment of the hydropower potential of watersheds considering engineering and socio-environmental aspects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, T. M.; Kelman, R.; Metello, M.; Ciarlini, A.; Granville, A. C.; Hespanhol, P.; Castro, T. L.; Gottin, V. M.; Pereira, M. V. F.

    2015-12-01

    The hydroelectric potential of a river is proportional to its head and water flows. Selecting the best development alternative for Greenfield projects watersheds is a difficult task, since it must balance demands for infrastructure, especially in the developing world where a large potential remains unexplored, with environmental conservation. Discussions usually diverge into antagonistic views, as in recent projects in the Amazon forest, for example. This motivates the construction of a computational tool that will support a more qualified debate regarding development/conservation options. HERA provides the optimal head division partition of a river considering technical, economic and environmental aspects. HERA has three main components: (i) pre-processing GIS of topographic and hydrologic data; (ii) automatic engineering and equipment design and budget estimation for candidate projects; (iii) translation of division-partition problem into a mathematical programming model. By integrating an automatic calculation with geoprocessing tools, cloud computation and optimization techniques, HERA makes it possible countless head partition division alternatives to be intrinsically compared - a great advantage with respect to traditional field surveys followed by engineering design methods. Based on optimization techniques, HERA determines which hydro plants should be built, including location, design, technical data (e.g. water head, reservoir area and volume, engineering design (dam, spillways, etc.) and costs). The results can be visualized in the HERA interface, exported to GIS software, Google Earth or CAD systems. HERA has a global scope of application since the main input data area a Digital Terrain Model and water inflows at gauging stations. The objective is to contribute to an increased rationality of decisions by presenting to the stakeholders a clear and quantitative view of the alternatives, their opportunities and threats.

  18. Study of glazed building ceramics from central Europe (Budapest, Hungary) in aspect of deterioration by environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baricza, Ágnes; Bajnóczi, Bernadett; Tóth, Mária; Szabó, Csaba

    2014-05-01

    The Zsolnay products are one of the most famous Hungarian ceramics. The glazed building ceramics, which were produced by this factory, were often applied in Hungary and the surrounding countries. Since their outplacements the ceramics have suffered from numerous environmental and human influences. There is no profound knowledge about deterioration of these building materials. Beside the characterization of the Zsolnay ceramics, our purpose is to attempt to explain the deterioration caused by environmental factors considering that these ceramics have never been studied in this aspect before. Other goal is to reveal if there is any influence on the deterioration depending on the location of building covered by Zsolnay ceramics. The studied objects were used on buildings of the Museum of Applied Arts (in the center with high traffic) and the Hungarian Geological and Geophysical Institute in Budapest (in a quarter with moderate traffic). We examined the physical and chemical features of the glaze and the ceramic body (e.g., phase composition, texture, microstructure, alteration) and the depositions on the glazed and the unglazed sides of some selected ceramics. Based on the results, three different types of ceramics were used as building materials. We observed several kinds of damage (e.g. cracks, pitting corrosions), black deposition layer and alterations in different extent. Natural and artificial particles (e.g. iron-oxide, mica, calcite and glauberithe) and spherules were deposited on the surface. Traces of biological activity were also found and connected to these organic residues calcium-oxalate was detected. On some objects of the Museum the glaze has started to weather and its lead was leached glaze by rainfall. Weathering also occurs along cracks in the glaze interior together with precipitation of lead-rich phases. Gypsum layer frequently covers the ceramics. In conclusions, the ceramics from the Museum are in worse condition than the ceramics from the

  19. Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feature: Glaucoma Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest Research Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Symptoms ... patients may need to keep taking drugs. Latest Research Researchers are studying the causes of glaucoma, looking ...

  20. Latest national water summary available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In response to a Congressional Directive of 1977, the U.S. Geological Survey has been making available a report discussing source, use, and disposition of surface water and groundwater in the United States. Their latest such report has been published as USGS Water Supply Paper 2350, “National Water Summary 1987—Hydrologic Events and Water Supply and Use,” compiled by Jerry E. Carr, Edith B. Chase, Richard W. Paulson, and David W. Moody. The report is immediately available from local USGS Publications Offices or from the Books and Open-file Reports Section, U.S. Geological Survey, Federal Center, Box 25425, Denver, CO 80225, for $31.

  1. Marine propellers: the latest topics.

    PubMed

    Kubo, H

    1996-02-01

    The impeller of the axial flow blood pump in an artificial heart is essentially based on the same principle as a marine propeller. Impellers designed for artificial hearts and marine propellers have a number of points in common. Decreased cavitation and relieved fluctuation load are only representative of them. As for a distinct concept of pressure distribution, the inverse method could be very useful. Skew may led to a more mild and natural character in the blood. Highly skewed blades and super elastic blades have the potential to decrease the burden on the entire circulatory system. This paper will address the main points and latest issues in propeller design concluding with a discussion of the implications of these issues for blood pump impellers.

  2. Artificial sensory organs: latest progress.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tatsuo; Inada, Yuji; Shigeno, Keiji

    2017-09-21

    This study introduces the latest progress on the study of artificial sensory organs, with a special emphasis on the clinical results of artificial nerves and the concept of in situ tissue engineering. Peripheral nerves have a strong potential for regeneration. An artificial nerve uses this potential to recover a damaged peripheral nerve. The polyglycolic acid collagen tube (PGA-C tube) is a bio-absorbable tube stuffed with collagen of multi-chamber structure that consists of thin collagen films. The clinical application of the PGA-C tube began in 2002 in Japan. The number of PGA-C tubes used is now beyond 300, and satisfactory results have been reported on peripheral nerve repairs. This PGA-C tube is also effective for patients suffering from neuropathic pain.

  3. Muscle disorders: the latest investigations.

    PubMed

    Ghaoui, R; Clarke, N; Hollingworth, P; Needham, M

    2013-09-01

    Patients with muscle disorders can present a diagnostic challenge to physicians because of the different ways they can present and the large number of different underlying causes. Recognition of the 'myopathic phenotype' coupled with investigations usually including electrodiagnostic and histological investigations have been essential for diagnosing the underlying cause of a myopathy. Despite these standard investigations, some patients can remain undiagnosed. New tests including more specific antibody tests for immune-mediated myopathies and the introduction of next-generation sequencing promise to revolutionise diagnostic approaches for immune and inherited myopathies, but clinical expertise remains essential to choose the most appropriate tests and interpret the results. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the different presentations to the neuromuscular clinic and the latest investigations that can be helpful in the diagnosis of muscle disorders. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  4. Determining satisfaction with access and financial aspects of care for persons exposed to Libby amphibole asbestos: rural and national environmental policy implications.

    PubMed

    Winters, Charlene A; Hill, Wade; Kuntz, Sandra W; Weinert, Clarann; Rowse, Kimberly; Hernandez, Tanis; Black, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Libby, Montana is a Superfund site and epicenter of one of the worst environmental disasters in the USA history in terms of asbestos-related mortality and morbidity. Perceptions of access and financial aspects of care were explored among a national cohort of persons postasbestos exposure and prior to a 2009 Public Health Emergency Declaration. Our findings indicated the Libby cohort was significantly less satisfied with access and financial aspects of care as measured by two PSQ-III scales when compared to an adult, chronically ill patient sample. Participants with higher levels of respiratory morbidity and depression had significantly lower satisfaction scores.

  5. Determining Satisfaction with Access and Financial Aspects of Care for Persons Exposed to Libby Amphibole Asbestos: Rural and National Environmental Policy Implications

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Charlene A.; Hill, Wade; Kuntz, Sandra W.; Weinert, Clarann; Rowse, Kimberly; Hernandez, Tanis; Black, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Libby, Montana is a Superfund site and epicenter of one of the worst environmental disasters in the USA history in terms of asbestos-related mortality and morbidity. Perceptions of access and financial aspects of care were explored among a national cohort of persons postasbestos exposure and prior to a 2009 Public Health Emergency Declaration. Our findings indicated the Libby cohort was significantly less satisfied with access and financial aspects of care as measured by two PSQ-III scales when compared to an adult, chronically ill patient sample. Participants with higher levels of respiratory morbidity and depression had significantly lower satisfaction scores. PMID:22007249

  6. Zika Virus: the Latest Newcomer.

    PubMed

    Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Vázquez-Calvo, Ángela; Blázquez, Ana B; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of this century, humanity has been facing a new emerging, or re-emerging, virus threat almost every year: West Nile, Influenza A, avian flu, dengue, Chikungunya, SARS, MERS, Ebola, and now Zika, the latest newcomer. Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in Uganda, and later on in humans in Nigeria. The virus was mainly confined to the African continent until it was detected in south-east Asia the 1980's, then in the Micronesia in 2007 and, more recently in the Americas in 2014, where it has displayed an explosive spread, as advised by the World Health Organization, which resulted in the infection of hundreds of thousands of people. ZIKV infection was characterized by causing a mild disease presented with fever, headache, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, with exceptional reports of an association with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly. However, since the end of 2015, an increase in the number of GBS associated cases and an astonishing number of microcephaly in fetus and new-borns in Brazil have been related to ZIKV infection, raising serious worldwide public health concerns. Clarifying such worrisome relationships is, thus, a current unavoidable goal. Here, we extensively review what is currently known about ZIKV, from molecular biology, transmission routes, ecology, and epidemiology, to clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prophylaxis, and public health.

  7. Zika Virus: the Latest Newcomer

    PubMed Central

    Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Vázquez-Calvo, Ángela; Blázquez, Ana B.; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of this century, humanity has been facing a new emerging, or re-emerging, virus threat almost every year: West Nile, Influenza A, avian flu, dengue, Chikungunya, SARS, MERS, Ebola, and now Zika, the latest newcomer. Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in Uganda, and later on in humans in Nigeria. The virus was mainly confined to the African continent until it was detected in south-east Asia the 1980’s, then in the Micronesia in 2007 and, more recently in the Americas in 2014, where it has displayed an explosive spread, as advised by the World Health Organization, which resulted in the infection of hundreds of thousands of people. ZIKV infection was characterized by causing a mild disease presented with fever, headache, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, with exceptional reports of an association with Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly. However, since the end of 2015, an increase in the number of GBS associated cases and an astonishing number of microcephaly in fetus and new-borns in Brazil have been related to ZIKV infection, raising serious worldwide public health concerns. Clarifying such worrisome relationships is, thus, a current unavoidable goal. Here, we extensively review what is currently known about ZIKV, from molecular biology, transmission routes, ecology, and epidemiology, to clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prophylaxis, and public health. PMID:27148186

  8. Latest results from Double Chooz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minotti, A.

    2017-01-01

    Double Chooz is a short-baseline neutrino disappearance experiment. It detects ν¯ e produced in the power plant of Chooz, France, where is located. The main goal of the experiment is the measurement of θ13 mixing angle and in 2011 for the first time the experiment observed an indication for a non zero value of such an oscillation parameter. The mixing angle was successively measured using only the far detector finding the best fit value of sin2(2θ13) = 0.090 -0.029 +0.032 . The near detector is under construction and will start data taking by the middle of 2014 allowing the reduction of the systematic errors. In this paper I make a review of the Double Chooz experiment, focusing in particular on the latest results of the measurement of the mixing angle θ13 relying on the neutron absorption on Gadolinium. I also present results proving the capability of Double Chooz to identify the ortho-positronium. This has been done in an event-by-event basis for the first time in a large liquid scintillator experiments, and can be an additional handle for the electron/positron discrimination in future detectors based on such technology.

  9. Latest design of gate valves

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzhofer, U.; Stolte, J.; Weyand, M.

    1996-12-01

    Babcock Sempell, one of the most important valve manufacturers in Europe, has delivered valves for the nuclear power industry since the beginning of the peaceful application of nuclear power in the 1960s. The latest innovation by Babcock Sempell is a gate valve that meets all recent technical requirements of the nuclear power technology. At the moment in the United States, Germany, Sweden, and many other countries, motor-operated gate and globe valves are judged very critically. Besides the absolute control of the so-called {open_quotes}trip failure,{close_quotes} the integrity of all valve parts submitted to operational forces must be maintained. In case of failure of the limit and torque switches, all valve designs have been tested with respect to the quality of guidance of the gate. The guidances (i.e., guides) shall avoid a tilting of the gate during the closing procedure. The gate valve newly designed by Babcock Sempell fulfills all these characteristic criteria. In addition, the valve has cobalt-free seat hardfacing, the suitability of which has been proven by friction tests as well as full-scale blowdown tests at the GAP of Siemens in Karlstein, West Germany. Babcock Sempell was to deliver more than 30 gate valves of this type for 5 Swedish nuclear power stations by autumn 1995. In the presentation, the author will report on the testing performed, qualifications, and sizing criteria which led to the new technical design.

  10. Latest generation of halogen-containing pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Agriculture is confronted with enormous challenges, from production of enough high-quality food to water use, environmental impacts and issues combined with a continually growing world population. Modern agricultural chemistry has to support farmers by providing innovative agrichemicals, used in applied agriculture. In this context, the introduction of halogen atoms into an active ingredient is still an important tool to modulate the properties of new crop protection compounds. Since 2010, around 96% of the launched products (herbicides, fungicides, insecticides/acaricides and nematicides) contain halogen atoms. The launched nematicides contain the largest number of halogen atoms, followed by insecticides/acaricides, herbicides and fungicides. In this context, fungicides and herbicides contain in most cases fluorine atoms, whereas nematicides and insecticides contain in most cases 'mixed' halogen atoms, for example chlorine and fluorine. This review gives an overview of the latest generation of halogen-containing pesticides launched over the past 6 years and describes current halogen-containing development candidates. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Environmental Epigenetics and a Unified Theory of the Molecular Aspects of Evolution: A Neo-Lamarckian Concept that Facilitates Neo-Darwinian Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Environment has a critical role in the natural selection process for Darwinian evolution. The primary molecular component currently considered for neo-Darwinian evolution involves genetic alterations and random mutations that generate the phenotypic variation required for natural selection to act. The vast majority of environmental factors cannot directly alter DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms directly regulate genetic processes and can be dramatically altered by environmental factors. Therefore, environmental epigenetics provides a molecular mechanism to directly alter phenotypic variation generationally. Lamarck proposed in 1802 the concept that environment can directly alter phenotype in a heritable manner. Environmental epigenetics and epigenetic transgenerational inheritance provide molecular mechanisms for this process. Therefore, environment can on a molecular level influence the phenotypic variation directly. The ability of environmental epigenetics to alter phenotypic and genotypic variation directly can significantly impact natural selection. Neo-Lamarckian concept can facilitate neo-Darwinian evolution. A unified theory of evolution is presented to describe the integration of environmental epigenetic and genetic aspects of evolution. PMID:25917417

  12. Environmental Epigenetics and a Unified Theory of the Molecular Aspects of Evolution: A Neo-Lamarckian Concept that Facilitates Neo-Darwinian Evolution.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Michael K

    2015-04-26

    Environment has a critical role in the natural selection process for Darwinian evolution. The primary molecular component currently considered for neo-Darwinian evolution involves genetic alterations and random mutations that generate the phenotypic variation required for natural selection to act. The vast majority of environmental factors cannot directly alter DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms directly regulate genetic processes and can be dramatically altered by environmental factors. Therefore, environmental epigenetics provides a molecular mechanism to directly alter phenotypic variation generationally. Lamarck proposed in 1802 the concept that environment can directly alter phenotype in a heritable manner. Environmental epigenetics and epigenetic transgenerational inheritance provide molecular mechanisms for this process. Therefore, environment can on a molecular level influence the phenotypic variation directly. The ability of environmental epigenetics to alter phenotypic and genotypic variation directly can significantly impact natural selection. Neo-Lamarckian concept can facilitate neo-Darwinian evolution. A unified theory of evolution is presented to describe the integration of environmental epigenetic and genetic aspects of evolution. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  13. Energy Education: Our Latest Fad?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, June R.

    1980-01-01

    Explores whether energy education is part of environmental studies or an area of inquiry with its own identity. Evaluates also whether attention will be soon focused away from energy education to new subject areas. Topics discussed include definition of energy education terms, problems of awareness, materials and models, and getting energy…

  14. Delving into the environmental aspect of a Sardinian white wine: from partial to total life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Fusi, Alessandra; Guidetti, Riccardo; Benedetto, Graziella

    2014-02-15

    The aim of this study was to deepen the assessment of the environmental impacts of a white wine produced in Sardinia (FU 750 ml), performing an attributional LCA. The system boundaries were extended, from 'cradle to gate' (partial LCA) of a previous study, to 'cradle to grave' (total LCA), in order to identify the environmental impacts occurring along the wine life cycle stages (vine planting, grape production, wine production, bottling and packaging, distribution, final disposal of the glass bottle). Some assumptions were made in order to quantify the environmental impact of the transportation phase, regarding the few data which were available. Inventory data were mainly collected through direct communication with the Company involved in the study. Results showed that the environmental performance of wine was mostly determined by the glass bottle production (for all impact categories except ozone layer depletion). The second contributor was the agricultural phase, which included two sub-phases: vine planting and grape production. Results showed that the vine planting sub-phase was not negligible given its contribution to the agricultural phase, mainly due to diesel fuel consumption. Transportation impact was found to be relevant for long distance distribution (USA); the impact categories more affected by transport were acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation and global warming potential. Suggested opportunities to reduce the overall environmental impact were the introduction of a lighter glass bottle or the substitution of the glass bottle with a polylaminate container.

  15. Determining the optimal nitrogen rate for summer maize in China by integrating agronomic, economic, and environmental aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G. L.; Ye, Y. L.; Chen, X. P.; Cui, Z. L.

    2014-06-01

    The concept of high yield with a goal of minimum environmental cost has become widely accepted. However, the trade-offs and complex linkages among agronomic, economic, and environmental factors are not yet well understood. In this study, reactive nitrogen (Nr) losses were estimated using an empirical model, and an economic indicator and an evaluation model were used to account for the environmental costs of N fertilizer production and use. The minimum N rate to achieve the maximum yield benefit (agronomically optimal N rate), maximum economic benefit (economically optimal N rate: economic benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer cost), and maximum net benefit (ecologically optimal N rate: net benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer and environmental costs) were estimated based on 91 on-farm experiment sites with five N levels for summer maize production on the North China Plain. Across all experimental sites, the agronomically, economically, and ecologically optimal N rates (Nagr, Neco, and Necl, respectively) averaged 289, 237, and 171 kg N ha-1, respectively. Necl management increased net benefit by 53% with a 46% decrease in total environmental costs, and a 51% decrease in Nr loss intensity from N fertilizer use (47, 65, and 38% for N2O emission, N leaching, and NH3 volatilization, respectively) and maintained grain yield, compared with Nagr management. Compared with Neco management, Necl increased net benefit by 12%, with a 31% decrease in total environmental costs and a 33% decrease in Nr loss intensity from N fertilizer use, and maintained economic benefit and grain yield. No differences in Necl were observed between soil types or years, but significant variation among counties was revealed. Necl increased with the increase in N-derived yield with an R2 of 0.83. In conclusion, Necl was primarily affected by N-derived yield and could enhance profitability as well as reduce Nr losses associated with the maize grain yield.

  16. Summary of the US Senior Committee on Environmental, Safety, and Economic Aspects of Magnetic Fusion Energy (ESECOM)

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Holdren, J.P.; Berwald, D.H.; Budnitz, R.J.; Crocker, J.G.; Delene, J.G.; Endicott, R.D.; Kazimi, M.S.; Krakowski, R.A.; Schultz, K.R.

    1988-08-15

    ESECOM has completed a recent assessment of the competitive potential of magnetic fusion energy (MFE) compared to present and future fission energy sources giving particular emphasis to the interaction of environmental, safety, and economic characteristics. By consistently applying a set of economic and safety models to a set of MFE concepts using a wide range of possible material choices, power densities, power conversion methods, and fuel cycles, ESECOM finds that several different MFE concepts have the potential to achieve costs of electricity comparable to those of fission systems, coupled with significant safety and environmental advantages. 13 refs., 7 tabs.

  17. Submarine disposal of mill tailings from on-land sources: An overview and bibliographic compilation of references on the biological, chemical, environmental, and technical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, R.L.; Sherman, G.E.; Plumb, P.D.

    1992-07-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines (BOM) has undertaken studies of the disposal of mining and milling wastes in the marine environment. The BOM Alaska Field Operations Center, Juneau, initiated a review of the technology, regulations, and economic aspects of submarine tailings disposal (STD). The review illuminated the need for organization of literature on the subject, therefore the Bureau compiled this extensive bibliography on marine disposal of mill tailings. The bibliography presented here contains 1483 references and is also available through diskette in the WordPerfect format. A review of the references indicates that literature on submarine disposal inadequately covers the subject. The majority of the references listed only peripherally relate to the subject. Published literature on the engineering and environmental aspects of STD is severely limited.

  18. Latest achievements in PET techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Guerra, Alberto; Belcari, Nicola; Motta, Alfonso; Di Domenico, Giovanni; Sabba, Nicola; Zavattini, Guido

    2003-11-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has moved from a distinguished research tool in physiology, cardiology and neurology to become a major tool for clinical investigation in oncology, in cardiac applications and in neurological disorders. Much of the PET accomplishments is due to the remarkable improvements in the last 10 years both in hardware and software aspects. Nowadays a similar effort is made by many research groups towards the construction of dedicated PET apparatus in new emerging fields such as molecular medicine, gene therapy, breast cancer imaging and combined modalities. This paper reports on some recent results we have obtained in small animal imaging and positron emission mammography, based on the use of advanced technology in the field of scintillators and photodetectors, such as Position-Sensitive Detectors coupled to crystal matrices, combined use of scintillating fibers and Hybrid-Photo-Diodes readout, and Hamamatsu flat panels. New ideas and future developments are discussed.

  19. Chinese High-School Students in Physics Classroom as Active, Self-Regulated Learners: Cognitive, Motivational and Environmental Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neber, Heinz; He, Jing; Liu, Bang-Xiang; Schofield, Neville

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates whether Chinese high-school students are self-regulated learners. A social-cognitive model that distinguishes environmental, motivational, and cognitive components of this active approach to learning is described. This provides an appropriate framework for investigating this complex issue with eighth and tenth…

  20. Latest Progress in High Power VECSELs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TP-2013-0030 LATEST PROGRESS IN HIGH POWER VECSELs (POSTPRINT) Robert Bedford Optoelectronic Technology Branch Aerospace...SUBTITLE LATEST PROGRESS IN HIGH POWER VECSELs (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62204F... VECSELs ) have captured the interest of high-brightness semiconductor researchers, primarily due to their simplicity in design, power scalability, and

  1. Editorial: Latest methods and advances in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Yup; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-01-01

    The latest "Biotech Methods and Advances" special issue of Biotechnology Journal continues the BTJ tradition of featuring the latest breakthroughs in biotechnology. The special issue is edited by our Editors-in-Chief, Prof. Sang Yup Lee and Prof. Alois Jungbauer and covers a wide array of topics in biotechnology, including the perennial favorite workhorses of the biotech industry, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell and Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. [Methodological aspects in environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to low doses of benzene: problems and possible solutions].

    PubMed

    Tranfo, Giovanna; Paci, Enrico; Fustinoni, Silvia; Barbieri, Anna; Carrieri, Mariella

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to examine some methods to measure human exposure to benzene, both in life and occupational environments, through environmental and biological monitoring, examining the critical issues and optimal conditions of use. The overall performance of environmental monitoring, from the analytical point of view, strongly depend on the choice of an appropriate method of sampling and analysis. Urinary SPMA and t, t-MA are the biomarkers listed by ACGIH to evaluate occupational exposure: most of the recent studies use HPLC with tandem mass spectrometry, but since t, t-MA is present in the urine in larger quantities it is also determinable with UV detectors. The urinary benzene is an index not officially included in the list of the ACGIH BEIs, but it is useful to assess exposure and benzene at low concentrations, that most frequently are found today in the occupational and life environments.

  3. Latest results from jet measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruna, Elena

    2009-10-01

    A first stage in understanding the phenomenon of jet quenching in the hot and dense nuclear matter has been successfully reached at RHIC through measurements of inclusive hadron suppression and di-hadron azimuthal correlations. A significant step forward in this field is being obtained by full jet reconstruction in heavy-ion collisions, that in principle should give access to the energy of the hard scattering independent of the presence of the medium and should enable the study of jet quenching at the partonic level. Due to the intrinsic difficulties of such a measurement in the high multiplicity environment, this is an innovative analysis and the first results of full jet reconstruction were obtained only over the last year thanks to the recently developed jet-finding techniques. We discuss the current methods to treat the large background, which is the main critical aspect that makes full jet reconstruction a challenge at RHIC. New measurements directed to address the mechanisms of partonic energy loss in hot QCD matter are presented. These measurements include the ratio of inclusive jet cross sections in Au+Au and p+p and the comparison of jet fragmentation functions in Au+Au and p+p.

  4. Latest developments in cryogenic safety

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, T.J.

    1983-03-01

    The Cryogenic Safety Manual, sponsored by the British Cryogenics Council, was published over 10 years ago. A new updated version is now available. Some general aspects of cryogenic safety are highlighted, and attention is drawn to some of the more unusual hazardous situations. An awareness of the physical properties of the cryogenic fluids being dealt with is important in directing attention to hazardous situations which may arise. Because of this, the more important properties of the cryogenic fluids are given, such as molecular weight, boiling point and freezing point. From these properties, hazardous situations can be deduced. There are hidden dangers that are not always easy to spot. Some of the unexpected hazards, most of which have led to deaths, are: asphyxiation (anoxia), frost bites and hypothermia, explosions, and combustion. The aim of this publication is to help bring about increased safety in the production and use of crygenic products through a deeper appreciation of the scientific, technological and administrative steps which must be made if accidents, some fatal, are to be voided in the future.

  5. Latest developments in cryogenic safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Cryogenic Safety Manual, sponsored by the British Cryogenics Council, was published over 10 years ago. A new updated version is now available. Some general aspects of cryogenic safety are highlighted, and attention is drawn to some of the more unusual hazardous situations. An awareness of the physical properties of the cryogenic fluids being dealt with is important in directing attention to hazardous situations which may arise. Because of this, the more important properties of the cryogenic fluids are given, such as molecular weight, boiling point and freezing point. From these properties, hazardous situations can be deduced. There are hidden dangers that are not always easy to spot. Some of the unexpected hazards, most of which have led to deaths, are: asphyxiation (anoxia), frost bites and hypothermia, explosions, and combustion. The aim of this publication is to help bring about increased safety in the production and use of cryogenic products through a deeper appreciation of the scientific, technological and administrative steps which must be made if accidents, some fatal, are to be voided in the future.

  6. Latest developments in cryogenic safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, T. J.

    1983-03-01

    The Cryogenic Safety Manual, sponsored by the British Cryogenics Council, was published over 10 years ago. A new updated version is now available. Some general aspects of cryogenic safety are highlighted, and attention is drawn to some of the more unusual hazardous situations. An awareness of the physical properties of the cryogenic fluids being dealt with is important in directing attention to hazardous situations which may arise. Because of this, the more important properties of the cryogenic fluids are given, such as molecular weight, boiling point and freezing point. From these properties, hazardous situations can be deduced. There are hidden dangers that are not always easy to spot. Some of the unexpected hazards, most of which have led to deaths, are: asphyxiation (anoxia), frost bites and hypothermia, explosions, and combustion. The aim of this publication is to help bring about increased safety in the production and use of cryogenic products through a deeper appreciation of the scientific, technological and administrative steps which must be made if accidents, some fatal, are to be voided in the future.

  7. Latest advances in pancreatic tumours.

    PubMed

    Lariño Noia, José

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer continues to have a bleak prognosis. Hardly any therapeutic advances have been made in the last few years and consequently most efforts have focused on preventing its development and on diagnosing precursor lesions. In this regard, the use of statins as a preventive factor and the implementation of screening programmes in high-risk patients are gaining ground. In the field of treatment, there is greater focus on the role of neoadjuvant therapy in pancreatic cancer and on a multimodal approach to the disease, with few advances in effective novel therapies. Most studies concerned cystic tumours of the pancreas, especially intraductal mucinous papillary tumour, with its known potential for malignant transformation. Multiple studies were devoted to validation of the 2012 Fukuoka international guidelines and the highly controversial 2015 AGA guidelines. Notable among these studies were those demonstrating the suboptimal positive predictive value and questioning important aspects of the guidelines, such as discontinuation of follow-up or the criteria for surgical referral. Notable among diagnostic procedures were cystoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound-guided needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy as the most promising techniques due to their high efficacy and negative predictive value in detecting mucinous cystic lesions. There were also a large number of studies on the natural history of intraductal papillary mucinous tumours, which help deepen knowledge of these entities and the search for predictive factors of cancer development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Determining the optimal nitrogen rate for summer maize in China by integrating agronomic, economic, and environmental aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G. L.; Ye, Y. L.; Chen, X. P.; Cui, Z. L.

    2014-02-01

    The concept of high yield with a goal of minimum environmental cost has become widely accepted. However, the trade-offs and complex linkages among agronomic, economic, and environmental factors are not yet well understood. In this study, reactive nitrogen (Nr) losses were estimated using an empirical model, and an economic indicator and an evaluation model were used to account for the environmental costs of different Nr losses after N fertilizer application. The minimum N rate to achieve the maximum yield benefit (agronomically optimal N rate), maximum economic benefit (economically optimal N rate: economic benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer cost), and maximum net benefit (ecologically optimal N rate: net benefit was defined as yield benefit minus N fertilizer and environmental costs) were estimated based on 91 on-farm experiment sites with five N levels for summer maize production on the North China Plain. Across all experimental sites, the agronomically, economically, and ecologically optimal N rates (Nagr, Neco, and Necl, respectively) averaged 289, 237, and 186 kg N ha-1, respectively. Necl management increased net benefit by 31% with a 45% decrease in Nr loss intensity (44%, 60%, and 33% for N2O emission, N leaching, and NH3 volatilization, respectively) and maintained grain yield, compared to Nagr management. Compared to Neco management, Necl increased net benefit by 6%, with a 27% decrease in Nr loss intensity, and maintained economic benefit and grain yield. No differences in Necl were observed between soil types or years, but significant variation among counties was revealed. Necl increased with the increase in N-derived yield with an R2 of 0.80. In conclusion, Necl was primarily affected by N-derived yield and could enhance profitability as well as reduce Nr losses associated with the maize grain yield.

  9. Environmental quality of a semi-natural area of the Po Valley (northern Italy): aspects of soil and vegetation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfredi, Paolo; Giupponi, Luca; Cassinari, Chiara; Trevisan, Marco

    2014-05-01

    This work, originating in the preliminary analyses of a Life project and co-financed by the European Union ("Environmental recovery of degraded soils and desertified by a new treatment technology for land reconstruction", Life 10 ENV IT 400 "New Life"; http://www.lifeplusecosistemi.eu), aims to evaluate the environmental quality of a semi-natural area of the Po Valley (northern Italy) by analysing the characteristics of soil and vegetation. The area of study is located in the municipal territory of Piacenza (Emilia-Romagna, Italy) along the eastern shores of the river Trebbia and is made up of the closed landfill of Solid Urban Waste of Borgotrebbia (active from 1972 to 1985) and of the neighbouring areas (in North-South order: riverside area, northern borders of the landfill, landfill disposal, southern borders and cultivated corn fields). For each area pedological and vegetational analyses were carried out and in particular, as regards the soil, various chemical-physical analyses were done among which: pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, salinity, exchangeable bases and granulometry. The ground vegetation data were collected using phytosociological relevés according to the method of the Zurich-Montpellier Sigmatist School, (Braun-Blanquet, 1964). For the analysis of the environmental quality of each area, the floristic-vegetation indexes system was applied as proposed by Taffetani & Rismondo (2009) (updated by Rismondo et al., 2011) conveniently created for analysing the ecological functionality of the agro-ecosystems. The results obtained by such applications drew attention to a dynamic vegetation mass in the landfill which, despite a value of the floristic biodiversity index (IFB) comparable to that of the borders, shows a much lower value of the maturity index (IM). This is due to the elevated percentage of annual species (index of the therophytic component = 52.78%) belonging to the phytosociological class Stellarietea mediae Tüxen, Lohmeyer & Preising ex

  10. Regulatory aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Arthur M.

    1986-07-01

    At this time, there is no US legislation that is specifically aimed at regulating the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms or their modified components, either during the research and development stage or during application. There are some statutes, administered by several federal agencies, whose language is broad enough to allow the extension of intended coverage to include certain aspects of biotechnology. The one possible exception is FIFRA, which has already brought about the registration of several natural microbial pesticides but which also has provision for requiring the registration of “strain improved” microbial pesticides. Nevertheless, there may be gaps in coverage even if all pertinent statutes were to be actively applied to the control of environmental release of genetically modified substances. The decision to regulate biotechnology under TSCA was justified, in part, on the basis of its intended role as a gap-filling piece of environmental legislation. The advantage of regulating biotechnology under TSCA is that this statute, unlike others, is concerned with all media of exposure (air, water, soil, sediment, biota) that may pose health and environmental hazards. Experience may show that extending existing legislation to regulate biotechnology is a poor compromise compared to the promulgation of new legislation specifically designed for this purpose. It appears that many other countries are ultimately going to take the latter course to regulate biotechnology.

  11. Colloidal aggregation and structural assembly of aspect ratio variant goethite (α-FeOOH) with nC60 fullerene in environmental media.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Saikat; Pradhan, Nihar R; Mashayekhi, Hamid; Zhang, Qiu; Pan, Bo; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-12-01

    Environmental mobility of C60 fullerene can be significantly affected in the presence of naturally abundant α-FeOOH. However, α-FeOOH vary significantly in sizes, shapes and associated properties that can greatly influence the fate and transport of C60 fullerene in environmental media. Therefore, colloidal hetero-association between well crystallized low aspect (LAsp) α-FeOOH and nC60 fullerene may differ substantially to weakly crystallized high-aspect (HAsp) counterpart. In contrast to LAsp α-FeOOH, inherent crystal defects and surface charge generation in HAsp α-FeOOH facilitated strong Coulombic attraction and aggregation with fullerene in acidic pH. However, LAsp α-FeOOH demonstrated subtle entropic depletion mediated interaction with fullerene prevalent in hard rods. Humic acid (HA) encapsulation of HAsp α-FeOOH substantially blocked fullerene attachment. Minute enhancement in colloidal stability was detected for HA-coated HAsp α-FeOOH and fullerene mixture to HA-coated HAsp α-FeOOH alone. To investigate the interfacial assembly of α-FeOOH with fullerene "in situ" differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopic investigations were employed. This study showed significantly different interface behavior of the binary mixtures of fullerene and HAsp α-FeOOH NPs, and LAsp particles. On air-water interface, bare HAsp α-FeOOH displayed liquid crystalline packing. However, addition of fullerene to HAsp α-FeOOH suspension at pH5 produced closed-loop polygonal and circular ring structures. Head-to-tail alignment of magnetic dipoles as well as fullerene hydrophobicity facilitated such assembly formation. "Ex situ" AFM investigation revealed further the presence of magnetically derived ring structure which asserts that the formed "in situ" ensembles were not transient, hence, may abate fullerene transport through environmental interfaces. Barring hydrophobicity assisted attachment of fullerene to LAsp α-FeOOHs, the absence of any close-packed structures

  12. Environmental Justice Aspects of Exposure to PM2.5 Emissions from Electric Vehicle Use in China.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shuguang; Cherry, Christopher R; Zhou, Wenjun; Sawhney, Rapinder; Wu, Ye; Cai, Siyi; Wang, Shuxiao; Marshall, Julian D

    2015-12-15

    Plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) in China aim to improve sustainability and reduce environmental health impacts of transport emissions. Urban use of EVs rather than conventional vehicles shifts transportation's air pollutant emissions from urban areas (tailpipes) to predominantly rural areas (power plants), changing the geographic distribution of health impacts. We model PM2.5-related health impacts attributable to urban EV use for 34 major cities. Our investigation focuses on environmental justice (EJ) by comparing pollutant inhalation versus income among impacted counties. We find that EVs could increase EJ challenge in China: most (~77%, range: 41-96%) emission inhalation attributable to urban EVs use is distributed to predominately rural communities whose incomes are on average lower than the cities where EVs are used. Results vary dramatically across cities depending on urban income and geography. Discriminant analysis reveals that counties with low income and high inhalation of urban EV emissions have comparatively higher agricultural employment rates, higher mortality rates, more children in the population, and lower education levels. We find that low-emission electricity sources such as renewable energy can help mitigate EJ issues raised here. Findings here are not unique to EVs, but instead are relevant for nearly all electricity-consuming technologies in urban areas.

