Science.gov

Sample records for environmental concerns arising

  1. Environmental Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alma, Peter

    1995-04-01

    This series of A-level social biology topic books responds to the changing demands of social biology syllabuses, with each text dealing with a particular area of interest. Although the series is primarily intended for students of A-level social biology, the books will appeal to students studying a wide range of biological subjects at A-level. Environmental Concerns covers topics common to several A-level human and social biology syllabuses. It is particularly relevant to the human ecology and conservation options. The text focuses on the social and economic implications of current ecological issues as well as the basic biological concepts involved. It deals with the causes, effects and prevention of atmospheric and water pollution as well as with the disruption of ecosystems by changes in land use. The conflict of interests between conservation and exploitation is discussed, along with management techniques including the controversial method of culling to maintain diversity. The moral and aesthetic aspects of conservation and management are emphasised throughout, in addition to the scientific background of these techniques.

  2. Ethics of environmental concern

    SciTech Connect

    Attfield, R.

    1983-01-01

    The history of ideas and a philosophical investigation into normative ethics and some of its applications focus in this book on environmental concerns. Part one explores moral traditions, which may appear deficient because traditions have been misrepresented. Attitudes and ideas toward ecological problems have a basis in Jewish and Christian stewardship traditions. Part two re-examines moral principles in light of scientific discoveries that have generated and revealed new side effects of human actions on the complex systems of nature. If all worthwhile life is of intrinsic value, it is necessary to reassess and broaden the human obligation to ecology. The author disagrees with the movement to focus environmental ethics on the biosphere as an organic whole rather than on fellow creatures, although his principles embody constraints in the interests of future creaters. The book concludes with an assessment of principles on pollution, resources, population, and preservation. 302 references.

  3. Energy Problems and Environmental Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Train, Russell E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses problems encountered in energy extraction and consumption, involving nuclear power plant construction, environmental consequences of energy systems, and energy conservation ethics. Indicates that the increasing concern over environmental quality is not the true cause of present energy problems. (CC)

  4. Energy Problems and Environmental Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Train, Russell E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses problems encountered in energy extraction and consumption, involving nuclear power plant construction, environmental consequences of energy systems, and energy conservation ethics. Indicates that the increasing concern over environmental quality is not the true cause of present energy problems. (CC)

  5. Modeling Environmental Concern: Theory and Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Paul M. W.

    1993-01-01

    Human concern for the quality and protection of the natural environment forms the basis of successful environmental conservation activities. Considers environmental concern research and proposes a model that incorporates the multiple dimensions of research through which environmental concern may be evaluated. (MDH)

  6. Children's Environmental Concerns: Expressing Ecophobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strife, Susan Jean

    2012-01-01

    While numerous quantitative studies across disciplines have investigated children's knowledge and attitudes about environmental problems, few studies examine children's feelings about environmental problems--and even fewer have focused on the child's point of view. Through 50 in-depth interviews with urban children (ages 10-12) this research aimed…

  7. Children's Environmental Concerns: Expressing Ecophobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strife, Susan Jean

    2012-01-01

    While numerous quantitative studies across disciplines have investigated children's knowledge and attitudes about environmental problems, few studies examine children's feelings about environmental problems--and even fewer have focused on the child's point of view. Through 50 in-depth interviews with urban children (ages 10-12) this research aimed…

  8. Environmental concerns and international migration.

    PubMed

    Hugo, G

    1996-01-01

    "This article focuses on international migration occurring as a result of environmental changes and processes. It briefly reviews attempts to conceptualize environment-related migration and then considers the extent to which environmental factors have been and may be significant in initiating migration. Following is an examination of migration as an independent variable in the migration-environment relationship. Finally, ethical and policy dimensions are addressed."

  9. Public Concern with Environmental Problems: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenfell, Adrienne

    This bibliography presents representative literature pertaining to public concerns with environmental problems since the National Environmental Policy Act became law. Items cited deal with various aspects and manifestations of public concern. Items include: (1) sociological studies of the process of attitude formation; (2) attitude surveys; (3)…

  10. Environmental Concern in School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkus, Amy J.; Musser, Lynn M.

    This study examined the relationship between children's environmental concern and grade, sex, environmental attitudes and behaviors, perceived competencies, and manifest anxiety. A total of 138 children in grades 1, 3, and 5 were interviewed and completed scales that measured childhood concerns, attitudes toward the environment, self perception,…

  11. Environmental Concerns and the New Environmental Paradigm in Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostrom, Ann; Barke, Richard; Turaga, Rama Mohana R.; O'Connor, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about environmental concerns and attitudes among people in former Soviet bloc countries in Eastern Europe despite widespread perceptions of severe environmental problems. The authors addressed this gap by examining Bulgarians' environmental concerns with a focus on whether the new environmental paradigm (NEP) scale can reliably…

  12. Environmentally Assisted Cracking: Concerns for Cadmium Replacement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    Environmentally Assisted Cracking Concerns for Cadmium Replacement by Scott M. Grendahl ARL-TR-3099 December 2003...5069 ARL-TR-3099 December 2003 Environmentally Assisted Cracking: Concerns for Cadmium Replacement Scott M. Grendahl Weapons and...Concerns for Cadmium Replacement 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 181E31 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Grendahl, S.M. (ARL) 5f

  13. Political, economic and environmental concerns: discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Guy C. G.; Dear, Felicity F.

    2017-06-01

    This session concerned the political, economic and environmental impact on the hydrogen economy due to hydrogen embrittlement. This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'.

  14. Universalism Values: Blueprint for Environmental Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II

    Empirical research has consistently shown human values to be significantly related to both attitudes and behaviors. This paper unites the value theories of several researchers into an explanation of environmental concern, and provides some preliminary data to support the model. Attitudes toward environmental choices should be determined by…

  15. Environmental concerns of supply chain sustainability (SCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtar, Mohd Faiz; Omar, Badrul; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Pauzi, Nur Fazlinda Mohd; Hasan, Sulaiman; Mohamed, W. A. Wan

    2017-04-01

    Environment concern is one important aspect for supply chain sustainability (SCS). Nowadays, company's activities give a lot of impact on the environment. Through these activities, there are other SCS issue of environment were identified. In this paper, the proposed SCS issue of environmental concern will be determined from Corporate Sustainability Report (CSR). Using a total weightage of 0.333 (after dividing into three aspects of sustainability), each proposed issues will be classified according to the company activities in order to determined weightage for each issue. Those weightages then will be used in developing of score metric for SCS in design phase. Result shows that the carbon footprint is the major concern for SCS of environment while environmental management system is a lowest concern for SCS environment.

  16. General Beliefs and Environmental Concern: Transatlantic Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olofsson, Anna; Ohman, Susanna

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to empirically test whether grouping people according to their general beliefs, combined with positional factors, can explain environmental concern, and whether there are country differences in this respect. The study is based on the United States, Canadian, Norwegian, and Swedish parts of The International Social Survey…

  17. Space station internal environmental and safety concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Matthew B.

    1987-01-01

    Space station environmental and safety concerns, especially those involving fires, are discussed. Several types of space station modules and the particular hazards associated with each are briefly surveyed. A brief history of fire detection and suppression aboard spacecraft is given. Microgravity fire behavior, spacecraft fire detector systems, space station fire suppression equipment and procedures, and fire safety in hyperbaric chambers are discussed.

  18. Wood combustion systems: status of environmental concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Dunwoody, J.E.; Takach, H.; Kelley, C.S.; Opalanko, R.; High, C.; Fege, A.

    1980-01-01

    This document addresses the uncertainties about environmental aspects of Wood Combustion Systems that remain to be resolved through research and development. The resolution of these uncertainties may require adjustments in the technology program before it can be commercialized. The impacts and concerns presented in the document are treated generically without reference to specific predetermined sites unless these are known. Hence, site-specific implications are not generally included in the assessment. The report consists of two main sections which describe the energy resource base involved, characteristics of the technology, and introduce the environmental concerns of implementing the technology; and which review the concerns related to wood combustion systems which are of significance for the environment. It also examines the likelihood and consequence of findings which might impede wood commercialization such as problems and uncertainties stemming from current or anticipated environmental regulation, or costs of potential environmental controls. This document is not a formal NEPA document. Appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared after a formal wood combustion commercialization program is approved by DOE.

  19. Environmental concerns gaining importance in industry operations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports that environmental concerns have leapt to the forefront of industry's concerns in operating in Latin America. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro June 3-14 focused a strong world spotlight on the region's environmental and commercial resources. Protection of the region's rain forests, which accounts for a huge share of the world's total, is emerging as an especially contentious issue. Ecuador's Oriente region may well prove the litmus test of how or whether oil and gas companies are able to operate in Latin American rain forests. Controversy over industry operations in the Oriente have heated to the point that environmentalist and native groups have routinely picketed company offices in Quito and used mass fundraiser mailings in North America.

  20. Environmental concerns and diet in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Fleischer, Jennifer; Jeitner, Chris; Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-08-08

    Many factors affect how people perceive the world and their environment, and how such perceptions affect lifestyle decisions, yet the relationship between personal perceptions about environmental hazards and diet is rarely examined. In this study, environmental concerns on a local and global scale were examined, along with dietary patterns, to determine if there were associations and age-related differences. The hypothesis that concerns about water pollution might be reflected in choices about seafood consumption was examined. Many aspects of dietary choices varied significantly by age, including (1) younger people ate more "fast food" than others, (2) subjects aged 22-32 yr ate more meals in restaurants than older or younger people, (3) older individuals drank more tea than younger subjects, while younger people drank more soda than older people, and (4) there were few significant differences in total fish and shellfish meals, although young people ate more meals of other types of meat. Individuals who rated their health the best reported significantly fewer seafood meals than others. People who listed pollution as the major environmental problem did not consume seafood less often than others. While pollution was listed as the most important environmental problem globally, people distinguished between air and water pollution only for Singapore. Although Singapore, with its rapidly expanding economy, has reason to be concerned about both water and air pollution, only 14% of those listing pollution as the main Singapore environmental problem mentioned "water pollution." Singapore has been able to take measures to reduce water pollution from internal sources. Respondents considered air pollution a greater problem, perhaps reflecting recent haze disasters from deliberately set forest fires in Indonesia, which are beyond the direct control of Singapore or Singaporeans.

  1. Evaluating minerals of environmental concern using spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, G.A.; Clark, R.N.; Higgins, C.T.; Kokaly, R.F.; Eric, Livo K.; Hoefen, T.M.; Ong, C.; Kruse, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy has been successfully used to aid researchers in characterizing potential environmental impacts posed by acid-rock drainage, ore-processing dust on mangroves, and asbestos in serpentine mineral deposits and urban dust. Many of these applications synergistically combine field spectroscopy with remote sensing data, thus allowing more-precise data calibration, spectral analysis of the data, and verification of mapping. The increased accuracy makes these environmental evaluation tools efficient because they can be used to focus field work on those areas most critical to the research effort. The use of spectroscopy to evaluate minerals of environmental concern pushes current imaging spectrometer technology to its limits; we present laboratory results that indicate the direction for future designs of imaging spectrometers.

  2. Environmental security benefits arising from Russian/Norwegian/US cooperation in the high Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.S.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Czajkowski, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    Past practices associated with the civilian and military use of nuclear power in NW Russia present large environmental security risks of international concern. These risks arise from a variety of practices associated with weapons production, testing, power production and waste management. The threats presented by these activities are multimedia in nature, span political boundaries and cannot be simply or inexpensively remediated. Today, cooperative efforts are being undertaken to improve environmental security by remediating existing and potential emission sources. Initial efforts focused on the upgrade and expansion of the Murmansk Low-level Liquid Waste Treatment Facility, Murmansk, Russia. This facility handles wastes generated during the decommissioning of Russian Nuclear Navy submarines and from the operation of the Russian commercial nuclear-powered icebreaker fleet. This upgraded facility is now being constructed and is expected to be completed by March 1998. Completion of this facility will result in the cessation of any future dumping of liquid radioactive wastes into the Barents and Kara Seas. Another large environmental security risk is the LEPSE. The LEPSE is a ship docked in Murmansk, Russia, that contains {approximately}650 spent fuel elements as well as other solid and liquid wastes from Russian nuclear vessels. International efforts are now being mounted to remove the spent and damaged fuel from this ship, including the safe removal and storage/disposal of the fuel elements. This paper will summarize the environmental security problems presented by these different sources and the likely environmental security benefits associated with their remediation. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. School Nurses' Descriptions of Concerns Arising during Pupils' Health Check-Ups: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poutiainen, Hannele; Holopainen, Arja; Hakulinen-Viitanen, Tuovi; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the concerns and modes of action of Finnish school nurses during pupils' health check-ups. Methods: Focus group interviews with 17 school nurses were performed in 2011 and again in 2013. Data were analysed using inductive content analysis. Results: School nurses' concerns were mostly associated with the psychosocial…

  4. School Nurses' Descriptions of Concerns Arising during Pupils' Health Check-Ups: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poutiainen, Hannele; Holopainen, Arja; Hakulinen-Viitanen, Tuovi; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the concerns and modes of action of Finnish school nurses during pupils' health check-ups. Methods: Focus group interviews with 17 school nurses were performed in 2011 and again in 2013. Data were analysed using inductive content analysis. Results: School nurses' concerns were mostly associated with the psychosocial…

  5. Advanced Space Flight and Environmental Concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A.

    2001-01-01

    The aerospace industry has conquered numerous environmental challenges during the last decade. The aerospace industry of today has evolved due in part to the environmental challenges, becoming stronger, more robust, learning to push the limits of technology, materials and manufacturing, and performing cutting edge engineering.

  6. Gender Differences in Environmental Concern and Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momsen, Janet Henshall

    2000-01-01

    Examines cross-culturally the assertion that women have a special relationship with the environment and are more motivated than men to work for environmental sustainability. Explores the discourse on ecofeminism and evaluates alternative explanations of gender differences in environmental awareness. (CMK)

  7. Gender Differences in Environmental Concern and Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momsen, Janet Henshall

    2000-01-01

    Examines cross-culturally the assertion that women have a special relationship with the environment and are more motivated than men to work for environmental sustainability. Explores the discourse on ecofeminism and evaluates alternative explanations of gender differences in environmental awareness. (CMK)

  8. Strategies for addressing global environmental health concerns.

    PubMed

    Suk, William A; Davis, E Ann

    2008-10-01

    While each region of the world faces unique public health challenges, environmental threats to vulnerable populations in Asia constitute a significant global public health challenge. Environmental threats to health are widespread and are increasing as nations in the region undergo rapid industrial development. One of the major predictors of ill health is poverty. Regional poverty puts large populations at risk for ill health, which exacerbates poverty and increases the exposure risk to environmental factors, such as pollution and disease. Patterns of illness have changed dramatically in the last century, and will continue to change in this century. Chemical toxicants in the environment, poverty, and little or no access to health care are all factors contributing to life-threatening diseases. Therefore, it is vital that we develop a better understanding of the mechanisms and interactions between nutrition, infectious disease, environmental exposures, and genetic predisposition in order to develop better prevention methods.

  9. Incorporating social concerns in environmental impact assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.K.

    1990-03-01

    Social impact assessments most often focus on the population-driven impacts of projects. Such impacts may be insignificant when compared with social structural impacts of complex, controversial projects. This set of impacts includes social disruption, social group formation, and stigma effects. The National Environmental Policy Act does not explicitly call for assessment of, and assessors often are reluctant to address, these complex issues. This paper discusses why such impacts are critical to assess and gives examples of how they have been incorporated into environmental assessment documents. 6 refs.

  10. Comparing Cars--Environmental and Cost Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaros, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    Most high school students are at an age when they are learning to drive. They often want to offer input when their parents decide on what vehicle to purchase, so the activity described in this article should have direct personal interest for them. It allows students to use technology and mathematics to determine the environmental impacts of…

  11. Comparing Cars--Environmental and Cost Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaros, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    Most high school students are at an age when they are learning to drive. They often want to offer input when their parents decide on what vehicle to purchase, so the activity described in this article should have direct personal interest for them. It allows students to use technology and mathematics to determine the environmental impacts of…

  12. The politics of environmental concern: A cross-national analysis.

    PubMed

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J

    2012-09-01

    Prior research in the U.S. has found that liberals are generally more environmentally concerned than conservatives. The present study explores whether conservatives' opposition to environmental protection is solely a U.S. or a universal phenomenon and whether this association is contingent on country-level characteristics such as development, environmental conditions, and communist history. Employing data for 19 countries from the ISSP module "Environment II," this paper explores inter-country variations in the relationship between individual conservatism and environmental concern using multilevel modeling with cross-level interactions. The models reveal a number of intriguing associations. Most important, conservatives' support for environmental protection varies by country. This variation is a function of country-level characteristics. The strongest opposition of conservatives' toward environmental protection was observed in developed, capitalist nations, with superior environmental conditions. On the other hand, in less developed countries, and countries characterized by poor environmental quality, conservatives are more environmentally concerned than liberals.

  13. Treatment of environmental concerns expressed by the public

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report describes the means of dealing with environmental concerns addressed by the public. A number of specific concerns and their linkage to scientific/pollution issues are listed, as are a number of other environmental issues and their impacts.

  14. 10 CFR 51.67 - Environmental information concerning geologic repositories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental information concerning geologic repositories... information concerning geologic repositories. (a) In lieu of an environmental report, the Department of Energy... connection with any geologic repository developed under Subtitle A of Title I, or under Title IV, of...

  15. THE VARIED INFLUENCE OF SES ON ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cross-national studies have found positive relationships of socioeconomic status (SES) with environmental concern at the individual level but have not systematically examined how the relationships may differ across nations. Such comparisons have relevance to identifying the generality of theories of postmaterialism, affluence, and global environmentalism. Methods This study specifies how the individual-level influence of SES varies across national contexts and tests predictions using four waves of the World Values Survey on up to 96 nations. Results The results show that SES is associated only weakly with environmental concern in lower income nations with poor environmental conditions but is associated strongly and positively in higher income nations with better environmental conditions. Conclusion SES has a contingent relationship with environmental concern such that the global environmentalism theory receives support for lower income nations, while the postmaterialism and affluence theories receive support for higher income nations. PMID:24678128

  16. THE VARIED INFLUENCE OF SES ON ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN.

    PubMed

    Pampel, Fred C

    2014-03-01

    Cross-national studies have found positive relationships of socioeconomic status (SES) with environmental concern at the individual level but have not systematically examined how the relationships may differ across nations. Such comparisons have relevance to identifying the generality of theories of postmaterialism, affluence, and global environmentalism. This study specifies how the individual-level influence of SES varies across national contexts and tests predictions using four waves of the World Values Survey on up to 96 nations. The results show that SES is associated only weakly with environmental concern in lower income nations with poor environmental conditions but is associated strongly and positively in higher income nations with better environmental conditions. SES has a contingent relationship with environmental concern such that the global environmentalism theory receives support for lower income nations, while the postmaterialism and affluence theories receive support for higher income nations.

  17. Rural-Urban Differences in Environmental Concern in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddart-Kennedy, Emily; Beckley, Thomas M.; McFarlane, Bonita L.; Nadeau, Solange

    2009-01-01

    Distinctions between rural and urban populations are well documented in environmental sociology literature. Rural and urban places may exert different influences on participation in environmentally supportive behavior (ESB) as well as on other forms of environmental concern (EC). The influence of these distinct geographies may be due to present…

  18. Environmental health concerns in urban and rural family practice.

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, M. D.; Scott, E. A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe environmental health problems encountered in some Ontario family practices and to describe differences between the environmental concerns of urban (small and large) and rural physicians. DESIGN: A self-completed questionnaire was mailed to 536 family physicians with hospital affiliations in three areas of Ontario. SETTING: Family practices (rural, small urban, and large urban) in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Of 521 eligible community family physicians with hospital affiliations, 214 returned usable questionnaires for a 41% response rate. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Environmental health problems encountered in practice were measured using questions about physician concerns, reported patient questions, physician-identified high-risk groups, problems related to environmental exposure, self-rated knowledge, and current and preferred sources of information on environmental health effects. RESULTS: Physicians were highly concerned and reported many patient questions about the health effects of environmental exposures. Pregnant women, agricultural workers, and children were considered important at-risk groups. Self-ratings of knowledge were generally very low. Rural physicians were concerned about agricultural pesticide exposure and their patients about moldy hay. Urban physicians had different concerns about lead and reported patient concerns about exposure to Great Lakes fish. All groups used similar sources of current environmental health information. CONCLUSIONS: Family physicians who participated in this study identified important patient and professional concerns about environmental health issues and reported a lack of resources to meet those concerns. This study provides information to family medicine residency programs and continuing medical education providers to help them enhance their focus on environmental health. PMID:9678275

  19. Examining Influences on Environmental Concern and Career Choice among a Cohort of Environmental Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tarah S. A.; Wyatt, S. Lilith

    2008-01-01

    Although there is considerable literature discussing influence of environmental concern in the general population, and some literature specific to certain populations, to date there has not been a study that investigates the influences on environmental concern and career path for environmental scientists. With complex environmental issues becoming…

  20. Concern With Environmental Deterioration and Attitudes Toward Population Limitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Larry D.

    1970-01-01

    Analysis of Gallup Poll data of Junuary 1969 reveals weak association between concern about environmental deterioration and the recognition of need for eventual limitation of human population. Suggests that to increase favorable attitudes to population control, role of overpopulation in causing environmental deterioration needs to be presented to…

  1. Concern With Environmental Deterioration and Attitudes Toward Population Limitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Larry D.

    1970-01-01

    Analysis of Gallup Poll data of Junuary 1969 reveals weak association between concern about environmental deterioration and the recognition of need for eventual limitation of human population. Suggests that to increase favorable attitudes to population control, role of overpopulation in causing environmental deterioration needs to be presented to…

  2. Environmental Justice: Co-evolution of Environmental Concerns and Social Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarokin, David J.; Schulkin, Jay

    1994-01-01

    Describes the coevolution of environmental concerns with civil rights that has found overlap in the environmental justice movement. Discusses implications for decision making and protecting both environmental quality and civil rights. (LZ)

  3. Environmental Justice: Co-evolution of Environmental Concerns and Social Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarokin, David J.; Schulkin, Jay

    1994-01-01

    Describes the coevolution of environmental concerns with civil rights that has found overlap in the environmental justice movement. Discusses implications for decision making and protecting both environmental quality and civil rights. (LZ)

  4. The politics of environmental concern: A cross-national analysis*

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research in the U.S. has found that liberals are generally more environmentally concerned than conservatives. The present study explores whether conservatives’ opposition to environmental protection is solely a U.S. or a universal phenomenon and whether this association is contingent on country-level characteristics such as development, environmental conditions, and communist history. Employing data for 19 countries from the ISSP module “Environment II,” this paper explores inter-country variations in the relationship between individual conservatism and environmental concern using multilevel modeling with cross-level interactions. The models reveal a number of intriguing associations. Most important, conservatives’ support for environmental protection varies by country. This variation is a function of country-level characteristics. The strongest opposition of conservatives’ toward environmental protection was observed in developed, capitalist nations, with superior environmental conditions. On the other hand, in less developed countries, and countries characterized by poor environmental quality, conservatives are more environmentally concerned than liberals. PMID:27616877

  5. Food concerns and support for environmental food policies and purchasing.

    PubMed

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei C; Burton, Melissa

    2015-08-01

    Consumer support for pro environmental food policies and food purchasing are important for the adoption of successful environmental policies. This paper examines consumers' views of food policy options as their predisposition to purchase pro environmental foods along with their likely demographic, educational and cognitive antecedents including food and environmental concerns and universalism values (relating to care for others and the environment). An online survey to assess these constructs was conducted among 2204 Australian adults in November 2011. The findings showed strong levels of support for both environmental food policies (50%-78% support) and pro environmental food purchasing (51%-69% intending to purchase pro environmental foods). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling showed that different cognitive mediators exist along pathways between demographics and the two outcome variables. Support for food policy was positively related to food and environment concerns (std. Beta = 0.25), universalism (0.41), perceived control (0.07), and regulatory issues (0.64 but negatively with food security issues (-0.37). Environment purchasing intentions were positively linked to food and nutrition concerns (0.13), food and environment concerns (0.24), food safety concerns (0.19), food and animal welfare concerns (0.16), universalism (0.25), female gender (0.05), education (0.04), and perceived influence over the food system (0.17). In addition, health study in years 11 and 12 was positively related to the beginning of both of these pathways (0.07 for each). The results are discussed in relation to the opportunities that communications based on the mediating variables offer for the promotion of environmental food policies and purchasing.

  6. Online conversations among Ontario university students: environmental concerns.

    PubMed

    Martinello, Novella; Donelle, Lorie

    2012-09-01

    As the 'next generation' guardians of the environment, there appears to be limited inquiry into young Canadians' environmental concerns. At the same time, online social networking is a predominant method of communication among young adults. This research explored online conversations regarding environmental concerns among young Canadian adults targeting the university student population. A qualitative content analysis was conducted using posted conversations from the online social media network Facebook. Conversations addressing environmental issues were summarized into four major themes. The first theme, 'Built Environment' (127 postings) centred on housing and transportation. The second theme, 'Natural Environment' (55 postings) accounted for issues of air quality, pollution and water quality. The third theme, 'Environmental Restoration' (52 postings) highlighted young Canadian adults' plans for environmental recovery. The fourth theme, 'Engagement and Activism' (31 postings) underscored students' use of the online social networking site for environmental advocacy. Young adults appeared to be environmentally conscious and, through the use of social networking, exchanged knowledge and opinions, and advocated for environmental change. Online social networking sites, such as Facebook, can serve as a communication channel that facilitates health information sharing and more importantly cultivates community capacity focused on environmental health promotion among young adult users.

  7. Environmental Health concerns in natural and man-made environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergtholdt, C. P.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial hygene and environmental health aspects of ground operation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory were investigated. Major areas of concern are: (1) toxic substances, (2) noise pollution, (3) electromagnetic radiation; and (4) biohazards and sanitation. Each of these categories are also studied in a closed environment, such as encountered aboard of a spacecraft.

  8. Rural-Urban Differences in Environmental Concern: A Closer Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenburg, William R.; McGinn, Barbara

    This paper presents survey results from rural areas having significant levels of employment both in agriculture and in extraction industries (coal mining). Although a review of the literature suggests that rural residents may express lower levels of environmental concern than urban residents, one study proposed that rural residents in farm-related…

  9. Environmental Concern, Moral Education and Our Place in Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnett, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Some strands of environmental concern invite a radical re-evaluation of many taken for granted assumptions of late modern ways of life--particularly those that structure how we relate to the natural world. This article explores some of the implications of such a re-evaluation for our understanding of moral education by examining the significance…

  10. Environmental Health concerns in natural and man-made environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergtholdt, C. P.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial hygene and environmental health aspects of ground operation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory were investigated. Major areas of concern are: (1) toxic substances, (2) noise pollution, (3) electromagnetic radiation; and (4) biohazards and sanitation. Each of these categories are also studied in a closed environment, such as encountered aboard of a spacecraft.

  11. Environmental Concern and Sociodemographic Variables: A Study of Statistical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Chenyang; McCright, Aaron M.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of the social bases of environmental concern over the past 30 years have produced somewhat inconsistent results regarding the effects of sociodemographic variables, such as gender, income, and place of residence. The authors argue that model specification errors resulting from violation of two statistical assumptions (interval-level…

  12. Views on Environmental Concerns of University Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubrica, Maria Azucena B.; Lubrica, Joel V.

    2010-07-01

    The study investigated the views of graduate students on various environmental concerns. There were thirty (30) respondents, enrolled at Benguet State University of the Republic of the Philippines during the period March-May 2009, distributed as follows: nine for Master of Arts (MA) in Physics, two for MA General Science, fifteen for MA Mathematics, and four for MA Applied Statistics. There were ten males and twenty females. Likert-type responses for sixty-nine items were elicited through a questionnaire regarding levels of a) awareness, b) perceived knowledge, c) agreement, d) commitment, and e) expectations. Data analysis involved tests on means, based on the assumption that the responses were interval data. Results indicated that respondents lacked awareness about important national documents (such as Philippine Agenda 21 and Philippine Environment Code), perceived that they had a great knowledge of environmental topics (e.g., climate change and global warming), agreed to various environmental issues (involving balance of nature and sustainable development, among others), held a strong commitment to do action (especially in terms of integrating environmental education with their classes, if they were teachers), and held great expectations of the University's roles as an Organic Agriculture University (such as integrating environmental concerns in the curriculum, or introducing adaptation strategies for dealing with environmental problems, among others). In general, the respondents held similar perceptions, whether grouped according to sex or degree program. The major implication is that the MA Physics program, like the other three, can be a fertile ground for the inclusion of environmental concerns, towards the goal of producing solutions for both local and global challenges.

  13. Affluence and objective environmental conditions: Evidence of differences in environmental concern in metropolitan Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Guedes, Gilvan; do Carmo, Roberto Luiz

    2016-01-01

    In an age of climate change, researchers need to form a deepened understanding of the determinants of environmental concern, particularly in countries of emerging economies. This paper provides a region-specific investigation of the impact of socio-economic status (SES) and objective environmental conditions on environmental concern in urban Brazil. We make use of data that were collected from personal interviews of individuals living in the metropolitan areas of Baixada Santista and Campinas, in the larger São Paulo area. Results from multilevel regression models indicate that wealthier households are more environmentally concerned, as suggested by affluence and post-materialist hypotheses. However, we also observe that increasing environmental concern correlates with a decline in objective environmental conditions. Interactions between objective environmental conditions and SES reveal some intriguing relationships: Among poorer individuals, a decline in environmental conditions increases environmental concern as suggested by the objective problems hypothesis, while for the wealthy, a decline in environmental conditions is associated with lower levels of environmental concern. PMID:27594931

  14. Measuring Values-Based Environmental Concerns in Children: An Environmental Motives Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruni, Coral M.; Chance, Randie C.; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2012-01-01

    The Environmental Motives Scale (EMS) was developed to measure an individual's concerns about environmental issues. The measure provides subscale scores for egoistic, social-altruistic, and biospheric concerns. Prior studies have shown a good fit for the 3-factor structure, but the measure has yet to be used with children. In this paper we report…

  15. Considering social and environmental concerns as reservoir operating objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, A.; Georis, B.; Doulliez, P.

    2003-04-01

    Sustainability principles are now widely recognized as key criteria for water resource development schemes, such as hydroelectric and multipurpose reservoirs. Development decisions no longer rely solely on economic grounds, but also consider environmental and social concerns through the so-called environmental and social impact assessments. The objective of this paper is to show that environmental and social concerns can also be addressed in the management (operation) of existing or projected reservoir schemes. By either adequately exploiting the results of environmental and social impact assessments, or by carrying out survey of water users, experts and managers, efficient (Pareto optimal) reservoir operating rules can be derived using flexible mathematical programming techniques. By reformulating the problem as a multistage flexible constraint satisfaction problem, incommensurable and subjective operating objectives can contribute, along with classical economic objectives, to the determination of optimal release decisions. Employed in a simulation mode, the results can be used to assess the long-term impacts of various operating rules on the social well-being of affected populations as well as on the integrity of the environment. The methodology is illustrated with a reservoir reallocation problem in Chile.