  13. Environmental aspects of a tritium oxide release from the Savannah River Site on September 2 and 3, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Hoel, D.D.; Kurzeja, R.J.; Evans, A.G.

    1990-09-28

    Tritium was released to the atmosphere from the Savannah River Plant during an incident on September 2 and 3, 1984 between 10 PM and 3 AM. During this five hour period, 43,800 Ci of tritium, principally in the form of the oxide (HTO), was released. An additional 14,000, Ci was released during subsequent cleanup operations between September 3 and 7. The total amount released from the incident was 57,800 Ci. The HTO cloud initially moved northward and passed near the towns of New Ellenton and Aiken, SC. Two hours after the release began, the wind shifted and carried the cloud toward Columbia, SC. The cloud moved northeast during the daytime on September 3 over the east-central portion of North Carolina. Environmental sampling teams were dispatched by SRL, SRP, and SCDHEC (South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control). SRL collected air and vegetation samples and SRP collected vegetation, water, milk and bioassay samples. SCDHEC collected vegetation, milk, and water samples. The highest activity of HTO measured in vegetation was 501 pCi/mL onsite, 2522 pCi/mL at the plant boundary, and 9859 pCi/mL offsite. These concentrations were approximately 100 times larger than normal values. 13 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. A review on the genetic, environmental, and lifestyle aspects of the early-life origins of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Kelishadi, Roya; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2014-03-01

    This article is a comprehensive review on developmental origins of health and disease regarding various factors related to the origins of cardiovascular diseases from early life. It presents a summary of the impacts of various factors such as epigenetics; gene-environment interaction; ethnic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and their underlying risk factors; prenatal factors; fetal programming; maternal weight status and weight gain during pregnancy; type of feeding during infancy; growth pattern during childhood; obesity; stunting; socioeconomic status; dietary and physical activity habits; active, secondhand, and thirdhand smoking, as well as environmental factors including air pollution and global climate change on the development and progress of cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors. The importance of early identification of predisposing factors for cardiovascular diseases for primordial and primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases from early life is highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental Aspects of Sites Like America's Stonehenge, (AS), Florida's Miami Tequesta Site, and Lowell's A.D. 1069

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, Michael Ann; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2002-04-01

    Subtle ``instrumentation" is often unnoticed. Stone-chamber transponder-receivers are principle and secondary wave detectors, part of the ``technologic" arsenal of men like Passaconaway/Metacomen of colonial-era Massachusetts, or the earthquake-predicting Shawnee Tecumseh of the Ohio Valley region, during 1811-1813. An Ohio stone-effigy ``serpent" is a thunderstorm precursor signal indicator. The Hopi require similar ``equipment," when duping gullible ``rain-dance" patrons. Tornado/waterspout activity is documented right in the Tequesta site at the river in Miami, Florida, which generates detectable signals. Columbus could have used similar ``secret sacred science" previously learned from American Indians, and thereby successfully predicted an anomalous hurricane on a subsequent trip. These, and the Hawaiian volcano goddess Pelee, seem to be a mythic equivalent of electromagnetically generated signals, i.e., a metaphor for ``environmental applied physics" we detect at A.S.

  16. Production of materials with alumina and ashes from incineration of chromium tanned leather shavings: environmental and technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Basegio, T; Haas, C; Pokorny, A; Bernardes, A M; Bergmann, C P

    2006-09-21

    The leather tannery industry produces a significant amount of solid and hazardous wastes. Chromium-containing wastes like tanned shavings used to be incinerated in order to recover energy. The incineration process generates ashes that must be disposed of. This paper is a report on the results of the evaluation of technological properties and environmental compatibility of products made of alumina and ashes from incinerated chrome tanned shavings. The raw materials, tannery ashes and alumina were mixed together in different proportions. The ceramic bodies were molded using a hydraulic press and fired with a heating rate of 100 K/h until 1400 degrees C for 4 h in a muffle furnace. The ceramic specimens were characterized regarding physical, mechanical and thermal properties. Leaching tests, according to Brazilian, German and Dutch regulations, were performed on ceramic bodies containing different additions of ash. Results show that the ceramic materials produced are acceptable for refractory applications.

  17. Environmental aspects of hydraulic fracturing - Main results and recommendations from two studies on behalf of the German Environment Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krischbaum, Bernd; Bertram, Andreas; Böttcher, Christian; Iyimen-Schwarz, Züleyha; Rechenberg, Jörg; Dannwolf, Uwe; Meiners, Georg

    2016-04-01

    The German Environment Agency (UBA) accompanies the debate on fracking for years. Two major reports on risks and environmental impacts regarding the exploration and exploitation of unconventional natural gas, in particular shale gas have been published. On the basis of these studies as well as on scientific evidence UBA considers ecological barriers as a sustainable means to minimize the risks to environment and human health. 1) Recent studies show that the contamination of shallow aquifers by rise of fluids through natural faults or artificially created fractures is extremely unlikely. However, activities on the surface and lack of wellbore integrity pose threats and substantial risks for the quality of shallow aquifers. 2) The need for thorough groundwater monitoring is fully accepted, yet its range and design is subject to discussion. 3) Formerly, analysis and mass balances of flowback and produced water have been insufficient, thus there is a lack of exact information on proportions of frac-fluids, flowback and formation water respectively, as well as data on possible reaction products. 4) Currently, neither on national nor on European level best reference techniques (BREF) for the treatment and disposal of flowback and produced water are available. 5) In addition, land consumption, emission of greenhouse gases, and induced seismicity are major issues. UBA recommends amongst others the implementation of an environmental impact assessment (EIA) for fracking activities, the prohibition of fracking in water protection areas as well as their catchments, and the disclosure of all frac-fluid chemicals within a national chemical registry. To achieve these objectives the German Environment Agency suggests a step-by-step approach. The paper will present the main results from the studies and the recommendations of the German Environment Agency regarding hydraulic fracturing for unconventional gas exploitation.

  18. Relationships among multiple aspects of agriculture's environmental impact and productivity: a meta-analysis to guide sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    German, Richard N; Thompson, Catherine E; Benton, Tim G

    2017-05-01

    Given the pressures on land to produce ever more food, doing it 'sustainably' is growing in importance. However, 'sustainable agriculture' is complex to define, not least because agriculture impacts in many different ways and it is not clear how different aspects of sustainability may be in synergy or trade off against each other. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationships between multiple measures of sustainability using novel analytical methods, based around defining the efficiency frontier in the relationship between variables, as well as using correlation analysis. We define 20 grouped variables of agriculture's impact (e.g. on soil, greenhouse gas, water, biodiversity) and find evidence of both strong positive and negative correlations between them. Analysis based on the efficiency frontier suggests that trade-offs can be 'softened' by exploiting the natural between-study variation that arises from a combination of farming best practice and context. Nonetheless, the literature provides strong evidence of the relationship between yields and the negative externalities created by farming across a range of measures. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  19. Environmental aspects related to tuberculosis and intestinal parasites in a low-income community of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Biatriz Araújo; Fonseca, Fabio de Oliveira; Moraes, Antonio Henrique Almeida de; Martins, Ana Caroline Guedes Souza; Oliveira, Nissa Vilhena da Silva; Lima, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa; Dias, George Alberto da Silva; Saad, Maria Helena Féres

    2017-08-07

    We carried out a cross-sectional study from January to December 2015 on 1,425 inhabitants from a floating population in the Brazilian Amazon (Murinin district, Pará State) to describe the population-based prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) from 2011 to 2014, recent TB contacts (rCts) latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (LTBI) , the coverage of the local health network, socio-environmental factors, and frequency of intestinal parasitic infection (IPI). We found that the sanitary structure was inadequate, with latrines being shared with other rooms within the same accommodation; well water was the main source of water, and 48% of families had low incomes. The average rate of TB was 105/100, 000 inhabitants per year; one third of TB patients had been household contacts of infected individuals in the past, and 23% of rCts were LTBI. More than half (65%) of 44% of the stools examined (representing 76% of the housing) had IPIs; the highest prevalence was of fecal-oral transmitted protozoa (40%, Giardia intestinalis ), followed by soil-transmitted helminths (23%). TB transmission may be related to insufficient disease control of rCts, frequent relocation, and underreporting. Education, adopting hygienic habits, improving sanitation, provision of a treated water supply and efficient sewage system, further comprehensive epidemiological surveillance of those who enter and leave the community and resources for basic treatment of IPIs are crucial in combating the transmission of these neglected diseases.

  20. Evaluating economic and environmental aspects of using solar panels on multi-angled facades of office buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannoudi, Loay Akram; Lauring, Michael; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    2017-09-01

    This paper is concerned with using solar panels as high-tech cladding materials on multi-angled facades for office buildings. The energy produced by the solar panels will be consumed inside the office rooms by cooling compressors, ventilation, lighting and office equipment. Each multi-angled facade unit is directed into two different orientations on a vertical axis (right and left), but not tilted up and down. The different facade orientations will optimize the use of solar radiation to produce the needed energy from the solar panels when placing them on the parapets of these facades. In this regard, four scenarios with different facade configurations and orientations are evaluated and discussed. The method for the simulations and calculations depends on two main programs: first, IDA ICE program to calculate the energy consumption and evaluate the indoor climate of the building; and second, PVBAT to calculate the cost of the electricity produced by the solar panels and evaluate the total amount of energy produced from these panels along with the ratio to the energy bought directly from the electricity grid. There is also an environmental evaluation for the system by calculating the CO2 emissions in the different scenarios.

  1. Metabolomics-Inspired Insight into Developmental, Environmental and Genetic Aspects of Tomato Fruit Chemical Composition and Quality.

    PubMed

    Tohge, Takayuki; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2015-09-01

    Tomato was one of the first plant species to be evaluated using metabolomics and remains one of the best characterized, with tomato fruit being both an important source of nutrition in the human diet and a valuable model system for the development of fleshy fruits. Additionally, given the broad habitat range of members of the tomato clade and the extensive use of exotic germplasm in tomato genetic research, it represents an excellent genetic model system for understanding both metabolism per se and the importance of various metabolites in conferring stress tolerance. This review summarizes technical approaches used to characterize the tomato metabolome to date and details insights into metabolic pathway structure and regulation that have been obtained via analysis of tissue samples taken under different developmental or environmental circumstance as well as following genetic perturbation. Particular attention is paid to compounds of importance for nutrition or the shelf-life of tomatoes. We propose furthermore how metabolomics information can be coupled to the burgeoning wealth of genome sequence data from the tomato clade to enhance further our understanding of (i) the shifts in metabolic regulation occurring during development and (ii) specialization of metabolism within the tomato clade as a consequence of either adaptive evolution or domestication.

  2. Solid waste management of coal conversion residuals from a commercial-size facility: environmental engineering aspects. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, J.; Neufeld, R. D.; Shapiro, M. A.

    1980-11-30

    Major residuals generated by the conversion process and its auxiliary operations include: (a) coal preparation wastes; (b) gasifier ash; (c) liquefaction solids-char; (d) tail gas or flue gas desulfurization sludge; (e) boiler flyash and bottom ash; (f) raw water treatment sludge, and; (g) biosludges from process wastewater treatment. Recovered sulfur may also require disposal management. Potential environmental and health impacts from each of the residues are described on the basis of characterization of the waste in the perspective of water quality degradation. Coal gasification and liquefaction systems are described in great detail with respect to their associated residuals. Management options are listed with the conclusion that land disposal of the major residual streams is the only viable choice. On-site versus off-site disposal is analyzed with the selection of on-site operations to reduce political, social and institutional pressures, and to optimize the costs of the system. Mechanisms for prevention of leachate generation are described, and various disposal site designs are outlined. It is concluded that co-disposal feasibility of some waste streams must be established in order to make the most preferred solid waste management system feasible. Capacity requirements for the disposal operation were calculated for a 50,000 bbl/day coal liquefaction plant or 250 million SCF/day gasification operation.

  3. Environmental aspects related to tuberculosis and intestinal parasites in a low-income community of the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Biatriz Araújo; Fonseca, Fabio de Oliveira; de Moraes, Antonio Henrique Almeida; Martins, Ana Caroline Guedes Souza; Oliveira, Nissa Vilhena da Silva; Lima, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa; Dias, George Alberto da Silva; Saad, Maria Helena Féres

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We carried out a cross-sectional study from January to December 2015 on 1,425 inhabitants from a floating population in the Brazilian Amazon (Murinin district, Pará State) to describe the population-based prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) from 2011 to 2014, recent TB contacts (rCts) latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (LTBI) , the coverage of the local health network, socio-environmental factors, and frequency of intestinal parasitic infection (IPI). We found that the sanitary structure was inadequate, with latrines being shared with other rooms within the same accommodation; well water was the main source of water, and 48% of families had low incomes. The average rate of TB was 105/100, 000 inhabitants per year; one third of TB patients had been household contacts of infected individuals in the past, and 23% of rCts were LTBI. More than half (65%) of 44% of the stools examined (representing 76% of the housing) had IPIs; the highest prevalence was of fecal-oral transmitted protozoa (40%, Giardia intestinalis ), followed by soil-transmitted helminths (23%). TB transmission may be related to insufficient disease control of rCts, frequent relocation, and underreporting. Education, adopting hygienic habits, improving sanitation, provision of a treated water supply and efficient sewage system, further comprehensive epidemiological surveillance of those who enter and leave the community and resources for basic treatment of IPIs are crucial in combating the transmission of these neglected diseases. PMID:28793025

  4. Israel's Latest Conflict: Paying for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    This article describes Israel's latest conflict--plummeting government spending and strikes by faculty members and students which are threatening the stability of the country's universities. The founders of the modern state of Israel considered higher education to be so important that they established the country's first two universities long…

  5. Latest Proterozoic stratigraphy and Earth history.

    PubMed

    Knoll, A H; Walter, M R

    1992-04-23

    The end of the Proterozoic Eon was a time of pronounced biological, biogeochemical, climatic and tectonic change. New bio- and chemostratigraphic data provide an improved framework for stratigraphic correlation, making possible a deeper understanding of latest Proterozoic Earth history and providing tools for a chronostratigraphic division of late Proterozoic time.

  6. Latest Proterozoic stratigraphy and earth history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, Andrew H.; Walter, Malcolm R.

    1992-01-01

    Novel biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic data furnish an improved framework for stratigraphic correlation of the Proterozoic Eon as well as tools for a chronostratigraphic division of the late Proterozoic. It is argued that, in conjunction with geochronometric data, protistan microfossils and isotope geochemistry can furnish a means for an eventual integration of the latest Proterozoic Eon. Attention is given to the emerging methodologies of fossil protists and prokaryotes and of isotopic chemostratigraphy.

  7. Latest Proterozoic stratigraphy and earth history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, Andrew H.; Walter, Malcolm R.

    1992-01-01

    Novel biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic data furnish an improved framework for stratigraphic correlation of the Proterozoic Eon as well as tools for a chronostratigraphic division of the late Proterozoic. It is argued that, in conjunction with geochronometric data, protistan microfossils and isotope geochemistry can furnish a means for an eventual integration of the latest Proterozoic Eon. Attention is given to the emerging methodologies of fossil protists and prokaryotes and of isotopic chemostratigraphy.

  8. 40 CFR 93.110 - Criteria and procedures: Latest planning assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria and procedures: Latest planning assumptions. 93.110 Section 93.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... the impact of the proposed transportation plan or TIP on travel and/or emissions. New data...

  9. 40 CFR 93.110 - Criteria and procedures: Latest planning assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criteria and procedures: Latest planning assumptions. 93.110 Section 93.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... the impact of the proposed transportation plan or TIP on travel and/or emissions. New data...

  10. 40 CFR 93.110 - Criteria and procedures: Latest planning assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Criteria and procedures: Latest planning assumptions. 93.110 Section 93.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... the impact of the proposed transportation plan or TIP on travel and/or emissions. New data...

  11. 40 CFR 93.110 - Criteria and procedures: Latest planning assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criteria and procedures: Latest planning assumptions. 93.110 Section 93.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... the impact of the proposed transportation plan or TIP on travel and/or emissions. New data...

  12. 40 CFR 93.111 - Criteria and procedures: Latest emissions model.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria and procedures: Latest emissions model. 93.111 Section 93.111 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DETERMINING CONFORMITY OF FEDERAL ACTIONS TO STATE OR FEDERAL IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Conformity to State or...

  13. Dental amalgam--environmental aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Arenholt-Bindslev, D. )

    1992-09-01

    Increasing knowledge about the risk of toxic effects caused by anthropogenic mercury accumulation in ecosystems has resulted in a growing pressure for reduction of the discharge of mercury waste. Consequently, the mercury waste problems of dental clinics have been given increased attention, and restrictions on handling and discharge of contaminated waste have been established in several countries. Major amalgam particles from trituration surplus of those produced during the carving and burnishing of new amalgam restorations are generally collected in coarse filters and sold for refinement. Minor amalgam particles released by production of new fillings or by removal of old restorations partly sediment in tubes and drains. The remaining particles are carried with the waste water stream to the local purifying plant. In Scandinavia, the industrial discharge of mercury-contaminated waste water has been reduced to a minimum. According to recent investigations, dental clinics appear to be responsible for the major amount of mercury collected in the sludge generated in purifying plants. If threshold values for heavy metal content, including mercury, are exceeded, the sludge is not allowed to be recycled as fertilizer. Installation of an approved amalgam-separating apparatus in dental clinics is now mandatory in several countries--for example, Switzerland, Germany, Sweden, and Denmark. Approval of amalgam separators is based on national testing programs, including clinical or laboratory tests demanding 95-99% separating efficiency. 18 refs.

  14. Process Measurements for Environmental Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Stuart

    1980-01-01

    This article presents discussions dealing with the latest analytical and bioassay methods for environmental assessment. Presented is a phased approach for the integration of methods in environmental assessment. (RE)

  15. Process Measurements for Environmental Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Stuart

    1980-01-01

    This article presents discussions dealing with the latest analytical and bioassay methods for environmental assessment. Presented is a phased approach for the integration of methods in environmental assessment. (RE)

  16. Latest Progress on the QUBIC Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghribi, A.; Aumont, J.; Battistelli, E. S.; Bau, A.; Bélier, B.; Bergé, L.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Bersanelli, M.; Bigot-Sazy, M.-A.; Bordier, G.; Bunn, E. T.; Cavaliere, F.; Chanial, P.; Coppolecchia, A.; Decourcelle, T.; De Bernardis, P.; De Petris, M.; Drilien, A.-A.; Dumoulin, L.; Falvella, M. C.; Gault, A.; Gervasi, M.; Giard, M.; Gradziel, M.; Grandsire, L.; Gayer, D.; Hamilton, J.-Ch.; Haynes, V.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Holtzer, N.; Kaplan, J.; Korotkov, A.; Lande, J.; Lowitz, A.; Maffei, B.; Marnieros, S.; Martino, J.; Masi, S.; Mennella, A.; Montier, L.; Murphy, A.; Ng, M. W.; Olivieri, E.; Pajot, F.; Passerini, A.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Piccirillo, L.; Pisano, G.; Prêle, D.; Rambaud, D.; Rigaut, O.; Rosset, C.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Scully, S.; O'Sullivan, C.; Tartari, A.; Timbie, P.; Tucker, G.; Vibert, L.; Voisin, F.; Watson, B.; Zannoni, M.

    2014-09-01

    QUBIC is a unique instrument that crosses the barriers between classical imaging architectures and interferometry taking advantage from both high sensitivity and systematics mitigation. The scientific target is to detect primordial gravitational waves created by inflation by the polarization they imprint on the cosmic microwave background—the holy grail of modern cosmology. In this paper, we show the latest advances in the development of the architecture and the sub-systems of the first module of this instrument to be deployed at Dome Charlie Concordia base—Antarctica in 2015.

  17. Latest AMS Results on Cosmic Ray fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertucci, Bruna; AMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    AMS-02 is a wide acceptance high-energy physics experiment installed on the International Space Station in May 2011 and it has been operating continuously since then. Accurate studies of CR composition and energy spectra can be performed in AMS thanks to the unprecedented collected statistics - more than 90 billion events as of today - and the redundant measurements of particle charge, velocity, rigidity and energy. In this contribution we will present an overview of the latest results on anti-particles, electrons and light nuclei fluxes. On behalf of the AMS Collaboration.

  18. 'I want to feel at home': establishing what aspects of environmental design are important to people with dementia nearing the end of life.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Richard; Kelly, Fiona; Stillfried, Gillian

    2015-05-12

    The design of environments in which people with dementia live should be understandable, reinforce personal identity and maintain their abilities. The focus on supporting people with dementia to live well has omitted considering the needs or wishes for a supportive physical environment of those who are nearing the end of their lives. Using a combination of focus groups and a Delphi survey, this study explored the views of people with dementia, family carers and professionals on what aspects of the physical environment would be important to support a good quality of life to the very end. Three focus groups were carried out in three cities along the East Coast of Australia using a discussion guide informed by a literature review. Focus groups comprised recently bereaved family carers of people with dementia (FG1), people with dementia and family carers of people with dementia (FG2) and practitioners caring for people with dementia nearing or at the end of their lives (FG3). Focus group conversations were audio-recorded with participants' consent. Audio files were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically to identify environmental features that could contribute to achieving the goal of providing a comfortable life to the end. A list of design features derived from analysis of focus group transcripts was distributed to a range of experts in the dementia field and a consensus sought on their appropriateness. From this, a set of features to inform the design of environments for people with dementia nearing the end of life was defined. Eighteen people took part in three focus groups: two with dementia, eleven current or recently bereaved family carers and five practitioners. There were differences in opinion on what were important environmental considerations. People with dementia and family carers identified comfort through engagement, feeling at home, a calm environment, privacy and dignity and use of technology to remain connected as important. For practitioners

  19. Environmental Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandhu, Desh, Ed.

    The Indian Environmental Society, in association with the International Programme on Environmental Management Education, organized two seminars on World Environment Day and Environmental Impact Assessment during June 1980. A large number of papers on various aspects of environmental management were presented during the seminars. The papers…

  20. Environmental Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandhu, Desh, Ed.

    The Indian Environmental Society, in association with the International Programme on Environmental Management Education, organized two seminars on World Environment Day and Environmental Impact Assessment during June 1980. A large number of papers on various aspects of environmental management were presented during the seminars. The papers…

  1. Latest Development of CFB Boilers in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, G. X.; Yang, H. R.; Lu, J. F.; Zhang, H.

    The circulating fluidized bed (CFB) coal-fired boiler has being rapidly developed in China since 1980s and becomes a key clean coal technology used in thermal and power generation. In this paper, the development history and development status of the CFB boiler in China are introduced. The development history of the CFB boiler in China is divided into four periods and the important features of each period are given. Some latest research activities and important results on CFB boilers, and the typical achievements and newest development of the CFB boiler in China are also introduced. In addition, a few challenges and development directions including the capacity scaling up, SO2 removal and energy saving are discussed.

  2. Drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae: latest developments.

    PubMed

    Suay-García, B; Pérez-Gracia, M T

    2017-07-01

    Gonorrhea is the second most frequently reported notifiable disease in the United States and is becoming increasingly common in Europe. The purpose of this review was to assess the current state of drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in order to evaluate future prospects for its treatment. An exhaustive literature search was conducted to include the latest research regarding drug resistance and treatment guidelines for gonorrhea. Gonococci have acquired all known resistance mechanisms to all antimicrobials used for treatment. Currently, the European Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom have established surveillance programs to assess, on a yearly basis, the development of gonococcal resistance. Current treatment guidelines are being threatened by the increasing number of ceftriaxone-, cefixime-, and azithromycin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae strains being detected worldwide. This has led the scientific community to develop new treatment options with new molecules in order to persevere in the battle against this "superbug".

  3. Latest advances in adult gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    PubMed

    Florou, Vaia; Wilky, Breelyn A; Trent, Jonathan C

    2017-10-06

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common GI tract mesenchymal tumors. GIST patients are optimally managed by a precision medicine approach. Herein, we discuss the latest advances in precision medicine and ongoing clinical trials relevant to GIST. Circulating tumor DNA for detection of mutational changes could replace tissue biopsies and radiographic imaging once validated. Most GISTs are KIT/PDGFRα mutated, and despite the good clinical response to imatinib, treatment is generally not curative, more often due to secondary mutations. New mechanisms to bypass this resistance by inhibiting KIT downstream pathways and by targeting multiple KIT or PDGFRα mutations are being investigated. Immunotherapy for GIST patients is in its infancy. These approaches may lead to more effective, less toxic therapies.

  4. Latest results from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembinski, Hans P.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2012-02-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in the Province of Mendoza, Argentina, is the World's largest detector for cosmic rays at ultra-high energies. In its seven years of operation it has collected an exposure of more than 20000 km2 sr yr, larger than all previous experiments combined. Its original design, optimized for the energy range 1018 eV to 1020 eV, is currently enhanced to cover energies down to almost 1017 eV. We give an overview of the latest results with a focus on the prospect to study nuclear interactions with cosmic rays and conclude with a brief outlook on developments and extensions of the observatory. Full author list

  5. Latest results from the OPERA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchesneau, D.; OPERA collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The OPERA experiment has been designed to perform the first detection of neutrino oscillations in the ν μ → ν τ channel in direct appearance mode, through the event by event detection of the τ lepton produced in ν τ charged current interactions. OPERA is a hybrid detector, made of emulsion/lead target elements and of electronic detectors, placed in the CNGS muon neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso, 730 km away from the source. Neutrino interactions from the CNGS neutrino runs were recorded from 2008 until the end of 2012. We report on the data sample analysed so far and give the latest OPERA results on ν μ → ν τ oscillation, ν e analysis and the first ν μ disappearance study.

  6. The latest news from LIGO and Virgo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawhan, Peter S.

    2017-08-01

    After the ground-breaking detections of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes in the first Advanced LIGO observing run, there is still a great deal to be learned about the population and astrophysics of gravitational-wave sources. The second observing run (O2) will be drawing to a close around the time of the HEAD Meeting, and the Virgo detector in Italy is on a track to observe jointly with LIGO in the latter part of the run. I will share the latest news about the status and performance of the detectors as well as details about any candidate or confirmed events from the O2 run that may be published by the time of the HEAD Meeting.

  7. [Latest advances of SLA class I genes].

    PubMed

    Tao, Xuan; Li, Hua; Li, Xue-Wei; Yu, Hui; Zuo, Qi-Zhen

    2007-11-01

    The Swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class I genes encode multi-glycoproteins on cell surface, which present endogenous antigenic peptides to T cells and thus initiate specific immune responses. In this article, latest advances on molecular structure, expression in tissues, regulation of expression, genotyping, polymorphism, and evolution of SLA class I genes were introduced, in which genotyping and polymorphism were emphasized. Molecular typing methods of SLA class I genes include serological method, DNA sequencing, PCR-SSP, PCR-SSOP and MS, of which PCR-SSP is frequently used in genotyping of SLA class I genes as a simple and rapid method. Future directions for the study and application of SLA class I genes on gene functions, peptide vaccine, xenotransplantation were also discussed.

  8. Artificial islands. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the construction, economics, and environmental impact of man-made islands. Technology and engineering requirements are considered, including design, building materials, and site selection. The uses of artificial islands as ports, harbors, recreational areas, waste disposal areas, and in oil and natural gas production are examined. The legal considerations, sociological aspects, and socioeconomic changes surrounding the development of artifical islands are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 157 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Assessing the efficacy of dredged materials from Lake Panasoffkee, Florida: implication to environment and agriculture. Part 1: Soil and environmental quality aspect.

    PubMed

    Sigua, Gilbert C; Holtkamp, Mike L; Coleman, Samuel W

    2004-01-01

    Dredged materials because of its variable but unique physical and chemical properties are often viewed by society and regulators as pollutants, but many have used these materials in coastal nourishment, land or wetland creation, construction materials, and for soil improvement as a soil amendment. Environmental impact assessment is an important pre-requisite to many dredging initiatives. The ability to reuse lake-dredge materials (LDM) for agricultural purposes is important because it reduces the need for off-shore disposal and provides an alternative to disposal of the materials in landfills. Additional research on disposal options of dredged materials are much needed to supply information on criteria testing and evaluation of the physical and chemical impacts of dredged materials at a disposal site, as well as information on many other aspects of dredging and dredged material disposal. While preliminary efforts are underway to provide information to establish criteria for land disposal, testing procedures for possible land disposal of contaminated sediments are still in their developing stage. The objective of this study (Part 1) was to quantify the effect of applied LDM from Lake Panasoffkee (LP), Florida on soil physico-chemical properties (soil quality) at the disposal site. This series of two papers aims at providing assessment of the efficacy of lake-dredged materials from LP especially its implication to environment (soil quality, Part 1) and agriculture (forage quality and pasture establishment, Part 2). The experimental treatments that were evaluated consisted of different ratios of natural soil (NS) to LDM: LDM0 (100% NS:0% LDM); LDM25 (75% NS:25% LDM); LDM50 (50% NS:50% LDM); LDM75 (25% NS:75% LDM); and LDM100 (0% NS:100% LDM). Field layout was based on the principle of a completely randomized block design with four replications. The Mehlich 1 method (0.05 N HCl in 0.025 N H2SO4) was used for chemical extraction of soil. Soil P and other exchangeable

  10. Latest advances in connective tissue disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    The connective tissue disorders comprise a number of related conditions that include systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the antiphospholipid (Hughes) syndrome, scleroderma, myositis and Sjögren’s syndrome. They are characterized by autoantibody production and other immune-mediated dysfunction. There are common clinical and serological features with some patients having multiple overlapping connective tissue disorders. The latest advances include new approaches to therapy, including more focused utilization of existing therapies and the introduction of biological therapies in SLE, more precise protocols for assessment of severe disease manifestations such as in interstitial lung disease and pulmonary artery hypertension in scleroderma, new antibodies for disease characterization in myositis and new approaches to patient assessment in Sjögren’s syndrome. B cells have a critical role in most, if not all of these disorders such that B-cell depletion or suppression of B-cell activating cytokines improves disease in many patients. In particular, the introduction of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the CD20 molecule on B cells, into clinical practice for rheumatoid arthritis and B-cell lymphoma has been a key driver of experimental approaches to therapy in connective tissue disorders. Genetic studies also suggest a role for the innate immune system in disease pathogenesis, suggesting further future targets for biological therapies over the next few years. PMID:23904866

  11. Latest insights on adenovirus structure and assembly.

    PubMed

    San Martín, Carmen

    2012-05-01

    Adenovirus (AdV) capsid organization is considerably complex, not only because of its large size (~950 Å) and triangulation number (pseudo T = 25), but also because it contains four types of minor proteins in specialized locations modulating the quasi-equivalent icosahedral interactions. Up until 2009, only its major components (hexon, penton, and fiber) had separately been described in atomic detail. Their relationships within the virion, and the location of minor coat proteins, were inferred from combining the known crystal structures with increasingly more detailed cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) maps. There was no structural information on assembly intermediates. Later on that year, two reports described the structural differences between the mature and immature adenoviral particle, starting to shed light on the different stages of viral assembly, and giving further insights into the roles of core and minor coat proteins during morphogenesis [1,2]. Finally, in 2010, two papers describing the atomic resolution structure of the complete virion appeared [3,4]. These reports represent a veritable tour de force for two structural biology techniques: X-ray crystallography and cryoEM, as this is the largest macromolecular complex solved at high resolution by either of them. In particular, the cryoEM analysis provided an unprecedented clear picture of the complex protein networks shaping the icosahedral shell. Here I review these latest developments in the field of AdV structural studies.

  12. Latest Insights on Adenovirus Structure and Assembly

    PubMed Central

    San Martín, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Adenovirus (AdV) capsid organization is considerably complex, not only because of its large size (~950 Å) and triangulation number (pseudo T = 25), but also because it contains four types of minor proteins in specialized locations modulating the quasi-equivalent icosahedral interactions. Up until 2009, only its major components (hexon, penton, and fiber) had separately been described in atomic detail. Their relationships within the virion, and the location of minor coat proteins, were inferred from combining the known crystal structures with increasingly more detailed cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) maps. There was no structural information on assembly intermediates. Later on that year, two reports described the structural differences between the mature and immature adenoviral particle, starting to shed light on the different stages of viral assembly, and giving further insights into the roles of core and minor coat proteins during morphogenesis [1,2]. Finally, in 2010, two papers describing the atomic resolution structure of the complete virion appeared [3,4]. These reports represent a veritable tour de force for two structural biology techniques: X-ray crystallography and cryoEM, as this is the largest macromolecular complex solved at high resolution by either of them. In particular, the cryoEM analysis provided an unprecedented clear picture of the complex protein networks shaping the icosahedral shell. Here I review these latest developments in the field of AdV structural studies. PMID:22754652

  13. Psychosurgery: review of latest concepts and applications.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Sabri; Abuzayed, Bashar

    2013-01-01

    Although the utilization of psychosurgery has commenced in early 19th century, when compared with other neurosurgical fields, it faced many obstacles resulting in the delay of advancement of this type of surgical methodology. This was due to the insufficient knowledge of both neural networks of the brain and the pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases. The aggressive surgical treatment modalities with high mortality and morbidity rates, the controversial ethical concerns, and the introduction of antipsychotic drugs were also among those obstacles. With the recent advancements in the field of neuroscience more accurate knowledge was gained in this field offering new ideas for the management of these diseases. Also, the recent technological developments aided the surgeons to define more sophisticated and minimally invasive techniques during the surgical procedures. Maybe the most important factor in the rerising of psychosurgery is the assemblage of the experts, clinicians, and researchers in various fields of neurosciences implementing a multidisciplinary approach. In this article, the authors aim to review the latest concepts of the pathophysiology and the recent advancements of the surgical treatment of psychiatric diseases from a neurosurgical point of view. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Public lands: energy and environmental aspects. January 1970-November 1980 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for January 1970-November 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    This retrospective bibliography contains citations concerning energy and environmental considerations in the management, development, and use (existing and proposed) of national and state public lands. Studies, analyses, and evaluations of a variety of environmental and energy issues and concerns, and geographic locations are included. (Contains 154 citations, fully indexed and including a table of contents.)

  15. Public lands: energy and environmental aspects. January 1976-November 1980 (citations from the Energy Data Base). Report for January 1976-November 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    This retrospective bibliography contains citations concerning energy and environmental considerations in the management, development, and use (existing and proposed) of national and state public lands. Studies, analyses, and evaluations of a variety of environmental and energy issues and concerns, and geographic locations are included. (Contains 98 citations, fully indexed and including a table of contents.)

  16. Environmental awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This brochure is intended to provide guidance on environmental regulations to National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) employees. Topics covered include: handling of hazardous materials, disposal of hazardous wastes, spill prevention and remediation, pcb contamination, pesticide use, asbestos remediation, solid waste disposal, and environmental laws. Safety aspects are emphasized.

  17. Latest results of the LMD Venus GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebonnois, S.; Marcq, E.; Lott, F.

    2012-12-01

    The LMD Venus General Circulation Model (GCM), under development since 2005, models the circulation in Venus atmosphere (from the surface up to roughly 100 km), in particular the superrotation feature. The temperature structure is computed using a specific radiative transfer module based on net-exchange matrix formulation. Since the publication of the GCM details (Lebonnois et al, JGR 115, 2010, doi:10.1029/2009JE003458), some improvements were done, especially for the boundary layer scheme that affects the exchange of angular momentum between atmosphere and surface. Surprising impact of initial conditions on the steady-state zonal winds is also discussed. Passive tracers, tuned to mimic CO and OCS distributions, have also been added to the model to simulate the latitudinal distributions induced by transport. In this presentation, comparisons between our latest simulations and available observations from Venus Express (winds, temperature fields, CO and OCS distributions) are detailed: zonal and meridional wind distributions in the cloud region and above, thermal tide features in winds and temperature near the cloud-top, CO and OCS latitudinal profiles below the clouds. These comparisons help constrain the meridional circulation and its impact on trace species distributions, the chemical relaxation timescale of the same trace species as well as the thermal tides and their role in the angular momentum budget and in the superrotation mechanism. The impact on the zonal wind field of gravity waves that may be generated near the surface is currently investigated with a new parametrisation. These gravity waves have been suggested as a significant contributor in the angular momentum budget and superrotation mechanism (Hou and Farrell, J. Atmos. Sci. 44, pp.1049-1061, 1987, doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1987)044<1049:SIBCLA>2.0.CO;2). This parametrisation and its first results are presented here.

  18. Trehalose Analogues: Latest Insights in Properties and Biocatalytic Production

    PubMed Central

    Walmagh, Maarten; Zhao, Renfei; Desmet, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Trehalose (α-d-glucopyranosyl α-d-glucopyranoside) is a non-reducing sugar with unique stabilizing properties due to its symmetrical, low energy structure consisting of two 1,1-anomerically bound glucose moieties. Many applications of this beneficial sugar have been reported in the novel food (nutricals), medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Trehalose analogues, like lactotrehalose (α-d-glucopyranosyl α-d-galactopyranoside) or galactotrehalose (α-d-galactopyranosyl α-d-galactopyranoside), offer similar benefits as trehalose, but show additional features such as prebiotic or low-calorie sweetener due to their resistance against hydrolysis during digestion. Unfortunately, large-scale chemical production processes for trehalose analogues are not readily available at the moment due to the lack of efficient synthesis methods. Most of the procedures reported in literature suffer from low yields, elevated costs and are far from environmentally friendly. “Greener” alternatives found in the biocatalysis field, including galactosidases, trehalose phosphorylases and TreT-type trehalose synthases are suggested as primary candidates for trehalose analogue production instead. Significant progress has been made in the last decade to turn these into highly efficient biocatalysts and to broaden the variety of useful donor and acceptor sugars. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the latest insights and future perspectives in trehalose analogue chemistry, applications and production pathways with emphasis on biocatalysis. PMID:26084050

  19. Latest News on Arabidopsis Brassinosteroid Perception and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Witthöft, Janika; Harter, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant hormones regulating growth and development. In interaction with other hormones, they are involved in environmental cue responses. The present model of the BR response pathway in Arabidopsis includes the perception of the hormone by the plasma membrane (PM) receptor brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (BRI1) and its hetero-oligomerization with the co-receptor BRI1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BAK1), followed by the activation of a signaling-cascade finally resulting in the expression of BR-responsive genes. New findings have shed light on the receptor density in the PM and on the molecular mechanism of BR perception, which includes the hormone-induced formation of a platform in the BRI1 extracellular domain for interaction with BAK1. Furthermore, new knowledge on early, BRI1-initiated signaling events at the PM–cytoplasm interface has recently been gained. In addition, a fast BR response pathway that modifies the membrane potential and the expansion of the cell wall – both crucial processes preceding cell elongation growth – have been identified. In this review, these latest findings are summarized and discussed against the background of the present model of BRI1 signaling. PMID:22639599

  20. Trehalose Analogues: Latest Insights in Properties and Biocatalytic Production.

    PubMed

    Walmagh, Maarten; Zhao, Renfei; Desmet, Tom

    2015-06-15

    Trehalose (α-D-glucopyranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside) is a non-reducing sugar with unique stabilizing properties due to its symmetrical, low energy structure consisting of two 1,1-anomerically bound glucose moieties. Many applications of this beneficial sugar have been reported in the novel food (nutricals), medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Trehalose analogues, like lactotrehalose (α-D-glucopyranosyl α-D-galactopyranoside) or galactotrehalose (α-D-galactopyranosyl α-D-galactopyranoside), offer similar benefits as trehalose, but show additional features such as prebiotic or low-calorie sweetener due to their resistance against hydrolysis during digestion. Unfortunately, large-scale chemical production processes for trehalose analogues are not readily available at the moment due to the lack of efficient synthesis methods. Most of the procedures reported in literature suffer from low yields, elevated costs and are far from environmentally friendly. "Greener" alternatives found in the biocatalysis field, including galactosidases, trehalose phosphorylases and TreT-type trehalose synthases are suggested as primary candidates for trehalose analogue production instead. Significant progress has been made in the last decade to turn these into highly efficient biocatalysts and to broaden the variety of useful donor and acceptor sugars. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the latest insights and future perspectives in trehalose analogue chemistry, applications and production pathways with emphasis on biocatalysis.

  1. Dredging: Technology and environmental aspects. May 1978-July 1989 (Citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for May 1978-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and environmental impacts of dredging. Equipment, including semi-submersible cutter platforms, is described. Sediment movement, factors affecting sediment movement, and the disposal of dredged material, are discussed, and computer models predicting the fate of the dredged materials are considered. The environmental impacts of the dredged areas and the effects of ocean dumping of dredged material are also discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 352 citations, 22 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  2. Third Pole Environment (TPE) -Latest Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Yao, T.; Zhang, F.; Yang, X.; Wang, W.; Ping, F.

    2014-12-01

    Centered on the Tibetan Plateau, the Third Pole region is a unique geographical unit, which represents one of the largest ice masses on the Earth. The region has great impacts on environmental changes in China, the Northern Hemisphere and the globe.It also demonstrates sensitive feedbacks to global changes and the impacts of anthropogenic activities in surrounding regions. Like the Arctic and Antarctica, the Third Pole region is an especially sensitive area that draws great attention from the scientific community. In 2009, with support from the Chinese Academy of Sciences and international organizations, the Third Pole Environment (TPE) program, led by Chinese scientists, was officially launched. The program focuses on the theme of "water-ice-air-ecosystem-human" interactions, with the aim to address the following scientific questions, such as the spatial and temporal characteristics of past environmental changes in the Third pole, the interactions between hydrosphere and cryosphere and hazard processes, the ecological systems' impacts on and response to environmental changes, and the impacts of anthropogenic activities on environmental changes in the region and adaptation strategies. The goal of the program is to reveal environmental change processes and mechanisms on the Third Pole and their influences on and responses to global changes, and thus to serve for enhancement of human adaptation to the changing environment and realization of human-nature harmony. Under the leadership of the co-chairs, and relying on Scientific Committee and the TPE office, the program has accomplished a number of scientific tasks since its inauguration. TPE has made tremendous progress in the research of glacier changes, interactions between the westerlies and monsoon, establishment of field stations, data sharing and education.

  3. Environmental aspects in plant protection practices of non-agricultural pesticide users: case study of communes and the ministry of public works and transport (MET) of the Walloon Region (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Godeaux, D; Schiffers, B; Culot, M

    2008-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of non-agricultural pesticide use and to prepare the legislative and technical dossiers required under the Water Framework Directive, between October 2006 and March 2007, two surveys were conducted of 97 Walloon communes and 65 districts of the Walloon Ministry of Public Works and Transport (MET) (General Directorates for Motorways and Roads and for Waterway Infrastructure). The questionnaire (26 questions on six topics) was sent by e-mail or fax, with a response rate of 60 out of 97 communes and 33 out of 65 districts. This article describes the environmental aspects of the surveys (health-related aspects are the subject of separate article). The surveys have brought to light a number of good practices (including zero pesticides) and a growing awareness of environmental issues among non-agricultural users. However, bad habits, legislation infringements and a failure to follow good plant protection practice are still a problem and pose major environmental risks (in the form of water pollution from pesticides). Information, awareness-raising and training therefore remain a priority for non-agricultural users.

  4. Modeling aspects of estuarine eutrophication. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning mathematical modeling of existing water quality stresses in estuaries, harbors, bays, and coves. Both physical hydraulic and numerical models for estuarine circulation are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 96 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Latest climate changes in Romania :tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Latest climate changes in Romania :tornadoes As climate change has been considered a research priority in the European Strategy for enduring development , I have done a detailed research with my students of the new climate change that has been going on in Romania for the past decade. More precisely I have studied together with my students the phenomenon of tornadoes that have seriously affected on some occasions some our our country's locations, such as Facaeni, in the county of Ialomita, in August 2002. A quite unusual phenomenon occurred on that location situated at 44.56 degrees northern latitude and at 27.89 degrees eastern longitude, that caused severe damage to the local environment and three persons lost their lives in the process, as well as other thirty people suffering from bad injuries. The magnitude of that strong phenomenon rose on the Fujita scale at level F3 which implied wing gusts between 252-300 km/ hour . A main cause of occurrence of such a severe weather was the difference in temperature of two huge air masses, one of Polar origin, and other coming from tropical latitudes . Their crossroads was on that precise territory of Romania. The duration of the worst part of the tornado path lasted only for two minutes, but the consequences of its passage were colossal : total destruction of 33 households, and other 395 were partially damaged, 1,000 people afflicted by the devastation and 100 acres of acacia tree forest ripped off the ground. The first ever recorded tornado phenomenon in Romania was around 1894-1896, considered at that time " a freak of nature" was seen as a cloud formation abnormality , an uncontrolled force of nature that had a huge impact , and at the same time, it vanished into "thin air " fast. The most affected areas in Romania by tornadoes are the south-eastern planes where the cloud formations can create fast columns of air rotating up to 500 km/hour. The local people compared the cloud funnels created on the planes to "serpents

  6. Melatonin receptors: latest insights from mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Tosini, Gianluca; Owino, Sharon; Guillame, Jean-Luc; Jockers, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Summary Melatonin, the neuro-hormone synthesized during the night, has recently seen an unexpected extension of its functional implications towards type 2 diabetes development, visual functions, sleep disturbances and depression. Transgenic mouse models were instrumental for the establishment of the link between melatonin and these major human diseases. Most of the actions of melatonin are mediated by two types of G protein-coupled receptors, named MT1 and MT2, which are expressed in many different organs and tissues. Understanding the pharmacology and function of mouse MT1 and MT2 receptors, including MT1/MT2 heteromers, will be of crucial importance to evaluate the relevance of these mouse models for future therapeutic developments. This review will critically discuss these aspects, and give some perspectives including the generation of new mouse models. PMID:24903552

  7. Methodological aspects of a GIS-based environmental health inspection program used in the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic Games

    PubMed Central

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Kolonia, Virginia; Falagas, Matthew E; Pantelopoulos, Efstathios; Panagakos, Georgios; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Kremastinou, Jeni

    2005-01-01

    Background The use of geographical information system (GIS) technologies in public health surveillance is gradually gaining momentum around the world and many applications have already been reported in the literature. In this study, GIS technology was used to help county departments of Public Health to implement environmental health surveillance for the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic Games. Methods In order to assess the workload in each Olympic county, 19 registry forms and 17 standardized inspection forms were developed to register and inspect environmental health items requiring inspection (Hotels, restaurants, swimming pools, water supply system etc), respectively. Furthermore, related databases were created using Epi Info 2002 and a geographical information system (GIS) were used to implement an integrated Environmental Health inspection program. The project was conducted in Athens by the Olympic Planning Unit (OPU) of the National School of Public Health, in close cooperation with the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity and the corresponding departments of Public Health in all municipalities that were scheduled to host events during the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic games. Results A total of 44,741 premises of environmental health interest were geocoded into GIS databases and several electronic maps were developed. Using such maps in association with specific criteria, we first identified the maximum workload required to execute environmental health inspections in all premises within the eleven Olympic County Departments of Public Health. Six different scenarios were created for each county, based on devised algorithms in order to design the most effective and realistic inspection program using the available inspectors from each municipality. Furthermore, GIS applications were used to organize the daily inspection program for the Olympic games, provide coloured displays of the inspection results and link those results with the public health

  8. Methodological aspects of a GIS-based environmental health inspection program used in the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Kolonia, Virginia; Falagas, Matthew E; Pantelopoulos, Efstathios; Panagakos, Georgios; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Kremastinou, Jeni

    2005-09-02

    The use of geographical information system (GIS) technologies in public health surveillance is gradually gaining momentum around the world and many applications have already been reported in the literature. In this study, GIS technology was used to help county departments of Public Health to implement environmental health surveillance for the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic Games. In order to assess the workload in each Olympic county, 19 registry forms and 17 standardized inspection forms were developed to register and inspect environmental health items requiring inspection (Hotels, restaurants, swimming pools, water supply system etc), respectively. Furthermore, related databases were created using Epi Info 2002 and a geographical information system (GIS) were used to implement an integrated Environmental Health inspection program. The project was conducted in Athens by the Olympic Planning Unit (OPU) of the National School of Public Health, in close cooperation with the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity and the corresponding departments of Public Health in all municipalities that were scheduled to host events during the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic games. A total of 44,741 premises of environmental health interest were geocoded into GIS databases and several electronic maps were developed. Using such maps in association with specific criteria, we first identified the maximum workload required to execute environmental health inspections in all premises within the eleven Olympic County Departments of Public Health. Six different scenarios were created for each county, based on devised algorithms in order to design the most effective and realistic inspection program using the available inspectors from each municipality. Furthermore, GIS applications were used to organize the daily inspection program for the Olympic games, provide coloured displays of the inspection results and link those results with the public health surveillance of specific

  9. Coal mine wastes. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the characterization, environmental aspects, and engineering studies of coal mining refuse. Topics include disposal strategies, materials usage, and revegetation and reclamation programs. Appropriate legislation, and surveys performed at specific mining sites are also presented. Water pollution aspects of coal wastes are not covered in this report. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Latest NIH Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking Latest NIH Research Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table ... with chest X-rays. Clinical Trials Related to Smoking Clinical trials are scientific studies that try to ...

  11. ATRF Houses the Latest DNA Sequencing Technologies | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer By the end of October, the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) will be one of the few facilities in the world to house all of the latest DNA sequencing technologies.

  12. ATRF Houses the Latest DNA Sequencing Technologies | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer By the end of October, the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) will be one of the few facilities in the world to house all of the latest DNA sequencing technologies.

  13. 'Eraser Challenge' Latest Harmful Social Media Trend for Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_164228.html 'Eraser Challenge' Latest Harmful Social Media Trend for Kids Burns, abrasions the result as ... March 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- It's spreading via social media: A "dare" where kids use erasers to rub ...

  14. Long-term use of galvanized steel in external applications. Aspects of patina formation, zinc runoff, barrier properties of surface treatments, and coatings and environmental fate.

    PubMed

    Lindström, David; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall

    2011-02-01

    Galvanized steel structures are used in a large variety of external constructions in the modern urban society, and their beneficial properties from a corrosion and oxidation perspective are well known. Less investigated is the extent of their contribution to the diffuse dispersion of zinc in the society and also to the environmental fate of corrosion-induced released zinc. This paper presents long-term runoff rates of zinc from galvanized steel surfaces with main focus on hot-dipped galvanized steel exposed for up to 10 years at nonsheltered urban atmospheric conditions. The long-term capacities of a naturally formed patina and the presence of surface treatments and coatings to hinder and reduce corrosion-induced zinc runoff from galvanized steel are elucidated. The environmental interaction of zinc runoff and concrete surfaces in pavement and urban storm drain systems is highlighted and the high capacity of concrete to retain released zinc presented.

  15. Environmentally-benign catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction of NO(x) from diesel engines: structure-activity relationship and reaction mechanism aspects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fudong; Yu, Yunbo; He, Hong

    2014-08-11

    Selective catalytic reduction of NOx using NH3 or hydrocarbons (NH3-SCR or HC-SCR) in oxygen-rich exhaust from diesel engines remains a major challenge in environmental catalysis. The development of highly efficient, stable and environmentally-benign catalysts for SCR processes is very important for practical use. In this feature article, the structure-activity relationship of vanadium-free catalysts in the NH3-SCR reaction is discussed in detail, including Fe-, Ce-based oxide catalysts and Fe-, Cu-based zeolite catalysts, which is beneficial for catalyst redesign and activity improvement. Based on our research, a comprehensive mechanism contributing to the performance of Ag/Al2O3 in HC-SCR is provided, giving a clue to the design of a catalytic system with high efficiency.

  16. Latest findings from the OECD Rasplav Project

    SciTech Connect

    Asmolov, V.

    1997-01-01

    During the late phase of a severe accident in a light water reactor (current and future designs of BWRs, PWRs and VVERs), a significant amount of core material may relocate downward to the lower head of the reactor vessel. If molten core materials were to relocate to the lower head of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), a molten pool consisting primarily of a mixture of ZrO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} and some combination of a metal would form on the lower head. A solid crust of material would form around the boundaries of the pool, but internal heat generation resulting from radioactive decay of fission products would assure that most of the pool remains molten. In fact, the molten pool would undergo significant internal natural convection which would reach steady state conditions in about a few hours. Detailed understanding of all aspects of this natural convection process, in conjunction with the thermal boundary conditions imposed on the outer surface, determines the fraction of the total heat dissipation that is transferred through the upper crust to the inside of the reactor vessel by radiative heat exchange and the fraction which must be conducted through the wall of the reactor vessel lower head. This distribution is critical in determining whether and under what conditions the molten material can be cooled and retained in the reactor pressure vessel. The OECD Rasplav Project was established in 1994 as a three year program to study molten pool behavior and its interactions with structural materials in the lower head. This paper reviews the establishment of the project, its initial studies and proposed experimental testing, and the construction, preparation, and actual testing of a chamber of corium heated to well above liquid temperature.

  17. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Aspects of Literacy and Language in Early Childhood: Continuity and Change from Preschool to Grade 2.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Brian; Coventry, William L; Olson, Richard K; Samuelsson, Stefan; Corley, Robin; Willcutt, Erik G; Wadsworth, Sally; Defries, John C

    2009-05-01

    Early literacy and language skills of twin children in the USA, Australia, and Scandinavia were explored in a genetically sensitive design (maximum N = 615 pairs). For this article, we report aspects of preschool and Grade 2 data. In Grade 2, there were strong genetic influences on word reading, reading comprehension, and spelling. Vocabulary was about equally affected by genes and shared environment. Multivariate analyses indicated substantial genetic overlap among the Grade 2 literacy variables. Longitudinal analyses showed that genetic factors evident at the preschool stage continued to affect literacy and vocabulary three years later in Grade 2, but there was also evidence of new genetic factors coming into play over the time interval, at least for literacy. Suggestions are made about the search for underlying biological and cognitive processes, and educational implications are explored.

  18. Spatial variability in structural and functional aspects of macrofauna communities and their environmental parameters in the Jade Bay (Wadden Sea Lower Saxony, southern North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schückel, Ulrike; Beck, Melanie; Kröncke, Ingrid

    2013-03-01

    Spatial distribution and functional structure of intertidal benthic macrofauna in relation to environmental variables in the Jade Bay (southern North Sea) were studied and compared with other intertidal areas of the Wadden Sea. A total of 128 stations covering the whole Jade Bay were sampled in summer 2009. A total of 114 taxa were found. Highest species numbers occurred in the subtidal areas, whereas highest mean abundances were found in the upper intertidal areas. Based on species abundance data, six significantly distinct macrofauna communities in the Jade Bay were identified and evaluated with multivariate statistics, univariate correlations and canonical correspondence analysis. Differences in these community patterns were caused by the response of the dominant species ( Hydrobia ulvae, Tubificoides benedii, Pygospio elegans, Caulleriella killariensis, Scoloplos armiger, Urothoe poseidonis, Microprotopus maculatus) to prevailing environmental conditions along the gradient from the lower and exposed sandy intertidal areas via intermediate mixed sediments to the upper mudflat areas. Distribution patterns in relation to tidal zonation were best explained by variability in submergence time, Chlorophyll a (chl a) content and sediment composition (mud content), which are proxies for hydrodynamic conditions and food availability. Species inventory and species richness were comparable with other intertidal areas of the Wadden Sea, but the Jade Bay differs from these areas regarding dominant species. Differences in sediment composition and morphological characteristics (macrotidal versus mesotidal Wadden Sea areas) are discussed for comparison of regional differences.

  19. Future Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilato, Louis

    There are some disturbing signs that appear on the horizon as phenolic resins enter their second century of existence. The large area of wood adhesives application (~60% of the total volume of phenolic resins in North America) is under intense pressure due to many factors that are contributing to continuing reduction in the sales volume of wood adhesives. These factors include the known slow cure speed of phenolic resins compared to Urea Formaldehyde (UF), Melamine Formaldehyde (MF), or Methylene Diphenyl Isocyanate (MDI); installation of new machinery/ equipment with fast continuous lines; continued decrease in plywood consumption at the expense of Oriented Strand Board (OSB) where phenolic resin is the preferred adhesive for plywood; further reduction in formaldehyde emissions through California Air Resources Board (CARB) Phase I and Phase II; uncertainty of whether formaldehyde will be identified as a human carcinogen pending the anticipated 2009 study; and the environmental movement to reduce or eliminate formaldehyde-containing resins in wood and thermal insulation consumer products (U.S. Green Building Council and other Environmental groups like the Sierra Club). Consumers are being urged by environmental organizations to purchase composite wood products with lower formaldehyde emission levels or none at all. This is illustrated by examining the news media reports after the Hurricane Katrina in 2005. The home trailers provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) that were used for Louisiana and Mississippi residents after Katrina hurricane as temporary housing further accelerated concerns over formaldehyde emissions since higher than typical indoor exposure levels of formaldehyde in travel trailers and mobile homes were determined for the FEMA trailers.

  20. VNS Therapy versus the latest antiepileptic drug.

    PubMed

    Ben-Menachem, Elinor; French, Jacqueline A

    2005-09-01

    kept in perspective. Pro VNS Therapy: VNS Therapy is no longer a new treatment for patients with refractory epilepsy. The first implant was performed in l988, and since then more than 30,000 patients have received this therapy. It is no longer considered an unusual or dangerous procedure, but it is still used almost exclusively for refractory epilepsy patients and it has not been generally accepted for use as a first line or even second line therapy. However, compared to the new AEDs, VNS Therapy has similar efficacy results in clinical trials and in many epilepsy syndromes and the long-term efficacy results are even more positive, with continued improvement in seizure reduction for up to two years. Two of the major reasons for not using VNS Therapy early are that it is a surgical procedure, and its safety during MRI procedures, especially with 3 Tesla, has not yet been elucidated. The safety profile of VNS Therapy is very favorable; the side effects being totally different from those seen with AEDs. The most important aspects are that there have been no pharmacological interactions, cognitive or sedative side effects reported, and it is safe for use in all age groups. Side effects are restricted to local irritation, hoarseness, coughing and, in a few cases, swallowing difficulties when the stimulator is on, but these tend to disappear with time. No idiosyncratic side effect has emerged during the 16 years of use. Compliance is guaranteed. The cost of the implantation of the VNS Therapy System, when spread out over 8 years (battery life), is actually less than the cost of using a new AED over an eight-year period, and real savings as regards hospital costs due to seizures can be expected.

  1. Environmental aspects of produced-water salt releases in onshore and coastal petroleum-producing areas of the conterminous U.S. - a bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, James K.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental effects associated with the production of oil and gas have been reported since the first oil wells were drilled in the Appalachian Basin in Pennsylvania and Kentucky in the early to mid-1800s. The most significant of these effects are the degradation of soils, ground water, surface water, and ecosystems they support by releases of suspended and dissolved hydrocarbons and co-produced saline water. Produced water salts are less likely than hydrocarbons to be adsorbed by mineral phases in the soil and sediment and are not subject to degradation by biologic processes. Sodium is a major dissolved constituent in most produced waters and it causes substantial degradation of soils through altering of clays and soil textures and subsequent erosion. Produced water salts seem to have the most wide-ranging effects on soils, water quality, and ecosystems. Trace elements, including boron, lithium, bromine, fluorine, and radium, also occur in elevated concentrations in some produced waters. Many trace elements are phytotoxic and are adsorbed and may remain in soils after the saline water has been flushed away. Radium-bearing scale and sludge found in oilfield equipment and discarded on soils pose additional hazards to human health and ecosystems. This bibliography includes studies from across the oil- and natural-gas-producing areas of the conterminous United States that were published in the last 80 yrs. The studies describe the effects of produced water salts on soils, water quality, and ecosystems. Also included are reports that describe (1) the inorganic chemistry of produced waters included in studies of formation waters for various purposes, (2) other sources of salt affecting water quality that may be mistaken for produced water effects, (3) geochemical and geophysical techniques that allow discrimination of salt sources, (4) remediation technologies designed to repair damage caused to soils and ground water by produced water salts, and (5) contamination by

  2. 40 CFR 93.111 - Criteria and procedures: Latest emissions model.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Criteria and procedures: Latest... and procedures: Latest emissions model. (a) The conformity determination must be based on the latest... period or before the Federal Register notice of availability of the latest emission model may continue to...

  3. 40 CFR 93.111 - Criteria and procedures: Latest emissions model.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criteria and procedures: Latest... and procedures: Latest emissions model. (a) The conformity determination must be based on the latest... period or before the Federal Register notice of availability of the latest emission model may continue to...

  4. 40 CFR 93.111 - Criteria and procedures: Latest emissions model.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criteria and procedures: Latest... and procedures: Latest emissions model. (a) The conformity determination must be based on the latest... the grace period or before the Federal Register notice of availability of the latest emission model...

  5. 40 CFR 93.111 - Criteria and procedures: Latest emissions model.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criteria and procedures: Latest... and procedures: Latest emissions model. (a) The conformity determination must be based on the latest... period or before the Federal Register notice of availability of the latest emission model may continue to...

  6. Soil redistribution and nutrient delivery in a Mediterranean rain-fed agro-ecosystem with different crops and management: environmental and economic aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Álvarez, Sara

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean agro-ecosystems are characterised by fragmented fields and patched vegetation. This shape governs the spatial patterns of water, soil and nutrient redistribution. Rainfall parameters, human infrastructures, crop management, support practices, and land use changes (set aside crops, land abandonment) control the magnitude of these processes. Under rain-fed water supply conditions, runoff generation and soil water content are two important factors in determining crop yield. Soil erosion and nutrient delivery are two of the factors which limit crop yield and thus, the gross earning of the landowner. In hilly landscapes, farmers usually supply extra soil to fill in the ephemeral gullies, and nutrient replenishment with fertilizers is a common practice. The aim of this study is to evaluate the environmental (runoff yield, soil erosion and nutrient delivery) and economic (replenishment of soil and nutrient losses with new soil and fertilizers) consequences of different conventional and conservative practices (fallow/crop rotation, cover crops, land abandonment, buffer strips) in a Mediterranean rain-fed agro-ecosystem (27 ha) with vineyards, cereal crops, cultivated and abandoned olive orchards, several trails and patches of natural vegetation. The five winter cereal fields (wheat and barley) follow fallow/crop rotation. The four vineyards are devoted to the Garnacha variety: one planted in 2007 with white wine grapes, and three planted in 2008 with red wine grapes. The inter-crop strips are managed with a mixture of plant species as cover crop (CC), including: i) spontaneous vegetation, and ii) plantation of common sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia). The maintenance of the CC includes one mowing pass at the end of spring, between May and June. The appearance and development of ephemeral gullies and the deposition of soil at the bottom of the hillslope are two of the main concerns of the landowners. In some places, the accumulation of soil complicates grape

  7. Latest German-English Terminology in CADCAM & Robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    As a technical translator who speaks German fluently, the author would like to study and display the latest bilingual technical terminology in German being used in hardware, software and process technology involved in CADCAM & ROBOTICS. This will greatly help technical translators to correctly translate difficult texts from this area of technology.

  8. Teacher Evaluation in China: Latest Trends and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shujie; Zhao, Decheng

    2013-01-01

    With the implementation of teacher performance pay in 2009 in China, teacher performance evaluation has become a heated topic. This research study follows up on two previous studies of teacher evaluation in China and continues the dialog by analyzing the latest trends in the context of teacher performance pay. There were two sources of information…

  9. Prospects for CUORE and Latest Results from CUORICINO

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, E B

    2006-01-05

    CUORE (Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events) is a proposed next generation experiment designed to search for the neutrinoless DBD of {sup 130}Te using a bolometric technique. The present status of the CUORE is presented along with the latest results from its operating prototype, CUORICINO.

  10. The Latest Neutrino Oscillation Results from Super-Kamiokande

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, Henry W.

    2006-02-08

    Super-Kamiokande is the world's largest water Cherenkov detector, with a net mass of 50,000 tons. The scientific goals of the experiment include searches for proton decays, and studies of neutrinos from various sources. In this paper we review some of the latest results from our neutrino oscillations studies using atmospheric neutrinos, solar neutrinos and neutrinos from the KEK neutrino beam.

  11. Teacher Evaluation in China: Latest Trends and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shujie; Zhao, Decheng

    2013-01-01

    With the implementation of teacher performance pay in 2009 in China, teacher performance evaluation has become a heated topic. This research study follows up on two previous studies of teacher evaluation in China and continues the dialog by analyzing the latest trends in the context of teacher performance pay. There were two sources of information…

  12. Updates to Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View information on the latest updates to methods included in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM), including the newest recommended methods and publications.

  13. Mass spectrometry imaging for clinical research - latest developments, applications, and current limitations.

    PubMed

    Vaysse, Pierre-Maxence; Heeren, Ron M A; Porta, Tiffany; Balluff, Benjamin

    2017-07-24

    Mass spectrometry is being used in many clinical research areas ranging from toxicology to personalized medicine. Of all the mass spectrometry techniques, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), in particular, has continuously grown towards clinical acceptance. Significant technological and methodological improvements have contributed to enhance the performance of MSI recently, pushing the limits of throughput, spatial resolution, and sensitivity. This has stimulated the spread of MSI usage across various biomedical research areas such as oncology, neurological disorders, cardiology, and rheumatology, just to name a few. After highlighting the latest major developments and applications touching all aspects of translational research (i.e. from early pre-clinical to clinical research), we will discuss the present challenges in translational research performed with MSI: data management and analysis, molecular coverage and identification capabilities, and finally, reproducibility across multiple research centers, which is the largest remaining obstacle in moving MSI towards clinical routine.

  14. Malaria Vaccine Adjuvants: Latest Update and Challenges in Preclinical and Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Elena; Salvador, Aiala; Igartua, Manoli; Hernández, Rosa María; Pedraz, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    There is no malaria vaccine currently available, and the most advanced candidate has recently reported a modest 30% efficacy against clinical malaria. Although many efforts have been dedicated to achieve this goal, the research was mainly directed to identify antigenic targets. Nevertheless, the latest progresses on understanding how immune system works and the data recovered from vaccination studies have conferred to the vaccine formulation its deserved relevance. Additionally to the antigen nature, the manner in which it is presented (delivery adjuvants) as well as the immunostimulatory effect of the formulation components (immunostimulants) modulates the immune response elicited. Protective immunity against malaria requires the induction of humoral, antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI) and effector and memory cell responses. This review summarizes the status of adjuvants that have been or are being employed in the malaria vaccine development, focusing on the pharmaceutical and immunological aspects, as well as on their immunization outcomings at clinical and preclinical stages. PMID:23710439

  15. The Latest Developments in NASA's Long Duration Balloon Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stilwell, Bryan D.

    The Latest Developments in NASA’s Long Duration Balloon Systems Bryan D. Stilwell, bryan.stilwell@csbf.nasa.gov Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility, Palestine, Texas, USA The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility, located in Palestine, Texas offers the scientific community a high altitude balloon based communications platform. Scientific payload mass can exceed 2722 kg with balloon float altitudes on average of 40000 km and flight duration of up to 100 days. Many developments in electrical systems have occurred over the more than 25 years of long duration flights. This paper will discuss the latest developments in electronic systems related to long duration flights. Over the years, the long duration flights have increased in durations exceeding 56 days. In order to support these longer flights, the systems have had to increase in complexity and reliability. Several different systems that have been upgraded and/or enhanced will be discussed.

  16. Environmental aspects of the TROLL terminal design

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    Norway, in common with many countries nowadays, is very protective of its environment. This consciousness and responsibility are reflected by the strict limits on air pollution, in particular noise, and hydrocarbon contaminant levels in discharged water that were imposed for the TROLL terminal design. The capacity of the terminal and the size of its equipment have necessitated new research in the field of noise prediction some of which conflicts with current industry beliefs. This paper discusses some of the engineered solutions to in-plant and community noise abatement and describes the water treatment facilities installed to meet hydrocarbon discharge limits of 5 mg/l.

  17. Endocrine Aspects of Environmental "Obesogen" Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Francesca; Barrea, Luigi; Di Somma, Carolina; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Orio, Francesco; Savastano, Silvia

    2016-07-28

    Growing evidence suggests the causal link between the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the global obesity epidemics, in the context in the so-called "obesogenic environment". Dietary intake of contaminated foods and water, especially in association with unhealthy eating pattern, and inhalation of airborne pollutants represent the major sources of human exposure to EDCs. This is of particular concern in view of the potential impact of obesity on chronic non-transmissible diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hormone-sensitive cancers. The key concept is the identification of adipose tissue not only as a preferential site of storage of EDCs, but also as an endocrine organ and, as such, susceptible to endocrine disruption. The timing of exposure to EDCs is critical to the outcome of that exposure, with early lifetime exposures (e.g., fetal or early postnatal) particularly detrimental because of their permanent effects on obesity later in life. Despite that the mechanisms operating in EDCs effects might vary enormously, this minireview is aimed to provide a general overview on the possible association between the pandemics of obesity and EDCs, briefly describing the endocrine mechanisms linking EDCs exposure and latent onset of obesity.