  16. Environmental health concerns of the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed Central

    Young, R. C.; Rachal, R. E.; Huguley, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental health concerns in the Persian Gulf are peculiar to the geography of the region. Prevention of heat and solar injury deserves primary consideration, but cold injury also may occur in the desert. Immunizations are recommended against a number of diseases, while malarial chemoprophylaxis is necessary in Iraq and Kuwait. In addition to malaria, other parasitic diseases deserve consideration. Diarrheal diseases, diseases from the desert dust, and products of infected desert animals are of concern. Additional natural hazards are venomous bites from scorpions and desert snakes. Finally, threats of enemy action necessitated protection from nuclear biological and chemical weapons and LASER eye/skin injury. Unexploded ordinance will constitute a continuing hazard into the future. Images Figure 2 PMID:1495114

  17. Environmental health concerns of the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Young, R C; Rachal, R E; Huguley, J W

    1992-05-01

    Environmental health concerns in the Persian Gulf are peculiar to the geography of the region. Prevention of heat and solar injury deserves primary consideration, but cold injury also may occur in the desert. Immunizations are recommended against a number of diseases, while malarial chemoprophylaxis is necessary in Iraq and Kuwait. In addition to malaria, other parasitic diseases deserve consideration. Diarrheal diseases, diseases from the desert dust, and products of infected desert animals are of concern. Additional natural hazards are venomous bites from scorpions and desert snakes. Finally, threats of enemy action necessitated protection from nuclear biological and chemical weapons and LASER eye/skin injury. Unexploded ordinance will constitute a continuing hazard into the future.

  18. Public Perception of Environmental Issues in a Developing Setting: Environmental Concern in Coastal Ghana.

    PubMed

    White, Michael J; Hunter, Lori M

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: Balancing environmental quality with economic growth in less developed settings is clearly a challenge. Still surprisingly little empirical evidence has been brought to bear on the relative priority given environmental and socioeconomic issues among the residents themselves of such settings. This research explores such perceptions. METHODS: We undertake survey research with 2500 residents of coastal Ghana on policy issues, focusing on environmental topics. RESULTS: Our analyses reveal a significant amount of environmental awareness, with education and political engagement consistently predicting higher levels of concern. In addition, environmental issues are deemed important even when considered relative to other socioeconomic issues. CONCLUSION: In the end, we argue that our work sheds light on global environmentalism and the ways in which local populations in less developed settings prioritize social and environmental concerns. This work also has important policy implications since insight on local perceptions may help buttress policy responses designed to cope with global change.

  19. Public Perception of Environmental Issues in a Developing Setting: Environmental Concern in Coastal Ghana

    PubMed Central

    White, Michael J.; Hunter, Lori M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Balancing environmental quality with economic growth in less developed settings is clearly a challenge. Still surprisingly little empirical evidence has been brought to bear on the relative priority given environmental and socioeconomic issues among the residents themselves of such settings. This research explores such perceptions. Methods We undertake survey research with 2500 residents of coastal Ghana on policy issues, focusing on environmental topics. Results Our analyses reveal a significant amount of environmental awareness, with education and political engagement consistently predicting higher levels of concern. In addition, environmental issues are deemed important even when considered relative to other socioeconomic issues. Conclusion In the end, we argue that our work sheds light on global environmentalism and the ways in which local populations in less developed settings prioritize social and environmental concerns. This work also has important policy implications since insight on local perceptions may help buttress policy responses designed to cope with global change. PMID:22639472

  20. Overview of the environmental concerns of coal transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bertram, K.; Dauzvardis, P.; Fradkin, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-02-01

    More than 30 environmental concerns were analyzed for the transportation of coal by rail, roads (trucks), high voltage transmission lines (that is, from mine-mouth generating plants to distribution networks), coal slurry pipelines, and barges. The following criteria were used to identify these problems: (1) real physical environmetal impacts for which control technologies must be developed, or regulation made effective where control technologies presently exist; (2) the level of impact is uncertain, although the potential impact may be moderate to high; (3) the concerns identified by the first two criteria are specific to or exacerbated by coal transportation. Generic transportation problems are not included. The significant environmental problems identified as a result of this study are: (1) rail transport - community traffic disruption and human health, safety, and habitat destruction; (2) coal haul roads - road degradation, traffic congestion and safety, air quality, and noise; (3) high voltage transmission lines - changed land use without local benefits, biological health and safety effects, and disruption of world weather patterns; (4) slurry pipelines - water availability, water quality, and possible spills from non-water slurry pipelines; and (5) barge transport - impacts common to all barge traffic. (DMC)

  1. Environmental Perceptions of Rural South African Residents: The Complex Nature of Environmental Concern

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lori M.; Strife, Susie; Twine, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The state of the local environment shapes the well-being of millions of rural residents in developing nations. Still, we know little of these individuals’ environmental perceptions. This study analyzes survey data collected in an impoverished, rural region in northeast South Africa, to understand the factors that shape concern with local environmental issues. We use the “post-materialist thesis” to explore the different explanations for environmental concern in less developed regions of the world, with results revealing the importance of both cultural and physical context. In particular, gendered interaction with natural resources shapes perceptions, as does the local setting. Both theoretical and policy implications are discussed. PMID:20514147

  2. Environmental remediation: Addressing public concerns through effective community relations

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.; Heywood, J.; Wood, M.B.; Arellano, M.; Pfister, S.

    1998-12-31

    The public`s perception of risk drives their response to any potential environmental remediation project. Even if the actual environmental and health risks may be relatively low, public perception of high risk may doom the project to an uphill struggle characterized by heated public meetings, negative media coverage, reluctant regulators, project delays and increased costs. The ultimate Catch 22 in such a case is that the contamination remains in-place until the public drama is concluded. This paper explores the development and implementation of a Community Relations Plan for the clean up of a Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) site owned and operated by corporate predecessors of Arizona Public Service Company (APS) near the turn of the century. The unique challenges associated with this project were that the former MGP was located in downtown Phoenix at the site of a future federal courthouse. Although the MGP site had been under investigation for some time, the clean-up schedule was driven by a tight courthouse construction schedule. Compounding these challenges were the logistics associated with conducting a large-scale cleanup in a congested, highly visible downtown location. An effective Community Relations Plan can mean the difference between the success and failure of an environmental remediation project. Elements of an effective plan are: identifying key stakeholders and involving them in the project from the beginning; providing timely information and being open and honest about the potential environmental and health risks; involving your company`s community relations and media staff; and educating affected company employees. The Community Relations Plan developed for this project was designed to alleviate public concern about potential risks (perceived or real) associated with the project by keeping key stakeholders informed of all activities well in advance.

  3. Addressing environmental health concerns near Trecatti landfill site, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Fielder, H M; Palmer, S R; Poon-King, C; Moss, N; Coleman, G

    2001-01-01

    Residents near the Trecatti landfill site located in South Wales, United Kingdom, expressed concern about odors and health effects they attributed to site emissions. The authors compared routinely collected, population-based, health data from potentially exposed electoral wards (i.e., United Kingdom electoral tracts) with data from both wards nearby, matched for socioeconomic deprivation scores, and with wards where residents were likely to attend the same hospital. Mortality rates were higher for all causes and neoplastic diseases (but not respiratory disease) in the exposed wards, but there was no change in rates after the site opened. Hospital data revealed a transient increase in admissions for asthma during the 3 yr that preceded the peak in odor complaints. The birth prevalence of congenital malformations was raised in the exposed wards, but the authors could not exclude a possible artifact resulting from differences in reporting practices between hospitals. The absence of environmental monitoring in the community during the period of public concern was a significant weakness of this study.

  4. Some Numerical Results of Multipoints Bomndary Value Problems Arise in Environmental Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Daniel N.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate two problems arise in pollutant transport in rivers, and we give some numerical results to approximate this solutions. We determined the approximate solutions using two numerical methods: 1. B-splines combined with Runge-Kutta methods, 2. BVP4C solver of MATLAB and then we compare the run-times.

  5. Identification of radionuclides of concern in Hanford Site environmental cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, R.W.; Jenquin, U.P.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to consider which radionuclides should be included in conducting environmental surveys relative to site remediation at Hanford. During the operation of the Hanford site, the fission product radionuclides and a large number of activation products including the transuranic radionuclides were formed. The reactor operations and subsequent chemical processing and metallurgical operations resulted in the environmental release of gaseous and liquid effluents containing some radionuclides; however, the majority of the radionuclides were stored in waste tanks or disposed to trenches and cribs. Since some contamination of both soils and subsurface waters occurred, one must decide which radionuclides still remain in sufficient amounts to be of concern at the time when site remediation is to be complete. Many of the radionuclides which have constituted the principal hazard during site operation have half-lives on the order of a year or less; therefore, they will have decayed to insignificant amounts by the year 2030, a possible date for completion of the remediation process.

  6. Environmental Concern and Lake Tahoe: A Study of Elite Perceptions, Backgrounds, and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costantini, Edmond; Hanf, Kenneth

    1972-01-01

    The degree of concern for environmental problems by environmental decision-makers is often reflected in environmental policies. In profile fashion, the perceptions, attitudes, and background of persons affecting environmental decision-making in the Lake Tahoe Basin, California/Nevada, are explored. An environmental concern scale is developed. (BL)

  7. Contextual influences on environmental concerns cross-nationally: A multilevel investigation.

    PubMed

    Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra T

    2012-09-01

    Environmental issues continue to grow in international prominence, as environmental conditions are recognized as some of the most important problems facing the world. Research examining this globalization of environmental concern shown in public opinion surveys emphasizes the importance of context yet is currently underspecified. To address this gap, this research uses a multi-level, cross-national study to examine individual-level and country-level influences on three measures of environmental concern: environmental threat awareness, environmental efficacy, and willingness to pay. At the individual level, education, age, and gender affect environmental concerns. At the national level, economic, political, and environmental factors affect environmental concerns. Importantly, contextual factors differ in their effects depending on the dimension of environmental concern measured. Results from cross-level interactions for education confirm these complexities across these measures, supporting a dimensionality argument. The importance of the measurement of environmental concern shown in this research is emphasized for future cross-national scholarship.

  8. Young Voices: The Challenges and Opportunities That Arise in Early Childhood Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boileau, Elizabeth Yvonne Shaw

    2013-01-01

    The number of early childhood environmental education programs are on the rise in Canada and although young children have been quite marginalized from environmental education research, better understanding young children's relationships with the natural world is increasingly seen as important. Including young children themselves in research is…

  9. Environmental Behavior's Dirty Secret: The Prevalence of Waste Management in Discussions of Environmental Concern and Action.

    PubMed

    Gould, Rachelle K; Ardoin, Nicole M; Biggar, Matt; Cravens, Amanda E; Wojcik, Deb

    2016-08-01

    Humankind and the planet face many thorny environmentally related challenges that require a range of responses, including changing behaviors related to transportation, eating habits, purchasing, and myriad other aspects of life. Using data from a 1201-person survey and 14 Community Listening Sessions (CLSs), we explore people's perceptions of and actions taken to protect the environment. Our data indicate a striking prevalence of waste management-related actions. Survey respondents described actions and concerns related to trash, recycling, and composting as the most common environmental behaviors; similarly, participants in CLSs discussed waste-related topics, for which we did not prompt, as frequently as those topics for which we specifically prompted. Explanations for this prevalence emerging from the data include (1) the nature of waste-related behaviors (concrete, supported by infrastructure, simple, compatible with lifestyle); (2) norms and social dynamics (family interactions, feelings of belonging/participation, government policy); and (3) internal psychological processes (internalized norms and environmental concern). We also found that many waste-related discussions were relatively superficial, focusing on immediate waste-related issues (e.g., litter or recycling) rather than larger issues such as consumption. Our results may provide insight into future efforts to encourage pro-environmental behavior. Given that most pro-environmental behavior involves tasks more complex and lifestyle-changing than those related to simple aspects of waste management, we suggest focusing on the latter two intertwined categories that our data suggest are important: encouraging social dynamics and related development of norms concerning environmental behavior (category 2), and fostering internalized norms and environmental concern (category 3).

  10. Environmental Behavior's Dirty Secret: The Prevalence of Waste Management in Discussions of Environmental Concern and Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Rachelle K.; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Biggar, Matt; Cravens, Amanda E.; Wojcik, Deb

    2016-08-01

    Humankind and the planet face many thorny environmentally related challenges that require a range of responses, including changing behaviors related to transportation, eating habits, purchasing, and myriad other aspects of life. Using data from a 1201-person survey and 14 Community Listening Sessions (CLSs), we explore people's perceptions of and actions taken to protect the environment. Our data indicate a striking prevalence of waste management-related actions. Survey respondents described actions and concerns related to trash, recycling, and composting as the most common environmental behaviors; similarly, participants in CLSs discussed waste-related topics, for which we did not prompt, as frequently as those topics for which we specifically prompted. Explanations for this prevalence emerging from the data include (1) the nature of waste-related behaviors (concrete, supported by infrastructure, simple, compatible with lifestyle); (2) norms and social dynamics (family interactions, feelings of belonging/participation, government policy); and (3) internal psychological processes (internalized norms and environmental concern). We also found that many waste-related discussions were relatively superficial, focusing on immediate waste-related issues (e.g., litter or recycling) rather than larger issues such as consumption. Our results may provide insight into future efforts to encourage pro-environmental behavior. Given that most pro-environmental behavior involves tasks more complex and lifestyle-changing than those related to simple aspects of waste management, we suggest focusing on the latter two intertwined categories that our data suggest are important: encouraging social dynamics and related development of norms concerning environmental behavior (category 2), and fostering internalized norms and environmental concern (category 3).

  11. Environmental concerns of desalinating seawater using reverse osmosis.

    PubMed

    Tularam, Gurudeo Anand; Ilahee, Mahbub

    2007-08-01

    This Critical Review on environmental concerns of desalination plants suggests that planning and monitoring stages are critical aspects of successful management and operation of plants. The site for the desalination plants should be selected carefully and should be away from residential areas particularly for forward planning for possible future expansions. The concerning issues identified are noise pollution, visual pollution, reduction in recreational fishing and swimming areas, emission of materials into the atmosphere, the brine discharge and types of disposal methods used are the main cause of pollution. The reverse osmosis (RO) method is the preferred option in modern times especially when fossil fuels are becoming expensive. The RO has other positives such as better efficiency (30-50%) when compared with distillation type plants (10-30%). However, the RO membranes are susceptible to fouling and scaling and as such they need to be cleaned with chemicals regularly that may be toxic to receiving waters. The input and output water in desalination plants have to be pre and post treated, respectively. This involves treating for pH, coagulants, Cl, Cu, organics, CO(2), H(2)S and hypoxia. The by-product of the plant is mainly brine with concentration at times twice that of seawater. This discharge also includes traces of various chemicals used in cleaning including any anticorrosion products used in the plant and has to be treated to acceptable levels of each chemical before discharge but acceptable levels vary depending on receiving waters and state regulations. The discharge of the brine is usually done by a long pipe far into the sea or at the coastline. Either way the high density of the discharge reaches the bottom layers of receiving waters and may affect marine life particularly at the bottom layers or boundaries. The longer term effects of such discharge concentrate has not been documented but it is possible that small traces of toxic substances used in the

  12. Environmental risk perception, environmental concern and propensity to participate in organic farming programmes.

    PubMed

    Toma, Luiza; Mathijs, Erik

    2007-04-01

    This paper aims to identify the factors underlying farmers' propensity to participate in organic farming programmes in a Romanian rural region that confronts non-point source pollution. For this, we employ structural equation modelling with latent variables using a specific data set collected through an agri-environmental farm survey in 2001. The model includes one 'behavioural intention' latent variable ('propensity to participate in organic farming programmes') and five 'attitude' and 'socio-economic' latent variables ('socio-demographic characteristics', 'economic characteristics', 'agri-environmental information access', 'environmental risk perception' and 'general environmental concern'). The results indicate that, overall, the model has an adequate fit to the data. All loadings are statistically significant, supporting the theoretical basis for assignment of indicators for each latent variable. The significance tests for the structural model parameters show 'environmental risk perception' as the strongest determinant of farmers' propensity to participate in organic farming programmes.

  13. Investigating Environmental Concerns and Health Issues in Clarksville, Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Shirley A.; Jones, Robert Emmet

    2005-01-01

    Environmental degradation is a serious problem for millions of people who are unjustly exposed to environmental conditions that threaten their everyday survival. A growing body of research shows race and class as significant predictors to exposure to environmental hazards and associated health problems. Presented are perceptions of environmental…

  14. Model of Environmental Problems Priority Arising from the use of Environmental and Natural Resources in Machinery Sectors of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutthichaimethee, Pruethsan; Sawangdee, Yothin

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to evaluate environmental impacts from the Machinery sectors of Thailand, leading to more sustainable consumption and production in this sector of the economy. The factors used to calculate the Forward Linkage, Backward Linkage and Real Benefit were the Total Environmental Costs. The highest total environmental cost was Railway Equipment which needs to be resolved immediately because it uses natural resources more than its carrying capacity, higher environmental cost than standard, and contributes low real benefit. Electric Accumulator & Battery, Secondary Special Industrial Machinery, Motorcycle, Bicycle & Other Carriages, and Engines and Turbines need to be monitored closely because they are able to link to other production sectors more than any other production sectors do, and they have high environmental cost. To decide a sustainable development strategy of the country, therefore, results of this research must be used to support decision-making.

  15. Sex Differences in Environmental Concern and Knowledge: The Case of Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcury, Thomas A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents results of a telephone survey of 516 adults which focused on sex differences in concern and knowledge about one environmental issue, acid rain. The findings contradict predictions that women are more concerned about environmental issues: if there is a sex difference, men are found to be more concerned and knowledgeable about acid rain.…

  16. Sex Differences in Environmental Concern and Knowledge: The Case of Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcury, Thomas A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents results of a telephone survey of 516 adults which focused on sex differences in concern and knowledge about one environmental issue, acid rain. The findings contradict predictions that women are more concerned about environmental issues: if there is a sex difference, men are found to be more concerned and knowledgeable about acid rain.…

  17. Environmental impacts on soil and groundwater at airports: origin, contaminants of concern and environmental risks.

    PubMed

    Nunes, L M; Zhu, Y-G; Stigter, T Y; Monteiro, J P; Teixeira, M R

    2011-11-01

    Environmental impacts of airports are similar to those of many industries, though their operations expand over a very large area. Most international impact assessment studies and environmental management programmes have been giving less focus on the impacts to soil and groundwater than desirable. This may be the result of the large attention given to air and noise pollution, relegating other environmental descriptors to a second role, even when the first are comparatively less relevant. One reason that contributes to such "biased" evaluation is the lack of systematic information about impacts to soil and groundwater from airport activities, something the present study intends to help correct. Results presented here include the review of over seven hundred documents and online databases, with the objective of obtaining the following information to support environmental studies: (i) which operations are responsible for chemical releases?; (ii) where are these releases located?; (iii) which contaminants of concern are released?; (iv) what are the associated environmental risks? Results showed that the main impacts occur as a result of fuel storage, stormwater runoff and drainage systems, fuel hydrant systems, fuel transport and refuelling, atmospheric deposition, rescue and fire fighting training areas, winter operations, electrical substations, storage of chemical products by airport owners or tenants, and maintenance of green areas. A new method for ranking environmental risks of organic substances, based on chemical properties, is proposed and applied. Results show that the contaminants with the highest risks are the perfluorochemicals, benzene, trichloroethylene and CCl(4). The obtained information provides a basis for establishing the planning and checking phases of environmental management systems, and may also help in the best design of pollution prevention measures in order to avoid or reduce significant environmental impacts from airports.

  18. Environmental justice and health practices: understanding how health inequities arise at the local level.

    PubMed

    Frohlich, Katherine L; Abel, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    While empirical evidence continues to show that people living in low socio-economic status neighbourhoods are less likely to engage in health-enhancing behaviour, our understanding of why this is so remains less than clear. We suggest that two changes could take place to move from description to understanding in this field; (i) a move away from the established concept of individual health behaviour to a contextualised understanding of health practices; and (ii) a switch from focusing on health inequalities in outcomes to health inequities in conditions. We apply Pierre Bourdieu's theory on capital interaction but find it insufficient with regard to the role of agency for structural change. We therefore introduce Amartya Sen's capability approach as a useful link between capital interaction theory and action to reduce social inequities in health-related practices. Sen's capability theory also elucidates the importance of discussing unequal chances in terms of inequity, rather than inequality, in order to underscore the moral nature of inequalities. We draw on the discussion in social geography on environmental injustice, which also underscores the moral nature of the spatial distribution of opportunities. The article ends by applying this approach to the 'Interdisciplinary study of inequalities in smoking' framework. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Guidance for Mitigating Environmental Concerns During Range Siting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Act, as amended. Issues concerning asbestos and radon are addressed in Chap- ters 8 and 9, respectively. Indoor air quality issues and regulations are...3311_4113-81197--,00.html Minnesota Erosion Control Handbook for Local Roads http://www.lrrb.gen.mn.us/PDF/200308.pdf Minnesota Protecting Water Quality in

  20. Environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity: potential public health concerns

    PubMed Central

    Marczylo, Emma L.; Jacobs, Miriam N.; Gant, Timothy W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Throughout our lives, epigenetic processes shape our development and enable us to adapt to a constantly changing environment. Identifying and understanding environmentally induced epigenetic change(s) that may lead to adverse outcomes is vital for protecting public health. This review, therefore, examines the present understanding of epigenetic mechanisms involved in the mammalian life cycle, evaluates the current evidence for environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity in human cohorts and rodent models and highlights the research considerations and implications of this emerging knowledge for public health and regulatory toxicology. Many hundreds of studies have investigated such toxicity, yet relatively few have demonstrated a mechanistic association among specific environmental exposures, epigenetic changes and adverse health outcomes in human epidemiological cohorts and/or rodent models. While this small body of evidence is largely composed of exploratory in vivo high-dose range studies, it does set a precedent for the existence of environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity. Consequently, there is worldwide recognition of this phenomenon, and discussion on how to both guide further scientific research towards a greater mechanistic understanding of environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity in humans, and translate relevant research outcomes into appropriate regulatory policies for effective public health protection. PMID:27278298

  1. Preservice Teachers' Perception Levels Concerning Consumer Environmental Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikmenli, Yurdal

    2017-01-01

    People who strive to prevent harm to the environment while utilizing it and to maintain a livable environment is related to educational and cultural values. If we want the next generation to live in an environment as undisturbed as we live in now, environmentally friendly products should be consumed and waste should be prevented. Thus, raising an…

  2. 10 CFR 51.67 - Environmental information concerning geologic repositories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended. (See § 60.22 or § 63.22 of this chapter as to the required... review initiated pursuant to section 119 of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. This status report.... 51.67 Section 51.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL...

  3. 10 CFR 51.67 - Environmental information concerning geologic repositories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended. (See § 60.22 or § 63.22 of this chapter as to the required... review initiated pursuant to section 119 of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. This status report.... 51.67 Section 51.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL...

  4. 10 CFR 51.67 - Environmental information concerning geologic repositories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended. (See § 60.22 or § 63.22 of this chapter as to the required... review initiated pursuant to section 119 of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. This status report.... 51.67 Section 51.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL...

  5. 10 CFR 51.67 - Environmental information concerning geologic repositories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... whether the environmental impact statement has been found by the courts of the United States to be... Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended. (See § 60.22 or § 63.22 of this chapter as to the required..., denial of a license or construction authorization by the Commission. (b) Under applicable provisions...

  6. An Educational Tool for Outdoor Education and Environmental Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Klas; Ohman, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest an outdoor education model that respects the need to critically discuss the general belief in a causal relationship between experiences of nature, environmentally-friendly attitudes and behavioural change, but that at the same time respects the legitimate claims on the part of outdoor education practice for…

  7. An Educational Tool for Outdoor Education and Environmental Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Klas; Ohman, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest an outdoor education model that respects the need to critically discuss the general belief in a causal relationship between experiences of nature, environmentally-friendly attitudes and behavioural change, but that at the same time respects the legitimate claims on the part of outdoor education practice for…

  8. ARISE antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Arthur B.; Noca, Muriel; Ulvestad, James

    2000-03-01

    Supermassive black holes are among the most spectacular objects in the Universe, and are laboratories for physics in extreme conditions. Understanding the physics of massive black holes and related phenomena is a primary goal of the ARISE mission. The scientific goals of the mission are described in detail on the ARISE web site http://arise.ipl.nasa.gov and in the ARISE Science Goals document. The following paper, as the title suggests, is not intended to be a comprehensive description of ARISE, but deals only with one aspect of the ARISE mission-the inflatable antenna which is the key element of the ARISE spacecraft. This spacecraft,due to the extensive reliance on inflatables, may be considered as the first generation Gossamer spacecraft

  9. California environmental regulatory climate: Linking regulation to specific concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Rauh, T.N.

    1996-12-31

    This paper focuses on three areas of change which are aimed at recognizing and taking advantage of the benefits offered by the tremendous body of information and knowledge now available in the realm of environmental protection and regulation: Comprehensive re-evaluation and reform of California`s hazardous waste management regulatory program through the Department of Toxic Substances Control`s (DTSC) Regulatory Structure Update (RSU), which is designed to eliminate unnecessary regulatory burden while retaining requirements needed to protect the citizens and environment of California; Consolidation of governmental oversight functions in the areas of hazardous materials and hazardous waste at the local level through certified unified program agencies (CUPAs), providing for more effective and efficient utilization of limited governmental resources; Development of environmental management standards and systems and compliance assurance plans and programs to shift regulatory emphasis away from pre-operational regulatory agency command and control review and approval towards self-responsibility and self-evaluation on the part of California businesses with regulatory agencies emphasizing compliance assistance and enforcement targeted at bad actors. Together, these program reforms and redirections, when fully implemented, will substantially alter and improve the environmental regulatory climate for California business, while effectively protecting the environment and health of all Californians.

  10. Landscape Architects and Environmental Concern: An Examination of Attitudes, Verbal Commitment and Actual Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Anita Anne

    Landscape architects have a combination of abilities that have been gained through education and experience that could make their demonstration of environmental concern as citizens very effective. This study assessed the attitudes, verbal commitment, and actual commitment regarding environmental concern held by landscape architects registered and…

  11. The Social Basis of Agro-Environmental Concern: Physical versus Social Proximity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Jeff; Adua, Lazarus

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we explore the social basis of environmental concern, specifically focusing on attitudes about the agricultural environment in relation to an individual's geographic and social distance from agriculture. We also consider the significance of rural recreational behaviors in relation to agro-environmental concern. The analysis, based…

  12. Effects of Recreation Participation and Tildenian Interpretation on Tourists' Environmental Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satchabut, Thitikan

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from correlational studies suggests outdoor recreation may enhance participants' environmental concern, but findings are inconclusive. Also, previous research has not systematically addressed the influence of interpretation services on environmental concern, and little research has been conducted in developing Eastern countries. Thus,…

  13. Correlates and Dimensions of Environmental Quality Concern among Residents of an African Subtropical City: Gaborone, Botswana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanda, Raban

    1999-01-01

    Examines the dimensions of environmental quality and socioeconomic concern among residents of a small but spatially and demographically dynamic city in southern Africa. Environmental quality issues compete with socioeconomic concerns for people's attention, and the issues are more recognized by better-educated and well-off residents. Concludes…

  14. Effects of Recreation Participation and Tildenian Interpretation on Tourists' Environmental Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satchabut, Thitikan

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from correlational studies suggests outdoor recreation may enhance participants' environmental concern, but findings are inconclusive. Also, previous research has not systematically addressed the influence of interpretation services on environmental concern, and little research has been conducted in developing Eastern countries. Thus,…

  15. Environmental concerns of the light-duty-diesel engine: do we know enough. [Concerns and research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L. R.; Bernard, M.J. III, Moses, D.O.

    1980-01-01

    The diesel engine represents one of the near-term technology options available for fuel conservation in the nation's light-duty vehicles. If light-duty-diesel (LDD) sales continue to grow at their current pace, then diesel vehicles could represent a significant portion of the light-duty-vehicle fleet by 1985. While their benefit is seen as petroleum conservation, major public-health and air-quality concerns need to be resolved before LDD use becomes widespread. Unfortunately, the time to perform the required research is long, and major commitments to the LDD are being made. This paper identified the environmental concerns of LDD commercialization as well as the environmental research that is needed. The major risks appear to be the potential of chronic lung disease and cancer due to compounds associated with the carbonaceous particulate emitted in the diesel exhaust. The extremely small size of the LDD emitted particulates enables the particulates to easily penetrate into the deep lung cavities with yet-to-be-assessed human health effects. Risk statements are developed as the basis for identifying the research required for concern resolution. Specifically, research needs for identified that will determine the health effects, including dose/response impacts and tht will make possible a comparative evaluation of similar concerns that relate to gasoline engines.

  16. Site Acquisition and Related Environmental Concerns. Report of the Joint Legislative Audit Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Legislature, Sacramento. Joint Legislative Audit Committee.

    A public hearing of California's Joint Legislative Audit Committee examined land acquisition policy and practice in relation to new school construction projects during which the following two areas of concern were identified: (1) acquiring land for new schools in congested urban settings; and (2) managing the conflict that may arise from local,…

  17. Genetically modified crops: environmental and human health concerns.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, João Lúcio; Araujo, Welington Luiz

    2003-11-01

    About 10,000 years ago subsistence farmers started to domesticate plants and it was only much later, after the discovery of the fundaments of genetics, those organisms were submitted to rational genetic improvement mainly by selecting of traits of interest. Breeders used appropriate gene combinations to produce new animal races, plant varieties and hybrids, as well as improved microorganisms such as yeasts. After the introduction of recombinant DNA techniques, the transfer of DNA between species belonging to different genera, families or kingdoms became possible. The release of transgenic plants has aroused debates about several aspects of the environmental and human risks that could result from the introduction of genetically modified crops. Less effort has been dedicated to evaluate the impact of transgenic plants on their associated microorganisms, some of which (e.g. nitrogen-fixing bacteria, mycorrhizal fungi and endophytic microbiota) are extremely important for the survival of the plant. Investigations have been made regarding the horizontal transfer of genetic material between transgenic plants and microorganisms and on the disturbance of useful symbiotic associations between plants and endophytic, epiphytic and rhizosphere communities. In most cases the results do no show any adverse effect of transgenic plants on autochthonous plant-associated microorganisms. Results from our laboratory show small changes caused by genetically modified endophytic bacteria on the indigenous endophytic population of the sweet orange Citrus sinensis. In tests using appropriated fungal strains preliminary results using extracts from transgenic plants indicate that these plants do not affect haploidization, mitotic crossing-over, mutation rate or chromosomal alterations.

  18. Are Australians concerned about nanoparticles? A comparative analysis with established and emerging environmental health issues.

    PubMed

    Capon, Adam; Rolfe, Margaret; Gillespie, James; Smith, Wayne

    2015-02-01

    Introducing new technologies into society raises considerable public concern. We determine the public concern about nanoparticles, and compare this concern to other environmental health issues such as wind farms and coal seam gas production. A repeat cross sectional survey examining views on environmental health issues, risk, chemicals and trust was undertaken in more than 1,300 Australian residents in 2000 and 2013. Logistic regression and principal component analysis was used to investigate predictors of nanoparticle concern and identify a component structure for environmental health issues that could explain a trend of future nanoparticle concern. Australians have a relatively low level of concern about the risks of nanoparticles to health when compared to their concerns about other environmental health issues. Items associated with concern included gender, a general wish to avoid chemicals and possibly trust in politicians. Concern over nanoparticles clustered with similar views on technological risks. Current public concern over the risks of nanoparticles is low. However, a reframing of the issue towards 'chemicals' is likely to have a negative effect on risk perceptions. This paper raises questions about appropriate channels for the effective communication of risk. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  19. Climate patriots? Concern over climate change and other environmental issues in Australia.

    PubMed

    Tranter, Bruce; Lester, Libby

    2015-12-15

    Echoing the anti-pollution and resource conservation campaigns in the United States in the early-to-mid-twentieth century, some scholars advocate mobilising support for environmental issues by harnessing the notion of environmental patriotism. Taking action to reduce the impact of global warming has also been cast as a patriotic cause. Drawing upon quantitative data from a recent national survey, we examine the link between patriotism and environmental attitudes in Australia, focussing upon climate change. We find that patriotism has a largely neutral association with concern over environmental issues, with the exception of climate change and, to a lesser extent, wildlife preservation. Expressing concern over climate change appears to be unpatriotic for some Australians. Even after controlling for political party identification and other important correlates of environmental issue concerns, patriots are less likely than others to prioritise climate change as their most urgent environmental issue and less likely to believe that climate change is actually occurring.