  18. Environmental and Ethical Aspects of International Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernethy, Virginia

    1996-01-01

    Well-intentioned U.S. immigration policy has two ill effects in that it encourages the belief that emigration can relieve overpopulation in third-world countries, maintaining high fertility rates, and it results in U.S. domestic population growth that threatens employment opportunities and the environment. (SLD)

  19. Environmental aspects of lunar helium-3 mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulcinski, G. L.; Cameron, E. N.; Carrier, W. D., III; Schmitt, H. H.

    1992-01-01

    Three potential detrimental effects of lunar He-3 mining have been identified; visual changes, atmospheric contamination, and solid waste disposal. The removal of small craters (less than 20 m diameter) and the change in the albedo of the surface may cause a slight darkening of the regolith. However, it is not expected that this change will be visible from the earth even with powerful telescopes. The release of lunar volatile gases and their effect on the lunar 'atmosphere' is expected to be both local and temporary (on the order of a few weeks from the time of release). The solution to solid waste disposal is to recycle as much as possible and to bury the nonrecyclable waste. The lack of wind and water means that the waste will stay localized indefinitely and cause no contamination of the environment. The positive benefits of using lunar He-3 in terrestrial fusion plants far outweigh the detrimental effects of mining. The reduction in radioactive waste, greenhouse and acid gases, and the reduction in terrestrial mining for fossil fuels could have a major impact on the quality of life in the 21st century.

  20. Environmental and Ethical Aspects of International Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernethy, Virginia

    1996-01-01

    Well-intentioned U.S. immigration policy has two ill effects in that it encourages the belief that emigration can relieve overpopulation in third-world countries, maintaining high fertility rates, and it results in U.S. domestic population growth that threatens employment opportunities and the environment. (SLD)

  1. (Environmental technology)

    SciTech Connect

    Boston, H.L.

    1990-10-12

    The traveler participated in a conference on environmental technology in Paris, sponsored by the US Embassy-Paris, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the French Environmental Ministry, and others. The traveler sat on a panel for environmental aspects of energy technology and made a presentation on the potential contributions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to a planned French-American Environmental Technologies Institute in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Evry, France. This institute would provide opportunities for international cooperation on environmental issues and technology transfer related to environmental protection, monitoring, and restoration at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The traveler also attended the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Contamination in Barcelona. Conference topics included environmental chemistry, land disposal of wastes, treatment of toxic wastes, micropollutants, trace organics, artificial radionuclides in the environment, and the use biomonitoring and biosystems for environmental assessment. The traveler presented a paper on The Fate of Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.'' Those findings corresponded well with results from studies addressing the fate of fallout radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There was an exchange of new information on a number of topics of interest to DOE waste management and environmental restoration needs.

  2. The Glacier Peak Tephra: A Continental-Scale Latest Pleistocene Time Horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyne-O'Donnell, S.; Cwynar, L. C.; Vincent, J. H.; Spear, R.; Froese, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    The latest Pleistocene eruptions of Glacier Peak in the Cascade Range deposited a widespread set of tephras throughout much of western North America within a short time span where they serve as valuable marker layers for inter-site correlation and chronostratigraphical control. We report the detection of these tephras in microscopic form in three lakes along the Eastern Seaboard (Maine and Nova Scotia). These distinct distal lake layers occur as closely spaced couplets which retain the subtle geochemical variation that characterises the proximal Glacier Peak G and B layers. New radiocarbon dates for the tephras also closely corroborate the most recently revised proximal dates for the tephras (ca. 13,700 - 13,400 cal. yr B.P) which found that they are ca. 400 14C yr older than hitherto thought. Their presence this far eastward implies that their deposition spans the intervening continent (>4000 km) and adds to a developing distal tephrostratigraphical framework with applications to studies of latest Pleistocene deglaciation and environmental change, megafaunal extinction and archaeology.

  3. Toxicity of halogenated organic compounds. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning health and environmental effects of halogenated organic compounds. Topics include laboratory and field investigations regarding bioaccumulation and concentration, metabolic aspects, and specific site studies in industrial and commercial operations. Pesticides, solvents, and a variety of industrial compounds are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Recycled materials in asphalt pavements. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of asphalt pavement materials for road construction. Citations discuss asphalt concrete mixtures and recycling, recycled materials testing and evaluation, and pavement bases. Engineering and environmental aspects of recycled materials are examined. (Contains a minimum of 78 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Sewage sludge pretreatment and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in the pretreatment and disposal of sewage sludges. Citations discuss sludge digestion, dewatering, disinfection, stabilization, chlorination, and desulfurization. Topics include pretreatment programs, land disposal, incineration, and waste utilization. Environmental monitoring and protection, federal regulations, and legal aspects are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Lake restoration. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the economic aspects and environmental effects of lake restoration or rehabilitation. Topics include aeration or circulation, dilution or flushing, sediment removal or dredging, and neutralizing materials to reduce acidification of lakes. Eutrophication conditions and solutions are also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 175 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Lake restoration. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the economic aspects and environmental effects of lake restoration or rehabilitation. Topics include aeration or circulation, dilution or flushing, sediment removal or dredging, and neutralizing materials to reduce acidification of lakes. Eutrophication conditions and solutions are also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 160 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. 40 CFR 93.110 - Criteria and procedures: Latest planning assumptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criteria and procedures: Latest... and procedures: Latest planning assumptions. (a) Except as provided in this paragraph, the conformity... by the MPO. The conformity determination must also be based on the latest assumptions about current...

  9. Laser safety: practical measures and latest legislative requirements.

    PubMed

    Mary, Simon

    2011-09-01

    Lasers are used for a wide range of applications in operating departments and all persons working in a laser environment are required to understand the safety issues involved. This article details the various hazards associated with laser use and the management structure, procedures and control measures that should be implemented to ensure the health and safety of staff and patients. Recommendations are made in the context of the latest guidance and legislative requirements with reference to common issues that may arise in the workplace.

  10. Latest Trend of Object Oriented Technology and Agent Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatani, Takako; Hanyuda, Eiiti; Kurokawa, Toshiaki; Suguta, Shigeki; Ohsuga, Akihiko; Kodama, Kiminobu; Masumura, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Tatsuji

    Object-oriented technology is used for the software of the large range, and its application fields are increasing. Object-oriented technology is also accepted naturally in the field of Internet application. Consequently, developments of new kinds of object-oriented technologies have been performed. Agent technology has been developed based on an object-oriented concept, and may have a great evolution with applying to applications of Internet field. In this paper, authors introduce the latest trend and the example of application of such object-oriented technology and agent technology.

  11. Latest news on the modeling of meteor showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaubaillon, J. J.; Neslusan, L.; Hajdukova, M.; Sekhar, A.; Asher, D.; Segon, D.; Rudawska, R.

    2015-10-01

    This talk will provide a review of the techniques used for the modeling of meteoroid streams in the Solar System. New features induced by resonances will be presented. Consequences for the forecasting of the meteor showers will be presented. Similarly, the multiplication of meteor orbit determination allows for the finding of new parent bodies. Exploration of the past allows us to better know the today Earth meteoroid environment. Special focus will be provided for the Perseid stream as well as comet C/1917 Mellish. The finding of new parent bodies is an ongoing process and latest confirmed bodies will be presented.

  12. Latest innovations for tattoo and permanent makeup removal.

    PubMed

    Mao, Johnny C; DeJoseph, Louis M

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this article is to reveal the latest techniques and advances in laser removal of both amateur and professional tattoos, as well as cosmetic tattoos and permanent makeup. Each pose different challenges to the removing physician, but the goal is always the same: removal without sequelae. The authors' technique is detailed, and discussion of basic principles of light reflection, ink properties, effects of laser energy and heat, and outcomes and complications of tattoo removal are presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Latest Developments in Nuclear, Particle, and Astroparticle Physics at Jyfl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henryk Trzaska, Wladyslaw

    2015-06-01

    Accelerator Laboratory at the Physics Department of the University of Jyväskylä (JYFL) has a long tradition in development, construction, and implementation of new instruments and detection techniques. This line of research has been recently extended from Nuclear- and Relativistic Heavy Ion collisions to Astroparticle and Neutrino Physics. In my presentation I briefly review the latest developments and provide the highlights of the measurements conducted over the period since EXON 2012 [1]. Special emphasis is given to the research conducted in collaboration with JINR Dubna, Kurchatov Institute, INR, and Khloplin Radium Institute.

  14. [The latest research of the molecular biomarker in prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Ashikari, Daisaku; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer is rapidly increasing in Japan. Currently, the biomarker of prostate cancer is widely used in clinical is serum PSA only. We need to develop novel molecular markers (biomarkers) that diagnose early prostate cancer so that we can treat appropriately. Recently, the whole genome sequencing analysis has advanced that has made finding of novel molecular markers easier. The best molecular markers identified using personalized genome information will be useful to select appropriate treatment. These therapeutic options for each patient will improve the survival rate. We give an outline about the latest molecular marker basic research with reference to the articles.

  15. [Latest Advance of Study on Pathogenesis of Immune Thrombocytopenia].

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Liu, Wen-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is recognized as a multifactorial cell-specific autoimmune disorder, and its pathogenesis is still not very clear. Traditional concept suggests that the platelet destruction mediated by autoantibodies is the pathophysiology mechanism of ITP, while many studies in recent years have shown that the abnormities of T lymphocyte, dendritic cell (DC), natural killer cell (NK), cytokine, programmed cell death (PCD), oxidative stress (OS), infection, pregnancy and drugs etc play an important role in the pathogenesis of ITP. Since the study of ITP has made a series of important achievements in recent years, this review focuses on the latest advance of studies on pathogenesis of ITP.

  16. Determining H 0 with the Latest H ii Galaxy Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Deng; Meng, Xin-He

    2017-07-01

    We use the latest H ii galaxy measurements to determine the value of H 0 by adopting a combination of model-dependent and model-independent methods. By constraining five cosmological models, we find that the obtained values of H 0 are more consistent with the recent local measurement by Riess et al. at the 1σ confidence level. For the first time, we implement the model-independent Gaussian processes using the H ii galaxy measurements, and confirm the correctness of H 0 values obtained by the model-dependent method at the 1σ confidence level.

  17. Top: Latest results from the Tevatron - Cross section and mass

    SciTech Connect

    M. Coca

    2003-09-02

    The Tevatron is presently the world's only source of top quark production. This presentation summarizes the latest Run II results on top physics obtained by the CDF and D0 collaborations, using data taken until mid-January 2003. The first cross section measurements at 1.96 TeV in dilepton and lepton+jets channels agree with the NLO (Next-to-Leading-Order) theoretical predictions. Two top mass measurements, one by CDF using Run II data and another by D0 using an improved technique anticipate the improvements to come in the near future.

  18. Status of CUORE Experiment and latest results from CUORE-0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliarone, C.; Alduino, C.; Alfonso, K.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T., III; Azzolini, O.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Camacho, A.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Cappelli, L.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Carniti, P.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Crewsick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; Dafinei, I.; Davis, C. J.; Dell'Oro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; Di Vacri, M.L.; Drobizhev, A.; Fang, D. Q.; Faverzani, M.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gladstone, L.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Hansen, E.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K. P.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Leder, A.; Ligi, C.; Lim, K. E.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maino, M.; Marini, L.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Mosteiro, P. J.; Napolitano, T.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; O'Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sala, E.; Sangiorgio, S.; Santone, D.; Scielzo, N. D.; Singh,, V.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wagaarachchi, S. L.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zhu, B. X.; Zimmermann, S.; Zucchelli, S.

    2017-07-01

    Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (0ν β β) is a rare nuclear transition that if it occurs at all it will be very important for the exploration of the inverted hierarchy region of the neutrino mass pattern. The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an experiment that aims to search for such a transition in ^{130} Te together with other rare processes. In the present paper we will describe the basic features of CUORE Experiment, the status of the experiment as well as the latest results obtained from CUORE-0 detector, a smaller scale experiment constructed to test and demonstrate the expected performances of CUORE.

  19. Latest AMS Results on elementary particles in cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounine, Andrei; AMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    AMS-02 is a particle physics detector collecting data on the International Space Station since May 2011. Precision measurements of all elementary charged cosmic ray particles have been performed by AMS using a data sample of 85 billion cosmic ray events collected during the first five years of operations on the Station. The latest AMS results on the fluxes and flux ratios of the elementary cosmic ray particles are presented. They show unique features that require accurate theoretical interpretation as to their origin, be it from dark matter collisions or new astrophysical sources. On behalf of the AMS Collaboration.

  20. Energy Aspects of Green Buildings - International Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauskale, L.; Geipele, I.; Zeltins, N.; Lecis, I.

    2016-12-01

    At present, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is one of the main environmental priorities globally, and implementation of sustainability aspects in the construction industry, including energy aspects, is of major importance for long-term environmental development, as buildings have a long life cycle and require many resources both for construction and operation periods. The aim of the research is to analyse energy aspects of green buildings. The results of research show that the construction of green buildings can significantly result in energy savings and has other benefits for different market participants. Future research directions have been identified as well.

  1. Latest developments in the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; Kurland, Richard M.

    1990-01-01

    In 1985, the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) Program was established to demonstrate a producible array system with a specific power greater than 130 W/kg at a 10-kW (BOL) power level. The latest program phase completed fabrication and initial functional testing of a prototype wing representative of a full-scale 5-kW (BOL) wing (except truncated in length to about 1 kW), with weight characteristics that could meet the 130-W/kg (BOL) specific power goal using thin silicon solar cell modules and weight-efficient structural components. The wing configuration and key design details are reviewed, along with results from key component-level and wing-level tests. Projections for future enhancements that may be expected through the use of advanced solar cells and structural components are shown. Performance estimates are given for solar electric propulsion orbital transfer missions through the Van Allen radiation belts. The latest APSA program plans are presented.

  2. Latest Results in SLAC 75-MW PPM Klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Sprehn, D.; Caryotakis, G.; Haase, A.; Jongewaard, E.; Laurent, L.; Pearson, C.; Phillips, R.; /SLAC

    2006-03-06

    75 MW X-band klystrons utilizing Periodic Permanent Magnet (PPM) focusing have been undergoing design, fabrication and testing at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) for almost nine years. The klystron development has been geared toward realizing the necessary components for the construction of the Next Linear Collider (NLC). The PPM devices built to date which fit this class of operation consist of a variety of 50 MW and 75 MW devices constructed by SLAC, KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) and industry. All these tubes follow from the successful SLAC design of a 50 MW PPM klystron in 1996. In 2004 the latest two klystrons were constructed and tested with preliminary results reported at EPAC2004. The first of these two devices was tested to the full NLC specifications of 75 MW, 1.6 microseconds pulse length, and 120 Hz. This 14.4 kW average power operation came with a tube efficiency >50%. The most recent testing of these last two devices will be presented here. Design and manufacturing issues of the latest klystron, due to be tested by the Fall of 2005, are also discussed.

  3. Activated charcoal. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning theoretical aspects and industrial applications of activated charcoal. Topics include adsorption capacity and mechanism studies, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects, and description and evaluation of adsorptive abilities. Applications include use in water analyses and waste treatment, air pollution control and measurement, and in nuclear facilities. (Contains a minimum of 151 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. EPA Awards Environmental Education Grant to Captain Planet Foundation in Atlanta, GA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA --- Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Captain Planet Foundation as a recipient of an Environmental Education Grant. The Atlanta-based non-profit was selected in the latest round of awards

  5. First Clarkforkian equivalent Land Mammal Age in the latest Paleocene basal Sparnacian facies of Europe: fauna, flora, paleoenvironment and (bio)stratigraphy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Thierry; Quesnel, Florence; De Plöeg, Gaël; De Franceschi, Dario; Métais, Grégoire; De Bast, Eric; Solé, Floréal; Folie, Annelise; Boura, Anaïs; Claude, Julien; Dupuis, Christian; Gagnaison, Cyril; Iakovleva, Alina; Martin, Jeremy; Maubert, François; Prieur, Judicaël; Roche, Emile; Storme, Jean-Yves; Thomas, Romain; Tong, Haiyan; Yans, Johan; Buffetaut, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is correlated with the first occurrences of earliest modern mammals in the Northern Hemisphere. The latest Paleocene Clarkforkian North American Land Mammal Age, that has yielded rodents and carnivorans, is the only exception to this rule. However, until now no pre-PETM localities have yielded modern mammals in Europe or Asia. We report the first Clarkforkian equivalent Land Mammal Age in the latest Paleocene deposits of the basal Sparnacian facies at Rivecourt, in the north-central part of the Paris Basin. The new terrestrial vertebrate and macroflora assemblages are analyzed through a multidisciplinary study including sedimentologic, stratigraphic, isotopic, and palynological aspects in order to reconstruct the paleoenvironment and to evaluate biochronologic and paleogeographic implications. The mammals are moderately diverse and not abundant, contrary to turtles and champsosaurs. The macroflora is exceptional in preservation and diversity with numerous angiosperms represented by flowers, fruits, seeds and wood preserved as lignite material, revealing an abundance of Arecaceae, Betulaceae, Icacinaceae, Menispermaceae, Vitaceae and probably Cornaceae. Results indicate a Late Paleocene age based on carbon isotope data, palynology and vertebrate occurrences such as the choristoderan Champsosaurus, the arctocyonid Arctocyon, and the plesiadapid Plesiadapis tricuspidens. However, several mammal species compare better with the earliest Eocene. Among these, the particular louisinid Teilhardimys musculus, also recorded from the latest Paleocene of the Spanish Pyrenees, suggests a younger age than the typical MP6 reference level. Nevertheless, the most important aspect of the Rivecourt fauna is the presence of dental remains of a rodent and a "miacid" carnivoran, attesting to the presence of two modern mammalian orders in the latest Paleocene of Europe. Interestingly, these two groups are also the only modern groups recorded

  6. First Clarkforkian Equivalent Land Mammal Age in the Latest Paleocene Basal Sparnacian Facies of Europe: Fauna, Flora, Paleoenvironment and (Bio)stratigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Thierry; Quesnel, Florence; De Plöeg, Gaël; De Franceschi, Dario; Métais, Grégoire; De Bast, Eric; Solé, Floréal; Folie, Annelise; Boura, Anaïs; Claude, Julien; Dupuis, Christian; Gagnaison, Cyril; Iakovleva, Alina; Martin, Jeremy; Maubert, François; Prieur, Judicaël; Roche, Emile; Storme, Jean-Yves; Thomas, Romain; Tong, Haiyan; Yans, Johan; Buffetaut, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is correlated with the first occurrences of earliest modern mammals in the Northern Hemisphere. The latest Paleocene Clarkforkian North American Land Mammal Age, that has yielded rodents and carnivorans, is the only exception to this rule. However, until now no pre-PETM localities have yielded modern mammals in Europe or Asia. We report the first Clarkforkian equivalent Land Mammal Age in the latest Paleocene deposits of the basal Sparnacian facies at Rivecourt, in the north-central part of the Paris Basin. The new terrestrial vertebrate and macroflora assemblages are analyzed through a multidisciplinary study including sedimentologic, stratigraphic, isotopic, and palynological aspects in order to reconstruct the paleoenvironment and to evaluate biochronologic and paleogeographic implications. The mammals are moderately diverse and not abundant, contrary to turtles and champsosaurs. The macroflora is exceptional in preservation and diversity with numerous angiosperms represented by flowers, fruits, seeds and wood preserved as lignite material, revealing an abundance of Arecaceae, Betulaceae, Icacinaceae, Menispermaceae, Vitaceae and probably Cornaceae. Results indicate a Late Paleocene age based on carbon isotope data, palynology and vertebrate occurrences such as the choristoderan Champsosaurus, the arctocyonid Arctocyon, and the plesiadapid Plesiadapis tricuspidens. However, several mammal species compare better with the earliest Eocene. Among these, the particular louisinid Teilhardimys musculus, also recorded from the latest Paleocene of the Spanish Pyrenees, suggests a younger age than the typical MP6 reference level. Nevertheless, the most important aspect of the Rivecourt fauna is the presence of dental remains of a rodent and a “miacid” carnivoran, attesting to the presence of two modern mammalian orders in the latest Paleocene of Europe. Interestingly, these two groups are also the only modern groups recorded

  7. Strategies for dementia prevention: latest evidence and implications

    PubMed Central

    Rakesh, Gopalkumar; Szabo, Steven T.; Alexopoulos, George S.; Zannas, Anthony S.

    2017-01-01

    Dementia is a common and debilitating syndrome with enormous impact on individuals and societies. Preventing disease onset or progression would translate to public health and societal benefits. In this review, we discuss the latest evidence on interventions that may show promise for the prevention of cognitive decline. We appraise existing evidence primarily drawn from randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses, but also highlight observational studies in humans and relevant work in model organisms. Overall, there is currently limited evidence to support a cause–effect relationship between any preventive strategy and the development or progression of dementia. However, studies to date suggest that a multifactorial intervention comprising regular exercise and healthy diet, along with the amelioration of vascular risk factors, psychosocial stress, and major depressive episodes may be most promising for the prevention of cognitive decline. We discuss the challenges, future directions, and implications of this line of research. PMID:28815009

  8. Latest-Generation Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Devices and Procedures.

    PubMed

    Chamandi, Chekrallah; Puri, Rishi; Rodriguez-Gabella, Tania; Rodés-Cabau, Josep

    2017-09-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a well-established treatment for patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who are at high or prohibitive surgical risk. More recently, TAVR has emerged as a valid alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement for treating intermediate-risk patients, and several studies are currently evaluating the role of TAVR in low-risk patients. Transcatheter heart valve (THV) technologies have evolved considerably over time, and important iterations have been implemented in many of the latest-generation devices to (1) reduce the size and improve delivery system properties; (2) improve valve deployment, repositioning, and retrievability; and (3) reduce paravalvular leaks. This article reviews the main characteristics of, and clinical results associated with, the newer-generation THVs while providing an overview of novel TAVR indications. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Strategies for dementia prevention: latest evidence and implications.

    PubMed

    Rakesh, Gopalkumar; Szabo, Steven T; Alexopoulos, George S; Zannas, Anthony S

    2017-08-01

    Dementia is a common and debilitating syndrome with enormous impact on individuals and societies. Preventing disease onset or progression would translate to public health and societal benefits. In this review, we discuss the latest evidence on interventions that may show promise for the prevention of cognitive decline. We appraise existing evidence primarily drawn from randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses, but also highlight observational studies in humans and relevant work in model organisms. Overall, there is currently limited evidence to support a cause-effect relationship between any preventive strategy and the development or progression of dementia. However, studies to date suggest that a multifactorial intervention comprising regular exercise and healthy diet, along with the amelioration of vascular risk factors, psychosocial stress, and major depressive episodes may be most promising for the prevention of cognitive decline. We discuss the challenges, future directions, and implications of this line of research.

  10. Latest NASA Instrument Cost Model (NICM): Version VI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mrozinski, Joe; Habib-Agahi, Hamid; Fox, George; Ball, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Instrument Cost Model, NICM, is a suite of tools which allow for probabilistic cost estimation of NASA's space-flight instruments at both the system and subsystem level. NICM also includes the ability to perform cost by analogy as well as joint confidence level (JCL) analysis. The latest version of NICM, Version VI, was released in Spring 2014. This paper will focus on the new features released with NICM VI, which include: 1) The NICM-E cost estimating relationship, which is applicable for instruments flying on Explorer-like class missions; 2) The new cluster analysis ability which, alongside the results of the parametric cost estimation for the user's instrument, also provides a visualization of the user's instrument's similarity to previously flown instruments; and 3) includes new cost estimating relationships for in-situ instruments.

  11. Targeting Nanomedicine to Brain Tumors: Latest Progress and Achievements.

    PubMed

    Van't Root, Moniek; Lowik, Clemens; Mezzanotte, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Targeting nanomedicine to brain tumors is hampered by the heterogeneity of brain tumors and the blood brain barrier. These represent the main reasons of unsuccessful treatments. Nanomedicine based approaches hold promise for improved brain tissue distribution of drugs and delivery of combination therapies. In this review, we describe the recent advancements and latest achievements in the use of nanocarriers, virus and cell-derived nanoparticles for targeted therapy of brain tumors. We provide successful examples of nanomedicine based approaches for direct targeting of receptors expressed in brain tumor cells or modulation of pathways involved in cell survival as well as approaches for indirect targeting of cells in the tumor stroma and immunotherapies. Although the field is at its infancy, clinical trials involving nanomedicine based approaches for brain tumors are ongoing and many others will start in the near future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Latest options for treatment of bronchiolitis in infants.

    PubMed

    Vandini, Silvia; Faldella, Giacomo; Lanari, Marcello

    2016-03-09

    Bronchiolitis is the most frequent pathology associated with lower respiratory tract infection in newborns and young infants. The treatment of bronchiolitis is essentially supportive therapy for respiratory distress, hypoxia and dehydration. To date, no specific antiviral drug is used on a routine basis for the treatment of RSV infections. Currently, the only antiviral drug approved for the infection is ribavirin; however, its use is limited due to adverse side effects and the risks it poses to healthcare providers. Moreover, several drugs have been routinely administered for years in infants with acute RSV bronchiolitis, even if their efficacy is often not confirmed by clinical evidence, and studies on emerging antiviral drugs are still ongoing. In the present paper we review the recent literature about the drugs used during acute bronchiolitis and we summarize the main recommendations of national and international guidelines and the latest options for the treatment of bronchiolitis.

  13. [Latest Research Advance of Myeloproliferative Diseases Related Genes-Review].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yu-Hong; Wang, Yi-Hao; Shao, Zong-Hong

    2017-08-01

    JAK2, MPL and CALR gene mutations play an important role in the onset of myeloproliferative disease(MPD). The latest researches show that the difference of ATP binding ability between the wild type JAK2 protein and mutated JAK2 protein can help us understand the pathogenesis of the MPD further, and the clinical manifestation is related to the mutation burden of the JAK2. In some ET and PMF patients, research find the expression of MPL mutation, which can affects the progress of the disease by collaborating with the JAK2 mutation. CALR mutation is a gene related with the MPD that has been found recently. The pathogenesis of the CALR is similar to that of the JAK2, while there are some features in clinical manifestation comparing with the other mutations.

  14. Perioperative Management of Anticoagulation-Review of Latest Evidence.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Arun; Poongkunran, Chithra; Shenoy, Sundeep; Abidov, Aiden

    2016-01-01

    Periprocedural anticoagulation bridging is recommended to reduce the risk of thromboembolic events in patients at a higher risk of developing thromboembolism during the perioperative period. The optimal periprocedural anticoagulation strategy has not been established. Unfractionated heparin and low molecular heparin are used in preventing thromboembolism in the special population. Novel oral anticoagulants that directly inhibit thrombin (dabigatran) or factor Xa (rivaroxaban, apixaban) are shown as effective anticoagulants in preventing thromboembolism (venous thromboembolism) in various medical conditions. They have the advantage of having a faster onset, shorter half-lives, easier monitoring, and predicable doses. But there are disadvantages to newer anticoagulants such as the unavailability of definitive reversal agents and lack of data in patients with renal insufficiency. We review the latest evidence on the effects of newer oral anticoagulants in preventing thromboembolism and its bleeding risks.

  15. [Cellular therapy of diabetes: focus on the latest developments].

    PubMed

    Lysy, Philippe A

    2016-04-01

    Islet transplantation has set the ground for diabetes cell therapy and is still undergoing various developments that might improve clinical outcomes. Alternative sources for β-cell replacement strategies are now led by human pluripotent stem cells that demonstrate near-normal β-cell features after in vitro differentiation and which can reverse diabetes in mice. Yet, their propensity for tumor formation is still unresolved. The adult pancreas is suggested as a reservoir of facultative progenitors that could represent adequate candidates for β-cell engineering, either in vivo through pharmacological treatment or after expansion in culture. This review focuses on the latest developments in protocols aiming at de novo production of functional β cells. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  16. Vitiligo nonsurgical treatment: a review of latest treatment researches.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfei; Mooneyan-Ramchurn, Jessini Soranambal; Zuo, Nan; Feng, Yiguo; Xiao, Shengxiang

    2014-01-01

    Vitiligo is a common depigmenting acquired disorder affecting about 1-2% of the world population, regardless of race, ethnic background, or gender. It is characterized by the appearance of milky white maculae because of a loss of melanocytes. The disfiguring nature of vitiligo causes high psychosocial morbidity. This is especially pronounced in populations with darker skin tone, likely because of the marked contrast. A variety of nonsurgical treatment regimens are currently employed in vitiligo. We reviewed the latest studies carried out on different nonsurgical treatment modalities used in vitiligo. All nonsurgical treatment aid to repigment or depigmentation the skin, however, many of them require a prolonged treatment course and may yield minimal results as well as carry unwanted side effects. There is a need for further research into the causes of vitiligo and into discovering better treatments.

  17. Latest Guadalupian (Middle Permian) conodonts and foraminifers from West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, L.L.; Wardlaw, B.R.; Nestell, M.K.; Nestell, G.P.

    2002-01-01

    Clarkina, which characterizes Upper Permian (Lopingian Series) strata, evolved from Jinogondolella altudaensis in the Delaware basin of West Texas as demonstrated by transitional continuity. The West Texas section is significantly more complete in the uppermost Guadalupian interval than that of the probable GSSP reference section in South China, and clarifies the phylogenetic relationships among other conodont taxa as well. Jinogondolella granti clearly evolved into J. artafrons new species, both characterized by Pa elements with a distinctive fused carina. Representatives of Jinogondolella crofti are limited to the uppermost part of the altudaensis zone, and are interpreted as terminal paedomorphs. The associated foraminifer (non-fusulinid) fauna has some species in common with Zechstein faunas, possibly presaging the evaporitic basin that would develop following this latest Guadalupian marine deposition in West Texas.

  18. Latest NASA Instrument Cost Model (NICM): Version VI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mrozinski, Joe; Habib-Agahi, Hamid; Fox, George; Ball, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Instrument Cost Model, NICM, is a suite of tools which allow for probabilistic cost estimation of NASA's space-flight instruments at both the system and subsystem level. NICM also includes the ability to perform cost by analogy as well as joint confidence level (JCL) analysis. The latest version of NICM, Version VI, was released in Spring 2014. This paper will focus on the new features released with NICM VI, which include: 1) The NICM-E cost estimating relationship, which is applicable for instruments flying on Explorer-like class missions; 2) The new cluster analysis ability which, alongside the results of the parametric cost estimation for the user's instrument, also provides a visualization of the user's instrument's similarity to previously flown instruments; and 3) includes new cost estimating relationships for in-situ instruments.

  19. Vasodilators in Acute Heart Failure: Review of the Latest Studies

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Phillip D.; Laribi, Said; Mebazaa, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Vasodilators play an important role in the management of acute heart failure, particularly when increased afterload is the precipitating cause of decompensation. The time-honored approach to afterload reduction has been largely focused on use of intravenous nitrovasodilators and, when properly dosed, this class of agents does provide substantial symptom relief for patients with acute hypertensive heart failure. Despite this, nitrovasodilators have never been shown to diminish mortality or provide any post-discharge outcome benefit leading to an on-going search for viable and more effective alternatives. While no new vasodilators have been approved for use in acute heart failure since nesiritide more than a decade ago, a number of novel agents have been developed, with some showing significant promise in recent clinical trials. In this review, we summarize the latest study data as it relates to vasodilator therapy and provide a glimpse into the not too distant future state of acute heart failure care. PMID:24855585

  20. The Vallparadís section (Terrassa, Iberian Peninsula) and the latest Villafranchian faunas of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madurell-Malapeira, J.; Minwer-Barakat, R.; Alba, D. M.; Garcés, M.; Gómez, M.; Aurell-Garrido, J.; Ros-Montoya, S.; Moyà-Solà, S.; Berástegui, X.

    2010-12-01

    The late Early to early Middle Pleistocene section from Torrent de Vallparadís is a 20 m-thick, composite section with multiple stratigraphic horizons, which have yielded close to 30,000 remains of large and small vertebrates, as well as macrobotanical remains of non-carbonized wood and a complete pollen record. This series is well correlated on the basis of magnetostratigraphic and small mammal biostratigraphic data, ranging from 1.2 to 0.6 Ma. There are only a few other European localities recording this time interval from a faunal, floral and stratigraphical perspective, so that the Vallparadís series provides a unique opportunity to investigate the faunal and environmental changes that occurred in south-western Europe during the Early to Middle Pleistocene transition. This time interval recorded at Vallparadís coincides with major climatic changes at a global scale (the Middle Pleistocene Transition), which had important effects on the composition of mammalian assemblages. The remains recovered from the latest Early Pleistocene layers of the Vallparadís section show that most of the components of the Villafranchian carnivore guild survived until close to the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary (probably until the interglacial stage 21), which might have significantly influenced the foraging strategies of early Homo in Europe. On the other hand, the remains of the straight-tusked elephant, Elephas (Palaeoloxodon) antiquus, from the latest Early Pleistocene layers of Vallparadís represent the earliest European record of this species, indicating that the dispersal of African elements into Europe during the Middle Pleistocene Transition began earlier than previously thought, at close to 1 Ma.

  1. Breast Cancer 2012 - New Aspects.

    PubMed

    Kolberg, H-C; Lüftner, D; Lux, M P; Maass, N; Schütz, F; Fasching, P A; Fehm, T; Janni, W; Kümmel, S

    2012-07-01

    Treatment options as well as the characteristics for therapeutic decisions in patients with primary and advanced breast cancer are increasing in number and variety. New targeted therapies in combination with established chemotherapy schemes are broadening the spectrum, however potentially promising combinations do not always achieve a better result. New data from the field of pharmacogenomics point to prognostic and predictive factors that take not only the properties of the tumour but also inherited genetic properties of the patient into consideration. Current therapeutic decision-making is thus based on a combination of classical clinical and modern molecular biomarkers. Also health-economic aspects are more frequently being taken into consideration so that health-economic considerations may also play a part. This review is based on information from the recent annual congresses. The latest of these are the 34th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium 2011 and the ASCO Annual Meeting 2012. Among their highlights are the clinically significant results from the CLEOPATRA, BOLERO-2, EMILIA and SWOG S0226 trials on the therapy for metastatic breast cancer as well as further state-of-the-art data on the adjuvant use of bisphosphonates within the framework of the ABCSG-12, ZO-FAST, NSABP-B34 and GAIN trials.

  2. Interstellar Travel. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning travel between the stars. Topics include cost considerations, hyperspace navigation, exploration, and propulsion systems for vehicles to be used in interstellar travel. Human factor issues and social aspects of interstellar travel are also discussed.

  3. Interstellar Travel. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning travel between the stars. Topics include cost considerations, hyperspace navigation, exploration, and propulsion systems for vehicles to be used in interstellar travel. Human factor issues and social aspects of interstellar travel are also discussed.

  4. The EPA Children's Environmental Health Yearbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Children's Health Protection.

    Through their environments, children are exposed to a wide variety of substances that pose a risk to their health. This yearbook provides information to the public on the activities of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to protect children from environmental hazards, including the latest information on the unique threats of environmental…

  5. Latest-generation catheterization systems enable invasive submillisievert coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Kuon, E; Weitmann, K; Hummel, A; Dörr, M; Reffelmann, T; Riad, A; Busch, M C; Felix, S B; Hoffmann, W; Empen, K

    2015-05-01

    The radiation risk of patients undergoing invasive cardiology remains considerable and includes skin injuries and cancer. To date, submillisievert coronary angiography has not been considered feasible. In 2011, we compared results from 100 consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary angiography using the latest-generation flat-panel angiography system (FPS) with results from examinations by the same operator using 106 historic controls with a conventional image-intensifier system (IIS) that was new in 2002. The median patient exposure parameters were measured as follows: dose-area product (DAP) associated with radiographic cine acquisitions (DAP(R)) and fluoroscopy (DAP(F)) scenes, radiographic frames and runs, and cumulative exposure times for radiography and fluoroscopy. On the FPS as compared to the traditional IIS, radiographic detector entrance dose levels were reduced from 164 to 80 nGy/frame and pulse rates were lowered from 12.5/s to 7.5/s during radiography and from 25/s to 4/s during fluoroscopy. The cardiologist's performance patterns remained comparable over the years: fluoroscopy time was constant and radiography time even slightly increased. Overall patient DAP decreased from 7.0 to 2.4 Gy × cm(2); DAP(R), from 4.2 to 1.7 Gy × cm(2); and DAP(F), from 2.8 to 0.6 Gy × cm(2). Time-adjusted DAP(R)/s decreased from 436 to 130 mGy × cm(2) and DAP(F)/s, from 21.6 to 4.4 mGy × cm(2). Cumulative patient skin dose with the FPS amounted to 67 mGy, and the median (interquartile range) of effective dose was 0.5 (0.3 … 0.7) mSv. Consistent application of radiation-reducing techniques with the latest-generation flat-panel systems enables submillisievert coronary angiography in invasive cardiology.

  6. Multifaceted bench comparative evaluation of latest intensive care unit ventilators.

    PubMed

    Garnier, M; Quesnel, C; Fulgencio, J-P; Degrain, M; Carteaux, G; Bonnet, F; Similowski, T; Demoule, A

    2015-07-01

    Independent bench studies using specific ventilation scenarios allow testing of the performance of ventilators in conditions similar to clinical settings. The aims of this study were to determine the accuracy of the latest generation ventilators to deliver chosen parameters in various typical conditions and to provide clinicians with a comprehensive report on their performance. Thirteen modern intensive care unit ventilators were evaluated on the ASL5000 test lung with and without leakage for: (i) accuracy to deliver exact tidal volume (VT) and PEEP in assist-control ventilation (ACV); (ii) performance of trigger and pressurization in pressure support ventilation (PSV); and (iii) quality of non-invasive ventilation algorithms. In ACV, only six ventilators delivered an accurate VT and nine an accurate PEEP. Eleven devices failed to compensate VT and four the PEEP in leakage conditions. Inspiratory delays differed significantly among ventilators in invasive PSV (range 75-149 ms, P=0.03) and non-invasive PSV (range 78-165 ms, P<0.001). The percentage of the ideal curve (concomitantly evaluating the pressurization speed and the levels of pressure reached) also differed significantly (range 57-86% for invasive PSV, P=0.04; and 60-90% for non-invasive PSV, P<0.001). Non-invasive ventilation algorithms efficiently prevented the decrease in pressurization capacities and PEEP levels induced by leaks in, respectively, 10 and 12 out of the 13 ventilators. We observed real heterogeneity of performance amongst the latest generation of intensive care unit ventilators. Although non-invasive ventilation algorithms appear to maintain adequate pressurization efficiently in the case of leakage, basic functions, such as delivered VT in ACV and pressurization in PSV, are often less reliable than the values displayed by the device suggest. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  7. Latest Jurassic-early Cretaceous regressive facies, northeast Africa craton

    SciTech Connect

    van Houten, F.B.

    1980-06-01

    Nonmarine to paralic detrital deposits accumulated in six large basins between Algeria and the Arabo-Nubian shield during major regression in latest Jurassic and Early Cretaceous time. The Ghadames Sirte (north-central Libya), and Northern (Egypt) basins lay along the cratonic margin of northeastern Africa. The Murzuk, Kufra, and Southern (Egypt) basins lay in the south within the craton. Data for reconstructing distribution, facies, and thickness of relevant sequences are adequate for the three northern basins only. High detrital influx near the end of Jurassic time and in mid-Cretaceous time produced regressive nubian facies composed largely of low-sinuosity stream and fahdelta deposits. In the west and southwest the Ghadames, Murzuk, and Kufra basins were filled with a few hundred meters of detritus after long-continued earlier Mesozoic aggradation. In northern Egypt the regressive sequence succeeded earlier Mesozoic marine sedimentation; in the Sirte and Southern basins correlative deposits accumulated on Precambrian and Variscan terranes after earlier Mesozoic uplift and erosion. Waning of detrital influx into southern Tunisia and adjacent Libya in the west and into Israel in the east initiated an Albian to early Cenomanian transgression of Tethys. By late Cenomanian time it had flooded the entire cratonic margin, and spread southward into the Murzuk and Southern basins, as well as onto the Arabo-Nubian shield. Latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous, mid-Cretaceous, and Late Cretaceous transgressions across northeastern Africa recorded in these sequences may reflect worldwide eustatic sea-level rises. In contrast, renewed large supply of detritus during each regression and a comparable subsidence history of intracratonic and marginal basins imply regional tectonic control. 6 figures.

  8. Literature on the aetiology of hypospadias in the last 5 years: molecular mechanism and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Q; Qu, W Y; Yang, L; Wang, K; Tu, H Y; Wang, J

    2014-08-01

    Year-by-year, there has been an increasing number of literature on hypospadias, and most of them are mainly focused on two aspects, namely surgical techniques and aetiology, including the molecular mechanism and associated environmental factors. Surgical techniques and nursing levels are being continuously improved. However, in stark contrast, the study of aetiology still lags behind. Up to now, there is still no consensus on the aetiology of hypospadias, including the molecular mechanism and associated environmental factors. To obtain an overall and latest result on the aetiology, we reviewed published literature regarding the aetiology of hypospadias including the molecular mechanism and associated environmental factors in PubMed in the last 5 years. Thirty-seven studies on the aetiology of hypospadias including molecular mechanism and associated environmental factors were found, of which 25 were about associated environmental factors, and they were described according to the aspects of chemicals, parental characteristics, nutrition and hormones. The remaining studies were about the hormone-dependent phase of molecular mechanism, namely androgen-related genes and oestrogen-related genes. Furthermore, the various points of view were classified and discussed in detail.

  9. Toxicity of manganese. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxicity, carcinogenicity, environmental pollution, and other hazards and adverse effects of manganese. The detection, characterization, analytical methods, standards, and removal from the environment are considered. These aspects of manganese are dealt with in relation to aquatic and terrestrial flora and fauna, including man. Manganese pollution from mining operations is also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 208 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Solid waste reclamation and recycling: Glass. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and management of waste glass recycling. The design and evaluation of glass collection and sorting systems are discussed. The use of recycled products in construction materials, glass fiber reinforced plastics, and soil stabilization is examined. References also cover environmental aspects, government programs, and product marketing. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. Solid waste reclamation and recycling: Glass. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and management of waste glass recycling. The design and evaluation of glass collection and sorting systems are discussed. The use of recycled products in construction materials, glass fiber reinforced plastics, and soil stabilization is examined. References also cover environmental aspects, government programs, and product marketing. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Sewage sludge pretreatment and disposal. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and equipment used in the pretreatment processes and disposal of sewage sludges. Topics include resource and energy recovery operations, land disposal, composting, ocean disposal, and incineration. Digestion, dewatering, and disinfection are among the pretreatment processes discussed. Environmental aspects, including the effects on soils, plants, and animals, are also presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Gastric cancer: basic aspects.

    PubMed

    Resende, Carlos; Thiel, Alexandra; Machado, José C; Ristimäki, Ari

    2011-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a world health burden, ranging as the second cause of cancer death worldwide. Etiologically, GC arises not only from the combined effects of environmental factors and susceptible genetic variants but also from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. In the last years, molecular oncobiology studies brought to light a number of genes that are implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. This review is intended to focus on the recently described basic aspects that play key roles in the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants of the genes IL-10, IL-17, MUC1, MUC6, DNMT3B, SMAD4, and SERPINE1 have been reported to modify the risk of developing GC. Several genes have been newly associated with gastric carcinogenesis, both through oncogenic activation (GSK3β, CD133, DSC2, P-Cadherin, CDH17, CD168, CD44, metalloproteinases MMP7 and MMP11, and a subset of miRNAs) and through tumor suppressor gene inactivation mechanisms (TFF1, PDX1, BCL2L10, XRCC, psiTPTE-HERV, HAI-2, GRIK2, and RUNX3). It also addressed the role of the inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its importance as a potential molecular target for therapy.

  14. Salt marshes. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the environmental protection of coastal marshes. The citations explore the fauna and flora of the marshes, geological and ecological processes, and the effects of marine pollution. Seasonal and environmental variations, the effects of erosion, and stabilization techniques of marshes are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Selenium pollution: Occurrence and environmental fate. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning sources and abatement of pollution caused by selenium and selenium compounds. The citations examine the effects of selenium on the reproductive success of birds and fish, uptake of selenium in plants, and bioaccumulation in the food chain. Other topics include selenium chemistry and persistence in soil, water, and the atmosphere; the relative toxicities of selenium and selenium compounds; and decontamination of polluted environments. Special attention is given to agricultural effluent as a source of selenium pollution and to the development of long-term monitoring programs to determine the rate at which pollution declines. (Contains a minimum of 143 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Container recycling: Environmental and economic benefits. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning efforts to reduce solid waste generation through the used glass or plastics recycling. Topics include the design of refillable containers, recycling processes which convert post-consumer glass or plastic into useful products, and potential markets for these products. The citations compare the economics of recycling with the costs of waste collection and landfill disposal. Successful municipal and industrial recycling programs are detailed, and the relative merits of voluntary and mandatory recycling programs are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 169 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Measuring Aspects of Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Avner

    1976-01-01

    A group test measuring five aspects of morality in children is presented. The aspects are: resistance to temptation, stage of moral judgment, confession after transgression, reaction of fear or guilt, and severity of punishment for transgression. (Editor)

  18. Latest generation of flat detector CT as a peri-interventional diagnostic tool: a comparative study with multidetector CT.

    PubMed

    Leyhe, Johanna Rosemarie; Tsogkas, Ioannis; Hesse, Amélie Carolina; Behme, Daniel; Schregel, Katharina; Papageorgiou, Ismini; Liman, Jan; Knauth, Michael; Psychogios, Marios-Nikos

    2016-12-20

    Flat detector CT (FDCT) has been used as a peri-interventional diagnostic tool in numerous studies with mixed results regarding image quality and detection of intracranial lesions. We compared the diagnostic aspects of the latest generation FDCT with standard multidetector CT (MDCT). 102 patients were included in our retrospective study. All patients had undergone interventional procedures. FDCT was acquired peri-interventionally and compared with postinterventional MDCT regarding depiction of ventricular/subarachnoidal spaces, detection of intracranial hemorrhage, and delineation of ischemic lesions using an ordinal scale. Ischemic lesions were quantified with the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Scale (ASPECTS) on both examinations. Two neuroradiologists with varying grades of experience and a medical student scored the anonymized images separately, blinded to the clinical history. The two methods were of equal diagnostic value regarding evaluation of the ventricular system and the subarachnoidal spaces. Subarachnoidal, intraventricular, and parenchymal hemorrhages were detected with a sensitivity of 95%, 97%, and 100% and specificity of 97%, 100%, and 99%, respectively, using FDCT. Gray-white differentiation was feasible in the majority of FDCT scans, and ischemic lesions were detected with a sensitivity of 71% on FDCT, compared with MDCT scans. The mean difference in ASPECTS values on FDCT and MDCT was 0.5 points (95% CI 0.12 to 0.88). The latest generation of FDCT is a reliable and accurate tool for the detection of intracranial hemorrhage. Gray-white differentiation is feasible in the supratentorial region. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. B-Myb protein in cellular proliferation, transcription control, and cancer: latest developments.

    PubMed

    Sala, A; Watson, R

    1999-06-01

    Since its isolation exactly a decade ago, B-Myb has intrigued a growing number of scientists interested in understanding the mechanisms of cell proliferation. In many aspects the B-Myb story resembles that of a fashionable transcription factor involved in cell cycle control: E2F-1. Similar to E2F-1, B-Myb is a transcription factor whose expression is regulated at the G1/S border of the cell cycle. Given the ubiquitous expression of B-Myb within different cell types, its link with the cell cycle, and augmented expression in transformed cells, studies are in progress to define the potential role of B-Myb in human cancer. The purpose of this review is not to provide an extensive background to the B-Myb field but rather to describe the latest developments. A comprehensive outline of B-Myb structure and function can be found in the review by Saville and Watson (1998a, Adv. Cancer Res., 72:109-140).

  20. Latest Development of Infrared Radiation Heating for Food Processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infrared (IR) heating could be an alternative technology for thermal and dehydration processing of food and agricultural products with many advantages, including high process and energy efficiencies, high product quality, improved food safety and reduced environmental pollution. This paper reviews ...

  1. Environmental Studies and Environmental Careers. ERIC/CSMEE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.

    Increased concern with the environment has increased opportunities for employment in the environmental job market. This digest helps clarify the meaning of environmental employment and discusses aspects of its present state. An examination of trends in environmental employment indicates a growing demand for new jobs in environmental fields created…

  2. Latest results from the CRESST-II Dark Matter Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petricca, F.; Angloher, G.; Bauer, M.; Bavykina, I.; Bento, A.; Bucci, C.; Ciemniak, C.; Deuter, G.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Hauff, D.; Huff, P.; Isaila, C.; Jochum, J.; Kiefer, M.; Kimmerle, M.; Lanfranchi, J. C.; Pfister, S.; Potzel, W.; Pröbst, F.; Reindl, F.; Roth, S.; Rottler, K.; Sailer, C.; Schäffner, K.; Schmaler, J.; Scholl, S.; Seidel, W.; Sivers, M. v.; Stodolsky, L.; Strandhagen, C.; Strauss, R.; Tanzke, A.; Usherov, I.; Wawoczny, S.; Willers, M.; Zöller, A.

    2012-07-01

    The CRESST-II experiment is searching for Dark Matter particles in the form of WIMPs via their elastic scattering off nuclei in a target material. The CRESST target consists of scintillating CaWO4 crystals which are operated as cryogenic calorimeters at millikelvin temperatures and read out by transition edge sensors. Each interaction in CaWO4 produces a phonon signal in the target crystal and also a light signal that is measured by a secondary cryogenic calorimeter, allowing a very efficient discrimination between electron recoils from radioactive e/γ background and nuclear recoils. Moreover, to some extent, the different types of recoiling nuclei (O, Ca, W) can be distinguished. In the paper we present the latest results of the experiment, obtained from a net exposure of 730kg days acquired with 8 detectors between July 2009 and March 2011. The data has shown a considerable number of events in our signal region. Since this large number of events is not consistent with the known sources of background in our experiment, we discuss the compatibility of this excess of events with a possible WIMP-signal.

  3. Status and Latest Results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragowsky, Michael

    2003-10-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) Collaboration is engaged in the direct detection of Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). The experimental signature is nuclear recoil energy resulting from spin-independent WIMP-nucleon elastic-scattering interactions in Si and Ge ZIP (Z-sensitive Ionization and Phonon-mediated) particle detectors. More generally, particle interactions are detected as recoil energy in both charge and athermal phonon channels. The two-channel readout allows for discrimination between nuclear and electron recoils, the latter resulting from radioactive and cosmogenic backgrounds. The first phase of the present experiment (CDMS II) has resulted in limits on the WIMP cross-section as a function of mass in the mass range 10-1000 GeV/c^2 from 28.3 kg days exposure on 1 kg Ge at the Stanford Underground Facility (SUF) (hep-ex/0306001 (2003)). The signal is consistent with all candidate events being due to neutrons generated from cosmic ray muon interactions in the rock surrounding this shallow experimental site. A new phase of the experiment is underway at the Soudan Mine (muon shielding overburden 2090 m.w.e.). The six detectors used in the SUF experiment are installed in the Soudan laboratory along with six additional detectors. The experimental status and latest results, including calibration and data from 1.5 kg Ge and 0.6 kg Si ZIP detectors, will be presented, as well as a look ahead to the next phase of the CDMS II experiment.

  4. Latest quaternary volcanism in the St. George Basin, southwestern Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Millings, V.T. III; Green, J.D.; Nusbaum, R.L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The St. George Basin was the site of mafic volcanism from about 6 Ma to 1 ka. The nature of latest Quaternary volcanism is of interest because the Basin is recognized as a low temperature (< 90C) geothermal resource area and it is part of the transition zone between the Basin and Range Province and the Colorado Plateau. The authors have studied the geochemistry, mineralogy, and aerial distribution of two of the youngest eruptions centers: (1) Veyo Volcano; and (2) the Diamond Valley scoria cones (DVSC). Veyo Volcano erupted basaltic andesite, beginning with an explosive stage marked by a 0.5 m basal Plinian layer. Later eruptions alternated between quiescent and Strombolian-styles. Phenocrysts include clear plagioclase, sieve-texture plagioclase, olivine and rare augite. The DVSC and associated Santa Clara lava flow are tholeiitic basalt, consisting of olivine phenocrysts, and rare plagioclase phenocrysts. Based on preliminary geochemical data, Diamond Valley rocks exhibit lower incompatible element ratios compared to mafic rocks on the Markagunt Plateau and transition zone rocks. In contrast, Veyo Volcano rocks are similar to transition zone mafic rocks with regard to incompatible element abundances.

  5. Source mask optimization study based on latest Nikon immersion scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jun; Wei, Fang; Chen, Lijun; Zhang, Chenming; Zhang, Wei; Nishinaga, Hisashi; El-Sewefy, Omar; Gao, Gen-Sheng; Lafferty, Neal; Meiring, Jason; Zhang, Recoo; Zhu, Cynthia

    2016-03-01

    The 2x nm logic foundry node has many challenges since critical levels are pushed close to the limits of low k1 ArF water immersion lithography. For these levels, improvements in lithographic performance can translate to decreased rework and increased yield. Source Mask Optimization (SMO) is one such route to realize these image fidelity improvements. During SMO, critical layout constructs are intensively optimized in both the mask and source domain, resulting in a solution for maximum lithographic entitlement. From the hardware side, advances in source technology have enabled free-form illumination. The approach allows highly customized illumination, enabling the practical application of SMO sources. The customized illumination sources can be adjusted for maximum versatility. In this paper, we present a study on a critical layer of an advanced foundry logic node using the latest ILT based SMO software, paired with state-of-the-art scanner hardware and intelligent illuminator. Performance of the layer's existing POR source is compared with the ideal SMO result and the installed source as realized on the intelligent illuminator of an NSR-S630D scanner. Both simulation and on-silicon measurements are used to confirm that the performance of the studied layer meets established specifications.

  6. The Latest IceCube Results and the Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mase, Keiichi

    IceCube was built at the South Pole and aims to detect high energy neutrinos from the universe mainly above 100 GeV. The transparent ice media allows us to build a 1 km3 large detection volume to detect the rarely interacting particles. Neutrinos are thought to be generated at astrophysical sources such as active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. Nature of the rare interaction with matters and little deflection by a magnetic field makes it possible to explore such sources located at the deep universe. Since the neutrinos are produced through collisions of hadronic particles, the observation can elucidate the origin of cosmic rays, which is still mystery after the discovery 100 years ago. The detector was completed at the end of 2010 and is running smoothly. Recently, IceCube has found the first evidence of extraterrestrial neutrinos with energies above approximately 60 TeV. IceCube also contributes to elementary particle physics by searching for neutrinos produced in self-annihilation of SUSY particles such as neutralinos and by investigating atmospheric neutrino oscillations. The latest IceCube results and the corresponding implications are presented.

  7. Latest Technologies and Future Trends on Home Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Shiro; Matsumoto, Seiichiro

    With the outstanding growth of communication and device technologies, various kinds of digital appliances have been introduced into home, and expectations toward home network which interconnects and controls such appliances have been rapidly emerging. This article describes the latest technologies and future trends on home network in which wireless network including wireless Personal Area Network (PAN) such as sensor network plays a vital role. The network includes wireless LAN, Ultra Wide Band (UWB), ZigBee sensor network and Power Line Communication (PLC). ECHONET which is a defacto standard for accommodating energy efficient legacy appliance control is also briefly introduced. As one of the key functions for seamless interconnection of digital appliances, protocol standardization is essential. This article addresses the defacto middleware architectures such as Universal Plug and Play (UPnP), Digital Living Networking Alliance (DLNA) and Open Service Gateway initiative (OSGi) which involve the standard protocols and message formats. Finally, seamless integration between in-house and outdoor networks, and in-house network interconnection between e.g. wireless LAN as a backbone and sensor network as a branch are presented as a future image of home network environment.

  8. All-sky observations with HAWC: latest results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; HAWC Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a ground-based air- shower detector designed to study cosmic rays and gamma rays with energies from 100 GeV up to 100 TeV. HAWC simultaneously surveys 2sr of the northern sky with a high duty cycle > 90% in search for photons from point and extended sources, diffuse emission, transient events and other astrophysical phenomena at multi-TeV scales against the background of cosmic rays. In fact, the study of this background will open also the possibility of doing cosmic ray physics in the GeV — TeV regime and even to perform solar studies at HAWC. The observatory will consist of a densely packed array of 300 water Cherenkov tanks (4.5 m tall and 7.3 m diameter with 4 photomultipliers each) distributed on a 22 000 m2 surface. Deployment started in March 2012 on a plateau situated on the Sierra Negra Volcano in the state of Puebla, Mexico, at an altitude of 4100 m. Construction is expected to be finished by the first months of 2015. In the mean time, HAWC has been taking data with a partial array and preliminary results have been already obtained. In this contribution, the results from the latest HAWC observations will be presented.

  9. Latest news from the High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Muñoz, A.; HAWC Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory is an air shower detector designed to study very-high-energy gamma rays (˜ 100 GeV to ˜ 100 TeV). It is located in the Pico de Orizaba National Park, Mexico, at an elevation of 4100 m. HAWC started operations since August 2013 with 111 tanks and in April of 2015 the 300 tanks array was completed. HAWC's unique capabilities, with a field of view of ˜ 2 sr and a high duty cycle of 5%, allow it to survey 2/3 of the sky every day. These features makes HAWC an excellent instrument for searching new TeV sources and for the detection of transient events, like gamma-ray bursts. Moreover, HAWC provides almost continuous monitoring of already known sources with variable gamma-ray fluxes in most of the northern and part of the southern sky. These observations will bring new information about the acceleration processes that take place in astrophysical environments. In this contribution, some of the latest scientific results of the observatory will be presented.

  10. [The latest research advance in media involved in sepsis].

    PubMed

    Hao, Yufang; Geng, Lixia

    2016-02-01

    Sepsis and septic shock are the major causes of death in intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide. A large amount of studies on their pathophysiology have revealed an imbalance in the inflammatory network leading to tissue damage, organ failure, and ultimately, death. Cytokines, proteases, lipid mediators, vasoactive peptides, and cell stress markers play key roles in pathophysiology of sepsis. Although anti-inflammatory mediators can neutralize the promoting role of pro-inflammatory mediators, but persistent immune regulation may cause host susceptibility to concurrent infections. Therefore, it is a great challenge to seek effective clinical therapy against sepsis. To understand the complicated interplay between pro- and anti-inflammatory agents in sepsis, and their interaction in signal transduction and immune regulation in sepsis constitute vital significance to the prevention and control of sepsis. Summarize the latest findings about mediators associated with sepsis and innate and adaptive immune system at home and abroad in recent years, and illustrate the impact of its effects on sepsis, which may lead to resolution of many unexplored queries in the future.

  11. Lung cancer screening: latest developments and unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    van der Aalst, Carlijn M; Ten Haaf, Kevin; de Koning, Harry J

    2016-09-01

    The US National Lung Screening Trial showed that individuals randomly assigned to screening with low-dose CT scans had 20% lower lung cancer mortality than did those screened with conventional chest radiography. On the basis of a review of the literature and a modelling study, the US Preventive Services Task Force recommends annual screening for lung cancer for individuals aged 55-80 years who have a 30 pack-year smoking history and either currently smoke or quit smoking within the past 15 years. However, the balance between benefits and harms of lung cancer screening is still greatly debated. The large number of false-positive results and the potential for overdiagnosis are causes for concern. Some investigators suggest the ratio between benefits and harms could be improved through various means. Nevertheless, many questions remain with regard to the implementation of lung cancer screening. This paper highlights the latest developments in CT lung cancer screening and provides an overview of the main unanswered questions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pembrolizumab in cervical cancer: latest evidence and clinical usefulness.

    PubMed

    Borcoman, Edith; Le Tourneau, Christophe

    2017-06-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. With the development of detection of precancerous lesions and preventive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program, a survival improvement has been observed in these patients in developed countries, although disparities in accessibility to treatments exist across countries. While early-stage cervical cancer can be curable with surgery, prognosis of patients who recur remains poor, with limited treatment options. In this latter setting, recently, bevacizumab, an antiangiogenic monoclonal antibody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), has been shown to improve overall survival in combination with chemotherapy as compared with chemotherapy alone. No standard treatments exist beyond this treatment regimen. New effective treatments are therefore much needed in this setting. Immunotherapy has represented a breakthrough in recent years in oncology, with antitumor activity reported with immune-checkpoint inhibitors in a variety of tumor types. We discuss here the latest evidence and clinical usefulness of pembrolizumab, anti-PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor, in the treatment of advanced cervical cancer.

  13. University Satellite Featuring Latest OBC Core & Payload Data Processing Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eickhoff, Jens; Roser, Hans-Peter; Stevenson, Dave; Habinc, Sandi

    2010-08-01

    As already published in diverse papers, University of Stuttgart, Germany, is running a small satellite development programme. The first satellite under development (Phase C) is a 3-axis stabilized LEO satellite with a box size of 60cm x 70cm x 80cm, deployable solar panels, ACS including star trackers, wheels and GPS and a mass of 120kg. Launch is envisaged 2013 on an ISRO PSLV launcher. The design is conceptualized to be suitable not only for this specific mission, but to serve as Future Lowcost Platform for diverse science smallsat missions. This paper presents the latest onboard computer technologies selected and defined for the spacecraft covering both the main OBC (CDMU) as well as the payload data processing unit (PMC). The key point is that although being a university project it has been achieved to implement onboard hardware and software design to be fully compliant to international space standards like CCSDS and PUS. The corresponding author is system engineering coach for the project from industry.

  14. The FOXSI sounding rocket: Latest analysis and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilo Buitrago-Casas, Juan; Glesener, Lindsay; Christe, Steven; Krucker, Sam; Ishikawa, Shin-Nosuke; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Ramsey, Brian; Han, Raymond

    2016-05-01

    Hard X-ray (HXR) observations are a linchpin for studying particle acceleration and hot thermal plasma emission in the solar corona. Current and past indirectly imaging instruments lack the sensitivity and dynamic range needed to observe faint HXR signatures, especially in the presences of brighter sources. These limitations are overcome by using HXR direct focusing optics coupled with semiconductor detectors. The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket experiment is a state of the art solar telescope that develops and applies these capabilities.The FOXSI sounding rocket has successfully flown twice, observing active regions, microflares, and areas of the quiet-Sun. Thanks to its far superior imaging dynamic range, FOXSI performs cleaner hard X-ray imaging spectroscopy than previous instruments that use indirect imaging methods like RHESSI.We present a description of the FOXSI rocket payload, paying attention to the optics and semiconductor detectors calibrations, as well as the upgrades made for the second flight. We also introduce some of the latest FOXSI data analysis, including imaging spectroscopy of microflares and active regions observed during the two flights, and the differential emission measure distribution of the nonflaring corona.

  15. A search for sterile neutrinos with the latest cosmological observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lu; Zhang, Jing-Fei; Zhang, Xin

    2017-06-01

    We report the result of a search for sterile neutrinos with the latest cosmological observations. Both cases of massless and massive sterile neutrinos are considered in the Λ CDM cosmology. The cosmological observations used in this work include the Planck 2015 temperature and polarization data, the baryon acoustic oscillation data, the Hubble constant direct measurement data, the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster counts data, the Planck lensing data, and the cosmic shear data. We find that the current observational data give a hint of the existence of massless sterile neutrino (as dark radiation) at the 1.44σ level, and the consideration of an extra massless sterile neutrino can indeed relieve the tension between observations and improve the cosmological fit. For the case of massive sterile neutrino, the observations give a rather tight upper limit on the mass, which implies that actually a massless sterile neutrino is more favored. Our result is consistent with the recent result of neutrino oscillation experiment done by the Daya Bay and MINOS collaborations, as well as the recent result of cosmic ray experiment done by the IceCube collaboration.

  16. Environmental Bioinorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro

    1974-01-01

    Discusses some important aspects of bioinorganic chemistry, including interactions of organisms with metallic and nonmetallic elements and compounds. Indicates that many environmental problems are created by human exploitation of nature and technologies if studied from a bioinorganic chemical viewpoint. (CC)

  17. Lithium batteries. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and applications of lithium batteries. Topics include electrochemical aspects, cycling characteristics, performance evaluations, and applications in cardiac pacemaker devices. Batteries using organic compounds, chlorides, and metal sulfides are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Airlift bioreactors. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning industrial and research applications of airlift bioreactors. Citations include biofilm formation, patents, pharmaceutical production, oxygen mass transfer studies, antibiotic production, wastewater treatment, culture media aspects, and growth kinetics. Topics also explore the culturing of bacterial, fungal, insect, and animal cells. (Contains a minimum of 99 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Advanced sensing technology in environmental field.

    PubMed

    Wakida, Shin-ichi

    2009-01-01

    Before the introduction of advanced sensing technology in environmental fields, environmental issues were discussed as several categories, such as local environmental issues in the 1970s, global environmental issues in the 1980s, living environmental issues in the 2000s and environmental stress issues in near future, which are of increasing interest in Japan. Using advanced sensing technologies, such as electrochemical sensors, chemically-sensitive field-effect transistors (ChemFETs) based on micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS) micromachining technology and subsequently electrophoretic separation and microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip using MEMS technology, we have steered several kinds of environmental monitoring projects timely in response to the environmental issues for over the last 25 years. Among the local environmental issues, the global environmental issues and the living environmental issues, some fruits of R&D project will be introduced. Finally, our latest concern of the environmental stress monitoring was discussed and preliminary results were also introduced.

  20. The Fallacy of the Latest Word: The Case of "Pietism and Science."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merton, Robert K.

    1984-01-01

    In a reply to Becker's critique of the relationship between pietism and science, Merton discusses the fallacy of the latest word, which is based on the idea that scientific knowledge always proceeds upwards and that the latest theory is the best theory as well as the one best grounded in evidence. (Author/IS)

  1. Ocean anoxia did not cause the Latest Permian Extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proemse, Bernadette C.; Grasby, Stephen E.; Wieser, Michael E.; Mayer, Bernhard; Beauchamp, Benoit

    2014-05-01

    The Latest Permian Extinction (LPE, ~252 million years ago) was a turning point in the history of life on Earth with a loss of ~96% of all marine species and ~70% of all terrestrial species. While, the event undoubtedly shaped the evolution of life its cause remains enigmatic. A leading hypothesis is that the global oceans became depleted in oxygen (anoxia). In order to test this hypothesis we investigated a proxy for marine oxygen levels (molybdenum isotopic composition) in shale across the LPE horizon located on the subtropical northwest margin of Pangea at that time. We studied two sedimentary records in the Sverdrup basin, Canadian High Arctic: Buchanan Lake (eastern Axel Heiberg Island; 79° 26.1'N, 87° 12.6'W), representing a distal deep-water slope environment, and West Blind Fiord (southwest Ellesmere Island; 78° 23.9'N, 85° 57.2'W), representing a deep outer shelf environment (below storm wave base). The molybdenum isotopic composition (δ98/95Mo) of sediments has recently become a powerful tool as a paleo-oceanographic proxy of marine oxygen levels. Sample preparation was carried out in a metal-free clean room facility in the isotope laboratory of the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Canada, that is supplied by HEPA-filtered air. Molybdenum isotope ratios were determined on a Thermo Scientific multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) with an uncertainty better than ±0.10o for δ98/95Mo values. Results from the Buchanan Lake section show a large shift in δ98/95Mo values from 2.02o to +2.23o at the extinction horizon, consistent with onset of euxinic conditions. In contrast, West Blind Fiord shales, representing the sub-storm wave base shelf environment, show little change in the molybdenum isotopic composition (1.34o to +0.05), indicating ongoing oxic conditions across the LPE (Proemse et al., 2013). Our results suggest that areas of the Pangea continental shelf (North West Pangea) experienced

  2. The latest treatment strategy for the rheumatoid hand deformity.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hajime

    2017-03-22

    With a remarkable improvement in the pharmacotherapy of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), severely handicapped patients are very rare to see. Healing, repair and drug-free, and toward radical cure are coming to be possible. In the clinical practice, more than 50% of the patients are in remission. However, some patients are still difficult to reach remission due to comorbidities and economic burden. In the patient with clinical remission, smoldering synovitis so called "silent destructor" is often detected by ultrasonograpy or by synovial histology in the small joints of the hand. In recent years, over use with "no pain" increases the risk of deformity, osteoarthrosis, tendon rupture and entrapment neuropathy. Highly motivated patients, who concern about the appearance of the hand, hope to get a higher level of activities of daily living and quality of life (QOL). A prospective cohort study was performed for the purpose of knowing whether rheumatoid hand surgery affects the patient's QOL and mental health as well as upper extremity function. A primary hand surgery was scheduled in 119 patients with RA. Synovectomy and Darrach procedure, radiolunate arthrodesis, reconstruction of the extensor tendons, arthroplasty at the metacarpophalangeal (MP) using Swanson implant, fusion at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint, suspensionplasty at the carpometacarpal (CM) joint of the thumb (Thompson method) et al. were performed. As a result, Japanese version of the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (J-HAQ:physical function,QOL), EuroQOL-5 dimension (EQ-5D:QOL), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II:depression, mentality) at 6 months and at 12 months after surgery improved significantly compared to those just before surgery (p < 0.01). Disease activity score 28- C reactive protein 4 (DAS28-CRP (4)) decreased significantly (p < 0.01). Latest hand surgery with tight medical control is possible to raise QOL and to provide mental wellness for the patient with RA.

  3. The latest results from DICE (Detector Interferometric Calibration Experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzier, A.; Malbet, F.; Hénault, F.; Léger, A.; Cara, C.; Le Duigou, J. M.; Preis, O.; Kern, P.; Delboulbe, A.; Martin, G.; Feautrier, P.; Stadler, E.; Lafrasse, S.; Rochat, S.; Ketchazo, C.; Donati, M.; Doumayrou, Eric; Lagage, P. O.; Shao, M.; Goullioud, R.; Nemati, B.; Zhai, C.; Behar, E.; Potin, S.; Saint-Pe, M.; Dupont, J.