  20. Incorporating Environmental Justice in Nepa Reviews Concerning Reuse of Former Military Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-02

    This paper focuses upon the effect that the recent emphasis of incorporating environmental justice concepts into the Federal government’s decision...making process has had. Specifically, the impact environmental justice considerations will have upon the Department of Defense’s (DoD) environmental...planning processes during possible future base closure and realignment rounds will be examined. Environmental justice has been a growing item of concern

  1. Variation in Environmentalism among University Students: Majoring in Outdoor Recreation, Parks, and Tourism Predicts Environmental Concerns and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnocky, Steven; Stroink, Mirella L.

    2011-01-01

    In a survey of Canadian university students (N = 205), the relationship between majoring in an outdoor recreation university program and environmental concern, cooperation, and behavior were examined. Stepwise linear regression indicated that enrollment in outdoor recreation was predictive of environmental behavior and ecological cooperation; and…

  2. Variation in Environmentalism among University Students: Majoring in Outdoor Recreation, Parks, and Tourism Predicts Environmental Concerns and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnocky, Steven; Stroink, Mirella L.

    2011-01-01

    In a survey of Canadian university students (N = 205), the relationship between majoring in an outdoor recreation university program and environmental concern, cooperation, and behavior were examined. Stepwise linear regression indicated that enrollment in outdoor recreation was predictive of environmental behavior and ecological cooperation; and…

  3. Environmental Involvement. Sources of Information (Including Directories and Lists) on Organizations, Institutions, Agencies, Groups, Etc., Concerned with Environmental Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinsmore, John

    Sources of information for environmental involvement are presented in this bibliography, designed not only as a single reference work but also to demonstrate the variety of sources which exist. Catalogued are organizations, institutions, agencies, and groups concerned with environmental affairs and providing international, continental, national,…

  4. Earth Mothers (and Fathers): Examining Generativity and Environmental Concerns in Adolescents and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Michael W.; Norris, Joan E.; Alisat, Susan; Bisson, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Erikson's construct of generative concern for future generations seems a plausible structure for supporting environmental behavior and socialization in the family. The present study of 44 Canadian middle-class families with a focal child aged 14-16 years, examined variations in generative concern among parents and their children and tested how…

  5. Sowing Seeds for Future Generations: Development of Generative Concern and Its Relation to Environmental Narrative Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Fanli; Soucie, Kendall; Alisat, Susan; Pratt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between the trajectory of generative concern measured at ages 23, 26 and 32 and environmental narrative identity at age 32. Canadian participants completed a questionnaire on generative concern at ages 23, 26 and 32 and were then interviewed about their personal experiences with the…

  6. Sowing Seeds for Future Generations: Development of Generative Concern and Its Relation to Environmental Narrative Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Fanli; Soucie, Kendall; Alisat, Susan; Pratt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between the trajectory of generative concern measured at ages 23, 26 and 32 and environmental narrative identity at age 32. Canadian participants completed a questionnaire on generative concern at ages 23, 26 and 32 and were then interviewed about their personal experiences with the…

  7. Marine environmental contamination: public awareness, concern and perceived effectiveness in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Rosseel, Yves; Calis, Tanja; Tediosi, Alice; Nadal, Martí; Marques, António; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-11-01

    Given the potential of Perceived Consumer Effectiveness (PCE) in shaping pro-environmental behavior, the relationships between PCE, awareness of causes of contaminants in the marine environment, and concern about marine environmental contamination were investigated using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). PCE is the belief that an individual has in being able to make a difference when acting alone. A web-based survey was performed in one western European country (Belgium), one northern European country (Ireland) and three southern European countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain), resulting in a total sample size of 2824 participants. The analyses confirm that European citizens are concerned about marine environmental problems. Participants from the southern countries reported the highest concern. In addition, the study participants did not have a strong belief in themselves in being capable of making a difference in tackling marine environmental problems. However, a higher awareness, which was associated with a higher degree of concern, enhanced the belief that an individual can make a difference in tackling marine environmental problems, though only when a concrete action was proposed. Consequently, information campaigns focusing on pro-environmental behavior are recommended to raise public awareness about marine environmental problems and at the same time explicitly refer to concrete possible actions. The findings indicate that when only awareness and concern are raised without mentioning a concrete action, PCE might even decrease and render the communication effort ineffective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Merging Economic and Environmental Concerns through Ecopreneurship. Digest Number 98-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Gwyer

    Ecopreneurs are entrepreneurs whose business efforts are not only driven by profit, but also by a concern for the environment. Ecopreneurship, also known as environmental entrepreneurship and eco-capitalism, is becoming more widespread as a new market-based approach to identifying opportunities for improving environmental quality and capitalizing…

  9. A Social Capital Basis for Environmental Concern: Evidence from Northern New England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macias, Thomas; Nelson, Elysia

    2011-01-01

    This study, based on a random-digit-dialing telephone survey of adults in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, uses ordinary least squares regression to examine a relatively neglected element in the sociological literature on environmental concern, namely, the influence of an individual's social capital on the formation of environmental attitudes.…

  10. Environmental Behavior and Gender: An Emerging Area of Concern for Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakellari, Maria; Skanavis, Constantina

    2013-01-01

    Ecofeminism suggests that women are more active than men regarding environmental issues for a variety of social, cultural, and biological reasons. In support to these arguments, women predominate within the overall grassroots of the Environmental Justice movement. However, claims have been made that environmental education theory and research are…

  11. Environmental Behavior and Gender: An Emerging Area of Concern for Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakellari, Maria; Skanavis, Constantina

    2013-01-01

    Ecofeminism suggests that women are more active than men regarding environmental issues for a variety of social, cultural, and biological reasons. In support to these arguments, women predominate within the overall grassroots of the Environmental Justice movement. However, claims have been made that environmental education theory and research are…

  12. Perceptions of general environmental problems, willingness to expend federal funds on these problems, and concerns regarding the Los Alamos National Laboratory: Hispanics are more concerned than Whites.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Myers, O; Boring, C S; Dixon, C; Lord, C; Ramos, R; Shukla, S; Gochfeld, Michael

    2004-06-01

    Perceptions about general environmental problems, governmental spending for these problems, and major concerns about the US Department of Energy's Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) were examined by interviewing 356 people attending a gun show in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The hypothesis that there are differences in these three areas as a function of ethnicity was examined. We predicted that if differences existed, they would exist for all three evaluations (general environmental problems, government spending, and environmental concerns about LANL). However, this was not the case; there were fewer ethnic differences concerning LANL. Hispanics rated most general environmental problems higher than Whites and rated their willingness to expend federal funds higher than Whites, although all groups gave a lower score on willingness than on concern. Further, the congruence between these two types of ratings was higher for Hispanics than for others. In general, the concerns expressed by subjects about LANL showed few ethnic differences, and everyone was most concerned about contamination. These data indicate that Hispanics attending a gun show are equally or more concerned than others about environmental problems generally but are not more concerned about LANL. The data can be useful for developing future research and stewardship plans and for understanding general environmental problems and their relationship to concerns about LANL. More generally, they indicate that the attitudes and perceptions of Hispanics deserve increased study in a general population.

  13. Assessing environmental attitudes and concerns about a contaminated site in a densely populated suburban environment.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2005-02-01

    Considerable attention has been devoted to the concerns and perceptions of people residing around contaminated facilities, both brownfields in urban areas and others located in remote and lightly populated areas. This paper examines the concerns of recreationists and sportsmen residing near the Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory, in central Long Island, one of the most densely populated regions in the United States, where tourism is of prime importance. On an open-ended question, the greatest concern was pollution, followed by environmental health as a global concern, and human health as a concern for Brookhaven. Accidents/spills, loss of public health, and loss of ecological health were rated highest among a list of concerns, and change in property values was rated lowest. When asked to rank seven concerns, protecting human health was ranked the highest, and economic interests were ranked the lowest. For future land use at Brookhaven, recreational uses were rated the highest, while building houses and factories, and storage of nuclear material were rated the lowest. These data can be used by managers, decision and policy makers, and the general public to assess and manage local and regional environmental concerns and to consider future land uses for decommissioned lands, such as those at Brookhaven.

  14. The Politics of Environmental Concern: The Impacts of Party Identification and Political Ideology on Environmental Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttel, Frederick H.; Flinn, William L.

    1978-01-01

    The literature on the political context of the environmental movement entertains competing hypotheses that environmentalism either transcends or embodies traditional left-right cleavages in American society. Findings from a statewide survey in Wisconsin indicate substantial relationships between sociopolitical ideologies and support for…

  15. LMFBR conceptual design study: an overview of environmental and safety concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Brenchley, D.L.

    1981-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder (LMFBR) Conceptual Design Study (CDS) with the objective of maintaining a viable breeder option. The project is scheduled to be completed in FY-1981 but decisions regarding plant construction will be delayed until at least 1985. This report provides a review of the potential environmental and safety engineering concerns for the CDS and recommends specific action for the Environmental and Safety Engineering Division of DOE.

  16. Research and Development of Methods for Estimating Physicochemical Properties of Organic Compounds of Environmental Concern

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-01

    Trangport and Transformation of Pollutants an Land and Warer : Processes and Critical Data Required for Predictive Description; May 11-13, 1976: National...one of these goals is for the model to act as a " monitoring "’ instrument. If information is available concerning the source inputs, environmental...pathways. and sensitive environmental targets of a certain compound, a model can be used to monitor the effectiveness of chemical control programs

  17. Environmental Sustainability as a Generative Concern: An Exploratory Study of the Narrative Identities of Leaders in the Environmental Sustainability Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Tiffany Simons

    2009-01-01

    Environmental sustainability is one of the most pressing concerns of the twenty-first century, and working toward sustainability will require broad lifestyle and cultural shifts, particularly in industrialized societies. Yet despite a growing recognition of the importance of issues such as climate change, food security, transportation, and…

  18. Environmental Sustainability as a Generative Concern: An Exploratory Study of the Narrative Identities of Leaders in the Environmental Sustainability Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Tiffany Simons

    2009-01-01

    Environmental sustainability is one of the most pressing concerns of the twenty-first century, and working toward sustainability will require broad lifestyle and cultural shifts, particularly in industrialized societies. Yet despite a growing recognition of the importance of issues such as climate change, food security, transportation, and…

  19. Guidance for Incorporating Environmental Justice Concerns in EPA's National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Analyses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The document defines the approaches by which EPA will ensure that disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects on minority communities and low-income communities are identified and addressed.

  20. The giant Madagascar hissing-cockroach (Gromphadorhina portentosa) as a source of antagonistic moulds: concerns arising from its use in a public setting.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jay A; Glenn, Brian D; Benoit, Joshua B; Zettler, Lawrence W

    2008-03-01

    Cockroaches and their excreta have been linked to allergies and childhood asthma. The giant Madagascar hissing-cockroach (Gromphadorhina portentosa), heralded as an educational tool in classrooms, museums, zoos, is now available to the public as a children's pet raising health concerns. We provide a catalogue of potentially antagonistic moulds associated with this insect. Specimens were obtained from laboratories, classrooms, pet stores and private homes. Three different agar media were used to culture moulds from both internal and external cockroach surfaces. Pure cultures were obtained from hyphal tips excised by scalpel. A total of 14 mould taxa were obtained, mostly from external surfaces. The mycoflora was dominated by species of Rhizopus, Penicillium, Mucor, Trichoderma and Alternaria, and differed little among nymphs, adults, cast skins (exuviae) and faeces. A two-fold increase of Aspergillus niger isolates, however, was detected in exuviae and faeces. The mycoflora appeared to be equally distributed on the body regions in nymphs and adults alike. Most of the moulds recovered are common, well-known saprophytes with a prolific ability to produce asexual spores (e.g. conidia) when supplied with adequate moisture and an organic substrate (e.g. vegetable matter, pet food and exuviae). Cockroach rearing conditions thus serve as an ideal environment for mould growth and proliferation, and the subsequent use (handling) of these insects in a public forum increases the risk of inducing mould-related allergies in humans. Of special concern are moulds also capable of causing secondary infections (e.g. Rhizopus, Mucor, Aspergillus), gaining entry via open wounds and inhalation. This is mainly a point of public awareness aimed at individuals (especially children) prone to infections and allergies that might be exposed to this insect and/or its rearing conditions.

  1. Revisiting the Democratic Paradox of Environmental and Sustainability Education: Sustainability Issues as Matters of Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Poeck, Katrien; Goeminne, Gert; Vandenabeele, Joke

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we address the democratic paradox in environmental and sustainability education (ESE) by drawing on Bruno Latour's conceptual distinction between "matters of fact" and "matters of concern" and the notion of attachments that goes with it. We present an analysis of three cases (nature excursions, workshops that…

  2. Gender, ethnic identity, and environmental concern in Asian Americans and European Americans

    Treesearch

    Shawn M. Burn; Patricia L. Winter; Brittany Hori; N Clayton. Silver

    2012-01-01

    There are relatively few articles in sociology and psychology on gender, ethnicity, and the environment, yet ethnic and gender neutral approaches to sustainability may be incomplete. We studied gender, ethnicity, and environmental concern with an internet sample of Asian American women (n=157) and men (n=69), and European American women (n=222) and men (n=99)....

  3. The Intergenerational Transmission of Environmental Concern: The Influence of Parents and Communication Patterns within the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeusen, Cecil

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the intergenerational transmission of environmental concern and the explanatory power of communication patterns within the family. Using representative data from the Parent-Child Socialization Study in Belgium (PCSS, 2012), this article focuses on the relative influence of the mother and the father, and gender-specific…

  4. Environmental Concern and Cooperative-Competitive Behavior in a Simulated Commons Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jeffrey M.; Bell, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    Presents study results examining behavior associated with preservation and destruction of slowly regenerating natural resources by using commons dilemma simulation games. Reports that neither environmental concern nor proenvironmental behaviors were related to commons dilemma performance. Concludes that cooperation and competition were better…

  5. Revisiting the Democratic Paradox of Environmental and Sustainability Education: Sustainability Issues as Matters of Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Poeck, Katrien; Goeminne, Gert; Vandenabeele, Joke

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we address the democratic paradox in environmental and sustainability education (ESE) by drawing on Bruno Latour's conceptual distinction between "matters of fact" and "matters of concern" and the notion of attachments that goes with it. We present an analysis of three cases (nature excursions, workshops that…

  6. The Intergenerational Transmission of Environmental Concern: The Influence of Parents and Communication Patterns within the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeusen, Cecil

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the intergenerational transmission of environmental concern and the explanatory power of communication patterns within the family. Using representative data from the Parent-Child Socialization Study in Belgium (PCSS, 2012), this article focuses on the relative influence of the mother and the father, and gender-specific…

  7. Development of Decision-Making Skills and Environmental Concern through Computer-Based, Scaffolded Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaou, Christiana Th.; Korfiatis, Konstantinos; Evagorou, Maria; Constantinou, Constantinos

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of decision-making skills and environmental concern by 11- and 12-year-old students through computer-based, scaffolded learning activities. The enacted activities provided necessary scientific information and allowed for the consideration of multiple aspects of the problem, the study of the effects of every…

  8. Personal and social factors that influence pro-environmental concern and behaviour: a review.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Robert; Nilsson, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    We review the personal and social influences on pro-environmental concern and behaviour, with an emphasis on recent research. The number of these influences suggests that understanding pro-environmental concern and behaviour is far more complex than previously thought. The influences are grouped into 18 personal and social factors. The personal factors include childhood experience, knowledge and education, personality and self-construal, sense of control, values, political and world views, goals, felt responsibility, cognitive biases, place attachment, age, gender and chosen activities. The social factors include religion, urban-rural differences, norms, social class, proximity to problematic environmental sites and cultural and ethnic variations We also recognize that pro-environmental behaviour often is undertaken based on none of the above influences, but because individuals have non-environmental goals such as to save money or to improve their health. Finally, environmental outcomes that are a result of these influences undoubtedly are determined by combinations of the 18 categories. Therefore, a primary goal of researchers now should be to learn more about how these many influences moderate and mediate one another to determine pro-environmental behaviour. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  9. A Study of the Relationship between Pro-Environmental Product Use and Environmental Concern

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980) ............................................ 15 5. Theory of Planned Behavior ( Ajzen , 1985... Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) ( Ajzen , 1991) can be used. The TPB has been used mainly to understand specific environmental behaviors , but... behaviors being measured ( Ajzen , 1985). This new behavioral model was entitled the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) ( Ajzen , 1985).

  10. A comparative review of environmental concern prioritization: LEED vs other major certification systems.

    PubMed

    Suzer, Ozge

    2015-05-01

    The matter of environmental concern prioritization integrated into globally used green building rating systems is a fundamental issue since it determines how the performance of a structure or development is reflected. Certain nationally-developed certification systems are used globally without being subjected to adjustments with respect to local geographical, cultural, economic and social parameters. This may lead to a situation where the results of an evaluation may not reflect the reality of the region and/or the site of construction. The main objective of this paper is to examine and underline the problems regarding the issue of weighting environmental concerns in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification system, which is a US-originated but globally used assessment tool. The methodology of this study consists of; (i) an analysis of the approach of LEED in the New Construction and Major Renovations scheme in version 3 (LEED NC, v.3) and the Building Design and Construction scheme in version 4 (LEED BD + C, v.4), (ii) case studies in which regional priority credits (RPCs) set by LEED for four countries (Canada, Turkey, China and Egypt) are criticized with respect to countries' own local conditions, and, (iii) an analysis of the approaches of major environmental assessment tools, namely; BREEAM, SBTool, CASBEE and Green Star, in comparison to the approach in LEED, regarding the main issue of this paper. This work shows that, even in its latest version (v.4) LEED still displays some inadequacies and inconsistencies from the aspect of environmental concern prioritization and has not yet managed to incorporate a system which is more sensitive to this issue. This paper further outlines the differences and similarities between the approaches of the aforementioned major environmental assessment tools with respect to the issue of concern and the factors that should be integrated into future versions of LEED.

  11. Why Should I Care? Exploring the Use of Environmental Concern as a Frame of Communication in Zoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yocco, Victor S.; Bruskotter, Jeremy; Wilson, Robyn; Heimlich, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Effectively communicating environmental issues to motivate visitors' behavior is critical for zoos to accomplish their missions. We examined the relationship between zoo visitors' environmental concern and agreement with messages framed by environmental concern. Findings from two zoos (N = 298; N = 400), using two message formats, provided nearly…

  12. Why Should I Care? Exploring the Use of Environmental Concern as a Frame of Communication in Zoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yocco, Victor S.; Bruskotter, Jeremy; Wilson, Robyn; Heimlich, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Effectively communicating environmental issues to motivate visitors' behavior is critical for zoos to accomplish their missions. We examined the relationship between zoo visitors' environmental concern and agreement with messages framed by environmental concern. Findings from two zoos (N = 298; N = 400), using two message formats, provided nearly…

  13. Cohort change and the diffusion of environmental concern: A cross-national analysis.

    PubMed

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Pampel, Fred C

    2013-09-01

    This study explores value change across cohorts for a multinational population sample. Employing a diffusion-of-innovations approach, we combine competing theories predicting the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and environmentalism: post-materialism and affluence theories, and global environmentalism theory. The diffusion argument suggests that high-SES groups first adopt pro-environmental views, but as time passes by, environmentalism diffuses to lower-SES groups. We test the diffusion argument using a sample of 18 countries for two waves (years 1993 and 2000) from the International Social Survey Project (ISSP). Cross-classified multilevel modeling allows us to identify a non-linear interaction between cohort and education, our core measure of SES, in predicting environmental concern, while controlling for age and period. We find support for the diffusion argument and demonstrate that the positive effect of education on environmental concern first increases among older cohorts, then starts to level off until a bend-point is reached for individuals born around 1940 and becomes progressively weaker for younger cohorts.

  14. Cohort change and the diffusion of environmental concern: A cross-national analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Pampel, Fred C.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores value change across cohorts for a multinational population sample. Employing a diffusion-of-innovations approach, we combine competing theories predicting the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and environmentalism: post-materialism and affluence theories, and global environmentalism theory. The diffusion argument suggests that high-SES groups first adopt pro-environmental views, but as time passes by, environmentalism diffuses to lower-SES groups. We test the diffusion argument using a sample of 18 countries for two waves (years 1993 and 2000) from the International Social Survey Project (ISSP). Cross-classified multilevel modeling allows us to identify a non-linear interaction between cohort and education, our core measure of SES, in predicting environmental concern, while controlling for age and period. We find support for the diffusion argument and demonstrate that the positive effect of education on environmental concern first increases among older cohorts, then starts to level off until a bend-point is reached for individuals born around 1940 and becomes progressively weaker for younger cohorts. PMID:24179313

  15. An Assessment of the Scientific Basis Behind Global Environmental Concerns in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The notion that human activities may endanger the earth's environment has emerged as a leading societal concern in the post industrial era. Under the ever increasing pressures of population growth and industrialization, the problems of local air pollution have now become matters of both local and global concern. Smog, toxic chemicals, acid rain, ozone depletion, and climate change have become household words and an intense public policy debate about the cost and benefits of environmental protection continues. There is a growing realization that the consequences of air pollution can be felt in unpredictable ways in near and far away places. Unpopulated regions of the world such as the arctic now suffer from arctic haze and ozone depletions are the largest in the Antarctic stratosphere. In the last4ol three decades many countries have instituted ambient air quality standards designed to mitigate problems of health and welfare associated with the release of chemicals. Global agreements to prevent the depletion of ozone layer and to slow down climatic warming are being actively debated and formulated. In parallel there has been an intense exploration of the science of air pollution all over the world. The scientific basis behind environmental concerns is imperfect and is central to this debate. I will review our current scientific understanding of some of the major environmental concerns. An assessment of the forthcoming efforts to put this science on a more solid footing will be provided.

  16. Traditional food consumption behaviour and concern with environmental contaminants among Cree schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk territory.

    PubMed

    Hlimi, Tina; Skinner, Kelly; Hanning, Rhona M; Martin, Ian D; Tsuji, Leonard J S

    2012-03-19

    To investigate factors influencing consumption of traditional foods (e.g. wild game, fish) and concerns about environmental contaminants among schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk Territory First Nations (Moose Factory, Fort Albany, Kashechewan, Attawapiskat, and Peawanuck). Cross-sectional data collection from a Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q). Schoolchildren in grades 6-12 (n = 262) responded to 4 of the WEB-Q questions: (a) Do you eat game? (b) How often do you eat game? (c) How concerned are you about the environmental contaminants in the wild game and fish that you eat? (d) I would eat more game if… [6 response options]. Data were collected in 2004 (Fort Albany), 2005 (Peawanuck), 2006 (Attawapiskat), 2007 (Moose Factory) and 2009 (Kashechewan). Hierarchical log-linear modelling (LLM) was used for analyses of multi-way frequency data. Of the schoolchildren answering the specific questions: 174 consumed game; 95 reported concerns about contaminants in game; and 84 would increase their game consumption if it were more available in their homes. LLM revealed significant differences between communities; schoolchildren in Moose Factory consumed game "rarely or never" at greater than expected frequency, and fewer than expected consumed game "at least once a day". Schoolchildren in Kashechewan had greater frequency of daily game consumption and few were concerned about contaminants in game. Using LLM, we found that sex was an insignificant variable and did not affect game consumption frequency or environmental contaminant concern. The consumption of traditional foods differed between communities and appears to be related to contamination concerns. In addition, latitudinal variation appears to influence the frequency of traditional food consumption in children; children in the most southerly location consumed traditional food less frequently.

  17. Traditional food consumption behaviour and concern with environmental contaminants among Cree schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk territory.

    PubMed

    Hlimi, Tina; Skinner, Kelly; Hanning, RhonaM; Martin, Ian D; Tsuji, LeonardJ S

    2012-01-01

    To investigate factors influencing consumption of traditional foods (e.g. wild game, fish) and concerns about environmental contaminants among schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk Territory First Nations (Moose Factory, Fort Albany, Kashechewan, Attawapiskat, and Peawanuck). Cross-sectional data collection from a Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q). Schoolchildren in grades 6-12 (n = 262) responded to 4 of the WEB-Q questions: (a) Do you eat game? (b) How often do you eat game? (c) How concerned are you about the environmental contaminants in the wild game and fish that you eat? (d) I would eat more game if… [6 response options]. Data were collected in 2004 (Fort Albany), 2005 (Peawanuck), 2006 (Attawapiskat), 2007 (Moose Factory) and 2009 (Kashechewan). Hierarchical log-linear modelling (LLM) was used for analyses of multi-way frequency data. Of the schoolchildren answering the specific questions: 174 consumed game; 95 reported concerns about contaminants in game; and 84 would increase their game consumption if it were more available in their homes. LLM revealed significant differences between communities; schoolchildren in Moose Factory consumed game "rarely or never" at greater than expected frequency, and fewer than expected consumed game "at least once a day". Schoolchildren in Kashechewan had greater frequency of daily game consumption and few were concerned about contaminants in game. Using LLM, we found that sex was an insignificant variable and did not affect game consumption frequency or environmental contaminant concern. The consumption of traditional foods differed between communities and appears to be related to contamination concerns. In addition, latitudinal variation appears to influence the frequency of traditional food consumption in children; children in the most southerly location consumed traditional food less frequently.

  18. Traditional food consumption behaviour and concern with environmental contaminants among Cree schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk territory

    PubMed Central

    Hlimi, Tina; Skinner, Kelly; Hanning, Rhona M; Martin, Ian D.; Tsuji, Leonard J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate factors influencing consumption of traditional foods (e.g. wild game, fish) and concerns about environmental contaminants among schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk Territory First Nations (Moose Factory, Fort Albany, Kashechewan, Attawapiskat, and Peawanuck). Study design Cross-sectional data collection from a Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q). Methods Schoolchildren in grades 6–12 (n =262) responded to 4 of the WEB-Q questions: (a) Do you eat game? (b) How often do you eat game? (c) How concerned are you about the environmental contaminants in the wild game and fish that you eat? (d) I would eat more game if… [6 response options]. Data were collected in 2004 (Fort Albany), 2005 (Peawanuck), 2006 (Attawapiskat), 2007 (Moose Factory) and 2009 (Kashechewan). Hierarchical log-linear modelling (LLM) was used for analyses of multi-way frequency data. Results Of the schoolchildren answering the specific questions: 174 consumed game; 95 reported concerns about contaminants in game; and 84 would increase their game consumption if it were more available in their homes. LLM revealed significant differences between communities; schoolchildren in Moose Factory consumed game “rarely or never” at greater than expected frequency, and fewer than expected consumed game “at least once a day”. Schoolchildren in Kashechewan had greater frequency of daily game consumption and few were concerned about contaminants in game. Using LLM, we found that sex was an insignificant variable and did not affect game consumption frequency or environmental contaminant concern. Conclusion The consumption of traditional foods differed between communities and appears to be related to contamination concerns. In addition, latitudinal variation appears to influence the frequency of traditional food consumption in children; children in the most southerly location consumed traditional food less frequently. PMID:22456047

  19. Biomass stakeholder views and concerns: Environmental groups and some trade association

    SciTech Connect

    Peelle, E.

    2000-01-01

    This exploratory study of the views and concerns of 25 environmental organizations found high interest and concern about which biomass feedstocks would be used and how these biomass materials would be converted to energy. While all favored renewable energy over fossil or nuclear energy, opinion diverged over whether energy crops, residues, or both should be the primary source of a biomass/bioenergy fuel cycle. About half of the discussants favored biomass ``in general'' as a renewable energy source, while the others were distributed about equally over five categories, from favor-with-conditions, uncertain, skeptical, opposed, to ``no organizational policy.''

  20. Responsible conduct in nanomedicine research: environmental concerns beyond the common rule.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2012-01-01

    Nanomedicine research raises ethical concerns beyond those covered by the Common Rule. Investigators and research institutions should comply with environmental and occupational health laws protect research staff and the environment. Though the IRB should concentrate on risks to human research participants, it should also consider risks to identifiable third parties. Investigators should also address risks to identifiable third parties. Professional and governmental organizations should deal with the long-term social, ethical, and environmental consequences of nanomedicine. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  1. Environmental concerns among under-represented groups at the Hanford nuclear site

    SciTech Connect

    Gougis, R.A.; Serban, W.; Coles-Coghi, A.A.

    1997-08-01

    Recent executive branch actions require federal agencies to include more under-represented groups in the environmental policy making process. Previous studies on environmental risk communication and participation either (1) minimize the attention on minority group participation, (2) reflect environmental justice issues not associated with hazardous nuclear waste, or (3) find an under-representation of minorities at meetings and activities designed to solicit public input. This study reports on a public opinion survey of a weighted random sample of citizens from six counties in the Hanford Nuclear Installation region of Washington state. According to the opinions of 358 respondents, minority groups share a degree of environmental concern and perceive environmental threats, although not over the same issues. Moreover, minorities do not share the same perceptions of information sources about the environment. One noticeable difference found in this study is the tendency for Hispanic respondents to have more trust in those institutions addressing environmental issues whereas other respondents lacked trust. Finally, Hispanic respondents showed a higher disinclination to participate in environmental activities compared with other group respondents who were slightly more active, but participated in different endeavors.

  2. [The effects of an environmental education with newspaper in education (NIE) on the environmental concern and practice].

    PubMed

    Sung, Ki-Wol

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an environmental education program using newspaper articles in education (NIE) and to evaluate changes in concern and practice for environmental protection after NIE. The design was a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The participants were university students in nursing, of which 31 were assigned to the experimental group and 43 to the control group. The education was carried out for 2 hr, once a week for 7 weeks. Data were analyzed with SPSS WIN 14 program, and included chi2 test, independent t-test, and repeated measure ANOVA. NIE showed significant differences in the changes of attitude toward environment (F=4.461, p=.036). Findings suggest that this NIE in environmental education was effective in changing students' attitudes toward the environment. Therefore this NIE is recommended for inclusion in education for university students in nursing.

  3. Exploring the Effects of Communication Framed by Environmental Concern in Informal Science Education Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yocco, Victor S.

    Informal science education (ISE) venues such as zoos, nature centers, parks, and natural history museums play a critical role in allowing the general public to learn scientific concepts (National Research Council, 2009; 2010). Most adult learning of scientific concepts takes place outside of classrooms and away from work (Rennie and Williams, 2006). It is also true that zoos and natural history museums have stated missions regarding conveying concepts related to the conservation of our natural resources (Krishtalka and Humphrey, 2000; Patrick, Mathews, Ayers, and Tunicliffe, 2007). Theoretically, the successful communication of the desired message of these ISE institutions would inspire a more informed citizenry on the use and conservation of our natural resources. Framing communication is to present a topic in a manner that promote a specific view of the information. Effectively framing information can be an avenue to achieving the goal of ISE institutions (Chong & Druckman, 2007; Nisbet, 2009). Shultz and Zelezny (2003) posit that messages framed by egoistic concerns, concerns which focus on the individual, will be better received by the general public, leading to a greater likelihood for them to become engaged. This dissertation reports on a series of descriptive mixed methods studies conducted at a zoo, a natural history museum, and a science center, exploring the framing effects of communications framed by environmental concern (Schultz, 2001). In two of the studies the researcher examined the relationship between individuals' perceptions of the overlap between their lives and nature, their levels of environmental concern, and their preferences for statements designed to align with the types of environmental concern (i.e. egoistic, social-altruistic, and biospheric). Two studies were conducted using a quasi-experimental design in which the researcher randomly assigned messages framed by environmental concern while also taking measurements of prior involvement

  4. When Environmental Action Does Not Activate Concern: The Case of Impaired Water Quality in Two Rural Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stough-Hunter, Anjel; Lekies, Kristi S.; Donnermeyer, Joseph F.