    2016-07-01

    Theia is an astrometric mission proposed to ESA in 2014 for which one of the scientific objectives is detecting Earth-like exoplanets in the habitable zone of nearby solar-type stars. This objective requires the capability to measure stellar centroids at the precision of 1x10-5 pixel. Current state-of-the-art methods for centroid estimation have reached a precision of about 3x10-5 pixel at two times Nyquist sampling, this was shown at the JPL by the VESTA experiment. A metrology system was used to calibrate intra and inter pixel quantum efficiency variations in order to correct pixelation errors. The Theia consortium is operating a testbed in vacuum in order to achieve 1x10-5 pixel precision for the centroid estimation. The goal is to provide a proof of concept for the precision requirement of the Theia spacecraft. The testbed consists of two main sub-systems. The first one produces pseudo stars: a blackbody source is fed into a large core fiber and lights-up a pinhole mask in the object plane, which is imaged by a mirror on the CCD. The second sub-system is the metrology, it projects young fringes on the CCD. The fringes are created by two single mode fibers facing the CCD and fixed on the mirror. In this paper we present the latest experiments conducted and the results obtained after a series of upgrades on the testbed was completed. The calibration system yielded the pixel positions to an accuracy estimated at 4x10-4 pixel. After including the pixel position information, an astrometric accuracy of 6 x 10-5 pixel was obtained, for a PSF motion over more than 5 pixels. In the static mode (small jitter motion of less than 1 x 10-3 pixel), a photon noise limited precision of 3x10-5 pixel was reached.

  4. Latest developments in integrated hydro power plant and substation control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brauner, C.

    1995-12-31

    Electric energy, especially when produced by hydroelectric power plants is one of the most environmental compatible energy sources as it is generated by recoverable origins--they make use of natural resources rather than consume them. However, these resources are limited in supply, which is reason enough to use them with care by improving efficiency in electric power generation and distribution. Modern control and automation systems for power plants and substations allow to optimize the mechanical and electrical components in planning, operation and maintenance, not only for new construction projects but also for refurbishment undertakings. Especially suitable are stations which must be renovated because of their age, a shortage of replacement parts or technical breakdown, as a relatively small amount of investment for improving the level of effectiveness is required for obtaining high yields. Increased emphasis is being placed on more efficient and cost effective ways to operate power plants and substations. A new generation of integrated control systems, unifying the advantages of conventional control concepts with latest technology in data processing and distributed automation is offering new benefits to the power utility.

  5. Corrosion issues in joining lightweight materials: A review of the latest achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montemor, M. F.

    2016-02-01

    Multimaterials assemblies and, in particular, assemblies made of lightweight components are of utmost relevance in many technical applications. These assemblies include multimetal, metal-polymer, metal-adhesive, and metal-composites combinations, among others. Presently, the transportation sector is looking for lighter materials that allow for reducing fuel consumption and the environmental footprint. Aluminum and magnesium alloys, as well as composites and polymers, are considered strategic for such purposes, and their joining in metal-metal or hybrid assemblies has been explored to develop lightweight components. These multimaterial assemblies are often exposed to aggressive environments in which moisture and aggressive species are present. Under these conditions corrosion phenomena are a major source of material failures. Depending on the nature of the metals and nonmetals and of the joining process, the mechanism and extent of corrosion can vary significantly. Thus, it is essential to understand the impact of corrosion in joined materials and to know which counter-measures can be adopted to mitigate corrosion events in the system of concern. This chapter aims at reviewing the latest results of studies focused in corrosion issues in the joining of lightweight materials. It describes the most common corrosion phenomena observed in joined materials, and it emphasizes corrosion issues in assemblies that combine different metals and that combine metals with nonmetals. Moreover, it overviews the state-of-the-art in corrosion protection strategies that can be applied and, finally, it overlooks the future trends.

  6. Sanitary landfills. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning refuse disposal in sanitary landfills. Among the topics reviewed are site selection criteria, leachate analysis and treatment, and economic and management aspects. Hydrologic studies pertaining to contaminant transport, and the use of liners and covers are discussed. Considerable attention is given to gas generation and recovery, and specific operations are described. Citations pertaining specifically to hazardous and industrial waste materials are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Pollution liability. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning court decisions regarding pollution liability. Specific aspects of pollution legislation that must be proven to establish liability are discussed. Federal, state, or civil exemptions to pollution laws are detailed. Pollution liability insurance is examined. Punitive assessments providing economic recovery and clean up costs to injured parties are briefly considered. Specific court decisions are used to highlight general principles of pollution liability. (Contains a minimum of 225 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Deforestation. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning deforestation. Citations include forest destruction methods, effects on global warming, pollution effects, forestry economics, and environmental consequences. Analysis of deforestation in the United States, Europe, and developing countries is discussed. Methods to analyze deforestation, including the use of satellite remote sensing, are described. (Contains a minimum of 173 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Are Pesticides the Latest Peril Facing Your Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1990-01-01

    Environmental and consumer-safety groups are urging caution in the use of pesticides in the schools. Some schools are successfully using integrated pest management (IPM). IPM combines monitoring for pests with the selective use of the least toxic strategies, not all of them chemical. Offers advice and resources to help administrators switch to…

  10. Improving the Learning Process in the Latest Prefabricated School Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pons, Oriol; Oliva, Josep-Manuel; Maas, Sandra-Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000 hundreds of school centers have been constructed in Catalonia using industrialized technologies. These centers are modern, useful, educational edifices built using advantageous prefabricated technologies that improve the building process and reduce the environmental impact of the building. This article analyses whether these…

  11. Improving the Learning Process in the Latest Prefabricated School Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pons, Oriol; Oliva, Josep-Manuel; Maas, Sandra-Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000 hundreds of school centers have been constructed in Catalonia using industrialized technologies. These centers are modern, useful, educational edifices built using advantageous prefabricated technologies that improve the building process and reduce the environmental impact of the building. This article analyses whether these…

  12. Lake and river bottom sampling. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and results related to the collection of samples from the bottom of ponds, lakes, and rivers. Techniques include sampling devices, platforms for mounting or operating the sampling devices, and analytical techniques for the collected samples. Results include analysis of organic, chemical, and metallic components for bottom sediments. Statements on resulting water quality or environmental aspects are often included. Citations include investigations covering porosity of bottom soils, and ground water beneath the lake or river studied. Many of the samples include benthic fauna to assess the condition of the water. (Contains a minimum of 214 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Artificial recharge of aquifers. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of artificial recharge methods to improve the availability and quality of aquifers. Topics include site studies and evaluation, the use of impounded fresh water and treated wastewater in recharge applications, the role of artificial recharge techniques in groundwater resource management, individual state programs, contaminant behavior, and the engineering aspects of the use of spreading ponds and injection wells. Legal and environmental considerations, as well as the use of computer simulations, are also treated. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Artificial recharge of aquifers. (Latest citations from the selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of artificial recharge methods to improve the availability and quality of aquifers. Topics include site studies and evaluation, the use of impounded fresh water and treated wastewater in recharge applications, the role of artificial recharge techniques in groundwater resource management, individual state programs, contaminant behavior, and the engineering aspects of the use of spreading ponds and injection wells. Legal and environmental considerations, as well as the use of computer simulations, are also treated. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Aquaculture: Algae. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the commercial cultivation of algae as a facet of aquaculture. Topics include descriptions and characteristics of algal species, environmental variables affecting productivity, nutritional aspects, infestation and disease, genetic manipulation, and production technology. End product applications examine algae as biomass for energy production, food source for humans, animal feed source, and a source for chemical by-products such as chlorophylls. Harvesting of algae as a source of single-celled protein is referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Aquaculture: Algae. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the commercial cultivation of algae as a facet of aquaculture. Topics include descriptions and characteristics of algal species, environmental variables affecting productivity, nutritional aspects, infestation and disease, genetic manipulation, and production technology. End product applications examine algae as biomass for energy production, food source for humans, animal feed source, and a source for chemical by-products such as chlorophylls. Harvesting of algae as a source of single-celled protein is referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 171 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Evaluating Environmental Chemistry Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hites, Ronald A.

    2001-01-01

    A director of the Indiana University Center for Environmental Science Research reviews textbooks on environmental chemistry. Highlights clear writing, intellectual depth, presence of problem sets covering both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the material, and full coverage of the topics of concern. Discusses the director's own approach…

  18. [Latest standards of muscle injury prophylactic activities, treatment and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Jaroszewski, Jacek; Bakowski, Paweł; Tabiszewski, Maciej

    2008-01-01

    Muscle injury represents the highest proportion of sport-linked contusions. Experimental and clinical studies aim at increasingly detailed recognition of muscle physiology and pathophysiology. It would allow to set up functional standards and permit to minimize risk of contusions associated with sport activities. In cases of such contusions it would restrict its sequele and would abbreviate the duration of treatment. In the study elements of prophylaxis, treatment and rehabilitation of injured muscles will be discussed, based on current scientific results. Review study includes data from studies investigating prophylactic activities, types of teratment and the effects of different rehabilitation strategy. Latest standards from First European Congress of Football Medicine, Munich 2004, were also taken into account. The prophylactic activities should focus on education attempting to popularize the knowledge of the role of warm-up activities which precede proper physical effort, muscle stretching and activities augmenting muscle strength. The treatment of muscle injury is related to the extent of their damage. First actions should be focused on the RICE principle (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation). In case of torn tissues, local injections of anesthetics, anti-inflammatory agents and regeneration-promoting agents used to be applied. Application of NSAIDs and anti-thrombotic prophylaxis is sound but due to their side effects it is recommended as frequently as it is counterindicated by physicians. A threshold in the therapy, not always noted by therapeutists, involves rapid mobilization of the injured tissue. This involves mobility exercises starting at 3-5 days post-trauma, with no load at the beginning, but starting at days 4 to 6 asssociated with appropriate loading. The recently conducted studies aim at stimulation of rapid muscle regeneration, inhibition of scar formation in the site of injury and elimination of already existing scars. The latter seems most

  19. Latest Pleistocene to Holocene hydroclimates from Lake Elsinore, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Matthew E.; Feakins, Sarah J.; Bonuso, Nicole; Fantozzi, Joanna M.; Hiner, Christine A.

    2013-09-01

    The hydroclimate of the southwestern United States (US) region changed abruptly during the latest Pleistocene as the continental ice sheets over North America retreated from their most southerly extent. To investigate the nature of this change, we present a new record from Lake Elsinore, located 36 km inland from the Pacific Ocean in Southern California and evaluate it in the context of records across the coastal and interior southwest United States, including northwest Mexico. The sediment core recovered from Lake Elsinore provides a continuous sequence with multi-decadal resolution spanning 19-9 ka BP. Sedimentological and geochemical analyses reveal hydrologic variability. In particular, sand and carbonate components indicate abrupt changes at the Oldest Dryas (OD), Bølling-Allerød (BA), and Younger Dryas (YD) transitions, consistent with the timing in Greenland. Hydrogen isotope analyses of the C28n-alkanoic acids from plant leaf waxes (δDwax) reveal a long term trend toward less negative values across 19-9 ka BP. δDwax values during the OD suggest a North Pacific moisture source for precipitation, consistent with the dipping westerlies hypothesis. We find no isotopic evidence for the North American Monsoon reaching as far west as Lake Elsinore; therefore, we infer that wet/dry changes in the coastal southwest were expressed through winter-season precipitation, consistent with modern climatology. Comparing Lake Elsinore to other southwest records (notably Cave of Bells and Fort Stanton) we find coincident timing of the major transitions (OD to BA, BA to YD) and hydrologic responses during the OD and BA. The hydrologic response, however, varied during the YD consistent with a dipole between the coastal and interior southwest. The coherent pattern of hydrologic responses across the interior southwest US and northwest Mexico during the OD (wet), the BA (drier), and YD (wet) follows changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, presumably via its

  20. Global Energy and Water Balances in the Latest Reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joong-Bae; Kang, Suchul; Park, Hye-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Administration Research and Development Program under grant KMIPA2015-2081. References Suchul Kang and Joong-Bae Ahn (2015) Global Energy and Water Balances in the Latest Reanalyses, Asia-Pac. J. Atmos. Sci. 51(4), 293-302.

  1. The latest information on Macrolane™: its indications and restrictions.

    PubMed

    Siebert, T; Chaput, B; Vaysse, C; Meresse, T; Chavoin, J-P; Garrido, I; Grolleau, J-L

    2014-04-01

    Hyaluronic acid has come to represent the most widely used injectable cosmetic product in the world. Brought into being by the Swedish company Q-Med, in 2007 Macrolane™ was authorized for use in France, and the year after, it received official European approval as a means of breast augmentation. Since then, however, numerous controversies pertaining to its side effects have led to its withdrawal from the worldwide breast augmentation market. The objective of this article is to carry out a review of the literature providing updated information on Macrolane™ and its recent indications. We carried out a review of the literature on the PubMed and PubMed Central data bases through use of the keywords "Macrolane™", "NASHA", "hyaluronic acid" and "soft filler", and subsequently analyzed the levels of evidence and possible biases of the different publications. The official sites of the French, English, Spanish and American scholarly organizations of plastic surgery were likewise consulted. Perusal of the notifications and recommendations for use brought out by the Q-Med company completed our study. A large majority of the available clinical series on Macrolane™ with regard to not only breast augmentation, but also its other indications, offer an insufficient level of evidence and present a number of conflicts of interest. Since April 2012 Macrolane™ has been temporarily withdrawn by its distributors from the worldwide breast augmentation market. In point of fact, Macrolane™ injections have been found to interfere with breast imaging and screening for breast cancer. As regards the latest indications for this controversial product, it is not yet possible to step back and take stock. Present-day scientific data fail to justify the market reappearance of Macrolane™ breast augmentation products. Q-Med has shown full awareness of the problem by imposing worldwide restrictions on products aimed at penis as well as breast enlargement. Larger cohorts of female

  2. Coal desulfurization. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning physical, chemical, and microbiological methods used in the removal of sulfur from coal. Oxydesulfurization, washing, electrochemical separation, oxidation, molten salts, microwave radiation, biodegradation, supercritical extraction, magnetic techniques, chlorinolysis, and flotation are among the processes considered. Sulfur pollution standards, environmental regulations and considerations, and process analyses and evaluations are discussed. Desulfurization of coal derived liquids and coal liquefaction are examined in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Wetlands. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning coastal and fresh water wetlands. Studies of regional regulations and management of specific sites are included. Topics include acid mine drainage, environmental impacts, hydrology, marshes, swamps, and natural resources management. Also covered are waste disposal, water pollution, water quality, and wastes as related to wetlands. The National List of Plant Species That Occur in Wetlands by state are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Ceramic bearings. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the fabrication and testing of bearings and bearing surfaces fabricated from ceramic materials. Included are analyses of various ceramic materials used for these bearings, generally tested under severe environmental and tribological conditions. Strength, contact phenomena, and wear are explored to evaluate the performance of the various materials. Ceramic bearings are used in engines, turbines, inertial instrumentation, and space systems. (Contains a minimum of 246 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Wetlands. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning coastal and fresh water wetlands. Studies of regional regulations and management of specific sites are included. Topics include acid mine drainage, environmental impacts, hydrology, marshes, swamps, and natural resources management. Also covered are waste disposal, water pollution, water quality, and wastes as related to wetlands. The National List of Plant Species That Occur in Wetlands by state are included. (Contains a minimum of 122 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Wetlands. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning coastal and fresh water wetlands. Studies of regional regulations and management of specific sites are included. Topics include acid mine drainage, environmental impacts, hydrology, marshes, swamps, and natural resources management. Also covered are waste disposal, water pollution, water quality, and wastes as related to wetlands. The National List of Plant Species That Occur in Wetlands by state are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Solid waste reclamation and recycling: Packaging and containers. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and management of packaging and container recycling. References discuss recycling of tin and aluminum cans, reverse vending machines, reusable packaging and containers, and the future of containers. Environmental aspects, government programs, and development of recycling markets are covered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Solid waste reclamation and recycling: Packaging and containers. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and management of packaging and container recycling. References discuss recycling of tin and aluminum cans, reverse vending machines, reusable packaging and containers, and the future of containers. Environmental aspects, government programs, and development of recycling markets are covered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Comfort and human factors in office and residential settings. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning human factors engineering, anthropometry, and ergonomics as they relate to human comfort in the office and home. Human requirements, including ventilation, temperature control, and lighting, are considered. Research regarding environmental architecture, and engineering, safety, and convenience aspects are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 142 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Environmental contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Rattner, B.A.; Scheunert, I.; Korte, F.; Shore, Richard F.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the ecotoxicology of major classes of environmental contaminants, with respect to sources, environmental chemistry, most likely routes of exposure, potential bioaccumulation and biomagification, mechanisms of toxicity, and effects on potentially vulnerable species of mammalian wildlife. Major contaminants reviewed were selected on the basis of their use patterns, availability and potential toxicity to wild mammals. These included pesticides used in agroecosystems (organochlorines, organophosphorus and carbamate compounds, anticoagulants, herbicides and fungicides), various organic pollutants (chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), heavy metals (lead, mercury, and cadmium), agricultural drainwater mixtures, leachates and radionuclides. Many of the above aspects of ecotoxicology and contaminants will be expanded upon in subsequent chapters of this book as they relate to distinct mammalian species and potential risk.

  11. Environmental Management

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-12

    Another key aspect of the NNSS mission is Environmental Management program, which addresses the environmental legacy from historic nuclear weapons related activities while also ensuring the health and safety of present day workers, the public, and the environment as current and future missions are completed. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management site receives low-level and mixed low-level waste from some 28 different generators from across the DOE complex in support of the legacy clean-up DOE Environmental Management project. Without this capability, the DOE would not be able to complete the clean up and proper disposition of these wastes. The program includes environmental protection, compliance, and monitoring of the air, water, plants, animals, and cultural resources at the NNSS. Investigation and implementation of appropriate corrective actions to address the contaminated ground water facilities and soils resulting from historic nuclear testing activities, the demolition of abandoned nuclear facilities, as well as installation of ground water wells to identify and monitor the extent of ground water contamination.

  12. Environmental Management

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Another key aspect of the NNSS mission is Environmental Management program, which addresses the environmental legacy from historic nuclear weapons related activities while also ensuring the health and safety of present day workers, the public, and the environment as current and future missions are completed. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management site receives low-level and mixed low-level waste from some 28 different generators from across the DOE complex in support of the legacy clean-up DOE Environmental Management project. Without this capability, the DOE would not be able to complete the clean up and proper disposition of these wastes. The program includes environmental protection, compliance, and monitoring of the air, water, plants, animals, and cultural resources at the NNSS. Investigation and implementation of appropriate corrective actions to address the contaminated ground water facilities and soils resulting from historic nuclear testing activities, the demolition of abandoned nuclear facilities, as well as installation of ground water wells to identify and monitor the extent of ground water contamination.

  13. [Toxic polyneuropathies in shoe factories: preventive aspects].

    PubMed

    Carapella, C

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was carried out concerning 19 shoe factories of Marches province, where 32 cases of polyneuropathy, upon 1264 workmen, have been verified. After examination of qualitative and quantitative risk factors the following conclusions can be deduced. Under the etiological aspect the syndrome can be attributed to poisoning caused by environmental pollutions and thus relating to aliphatic hydrocarbons (exane-cicloexane). Under the quantitative aspect the tecnopatic risk has a multifactorial origin which can be summarised as follows: 1) lack of poor efficiency of environmental purification systems; 2) lack of hygienic-environmental elements; 3) lack of sanitary precautions; 4) poor work organization. A strong preventive therapy is necessary to avoid or at least to reduce the polyneuretic tecnopathy incidence.

  14. Cognitive Aspects of Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajfel, Henri

    1969-01-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of a contribution to a symposium on the "Biosocial Aspects of Race," held in London, September, 1968; symposium was published in the "Journal of Biosocial Science," Supplement No. 1, July, 1969. (RJ)

  15. Hot Dry Rock Induced Seismicity - Latest results from Basel, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deichmann, N.; Kraft, T.; Husen, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Deep Heat Mining project in Basel, Switzerland, was one of the first purely commercially oriented Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) projects. Beginning on 2 December 2006, water was injected into a 5 km deep well with increasing flow rates. Because of strongly increased seismic activity, which included a ML2.7 event, injection had already been stopped a few hours prior to a ML3.4 event that occurred on 8 December 2006. This earthquake rattled the local population and received international media attention. Slight nonstructural damage has been claimed by many homeowners, with a damage sum of US$7 million. Bleed-off of the injection well was initiated about 1 hour after the ML3.4 event, and hydrostatic down-hole pressure was reached within 4 days. Since then, the seismicity slowly decayed. Three additional earthquakes with ML > 3 were felt 1-2 months after bleed-off. More than 2 years later, sporadic seismicity inside the stimulated rock volume is still being detected by the down-hole instruments. At present, the EGS project is on hold and awaits the completion of an independent risk analysis study. Here, we report on latest results of the analysis of the induced earthquake sequence which is one of the most densely monitored deep fluid-injections in the world. The seismic monitoring system consisted of six borehole seismometers near the injection well and of up to 30 seismic surface stations in the Basel area. The network is to a large part operational until today. Considerable improvement of the hypocenter locations was achieved by refinement of arrival-time picks and subsequent relocation. First, highly similar events where grouped by a cluster analysis based on broad-banded waveform cross-correlation. In a second step, we improve the P and S arrival-time picks in a semi-automatic procedure by taking advantage of the waveform similarity within the clusters and the improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio by stacking. Finally, we relocate the strongest event of

  16. Automotive emission standards. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning emission standards and air quality standards applied to automobile emissions. Included are federal and state regulations and policies regarding these emission standards. Techniques to meet emission standards are also addressed, involving fuel injection, catalysts, alternate engines, and automotive fuel refinery operations. Studies concerning implementation of automobile emission standards explore economic and environmental effects, testing and inspection procedures, and the automobile industry point of view. Most of the citations refer to gasoline engines, but a few pertain to diesel and other fuels. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Latest about Spoilage by Yeasts: Focus on the Deterioration of Beverages and Other Plant-Derived Products.

    PubMed

    Krisch, Judit; Chandrasekaran, Muthusamy; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Vágvölgyi, Csaba

    2016-05-01

    Food and beverage deterioration by spoilage yeasts is a serious problem that causes substantial financial losses each year. Yeasts are able to grow under harsh environmental conditions in foods with low pH, low water activity, and high sugar and/or salt content. Some of them are extremely resistant to the traditional preservatives used in the food industry. The search for new methods and agents for prevention of spoilage by yeasts is ongoing, but most of these are still at laboratory scale. This minireview gives an overview of the latest research issues relating to spoilage by yeasts, with a focus on wine and other beverages, following the interest of the research groups. It seems that a better understanding of the mechanisms to combat food-related stresses, the characteristics leading to resistance, and rapid identification of strains of yeasts in foods are the tools that can help control spoilage yeasts.

  18. High Aspect Ratio Wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Crosby, Alfred

    2015-03-01

    Buckling-induced surface undulations are widely found in living creatures, for instance, gut villi and the surface of flower petal cells. These undulations provide unique functionalities with their extremely high aspect ratios. For the synthetic systems, sinusoidal wrinkles that are induced by buckling a thin film attached on a soft substrate have been proposed to many applications. However, the impact of the synthetic wrinkles have been restricted by limited aspect ratios, ranging from 0 to 0.35. Within this range, wrinkle aspect ratio is known to increase with increasing compressive strain until a critical strain is reached, at which point wrinkles transition to localizations, such as folds or period doublings. Inspired by the living creatures, we propose that wrinkles can be stabilized in high aspect ratio by manipulating the strain energy in the substrate. We experimentally demonstrate this idea by forming a secondary crosslinking network in the wrinkled surface and successfully achieve aspect ratio as large as 0.8. This work not only provides insights for the mechanism of high aspect ratio structures seen in living creatures, but also demonstrates significant promise for future wrinkle-based applications.

  19. Complete tylosis formation in a latest Permian conifer stem

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhuo; Wang, Jun; Rößler, Ronny; Kerp, Hans; Wei, Hai-Bo

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Our knowledge of tylosis formation is mainly based on observations of extant plants; however, its developmental and functional significance are less well understood in fossil plants. This study, for the first time, describes a complete tylosis formation in a fossil woody conifer and discusses its ecophysiological implications. Methods The permineralized stem of Shenoxylon mirabile was collected from the upper Permian (Changhsingian) Sunjiagou Formation of Shitanjing coalfield, northern China. Samples from different portions of the stem were prepared by using the standard thin-sectioning technique and studied in transmitted light. Key Results The outgrowth of ray parenchyma cells protruded into adjacent tracheids through pits initially forming small pyriform or balloon-shaped structures, which became globular or slightly elongated when they reached their maximum size. The tracheid luminae were gradually occluded by densely spaced tyloses. The host tracheids are arranged in distinct concentric zones representing different growth phases of tylosis formation within a single growth ring. Conclusions The extensive development of tyloses from the innermost heartwood (metaxylem) tracheids to the outermost sapwood tracheids suggests that the plant was highly vulnerable and reacted strongly to environmental stress. Based on the evidence available, the tyloses were probably not produced in response to wound reaction or pathogenic infection, since evidence of wood traumatic events or fungal invasion are not recognizable. Rather, they may represent an ecophysiological response to the constant environmental stimuli. PMID:23532049

  20. Research and latest development of materials for shotcreting

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, M.

    1995-12-31

    In tunnelling procedures employing the New Austria Tunnelling Technique, the tunnel walls are shotcreted immediately after excavation of the rock with a concrete setting within a few seconds. Its function is to preserve the stability of the rock until the final tunnel lining has been put in place and to protect the workers and machines operating at the site from the danger of rockfall. The objectives of a material orientated development of shotcrete were thus: to improve its properties of strength, density, water impermeability and durability in such a manner that shotcrete could be used as a long-term load-bearing tunnel lining; to provide for the environmental and health protection measures necessary during the production and application of shotcrete; and to make the shotcrete application procedure more cost-effective and economical. The cost-effectiveness results from a balancing of all the factors involved: on the one hand, necessarily higher costs for shotcrete and on the other, a smaller amount of rebound, a simpler and speedier application technique, lower costs for environmental and health protection measures, and possibly also smaller cross-section sizes of the tunnel lining and operational advantages for tunnel drainage.

  1. 10 CFR 51.30 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental assessment. 51.30 Section 51.30 Energy...) Environmental Assessment § 51.30 Environmental assessment. (a) An environmental assessment for proposed actions..., an environmental assessment will not include discussion of any aspect of the storage of spent fuel...

  2. 10 CFR 51.30 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental assessment. 51.30 Section 51.30 Energy...) Environmental Assessment § 51.30 Environmental assessment. (a) An environmental assessment for proposed actions..., an environmental assessment will not include discussion of any aspect of the storage of spent fuel...

  3. 23 CFR 771.119 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.119 Environmental assessments. (a) An EA shall be prepared by... aspects of the proposed action have potential for social, economic, or environmental impact; identify alternatives and measures which might mitigate adverse environmental impacts; and identify other environmental...

  4. Bp's progress: A prototype of proactive environmentalism

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-31

    If publishing an account of company improvements in environmental protection, health and safety lies within the realm of public affairs, then public affairs has just risen to a new level of excellence in the report New Horizons from British Petroleum. The report applauds the company's latest accomplishments, while giving muscle to its public relations policy of promoting better communications. It is, in fact, strategic.

  5. Eastern forest environmental threat assessment center

    Treesearch

    Southern Research Station. USDA Forest Service

    2010-01-01

    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center (EFETAC) provides the latest research and expertise concerning threats to healthy forests – such as insects and disease, wildland loss, invasive species, wildland fire, and climate change – to assist forest landowners, managers and scientists throughout the East. Established in 2005, EFETAC is a joint effort of...

  6. Thumbnail Sketches: The Chemistry of Printed Circuit Substrates: Some of the Latest Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, James H.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses some of the latest developments in the chemistry of printed circuit substrates. Topics considered include soldering, dicy (a catalyst), Kevlar (an aramid polymer fiber), maleimide copolymers, and flexible circuits. (JN)

  7. MOVES2014a: Latest Version of MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    MOVES2014a is the latest version of MOVES. It incorporates significant improvements in calculating onroad and nonroad equipment emissions. MOVES2014a does not significantly change the criteria pollutant emissions results of MOVES2014.

  8. Thumbnail Sketches: The Chemistry of Printed Circuit Substrates: Some of the Latest Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, James H.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses some of the latest developments in the chemistry of printed circuit substrates. Topics considered include soldering, dicy (a catalyst), Kevlar (an aramid polymer fiber), maleimide copolymers, and flexible circuits. (JN)

  9. High-Resolution Views of Io's Emakong Patera: Latest Galileo Imaging Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. A.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Davies, A. G.; Greeley, R.; Head, J. W., III

    2002-01-01

    This presentation will discuss analyses of the latest Galileo SSI (solid state imaging) high-resolution images of the Emakong lava channels and flow field on Jupiter's moon Io. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. High-Resolution Views of Io's Emakong Patera: Latest Galileo Imaging Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. A.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Davies, A. G.; Greeley, R.; Head, J. W., III

    2002-01-01

    This presentation will discuss analyses of the latest Galileo SSI (solid state imaging) high-resolution images of the Emakong lava channels and flow field on Jupiter's moon Io. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Latest highlights from the EMSO-Açores deep sea observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarradin, Pierre-Marie; Blandin, Jerome; Cannat, Mathilde; Sarrazin, Jozée; Godfroy, Anne; Rommevaux, Celine; Colaço, Ana; Crawford, Wayne; Ballu, Valerie; Escartin, Javier; Chavagnac, Valerie; Reverdin, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    Pierre Marie Sarradin, Jérome Blandin, Mathilde Cannat, Jozée Sarrazin, Anne Godfroy, Céline Rommevaux, Ana Colaço, Valérie Ballu, Wayne Crawford, Javier Escartin, Valérie Chavagnac, Gilles Reverdin and the MoMARSAT team The MoMAR "Monitoring the Mid-Atlantic Ridge" project was initiated by InterRidge in 1998 to study the environmental instability resulting from active mid-ocean-ridge processes at hydrothermal vent fields south of the Azores. It is now a component of the EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Subsea Observatory) European programs, which coordinate eulerian observatory initiatives in European seas. The EMSO-Açores observatory focuses on two main questions: What are the feedbacks between volcanism, deformation, seismicity, and hydrothermalism at a slow spreading mid-ocean ridge and how does the hydrothermal ecosystem couple with these sub-seabed processes? The uncabled observing system was deployed in 2010 in the Lucky Strike vent field at 1700 m depth. It comprises two Sea Monitoring Nodes (SeaMoN), a first dedicated to geophysics -seismicity and geodesy- and a second dedicated to ecological studies. The nodes are acoustically linked to a surface relay buoy, ensuring satellite communication to a land base station in Brest (France). An array of autonomous sensors (OBSs, pressure probes, temperature probes in selected smokers, current meters and temperature probes in the water column) and colonization devices complete the infrastructure. A site studies program contributes to increase the set of accessible parameters and to extend the spatial coverage of the study. This paper will present the latest highlights of EMSO-Açores studies, underlining the complementarity of spatial and temporal studies.

  12. Latest developments in silica-based thermoluminescence spectrometry and dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Bradley, D A; Jafari, S M; Siti Shafiqah, A S; Tamcheck, N; Shutt, A; Siti Rozaila, Z; Abdul Sani, S F; Sabtu, Siti Norbaini; Alanazi, Abdulaziz; Amouzad Mahdiraji, G; Abdul Rashid, H A; Maah, M J

    2016-11-01

    Using irradiated doped-silica preforms from which fibres for thermoluminescence dosimetry applications can be fabricated we have carried out a range of luminescence studies, the TL yield of the fibre systems offering many advantages over conventional passive dosimetry types. In this paper we investigate such media, showing emission spectra for irradiated preforms and the TL response of glass beads following irradiation to an (241)Am-Be neutron source located in a tank of water, the glass fibres and beads offering the advantage of being able to be placed directly into liquid. The outcomes from these and other lines of research are intended to inform development of doped silica radiation dosimeters of versatile utility, extending from environmental evaluations through to clinical and industrial applications.

  13. Lactate Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (LATEST) Imaging in vivo A Biomarker for LDH Activity.

    PubMed

    DeBrosse, Catherine; Nanga, Ravi Prakash Reddy; Bagga, Puneet; Nath, Kavindra; Haris, Mohammad; Marincola, Francesco; Schnall, Mitchell D; Hariharan, Hari; Reddy, Ravinder

    2016-01-22

    Non-invasive imaging of lactate is of enormous significance in cancer and metabolic disorders where glycolysis dominates. Here, for the first time, we describe a chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method (LATEST), based on the exchange between lactate hydroxyl proton and bulk water protons to image lactate with high spatial resolution. We demonstrate the feasibility of imaging lactate with LATEST in lactate phantoms under physiological conditions, in a mouse model of lymphoma tumors, and in skeletal muscle of healthy human subjects pre- and post-exercise. The method is validated by measuring LATEST changes in lymphoma tumors pre- and post-infusion of pyruvate and correlating them with lactate determined from multiple quantum filtered proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (SEL-MQC (1)H-MRS). Similarly, dynamic LATEST changes in exercising human skeletal muscle are correlated with lactate determined from SEL-MQC (1)H-MRS. The LATEST method does not involve injection of radioactive isotopes or labeled metabolites. It has over two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity compared to conventional (1)H-MRS. It is anticipated that this technique will have a wide range of applications including diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic response of cancer, diabetes, cardiac, and musculoskeletal diseases. The advantages of LATEST over existing methods and its potential challenges are discussed.