    2014-12-01

    Little research has considered how residents' perceptions of their local environment may interact with efforts to increase environmental concern, particularly in areas in need of remediation. This study examined the process by which local environmental action may affect environmental concern. A model was presented for exploring the effects of community-based watershed organizations (CWOs) on environmental concern that also incorporates existing perceptions of the local environment. Survey data were collected from area residents in two watersheds in southwestern Pennsylvania, USA, an area affected by abandoned mine drainage. The findings suggest that residents' perceptions of local water quality and importance of improving water quality are important predictors of level of environmental concern and desire for action; however, in this case, having an active or inactive CWO did not influence these perceptions. The implications of these findings raise important questions concerning strategies and policy making around environmental remediation at the local level.

  5. When environmental action does not activate concern: the case of impaired water quality in two rural watersheds.

    PubMed

    Stough-Hunter, Anjel; Lekies, Kristi S; Donnermeyer, Joseph F

    2014-12-01

    Little research has considered how residents' perceptions of their local environment may interact with efforts to increase environmental concern, particularly in areas in need of remediation. This study examined the process by which local environmental action may affect environmental concern. A model was presented for exploring the effects of community-based watershed organizations (CWOs) on environmental concern that also incorporates existing perceptions of the local environment. Survey data were collected from area residents in two watersheds in southwestern Pennsylvania, USA, an area affected by abandoned mine drainage. The findings suggest that residents' perceptions of local water quality and importance of improving water quality are important predictors of level of environmental concern and desire for action; however, in this case, having an active or inactive CWO did not influence these perceptions. The implications of these findings raise important questions concerning strategies and policy making around environmental remediation at the local level.

  6. National differences in environmental concern and performance are predicted by country age.

    PubMed

    Hershfield, Hal E; Bang, H Min; Weber, Elke U

    2014-01-01

    There are obvious economic predictors of ability and willingness to invest in environmental sustainability. Yet, given that environmental decisions represent trade-offs between present sacrifices and uncertain future benefits, psychological factors may also play a role in country-level environmental behavior. Gott's principle suggests that citizens may use perceptions of their country's age to predict its future continuation, with longer pasts predicting longer futures. Using country- and individual-level analyses, we examined whether longer perceived pasts result in longer perceived futures, which in turn motivate concern for continued environmental quality. Study 1 found that older countries scored higher on an environmental performance index, even when the analysis controlled for country-level differences in gross domestic product and governance. Study 2 showed that when the United States was framed as an old country (vs. a young one), participants were willing to donate more money to an environmental organization. The findings suggest that framing a country as a long-standing entity may effectively prompt proenvironmental behavior.

  7. Are Limits of Concern a useful concept to improve the environmental risk assessment of GM plants?

    PubMed

    Dolezel, Marion; Miklau, Marianne; Heissenberger, Andreas; Reichenbecher, Wolfram

    2017-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has introduced a concept for the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) plants which foresees the definition of ecological threshold values defining acceptable adverse effects of the GM plant on the environment (Limits of Concern, LoC). We analysed the LoC concept by scrutinising its feasibility with regard to important aspects of the environmental risk assessment. We then considered its relationship with protection goals, the comparative safety assessment and the stepwise testing approach. We finally discussed its usefulness for assessing long-term effects, effects on non-target organisms and species of conservation concern. The LoC concept is a possible approach to introduce ecological thresholds into environmental risk assessment in order to evaluate environmental harm. However, the concept leaves many important aspects open. Thresholds for environmental harm for protection goals need spatial and temporal differentiation from LoCs used for ERA indicators. Regionalisation of LoCs must be provided for as biodiversity levels and protection goals vary across the EU. Further guidance is needed with respect to the consequences, in case LoCs are exceeded and a link needs to be established between environmentally relevant results from the comparative safety assessment and the LoC concept. LoCs for long-term effects have to be evaluated by long-term monitoring. LoCs for non-target organisms need to be discriminated according to the species and parameters assessed. The overall LoC concept is considered useful if LoCs are further specified and differentiated. Although LoCs will finally be determined by political decisions, they should be based on scientific grounds in order to increase confidence in the conclusions on the safety of GM plants.

  8. The inherent tensions arising from attempting to carry out strategic environmental assessments on all policies, plans and programmes

    SciTech Connect

    McLauchlan, Anna; Joao, Elsa

    2012-09-15

    This paper evaluates the tensions that result from routinely applying SEA to all policies, plans and programmes within Scotland. The European Union SEA Directive, effective in many EU member states from 2004, introduced a requirement for environmental assessment of certain plans and programmes. Scotland, a devolved nation within the EU member state of the United Kingdom, aimed to be a 'world leader in SEA' by legislating for SEA to be undertaken of all public sector plans, programmes and strategies, with the word 'strategies' being equated with 'policies'. This paper presents detailed data regarding Scottish SEA activity between 2004 and 2007, including responses to consultations on SEA reports. This empirical research found that, reflecting a general difficulty in determining where and when SEA should be applied, engagement with the SEA process was not as widespread as intended (including the pre-screening and screening stages). Eight tensions evident from Scotland's application of SEA are identified, and their broader relevance is examined. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine detailed data regarding Scottish strategic environmental assessment (SEA) activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a general difficulty in determining where SEA should be applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Engagement with the SEA process was not as widespread as intended. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eight 'tensions' that question the efficacy of applying SEA to all plans, programmes and policies were identified.

  9. Environmental concerns and future oil and gas developments in Coastal Wetlands of Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    John, C.J.; Harder, B.J.; Groat, C.G. )

    1993-09-01

    Recent studies have confirmed that much oil and natural gas have been overlooked and increases in future recoverable reserves will come from drilling in these areas. Increased production will result from identifying unexploited compartmentalized reservoirs, new infield reservoirs, and bypassed reservoirs, and by using enhanced recovery technologies for hydrocarbon recovery in incompletely drained reservoirs previously left unproduced for economic reasons. Most of southern Louisiana's hydrocarbon reserves underlie coastal wetland areas of the state. Major environmental concerns associated with the future development of existing reserves are canal dredging and destruction of wildlife habitat, use and disposal of oil-based muds, mitigation for wetland damage, and the recent emerging issue of surface contamination by naturally occurring radioactive materials with potential liabilities and future remedial regulation. To reduce wetland environmental damage caused by access canals to drilling sites, the Coastal Management Division of the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources instituted a geologic reviews program to review drilling permit application in the coastal wetlands. This process provides a mechanism for state and federal agencies to comment on the requested drilling permit. As a result of this process, the total average wetland disturbed area has been reduced from 767 ac per year in 1982 to approximately 76 ac per year in 1991. Average lengths of access canals also have been reduced by approximately 78% during the period. Oil and gas companies are becoming increasingly aware of the environmental consequences of drilling in wetlands and are considering them in planning for development activities. In the current climate of increasing public consciousness about the environment, addressing environmental concerns in the planning state will go a long way in helping alleviate future environmental problems.

  10. Strategic environmental noise mapping: methodological issues concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive and their policy implications.

    PubMed

    Murphy, E; King, E A

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined.

  11. Environmental security in the Czech Republic: Status and concerns in the post Communist era

    SciTech Connect

    Valley, P.J.

    1998-10-01

    The Czech Republic has made great strides toward reconciling its political and economic development with environmental protection and security issues since its recent democratization. Although new technological and legislative efforts continue to work at reducing emissions from automobiles, industries, power plants and coal mining, the Republic is committed to continuing its battle against air and water pollution, poor waste management, and needless destruction of nature. Shifting the structure of primary energy sources to qualitatively better fuels, along with the introduction of less energy-consuming technologies and the activation of new nuclear reactors, would eventually replace most of the output of coal burning power plants. However, the use of nuclear power has been opposed by several political and environmental activists groups. At the international level, Austria`s opposition to the Temelin Nuclear Power plant is of great concern since Austria, as a non-nuclear state, propagates negative information about nuclear power to its citizens and other countries.

  12. A multimodal logistics service network design with time windows and environmental concerns.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dezhi; He, Runzhong; Li, Shuangyan; Wang, Zhongwei

    2017-01-01

    The design of a multimodal logistics service network with customer service time windows and environmental costs is an important and challenging issue. Accordingly, this work established a model to minimize the total cost of multimodal logistics service network design with time windows and environmental concerns. The proposed model incorporates CO2 emission costs to determine the optimal transportation mode combinations and investment selections for transfer nodes, which consider transport cost, transport time, carbon emission, and logistics service time window constraints. Furthermore, genetic and heuristic algorithms are proposed to set up the abovementioned optimal model. A numerical example is provided to validate the model and the abovementioned two algorithms. Then, comparisons of the performance of the two algorithms are provided. Finally, this work investigates the effects of the logistics service time windows and CO2 emission taxes on the optimal solution. Several important management insights are obtained.

  13. A multimodal logistics service network design with time windows and environmental concerns

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dezhi; He, Runzhong; Wang, Zhongwei

    2017-01-01

    The design of a multimodal logistics service network with customer service time windows and environmental costs is an important and challenging issue. Accordingly, this work established a model to minimize the total cost of multimodal logistics service network design with time windows and environmental concerns. The proposed model incorporates CO2 emission costs to determine the optimal transportation mode combinations and investment selections for transfer nodes, which consider transport cost, transport time, carbon emission, and logistics service time window constraints. Furthermore, genetic and heuristic algorithms are proposed to set up the abovementioned optimal model. A numerical example is provided to validate the model and the abovementioned two algorithms. Then, comparisons of the performance of the two algorithms are provided. Finally, this work investigates the effects of the logistics service time windows and CO2 emission taxes on the optimal solution. Several important management insights are obtained. PMID:28934272

  14. Recommendations concerning research and model evaluation needs to support breeder reactor environmental radiological assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C. W.; Dunning, Jr., D. E.; Etnier, E. L.; Kocher, D. C.; McDowell-Boyer, L. M.; Meyer, H. R.; Rohwer, P. S.

    1980-12-01

    Purpose of this report is to present recommendations concerning needs for model evaluations, environmental research, and biomedical research to support breeder reactor environmental radiological assessments. More data are needed to specify dry deposition velocities and to validate plume depletion models. More atmospheric dispersion data are required to characterize flow near buildings, in complex terrain, and for travel distances at 100 km or more. Field data are needed for terrestrial food chain transport models, especially those used to assess the impact of acute radionuclide releases. Efforts are needed to develop models for the estimation of dose from external exposure to photons from a finite, elevated plume resulting from an acute radionuclide release to the atmosphere. Estimates of doses to man from internally deposited radionuclides require scrutiny. Further study of tritium is needed to determine its dependence on dose and dose rate and to specify the relative toxicity of various physiochemical forms of tritium in the environment.

  15. Eiatne and Flyklim, Two Projects Concerning Environmental Impacts From Air Transportation Over North Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pålsson, A.; Moldanová, J.; Bergström, R.; Langner, J.; Wyser, K.; Lindskog, A.

    Structure and methodology of two projects concerned with regional impact of air traf- fic on the atmosphere is presented. The EIATNE project aims to develop methods and decision support for environmental adaptation of air traffic and air traffic control in en- vironmentally sensitive regions. The FLYKLIM project is closely related to EIATNE, its objective is to study the effect of air traffic on the regional climate in Northern Europe and in particular its effect on high-altitude clouds. The environmental impacts from air traffic within a geographical area are evaluated through interdisciplinary co- operation. Aircraft emissions have been extracted from a four-dimensional analysis based on model calculations of the collected air traffic over Sweden during a limited duration. The project aims to combine model simulations of aircraft performance with model simulations of the dispersion of exhausts and their reactions in the atmosphere, both at cruise altitudes and around airports, in order to evaluate the environmental im- pacts. The project involves use of results from previous research projects, which will be integrated for a qualified analysis of the large-scale environmental effects.

  16. Framework for Identifying Key Environmental Concerns in Marine Renewable Energy Projects- Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Sharon; Previsic, Mirko; Nelson, Peter; Woo, Sheri

    2010-06-17

    Marine wave and tidal energy technology could interact with marine resources in ways that are not well understood. As wave and tidal energy conversion projects are planned, tested, and deployed, a wide range of stakeholders will be engaged; these include developers, state and federal regulatory agencies, environmental groups, tribal governments, recreational and commercial fishermen, and local communities. Identifying stakeholders’ environmental concerns in the early stages of the industry’s development will help developers address and minimize potential environmental effects. Identifying important concerns will also assist with streamlining siting and associated permitting processes, which are considered key hurdles by the industry in the U.S. today. In September 2008, RE Vision consulting, LLC was selected by the Department of Energy (DoE) to conduct a scenario-based evaluation of emerging hydrokinetic technologies. The purpose of this evaluation is to identify and characterize environmental impacts that are likely to occur, demonstrate a process for analyzing these impacts, identify the “key” environmental concerns for each scenario, identify areas of uncertainty, and describe studies that could address that uncertainty. This process is intended to provide an objective and transparent tool to assist in decision-making for siting and selection of technology for wave and tidal energy development. RE Vision worked with H. T. Harvey & Associates, to develop a framework for identifying key environmental concerns with marine renewable technology. This report describes the results of this study. This framework was applied to varying wave and tidal power conversion technologies, scales, and locations. The following wave and tidal energy scenarios were considered: 4 wave energy generation technologies 3 tidal energy generation technologies 3 sites: Humboldt coast, California (wave); Makapu’u Point, Oahu, Hawaii (wave); and the Tacoma Narrows, Washington (tidal

  17. Geology, fossil fuel potential and environmental concerns of the Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinowitz, P.; Yusifov, M.; Arnoldi, J.

    2003-04-01

    The fossil fuel producing areas of the Caspian region consists primarily of two basins, the Precaspian and South Caspian basins, both containing sediments in excess of 20km. The South Caspian Basin, a remnant of Tethys, was formed commencing in the Early-Middle Jurassic as a result of opening of back-arc basins behind volcanic arcs. The PreCaspian Basin extends onshore onto Kazakhstan and Russia and commenced its complicated geological evolution in the Middle Devonian. These basins are presently producing oil and gas in excess of one million barrels per day and two trillion cubic feet per day, respectively. They contain oil and gas reserves that are comparable to those of most other of the world's fossil fuel producing regions, excluding the Middle East. It is anticipated that within a decade these basins will produce over three million barrels of oil and four trillion cubic feet of gas per day. We review the economic, environmental, and geopolitical concerns with respect to exploration and recovery of the region’s fossil fuels. For one, the presence of mud volcanoes, gas hydrates, and earthquakes are a hazard for installation of oil platforms and other facilities. Pollution, attributed in large part to the fossil fuel industry, has created health and other environmental problems such as mass die-off of the Caspian seal, and in part to the large decrease in sturgeon population. Other important environmental concerns include the relatively rapid changes in sea level and desertification of the surrounding regions. There are also important legal questions with respect to ownership of resources beneath the seafloor. In addition, the transportation routes (pipelines) of fossil fuels that are anticipated to be recovered over the next decades have yet to be fully determined. Despite many of the political uncertainties, significant advances have been made in the short time since the breakup of the Soviet Union fueling optimism for the future of the region.

  18. Environmental pollutants and child health-A review of recent concerns.

    PubMed

    Vrijheid, Martine; Casas, Maribel; Gascon, Mireia; Valvi, Damaskini; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, many new studies have evaluated associations between environmental pollutants and child health. This review aims to provide a broad summary of this literature, comparing the state of epidemiological evidence for the effects of a wide range of environmental contaminants (air pollutants, heavy metals, organochlorine compounds, perfluoroalkyl substances, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, pesticides, phthalates and bisphenol A) on child health outcomes. The review addresses effects on foetal growth and prematurity, neurodevelopment, respiratory and immune health, and childhood growth and obesity. Findings of recent prospective studies and meta-analyses have corroborated previous good evidence, often at lower exposure levels, for effects on foetal growth of air pollution and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), for neurotoxic effects of lead, methylmercury, PCBs and organophosphate pesticides, and for respiratory health effects of air pollution. Moderate evidence has emerged for a potential role of environmental pollutants in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism (lead, PCBs, air pollution), respiratory and immune health (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene - DDE - and PCBs), and obesity (DDE). In addition, there is now moderate evidence that certain chemicals of relatively recent concern may be associated with adverse child health outcomes, specifically perfluorooctanoate and foetal growth, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers and neurodevelopment. For other chemicals of recent concern, such as phthalates and bisphenol A, the literature is characterised by large inconsistencies preventing strong conclusions. In conclusion, since most of the recent literature evaluates common exposures in the general population, and not particularly high exposure situations, this accumulating body of evidence suggests that the unborn and young child require more protection than is currently provided. Large, coordinated research efforts are needed to improve

  19. Environmental and resource burdens associated with world biofuel production out to 2050: footprint components from carbon emissions and land use to waste arisings and water consumption.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Geoffrey P; Li, Bo

    2016-09-01

    Environmental or 'ecological' footprints have been widely used in recent years as indicators of resource consumption and waste absorption presented in terms of biologically productive land area [in global hectares (gha)] required per capita with prevailing technology. In contrast, 'carbon footprints' are the amount of carbon (or carbon dioxide equivalent) emissions for such activities in units of mass or weight (like kilograms per functional unit), but can be translated into a component of the environmental footprint (on a gha basis). The carbon and environmental footprints associated with the world production of liquid biofuels have been computed for the period 2010-2050. Estimates of future global biofuel production were adopted from the 2011 International Energy Agency (IEA) 'technology roadmap' for transport biofuels. This suggests that, although first generation biofuels will dominate the market up to 2020, advanced or second generation biofuels might constitute some 75% of biofuel production by 2050. The overall environmental footprint was estimated to be 0.29 billion (bn) gha in 2010 and is likely to grow to around 2.57 bn gha by 2050. It was then disaggregated into various components: bioproductive land, built land, carbon emissions, embodied energy, materials and waste, transport, and water consumption. This component-based approach has enabled the examination of the Manufactured and Natural Capital elements of the 'four capitals' model of sustainability quite broadly, along with specific issues (such as the linkages associated with the so-called energy-land-water nexus). Bioproductive land use was found to exhibit the largest footprint component (a 48% share in 2050), followed by the carbon footprint (23%), embodied energy (16%), and then the water footprint (9%). Footprint components related to built land, transport and waste arisings were all found to account for an insignificant proportion to the overall environmental footprint, together amounting to

  20. It is time to develop ecological thresholds of toxicological concern to assist environmental hazard assessment.

    PubMed

    Belanger, Scott E; Sanderson, Hans; Embry, Michelle R; Coady, Katie; DeZwart, Dick; Farr, Brianna A; Gutsell, Steve; Halder, Marlies; Sternberg, Robin; Wilson, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concept is well established for assessing human safety of food-contact substances and has been reapplied for a variety of endpoints, including carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and reproductive toxicity. The TTC establishes an exposure level for chemicals below which no appreciable risk to human health or the environment is expected, based on a de minimis value for toxicity identified for many chemicals. Threshold of toxicological concern approaches have benefits for screening-level risk assessments, including the potential for rapid decision-making, fully utilizing existing knowledge, reasonable conservativeness for chemicals used in lower volumes (low production volume chemicals (e.g., < 1 t/yr), and reduction or elimination of unnecessary animal tests. Higher production volume chemicals (>1 t/yr) would in principle always require specific information because of the presumed higher exposure potential. The TTC approach has found particular favor in the assessment of chemicals used in cosmetics and personal care products, as well as other chemicals traditionally used in low volumes. Use of the TTC in environmental safety is just beginning, and initial attempts are being published. Key questions focus on hazard extrapolation of diverse taxa across trophic levels, importance of mode of action, and whether safe concentrations for ecosystems estimated from acute or chronic toxicity data are equally useful and in what contexts. The present study provides an overview of the theoretical basis for developing an ecological (eco)-TTC, with an initial exploration of chemical assessment and boundary conditions for use. An international collaboration under the International Life Sciences Institute Health and Environmental Sciences Institute has been established to address challenges related to developing and applying useful eco-TTC concepts. © 2015 SETAC.

  1. Benefits, environmental risks, social concerns, and policy implications of biotechnology in aquaculture

    SciTech Connect

    Kapuscinski, A.R.; Hallerman, E.M.

    1994-10-01

    Among the many methodologies encompassing biotechnology in aquaculture, this report addresses: the production of genetically modified aquatic organisms (aquatic GMOs) by gene transfer, chromosome set manipulation, or hybridization or protoplast fusion between species; new health management tools, including DNA-Based diagnostics and recombinant DNA vaccines; Marker-assisted selection; cryopreservation; and stock marking. These methodologies pose a wide range of potential economic benefits for aquaculture by providing improved or new means to affect the mix of necessary material inputs, enhance production efficiency, or improve product quality. Advances in aquaculture through biotechnology could simulate growth of the aquaculture industry to provide a larger proportion of consummer demand, and thereby reduce pressure and natural stocks from over-harvest. Judicious application of gamete cryopreservation and chromosome set manipulations to achieve sterilization could reduce environmental risks of some aquaculture operations. Given the significant losses to disease in many aquaculture enterprises, potential benefits of DNA-based health management tools are very high and appear to pose no major environmental risks or social concerns.

  2. Offshore environmental concerns mitigated by onshore-based, extended-reach drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-04

    Extended-reach drilling may alleviate California environmental concerns by targeting distant offshore plays using onshore localities adjacent to preexisting facilities. If successful, it may set a precedent for offshore development without the use of new offshore platforms, thereby reducing the risk of offshore spills. Politicians, environmentalists, and the industry will closely watch the Gaviota No. 7 well, an extended-reach well operated by Benton Oil and Gas Co. in partnership with Molino Energy Co. The companies aim to find sweet gas in the Gaviota structure, an anticline hemmed in by two faults, located abut 1 1/4 miles offshore in the Santa Barbara Channel. Frank Reiber, project manager for Benton, characterizes the technologies used in the Gaviota No. 7, as fairly routine. However, state officials hail this onshore-to-offshore technique as the only practical way to develop oil or gas in state waters, given the political and environmental constraints that have virtually closed all waters within the 3-mile limit for decades. The paper describes the drilling and production program.

  3. 25 CFR 224.102 - Must a tribe establish a comment or hearing process for addressing environmental concerns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Must a tribe establish a comment or hearing process for... or hearing process for addressing environmental concerns? Yes. The Act (25 U.S.C. 3504(e)(2)(C)(iii... establish an environmental review process under a TERA that: (a) Ensures that the public is notified...

  4. A Socioeconomic Analysis of Environmental Concern: Case of the Four Corners Electric Power Complex. Bulletin No. 626.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Clyde; And Others

    Recently American attention has focused on the problems of pollution and environmental protection. Focusing on the Four Corners Interstate Air Quality Control Region, this study determined which socioeconomic characteristics were associated with concern for environmental quality as measured by willingness to pay for pollution abatement. Sample…

  5. Chemicals of emerging concern in the Great Lakes Basin: an analysis of environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    Klecka, Gary; Persoon, Carolyn; Currie, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This review and statistical analysis was conducted to better understand the nature and significance of environmental exposures in the Great Lakes Basin and watershed to a variety of environmental contaminants. These contaminants of interest included current-use pesticides, pharmaceuticals, organic wastewater contaminants, alkylphenol ethoxylates, perfluorinated surfactants, flame retardants, and chlorinated paraffins. The available literature was critically reviewed and used to develop a database containing 19,611 residue values for 326 substances. In many papers, sampling locations were characterized as being downstream from municipal wastewater discharges, receiving waters for industrial facilities, areas susceptible to agricultural or urban contamination, or harbors and ports. To develop an initial assessment of their potential ecological significance, the contamination levels found were compared with currently available regulatory standards, guidelines, or criteria. This review was prepared for the IJC multi-board work group, and served as background material for an expert consultation, held in March, 2009, in which the significance of the contaminants found was discussed. Moreover, the consultation attempted to identify and assess opportunities for strengthening future actions that will protect the Great Lakes. Based on the findings and conclusions of the expert consultation, it is apparent that a wide variety of chemicals of emerging concern have been detected in environmental media (air, water, sediment, biota) from the Great Lakes Basin, although many are present at only trace levels. Although the presence of these contaminants raises concerns in the public and among the scientific community, the findings must be placed in context. Significant scientific interpretation is required to understand the extent to which these chemicals may pose a threat to the ecosystem and to human health. The ability to detect chemicals in environmental media greatly surpasses

  6. Blaming the Government for Environmental Problems: A Multilevel and Cross-National Analysis of the Relationship between Trust in Government and Local and Global Environmental Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cin, Cigdem Kentmen

    2013-01-01

    Although the determinants of trust in governments have received significant attention in the literature on political trust, there has been no attention paid to whether environmental concerns affect governmental trust. Yet, if individuals are worried about local and global environmental degradation, they may think that the government has failed in…

  7. Removal of ash, sulfur, and trace elements of environmental concern from eight selected Illinois coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demir, I.

    1998-01-01

    Release analysis (RA) and float-sink (F-S) data were generated to assess the beneficiation potential of washed coals from selected Illinois coal preparation plants through the use of advanced physical cleaning at -60 mesh size. Generally, the F-S process removed greater amounts of ash, sulfur, and trace elements of environmental concern from the coals than the RA process, indicating that the cleanability of Illinois coals by advanced methods can be estimated best by F-S testing. At an 80%-combustibles recovery, the ash yield in the clean F-S products decreased by 47-75%, relative to the parent coals. Average decreases for the elements As(67%), Cd(78%), Hg(73%), Mn(71%), and P(66%) exceeded the average decrease for ash yield (55%). Average decreases for other elements were: Co(31%), Cr(27%), F(39%), Ni(25%), Pb(50%), S(28%), Sb(20%), Se(39), Th(32%), and U(8%). Only Be was enriched (up to 120%) in the clean products relative to the parent coals. These results suggested that the concentration of elements with relatively high atmospheric mobilities (As, Cd, F, Hg, Pb, and Se) during coal combustion can be reduced substantially in Illinois coals through the use of advanced physical cleaning. Advanced physical cleaning can be effective also for the removal of inorganic S. Environmental risks from the emission of other elements with enrichment or relatively low cleanabilities could be small because these elements generally have very low concentrations in Illinois coals or are largely retained in solid residues during coal combustion. ?? 1998 OPA (Overseas Publishers Association) N.V. Published by license under the Gordon and Breach Science Publishers imprint.

  8. Urban effluent discharges as causes of public and environmental health concerns in South Africa's aquatic milieu.

    PubMed

    Sibanda, Timothy; Selvarajan, Ramganesh; Tekere, Memory

    2015-12-01

    The water quality in South Africa's river systems is rapidly deteriorating as a consequence of increased discharge of wastewater effluents. The natural ability of rivers and reservoirs to trap toxic chemicals and nutrients in their sediments enables these systems to accumulate contaminants, altering the natural balance in environmental water quality, thereby raising a plethora of public and environmental health concerns. Impaired water quality has been linked to an array of problems in South Africa including massive fish mortalities, altered habitat template leading to the thinning of riverine macroinvertebrate diversity, shifts in microbial community structures with drastic ecological consequences and evolvement of antibiotic resistance genes that, under natural conditions, can be transferred to waterborne pathogens. Urban wastewater discharge has also been implicated in increased bioaccumulation of metals in edible plant parts, elevated concentrations of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), which are blamed for reduced fertility and increased cancer risk, excessive growth of toxic cyanobacteria and an increase in concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms which constitute a potential health threat to humans. However, despite the ecotoxicological hazards posed by wastewater effluents, ecotoxicological studies are currently underutilised in South African aquatic ecosystem assessments, and where they have been done, the observation is that ecotoxicological studies are mostly experimental and restricted to small study areas. More research is still needed to fully assess especially the ecotoxicological consequences of surface water pollution by urban wastewater effluents in South Africa. A review of the effects of urban effluent discharges that include domestic effluent mixed with industrial effluent and/or urban stormwater run-off is hereby presented.

  9. A review of environmental and occupational exposure to xylene and its health concerns.

    PubMed

    Niaz, Kamal; Bahadar, Haji; Maqbool, Faheem; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Xylene is a cyclic hydrocarbon, and an environmental pollutant. It is also used in dyes, paints, polishes, medical technology and different industries as a solvent. Xylene easily vaporizes and divides by sunlight into other harmless chemicals. The aim of the present review is to collect the evidence of the xylene toxicity, related to non-cancerous health hazards, as well as to provide possible effective measurement to minimize its risk ratio. For current study a bibliographic search of more than 250 peer-reviewed papers in scientific data including PubMed, and Google Scholar about xylene was done. But approximately 130 peer-reviewed papers relevant to xylene were included (Figure 1(Fig. 1)). All scientific data was reviewed with key words of "xylene toxicity", "xylene toxic health effects", "environmental volatile organic compounds", "human exposure to xylene", "xylene poisoning in laboratory workers", "effects of xylene along with other hydrocarbons", "neurotoxicity of selected hydrocarbons", and "toxic effects of particular xylene isomers in animals". According to these studies, xylene is released into the atmosphere as fugitive emissions from petrochemical industries, fire, cigarette, from different vehicles. Short term exposure to mixed xylene or their individual isomers result in irritation of the nose, eyes and throat subsequently leading toward neurological, gastrointestinal and reproductive harmful effects. In addition long term exposure to xylene may cause hazardous effects on respiratory system, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and renal system. The health concerns of xylene are well documented in animals and human. It is important to improve health policies, launch xylene related health and toxicity awareness campaigns, to get rid of its dangerous outcomes. Chronic diseases have become a threat to human globally, with special prominence in regions, where xylene is used with other chemicals (benzene, toluene etc.) especially in petroleum and

  10. Potential of low-temperature anaerobic digestion to address current environmental concerns on swine production.

    PubMed

    Massé, D I; Masse, L; Xia, Y; Gilbert, Y

    2010-04-01

    Environmental issues associated with swine production are becoming a major concern among the general public and are thus an important challenge for the swine industry. There is now a renewed interest in environmental biotechnologies that can minimize the impact of swine production and add value to livestock by-products. An anaerobic biotechnology called psychrophilic anaerobic digestion (PAD) in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) has been developed at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. This very stable biotechnology recovers usable energy, stabilizes and deodorizes manure, and increases the availability of plant nutrients. Experimental results indicated that PAD of swine manure slurry at 15 to 25 degrees C in intermittently fed SBR reduces the pollution potential of manure by removing up to 90% of the soluble chemical oxygen demand. The process performs well under intermittent feeding, once to 3 times a week, and without external mixing. Bioreactor feeding activities can thus be easily integrated into the routine manure removal procedures in the barn, with minimal interference with other farm operations and use of existing manure-handling equipment. Process stability was not affected by the presence of antibiotics in manure. The PAD process was efficient in eliminating populations of zoonotic pathogens and parasites present in raw livestock manure slurries. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion in SBR could also be used for swine mortality disposal. The addition of swine carcasses, at loading rates representing up to 8 times the normal mortality rates on commercial farms, did not affect the stability of SBR. No operational problems were related to the formation of foam and scum. The biotechnology was successfully operated at semi-industrial and full commercial scales. Biogas production rate exceeded 0.20 L of methane per gram of total chemical oxygen demand fed to the SBR. The biogas was of excellent quality, with a methane concentration ranging from 70 to 80%. The

  11. Geochemical Analyses of Geologic Materials from Areas of Critical Environmental Concern, Clark and Nye Counties, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Castor, Stephen B.; Budahn, James R.; Flynn, Kathryn S.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION An assessment of known and undiscovered mineral resources of selected areas administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Clark and Nye Counties, Nevada was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG), and University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV). The purpose of this work was to provide the BLM with information for use in their long-term planning process in southern Nevada so that they can make better-informed decisions. The results of the assessment are in Ludington (2006). Existing information about the areas, including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and mineral-deposit information was compiled, and field examinations of selected areas and mineral occurrences was conducted. This information was used to determine the geologic setting, metallogenic characteristics, and mineral potential of the areas. Twenty-five Areas of Critical Environmental Concern (ACECs) were identified by BLM as the object of this study. They range from tiny (less than one km2) to large (more than 1,000 km2). The location of the study areas is shown on Figure 1. This report includes geochemical data for rock samples collected by staff of the USGS and NBMG in these ACECs and nearby areas. Samples have been analyzed from the Big Dune, Ash Meadows, Arden, Desert Tortoise Conservation Center, Coyote Springs Valley, Mormon Mesa, Virgin Mountains, Gold Butte A and B, Whitney Pockets, Rainbow Gardens, River Mountains, and Piute-Eldorado Valley ACECs.

  12. Perception and acceptance of technological and environmental risks: why are poor countries less concerned?

    PubMed

    Sokolowska, J; Tyszka, T

    1995-12-01

    The research has been aimed at answering two questions: (1) What factors impact perception and acceptance of technological and environmental hazards? (2) Why are rich societies involved more in protecting their environment and health than poor societies? Data has been collected from representative samples of two countries--Poland and Sweden. The results indicate that (1) contrary to earlier findings, the inverse relations between perceived benefits and dangers of hazards has not been observed, (2) acceptance of a risk has been mostly influenced by perceived benefits, (3) rejection of a risk has been mostly influenced by its perceived harmful consequences. Concerning the second question, it has been found that: (1) perceived hazard's danger and benefit is not the only factor that impacts its acceptance, and (2) a broader economic context can impact acceptance (tolerance) of hazards. It has been found that being aware of high dangers and not very high benefits of hazardous activities, Poles still have accepted them. Thus, Poles seem to follow an old proverb: "When one does not have what one likes, one has to like what one has."

  13. Health Effects and Environmental Justice Concerns of Exposure to Uranium in Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Corlin, Laura; Rock, Tommy; Cordova, Jamie; Woodin, Mark; Durant, John L; Gute, David M; Ingram, Jani; Brugge, Doug

    2016-12-01

    We discuss the recent epidemiologic literature regarding health effects of uranium exposure in drinking water focusing on the chemical characteristics of uranium. While there is strong toxicologic evidence for renal and reproductive effects as well as DNA damage, the epidemiologic evidence for these effects in people exposed to uranium in drinking water is limited. Further, epidemiologic evidence is lacking for cardiovascular and oncogenic effects. One challenge in characterizing health effects of uranium in drinking water is the paucity of long-term cohort studies with individual level exposure assessment. Nevertheless, there are environmental justice concerns due to the substantial exposures for certain populations. For example, we present original data suggesting that individuals living in the Navajo Nation are exposed to high levels of uranium in unregulated well water used for drinking. In 10 out of 185 samples (5.4 %), concentrations of uranium exceeded standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Therefore, efforts to mitigate exposure to toxic elements in drinking water are warranted and should be prioritized.

  14. Concern about Environmental Pollution: How Much Difference Do Race and Ethnicity Make? A New Jersey Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    A survey conducted among 1,513 residents of New Jersey during March–May 2004 showed that non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and English-speaking Hispanic Americans were significantly more concerned about environmental pollution problems than were Asian Americans and Spanish-language Hispanic Americans. For example, an average of > 40% of the first three groups was very concerned about New Jersey’s environmental problems, compared with 15% of the last two populations. There were also racial/ethnic differences among these groups in their desire for government action to protect the environment and in their personal support of the environmental movement. Regression analyses suggest that the 1970s and 1980s model of core support for environmental protection from white, female, young, educated, and politically liberal people has largely, but not completely, continued among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and English-language Hispanic populations. But these demographic pointers do not hold for Asian and Spanish-language Hispanic Americans, except indicating more support among the more formally educated. The last two groups are the two fastest-growing subpopulations in the United States, and although acculturation may slowly increase their concern about environmental pollution, it is more prudent for proponents of environmental protection not to wait and instead to try to better understand the environmental perceptions of these groups. PMID:15811824

  15. Strategic animal welfare issues: ethical and animal welfare issues arising from the killing of wildlife for disease control and environmental reasons.

    PubMed

    Littin, K E; Mellor, D J

    2005-08-01

    Ethical and animal welfare concerns about the destruction of free-living wildlife for disease control and environmental reasons have historically received little attention from animal welfare scientists, legislators or the public. Nevertheless, all vertebrates can experience pain and distress, regardless of whether they are unwanted pests or not. A wide range of methods is used to kill or otherwise control unwanted wildlife. The animal welfare impacts of most of these methods are not known. The extremely high number of animals being controlled and the potential impacts of this control on their welfare suggest that this is a significant strategic issue that should be considered by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). This is particularly important, given the focus of the OIE on disease control and the requirement for pest control as a part of this process.

  16. 78 FR 10620 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact Concerning a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... Significant Impact Concerning a Genetically Engineered Atlantic Salmon; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY... animal drug application (NADA) concerning a genetically engineered (GE) Atlantic salmon and a preliminary... concerning a GE ] Atlantic salmon and a preliminary FONSI for those specific conditions of use. Comments...

  17. A review of environmental and occupational exposure to xylene and its health concerns

    PubMed Central

    Niaz, Kamal; Bahadar, Haji; Maqbool, Faheem; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Xylene is a cyclic hydrocarbon, and an environmental pollutant. It is also used in dyes, paints, polishes, medical technology and different industries as a solvent. Xylene easily vaporizes and divides by sunlight into other harmless chemicals. The aim of the present review is to collect the evidence of the xylene toxicity, related to non-cancerous health hazards, as well as to provide possible effective measurement to minimize its risk ratio. For current study a bibliographic search of more than 250 peer-reviewed papers in scientific data including PubMed, and Google Scholar about xylene was done. But approximately 130 peer-reviewed papers relevant to xylene were included (Figure 1(Fig. 1)). All scientific data was reviewed with key words of “xylene toxicity”, “xylene toxic health effects”, “environmental volatile organic compounds”, “human exposure to xylene”, “xylene poisoning in laboratory workers”, “effects of xylene along with other hydrocarbons”, “neurotoxicity of selected hydrocarbons”, and “toxic effects of particular xylene isomers in animals”. According to these studies, xylene is released into the atmosphere as fugitive emissions from petrochemical industries, fire, cigarette, from different vehicles. Short term exposure to mixed xylene or their individual isomers result in irritation of the nose, eyes and throat subsequently leading toward neurological, gastrointestinal and reproductive harmful effects. In addition long term exposure to xylene may cause hazardous effects on respiratory system, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and renal system. The health concerns of xylene are well documented in animals and human. It is important to improve health policies, launch xylene related health and toxicity awareness campaigns, to get rid of its dangerous outcomes. Chronic diseases have become a threat to human globally, with special prominence in regions, where xylene is used with other chemicals (benzene, toluene

  18. Health care provider beliefs concerning the adverse health effects of environmental and ecosystem degradation.

    PubMed

    Truckner, Robert T

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about health care provider interest, knowledge, and beliefs regarding the health effects of human-induced environmental degradation (HIED). A survey was created and distributed to better characterize health provider beliefs about the adverse health effects of HIED. An invitation to participate in an online 24-question survey was e-mailed to 2177 members of the Wilderness Medical Society to characterize experience with health effects of HIED, types of health effects attributed to HIED, attitudes toward HIED, and educational sources about HIED. Data were analyzed from 665 responses, a response rate of 35%. Results demonstrate that health care providers identify a large number and variety of health effects associated with HIED, although exacerbation of asthma, reactive airways disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were most commonly identified. Over 80% report that HIED has affected the health of a patient they have cared for; 60% report patients have asked about HIED effects on health; and 93% report that they do not distribute information to patients about HIED. Over 75% of respondents believe there is an unfulfilled need for information and education about the adverse health effects of HIED. Respondents report continuing medical education, journal articles, and medical schools/residency programs as the best methods for education and for raising awareness of the health effects of HIED. Results indicate strong health professional belief in health effects of HIED, patient concern related to the health effects of HIED, and a need to educate both health care providers and patients on the adverse health effects of HIED.

  19. Drugs of environmental concern modify Solea senegalensis physiology and biochemistry in a temperature-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    González-Mira, A; Varó, I; Solé, M; Torreblanca, A

    2016-10-01

    The alerted presence in recent decades of pharmaceuticals has become an issue of environmental concern, and most of the mechanisms of biotransformation and biochemical and physiological responses to them in fish are still unknown, as well as the influence of water temperature in their ability to cope with them. This study aims to detect the main effects of two of the most widespread drugs on a set of physiological and biochemical markers in Solea senegalensis. Sole juveniles acclimatized at 15 and 20 °C were administered an intraperitoneal injection of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen (IB; 10 mg/kg) and the anti-convulsant drug carbamazepine (CBZ; 1 mg/kg). Two days after the injection, liver, muscle and plasma were sampled. Liver enzymatic activities of 15 °C acclimated fish were more responsive to pharmaceuticals than those acclimated at 20 °C, especially for CYP450-related activities (7-ethoxyresorufin (EROD), 7-methoxyresorufin (MROD), 3-cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin (CECOD) and 7-benzyloxy-4-[trifluoromethyl]-coumarin-O-debenzyloxylase (BFCOD)) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT). Cytosolic anti-oxidant enzyme activities and glutathione S-transferase (GST) did not show a clear effect of temperature. Glucose and transferase activities in plasma were not affected by the treatments, while ammonium, osmolality and lactate were affected by both pharmaceuticals. Plasma triglycerides were affected in a temperature-dependent manner, and creatinine was only responsive to CBZ injection. HSP70 levels in muscle were only affected by CBZ injection. Some of the physiological identified responses to IB and CBZ are proposed as endpoints in further chronic studies.

  20. Incorporating environmental concerns into power sector decisionmaking: A case study of SRI Lnka. World Bank environment paper

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, P.; Munasinghe, M.

    1994-01-01

    The case study of Sri Lanka seeks to demonstrate how environmental concerns can be incorporated into the planning stage of power sector development. The techniques and procedures are designed to complement existing approaches to environmental assessment that are now a routine part of project development. In this case study, therefore, the methodology is applied to the assessment of a wide range of policy options, including representative demand-side management measures, renewable energy options (such as wind power), and clean coal technologies.

  1. Who cares and who acts? Different types of outdoor recreationists exhibit different levels of environmental concern and behavior

    Treesearch

    Mario F. Teisl; Kelly O' Brien

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between a person's level of environmental concern and behavior, and their participation in different types of outdoor recreational activities has been a matter of study for approximately 25 years. However, most of the research occurred in the mid- to late seventies and, until recently, there has been relatively little research performed since then...

  2. Incorporating environmental concerns into power sector decision-making: A case study of Sri Lanka. World Bank Environment Paper 6

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, P.; Munasinghe, M.; Team, S.L.S.

    1994-04-01

    Weighs Sri Lanka`s options for addressing environmental concerns during the planning stages of energy policymaking. Here is a holistic approach to analyzing the environmental impact of various power systems. Unlike standard impact studies that begin at the project level, this method calls for environmental assessments that start at the planning stage of a national framework for energy policymaking. The framework would take into account the energy needs of Sri Lanka`s total economy. It also would make it easier to incorporate environmental goals into power sector decisionmaking at the critical investment stage. Sri Lanka`s development options for the power sector are reviewed in detail. Topics include alternative ways to assess the economic value of a power plant`s impact on biodiversity, human health, and air and water pollution. The study also assesses which energy planning options work best and recommends ways in which the Ceylon Electricity Board can improve its environmental policies.

  3. An investigation of engineering and environmental concerns relating to proposed highway construction in a karst terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, D. A.; Balfour, W. M.

    1993-12-01

    The proposed realignment of a portion of US Highway 58 near Gibson Station, Lee County, Virginia, indicated significant potential impacts to Young-Fugate Cave, a listed Significant Cave. Field inspection of the site in November 1991, revealed fill for the northbound lane would extend in excess of 100 m into the Fugate blind valley and to within 40 m of the Fugate insurgence. Questions were raised about the risks involved in placing a soil fill across an active blind valley and the extent of the geotechnical investigation. The plans-contained no provisions to direct runoff of road salt or leaks and spills from accessing the Fugate insurgence and thereby endangering two species of troglobitic aquatic crustaceans and a unique troglobitic beetle known to inhabit the cave. Concerns about the distances between the roadbed and cave passages prompted a resurvey of the 1.63-km-long cave. Survey teams encountered groundwater pollution problems in the cave. While exiting the cave, two team members lagging behind another surveyor had to press against the cave walls to avoid a shower of raw sewage. Neither the lead surveyor or the team following, separated by minutes, witnessed the event. On the second field day, survey teams were driven from the cave by petroleum fumes at a second location. Subsequent surface investigations revealed a homeowner complaint of petroleum fumes in their basement and a leaking underground storage tank (LUST) site at an active service station. Tank replacement has resolved the gasoline fume complaint. The sewage inputs to the cave have yet to be located or resolved. Based on the available data at the time this paper was submitted for the Sinkhole Conference, there appeared to be on the order of 10 m between the ceiling of the stream passage and the proposed roadbed; however, unsurveyed cave passages were known to cross over the stream passage in the area where the proposed highway would cross the cave. The Virginia Cave Board is negotiating

  4. 77 FR 76050 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact Concerning a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... Significant Impact Concerning a Genetically Engineered Atlantic Salmon; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... a new animal drug application (NADA) concerning a genetically engineered (GE) Atlantic salmon. Also... EA prepared by FDA in support of an NADA associated with AQUADVANTAGE Salmon, a GE Atlantic...

  5. Education about environmental issues, conservation, and management: a study of form four secondary school pupils' concerns about environmental issues in Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Maghenda, W.M.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study is threefold: first, to develop and administer a questionnaire designed to determine Kenyan students' concerns about environmental issues; second to investigate the primary environmental factors facing the country; and finally, to utilize the findings of the study to develop a conceptual framework for environmental education in Kenya. To develop an environmental education framework for Kenya, baseline data was obtained from a survey of Form IV secondary school students' concerns about environmental issues. A split-half technique was used to establish the reliability of the questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to test the construct validity of the questionnaire and as a data reduction method. This technique resulted in reducing the 81 items developed for the study to eight Factor as follows: (F1) Land use and health stresses; (F2) Community environmental risks; (F3) National environmental problems; (F4) Careless land use practices at community level; (F5) Socioeconomic elements; (F6) Sources of environmental information; (F7) Careless land use at national level; and (F8) Primary population pressures. Results are presented briefly.

  6. Environmental Application, Fate, Effects, and Concerns of Ionic Liquids: A Review.

    PubMed

    Amde, Meseret; Liu, Jing-Fu; Pang, Long

    2015-11-03

    Ionic liquids (ILs) comprise mostly of organic salts with negligible vapor pressure and low flammability that are proposed as replacements for volatile solvents. ILs have been promoted as "green" solvents and widely investigated for their various applications. Although the utility of these chemicals is unquestionable, their toxic effects have attracted great attention. In order to manage their potential hazards and design environmentally benign ILs, understanding their environmental behavior, fate and effects is important. In this review, environmentally relevant issues of ILs, including their environmental application, environmental behavior and toxicity are addressed. In addition, also presented are the influence of ILs on the environmental fate and toxicity of other coexisting contaminants, important routes for designing nontoxic ILs and the techniques that might be adopted for the removal of ILs.

  7. A Response to Scott's Concerns about the Relevance of Environmental Education Research: Applying Social-Ecological Systems Thinking and Consilience to Defining Research Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasny, Marianne E.

    2009-01-01

    In William Scott's plenary address at the World Environmental Education Conference, he expressed concerns about the relevance of environmental education research in a world facing global environmental and demographic change. In responding to Scott's concerns, I argue that addressing challenges related to development and the environment requires…

  8. A Response to Scott's Concerns about the Relevance of Environmental Education Research: Applying Social-Ecological Systems Thinking and Consilience to Defining Research Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasny, Marianne E.

    2009-01-01

    In William Scott's plenary address at the World Environmental Education Conference, he expressed concerns about the relevance of environmental education research in a world facing global environmental and demographic change. In responding to Scott's concerns, I argue that addressing challenges related to development and the environment requires…

  9. Secondary School Students' Interests, Attitudes and Values Concerning School Science Related to Environmental Issues in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Meisalo, Veijo

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between students' interests in environmental issues, attitudes to environmental responsibility and biocentric values in school science education. The factors were investigated within the framework of three moderators: gender, school and residential area of the school. The survey was carried out using the…

  10. Using a Physical Education Environmental Survey to Identify Areas of Concern and Improve Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Grant; Hulbert, George

    2007-01-01

    School environmental conditions can impact learning in physical educational classes. It is important for schools to control environmental health hazards, not only to promote a conducive school learning environment, but to also reduce associated health risks. To help physical education leaders determine the quality of physical education facilities…

  11. Using a Physical Education Environmental Survey to Identify Areas of Concern and Improve Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Grant; Hulbert, George

    2007-01-01

    School environmental conditions can impact learning in physical educational classes. It is important for schools to control environmental health hazards, not only to promote a conducive school learning environment, but to also reduce associated health risks. To help physical education leaders determine the quality of physical education facilities…

  12. Secondary School Students' Interests, Attitudes and Values Concerning School Science Related to Environmental Issues in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Meisalo, Veijo

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between students' interests in environmental issues, attitudes to environmental responsibility and biocentric values in school science education. The factors were investigated within the framework of three moderators: gender, school and residential area of the school. The survey was carried out using the…

  13. Report Calls for Balancing Energy Security, Energy Equity, and Environmental Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-12-01

    Balancing the sometimes conflicting needs for energy security, energy equity, and environmental sustainability—including trying to limit average global temperature increases—can be a daunting task for countries. A new report focuses on the challenges and potential pathways to achieving this energy "trilemma" of meeting energy and environmental needs.

  14. Human exposure to environmental health concern by types of urban environment: The case of Tel Aviv.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Izhak; Potchter, Oded; Yaakov, Yaron; Epstein, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    This study classifies urban environments into types characterized by different exposure to environmental risk factors measured by general sense of discomfort and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). We hypothesize that a set of environmental factors (micro-climatic, CO, noise and individual heart rate) that were measured simultaneously in random locations can provide a better understanding of the distribution of human exposure to environmental loads throughout the urban space than results calculated based on measurements from close fixed stations. We measured micro-climatic and thermal load, CO and noise, individual Heart Rate, Subjective Social Load and Sense of Discomfort (SD) were tested by questionnaire survey. The results demonstrate significant differences in exposure to environmental factors among 8 types of urban environments. It appears that noise and social load are the more significant environmental factors to enhance health risks and general sense of discomfort.

  15. Environmental Concern: A Comparative Analysis between Students in Recreation and Park Management and Other Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thapa, Brijesh

    2001-01-01

    Employed the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scale among a sample of undergraduate students in the United States. Analysis revealed a supportive and sympathetic attitude towards the environment. Students expressed the importance of environmental issues and lacked awareness. (SAH)

  16. Methods and Metrics for Evaluating Environmental Dredging at the Ashtabula River Area of Concern (AOC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the objectives, approach, methodologies, results, and interpretation of a collaborative research study conducted by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) and the National Exposure Research laboratory (NERL) of the U.S. Environmental Prote...

  17. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems for Mars Missions — Issues and Concerns for Planetary Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, D. J.; Anderson, M. S.

    2015-03-01

    Planetary protection (PP) represents additional requirements for Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLSS). PP guidelines will affect operations, processes, and functions that can take place during future human planetary exploration missions.

  18. Methods and Metrics for Evaluating Environmental Dredging at the Ashtabula River Area of Concern (AOC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the objectives, approach, methodologies, results, and interpretation of a collaborative research study conducted by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) and the National Exposure Research laboratory (NERL) of the U.S. Environmental Prote...

  19. Methods for Estimating Physicochemical Properties of Inorganic Chemicals of Environmental Concern.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    34 Lists 84 10. Predominant Inorganic Species for Several Trace Metals in Aquatic Systems 85 11. Some Radionuclides from the Natural Decay of 238- Uranium 91...into an adjacent medium such as air or water. This effect has been suggested as the cause of anomalously high radon emanation from soils and minerals...Environmentally important properties; Heavy metals ; Physicochemical properties; Radionuclides; Environmental fate models; Speciation in water; Uptake by biota

  20. Environmental risk of mesothelioma in the United States: An emerging concern-epidemiological issues.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Francine; Carbone, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Despite predictions of decline in mesothelioma following the ban of asbestos in most industrial countries, the incidence is still increasing globally, particularly in women. Because occupational exposure to asbestos is the main cause of mesothelioma, it occurs four- to eightfold more frequently in men than women, at a median age of 74 years. When mesothelioma is due to an environmental exposure, the M:F sex ratio is 1:1 and the median age at diagnosis is ~60 years. Studying environmental risk of mesothelioma is challenging because of the long latency period and small numbers, and because this type of exposure is involuntary and unknown. Individual-based methods cannot be used, and new approaches need to be found. To better understand the most recent trends of mesothelioma in the United States, all mesothelioma deaths reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during 1999-2010 were analyzed. Among all mesothelioma deaths in the United States, the 1920s birth cohort significantly predominated, and the proportion of younger cohorts constantly decreased with time, suggesting a decline in occupational exposure in these cohorts. The M:F mesothelioma sex ratio fell with time, suggesting an increased proportion of environmental cases. Environmental exposures occur in specific geographic areas. At the large scale of a state, mesotheliomas related to environmental exposure are diluted among occupational cases. The spatial analysis at a smaller scale, such as county, enables detection of areas with higher proportions of female and young mesothelioma cases, thus indicating possible environmental exposure, where geological and environmental investigations need to be carried out.

  1. A tale of trade-offs: the impact of macroeconomic factors on environmental concern.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Stephen J; Emerson, Tisha L N

    2014-12-01

    We test whether macroeconomic conditions affect individuals' willingness to pay for environmental quality improvements. Improvements in environmental quality, like everything, come at a cost. Individuals facing difficult economic times may be less willing to make trade-offs required for improvements in environmental quality. Using somewhat different methodologies and shorter time frames, prior investigations have generally found a direct relationship between willingness to pay for environmental improvements and macroeconomic conditions. We use a nearly 40-year span (27 periods) of the General Social Survey (1974-2012) to estimate attitudes toward environmental spending while controlling for U.S. macroeconomic conditions and respondent-specific factors such as age, gender, marital status, number of children, residential location, educational attainment, personal financial condition, political party affiliation and ideology. Macroeconomic conditions include one-year lagged controls for the unemployment rate, the rate of economic growth (percentage change in real GDP), and an indicator for whether the U.S. economy was experiencing a recession. We find that, in general, when economic conditions are unfavorable (i.e., during a recession, or with higher unemployment, or lower GDP growth), respondents are more likely to believe the U.S. is spending too much on "improving and protecting the environment". Interacting lagged macroeconomic controls with respondent's income, we find that these views are at least partially offset by the respondent's own economic condition (i.e., their own real income). Our findings are consistent with the notion that environmental quality is a normal, or procyclical good, i.e., that environmental spending should rise when the economy is expanding and fall during economic contractions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood--European database on contaminant levels.

    PubMed

    Vandermeersch, Griet; Lourenço, Helena Maria; Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Cunha, Sara; Diogène, Jorge; Cano-Sancho, German; Sloth, Jens J; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Barcelo, Damia; Allegaert, Wim; Bekaert, Karen; Fernandes, José Oliveira; Marques, Antonio; Robbens, Johan

    2015-11-01

    Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment to seafood. So-called "contaminants of emerging concern" are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data to scientists and regulatory authorities, was developed. The present paper reviews a selection of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood including toxic elements, endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives, microplastics and marine toxins. Current status on the knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation are briefly presented and the outcome from scientific publications reporting on the levels of these compounds in seafood is presented and discussed.

  3. Recommendations concerning models and parameters best suited to breeder reactor environmental radiological assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.W.; Baes, C.F. III; Dunning, D.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Recommendations are presented concerning the models and parameters best suited for assessing the impact of radionuclide releases to the environment by breeder reactor facilities. These recommendations are based on the model and parameter evaluations performed during this project to date. Seven different areas are covered in separate sections.

  4. Species of conservation concern and environmental stressors: Local, regional and global effects [Chapter 6] (Executive Summary)

    Treesearch

    Steven M. Ostoja; Matthew L. Brooks; Jeanne C. Chambers; Burton K.. Pendleton

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada’s unique landscapes and landforms provide habitat for a diversity of plant and wildlife species of conservation concern including many locally and regionally endemic species. The high population density and urbanization of the Las Vegas metropolitan area is the source of many local and regional stressors that affect these species and their habitats:...

  5. Concern-Focused Evaluation for Ambiguous and Conflicting Policies: An Approach from the Environmental Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mermet, Laurent; Bille, Raphael; Leroy, Maya

    2010-01-01

    Environment and sustainable development show how policies are becoming ever more complex and ambiguous. This trend calls for new evaluation approaches. They need to be more clearly focused on specific, explicit concerns. They must be driven by a strategic concept of use to overcome the vulnerability to manipulation of many integrative, essentially…

  6. Concern-Focused Evaluation for Ambiguous and Conflicting Policies: An Approach from the Environmental Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mermet, Laurent; Bille, Raphael; Leroy, Maya

    2010-01-01

    Environment and sustainable development show how policies are becoming ever more complex and ambiguous. This trend calls for new evaluation approaches. They need to be more clearly focused on specific, explicit concerns. They must be driven by a strategic concept of use to overcome the vulnerability to manipulation of many integrative, essentially…

  7. Ethylene dibromide: Biochemical effects and environmental concerns. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxicity and environmental issues pertaining to the fumigant ethylene dibromide. Topics include effects on liver activity, respiratory systems and DNA synthesis in laboratory animals, comparisons and synergistic effects with other pesticides, and occupational health considerations. The distribution of the compound in the environment and its effectiveness as a fumigant are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 100 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Report: Environmental Justice Concerns and Communication Problems Complicated Cleaning Up Ringwood Mines/Landfill Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2007-P-00016, April 2, 2007. We did not find evidence to indicate that the EPA's decision making to investigate environmental conditions at the Ringwood Mines/Landfill site were affected by the area’s racial, cultural, or socioeconomic status.

  9. Report: Review of Hotline Complaint Concerning the Region 4 Environmental Justice Small Grants Selection Process

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #13-P-0299, June 21, 2013. Our review of the EPA’s Region 4 Office of Environmental Justice found that management had controls in place to protect against bias, fraud, and preselection of EJ Small Grants recipients during FYs 2010, 2011 and 2012.

  10. Instrumental Unit Supplement for the Development of Mass Media Packages Concerned with Environmental Political Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Robert; Garcia, Joyce

    The unit supplement provides skill development activities for high school students in mass media techniques. It is intended to be used with a social studies curriculum unit entitled "Unit on Political Decision Making and Action Strategy Over a Local Environmental Problem," (ED 118 526). Teacher directions for using the supplement as a single unit…

  11. 43 CFR 1610.7-2 - Designation of areas of critical environmental concern.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Resource Management Planning § 1610.7-2 Designation of areas of critical environmental... protection management shall be identified and considered throughout the resource management planning...

  12. Species of conservation concern and environmental stressors: Local regional and global effects [Chapter 6

    Treesearch

    Steven M. Ostoja; Mathew L. Brooks; Jeanne C. Chambers; Burton K. Pendleton

    2013-01-01

    Species conservation has traditionally been based on individual species within the context of their requisite habitat, which is generally defined as the communities and ecosystems deemed necessary for their persistence. Conservation decisions are hampered by the fact that environmental stressors that potentially threaten the persistence of species can operate at...

  13. The Association of Outdoor Recreation and Environmental Concern: Reexamining the Dunlap-Heffernan Thesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodori, Gene L.; Luloff, A. E.; Willits, Fern K.

    1998-01-01

    Survey of 1,491 rural Pennsylvania residents found that, as in previous research, pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors were related to greater education, more liberal political orientation, and participation in outdoor recreational activities. Contrary to previous research, no significant differences were found between participants in…

  14. An Analysis of Curriculum and Undergraduate Students' Discourses about Environmental Education: A Debate Concerning Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasin, Elizabeth Bozoti; Bozelli, Reinaldo Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Teacher training on environmental education (EE) is a key element of promoting the restoration of ecological systems and insuring inclusive and equitable human development. Science and biology teachers play a significant role in favoring EE at Brazilian schools. This study investigates the presence of EE in the curriculum and aims to interpret the…

  15. Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on terrestrial plants. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II; Will, M.E.; Evans, C.

    1993-09-01

    One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment for hazardous waste sites is the screening of contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration as ``contaminants of potential concern.`` This process is termed ``contaminant screening.`` It is performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals to benchmark concentrations. Currently, no standard benchmark concentrations exist for assessing contaminants in soil with respect to their toxicity to plants. This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for this purpose (phytotoxicity benchmarks), a set of data concerning effects of chemicals in soil or soil solution on plants, and a set of phytotoxicity benchmarks for 34 chemicals potentially associated with US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Chemicals that are found in soil at concentrations exceeding both the phytotoxicity benchmark and the background concentration for the soil type should be considered contaminants of potential concern. The purpose of this report is to present plant toxicity data and discuss their utility as benchmarks for determining the hazard to terrestrial plants caused by contaminants in soil. Benchmarks are provided for soils and solutions.

  16. Emerging Environmental Contaminants: What’s New

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  17. Emerging Environmental Contaminants: What’s New

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  18. Environmental concern and the political process in France: Patterns of the 1981 elections

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The environment as a political cause emerged on the national scene in France in 1978, when the ''green'' party captured an impressive share of the initial parliamentary vote. In the presidential election of April, 1981, the environmental candidate ran moderately well, polling over one million votes and leading all other minority and special interest party candidates. In subsequent parliamentary elections (June, 1981), however, ''green'' candidates attracted only about half of their 1978 support, a decline attributable largely to the success of socialist candidates. Despite this setback, it is possible to identify persistent areas of strong environmental electoral support in Alsace, the Paris metropolitan area, the Rhone-Alpes region, and to a lesser extent lower Normandy and Brittany.

  19. Balancing energy and environmental concerns: the case of the Kayraktepe dam, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sever, Ö.; Tiğrek, Ş.; Şarlak, N.

    2012-10-01

    In this study, an alternative solution for a large dam, namely the Kayraktepe Dam in Turkey, is investigated. The dam was planned for flood control, energy generation and flow regulation for a downstream irrigation project more than 30 yr ago, but until now the project has not begun due to it receiving severe criticism about environmental and social considerations. The project formulation was redeveloped several times in the past but the options were not found to be feasible. In this study, a detailed analysis of the available feasibility studies is provided and then a new formulation, consisting of the proposed one medium dam and five run-of-river type hydropower stations instead of a large scale dam, is evaluated. The new formulation is equivalent to the existing project in terms of energy production and flood control. On the other hand, there are some benefits relative to other configurations as solutions to some of the environmental and social problems being addressed.

  20. The NASA role in major areas of human concern: Environmental quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    After introducing some of the general factors that have affected progress in the area of environmental quality, NASA program elements are examined to illustrate relevant points of contact. Interpretive steps are taken throughout the report to show a few of the more important ways people's lives have been affected as a result of the work of NASA and other organizations functioning in this area. The principal documents used and interviews conducted are identified.

  1. RO concentrate minimization by electrodialysis: techno-economic analysis and environmental concerns.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Ghyselbrecht, Karel; Vanherpe, Ruben; Meesschaert, Boudewijn; Pinoy, Luc; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2012-09-30

    This paper presents a systematic techno-economical analysis and an environmental impact evaluation of a reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate treatment process using electrodialysis (ED) in view of environmental management of brine discharges. The concentrate originates from a secondary effluent treated by RO. Without any treatment, the concentrate would have to be discharged; this is compared in this study to the costs and benefits of an effective treatment method in a pilot scale ED plant. A technical analysis was done both on lab scale and pilot scale for the determination of operational and maintenance costs for the ED installation at the required conditions of process performance and safety. Subsequently, an economical analysis was done to calculate the cost of the different parts of the ED system. It was shown that an operational cost of 0.19 EUR m(-3) can be achieved, assuming that the ED concentrate is to decarbonated at pH 6.0 to prevent membrane scaling. Finally, environmental impact issues were calculated and discussed for the overall system. Results imply that if renewable energy is applied for the ED power source, CO(2) emission from membrane processes can be much less than from the conventional treatment methods.