  14. Lactate Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (LATEST) Imaging in vivo A Biomarker for LDH Activity

    PubMed Central

    DeBrosse, Catherine; Nanga, Ravi Prakash Reddy; Bagga, Puneet; Nath, Kavindra; Haris, Mohammad; Marincola, Francesco; Schnall, Mitchell D.; Hariharan, Hari; Reddy, Ravinder

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive imaging of lactate is of enormous significance in cancer and metabolic disorders where glycolysis dominates. Here, for the first time, we describe a chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method (LATEST), based on the exchange between lactate hydroxyl proton and bulk water protons to image lactate with high spatial resolution. We demonstrate the feasibility of imaging lactate with LATEST in lactate phantoms under physiological conditions, in a mouse model of lymphoma tumors, and in skeletal muscle of healthy human subjects pre- and post-exercise. The method is validated by measuring LATEST changes in lymphoma tumors pre- and post-infusion of pyruvate and correlating them with lactate determined from multiple quantum filtered proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (SEL-MQC 1H-MRS). Similarly, dynamic LATEST changes in exercising human skeletal muscle are correlated with lactate determined from SEL-MQC 1H-MRS. The LATEST method does not involve injection of radioactive isotopes or labeled metabolites. It has over two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity compared to conventional 1H-MRS. It is anticipated that this technique will have a wide range of applications including diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic response of cancer, diabetes, cardiac, and musculoskeletal diseases. The advantages of LATEST over existing methods and its potential challenges are discussed. PMID:26794265

  15. LATEST: A model of saccadic decisions in space and time.

    PubMed

    Tatler, Benjamin W; Brockmole, James R; Carpenter, R H S

    2017-04-01

    Many of our actions require visual information, and for this it is important to direct the eyes to the right place at the right time. Two or three times every second, we must decide both when and where to direct our gaze. Understanding these decisions can reveal the moment-to-moment information priorities of the visual system and the strategies for information sampling employed by the brain to serve ongoing behavior. Most theoretical frameworks and models of gaze control assume that the spatial and temporal aspects of fixation point selection depend on different mechanisms. We present a single model that can simultaneously account for both when and where we look. Underpinning this model is the theoretical assertion that each decision to move the eyes is an evaluation of the relative benefit expected from moving the eyes to a new location compared with that expected by continuing to fixate the current target. The eyes move when the evidence that favors moving to a new location outweighs that favoring staying at the present location. Our model provides not only an account of when the eyes move, but also what will be fixated. That is, an analysis of saccade timing alone enables us to predict where people look in a scene. Indeed our model accounts for fixation selection as well as (and often better than) current computational models of fixation selection in scene viewing. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Stable isotope reference materials at the IAEA - the latest developments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assonov, Sergey; Gröning, Manfred; Fajgelj, Ales

    2017-04-01

    During the last few years the IAEA has performed works in several directions as following: • Released IAEA-603 (replacement of NBS19) - this is primary Stable isotope Reference Material (RM) used for the VPDB 13C and 18O scale realisation, • Released 6 isotopically enriched (in 2H and 18O) waters, • Performed careful monitoring of LVEC' property delta-13C value. This resulted in understanding that LSVEC needs a replacement. • Taken part in characterisation of 18 new organic CRMs (together with Indiana University and USGS) • Creating collaborations with metrology institutes - focus on metrological aspects of RMs, • As a spin-off of the Technical Meeting on Stable Isotope Reference Materials (IAEA, Vienna 2014) the European EMPIR project aimed to create infrastructure to produce gas mixtures characterised in CO2 isotope composition has been established (NPL, UK and other metrological institutes). The presentation will give details of these works and overview of the current status of RMs production and development.

  17. Numerical modelling of river morphodynamics: Latest developments and remaining challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siviglia, Annunziato; Crosato, Alessandra

    2016-07-01

    Numerical morphodynamic models provide scientific frameworks for advancing our understanding of river systems. The research on involved topics is an important and socially relevant undertaking regarding our environment. Nowadays numerical models are used for different purposes, from answering questions about basic morphodynamic research to managing complex river engineering problems. Due to increasing computer power and the development of advanced numerical techniques, morphodynamic models are now more and more used to predict the bed patterns evolution to a broad spectrum of spatial and temporal scales. The development and the success of application of such models are based upon a wide range of disciplines from applied mathematics for the numerical solution of the equations to geomorphology for the physical interpretation of the results. In this light we organized this special issue (SI) soliciting multidisciplinary contributions which encompass any aspect needed for the development and applications of such models. Most of the papers in the SI stem from contributions to session HS9.5/GM7.11 on numerical modelling and experiments in river morphodynamics at the European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly held in Vienna, April 27th to May 2nd 2014.

  18. A procedure for evaluating environmental impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Clarke, Frank Eldridge; Hanshaw, Bruce B.; Balsley, James R.

    1971-01-01

    The procedure does not limit the development of detail in any specific aspect of the environment; a separate expanded matrix for any environmental aspect can easily be developed within the framework provided.

  19. Requirements Engineering and Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yijun; Niu, Nan; González-Baixauli, Bruno; Mylopoulos, John; Easterbrook, Steve; Do Prado Leite, Julio Cesar Sampaio

    A fundamental problem with requirements engineering (RE) is to validate that a design does satisfy stakeholder requirements. Some requirements can be fulfilled locally by designed modules, where others must be accommodated globally by multiple modules together. These global requirements often crosscut with other local requirements and as such lead to scattered concerns. We explore the possibility of borrowing concepts from aspect-oriented programming (AOP) to tackle these problems in early requirements. In order to validate the design against such early aspects, we propose a framework to trace them into coding and testing aspects. We demonstrate the approach using an open-source e-commerce platform. In the conclusion of this work, we reflect on the lessons learnt from the case study on how to fit RE and AOP research together.

  20. Detectable Aspects Of Alaska, and the Southwests Kokopelli, Indicate That Environmental Monitoring By Native Americans Utilized Several Sensory Modes, and That Their Conservation Held Moral Value Within Their Traditional Culture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, Michael Ann; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2004-03-01

    Place-names of Alaska and the Americas, in names like Natick, MA, Matagamon, ME, Matacumbe Key, FL, Tecate Mt, CA, and Tacoma, WA as well as Allapatah, FL, and Issaqua, WA indicate Native Americans all monitored equivalent aspects of the earths EMF. Former coastal and island areas of Native American activity and culture in Alaska show a traditional, historic leader climbed the mountain of one cliff-like island area for weather prediction. We suggest that the ascent onto the mountain and the subsequent significant stay there was for purposes of cultural and religious reverence associated with direct observation of phenomena associated with known weather sequences. Similar cultural awareness of EMF phenomena and weather-making could be related to practices of the MiKmaw/Micmac Indians of the northeast, and the so-called rain-dance of the Hopi of the southwest. *This paper does not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. E.P.A

  1. Economic aspects of amino acids production.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Udo; Huebner, Susanna

    2003-01-01

    Amino acids represent basic elements of proteins, which as a main source of nutrition themselves serve as a major reserve for maintaining essential functions of humans as well as animals. Taking the recent state of scientific knowledge into account, the industrial sector of amino acids is a priori "suitable" to a specific kind of an ecologically sound way of production, which is based on biotechnology. The following article may point out characteristics of this particular industrial sector and illustrates the applicability of the latest economic methods, founded on development of the discipline of bionics in order to describe economic aspects of amino acids markets. The several biochemical and technological fields of application of amino acids lead to specific market structures in high developed and permanently evolving systems. The Harvard tradition of industrial economics explains how market structures mould the behaviour of the participants and influences market results beyond that. A global increase in intensity of competition confirms the notion that the supply-side is characterised by asymmetric information in contrast to Kantzenbachs concept of "narrow oligopoly" with symmetrical shared knowledge about market information. Departing from this point, certain strategies of companies in this market form shall be derived. The importance of Research and Development increases rapidly and leads to innovative manufacturing methods which replace more polluting manufacturing processes like acid hydrolysis. In addition to these modifications within the production processes the article deals furthermore with the pricing based on product life cycle concept and introduces specific applications of tools like activity based costing and target costing to the field of amino acid production. The authors come to the conclusion that based on a good transferability of latest findings in bionics and ecological compatibility competitors in amino acids manufacturing are well advised

  2. ASPECT Emergency Response Chemical and Radiological Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    LANL

    2008-05-12

    A unique airborne emergency response tool, ASPECT is a Los Alamos/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency project that can put chemical and radiological mapping tools in the air over an accident scene. The name ASPECT is an acronym for Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology. Update, Sept. 19, 2008: Flying over storm-damaged refineries and chemical factories, a twin-engine plane carrying the ASPECT (Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology) system has been on duty throughout the recent hurricanes that have swept the Florida and Gulf Coast areas. ASPECT is a project of the U.S. U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys National Decontamination Team. Los Alamos National Laboratory leads a science and technology program supporting the EPA and the ASPECT aircraft. Casting about with a combination of airborne photography and infrared spectroscopy, the highly instrumented plane provides emergency responders on the ground with a clear concept of where danger lies, and the nature of the sometimes-invisible plumes that could otherwise kill them. ASPECT is the nations only 24/7 emergency response aircraft with chemical plume mapping capability. Bob Kroutil of Bioscience Division is the project leader, and while he said the team has put in long hours, both on the ground and in the air, its a worthwhile effort. The plane flew over 320 targeted sites in four days, he noted. Prior to the deployment to the Gulf Coast, the plane had been monitoring the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado. Los Alamos National Laboratory Divisions that are supporting ASPECT include, in addition to B-Division, CTN-5: Networking Engineering and IRM-CAS: Communication, Arts, and Services. Leslie Mansell, CTN-5, and Marilyn Pruitt, IRM-CAS, were recognized the the U.S. EPA for their outstanding support to the hurricane response of Gustav in Louisiana and Ike in Texas. The information from the data collected in the most recent event, Hurricane

  3. ASPECT Emergency Response Chemical and Radiological Mapping

    ScienceCinema

    LANL

    2016-07-12

    A unique airborne emergency response tool, ASPECT is a Los Alamos/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency project that can put chemical and radiological mapping tools in the air over an accident scene. The name ASPECT is an acronym for Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology. Update, Sept. 19, 2008: Flying over storm-damaged refineries and chemical factories, a twin-engine plane carrying the ASPECT (Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology) system has been on duty throughout the recent hurricanes that have swept the Florida and Gulf Coast areas. ASPECT is a project of the U.S. U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys National Decontamination Team. Los Alamos National Laboratory leads a science and technology program supporting the EPA and the ASPECT aircraft. Casting about with a combination of airborne photography and infrared spectroscopy, the highly instrumented plane provides emergency responders on the ground with a clear concept of where danger lies, and the nature of the sometimes-invisible plumes that could otherwise kill them. ASPECT is the nations only 24/7 emergency response aircraft with chemical plume mapping capability. Bob Kroutil of Bioscience Division is the project leader, and while he said the team has put in long hours, both on the ground and in the air, its a worthwhile effort. The plane flew over 320 targeted sites in four days, he noted. Prior to the deployment to the Gulf Coast, the plane had been monitoring the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado. Los Alamos National Laboratory Divisions that are supporting ASPECT include, in addition to B-Division, CTN-5: Networking Engineering and IRM-CAS: Communication, Arts, and Services. Leslie Mansell, CTN-5, and Marilyn Pruitt, IRM-CAS, were recognized the the U.S. EPA for their outstanding support to the hurricane response of Gustav in Louisiana and Ike in Texas. The information from the data collected in the most recent event, Hurricane

  4. Organisational aspects of care.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Jacqueline; Pegram, Anne

    2015-03-04

    Organisational aspects of care, the second essential skills cluster, identifies the need for registered nurses to systematically assess, plan and provide holistic patient care in accordance with individual needs. Safeguarding, supporting and protecting adults and children in vulnerable situations; leading, co-ordinating and managing care; functioning as an effective and confident member of the multidisciplinary team; and managing risk while maintaining a safe environment for patients and colleagues, are vital aspects of this cluster. This article discusses the roles and responsibilities of the newly registered graduate nurse. Throughout their education, nursing students work towards attaining this knowledge and these skills in preparation for their future roles as nurses.

  5. Environmental engineering education: examples of accreditation and quality assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, E.; Catelani, M.; Manfrida, G.; Valdiserri, J.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental engineers respond to the challenges posed by a growing population, intensifying land-use pressures, natural resources exploitation as well as rapidly evolving technology. The environmental engineer must develop technically sound solutions within the framework of maintaining or improving environmental quality, complying with public policy, and optimizing the utilization of resources. The engineer provides system and component design, serves as a technical advisor in policy making and legal deliberations, develops management schemes for resources, and provides technical evaluations of systems. Through the current work of environmental engineers, individuals and businesses are able to understand how to coordinate society's interaction with the environment. There will always be a need for engineers who are able to integrate the latest technologies into systems to respond to the needs for food and energy while protecting natural resources. In general, the environment-related challenges and problems need to be faced at global level, leading to the globalization of the engineering profession which requires not only the capacity to communicate in a common technical language, but also the assurance of an adequate and common level of technical competences, knowledge and understanding. In this framework, the Europe-based EUR ACE (European Accreditation of Engineering Programmes) system, currently operated by ENAEE - European Network for Accreditation of Engineering Education can represent the proper framework and accreditation system in order to provide a set of measures to assess the quality of engineering degree programmes in Europe and abroad. The application of the accreditation model EUR-ACE, and of the National Italian Degree Courses Accreditation System, promoted by the Italian National Agency for the Evaluation of Universities and Research Institutes (ANVUR), to the Environmental Engineering Degree Courses at the University of Firenze is presented. In

  6. HEALTH CARE GUIDE TO POLLUTION PREVENTION IMPLEMENTATION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health Care Guide to Pollution Prevention Implementation through Environmental Management Systems provides example EMS procedures and forms used in four ISO 14001 EMS certified hospitals. The latest revisions include more EMS hospital case studies, more compliance resources, ...

  7. HEALTH CARE GUIDE TO POLLUTION PREVENTION IMPLEMENTATION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health Care Guide to Pollution Prevention Implementation through Environmental Management Systems provides example EMS procedures and forms used in four ISO 14001 EMS certified hospitals. The latest revisions include more EMS hospital case studies, more compliance resources, ...

  8. Don't Take It Personal: European Union Legal Aspects of Procuring and Protecting Environmental Exposure Data in Population Biobanks Through the Use of a Geo-Information-Systems Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Bovenberg, Jasper Adriaan; de Hoogh, Kees; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Hveem, Kristian; Hansell, Anna L

    2016-06-01

    Under European Union (EU) law, population-based cohort studies have the right to collect environmental data and to access geospatial data, at street level, on the web, from a host of public sources. As to geospatial information, they should be able to avail themselves of Member States' networks of services for geospatial data sets and services (discovery, viewing, downloading) via the Internet. On the other hand, linkage of health data of biobank participants to environmental data, using geospatial data, is limited, as it must satisfy the provisions of the EU Directive on the Protection of Personal Data, pursuant to which geospatial data regarding biobank participants are likely to qualify as personal data. Hence, we submit that the consents of biobank participants be reviewed to assess whether they cover the generation and linkage of geospatial data. We also submit that biobanks must have measures in place to prevent the re-identification of participants by use of their geospatial data. We present a model Geographic-Information-Systems (GIS) Toolkit, as an example of what measures could be taken to that effect.

  9. Veterinary aspects of salmonid fish farming: husbandry diseases.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, C J; Poupard, C W

    1975-07-19

    Most disease problems affecting farmed salmonid fish are either caused or exacerbated by bad husbandry and poor environmental conditions. The aspects of water quality and nutrition which are significant in causing husbandry problems are considered. The clinical aspects of these diseases are decribed in terms of the life cycle of salmonids, and methods of prevention are discussed.

  10. Horizontal grout barrier project results of the latest testing

    SciTech Connect

    Riedel, K.W.; Ridenour, D.E.; Walker, J.

    1995-03-01

    Throughout United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites are situations where storage tanks and pits are leaking or have the potential to leak contamination into the soil. Subsequent leaching from rain and groundwater flow disperses the contamination far from the original site and, in some cases, into aquifers which serve as a drinking water source. Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) at Fernald working with the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) and two subcontractors, is pursuing the goal of placing a barrier beneath the contamination to prevent this dispersion. The technology being developed is an in situ approach based on directional drilling and jet grouting techniques developed in the oil fields. The unique barrier techniques being developed depend on innovative tooling and special grouts to install a horizontal barrier underground without disturbing the contaminated soils above. The initial tool designs were tested in December 1992 and were encouraging enough that the DOE agreed to fund continued development. A second set of designs were tested in August 1994. The testing results were less than expected but did provide a number of lessons learned. This paper reports on the third set of tool designs and the results of testing these tools prior to the full demonstration project at Fernald.

  11. Gastric cancer: Basic aspects.

    PubMed

    Molina-Castro, Silvia; Pereira-Marques, Joana; Figueiredo, Ceu; Machado, Jose C; Varon, Christine

    2017-09-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most incident and deadliest malignancies in the world. Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous disease and the end point of a long and multistep process, which results from the stepwise accumulation of numerous (epi)genetic alterations, leading to dysregulation of oncogenic and tumor suppressor pathways. Gastric cancer stem cells have emerged as fundamental players in cancer development and as contributors to gastric cancer heterogeneity. For this special issue, we will report last year's update on the gastric cancer molecular classification, and in particular address the gastric cancer groups who could benefit from immune checkpoint therapy. We will also review the latest advances on gastric cancer stem cells, their properties as gastric cancer markers and therapeutic targets, and associated signaling pathways. The understanding of the molecular basis underlying gastric cancer heterogeneity and of the role played by gastric cancer stem cells in cancer development and heterogeneity is of major significance, not only for identifying novel targets for cancer prevention and treatment, but also for clinical management and patient stratification for targeted therapies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Global aspects of monsoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, T.

    1985-01-01

    Recent developments are studied in three areas of monsoon research: (1) global aspects of the monsoon onset, (2) the orographic influence of the Tibetan Plateau on the summer monsoon circulations, and (3) tropical 40 to 50 day oscillations. Reference was made only to those studies that are primarily based on FGGE Level IIIb data. A brief summary is given.

  13. Medical Aspects of Surfing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renneker, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The medical aspects of surfing include ear and eye injuries and sprains and strains of the lower back and neck, as well as skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of these problems are discussed. Surfing is recommended as part of an exercise program for reasonably healthy people. (Author/MT)

  14. Aspects of Marine Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

  15. The January Aspect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Glenn F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The January aspect of college administration refers to the Roman god Janus, who was capable of looking forward and backward simultaneously. It is applied to academic deans who must look toward both administrative superiors and subordinates, and the same two-directional interface is imposed on presidents, department chairmen, professors, and…

  16. Sociological Aspects of Deafness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Nine conference papers treat the sociological aspects of deafness. Included are "Individuals Being Deaf and Blind and Living with a Well Hearing Society" by A. Marx (German Federal Republic), "A Deaf Man's Experiences in a Hearing World" by A. B. Simon(U.S.A.), "Problem of Text Books and School Appliances for Vocational…

  17. Medical Aspects of Surfing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renneker, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The medical aspects of surfing include ear and eye injuries and sprains and strains of the lower back and neck, as well as skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of these problems are discussed. Surfing is recommended as part of an exercise program for reasonably healthy people. (Author/MT)

  18. Latest development of high-power fiber lasers in SPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Stephen; Zervas, Mikhail N.; Appleyard, Andrew; Durkin, Michael K.; Horley, Ray; Varnham, Malcolm P.; Nilsson, Johan; Jeong, Yoonchan

    2004-06-01

    High Power Fiber Lasers (HPFLs) and High Power Fiber Amplifiers (HPFAs) promise a number of benefits in terms of their high optical efficiency, degree of integration, beam quality, reliability, spatial compactness and thermal management. These benefits are driving the rapid adoption of HPFLs in an increasingly wide range of applications and power levels ranging from a few Watts, in for example analytical applications, to high-power >1kW materials processing (machining and welding) applications. This paper describes SPI"s innovative technologies, HPFL products and their performance capabilities. The paper highlights key aspects of the design basis and provides an overview of the applications space in both the industrial and aerospace domains. Single-fiber CW lasers delivering 1kW output power at 1080nm have been demonstrated and are being commercialized for aerospace and industrial applications with wall-plug efficiencies in the range 20 to 25%, and with beam parameter products in the range 0.5 to 100 mm.mrad (corresponding to M2 = 1.5 to 300) tailored to application requirements. At power levels in the 1 - 200 W range, SPI"s proprietary cladding-pumping technology, GTWaveTM, has been employed to produce completely fiber-integrated systems using single-emitter broad-stripe multimode pump diodes. This modular construction enables an agile and flexible approach to the configuration of a range of fiber laser / amplifier systems for operation in the 1080nm and 1550nm wavelength ranges. Reliability modeling is applied to determine Systems martins such that performance specifications are robustly met throughout the designed product lifetime. An extensive Qualification and Reliability-proving programme is underway to qualify the technology building blocks that are utilized for the fiber laser cavity, pump modules, pump-driver systems and thermo-mechanical management. In addition to the CW products, pulsed fiber lasers with pulse energies exceeding 1mJ with peak pulse

  19. Predicting antiretroviral drug resistance from the latest or the cumulative genotype.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Federico; Alvarez, Marta; Fox, Zoe; Garcia-Diaz, Ana; Guillot, Vicente; Johnson, Margaret; Chueca, Natalia; Phillips, Andrew; Hernández-Quero, José; Geretti, Anna Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the added benefit when estimating antiretroviral drug resistance of combining all available resistance test results in a cumulative genotype relative to using the latest genotype alone. The prevalence of resistance and genotypic sensitivity scores (GSS) predicted by the latest and the cumulative genotype, together with virological outcomes after the latest genotype, were measured in treatment-experienced patients who underwent ≥2 resistance tests in 1999-2008. Comparing the latest with the cumulative genotype in 227 patients, 4 (1.7%) versus 0 (0.0%) showed no major resistance mutations, whereas 74 (32.6%) versus 46 (20.3%), 88 (38.8%) versus 76 (33.5%) and 61 (26.9%) versus 105 (46.3%) showed single-class, dual-class and triple-class resistance mutations, respectively. The median (IQR) number of fully or partially active drugs was 6 (5-6) versus 5 (4-6) for the nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 3 (1-3) versus 1 (1-3) for the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and 7 (7-7) versus 7 (7-7) for the protease inhibitors, respectively. Among 163 patients who started a new regimen after the latest genotype, both the latest and the cumulative GSS were predictive of early (≤24 weeks) virological responses. The GSS decreased by median 1 unit (IQR 0.5-1.0) in the cumulative genotype and larger differences relative to the latest genotype corresponded to smaller decreases in viral load. The cumulative genotype offers a more comprehensive evaluation of the burden of resistance. This approach can guide small but appreciable improvements in the selection of antiretroviral regimens for treatment-experienced patients.

  20. Late Quaternary Megafaunal Extinctions in Northern Eurasia: Latest Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Anthony

    2010-05-01

    Anthony J. Stuart1 & Adrian M. Lister2 1 Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK. Email: tony.s@megafauna.org.uk 2 Department of Palaeontology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK. Email: a.lister@nhm.ac.uk. The global extinction of many spectacular species of megafauna (large terrestrial mammals, together with a few large reptiles and birds) within the last c. 50,000 years (Late Quaternary) has been attributed on the one hand to ‘overkill' by human hunters and on the other to environmental change. However, in spite of more than half a century of active interest and research the issue remains unresolved, largely because there are insufficient dated records of megafaunal species for most parts of the world. Northern Eurasia is an especially fruitful region in which to research megafaunal extinctions as it has a wealth of megafaunal material and crucially most extinctions occurred well within the range of radiocarbon dating. Our approach, in a series of projects over the last decade funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), involves amassing radiocarbon dates made directly on megafaunal material from across the entire region: a) by submitting a substantial number of samples (so far c. 500 dates) for AMS dating at Oxford (ORAU); b) obtaining AMS dates from colleagues working on aDNA projects; and c) carefully screening (‘auditing') dates from the literature. The dates (calibrated using OxCal) are plotted as time-sliced maps and as chronological/geographical charts. In our previous work we targeted a range of extinct species from Northern Eurasia: woolly mammoth, woolly rhinoceros, giant deer, cave bear (in collaboration with Martina Pacher), cave lion, and spotted hyaena (which survives today only in Sub-Saharan Africa). By this means we have established a reliable chronology for these extinctions which we are able to compare with the climatic, vegetational and

  1. Subduction modelling with ASPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glerum, Anne; Thieulot, Cédric; Spakman, Wim; Quinquis, Matthieu; Buiter, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    ASPECT (Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion) is a promising new code designed for modelling thermal convection in the mantle (Kronbichler et al. 2012). The code uses state-of-the-art numerical methods, such as high performance solvers and adaptive mesh refinement. It builds on tried-and-well-tested libraries and works with plug-ins allowing easy extension to fine-tune it to the user's specific needs. We make use of the promising features of ASPECT, especially Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), for modelling lithosphere subduction in 2D and 3D geometries. The AMR allows for mesh refinement where needed and mesh coarsening in regions less important to the parameters under investigation. In the context of subduction, this amounts to having very small grid cells at material interfaces and larger cells in more uniform mantle regions. As lithosphere subduction modelling is not standard to ASPECT, we explore the necessary adaptive grid refinement and test ASPECT with widely accepted benchmarks. We showcase examples of mechanical and thermo-mechanical oceanic subduction in which we vary the number of materials making up the overriding and subducting plates as well as the rheology (from linear viscous to more complicated rheologies). Both 2D and 3D geometries are used, as ASPECT easily extends to three dimensions (Kronbichler et al. 2012). Based on these models, we discuss the advection of compositional fields coupled to material properties and the ability of AMR to trace the slab's path through the mantle. Kronbichler, M., T. Heister and W. Bangerth (2012), High Accuracy Mantle Convection Simulation through Modern Numerical Methods, Geophysical Journal International, 191, 12-29.

  2. Selenium. Nutritional, toxicologic, and clinical aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Fan, A. M.; Kizer, K. W.

    1990-01-01

    Despite the recent findings of environmental contamination, selenium toxicosis in humans is exceedingly rare in the United States, with the few known cases resulting from industrial accidents and an episode involving the ingestion of superpotent selenium supplements. Chronic selenosis is essentially unheard of in this country because of the typical diversity of the American diet. Nonetheless, because of the growing public interest in selenium as a dietary supplement and the occurrence of environmental selenium contamination, medical practitioners should be familiar with the nutritional, toxicologic, and clinical aspects of this trace element. PMID:2219873

  3. Latest Holocene evolution and human disturbance of a channel segment in the Hudson River Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klingbeil, A.D.; Sommerfield, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    The latest Holocene sedimentary record of a cohesive channel and subtidal shoal in the lower Hudson River Estuary was examined to elucidate natural (sea-level rise, sediment transport) and anthropogenic (bulkheading, dredging) influences on the recent morphodynamic evolution of the system. To characterize the seafloor and shallow subbottom, ??? 100 km of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles (chirp) were collected within a 20-km reach of the estuary and correlated with sediment lithologies provided by eight vibracores recovered along seismic lines. Sediment geochronology with 137Cs and 14C was used to estimate intermediate and long-term sedimentation rates, respectively, and historical bathymetric data were analyzed to identify regional patterns of accretion and erosion, and to quantify changes in channel geometry and sediment volume. The shoal lithosome originated around 4 ka presumably with decelerating eustatic sea level rise during the latest Holocene. Long-term sedimentation rates on the shoal (2.3-2.6 mm/yr) are higher than in the channel (2 mm/yr) owing to hydrodynamic conditions that preferentially sequester suspended sediment on the western side of the estuary. As a result, the shoal accretes oblique to the principal axis of tidal transport, and more rapidly than the channel to produce an asymmetric cross-section. Shoal deposits consist of tidally bedded muds and are stratified by minor erosion surfaces that seismic profiles reveal to extend for 10s of meters to kilometers. The frequency and continuity of these surfaces suggest that the surficial shoal is catastrophically stripped on decadal-centennial time scales by elevated tidal flows; tidal erosion maintains the shoal at a uniform depth below sea level and prevents it from transitioning to an intertidal environment. Consequently, the long-term sedimentation rate approximates the rate of sea-level rise in the lower estuary (1-3 mm/yr). After the mid 1800s, the natural geometry of the lower Hudson

  4. Latest Progress on the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar Flares (GRIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Albert Y.; Lin, Robert P.; Hurford, Gordon J.; Duncan, Nicole A.; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Smith, David Miles; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Amman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We present the latest progress on building the balloon-borne Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS) instrument, including testing and calibration of the detectors and development of the imaging and aspect systems. A continental-US test flight is slated for fall 2012. GRIPS will provide a near-optimal combination of high-resolution imaging, spectroscopy, and polarimetry of solar-flare gamma-ray/hard X-ray emissions from approx.20. keV to > approx.10 MeV. The spectrometer/polarimeter consists of sixteen 3D position-sensitive germanium detectors (3D-GeDs), where each energy deposition is individually recorded with an energy resolution of a few keV FWHM and a spatial resolution to within <0.1 cu mm. Imaging is accomplished by a single multi-pitch rotating modulator (MPRM), a 2.5-cm thick tungsten-alloy grid with pitches that range quasi-continuously from 1 to 13 mm. With the MPRM situated 8 meters from the spectrometer, this instrument will provide excellent image quality and unparalleled angular resolution at gamma-ray energies (12.5 arcsec FWHM), sufficient to separate the 2.2 MeV footpoint sources for almost all flares. Polarimetry is accomplished by analyzing the anisotropy of reconstructed Compton scattering in the 3D-GeDs (i.e. as an active scatterer), with an estimated minimum detectable polarization of a few percent at 150-650 keV in an X-class flare. GRIPS will address questions relevant to particle acceleration and energy release that ha-.e been raised by recent solar flare observations, such as: What causes the spatial separation between energetic electron producing hard X-rays and energetic ions producing gamma-ray lines? How anisotropic are the accelerated electrons, and why do relativistic electron dominate in the corona? How does the composition of accelerated and ambient material vary with space and time, and why?

  5. Latest Progress on the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar Flares (GRIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Albert Y.; Lin, Robert P.; Hurford, Gordon J.; Duncan, Nicole A.; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Smith, David Miles; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Amman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We present the latest progress on building the balloon-borne Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS) instrument, including testing and calibration of the detectors and development of the imaging and aspect systems. A continental-US test flight is slated for fall 2012. GRIPS will provide a near-optimal combination of high-resolution imaging, spectroscopy, and polarimetry of solar-flare gamma-ray/hard X-ray emissions from approx.20. keV to > approx.10 MeV. The spectrometer/polarimeter consists of sixteen 3D position-sensitive germanium detectors (3D-GeDs), where each energy deposition is individually recorded with an energy resolution of a few keV FWHM and a spatial resolution to within <0.1 cu mm. Imaging is accomplished by a single multi-pitch rotating modulator (MPRM), a 2.5-cm thick tungsten-alloy grid with pitches that range quasi-continuously from 1 to 13 mm. With the MPRM situated 8 meters from the spectrometer, this instrument will provide excellent image quality and unparalleled angular resolution at gamma-ray energies (12.5 arcsec FWHM), sufficient to separate the 2.2 MeV footpoint sources for almost all flares. Polarimetry is accomplished by analyzing the anisotropy of reconstructed Compton scattering in the 3D-GeDs (i.e. as an active scatterer), with an estimated minimum detectable polarization of a few percent at 150-650 keV in an X-class flare. GRIPS will address questions relevant to particle acceleration and energy release that ha-.e been raised by recent solar flare observations, such as: What causes the spatial separation between energetic electron producing hard X-rays and energetic ions producing gamma-ray lines? How anisotropic are the accelerated electrons, and why do relativistic electron dominate in the corona? How does the composition of accelerated and ambient material vary with space and time, and why?

  6. Latest Progress on the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar Flares (GRIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, A. Y.; Lin, R. P.; Hurford, G. J.; Duncan, N. A.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Smith, D. M.; Tajima, H.; Amman, M.; Grips Team

    2011-12-01

    We present the latest progress on building the balloon-borne Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS) instrument, including testing and calibration of the detectors and development of the imaging and aspect systems. A continental-US test flight is slated for fall 2012. GRIPS will provide a near-optimal combination of high-resolution imaging, spectroscopy, and polarimetry of solar-flare gamma-ray/hard X-ray emissions from ~20 keV to >~10 MeV. The spectrometer/polarimeter consists of sixteen 3D position-sensitive germanium detectors (3D-GeDs), where each energy deposition is individually recorded with an energy resolution of a few keV FWHM and a spatial resolution to within <0.1 mm^3. Imaging is accomplished by a single multi-pitch rotating modulator (MPRM), a 2.5-cm thick tungsten-alloy grid with pitches that range quasi-continuously from 1 to 13 mm. With the MPRM situated 8 meters from the spectrometer, this instrument will provide excellent image quality and unparalleled angular resolution at gamma-ray energies (12.5 arcsec FWHM), sufficient to separate the 2.2 MeV footpoint sources for almost all flares. Polarimetry is accomplished by analyzing the anisotropy of reconstructed Compton scattering in the 3D-GeDs (i.e. as an active scatterer), with an estimated minimum detectable polarization of a few percent at 150-650 keV in an X-class flare. GRIPS will address questions relevant to particle acceleration and energy release that have been raised by recent solar flare observations, such as: What causes the spatial separation between energetic electron producing hard X-rays and energetic ions producing gamma-ray lines? How anisotropic are the accelerated electrons, and why do relativistic electron dominate in the corona? How does the composition of accelerated and ambient material vary with space and time, and why?

  7. U/Pb and Ar/Ar Dating of Latest Permian Magnetic Polarity Reversals in the Ochoan of western Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S.; Mundil, R.; Renne, P. R.

    2006-12-01

    age of ca 253.5 Ma, indicating that the DLF is at least in part of latest Permian age. The ca. 1% bias between dates determined by the different methods is consistent in sense and magnitude with that observed elsewhere (e.g. Min et al., 2000). With additional work (in progress) we expect to constrain the ages of latest Permian polarity reversals with unprecedented precision and accuracy which, in combination with proxies indicating environmental change, will enable us to reconstruct and correlate the timing of events across the Permian-Triassic transition in different paleo-environments.

  8. Microbial-algal community changes during the latest Permian ecological crisis: Evidence from lipid biomarkers at Cili, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Genming; Wang, Yongbiao; Grice, Kliti; Kershaw, Steve; Algeo, Thomas J.; Ruan, Xiaoyan; Yang, Hao; Jia, Chengling; Xie, Shucheng

    2013-06-01

    Microbialites flourished globally immediately following the latest Permian mass extinction. In this study, lipid biomarker records were analyzed in the Cili section (Hunan Province, South China) in order to determine the types of microbes involved in microbialite formation and their response to contemporaneous environmental changes. Various biomarkers were identified in the aliphatic and aromatic fractions using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Low abundance of steranes in the microbialite layer suggests that it did not contain large amounts of algae, in striking contrast to the abundant algal fossils and algal-derived steranes present in the underlying (pre-crisis) skeletal limestone. Although pristine/phytane (Pr/Ph) ratios increased in the microbialite layer, covariation of Pr/Ph with the ratio of low- to high-molecular-weight n-alkanes (C20 -/C20 +) suggests that the former proxy was controlled by microbial (particularly cyanobacterial) inputs rather than by redox conditions. The microbialite also yielded low ratios of hopanes to short-chain n-alkanes (HP/Lalk) and high abundances of C21n-alkylcyclohexane, indicating that, in addition to cyanobacteria, anaerobic bacteria, archaea, and possibly acritarchs flourished in the aftermath of the marine extinction event. The upper part of the thinly bedded micritic limestone overlying the microbialite exhibits a bimodal distribution of n-alkanes as well as increased abundances of extended tricyclic terpanes and steranes, suggesting a return of habitable shallow-marine conditions for eukaryotic algae several hundred thousand years after the latest Permian mass extinction. Increases in the dibenzofuran ratio (i.e., DBF/(DBF + DBT + F)) and in the coronene to phenanthrene ratio (Cor/P) in the skeletal limestone immediately below the microbialite are evidence of enhanced soil erosion rates and wildfire intensity, marking the collapse of terrestrial ecosystems. The terrestrial crisis thus slightly

  9. ROBOTIC SURGERY: BIOETHICAL ASPECTS

    PubMed Central

    SIQUEIRA-BATISTA, Rodrigo; SOUZA, Camila Ribeiro; MAIA, Polyana Mendes; SIQUEIRA, Sávio Lana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. Objective: To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Method: Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Results: Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains brief presentation on robotics, its inclusion in health and bioethical aspects, and the use of robots in surgery. Conclusion: Robotic surgery is a reality today in many hospitals, which makes essential bioethical reflection on the relationship between health professionals, automata and patients. PMID:28076489

  10. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process.