  2. A note on attitudes and knowledge concerning environmental issues in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Boman, Mattias; Mattsson, Leif

    2008-02-01

    As part of a larger research effort, the empirical basis for this note is responses to four out of many questions in a mailed survey, which primarily focused on national environmental objectives in Sweden. The results show that out of eight broad areas for use of tax money, five-including environment-are rated as important by over 90% of the respondents. Respondents appear to be less willing to discriminate between different issues covered by national environmental objectives, as all of these are rated as important by more than 80% of the respondents. The function of the ozone layer is an example of an environmental issue where the knowledge among people is relatively high, while this is not the case when it comes to the amount of pesticides used in agriculture. The results also show less support for actions at the individual level to improve the environment, as compared to support for actions taken by society at large through, e.g., technological improvement or policy intervention.

  3. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  4. A risk assessment framework for assessing metallic nanomaterials of environmental concern: aquatic exposure and behavior.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Niall Joseph; Cummins, Enda J

    2011-05-01

    Nanomaterials are finding application in many different environmentally relevant products and processes due to enhanced catalytic, antimicrobial, and oxidative properties of materials at this scale. As the market share of nano-functionalized products increases, so too does the potential for environmental exposure and contamination. This study presents some exposure ranking methods that consider potential metallic nanomaterial surface water exposure and fate, due to nano-functionalized products, through a number of exposure pathways. These methods take into account the limited and disparate data currently available for metallic nanomaterials and apply variability and uncertainty principles, together with qualitative risk assessment principles, to develop a scientific ranking. Three exposure scenarios with three different nanomaterials were considered to demonstrate these assessment methods: photo-catalytic exterior paint (nano-scale TiO₂), antimicrobial food packaging (nano-scale Ag), and particulate-reducing diesel fuel additives (nano-scale CeO₂). Data and hypotheses from literature relating to metallic nanomaterial aquatic behavior (including the behavior of materials that may relate to nanomaterials in aquatic environments, e.g., metals, pesticides, surfactants) were used together with commercial nanomaterial characteristics and Irish natural aquatic environment characteristics to rank the potential concentrations, transport, and persistence behaviors within subjective categories. These methods, and the applied scenarios, reveal where data critical to estimating exposure and risk are lacking. As research into the behavior of metallic nanomaterials in different environments emerges, the influence of material and environmental characteristics on nanomaterial behavior within these exposure- and risk-ranking methods may be redefined on a quantitative basis. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Rapeseed species and environmental concerns related to loss of seeds of genetically modified oilseed rape in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Toru; Tamaoki, Masanori; Aono, Mitsuko; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Feral rapeseed in Japan consists of Brassica rapa, B. juncea and B. napus, mostly produced by escape from crops. Brassica rapa and B. juncea were introduced from abroad long ago as leaf and root vegetables and as an oil crop and breeders have developed various cultivars. Brassica napus was introduced in the late 1800s, mainly as an oil crop. Rapeseed production in Japan is low, and most demand is met by imports from Canada (94.4% of the 2009 trade volume). Recently, spontaneous B. napus, including genetically modified (GM) herbicide-resistant individuals, has been detected along Japanese roads, probably originating from seeds lost during transportation of imports. As GM oilseed production increases abroad, the probability of escape of GM oilseed rape in Japan will increase, raising environmental biosafety concerns related to the impact of feral rapeseed on heirloom brassicaceous crops. In this paper, we review the history of rapeseed introduction in Japan and future concerns.

  6. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products found in the Great Lakes above concentrations of environmental concern.

    PubMed

    Blair, Benjamin D; Crago, Jordan P; Hedman, Curtis J; Klaper, Rebecca D

    2013-11-01

    The monitoring of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) has focused on the distribution in rivers and small lakes, but data regarding their occurrence and effects in large lake systems, such as the Great Lakes, are sparse. Wastewater treatment processes have not been optimized to remove influent PPCPs and are a major source of PPCPs in the environment. Furthermore, PPCPs are not currently regulated in wastewater effluent. In this experiment we evaluated the concentration, and corresponding risk, of PPCPs from a wastewater effluent source at varying distances in Lake Michigan. Fifty-four PPCPs and hormones were assessed on six different dates over a two-year period from surface water and sediment samples up to 3.2 km from a wastewater treatment plant and at two sites within a harbor. Thirty-two PPCPs were detected in Lake Michigan and 30 were detected in the sediment, with numerous PPCPs being detected up to 3.2 km away from the shoreline. The most frequently detected PPCPs in Lake Michigan were metformin, caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, and triclosan. To determine the ecological risk, the maximum measured environmental concentrations were compared to the predicted no-effect concentration and 14 PPCPs were found to be of medium or high ecological risk. The environmental risk of PPCPs in large lake systems, such as the Great Lakes, has been questioned due to high dilution; however, the concentrations found in this study, and their corresponding risk quotient, indicate a significant threat by PPCPs to the health of the Great Lakes, particularly near shore organisms. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Ranking of concern, based on environmental indexes, for pharmaceutical and personal care products: an application to the Spanish case.

    PubMed

    Ortiz de García, Sheyla; Pinto, Gilberto Pinto; García-Encina, Pedro A; Irusta Mata, Rubén I

    2013-11-15

    A wide range of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) are present in the environment, and many of their adverse effects are unknown. The emergence of new compounds or changes in regulations have led to dynamical studies of occurrence, impact and treatment, which consider geographical areas and trends in consumption and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry. A Quantitative study of Structure-Activity Relationship ((Q)SAR) was performed to assess the possible adverse effects of ninety six PPCPs and metabolites with negligible experimental data and establish a ranking of concern, which was supported by the EPA EPI Suite™ interface. The environmental and toxicological indexes, the persistence (P), the bioaccumulation (B), the toxicity (T) (extensive) and the occurrence in Spanish aquatic environments (O) (intensive) were evaluated. The most hazardous characteristics in the largest number of compounds were generated by the P index, followed by the T and B indexes. A high number of metabolites has a concern score equal to or greater than their parent compounds. Three PBT and OPBT rankings of concern were proposed using the total and partial ranking method (supported by a Hasse diagram) by the Decision Analysis by Ranking Techniques (DART) tool, which was recently recommended by the European Commission. An analysis of the sensibility of the relative weights of these indexes has been conducted. Hormones, antidepressants (and their metabolites), blood lipid regulators and all of the personal care products considered in this study were at the highest levels of risk according to the PBT and OPBT total rankings. Furthermore, when the OPBT partial ranking was performed, X-ray contrast media, H2 blockers and some antibiotics were included at the highest level of concern. It is important to improve and incorporate useful indexes for the predicted environmental impact of PPCPs and metabolites and thus focus experimental analysis on the compounds that require

  8. Karst Lands: The dissolution of carbonate rock produces unique landscapes and poses significant hydrological and environmental concerns

    SciTech Connect

    White, W.B.; Culver, D.C.; Herman, J.S.

    1995-09-01

    Karst lands are produced by the action of water on soluble rocks, a process among the most dynamic of all erosive forces that counterbalance the uplifting forces of tectonics. The dissolution of carbonate rock, primarily limestone and dolomite, produces unique landscapes and poses significant hydrological and environmental concerns. The major topic areas discussed in this article include the following: processes that form karst; karst drainage basins; discharge from karst aquifers; caves as paleoclimatic recorders; caves as ecosystems; water issues in karst regions; and sinkholes, soil piping and subsidence. 20 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Shuttle Environmental Assurance: Brominated Flame Retardants - Concerns, Drivers, Potential Impacts and Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    2010-01-01

    Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) are widely used in the manufacture of electrical and electronic components and as additives in formulations for foams, plastics and rubbers. The United States (US) and the European Union (EU)have increased regulation and monitoring of of targeted BFRs, such as Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) due to the bioaccumulative effects in humans and animals. In response, manufacturers and vendors of BFR-containing materials are changing flame-retardant additives, sometimes without notifying BFR users. In some instances, Deca-bromodiphenylether (Deca-BDE) and other families of flame retardants are being used as replacement flame retardants for penta-BDE and octa-BDE. The reformulation of the BFR-containing material typically results in the removal of the targeted PBDE and replacement with a non-PBDE chemical or non-targeted PBDE. Many users of PBDE -based materials are concerned that vendors will perform reformulation and not inform the end user. Materials performance such as flammability, adhesion , and tensile strength may be altered due to reformulation. The requalification of newly formulated materials may be required, or replacement materials may have to be identified and qualified. The Shuttle Enviornmental Assurance (SEA) team indentified a risk to the Space Shuttle Program associated with the possibility that targeted PBDEs may be replaced without notification. Resultant decreases in flame retardancy, Liquid Oxygen (LOX) compatibility, or material performance could have serious consequences.

  10. Environmental and Population Studies Concerning Exposure to Pesticides in Iran: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Mostafalou, Sara; Karami-Mohajeri, Somayyeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in Iranian agriculture and this has made a major toxicological concern among health professionals. The objective of this study is to explore national data about pesticides toxicity. All relevant databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus in a time period of 1960 to 2012 were searched for the keywords “Pesticides, Iran, Environment, and Population studies”. A total of 57 studies were found relevant and then included into study. Almost all non-experimental studies carried out in Iran were classified into two main categories of residue assessment in different samples and toxic effects on human. Depending on the dose and duration of exposure, toxic effects of pesticides have been studied in two classifications including acute toxicity or acute poisoning and chronic toxicity. High extent of pesticides have been used during the past decade in Iran while no enough proper studies were done to explore their possible toxic effects in the environment and the people. PMID:24693394

  11. Environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with oil recovery from US tar-sand deposits: state-of-knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Ricker, Y.E.

    1982-01-08

    Tar-sand petroleum-extraction procedures undergoing field testing for possible commercial application in the US include both surface (above-ground) and in situ (underground) procedures. The surface tar-sand systems currently being field tested in the US are thermal decomposition processes (retorting), and suspension methods (solvent extraction). Underground bitumen extraction procedures that are also being field tested domestically are in situ combustion and steam-injection. Environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with construction and operation of 20,000-bbl/d commercial tar-sand surface and in situ facilities have been estimated and are summarized in this report. The principal regulations that commercial tar-sand facilities will need to address are also discussed, and environmental control technologies are summarized and wherever possible, projected costs of emission controls are stated. Finally, the likelihood-of-occurrence of potential environmental, health, and safety problems that have been determined are reviewed, and from this information inference is made as to the environmental acceptability of technologically feasible 20,000-bbl/d commercial tar-sand oil-extraction procedures.

  12. Leaching composted lignocellulosic wastes to prepare container media: feasibility and environmental concerns.

    PubMed

    Fornes, Fernando; Carrión, Carolina; García-de-la-Fuente, Rosana; Puchades, Rosa; Abad, Manuel

    2010-08-01

    The leaching of salt and mineral elements from three composts prepared with residual vegetable crop biomass (melon, pepper or zucchini) was studied using methacrylate columns and distilled water. The benefits of the leached composts to be used for ornamental potted plant production were also analysed. After leaching 5 container capacities of effluent, both the electrical conductivity and the concentration of soluble mineral elements in compost leachates decreased substantially and remained close to the target levels. Composts reacted differently to leaching due to differences in the raw waste sources and the composting process and hence, in their physical and chemical characteristics. At the end of the experiment, after pouring 8 container capacities of water, the leaching efficiency of the salts was 96%, 93% and 87% for melon, pepper and zucchini-based composts, respectively. Mineral elements differed in their ability to be removed from the composts; N (NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-)), K(+), Na(+), Cl(-), and SO(4)(2-) were leached readily, whereas H(2)PO(4)(-), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) were removed hardly. Leached composts showed a range of physico-chemical and chemical characteristics suitable for use as growing media constituents. Potted Calendula and Calceolaria plants grew in the substrates prepared with the leached composts better than in those made with the non-leached ones. Finally, special emphasis must be paid to the management of the effluents produced under commercial conditions to avoid environmental pollution. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Difficult to measure constructs: conceptual and methodological issues concerning participation and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Whiteneck, Gale; Dijkers, Marcel P

    2009-11-01

    For rehabilitation and disability research, participation and environment are 2 crucial constructs that have been placed center stage by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). However, neither construct is adequately conceptualized by the ICF, and both are difficult to measure. This article addresses conceptual and methodologic issues related to these ICF constructs, and recommends an improved distinction between activities and participation, as well as elaboration of environment. A division of the combined ICF categories for activity and participation into 2 separate taxonomies is proposed to guide future research. The issue of measuring participation from objective and subjective perspectives is examined, and maintaining these distinct conceptual domains in the measurement of participation is recommended. The methodological issues contributing to the difficulty of measuring participation are discussed, including potential dimensionality, alternative metrics, and the appropriateness of various measurement models. For environment, the need for theory to focus research on those aspects of the environment that interact with individuals' impairments and functional limitations in affecting activities and participation is discussed, along with potential measurement models for those aspects. The limitations resulting from reliance on research participants as reporters on their own environment are set forth. Addressing these conceptual and methodological issues is required before the measurement of participation and environmental factors can advance and these important constructs can be used more effectively in rehabilitation and disability observational research and trials.

  14. OVERVIEW OF EMERGING CONTAMINANTS OF CONCERN IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this grou...

  15. OVERVIEW OF EMERGING CONTAMINANTS OF CONCERN IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this grou...

  16. Cross-species sensitivity to a novel androgen receptor agonist of potential environmental concern, spironolactone.

    PubMed

    LaLone, Carlie A; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Cavallin, Jenna E; Kahl, Michael D; Durhan, Elizabeth J; Makynen, Elizabeth A; Jensen, Kathleen M; Stevens, Kyle E; Severson, Megan N; Blanksma, Chad A; Flynn, Kevin M; Hartig, Philip C; Woodard, Jonne S; Berninger, Jason P; Norberg-King, Teresa J; Johnson, Rodney D; Ankley, Gerald T

    2013-11-01

    Spironolactone is a pharmaceutical that in humans is used to treat conditions like hirsutism, various dermatologic afflictions, and female-pattern hair loss through antagonism of the androgen receptor. Although not routinely monitored in the environment, spironolactone has been detected downstream of a pharmaceutical manufacturer, indicating a potential for exposure of aquatic species. Furthermore, spironolactone has been reported to cause masculinization of female western mosquitofish, a response indicative of androgen receptor activation. Predictive methods to identify homologous proteins to the human and western mosquitofish androgen receptor suggest that vertebrates would be more susceptible to adverse effects mediated by chemicals like spironolactone that target the androgen receptor compared with invertebrate species that lack a relevant homolog. In addition, an adverse outcome pathway previously developed for activation of the androgen receptor suggests that androgen mimics can lead to reproductive toxicity in fish. To assess this, 21-d reproduction studies were conducted with 2 fish species, fathead minnow and Japanese medaka, and the invertebrate Daphnia magna. Spironolactone significantly reduced the fecundity of medaka and fathead minnows at 50 μg/L, whereas daphnia reproduction was not affected by concentrations as large as 500 μg/L. Phenotypic masculinization of females of both fish species was observed at 5 μg/L as evidenced by formation of tubercles in fathead minnows and papillary processes in Japanese medaka. Effects in fish occurred at concentrations below those reported in the environment. These results demonstrate how a priori knowledge of an adverse outcome pathway and the conservation of a key molecular target across vertebrates can be utilized to identify potential chemicals of concern in terms of monitoring and highlight potentially sensitive species and endpoints for testing.

  17. Nonradiological chemical pathway analysis and identification of chemicals of concern for environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, M.L.; Cooper, A.T.; Castleton, K.J.

    1995-11-01

    Pacific Northwest`s Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is an ongoing effort tot design, review, and conducted monitoring on and off the Hanford site. Chemicals of concern that were selected are listed. Using modeled exposure pathways, the offsite cancer incidence and hazard quotient were calculated and a retrospective pathway analysis performed to estimate what onsite concentrations would be required in the soil for each chemical of concern and other detected chemicals that would be required to obtain an estimated offsite human-health risk of 1.0E-06 cancer incidence or 1.0 hazard quotient. This analysis indicates that current nonradiological chemical contamination occurring on the site does not pose a significant offsite human-health risk; the highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual was from arsenic (1.76E-10); the highest hazard quotient was chromium(VI) (1.48E-04). The most sensitive pathways of exposure were surfacewater and aquatic food consumption. Combined total offsite excess cancer incidence was 2.09E-10 and estimated hazard quotient was 2.40E-04. Of the 17 identified chemicals of concern, the SESP does not currently (routinely) monitor arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, bis(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP), and chrysene. Only 3 of the chemicals of concern (arsenic, BEHP, chloroform) could actually occur in onsite soil at concern high enough to cause a 1.0E-06 excess cancer incidence or a 1.0 hazard index for a given offsite exposure pathway. During the retrospective analysis, 20 other chemicals were also evaluated; only vinyl chloride and thallium could reach targeted offsite risk values.

  18. Popular epidemiology and "fracking": citizens' concerns regarding the economic, environmental, health and social impacts of unconventional natural gas drilling operations.

    PubMed

    Powers, Martha; Saberi, Poune; Pepino, Richard; Strupp, Emily; Bugos, Eva; Cannuscio, Carolyn C

    2015-06-01

    Pennsylvania sits atop the Marcellus Shale, a reservoir of natural gas that was untapped until the 2004 introduction of unconventional natural gas drilling operations (UNGDO) in the state. Colloquially known as fracking, UNGDO is a controversial process that employs large volumes of water to fracture the shale and capture gas; it has become a multi-billion dollar industry in Pennsylvania. We analyzed letters to the editor of the most widely circulated local newspaper in the most heavily drilled county in Pennsylvania (Bradford County) in order to characterize residents' concerns and their involvement in popular epidemiology--the process by which citizens investigate risks associated with a perceived environmental threat. We reviewed 215 letters to the editor that referenced natural gas operations and were published by The Daily Review between January 1, 2008 and June 8, 2013. We used NVivo 10 to code and analyze letters and identify major themes. Nvivo is qualitative data analysis software (http://www.qsrinternational.com/products_nvivo.aspx) that allows researchers to code and analyze "unstructured" data, including text files of any type (e.g., interview transcripts, news articles, letters, archival materials) as well as photographs and videos. Nvivo can be used to classify, sort, query, comment on, and share data across a research group. Letters demonstrated citizen engagement in beginning and intermediate stages of lay epidemiology, as well as discord and stress regarding four main issues: socio-economic impacts, perceived threats to water, population growth and implications, and changes to the rural landscape. Residents called for stronger scientific evidence and a balance of economic development and health and environmental protections. Citizens' distress regarding UNGDO appeared to be exacerbated by a dearth of information to guide economic growth and health, environmental, and social concerns. This analysis proposes locally informed questions to guide future

  19. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction].

    PubMed

    Pakulska, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extreiely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest, concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction.

  20. Preliminary study of the potential environmental concerns associated with surface waters and geothermal development of the Valles Caldera

    SciTech Connect

    Langhorst, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    A preliminary evaluation is presented of possible and probable problems that may be associated with hydrothermal development of the Valles Caldera Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), with specific reference to surface waters. Because of the history of geothermal development and its associated environmental impacts, this preliminary evaluation indicates the Valles Caldera KGRA will be subject to these concerns. Although the exact nature and size of any problem that may occur is not predictable, the baseline data accumulated so far have delineated existing conditions in the streams of the Valles Caldera KGRA. Continued monitoring will be necessary with the development of geothermal resources. Further studies are also needed to establish guidelines for geothermal effluents and emissions.

  1. Confirming the Environmental Concerns of Community Members Utilizing Participatory-Based Research in the Houston Neighborhood of Manchester.

    PubMed

    Sansom, Garett; Berke, Philip; McDonald, Thomas; Shipp, Eva; Horney, Jennifer

    2016-08-23

    In the last few decades, there has been an increase in community-based participatory research being conducted within the United States. Recent research has demonstrated that working with local community organizations, interest groups, and individuals can assist in the creation of, and sustainability in, health initiatives, adoption of emergency protocols, and potentially improve health outcomes for at-risk populations. However little research has assessed if communal concerns over environmental contaminants would be confirmed through environmental research. This cross-sectional study collected survey data and performed surface water analysis for heavy metals in a small neighborhood in Houston, TX, which is characterized by industrial sites, unimproved infrastructure, nuisance flooding, and poor air quality. Surveys were completed with 109 residents of the Manchester neighborhood. Water samples were taken from thirty zones within the neighborhood and assessed for arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), and mercury (Hg). Survey results showed that the vast majority of all respondents were concerned over proximity to industry and waste facilities, as well as exposure to standing surface water. Barium was discovered in every sample and many of the zones showed alarming levels of certain metals. For example, one zone, two blocks from a public park, showed levels of arsenic at 180 (μg/L), barium at 3296 (μg/L), chromium at 363 (μg/L), lead at 1448 (μg/L), and mercury at 10 (μg/L). These findings support the hypothesis that neighborhood members are aware of the issues affecting their community and can offer researchers valuable assistance in every stage of study design and execution.

  2. Confirming the Environmental Concerns of Community Members Utilizing Participatory-Based Research in the Houston Neighborhood of Manchester

    PubMed Central

    Sansom, Garett; Berke, Philip; McDonald, Thomas; Shipp, Eva; Horney, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, there has been an increase in community-based participatory research being conducted within the United States. Recent research has demonstrated that working with local community organizations, interest groups, and individuals can assist in the creation of, and sustainability in, health initiatives, adoption of emergency protocols, and potentially improve health outcomes for at-risk populations. However little research has assessed if communal concerns over environmental contaminants would be confirmed through environmental research. This cross-sectional study collected survey data and performed surface water analysis for heavy metals in a small neighborhood in Houston, TX, which is characterized by industrial sites, unimproved infrastructure, nuisance flooding, and poor air quality. Surveys were completed with 109 residents of the Manchester neighborhood. Water samples were taken from thirty zones within the neighborhood and assessed for arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), and mercury (Hg). Survey results showed that the vast majority of all respondents were concerned over proximity to industry and waste facilities, as well as exposure to standing surface water. Barium was discovered in every sample and many of the zones showed alarming levels of certain metals. For example, one zone, two blocks from a public park, showed levels of arsenic at 180 (μg/L), barium at 3296 (μg/L), chromium at 363 (μg/L), lead at 1448 (μg/L), and mercury at 10 (μg/L). These findings support the hypothesis that neighborhood members are aware of the issues affecting their community and can offer researchers valuable assistance in every stage of study design and execution. PMID:27563915

  3. MEETING IN CHINA: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  4. MEETING IN NEW ZEALAND: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  5. MEETING IN GERMANY: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  6. MEETING IN CANADA: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental co...

  7. MEETING IN CHINA: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  8. MEETING IN GERMANY: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  9. MEETING IN NEW ZEALAND: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  10. Toxicological benchmarks for screening contaminants of potential concern for effects on sediment-associated biota: 1994 Revision. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, R.N. |; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-06-01

    Because a hazardous waste site may contain hundreds of chemicals, it is important to screen contaminants of potential concern for the ecological risk assessment. Often this screening is done as part of a Screening Assessment, the purpose of which is to evaluate the available data, identify data gaps, and screen contaminants of potential concern. Screening may be accomplished by using a set of toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks are helpful in determining whether contaminants warrant further assessment or are at a level that requires no further attention. If a chemical concentration or the reported detection limit exceeds a proposed lower benchmark, more analysis is needed to determine the hazards posed by that chemical. If, however, the chemical concentration falls below the lower benchmark value, the chemical may be eliminated from further study. This report briefly describes three categories of approaches to the development of sediment quality benchmarks. These approaches are based on analytical chemistry, toxicity test and field survey data. A fourth integrative approach incorporates all three types of data. The equilibrium partitioning approach is recommended for screening nonpolar organic contaminants of concern in sediments. For inorganics, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has developed benchmarks that may be used for screening. There are supplemental benchmarks from the province of Ontario, the state of Wisconsin, and US Environmental Protection Agency Region V. Pore water analysis is recommended for polar organic compounds; comparisons are then made against water quality benchmarks. This report is an update of a prior report. It contains revised ER-L and ER-M values, the five EPA proposed sediment quality criteria, and benchmarks calculated for several nonionic organic chemicals using equilibrium partitioning.

  11. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems for Mars Exploration: Issues and Concerns for Planetary Protection and the Protection of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Lange, Kevin; Anderson, Molly; Vonau, Walter

    2016-07-01

    Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that generally have not been considered by developers of technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Forward contamination concerns will affect release of gases and discharge of liquids and solids, including what may be left behind after planetary vehicles are abandoned upon return to Earth. A crew of four using a state of the art ECLSS could generate as much as 4.3 metric tons of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes and trash during a 500-day surface stay. These may present issues and concerns for both planetary protection and planetary science. Certainly, further closure of ECLSS systems will be of benefit by greater reuse of consumable products and reduced generation of waste products. It can be presumed that planetary protection will affect technology development by constraining how technologies can operate: limiting or prohibiting certain kinds of operations or processes (e.g. venting); necessitating that other kinds of operations be performed (e.g. sterilization; filtration of vent lines); prohibiting what can be brought on a mission (e.g. extremophiles); creating needs for new capabilities/ technologies (e.g. containment). Although any planned venting could include filtration to eliminate micro-organisms from inadvertently exiting the spacecraft, it may be impossible to eliminate or filter habitat structural leakage. Filtration will add pressure drops impacting size of lines and ducts, affect fan size and energy requirements, and add consumable mass. Technologies that may be employed to remove biomarkers and microbial contamination from liquid and solid wastes prior to storage or release may include mineralization technologies such as incineration, super critical wet oxidation and pyrolysis. These technologies, however, come with significant penalties for mass, power and consumables. This paper will estimate the nature and amounts of materials generated during Mars

  12. Humankind Takes up Environmental Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huiying, Xu

    2004-01-01

    Environmental ethics examines the relationship between human beings and nature from the moral perspective. It is also a kind of ethics arising from a concern with an earth which is on the verge of losing balance. Environmental ethics originated at the end of the 1940s. Since the 1970s, great progress has been made in environmental ethics. This…

  13. Humankind Takes up Environmental Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huiying, Xu

    2004-01-01

    Environmental ethics examines the relationship between human beings and nature from the moral perspective. It is also a kind of ethics arising from a concern with an earth which is on the verge of losing balance. Environmental ethics originated at the end of the 1940s. Since the 1970s, great progress has been made in environmental ethics. This…

  14. An overview of current knowledge concerning the health and environmental consequences of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Wu, Junwen; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the scientific community has worked to identify the exact transport and deposition patterns of radionuclides released from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan. Nevertheless, there still remain many unknowns concerning the health and environmental impacts of these radionuclides. The present paper reviews the current understanding of the FDNPP accident with respect to interactions of the released radionuclides with the environment and impacts on human and non-human biota. Here, we scrutinize existing literature and combine and interpret observations and modeling assessments derived after Fukushima. Finally, we discuss the behavior and applications of radionuclides that might be used as tracers of environmental processes. This review focuses on (137)Cs and (131)I releases derived from Fukushima. Published estimates suggest total release amounts of 12-36.7PBq of (137)Cs and 150-160PBq of (131)I. Maximum estimated human mortality due to the Fukushima nuclear accident is 10,000 (due to all causes) and the maximum estimates for lifetime cancer mortality and morbidity are 1500 and 1800, respectively. Studies of plants and animals in the forests of Fukushima have recorded a range of physiological, developmental, morphological, and behavioral consequences of exposure to radioactivity. Some of the effects observed in the exposed populations include the following: hematological aberrations in Fukushima monkeys; genetic, developmental and morphological aberrations in a butterfly; declines in abundances of birds, butterflies and cicadas; aberrant growth forms in trees; and morphological abnormalities in aphids. These findings are discussed from the perspective of conservation biology.

  15. Arise the systems physician.

    PubMed

    Scott, I; Phelps, G; Dalton, S

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare in Australia faces significant challenges. Variations in care, suboptimal safety and reliability, fragmentation of care and unsustainable cost increases are compounded by substantial overuse and underuse of clinical interventions. These problems arise not from intentional actions of individual clinicians, but from deficiencies in the design, operations and governance of systems of care. Physicians play an important role in optimising systems of care and, in doing so, must rely on enhanced skills in a range of domains. These include: how to evaluate and improve quality and safety of clinical processes; analyse and interpret clinical and administrative data in ways that can be used to enhance care delivery; build and lead cohesive multidisciplinary teams capable of solving operational defects and inefficient workarounds; and implement new and effective innovations in clinical service delivery. While clinical skills are essential in individual patient care, skills that improve systems of care targeting whole patient populations will become increasingly desirable and recognised as core skills.

  16. Conflict of Interest Arises as Concern in Standards Push

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    A respected literacy-research organization is asking that a process be put in place to make more transparent potential conflicts of interest that writers of the common national academic standards might have, and to address them. The Literacy Research Association sent a letter Oct. 21 to the groups overseeing the development of common standards…

  17. Results of a modeling workshop concerning economic and environmental trends and concomitant resource management issues in the Mobile Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, David B.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.; Ellison, Richard A.; Johnson, Richard A.; Roelle, James E.; Staley, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    During the past decade, the southern regions of the U.S. have experienced rapid change which is expected to continue into the foreseeable future. Growth in population, industry, and resource development has been attributed to a variety of advantages such as an abundant and inexpensive labor force, a mild climate, and the availability of energy, water, land, and other natural resources. While this growth has many benefits for the region, it also creates the potential for increased air, water, and solid waste pollution, and modification of natural habitats. A workshop was convened to consider the Mobile Bay area as a site-specific case of growth and its environmental consequences in the southern region. The objectives of the modeling workshop were to: (1) identify major factors of economic development as they relate to growth in the area over the immediate and longer term; (2) identify major environmental and resource management issues associated with this expected growth; and (3) identify and characterize the complex interrelationships among economic and environmental factors. This report summarizes the activities and results of a modeling workshop concerning economic growth and concomitant resource management issues in the Mobile Bay area. The workshop was organized around construction of a simulation model representing the relationships between a series of actions and indicators identified by participants. The workshop model had five major components. An Industry Submodel generated scenarios of growth in several industrial and transportation sectors. A Human Population/Economy Submodel calculated human population and economic variables in response to employment opportunities. A Land Use/Air Quality Submodel tabulated changes in land use, shoreline use, and air quality. A Water Submodel calculated indicators of water quality and quantity for fresh surface water, ground water, and Mobile Bay based on discharge information provided by the Industry and Human

  18. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna

    2011-01-15

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  19. Environmental concerns related to high thallium levels in soils and thallium uptake by plants in southwest Guizhou, China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Tangfu; Guha, Jayanta; Boyle, Dan; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Chen, Jingan

    2004-01-05

    health hazard, but mercury has an insignificant health risk. This study illustrates a real environmental concern related to land use and human health in areas containing high contents of Tl in soils associated with the natural occurrence of Tl-rich sulfides and coals, with or without mining activities. Thallium contamination in soils should be a critical parameter for proper land use and health related environmental planning and regulations.

  20. EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss emerging environmental contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. Emerging c...

  1. A Re-Assessment of Factors Associated with Environmental Concern and Behavior Using the 2010 General Social Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Todd P.; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The associations between social and psychological influences and environmental attitudes, intentions and behavior have generated considerable interest, both in the fields of environmental behavior and of environmental education. We use the 2010 General Social Survey (GSS) to study these associations and expand the scope of earlier studies by…

  2. A Re-Assessment of Factors Associated with Environmental Concern and Behavior Using the 2010 General Social Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Todd P.; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The associations between social and psychological influences and environmental attitudes, intentions and behavior have generated considerable interest, both in the fields of environmental behavior and of environmental education. We use the 2010 General Social Survey (GSS) to study these associations and expand the scope of earlier studies by…

  3. Use of Biostratigraphy to Increase Production, Reduce Operating Costs and Risks and Reduce Environmental Concerns in Oil Well Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Marks

    2005-09-09

    out at the top of the late Miocene, early Mohnian: Bolivina aff hughesi, Rotalia becki, Suggrunda californica, Virgulina grandis, Virgulina ticensis, Bulimina ecuadorana, Denticula lauta and Nonion medio-costatum. Please see Appendix B, Fig. 1, Neogene Zones, p. 91 and Appendix C, chart 5, p. 99 By the use of Stratigraphy, employing both Paleontology and Lithology, we can increase hydrocarbon production, reduce operating costs and risks by the identification of the productive sections, and reduce environmental concerns by drilling less dry holes needlessly.