  11. Aspects of B physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1987-10-14

    Various aspects of weak decays are commented on. Probing of the standard model and of phenomena beyond the standard model are discussed, followed by a theoretical view of B mesons and some experimental observations on B mesons. The point is made that any data on B decay would be interesting in that it would provide powerful new constraints in analyses of the standard model and extensions thereof. (LEW)

  12. Aspects of the hormonal regulation of appetite in fish with emphasis on goldfish, Atlantic cod and winter flounder: notes on actions and responses to nutritional, environmental and reproductive changes.

    PubMed

    Volkoff, Hélène; Xu, Meiyu; MacDonald, Erin; Hoskins, Leah

    2009-05-01

    In vertebrates including fish, food intake regulation involves intricate networks of hormones produced by both brain and peripheral tissues. Under optimum conditions, nutritional intake is adequate for basal metabolic needs, growth, development, reproduction, and deposition of energy stores. As fish represent a very diverse group, different fish species live in very different environments and are exposed to variations in a wide range of factors, including not only internal factors, such as nutritional/metabolic status and reproductive events but also environmental factors, such as temperature and photoperiod. These physiological responses often include changes in appetite that might occur through modulations of the gene expression and action of feeding-regulating hormones. Despite recent advances, our current understanding of the regulation of feeding in fish is still limited and based primarily on studies involving a few fish species. This review will give a brief overview of our current knowledge of the regulation of feeding by three central (NPY, OX and CART) and two peripheral (ghrelin and GRP) appetite-related factors in a freshwater species, the goldfish (Carassius auratus) and two marine species, cod (Gadus morhua) and winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus).

  13. 23 CFR 771.119 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Environmental assessments. 771.119 Section 771.119... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.119 Environmental assessments. (a) An EA shall be prepared by... aspects of the proposed action have potential for social, economic, or environmental impact; identify...

  14. 23 CFR 771.119 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental assessments. 771.119 Section 771.119... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.119 Environmental assessments. (a) An EA shall be prepared by... aspects of the proposed action have potential for social, economic, or environmental impact; identify...

  15. 23 CFR 771.119 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental assessments. 771.119 Section 771.119... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.119 Environmental assessments. (a) An EA shall be prepared by... aspects of the proposed action have potential for social, economic, or environmental impact; identify...

  16. Sudden and Gradual Molluscan Extinctions in the Latest Cretaceous of Western European Tethys

    PubMed

    Marshall; Ward

    1996-11-22

    Incompleteness of the fossil record has confounded attempts to establish the role of the end-Cretaceous bolide impact in the Late Cretaceous mass extinctions. Statistical analysis of latest Cretaceous outer-shelf macrofossils from western European Tethys reveals (i) a major extinction at or near the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary, probably caused by the impact, (ii) either a faunal abundance change or an extinction of up to nine ammonite species associated with a regression event shortly before the boundary, (iii) gradual extinction of most inoceramid bivalves well before the K-T boundary, and (iv) background extinction of approximately six ammonites throughout the latest Cretaceous.

  17. Chiral models: Geometrical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelomov, A. M.

    1987-02-01

    Two-dimensional classical chiral models of field theory are considered, the main attention being paid on geometrical aspects of such theories. A characteristic feature of these models is that the interaction is inserted not by adding the interaction Lagrangian to the free field Lagrangian, but has a purely geometrical origin and is related to the inner curvature of the manifold. These models are in many respects analogous to non-Abelian gauge theories and as became clear recently, they are also important for the superstring theory which nowadays is the most probable candidate for a truly unified theory of all interactions including gravitation.

  18. Ceramics with decorative aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voica, Cezara

    2009-08-01

    The last decades brought the development of bone china techniques used for producing the decorative articles. These products can be glazed with a transparent and thin glaze layer, even with more special (decorative) ones which gives new aesthetic aspect. The present article presents the results obtained after the studies performed for matte glazes for decorative bone china. As microcrystalization agent were used zinc oxide; the content of this oxide bring some changes of the basic glaze thus the chemical composition must be adjusted as the fluxes would present the desired properties after the heating process.

  19. The leukemias: Epidemiologic aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Linet, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Particularly geared to physicians and cancer researchers, this study of the epidemiology and etiology of leukemia analyzes the four major leukemia subtypes in terms of genetic and familial determinant factors and examines the incidence, distribution and frequency of reported leukemia clusters. Linet discusses the connection between other types of malignancies, their treatments, and the subsequent development of leukemia and evaluates the impact on leukemia onset of such environmental factors as radiation therapy, drugs, and occupational hazards.

  20. Breast Cancer 2012 – New Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Kolberg, H.-C.; Lüftner, D.; Lux, M. P.; Maass, N.; Schütz, F.; Fasching, P. A.; Fehm, T.; Janni, W.; Kümmel, S.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment options as well as the characteristics for therapeutic decisions in patients with primary and advanced breast cancer are increasing in number and variety. New targeted therapies in combination with established chemotherapy schemes are broadening the spectrum, however potentially promising combinations do not always achieve a better result. New data from the field of pharmacogenomics point to prognostic and predictive factors that take not only the properties of the tumour but also inherited genetic properties of the patient into consideration. Current therapeutic decision-making is thus based on a combination of classical clinical and modern molecular biomarkers. Also health-economic aspects are more frequently being taken into consideration so that health-economic considerations may also play a part. This review is based on information from the recent annual congresses. The latest of these are the 34th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium 2011 and the ASCO Annual Meeting 2012. Among their highlights are the clinically significant results from the CLEOPATRA, BOLERO-2, EMILIA and SWOG S0226 trials on the therapy for metastatic breast cancer as well as further state-of-the-art data on the adjuvant use of bisphosphonates within the framework of the ABCSG-12, ZO-FAST, NSABP-B34 and GAIN trials. PMID:25324576

  1. Sanitary engineering aspects of nuclear energy developments*

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, A. W.

    1962-01-01

    So many developments have taken place in the field of nuclear energy since 1956, when the author's previous paper on radioactive waste disposal was published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, that a fresh review of the subject is now appropriate. The present paper deals with those aspects of the problem which are of most interest to the sanitary engineer. It considers specific points in the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in relation to public drinking-water supplies, and examines the problem of fall-out, with special reference to the presence and significance of strontium-90 in drinking-water. A general survey of the various uses of radioactive materials is followed by a discussion of the legislative and control measures necessary to ensure safe disposal of wastes. The methods of waste disposal adopted in a number of nuclear energy establishments are described in detail. The paper concludes with some remarks on solid waste disposal, siting of nuclear energy industries and area monitoring. PMID:14455214

  2. [Environmental Education Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    The use of games to introduce elementary school children to some concepts about environmental factors is described in this group of five documents. Teaching procedures to investigate wind, shadows, liquids, colors, and color change, and aspects of sampling populations are outlined. Simple apparatus and experiments are suggested, and details of the…

  3. Environmental Education Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Debbie; And Others

    While this guide was designed specifically for teachers in Montgomery County, Maryland, Schools, much of the material can be used by individuals nationwide. Contents include nature studies, pollution, energy, land use, environmental design, recreation, and government and the public aspect. Resources listed under these headings include films,…

  4. Aspects of Gond astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahia, M. N.; Halkare, Ganesh

    2013-03-01

    The Gond community is considered to be one of the most ancient tribes of India with a continuing history of several thousand years. They are also known for their largely isolated history which they have retained through the millennia. Several of their intellectual traditions therefore are a record of parallel aspects of human intellectual growth, and still preserve their original flavour and have not been homogenised by the later traditions of India. In view of this, the Gonds provide a special window to the different currents that constitute contemporary India. In the present study, we summarise their mythology, genetics and script. We then investigate their astronomical traditions and try to understand this community through a survey of 15 Gond villages spread over Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. We show that they have a distinctly different view of the sky from the conventional astronomical ideas encountered elsewhere in India, which is both interesting and informative. We briefly comment on other aspects of their life as culled from our encounters with different members of the Gond community.

  5. Diabetic patients: Psychological aspects.

    PubMed

    Adili, Fatemeh; Larijani, Bagher; Haghighatpanah, Mohammadreza

    2006-11-01

    This study was undertaken to consider the psychological aspect of diabetes with regard to improving clinical outcomes. The review was limited to literature reports on the causes, solutions, and treatments of some common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management. A literature search was undertaken using Pub-Med, CINAHL, Proquest, Elsevier, Blackwell Synergy, Ovid, Ebsco, Rose net, and Google websites, including studies published in English journals between 1995 and 2006. Therefore about 88 articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria. In earlier studies, relatively little empirical research was found to substantiate the effect of psychological counseling in complicated diabetes. The greatest deficits were seen in areas of mental health, self-esteem parent impact, and family cohesion. There were some different factors, which influence the psychological aspect of diabetic patients, such as age, gender, place of living, familial and social support, motivation, energy, life satisfaction, and lifestyle. There are various types of solutions for coping with the psychological problems in diabetic clients. The most essential solution lies in educating the patients and healthcare providers on the subject. Before initiating each educational intervention, a thorough assessment would be crucial. Treatment plans may benefit from cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), behavior family therapy, improving family communication, problem-solving skills, and providing motivation for diabetic patients. Moreover, it seems that the close collaboration between diabetologists and psychologists would be fruitful.

  6. Palliative sedation: ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Miccinesi, Guido; Caraceni, Augusto; Maltoni, Marco

    2017-07-12

    Palliative sedation (PS), the medical act of decreasing a patient's awareness to relieve otherwise intractable suffering, is considered by some commentators to be controversial because of its consequences on residual survival and/or quality of life, and to be inappropriate for treating pure existential suffering. We will argue that PS must be always proportional, i.e. controlling refractory symptoms while keeping the loss of personal values (communication, affective relationships, care relationship) as low as possible, and that imminence of death is necessary too, from an ethical point of view, if a deep and continuous sedation (DCS) is proposed. Moreover, in case of pure existential suffering DCS should only be considered after repeated trials of respite sedation. The use of progressive consent and advance care planning to share the decision with the patient and to involve the family in the decision process as much as the patient desires is another ethical aspect to be pursued. Producing, implementing and sustaining guidelines at the higher scientific and professional level promise to help in improving both clinical and ethical aspects of the practice of PS.

  7. Environmental management system.

    SciTech Connect

    Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System (EMS) is identification of environmental consequences from SNL/NM activities, products, and/or services to develop objectives and measurable targets for mitigation of any potential impacts to the environment. This Source Document discusses the annual EMS process for analysis of environmental aspects and impacts and also provides the fiscal year (FY) 2010 analysis. Further information on the EMS structure, processes, and procedures are described within the programmatic EMS Manual (PG470222).

  8. Summary measures of occupational history: a comparison of latest occupation and industry with usual occupation and industry.

    PubMed Central

    Illis, W R; Swanson, G M; Satariano, E R; Schwartz, A G

    1987-01-01

    The utility of using latest occupational information as a summary of work history is assessed by comparing it to usual occupation and industry. We analyzed 5,734 complete occupational histories obtained by telephone interview as part of an ongoing occupational cancer surveillance study. Of these, 73.6 per cent reported the same usual occupation as latest occupation and 76.6 per cent the same usual industry as latest industry. Differences in match rates by race and sex, occupation and industry titles and categories suggest that bias may result in studies using latest occupation or industry as a summary measure of occupational exposures. PMID:3674253

  9. [Multiple sclerosis: current immunological aspects].

    PubMed

    Cuevas-García, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common inflammatory, chronic and degenerative condition of the central nervous system, and represents the first cause of disability in young adults. In Mexico, 11 to 20 out of every 100 000 people suffer from this disease. The causes of multiple sclerosis remain unknown, but several theories have been proposed: the interaction of environmental factors, viral infectious factors and genetic and immune susceptibility of each individual patient, which induce an autoimmune response and promote neuronal/axonal degeneration. In this review, the immune reaction main components and neurodegeneration present in multiple sclerosis are analyzed, as well as the inflammatory cascade associated with demyelination. Available treatments' main purpose is to modulate aspects related to the adaptive immune response (B and T cells). The therapeutic challenge will be antigen-specific immune-tolerance induction, for example, with the use of tolerance protocols with peptides or DNA or nanoparticles vaccines. Future therapies should aim to control innate components (microglia, macrophages, astrocytes) and to promote remyelination. To optimize the treatment, a combined therapeutic approach targeting the control of inflammatory and neurodegenerative components of the disease and monitoring of biomarkers will be necessary.

  10. Biological aspects of gender disorders.

    PubMed

    Corsello, S M; Di Donna, V; Senes, P; Luotto, V; Ricciato, M P; Paragliola, R M; Pontecorvi, A

    2011-12-01

    The scientific community is very interested in the biological aspects of gender disorders and sexual orientation. There are different levels to define an individual's sex: chromosomal, gonadic, and phenotypic sex. Concerning the psychological sex, men and women are different by virtue of their own gender identity, which means they recognize themselves as belonging to a determinate sex. They are different also as a result of their own role identity, a set of behaviors, tendencies, and cognitive and emotional attitudes, commonly defined as "male" and "female". Transsexuality is a disorder characterized by the development of a gender identity opposed to phenotypic sex, whereas homosexuality is not a disturbance of gender identity but only of sexual attraction, expressing sexual orientation towards people of the same sex. We started from a critical review of literature on genetic and hormonal mechanisms involved in sexual differentiation. We re-examined the neuro-anatomic and functional differences between men and women, with special reference to their role in psychosexual differentiation and to their possible implication in the genesis of homosexuality and identity gender disorders. Homosexuality and transsexuality are conditions without a well defined etiology. Although the influence of educational and environmental factors in humans is undeniable, it seems that organic neurohormonal prenatal and postnatal factors might contribute in a determinant way in the development of these two conditions. This "organicistic neurohormal theory" might find support in the study of particular situations in which the human fetus is exposed to an abnormal hormonal environment in utero.

  11. Latest Results on Orbitally Excited Strange Bottom Mesons with the CDF II Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelov, Igor V.; /New Mexico U.

    2006-10-01

    The authors present the latest results on the spectroscopy of orbitally excited strange bottom mesons from {approx} 1 fb{sup -1} of CDF data. The measurements are performed with fully reconstructed B decays collected by the CDF II detector at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV in both the di-muon and the fully hadronic trigger paths.

  12. Evidence for latest Pleistocene to Holocene movement on the Santa Cruz Island fault, California

    SciTech Connect

    Pinter, N.; Sorlien, C. )

    1991-09-01

    Timing of the latest movement on the Santa Cruz Island fault, a dramatic physiographic feature of the southern boundary of the California Transverse Ranges, is demonstrated to be latest Pleistocene to Holocene in age. Faulting of dated terrace gravels confirms that the most recent rupture on the fault is no older than 11.78 {plus minus}0.1 ka. This represents an order of magnitude increase over the recency suggested by previous work and requires proportional increases in estimates of the minimum slip rate and seismic hazard posed by the fault. Uplifted latest Pleistocene to Holocene fill terraces are consistent with models of high rates of uplift and high sediment supply. Numerical solution of the interaction of sea-level rise with uplift at the west end of Santa Cruz Island predicts that the youngest strata in the faulted terrace sequence are about 6.1 ka. Reevaluation of high-resolution seismic sections just west of the island supports the latest Pleistocene to Holocene timing of the most recent rupture on the fault. The Santa Cruz Island fault apparently represents an active seismogenic element of southern California, the recent and high rate of activity of which have not been previously recognized.

  13. Evaluation of the Latest English Language Teacher Training Programme in Turkey: Teacher Trainees' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzun, Levent

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the latest English Language Teacher Training Programme in Turkey from the viewpoint of students who were enrolled on the programme for a period of four years. Participants were 90 last year students who were enrolled in the English Language Teaching department at Uludag University, Turkey. Data were collected by means…

  14. Non-Formal Education Implementations in Turkey: Issues and Latest Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilir, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse the latest implementations and issues raised in Turkish non-formal education from a historical perspective in Turkey. The high population rate and lack of adequate educational opportunities for adults and migration from rural areas to urban areas caused many educational, social and cultural problems in…

  15. School Issues Under [Section] 504 and the ADA: The Latest and Greatest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleman, Steven R.

    This paper highlights recent guidance and rulings from the Office of Civil Rights (OCR) of interest to administrators, advocates, and attorneys. It is a companion piece to Student Issues on SectionNB504/ADA: The Latest and Greatest. Compliance with SectionNB504 and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) continues to involve debate and dialog on…

  16. Get Up to Speed on the Latest Product Releases in the Education Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article provides brief descriptions of the latest product releases in the education market. These products include hardware, software, and resources. The following products are presented in this article, but not limited to: (1) Radius Audio Learning System(www.learningresources.com); (2) The Indigo Learning System from LearningSoft, LLC…

  17. Pterosaur from the latest cretaceous of west Texas: discovery of the largest flying creature.

    PubMed

    Lawson, D A

    1975-03-14

    Three partial skeletons of a large pterosaur have been found in the latest Cretaceous nonmarine rock of West Texas. This flying reptile had thin, elongate, perhaps toothless jaws and a long neck similar to Pterodaustro and Pterodactylus. With an estimated wingspan of 15.5 meters, it is undoutbtedly the largest flying creature presently known.

  18. School Issues Under [Section] 504 and the ADA: The Latest and Greatest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleman, Steven R.

    This paper highlights recent guidance and rulings from the Office of Civil Rights (OCR) of interest to administrators, advocates, and attorneys. It is a companion piece to Student Issues on SectionNB504/ADA: The Latest and Greatest. Compliance with SectionNB504 and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) continues to involve debate and dialog on…

  19. Multimedia environmental management

    SciTech Connect

    Soesilo, J.A.; Wiley, W.D.

    1999-09-01

    This book explores and supports the argument that effective environmental management must be based on a multimedia approach, which focuses simultaneously on air, water, and waste and enables managers to assess the resulting financial, operation, and management benefits. The multimedia approach, which can be used to design an effective compliance program, includes proper waste and material handling management, systematic monitoring, and record keeping requirements. This approach integrates a wide array of environmental requirements and decision processes, which the authors examine in sixteen chapters, organized into four parts: the role of environmental management; environmental aspects of business operation, environmental processes; and environmental management trends. Within these parts, the authors highlight the development of modern environmental management and provide an overview of federal laws pertinent to multimedia environmental management. They examine such issues as chemical storage and transportation, tank system operations and requirements, waste determination, spill response procedures, and employee training. Environmental processes addressed in the book include the management of solid and hazardous waste, wastewater treatment systems, stormwater management, air emission control, and site remediation. The authors also briefly discuss significant initiatives in US environmental management and look toward corporate sustainable development.

  20. Development of Low-Level Environmental Sampling Capabilities for Uranium at Brazilian and Argentine Laboratories by ABACC

    SciTech Connect

    Guidicini, Olga M.; Hembree, Doyle M.; Carter, Joel A.; Olsen, Khris B.; Hayes, Susan M.; Whitaker, Michael

    2003-07-01

    This paper discusses the results of the latest exercises to demonstrate that laboratories in both Argentina and Brazil have the capability to measure both the amount and isotopic composition of urnaium at the levels expected in typical environmental samples.

  1. Left ventricular lead placement in the latest activated region guided by coronary venous electroanatomic mapping.

    PubMed

    Rad, Masih Mafi; Blaauw, Yuri; Dinh, Trang; Pison, Laurent; Crijns, Harry J; Prinzen, Frits W; Vernooy, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) lead placement in the latest activated region is an important determinant of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). We investigated the feasibility of coronary venous electroanatomic mapping (EAM) to guide LV lead placement to the latest activated region. Twenty-five consecutive CRT candidates with left bundle-branch block underwent intra-procedural coronary venous EAM using EnSite NavX. A guidewire was used to map the coronary veins during intrinsic activation, and to test for phrenic nerve stimulation (PNS). The latest activated region, defined as the region with an electrical delay >75% of total QRS duration, was located anterolaterally in 18 (basal, n = 10; mid, n = 8) and inferolaterally in 6 (basal, n = 3; mid, n = 3). In one patient, identification of the latest activated region was impeded by limited coronary venous anatomy. In patients with >1 target vein (n = 12), the anatomically targeted inferolateral vein was rarely the vein with maximal electrical delay (n = 3). A concordant LV lead position was achieved in 18 of 25 patients. In six patients, this was hampered by PNS (n = 4), lead instability (n = 1), and coronary vein stenosis (n = 1). Coronary venous EAM can be used intraprocedurally to guide LV lead placement to the latest activated region free of PNS. This approach especially contributes to optimization of LV lead electrical delay in patients with multiple target veins. Conventional anatomical LV lead placement strategy does not target the vein with maximal electrical delay in many of these patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Spatiotemporal variability of the latest frosts in Korean Peninsula and causes of atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Ah; Byun, Hi-Ryong

    2016-10-01

    The spatiotemporal distributions of latest frost dates (LFDs) on the Korean Peninsula and the atmospheric circulation patterns that resulted in the latest frosts (LFs) were investigated through the use of historical records and modern weather observation data. During the modern observation period since 1904, the most recent record of LF was April 28, 2013 at Daegwallyeong. On average, the LF occurred in Korea between March 17 (at Wando) and May 10 (at Daegwallyeong). Positive correlations were found between LFD and altitude and latitude. Additionally, inter- annual variation of LFD showed a trend of progressively earlier dates at 32 of the 48 stations at which data were available. The historic data set consists of the following: 39 records of frosts during the Three-States Period (57 BC-998 AD): 34 records during the Goryeo Dynasty (998-1391), among which the latest record was in July of the lunar calendar: and 498 during the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1928) with one LF dated August 31, 1417 on the solar calendar. Regarding LFD from The Annals of the Joseon Dynasty, April has 11 records, May has 55, June has 46, July has 21, and August has 5 LFD records. Various meteorological causes of the latest LF were then established. Firstly, a cold and humid north-easterly current that originates from high latitudes of more than 50°N and passes through the East Sea is considered one of the dominant causes of LF. Secondly, strong radiative cooling under clear skies is suspected as another important cause. Thirdly, a specific pressure pattern, called the `inverted-S contour' or `North High and South Low (NHSL) pattern' was found to be a favorable condition for LF. Finally the latest LF was not found to be related to monthly or longer-term cold climate, but are instead linked to the abrupt development of a strong ridge over inland Asia and the unusual southward movement of the tall polar cyclone over the North Pacific Ocean.

  3. Aspects, Wrappers and Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), an Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) system. The presentation begins with an introduction to the difficulties and requirements of distributed computing, including functional and non-functional requirements (ilities). The architecture of Distributed Object Technology includes stubs, proxies for implementation objects, and skeletons, proxies for client applications. The key OIF ideas (injecting behavior, annotated communications, thread contexts, and pragma) are discussed. OIF is an AOP mechanism; AOP is centered on: 1) Separate expression of crosscutting concerns; 2) Mechanisms to weave the separate expressions into a unified system. AOP is software engineering technology for separately expressing systematic properties while nevertheless producing running systems that embody these properties.

  4. Geometrical aspects of entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Leinaas, Jon Magne; Myrheim, Jan; Ovrum, Eirik

    2006-07-15

    We study geometrical aspects of entanglement, with the Hilbert-Schmidt norm defining the metric on the set of density matrices. We focus first on the simplest case of two two-level systems and show that a 'relativistic' formulation leads to a complete analysis of the question of separability. Our approach is based on Schmidt decomposition of density matrices for a composite system and nonunitary transformations to a standard form. The positivity of the density matrices is crucial for the method to work. A similar approach works to some extent in higher dimensions, but is a less powerful tool. We further present a numerical method for examining separability and illustrate the method by a numerical study of bound entanglement in a composite system of two three-level systems.

  5. Aspects of Plant Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    TREWAVAS, ANTHONY

    2003-01-01

    Intelligence is not a term commonly used when plants are discussed. However, I believe that this is an omission based not on a true assessment of the ability of plants to compute complex aspects of their environment, but solely a reflection of a sessile lifestyle. This article, which is admittedly controversial, attempts to raise many issues that surround this area. To commence use of the term intelligence with regard to plant behaviour will lead to a better understanding of the complexity of plant signal transduction and the discrimination and sensitivity with which plants construct images of their environment, and raises critical questions concerning how plants compute responses at the whole‐plant level. Approaches to investigating learning and memory in plants will also be considered. PMID:12740212

  6. Psychiatric Aspects of Dementia.

    PubMed

    Onyike, Chiadi U

    2016-04-01

    The psychiatric aspects of dementia are increasingly recognized as significant contributors to distress, disability, and care burden, and, thus, are of increasing interest to practicing neurologists. This article examines how psychiatric disorders are entwined with dementia and describes the predictive, diagnostic, and therapeutic implications of the psychiatric symptoms of dementia. Psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and schizophrenia, are associated with higher risk for late-life dementia. Psychiatric phenomena also define phenotypes such as frontotemporal dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies, cause distress, and amplify dementia-related disabilities. Management requires a multidisciplinary team, a problem-solving stance, programs of care, and pharmacologic management. Recent innovations include model programs that provide structured problem-solving interventions and tailored in-home care. There is new appreciation of the complexity of the relationship between psychiatric disorders and dementia as well as the significance of this relationship for treatment, community services, and research.

  7. Psychiatric Aspects of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Onyike, Chiadi U.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review: The psychiatric aspects of dementia are increasingly recognized as significant contributors to distress, disability, and care burden, and, thus, are of increasing interest to practicing neurologists. This article examines how psychiatric disorders are entwined with dementia and describes the predictive, diagnostic, and therapeutic implications of the psychiatric symptoms of dementia. Recent Findings: Psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and schizophrenia, are associated with higher risk for late-life dementia. Psychiatric phenomena also define phenotypes such as frontotemporal dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies, cause distress, and amplify dementia-related disabilities. Management requires a multidisciplinary team, a problem-solving stance, programs of care, and pharmacologic management. Recent innovations include model programs that provide structured problem-solving interventions and tailored in-home care. Summary: There is new appreciation of the complexity of the relationship between psychiatric disorders and dementia as well as the significance of this relationship for treatment, community services, and research. PMID:27042910

  8. Aspects, Wrappers and Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), an Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) system. The presentation begins with an introduction to the difficulties and requirements of distributed computing, including functional and non-functional requirements (ilities). The architecture of Distributed Object Technology includes stubs, proxies for implementation objects, and skeletons, proxies for client applications. The key OIF ideas (injecting behavior, annotated communications, thread contexts, and pragma) are discussed. OIF is an AOP mechanism; AOP is centered on: 1) Separate expression of crosscutting concerns; 2) Mechanisms to weave the separate expressions into a unified system. AOP is software engineering technology for separately expressing systematic properties while nevertheless producing running systems that embody these properties.

  9. Historical aspects of anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Donald F.

    2002-01-01

    “Anxiety” is a key term for behavioral, psychoanalytic, neuroendocrine, and psychopharmacological observations and theories. Commenting on its historical aspects is difficult, since history is properly a study of primary data. Unfortunately, much clinical anecdote does not correspond to factual records of a long time ago. Even reports of objective studies may suffer from allegiance effects. This essay therefore primarily reflects the personal impact of others' work against the background of my experiences, clinical and scientific. These lead me to question the assumption that “anxiety”, as it exists in syndromal disturbances, is simply the quantitative extreme of the normal “anxiety” that occurs during the anticipation of danger. An alternative view that emphasizes dysfunctions of distinct evolved adaptive alarm systems is presented. PMID:22033777

  10. Sprirtual aspects of psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Prasinos, S

    1992-03-01

    This article addresses the relevance of spirituality to psychology and psychotherapy. It argues that spiritual experience is phenomenologically legitimate and worthy of study, especially by students of mental health. It utilizes Fox's (1985) definition of spirituality as "unitive experience" to show that spiritual experience is often present, overtly or covertly, within the ritual of psychotherapy. The paper argues that the therapist's adoption of an empathic posture is essentially a spiritual position. This position consists of a sense of peace, eternity, forgiveness, faith, love, truth, and God. These aspects are part of an integrated spiritual gestalt which is, though generally unacknowledged, fundamental to the communal healing process of psychotherapy. The paper concludes by asserting that greater involvement with the unitive (as opposed to the disunitive) represents a positive paradigmatic shift for psychology and humanity.

  11. ROBOTIC SURGERY: BIOETHICAL ASPECTS.

    PubMed

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Souza, Camila Ribeiro; Maia, Polyana Mendes; Siqueira, Sávio Lana

    2016-01-01

    The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains brief presentation on robotics, its inclusion in health and bioethical aspects, and the use of robots in surgery. Robotic surgery is a reality today in many hospitals, which makes essential bioethical reflection on the relationship between health professionals, automata and patients. A utilização de robôs em procedimentos cirúrgicos tem sido cada vez mais frequente na atualidade, o que permite a emergência de inúmeras questões bioéticas nesse âmbito. Apresentar revisão sobre os aspectos éticos dos usos de robôs em cirurgia. Realizou-se revisão nas bases de dados Pubmed, SciELO e Lilacs cruzando-se os descritores "bioética", "cirurgia", "ética", "laparoscopia" e "robótica". Do total de citações obtidas, selecionou-se 17 artigos, os quais foram utilizados para a elaboração do artigo. Ele contém breve apresentação sobre a robótica, sua inserção na saúde e os aspectos bioéticos da utilização dos robôs em procedimentos cirúrgicos. A cirurgia robótica é uma realidade, hoje, em muitas unidades hospitalares, o que torna essencial a reflexão bioética sobre as relações entre profissionais da saúde, autômatos e pacientes.

  12. 1992 information please environmental almanac

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This volume provides information (including statistical data) on all aspects of the earth environment. Topics include: US green cities; war and its effects on the environment, toxins in food and water, endangered species, environmental disasters, ecotravel, wilderness, 1991 environmental legislation, alternative modes of transportation in urban areas, air pollution, old-growth forests, energy consumption, and recycling and waste disposal.

  13. Emotional aspects of hyperprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Sobrinho, L G

    1998-01-01

    Patients with hyperprolactinemia often present with emotional difficulties. These occasionally persist even after successful treatment. Insight into the roots of their diseased state makes a difference in the handling of all cases, but becomes crucial in the not-so-rare situations in which the normalization of hormonal levels is not followed by a feeling of cure. This chapter attempts to provide details, discuss and situate in context the following blocks of pertinent information: (1) prolactin acts upon the central nervous system and variations in its concentrations do affect mood, emotions and behavior; (2) most actions of prolactin are directed to metabolical and behavioral adaptation to pregnancy and the care of the young; (3) even in the absence of pregnancy prolactin secretion responds to environmental stimuli under specific conditions. Whether adaptive, as in the case of surrogate maternity, or pathological, as in the case of pseudopregnancy, prolactin responds to a perceived need to take care of a child; (4) the facts that the clinical onset of prolactinomas often follows life-events and that these tumors occur preferentially in women brought up under specific conditions suggest the possibility that psychological factors may predispose to prolactinomas; (5) dealing with individual cases requires the perception that the relations between prolactin, emotions and feelings are circular, i.e., prolactin affects the brain and mood but, on the other hand, personality traits and environmental factors may stimulate the secretion of prolactin and may play a role in the genesis of the disease.

  14. A comparative review of environmental concern prioritization: LEED vs other major certification systems.

    PubMed

    Suzer, Ozge

    2015-05-01

    The matter of environmental concern prioritization integrated into globally used green building rating systems is a fundamental issue since it determines how the performance of a structure or development is reflected. Certain nationally-developed certification systems are used globally without being subjected to adjustments with respect to local geographical, cultural, economic and social parameters. This may lead to a situation where the results of an evaluation may not reflect the reality of the region and/or the site of construction. The main objective of this paper is to examine and underline the problems regarding the issue of weighting environmental concerns in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification system, which is a US-originated but globally used assessment tool. The methodology of this study consists of; (i) an analysis of the approach of LEED in the New Construction and Major Renovations scheme in version 3 (LEED NC, v.3) and the Building Design and Construction scheme in version 4 (LEED BD + C, v.4), (ii) case studies in which regional priority credits (RPCs) set by LEED for four countries (Canada, Turkey, China and Egypt) are criticized with respect to countries' own local conditions, and, (iii) an analysis of the approaches of major environmental assessment tools, namely; BREEAM, SBTool, CASBEE and Green Star, in comparison to the approach in LEED, regarding the main issue of this paper. This work shows that, even in its latest version (v.4) LEED still displays some inadequacies and inconsistencies from the aspect of environmental concern prioritization and has not yet managed to incorporate a system which is more sensitive to this issue. This paper further outlines the differences and similarities between the approaches of the aforementioned major environmental assessment tools with respect to the issue of concern and the factors that should be integrated into future versions of LEED.

  15. Dictionary of environmental protection technology

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, E.

    1987-01-01

    This dictionary comprises about 14,000 entries in each of the four languages covering the following fields: Air, Water, Water quality, Sewage treatment, Coastal engineering, Pollution of the sea, Flora and fauna, Ecosystems, Waste, Working environment, living conditions, environmental conditions, environmental monitoring. The dictionary deals above all with the technological aspects of environmental protection, i.e., techniques, methods, equipment, machinery, plants and plant systems. Terms regarding the scientific, socioeconomic and politico-cultural aspects have also been included, though in less detail.

  16. Anthropocentric and Ecocentric: An Application of Environmental Philosophy to Outdoor Recreation and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocks, Samuel; Simpson, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Sometimes environmental philosophers write only for other environmental philosophers, and their insights on the nature-human relationship do not reach environmental educators and adventure programmers. This article investigates one aspect of environmental philosophy and the differences between anthropocentric and ecocentric thinking, and applies…

  17. Environmental Quality, the Second Annual Report of the Council on Environmental Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    This second annual report examines in depth two fundamental aspects of environmental quality: economics and legal developments. It also reviews the status of and trends in environmental quality and developments, particularly among the states, since the publication of the first annual environmental quality report. A number of environmental problems…

  18. Anthropocentric and Ecocentric: An Application of Environmental Philosophy to Outdoor Recreation and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocks, Samuel; Simpson, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Sometimes environmental philosophers write only for other environmental philosophers, and their insights on the nature-human relationship do not reach environmental educators and adventure programmers. This article investigates one aspect of environmental philosophy and the differences between anthropocentric and ecocentric thinking, and applies…

  19. 41 CFR 302-6.103 - What is the latest period for which actual TQSE reimbursement may begin?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What is the latest period for which actual TQSE reimbursement may begin? 302-6.103 Section 302-6.103 Public Contracts and... EXPENSES Actual TQSE Method of Reimbursement § 302-6.103 What is the latest period for which actual TQSE...

  20. 41 CFR 302-6.103 - What is the latest period for which actual TQSE reimbursement may begin?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the latest period for which actual TQSE reimbursement may begin? 302-6.103 Section 302-6.103 Public Contracts and... EXPENSES Actual TQSE Method of Reimbursement § 302-6.103 What is the latest period for which actual TQSE...