  4. Assessment of carbon footprint emissions and environmental concerns of solid waste treatment and disposal techniques; case study of Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Abualqumboz, Motasem S; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman M; Abunama, Taher J

    2017-09-18

    Malaysian authorities has planned to minimize and stop when applicable unsanitary dumping of waste as it puts human health and the environment at elevated risk. Cost, energy and revenue are mostly adopted to draw the blueprint of upgrading municipal solid waste management system, while the carbon footprint emissions criterion rarely acts asa crucial factor. This study aims to alert Malaysian stakeholders on the uneven danger of carbon footprint emissions of waste technologies. Hence, three scenarios have been proposed and assessed mainly on the carbon footprint emissions using the 2006 IPCC methodology. The first scenario is waste dumping in sanitary landfills equipped with gas recovery system, while the second scenario includes anaerobic digestion of organics and recycling of recyclable wastes such as plastic, glass and textile wastes. The third scenario is waste incineration. Besides the carbon footprint emissions criterion, other environmental concerns were also examined. The results showed that the second scenario recorded the lowest carbon footprint emissions of 0.251t CO2 eq./t MSW while the third scenario had the highest emissions of 0.646t CO2 eq./t MSW. Additionally, the integration between anaerobic digestion and recycling techniques caused the highest avoided CO2 eq. emissions of 0.74t CO2 eq./t MSW. The net CO2 eq. emissions of the second scenario equaled -0.489t CO2 eq./t MSW due to energy recovery from the biogas and because of recycled plastic, glass and textile wastes that could replace usage of raw material. The outcomes also showed that the first scenario generates huge amount of leachate and hazardous air constituents. The study estimated that a ton of dumped waste inside the landfills generates approximately 0.88m(3) of trace risky compounds and 0.188m(3) of leachate. As for energy production, the results showed that the third scenario is capable of generating 639kWh/t MSW followed by the second scenario with 387.59kWh/t MSW. The first scenario

  5. EPA Hosts Environmental Justice Interagency Working Group Meeting in Atlanta to address Concerns in North Birmingham Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (ATLANTA - February 17, 2016) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will host a Federal Interagency Working Group on Environmental Justice Meeting (EJ IWG) on Thursday, February 18, 2016 in the Sam Nunn Federal Building in Atlanta, GA. The EJ IWG

  6. A Comparative Study of Canadian and Taiwanese Grade 5 Children's Environmental Behaviors, Attitudes, Concerns, Emotional Dispositions, and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsin-Ping; Yore, Larry D.

    This study explored the cultural influences on children's self-reported environmental actions, perceptions, and understandings; investigated the relationships among the behavioral, affective, cognitive, and demographic variables; and developed models of children's responsible environmental behavior (Huang, 2001). The cross-cultural comparison…

  7. Transport properties of interfacial Si-rich layers formed on silicate minerals during weathering: Implications for environmental concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daval, Damien; Rémusat, Laurent; Bernard, Sylvain; Wild, Bastien; Micha, Jean-Sébastien; Rieutord, François; Fernandez-Martinez, Alejandro

    2015-04-01

    tracer in nm-thick ASSL by means of nanoSIMS analyses. However, estimated diffusion coefficients remain up to 20 orders of magnitude greater than those corresponding to solid-state diffusion, indicating that such ASSL were not formed through a solid-state transformation of wollastonite. In addition, the estimation of diffusion coefficients of the tracer for samples recovered after two different time durations indicates that such a diffusion coefficient may decrease with time. This result may be explained by the spontaneous evolution of the density of ASSL, which increased as the dissolution reaction proceeds, as shown from modeling of time-resolved in situ X-ray reflectivity spectra obtained on the dissolving surfaces. Overall, these results emphasize the need for the recognition of the importance of the interfacial fluid/mineral medium for adequately modeling the dissolution kinetics of silicate minerals relevant for environmental concerns. [1] Daval, D. et al., 2013. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 107, 121-134.

  8. Environmental Law: Fundamentals for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, David R.

    This booklet outlines the environmental problems most likely to arise in schools. An overview provides a fundamental analysis of environmental issues rather than comprehensive analysis and advice. The text examines the concerns that surround superfund cleanups, focusing on the legal framework, and furnishes some practical pointers, such as what to…

  9. The environmental injustice of beauty: framing chemical exposures from beauty products as a health disparities concern.

    PubMed

    Zota, Ami R; Shamasunder, Bhavna

    2017-10-01

    The obstetrics-gynecology community has issued a call to action to prevent toxic environmental chemical exposures and their threats to healthy human reproduction. Recent committee opinions recognize that vulnerable and underserved women may be impacted disproportionately by environmental chemical exposures and recommend that reproductive health professionals champion policies that secure environmental justice. Beauty product use is an understudied source of environmental chemical exposures. Beauty products can include reproductive and developmental toxicants such as phthalates and heavy metals; however, disclosure requirements are limited and inconsistent. Compared with white women, women of color have higher levels of beauty product-related environmental chemicals in their bodies, independent of socioeconomic status. Even small exposures to toxic chemicals during critical periods of development (such as pregnancy) can trigger adverse health consequences (such as impacts on fertility and pregnancy, neurodevelopment, and cancer). In this commentary, we seek to highlight the connections between environmental justice and beauty product-related chemical exposures. We describe racial/ethnic differences in beauty product use (such as skin lighteners, hair straighteners, and feminine hygiene products) and the potential chemical exposures and health risks that are associated with these products. We also discuss how targeted advertising can take advantage of mainstream beauty norms to influence the use of these products. Reproductive health professionals can use this information to advance environmental justice by being prepared to counsel patients who have questions about toxic environmental exposures from beauty care products and other sources. Researchers and healthcare providers can also promote health-protective policies such as improved ingredient testing and disclosure for the beauty product industry. Future clinical and public health research should consider beauty

  10. Background and overview on the contribution of dairy nutrition to addressing environmental concerns in Wisconsin: nitrogen, phosphorus, and methane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During the last part of the 20th century, public concern increased over non-point source pollution originating primarily from agricultural practices. Two chemical elements, nitrogen and phosphorus, which are important to the growth and development of crops and livestock, have been associated with no...

  11. Achieving Healthy School Siting and Planning Policies: Understanding Shared Concerns of Environmental Planners, Public Health Professionals, and Educators

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Policy decisions regarding the quality of the physical school environment—both, school siting and school facility planning policies—are often considered through the lens of environmental planning, public health, or education policy, but rarely through all three. Environmental planners consider environmental justice issues on a local level and/or consider the regional impact of a school. Public health professionals focus on toxic exposures and populations particularly vulnerable to negative health outcomes. Educators and education policymakers emphasize investing in human capital of both students and staff. By understanding these respective angles and combining these efforts around the common goals of achieving adequacy and excellence, we can work towards a regulatory system for school facilities that recognizes children as a uniquely vulnerable population and seeks to create healthier school environments in which children can learn and adults can work. PMID:20359991

  12. Prevalence of environmental and other military exposure concerns in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Karen S; McAndrew, Lisa M; Almeida, Liliana; D'Andrea, Elizabeth A; Engel, Charles C; Hamtil, Heather; Ackerman, Adam J

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the prevalence of self-reported exposures in returning Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans and the relationship of exposure reports to current physical symptoms. Using self-reports obtained immediately after return from deployment in a cohort of 760 enlisted Army reserve component military personnel, we assessed prevalence rates of environmental and other exposures and the association of these exposures to severity of physical symptoms. Reporting of environmental exposures was relatively low in veterans of OEF/OIF, but reporting more environmental and other exposures, in particular screening positive for a traumatic brain injury, was related to greater physical symptom severity immediately after deployment. Non-treatment-seeking, enlisted Army reserve component personnel reported relatively few exposures immediately after return from deployment; however, more exposures was modestly associated with greater severity of physical symptoms when controlling for predeployment symptoms, gender, and other deployment-related exposures.

  13. Achieving healthy school siting and planning policies: understanding shared concerns of environmental planners, public health professionals, and educators.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Policy decisions regarding the quality of the physical school environment-both, school siting and school facility planning policies-are often considered through the lens of environmental planning, public health, or education policy, but rarely through all three. Environmental planners consider environmental justice issues on a local level and/or consider the regional impact of a school. Public health professionals focus on toxic exposures and populations particularly vulnerable to negative health outcomes. Educators and education policymakers emphasize investing in human capital of both students and staff. By understanding these respective angles and combining these efforts around the common goals of achieving adequacy and excellence, we can work toward a regulatory system for school facilities that recognizes children as a uniquely vulnerable population and seeks to create healthier school environments in which children can learn and adults can work.

  14. Meeting in Dallas: Emerging Environmental Contaminants: What's New

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientific meeting presentation. Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will...

  15. Meeting in Dallas: Emerging Environmental Contaminants: What's New

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientific meeting presentation. Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will...

  16. 40 CFR 720.50 - Submission of test data and other data concerning the health and environmental effects of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... related to human exposure to or environmental release of the chemical substance. (3)(i) If the data do not... completion date. (ii) If a test or experiment is completed before the notice review period ends, the person... end of the review period. If the test or experiment is completed during the last five days of...

  17. 40 CFR 720.50 - Submission of test data and other data concerning the health and environmental effects of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... related to human exposure to or environmental release of the chemical substance. (3)(i) If the data do not... completion date. (ii) If a test or experiment is completed before the notice review period ends, the person... end of the review period. If the test or experiment is completed during the last five days of...

  18. 40 CFR 720.50 - Submission of test data and other data concerning the health and environmental effects of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... related to human exposure to or environmental release of the chemical substance. (3)(i) If the data do not... completion date. (ii) If a test or experiment is completed before the notice review period ends, the person... end of the review period. If the test or experiment is completed during the last five days of...

  19. 40 CFR 720.50 - Submission of test data and other data concerning the health and environmental effects of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... related to human exposure to or environmental release of the chemical substance. (3)(i) If the data do not... completion date. (ii) If a test or experiment is completed before the notice review period ends, the person... end of the review period. If the test or experiment is completed during the last five days of...

  20. 75 FR 14479 - Request for Comments Concerning an Environmental Review of the Proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... appropriate and prudent. Environmental reviews were conducted for bilateral free trade agreements concluded... of the bilateral free trade agreement, as well as information on the approach to conducting...-Pacific Partnership Trade Agreement AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR...

  1. Regulatory requirements and tools for environmental assessment of hazardous wastes: understanding tribal and stakeholder concerns using Department of Energy sites.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Powers, Charles; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Many US governmental and Tribal Nation agencies, as well as state and local entities, deal with hazardous wastes within regulatory frameworks that require specific environmental assessments. In this paper we use Department of Energy (DOE) sites as examples to examine the relationship between regulatory requirements and environmental assessments for hazardous waste sites and give special attention to how assessment tools differ. We consider federal laws associated with environmental protection include the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as well as regulations promulgated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Tribal Nations and state agencies. These regulatory regimes require different types of environmental assessments and remedial investigations, dose assessments and contaminant pathways. The DOE case studies illustrate the following points: 1) there is often understandable confusion about what regulatory requirements apply to the site resources, and what environmental assessments are required by each, 2) the messages sent on site safety issued by different regulatory agencies are sometimes contradictory or confusing (e.g. Oak Ridge Reservation), 3) the regulatory frameworks being used to examine the same question can be different, leading to different conclusions (e.g. Brookhaven National Laboratory), 4) computer models used in support of groundwater models or risk assessments are not necessarily successful in convincing Native Americans and others that there is no possibility of risk from contaminants (e.g. Amchitka Island), 5) when given the opportunity to choose between relying on a screening risk assessments or waiting for a full site-specific analysis of contaminants in biota, the screening risk assessment option is rarely selected (e.g. Amchitka, Hanford Site), and finally, 6) there needs to be agreement on whether

  2. Regulatory requirements and tools for environmental assessment of hazardous wastes: Understanding tribal and stakeholder concerns using Department of Energy sites

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Powers, Charles; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many US governmental and Tribal Nation agencies, as well as state and local entities, deal with hazardous wastes within regulatory frameworks that require specific environmental assessments. In this paper we use Department of Energy (DOE) sites as examples to examine the relationship between regulatory requirements and environmental assessments for hazardous waste sites and give special attention to how assessment tools differ. We consider federal laws associated with environmental protection include the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as well as regulations promulgated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Tribal Nations and state agencies. These regulatory regimes require different types of environmental assessments and remedial investigations, dose assessments and contaminant pathways. The DOE case studies illustrate the following points: 1) there is often understandable confusion about what regulatory requirements apply to the site resources, and what environmental assessments are required by each, 2) the messages sent on site safety issued by different regulatory agencies are sometimes contradictory or confusing (e.g. Oak Ridge Reservation), 3) the regulatory frameworks being used to examine the same question can be different, leading to different conclusions (e.g. Brookhaven National Laboratory), 4) computer models used in support of groundwater models or risk assessments are not necessarily successful in convincing Native Americans and others that there is no possibility of risk from contaminants (e.g. Amchitka Island), 5) when given the opportunity to choose between relying on a screening risk assessments or waiting for a full site-specific analysis of contaminants in biota, the screening risk assessment option is rarely selected (e.g. Amchitka, Hanford Site), and finally, 6) there needs to be agreement on whether

  3. A Preliminary Review of Environmental Requirements and Concerns Based on the Proposed Closure of George Air Force Base, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    Law"] also says DOD has the right to conduct its own cleanups. Note: George AFB is not currently on the National Priorities List. Assembly Bill 3374...The primary contaminant of concern in the East Storm Drain is lead . In compliance with the agreement made between the Base and the regulatory...Training Facility ( FFTF ) consists of a concrete pad which is 100 feet in diameter, an oil/water separator to saparate fuel components from wastewater, and

  4. Mega-sized concerns from the nano-sized world: the intersection of nano- and environmental ethics.

    PubMed

    Attia, Peter

    2013-09-01

    As rapid advances in nanotechnology are made, we must set guidelines to balance the interests of both human beneficiaries and the environment by combining nanoethics and environmental ethics. In this paper, I reject Leopoldian holism as a practical environmental ethic with which to gauge nanotechnologies because, as a nonanthropocentric ethic, it does not value the humans who will actually use the ethic. Weak anthropocentrism is suggested as a reasonable alternative to ethics without a substantial human interest, as it treats nonhuman interests as human interests. I also establish the precautionary principle as a useful situational guideline for decision makers. Finally, I examine existing and potential applications of nanotechnology, including water purification, agriculture, mining, energy, and pollutant removal, from the perspective of weak anthropocentrism using the precautionary principle.

  5. The Ethics of Environmental Concern: A Rationale and Prototype Materials for Environmental Education Within the Humanistic Tradition. Final Report, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F.

    As part of the series of student materials developed by the Environmental Education Project at Florida State University, this volume contains three instructional units dealing with population growth and perception of the environment. Designed for junior high students, each unit contains an extensive introduction to orient a teacher to the major…

  6. Elements of environmental concern in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments: A perspective of Fort Union coals in northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region

    SciTech Connect

    Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.E.; Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R.

    1998-07-01

    The elements of environmental concern (EECs) named in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments include 12 trace elements consisting of antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, and uranium. Although all these trace elements are potentially hazardous, arsenic, mercury, lead, and selenium may be targeted in forthcoming Environmental Protection Agency regulations. Fort Union coals contain all the trace elements named in the Clean Air Act Amendments; however, the presence and amounts of individual trace elements vary from basin to basin. In the Powder River Basin, the major producing Fort Union coals (Wyodak-Anderson and equivalent coal beds, and Rosebud coal bed) contain the lowest (or statistically as low) amounts of EECs of any of the coal producing basins (i.e., Williston, Hanna, and Green River) in the region. In addition, when the arithmetic means of these trace elements in Powder River Basin coals are compared to other regions in the conterminous US, they are lower than those of Cretaceous coals in Colorado Plateau, Tertiary lignites in the Gulf Coast, and Pennsylvanian coals in the Illinois and Appalachian Basins. Thus, elements of environmental concern are generally low in Fort Union coals in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, and particularly low in the Powder River Basin. Projected increase in production of Powder River Basin coals will, therefore, be of greater benefit to the nation than an increase in development and production of coals in other basins.

  7. Questions concerning environmental mobility of arsenic: needs for a chemical data base and means for speciation of trace organoarsenicals.

    PubMed Central

    Brinckman, F E; Parris, G E; Blair, W R; Jewett, K L; Iverson, W P; Bellama, J M

    1977-01-01

    Biomethylation of metals, including arsenic, apparently occurs as a global process. Health control strategies therefore depend on accurate analysis of arsenic's environmental mobility. Determining to what extent biotransformations occur and how resultant organometal(loids) are sequestered in food chains requires sophistication beyond present-day total element determinations. Rather, active molecular forms of arsenic must be speciated for each environmental compartment, and it is necessary to quantify the dynamics of arsenic's mobility. Thus, new chemical facts are needed yielding rates of methylation or demethylation of arsenic; partition coefficients of organoarsenicals between air, water, and organic phases; and arsenic redox chemistry in polar media. NBS research in this context is reviewed with examples of recent results emphasizing speciation methodology. Topic areas discussed are: the nature of aquated methylarsenic species (NMR and laser-Raman spectroscopy); transport of methylarsenicals from aqueous media (gas chromatography-graphic furnace AA detection applied to metabolic Me3As formation); and speciation of involatile organoarsenicals in aqueous media (demonstration of HPLC utilizing element-specific AA detection and appraisal of electrochemical detectors). PMID:908286

  8. Aggregate resource availability in the conterminous United States, including suggestions for addressing shortages, quality, and environmental concerns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Although potential sources of aggregate are widespread throughout the United States, many sources may not meet certain physical property requirements, such as soundness, hardness, strength, porosity, and specific gravity, or they may contain contaminants or deleterious materials that render them unusable. Encroachment by conflicting land uses, permitting considerations, environmental issues, and societal pressures can prevent or limit development of otherwise suitable aggregate. The use of sustainable aggregate resource management can help ensure an economically viable supply of aggregate. Sustainable aggregate resource management techniques that have successfully been used include (1) protecting potential resources from encroachment; (2) using marginal-quality local aggregate for applications that do not demand a high-quality resource; (3) using substitute materials such as clinker, scoria, and recycled asphalt and concrete; and (4) using rail and water to transport aggregates from remote sources.

  9. Ready or not here comes 1995 -- Title V permits, audit incentives will lead environmental concerns next year

    SciTech Connect

    Krukowski, J.

    1994-12-01

    This is a time of year when people take inventory of themselves, and resolve to make improvements in the new year. More than 35,000 industrial companies are going through a similar process. The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 requires them to inventory their sources of actual and potential air emissions, then determine whether the operating permit requirements of Title V apply to them. Giving up smoking might be a less stressful New Year's project, judging from how Title V is worrying and mystifying some in industry. Many companies still are cataloging their emissions and are a long way off from submitting their permit applications to states, even as EPA has begun approving state Title V programs. Compiling an inventory represents a fairly significant amount of work for a lot of facilities. ENSR estimates the inventory process takes up 40 to 45 percent of a company's time in preparing for Title V. ENSR urges businesses to contact states where they have facilities to learn when Title V applications are due. The other near-term actions are to determine whether the regulation even applies to the company and begin the permit process. TRC has developed an 11-step process for preparing operating permits. This process is presented. The future of the Clean Water Act reauthorization efforts and the use of voluntary compliance incentives are also a concern to environmentalists.

  10. Thallium-rich pyrite ores from the Apuan Alps, Tuscany, Italy:constraints for their origin and environmental concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orazio, Massimo; Biagioni, Cristian; Dini, Andrea; Vezzoni, Simone

    2017-06-01

    The southern sector of the Apuan Alps (AA) massif, Tuscany, Italy, is characterized by the occurrence of a series of baryte-pyrite-iron oxide orebodies whose Tl-rich nature was recognized only recently. The geochemistry of the pyrite ore was investigated through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In addition, lead isotope data for selected pyrite ores from AA were collected. Pyrite ores are characterized by a complex geochemistry, with high concentrations of Tl (up to 1100 μg/g) coupled with high As and Sb contents; the Co/Ni ratio is always <1. Geochemical data of pyrite and marcasite ore samples from other mining districts of Tuscany have been collected in order to compare them with those from the AA. These samples usually have very low Tl content (less than 2 μg/g) and high to very high Co/Ni and As/Sb ratios. Only some samples from the Sb-Hg ore deposits showed very high Tl concentrations (up to 3900 μg/g). Another difference is related to the lead isotope composition, with pyrite ores from AA markedly less radiogenic than those from the other deposits from Tuscany. Geochemical data of pyrite ores from AA give new insights on the genesis of the baryte-pyrite-iron oxide orebodies, relating their formation to low-temperature hydrothermal systems active during early Paleozoic; in addition, these data play a fundamental role in assessing the environmental impact of these deposits.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

  13. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  14. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  15. Position paper of the American Council on Science and Health: public health concerns about environmental polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed

    1997-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs, were widely used in various industrial applications for their insulating and fire retardant properties. In the 1960s, PCBs were found in soil and water, and research confirmed that some PCB congeners degrade very slowly in the environment and can build up in the food chain. Two widespread poisoning episodes in Japan and Taiwan were initially attributed to the consumption of rice bran oil contaminated with PCBs. Although subsequent analysis suggested that toxic thermal degradation products of PCBs in the oil, rather than the PCBs, were responsible for the observed health effects, commercial production of PCBs in the United States was discontinued in 1979. Several regulatory and advisory agencies have categorized PCBs as animal carcinogens; however, studies of workers exposed to high doses of PCBs over long periods of time have not demonstrated an increased cancer risk. In fact, the only health effects that could be attributed to PCBs were skin and eye irritation. Recent studies of the possible effects of prenatal exposure to PCBs on neurodevelopment in infants and children have been criticized for methodological deficiencies. There is no conclusive evidence that PCB levels in the general population are causing intellectual deterioration in children exposed in utero. Some investigators have also suggested that PCBs and other chemicals in the environment can interfere with the body's endocrine system, leading to infertility, certain types of cancer, and other hormone-related disorders. Evidence for estrogenic effects of environmental PCBs remains weak and circumstantial. The following actions are recommended: development of innovative, cost-effective remediation techniques, particularly for sites that are difficult to remediate (e.g., river sediments); and scientifically based improvements to risk assessment, to reduce the considerable uncertainty associated with PCB exposure to health effects in humans.

  16. Hydrogeological aspects and environmental concerns of the New Valley Project, Western Desert, Egypt, with special emphasis on the southern area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaad, Fakhry A.

    1988-12-01

    The New Valley Project has been given much attention in the past 20 years especially from the hydrogeological point of view concerning groundwater utilization for the reclamation of a large area of the Western Desert. Lithological, petrophysical, and petrographical studies were conducted on four wells south of Beris Oasis, namely Beris 20, Beris 15, Beris 14, and Beris 13, and are defined by latitudes 24°25'E and 24°35'E and longitudes 30°30'N and 30°46'N. The Nubian sedimentation is of Posttectonic deposition that took place over the uplifted Precambrian granitic basement and is Lower Cretaceous, whereas the upper most variegated shales of the cap rock are Upper Cretaceous. The Nubian sandstones in the area south of Beris Oasis contain hematitic stains and/or fine granular authigenic hematite, thin laminae of brown ferruginous quartzite is also recorded denoting oxidizing conditions in the basin of deposition. Thin streaks of carbonaceous shales are met with in different depths to the south of Beris area, may be taken to denote oscillations in the sea level and accordingly its depths, and are responsible for the change in the oxidation-reduction potential during the deposition of the corresponding beds. Lithologic logs were interpreted together with the electric and micro-logs for adjustment of the shale breaks and showed that there are five water-bearing zones, named from bottom to top: A, B, C, D, and E, and are mainly unfossiliferous orthoquartzites, separated from each other by impervious beds of siltstones, shales, and clays of varying thicknesses. This zoning had been found valid in other parts of the Kharga Oases and could be applied locally in the Kharga Oases area. Mechanical analysis was performed mainly on 39 samples, of which 18 were core samples and 21 were cuttings, that were raised from four wells dug in the area south of Beris Oasis, Kharga Oases. Porosity and permeability tests were carried out on the 18 core samples only. The implication of

  17. Results of an adaptive environmental assessment modeling workshop concerning potential impacts of drilling muds and cuttings on the marine environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auble, Gregor T.; Andrews, Austin K.; Ellison, Richard A.; Hamilton, David B.; Johnson, Richard A.; Roelle, James E.; Marmorek, David R.

    1983-01-01

    communities which were conceptualized as being adapted to frequent storms. This behavior was generated by the set of assumptions about linkages and functional relationships used to construct the model. Areas of uncertainty included methods for extrapolating 96-hr LC50 so results to exposures of varying lengths and concentrations; recovery rates of benthic communities; responses to various depths and rates of burial; fate and effects of the plume in relationship to stratification layers; and long-term and sub-lethal effects of slightly elevated concentrations of discharged materials. Evaluation of the assumptions of the Soft Bottom Submodel suggest that the assumptions used may have been relatively liberal estimates of resiliency of these communities. Discussion of "closed" water bodies such as bays and estuaries indicated several reasons to expect different and more complex fate and effects behavior in these areas. These factors included different species and communities (such as aquatic macrophytes and oyster beds), more complex circulation and stratification patterns, and potentially more active resuspension processes. Much of the possible difference in behavior in these areas centers around the extent to which they are “closed” or in the relative residence times of water and sediments in these areas as they determine the long-term dispersion of discharged material. Despite the complexity and variability of these areas, a large body of knowledge (such as that concerning fate and physical effects of dredge spoil) that could be effectively employed in analysis of potential fate and physical effects in enclosed areas was identified.

  18. Concern and Helplessness: Citizens' Assessments of Individual and Collective Action on the Provision of Environmental Public Goods in a Coastal City at Risk of Inundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunyan, Sabrina; Collins, Alan; Duffy, David

    2016-09-01

    Survey data from a representative sample of 1005 households in the UK coastal city of Portsmouth are examined to discern commonalities and contrasts in their assessment of actions to address the related environmental threats of climate change and flooding. The city of Portsmouth is at risk of inundation from rising sea levels and the city has recent experience of flooding. A simple local and global public good framework is used to organize the understanding of reported attitudes and their determinants. The findings show that it is not always the same individuals who express concern about both climate change and flooding. Investigation into perceptions of helplessness in tackling climate change indicates that individuals more often perceived themselves to be helpless in tackling climate but perceived local collective action to be more effective. Individuals considered local collective action to be more effective in tackling climate change. Perceptions of individual helplessness are in turn related to reported concern. Several socioeconomic characteristics of individuals are shown to be useful in explaining the determinants of concern and perceptions of helplessness among respondents. As other cities face climate change-related challenges, the empirical findings, based upon attitudes from an alert urban population, are informative to policy design.

  19. Concern and Helplessness: Citizens' Assessments of Individual and Collective Action on the Provision of Environmental Public Goods in a Coastal City at Risk of Inundation.

    PubMed

    Bunyan, Sabrina; Collins, Alan; Duffy, David

    2016-09-01

    Survey data from a representative sample of 1005 households in the UK coastal city of Portsmouth are examined to discern commonalities and contrasts in their assessment of actions to address the related environmental threats of climate change and flooding. The city of Portsmouth is at risk of inundation from rising sea levels and the city has recent experience of flooding. A simple local and global public good framework is used to organize the understanding of reported attitudes and their determinants. The findings show that it is not always the same individuals who express concern about both climate change and flooding. Investigation into perceptions of helplessness in tackling climate change indicates that individuals more often perceived themselves to be helpless in tackling climate but perceived local collective action to be more effective. Individuals considered local collective action to be more effective in tackling climate change. Perceptions of individual helplessness are in turn related to reported concern. Several socioeconomic characteristics of individuals are shown to be useful in explaining the determinants of concern and perceptions of helplessness among respondents. As other cities face climate change-related challenges, the empirical findings, based upon attitudes from an alert urban population, are informative to policy design.

  20. An "EAR" on environmental surveillance and monitoring: A case study on the use of exposure-activity ratios to prioritize sites, chemicals, and bioactivities of concern in Great Lakes waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current environmental monitoring approaches focus primarily on chemical occurrence. However, based on chemical concentration alone, it can be difficult to identify which compounds may be of toxicological concern for prioritization for further monitoring or management. This can be...

  1. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes within an established Area of Critical Environmental Concern, of the Amargosa River Canyon and Willow Creek, Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoppettone, G. Gary; Hereford, Mark E.; Rissler, Peter H.; Johnson, Danielle M.; Salgado, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The Amargosa River Canyon of San Bernardino and Inyo County, California, has been designated by the Bureau of Land Management as an Area of Critical Environmental Concern, due in part to its unique flora and fauna. As a task of the Area of Critical Environmental Concern implementation plan, a survey of native fishes was conducted from June 21 to August 12, 2010. Geographic Information System tools were used to map sampling locations, which were spaced at 50-meter intervals. Global Positioning Systems were used to locate sampling stations, and stations with adequate water for successful trapping were sampled with baited minnow traps. Amargosa River pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae) and speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus spp.) were widespread throughout Armargosa River Canyon. Throughout the study area 8,558 pupfish were captured at 194 stations; 3,472 speckled dace were captured at 210 stations; 238 red-swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkia) were captured at 83 stations; and 1,095 western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinus) were captured at 110 stations. Pupfish were most abundant in open water habitat with native riparian vegetation, and they were significantly less abundant where the stream was completely covered by cattails or where saltcedar (Tamarix sp.) dominated the riparian corridor. There was no relationship between stream cover and speckled dace distribution. Non-native western mosquitofish and red-swamp crayfish densities were significantly higher in stream reaches dominated by saltcedar. The continued spread of saltcedar threatens to negatively affect pupfish and potentially reduce speckled dace abundance throughout the Amargosa River Canyon. This study can serve as baseline information for observing native fish populations in the future, as related to potential changes to the Amargosa River Canyon ecosystem.

  2. Guidelines to Avoid Biocontamination of Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments: Forward Contamination Concerns, Environmental Management and Scientific Stewardship of Icy analogue environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, M. S.; Hobbie, J.; et al.

    2007-12-01

    For more than a decade, scientists and space mission planners have recognized the importance of collaborative information exchange with the Antarctic research community to address their many shared exploration challenges, from drilling methods, remote sample collection, and data interpretation, to concerns about cross contamination that could adversely impact both the environment and interpretation of scientific data. Another shared concern exists in the regulatory realm; both the Antarctic and outer space environments are subject to separate international treaties that impose regulatory controls and oversight with serious implications for exploration planning. In recent years, both communities have faced the need to adjust their regulatory controls in light of fast-paced advances in scientific understanding of extreme environments, particularly related to potential microbial life. Both communities have sought and received advice from the National Research Council (NRC) through studies that suggested ways to update their respective oversight and regulatory systems while allowing for continued scientific exploration. A recently completed NRC study "Exploration of Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments: Environmental and Scientific Stewardship" provided a suite of recommendations to address1) 'cleanliness' levels necessary for equipment and devices used in exploration of subglacial aquatic environments, as well as 2) the scientific basis for contamination standards, and 3) the steps for defining an overall exploration strategy conducive to sound environmental management and scientific stewardship. This talk will present the findings of the recent multinational NRC study, which is likely to translate into useful information for analogue studies that proceed to test techniques and capabilities for exploring an Europan ocean, other icy celestial locations, and related science targets on Earth. As the science and exploration of subglacial environments grows beyond its

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL MASS SPECTROMETRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

  4. EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES, MEETING IN SEATTLE, WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL MASS SPECTROMETRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

  6. EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES, MEETING IN SEATTLE, WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

  7. Environmental benefits and concerns on safety: communicating latest results on nanotechnology safety research-the project DaNa(2.0).

    PubMed

    Kühnel, D; Marquardt, C; Nau, K; Krug, H F; Paul, F; Steinbach, C

    2017-04-01

    The use of nanotechnology and advanced materials promises to revolutionise many areas of technology and improve our daily life. In that respect, many positive effects on the environment are expected, either directly, by developing new technologies for remediation, filtering techniques or energy generation, or indirectly, by e.g. saving resources due to lower consumption of raw materials, or lower energy and fuel consumption due to reduced weight of vehicles. However, such beneficial effects of new technologies are often confronted by concerns regarding the safety of novel substances or materials. During the past 10 years, great effort has been put into research on potential hazards of nanomaterials towards environmental organisms. As the methodology for reliable assessment of nanomaterials was immature, many studies reporting contradictory results have been published, hindering both risk assessment for nanomaterials, as well as the knowledge communication to all involved stakeholders. Thus, DaNa(2.0) serves as a platform to implement trusted knowledge on nanomaterials for an objective discussion.

  8. Cultural Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on cultural concerns in human resource development (HRD). "Race, Gender, and Mentoring Patterns" (Linda M. Hite) examines mentoring patterns and opportunities among black female professionals and reports results reinforcing the need for increased availability of same-sex, same-race mentors in…

  9. Emerging Environmental Contaminants: What’s New

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise; for example, potential adverse health effects (e.g., cancer, reproductive and developmental effects, and endocrine disruption), bioaccumulation, an...

  10. Present, Absent, or Tardy? A Study of the Barriers, Bridges, and Beliefs Concerning Environmental Education among a Cohort of Sixth Grade Teachers in Nova Scotia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Elizabeth; Wright, Tarah; Castleden, Heather

    2013-01-01

    The increasing importance of formal environmental education underscores a teacher's role in the development of knowledge, attitudes, and actions toward nature. This qualitative study explores how a cohort of sixth grade teachers (18) in Nova Scotia conceptualize environmental education and perceive teaching challenges. Data were collected through…

  11. Present, Absent, or Tardy? A Study of the Barriers, Bridges, and Beliefs Concerning Environmental Education among a Cohort of Sixth Grade Teachers in Nova Scotia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Elizabeth; Wright, Tarah; Castleden, Heather

    2013-01-01

    The increasing importance of formal environmental education underscores a teacher's role in the development of knowledge, attitudes, and actions toward nature. This qualitative study explores how a cohort of sixth grade teachers (18) in Nova Scotia conceptualize environmental education and perceive teaching challenges. Data were collected through…

  12. Delusional Disorder Arising From a CNS Neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Stupinski, John; Kim, Jihye; Francois, Dimitry

    2017-01-01

    Erotomania arising from a central nervous system (CNS) neoplasm has not been previously described. Here, we present the first known case, to our knowledge, of erotomania with associated persecutory delusions arising following diagnosis and treatment of a left frontal lobe brain tumor.

  13. 75 FR 8274 - Collection of Administrative Debts; Collection of Debts Arising From Enforcement and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Arising From Enforcement and Administration of Campaign Finance Laws AGENCY: Federal Election Commission... concerning the collection of debts arising from the Commission's enforcement of the campaign finance laws in... enforcement of the campaign finance laws, which would be covered in proposed 11 CFR part 111 subpart C...

  14. Synchronous melanomas arising within nevus spilus.

    PubMed

    Brito, Maria Helena Toda Sanches de; Dionísio, Cecília Silva Nunes de Moura; Fernandes, Cândida Margarida Branco Martins; Ferreira, Joana Cintia Monteiro; Rosa, Maria Joaninha Madalena de Palma Mendonça da Costa; Garcia, Maria Manuela Antunes Pecegueiro da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Nevus spilus is a melanocytic cutaneous lesion consisting of a light brown background macule with numerous superimposed darker maculopapular speckles. Melanoma arising from a nevus spilus is rare, with less than 40 cases reported to date. The absolute risk for malignant transformation is not well defined, lacking a standardized management approach. We report a new case of melanoma arising from nevus spilus, with the additional peculiarity of multifocality. We offer our recommendations for the management of the condition.

  15. Synchronous melanomas arising within nevus spilus*

    PubMed Central

    de Brito, Maria Helena Toda Sanches; Dionísio, Cecília Silva Nunes de Moura; Fernandes, Cândida Margarida Branco Martins; Ferreira, Joana Cintia Monteiro; Rosa, Maria Joaninha Madalena de Palma Mendonça da Costa; Garcia, Maria Manuela Antunes Pecegueiro da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Nevus spilus is a melanocytic cutaneous lesion consisting of a light brown background macule with numerous superimposed darker maculopapular speckles. Melanoma arising from a nevus spilus is rare, with less than 40 cases reported to date. The absolute risk for malignant transformation is not well defined, lacking a standardized management approach. We report a new case of melanoma arising from nevus spilus, with the additional peculiarity of multifocality. We offer our recommendations for the management of the condition. PMID:28225967

  16. Concern about petrochemical health risk before and after a refinery explosion.

    PubMed

    Cutchin, Malcolm P; Martin, Kathryn Remmes; Owen, Steven V; Goodwin, James S

    2008-06-01

    On March 23, 2005, a large explosion at an oil refinery in Texas City, Texas caused 15 deaths and approximately 170 injuries. Little is known about how such an industrial accident influences concern about environmental health risks. We used measures of environmental health concern about nearby petrochemical production with a sample of Texas City residents to understand patterns of concern and change in concern after an industrial accident, as well as individual and contextual factors associated with those patterns. Survey interviews with residents of Texas City, Texas (N= 315) both pre- and postexplosion using a brief Concern About Petrochemical Health Risk Scale (CAPHRS) and other questions were used to collect pertinent predictor information. CAPHRS baseline, postexplosion, and change scores were compared and modeled using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and a mixed model. Higher preexplosion CAPHRS scores were predicted by younger adults, foreign-born Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks, lower- and middle-income groups, and those who live with someone who has worked at the petrochemical plants. Higher CAPHRS change scores are predicted by the same variables (except income), as well as proximity to, or perception of, the explosion, and reports of neighborhood damage. Findings suggest these groups' concern scores could indicate a greater vulnerability to psychological and physical harm generated by concern and stress arising from local petrochemical activities. A clearer understanding of concern about actual environmental health risks in exposed populations may enhance the evolving theory of stress and coping and eventually enable public health professionals to develop appropriate mitigation strategies.

  17. Knowledge and Values in Science Textbooks Concerning Complexity in Ecological Systems and Environmental Problems: A Cross-cultural Study on Secondary School Manuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boujemaa, Agorram; Silvia, Caravita; Adriana, Valente; Daniela, Luzi; Nicola, Margnelli

    2009-01-01

    The study was carried out within the European research project "Biology, Health and Environmental Education for Better Citizenship" that joined 18 European and North-African countries. We report here the methodology and some of the conclusions drawn from an analysis of science textbooks that considered the topics ecology and…

  18. "Bad for the Penguins ... because They Need Ice and that to Live On": An Exploratory Study into the Environmental Views, Concerns and Knowledge of Socially Disadvantaged Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sarah Jane; Snell, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Environmental policies and practices have maintained a high status internationally, nationally and locally, but limited literature relates to the perspective of social disadvantage in England, with a particular under-representation of young people. The research presented in this paper has been driven by the supposition that a lack of knowledge and…

  19. "Bad for the Penguins ... because They Need Ice and that to Live On": An Exploratory Study into the Environmental Views, Concerns and Knowledge of Socially Disadvantaged Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sarah Jane; Snell, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Environmental policies and practices have maintained a high status internationally, nationally and locally, but limited literature relates to the perspective of social disadvantage in England, with a particular under-representation of young people. The research presented in this paper has been driven by the supposition that a lack of knowledge and…

  20. Anticipating and Communicating Plausible Environmental and Health Concerns Associated with Future Disasters: The ShakeOut and ARkStorm Scenarios as Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.; Alpers, C. N.; Hoefen, T. M.; Meeker, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    Disasters commonly pose immediate threats to human safety, but can also produce hazardous materials (HM) that pose short- and long-term environmental-health threats. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has helped assess potential environmental health characteristics of HM produced by various natural and anthropogenic disasters, such as the 2001 World Trade Center collapse, 2005 hurricanes Katrina and Rita, 2007-2009 southern California wildfires, various volcanic eruptions, and others. Building upon experience gained from these responses, we are now developing methods to anticipate plausible environmental and health implications of the 2008 Great Southern California ShakeOut scenario (which modeled the impacts of a 7.8 magnitude earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault, http://urbanearth.gps.caltech.edu/scenario08/), and the recent ARkStorm scenario (modeling the impacts of a major, weeks-long winter storm hitting nearly all of California, http://urbanearth.gps.caltech.edu/winter-storm/). Environmental-health impacts of various past earthquakes and extreme storms are first used to identify plausible impacts that could be associated with the disaster scenarios. Substantial insights can then be gleaned using a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach to link ShakeOut and ARkStorm effects maps with data extracted from diverse database sources containing geologic, hazards, and environmental information. This type of analysis helps constrain where potential geogenic (natural) and anthropogenic sources of HM (and their likely types of contaminants or pathogens) fall within areas of predicted ShakeOut-related shaking, firestorms, and landslides, and predicted ARkStorm-related precipitation, flooding, and winds. Because of uncertainties in the event models and many uncertainties in the databases used (e.g., incorrect location information, lack of detailed information on specific facilities, etc.) this approach should only be considered as the first of multiple steps

  1. Population-level assessments should be emphasized over community/ecosystem-level assessments. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 1535. [Concerning the impact of power plants on fish populations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Winkle, W

    1980-01-01

    Arguments are presented in favor of emphasizing population-level assessments over community/ecosystem-level assessments. The two approaches are compared on each of four issues: (1) the nature of entrainment/impingement impacts; (2) the ability to forecast reliably for a single fish population as contrasted to the ability to forecast for an aquatic community or ecosystem; (3) practical considerations involving money, manpower, time, and the need to make decisions; and (4) the nature of societal and economic concerns. The conclusion on each of these four issues is that population-level assessments provide the optimal approach for evaluating the effects of entrainment and impingement mortality.

  2. Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on sediment-associated biota. Environmental Restoration Program ESD Publication 4107

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, R.N.; Suter, G.W. II

    1993-08-01

    Because a hazardous waste site may contain hundreds of chemicals, it is important to screen contaminants of concern for the ecological risk assessment. Often this screening is done as part of a Screening Assessment, the purpose of which is to evaluate the available data, identify data gaps, and screen potential contaminants of concern. Screening may be accomplished by using a set of toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks are helpful in determining whether contaminants warrant further assessment or are at a level that requires no further attention. If a chemical concentration or the reported detection limit exceeds a proposed lower benchmark, more analysis is needed to determine the hazards posed by that chemical. If, however, the chemical concentration falls below the lower benchmark value, the chemical may be eliminated from further study. This report briefly describes three categories of approaches to the development of sediment quality benchmarks. These approaches are based on analytical chemistry, toxicity test results, and field survey data. A fourth integrative approach incorporates all three types of data.

  3. Global trade, local impacts: lessons from California on health impacts and environmental justice concerns for residents living near freight rail yards.

    PubMed

    Hricko, Andrea; Rowland, Glovioell; Eckel, Sandrah; Logan, Angelo; Taher, Maryam; Wilson, John

    2014-02-10

    Global trade has increased nearly 100-fold since 1950, according to the World Trade Organization. Today, major changes in trade are occurring with the advent of mega-ships that can transport thousands more containers than cargo ships now in use. Because global trade is expected to increase dramatically, the railroad industry-in the U.S. alone-has invested more than $5 billion a year over the past decade to expand rail yards and enhance rail routes to transport goods from ports to retail destinations. This article describes cancer risks for residents living in close proximity to rail yards with emissions of diesel particulate matter pollution from locomotives, trucks and yard equipment. The article examines the demographics (income, race/ethnicity) of populations living in the highest estimated cancer risk zones near 18 major rail yards in California, concluding that the majority are over-represented by either lower-income or minority residents (or both). The authors also describe a review of the news media and environmental impact reports to determine if rail yards are still being constructed or expanded in close proximity to homes and schools or in working class/working poor communities of color. The paper suggests policy efforts that might provide more public health protection and result in more "environmentally just" siting of rail yards. The authors conclude that diesel pollution from rail yards, which creates significant diesel cancer risks for those living near the facilities, is an often overlooked public health, health disparities and environmental justice issue in the U.S. The conclusions are relevant to other countries where international trade is increasing and large new intermodal rail facilities are being considered.

  4. Global Trade, Local Impacts: Lessons from California on Health Impacts and Environmental Justice Concerns for Residents Living near Freight Rail Yards

    PubMed Central

    Hricko, Andrea; Rowland, Glovioell; Eckel, Sandrah; Logan, Angelo; Taher, Maryam; Wilson, John

    2014-01-01

    Global trade has increased nearly 100-fold since 1950, according to the World Trade Organization. Today, major changes in trade are occurring with the advent of mega-ships that can transport thousands more containers than cargo ships now in use. Because global trade is expected to increase dramatically, the railroad industry—in the U.S. alone—has invested more than $5 billion a year over the past decade to expand rail yards and enhance rail routes to transport goods from ports to retail destinations. This article describes cancer risks for residents living in close proximity to rail yards with emissions of diesel particulate matter pollution from locomotives, trucks and yard equipment. The article examines the demographics (income, race/ethnicity) of populations living in the highest estimated cancer risk zones near 18 major rail yards in California, concluding that the majority are over-represented by either lower-income or minority residents (or both). The authors also describe a review of the news media and environmental impact reports to determine if rail yards are still being constructed or expanded in close proximity to homes and schools or in working class/working poor communities of color. The paper suggests policy efforts that might provide more public health protection and result in more “environmentally just” siting of rail yards. The authors conclude that diesel pollution from rail yards, which creates significant diesel cancer risks for those living near the facilities, is an often overlooked public health, health disparities and environmental justice issue in the U.S. The conclusions are relevant to other countries where international trade is increasing and large new intermodal rail facilities are being considered. PMID:24518649

  5. Biotechnology in agriculture, 1986-May 1992. Citation from agricola concerning diseases and other environmental considerations. Bibliographies and literature of agriculture (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Bebee, C.N.

    1992-08-01

    The citations in this bibliography, Biotechnology in Agriculture, 1986 - May 1992, are selected from the AGRICOLA database and cover diseases, insects, nematodes, weeds, chemicals, and other environmental considerations. This is the 46th volume in a series of commodity-oriented listings of citations from AGRICOLA. Entries in the bibliography are subdivided into a series of section headings used in the contents of the Bibliography of Agriculture. Each item appears under every section heading assigned to the cited document. A personal author index accompanies this publication.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL IMMUNOCHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental immunochemical methods are responding to the changing needs of regulatory and monitoring programs and are meeting new analytical challenges as they arise. Immunoassays are being developed for screening multiple organophosphorous (OP) pesticides (0,0-diethyl thionate...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL IMMUNOCHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental immunochemical methods are responding to the changing needs of regulatory and monitoring programs and are meeting new analytical challenges as they arise. Immunoassays are being developed for screening multiple organophosphorous (OP) pesticides (0,0-diethyl thionate...

  8. Environmental impact and regulatory concerns for the protection of a freshwater aquifer impacted by a gas well blowout in northwest Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, W.H.; McKenzie, D.T.; Kline, M.S.

    1996-09-01

    The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, Ground Water Protection Division (GWPD) is responsible for oversight of the investigation and remediation of unpermitted releases to the waters of the State. In March, 1994, a Sligo Field gas well blowout caused artificial artesian conditions in the shallow Wilcox aquifer resulting in flowing water wells near the drilling location. The eruption of sand and formation water created a crater around an old abandoned well south of the active rig and a collapse crater north of the rig. The company, in cooperation with the GWPD, began an investigation of the environmental impacts of the blowout. An electric log run in a stratigraphic boring and newly installed monitor wells were used to determine the sand/shale distribution and to assess the extent of contamination in the aquifer. Monitor wells and nearby water supply wells were sampled for BETX. Only the wells nearest to the blowout showed constituents above regulatory limits. The well, positioned between the blowout and residential wells, showed no BETX. This paper will present the continued investigation and remedial activities planned for this site. They include additional wells or borings to delineate the horizontal area impacted by the blowout and evaluation of pump and treat methods to establish hydrologic control of the Wilcox Aquifer in the immediate area. Periodic testing of the residential and monitor wells will ensure that appropriate efforts are made to protect the local residents.

  9. Overview of Chemicals of Emerging Concern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminants of emerging concern or environmental emerging contaminants, are chemicals, products and materials that are detected with increasing frequency in all environmental media including surface, ground water and drinking water. Examples of these contaminants include pharmac...

  10. Overview of Chemicals of Emerging Concern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminants of emerging concern or environmental emerging contaminants, are chemicals, products and materials that are detected with increasing frequency in all environmental media including surface, ground water and drinking water. Examples of these contaminants include pharmac...

  11. The legal and ethical concerns that arise from using complex predictive analytics in health care.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn; Amarasingham, Ruben; Shah, Anand; Xie, Bin; Lo, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Predictive analytics, or the use of electronic algorithms to forecast future events in real time, makes it possible to harness the power of big data to improve the health of patients and lower the cost of health care. However, this opportunity raises policy, ethical, and legal challenges. In this article we analyze the major challenges to implementing predictive analytics in health care settings and make broad recommendations for overcoming challenges raised in the four phases of the life cycle of a predictive analytics model: acquiring data to build the model, building and validating it, testing it in real-world settings, and disseminating and using it more broadly. For instance, we recommend that model developers implement governance structures that include patients and other stakeholders starting in the earliest phases of development. In addition, developers should be allowed to use already collected patient data without explicit consent, provided that they comply with federal regulations regarding research on human subjects and the privacy of health information. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  12. Forensic and diagnostic concerns arising from the proposed DSM-5 criteria for sexual paraphilic disorder.

    PubMed

    Fedoroff, J Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews proposed revisions to the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for the paraphilic disorders. It is argued that the proposed revisions will decrease the diagnostic accuracy of the diagnoses. A more effective diagnostic scheme is suggested.

  13. Environmental, health and safety assessment of photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, E. C.

    1983-01-01

    The environmental, health, and safety (E, H and S) concerns associated with the fabrication, deployment, and decommissioning of photovoltaic (PV) systems in terrestial applications are identified and assessed. Discussion is limited to crystalline silicon technologies. The primary E, H, and S concerns that arise during collector fabrication are associated with occupational exposure to materials of undetermined toxicity or to materials that are known to be hazardous, but for which process control technology may be inadequate. Stricter exposure standards are anticipated for some materials and may indicate a need for further control technology development. Minimizing electric shock hazards is a significant concern during system construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning.

  14. Evaluation of the potential for using old-field vegetation as an energy feedstock: Biomass yield, chemical composition, environmental concerns, and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, J.W. Jr.

    1990-07-01

    The major focus of current research on production of biomass for use as energy feedstock involves selection of species and genotypes best suited for specific regions of the United States and development of crop management techniques that maximize biomass productivity while minimizing environmental impacts and economic costs. The two experimental sites, and abandoned soybean field (AS) and an abandoned pasture (AP) were studied. At the AS site, the effects of two harvest frequencies (1 or 2 harvests annually), two nitrogen fertilizer treatments (1 or 2 harvests annually), two nitrogen fertilizer treatments (0 or 87 kg{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}), and two phosphorous fertilizer treatments (0 or 111 kg{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}) were determined. At the AP site, the effects of two harvest treatments (1 or 2 harvests annually), two fertilizer treatments (56:56:135 kg of N:P:K{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}), and two lime treatments (0 or 4600 kg{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}) were determined. At both sites, treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block 2 {times} 2 {times} 2 factorial experiment. The results of this research indicated that old-field vegetation is: (1) sufficiently productive to provide significant quantities of energy feedstock; (2) chemically suitable as an energy feedstock; (3) environmentally benign with respect to impacts related to soil erosion and nutrient depletion; (4) relatively unresponsive to fertilizer and lime inputs; and (5) economically competitive with other biomass energy feedstock candidates. 38 refs., 8 figs., 68 tabs.

  15. ARISE: American renaissance in science education

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-14

    The national standards and state derivatives must be reinforced by models of curricular reform. In this paper, ARISE presents one model based on a set of principles--coherence, integration of the sciences, movement from concrete ideas to abstract ones, inquiry, connection and application, sequencing that is responsive to how people learn.

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a meningomyelocele.

    PubMed Central

    Saksun, J. M.; Fisher, B. K.

    1978-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma developed in the meningomyelocele of a 25-year-old man. This is the third such case reported. The possibility of malignant disease arising in this congenital defect must be taken into account when treatment is being considered. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:709475

  17. New challenges of the ARISE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    It has been robustly demonstrated that variations in the circulation of the middle atmosphere influence weather and climate throughout the troposphere all the way to the Earth's surface. A key part of the coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere occurs through the propagation and breaking of planetary-scale Rossby waves and gravity waves. Limited observation of the middle atmosphere and these waves in particular limits the ability to faithfully reproduce the dynamics of the middle atmosphere in numerical weather prediction and climate models. The ARISE project combines for the first time international networks with complementary technologies such as infrasound, lidar and airglow. This joint network provided advanced data products that started to be used as benchmarks for weather forecast models. The ARISE network also allows enhanced and detailed monitoring of other extreme events in the Earth system such as erupting volcanoes, magnetic storms, tornadoes and tropical thunderstorms. In order to improve the ability of the network to monitor atmospheric dynamics, ARISE proposes to extend i) the existing network coverage in Africa and the high latitudes, ii) the altitude range in the stratosphere and mesosphere, iii) the observation duration using routine observation modes, and to use complementary existing infrastructures and innovative instrumentations. Data will be collected over the long term to improve weather forecasting to monthly or seasonal timescales, to monitor atmospheric extreme events and climate change. ARISE focuses on the link between models and observations for future assimilation of data by operational weather forecasting models. Among the applications, ARISE2 proposes infrasound remote volcano monitoring to provide notifications to civil aviation.

  18. Reproductive issues arising from different management systems in the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Mee, J F

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this review is to address the reproductive issues arising from different dairy management systems by describing divergent systems and comparing their reproductive outcomes. The increasing global demand for dairy products has led to the majority of the world's milk being produced in intensive management systems. This intensification has occurred in both zero-grazed (ZG) and in pasture-based (PB) systems, and it has contributed directly to the current decline in dairy cow fertility globally. Given the heterogeneous nature of both ZG and PB systems, comparisons between them in dairy cow reproductive performance need to be treated with caution. In general, cows in ZG systems have higher milk production and better energy balance but more of some animal health problems, lower ovarian activity post-partum, reduced oestrous expression, reduced conception success, and higher culling and mortality rates, than cows in PB systems. Key environmental descriptors affecting reproductive performance within management systems include the type and duration of housing and the pre- and post-partum diet composition. Genetic by environment (GxE) interactions for dairy cow fertility have been detected for some, but not for other, management systems. Given the concerns of some consumers within the EU about the health, fertility and welfare of dairy cows in modern dairy herd management systems, there is a need to address these concerns with large-scale experimental and epidemiological studies.

  19. Land-cover mapping of Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and Coyote Springs, Piute-Eldorado Valley, and Mormon Mesa Areas of Critical Environmental Concern, Clark County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J. LaRue; Damar, Nancy A.; Charlet, David A.; Westenburg, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    DigitalGlobe’s QuickBird satellite high-resolution multispectral imagery was classified by using Visual Learning Systems’ Feature Analyst feature extraction software to produce land-cover data sets for the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and the Coyote Springs, Piute-Eldorado Valley, and Mormon Mesa Areas of Critical Environmental Concern in Clark County, Nevada. Over 1,000 vegetation field samples were collected at the stand level. The field samples were classified to the National Vegetation Classification Standard, Version 2 hierarchy at the alliance level and above. Feature extraction models were developed for vegetation on the basis of the spectral and spatial characteristics of selected field samples by using the Feature Analyst hierarchical learning process. Individual model results were merged to create one data set for the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and one for each of the Areas of Critical Environmental Concern. Field sample points and photographs were used to validate and update the data set after model results were merged. Non-vegetation data layers, such as roads and disturbed areas, were delineated from the imagery and added to the final data sets. The resulting land-cover data sets are significantly more detailed than previously were available, both in resolution and in vegetation classes.

  20. Ameloblastic Fibrosarcoma Arising in the Maxilla.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Rachael R; Bilski, Arthur; Batstone, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AFS) is a rare odontogenic neoplasm of the jaw that usually arises de novo or through a malignant change in the mesenchymal component of a preexisting or recurrent benign fibroma. The majority of AFS cases reported in the literature arise in the mandible. A 35-year-old male presented with an asymptomatic left maxillary mass that on imaging was found to be effacing most of his maxillary sinus. He underwent a left maxillectomy with free-flap reconstruction and adjuvant radiotherapy to the tumor bed. Wide local excision remains the treatment of choice for AFS, given the poor survival rates of patients with recurrent disease. However, long-term studies and follow-up are needed to elucidate the role of adjuvant therapies in the primary treatment of AFS.

  1. Ameloblastic Fibrosarcoma Arising in the Maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Rachael R.; Bilski, Arthur; Batstone, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AFS) is a rare odontogenic neoplasm of the jaw that usually arises de novo or through a malignant change in the mesenchymal component of a preexisting or recurrent benign fibroma. The majority of AFS cases reported in the literature arise in the mandible. Case Report: A 35-year-old male presented with an asymptomatic left maxillary mass that on imaging was found to be effacing most of his maxillary sinus. He underwent a left maxillectomy with free-flap reconstruction and adjuvant radiotherapy to the tumor bed. Conclusion: Wide local excision remains the treatment of choice for AFS, given the poor survival rates of patients with recurrent disease. However, long-term studies and follow-up are needed to elucidate the role of adjuvant therapies in the primary treatment of AFS. PMID:27303223

  2. Environmental development plan for transportation programs: FY80 update

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C.L.; Singh, M.K.; Bernard, M.J. III; Bevilacqua, O.M.

    1980-09-01

    This is the second annual update of the environmental development plan (EDP) for transportation programs. It has been prepared as a cooperative effort of the Assistant Secretaries for Conservation and Solar Energy (ASCS) Office of Transportation Programs (CS/TP) and the Environment (ASEV) Office of Environmental Assessments. EDPs identify the ecosystem, resource, physical environment, health, safety, socioeconomic, and environmental control concerns associated with DOE programs. The programs include the research, development, demonstration, and assessment (RDD and A) of 14 transportation technologies and several strategy implementation projects. This EDP update presents a research and assessment plan for resolving any potentially adverse environmental concerns arising from these programs. The EDP process provides a framework for: incorporating environmental concerns into CS/TP planning and decision processes early to ensure they are assigned the same importance as technological, fiscal, and institutional concerns in decision making; resolving environmental concerns concurrently with energy technology and strategy development; and providing a research schedule that mitigates adverse environmental effects through sound technological design or policy analysis. This EDP also describes the status of each environmental concern and the plan for its resolution. Much of ongoing DOE reseirch and technology development is aimed at resolving concerns identified in this EDP. Each EDP is intended to be so comprehensive that no concerns escape notice. Care is taken to include any CS/TP action that may eventually require an Environmental Impact Statement. Because technology demonstration and commercialization tend to raise more environmental concerns than other portions of the transportation program, most of this EDP addresses these concerns.

  3. Kapteyn series arising in radiation problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerche, I.; Tautz, R. C.

    2008-01-01

    In discussing radiation from multiple point charges or magnetic dipoles, moving in circles or ellipses, a variety of Kapteyn series of the second kind arises. Some of the series have been known in closed form for a hundred years or more, others appear not to be available to analytic persuasion. This paper shows how 12 such generic series can be developed to produce either closed analytic expressions or integrals that are not analytically tractable. In addition, the method presented here may be of benefit when one has other Kapteyn series of the second kind to consider, thereby providing an additional reason to consider such series anew.

  4. Eccrine Poroma Arising within Nevus Sebaceous

    PubMed Central

    Girdwichai, Natnicha; Chanprapaph, Kumutnart; Vachiramon, Vasanop

    2016-01-01

    Nevus sebaceous is a congenital, benign hamartomatous lesion, characterized by a yellowish to skin-colored, hairless, verrucous plaque on the head and neck region. In later life, a secondary tumor, either benign or malignant, can develop within nevus sebaceous. Eccrine poroma developing on nevus sebaceous is extremely rare. There are few case reports of eccrine poroma developing within nevus sebaceous. We report a case of a 30-year-old female who presented with a congenital, hairless, verrucous, yellowish lesion on the scalp and an erythematous nodule arising within the yellowish lesion for 8 months. Her clinical presentation and histopathological findings were compatible with nevus sebaceous and eccrine poroma. PMID:27194975

  5. Boundary estimation problems arising in thermal tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Kojima, Fumio; Winfree, W. P.

    1989-01-01

    Problems on the identification of two-dimensional spatial domains arising in the detection and characterization of structural flaws in materials are considered. For a thermal diffusion system with external boundary input, observations of the temperature on the surface are used in a output least squares approach. Parameter estimation techniques based on the method of mappings are discussed and approximation schemes are developed based on a finite element Galerkin approach. Theoretical convergence results for computational techniques are given and the results are applied to experimental data for the identification of flaws in the thermal testing of materials.

  6. Glomangiosarcoma Arising from a Prior Biopsy Site

    PubMed Central

    Maselli, Amy M.; Jambhekar, Amani V.

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Glomangiosarcoma represents a rare malignant variant of the benign glomus tumor that typically presents as a tender, slowly growing nodule with a predilection for the lower extremities. Unlike their benign counterparts, glomangiosarcomas may display aggressive characteristics such as large size, local invasion, and a tendency to recur after excision. Although wide local excision remains the treatment of choice, rare cases of systemic metastasis have been previously reported. We present a case of glomangiosarcoma arising at a prior biopsy site after excision of an unknown soft tissue lesion. PMID:28203514

  7. The Treatment of Illnesses Arising in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bolz, Michael; Körber, Sabine; Reimer, Toralf; Buchmann, Johannes; Schober, Hans-Christof; Briese, Volker

    2017-09-15

    The treatment of pregnant women who have illnesses unrelated to pregnancy can cause uncertainty among physicians. We searched the PubMed database and specialty guidelines from Germany and abroad (the guidelines of the German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics, the American Congress of Obstetri cians and Gynecologists, and the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists) over the period 2007-2016 for information on standards for the diagnosis and treatment of five illnesses that can arise in pregnancy: bronchial asthma, migraine, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and varicose veins. Any diagnostic tests that are carried out in pregnant women should be simple and goal-directed. The choice of drugs that can be used is limited. For many drugs, no embryotoxic or teratogenic effect is suspected, but the level of evidence is low. When illnesses unrelated to pregnancy arise in pregnant women, attention must be paid to potential diver gences from the typical disease course and to pos sible drug side effects on the fetus in order to prevent serious complications for both mother and child.

  8. Farming in space: Environmental and biophysical concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monje, O.; Stutte, G. W.; Goins, G. D.; Porterfield, D. M.; Bingham, G. E.

    The colonization of space will depend on our ability to routinely provide for the metabolic needs (oxygen, water, and food) of a crew with minimal re-supply from Earth. On Earth, these functions are facilitated by the cultivation of plant crops, thus it is important to develop plant-based food production systems to sustain the presence of mankind in space. Farming practices on earth have evolved for thousands of years to meet both the demands of an ever-increasing population and the availability of scarce resources, and now these practices must adapt to accommodate the effects of global warming. Similar challenges are expected when earth-based agricultural practices are adapted for space-based agriculture. A key variable in space is gravity; planets (e.g. Mars, (1)/(3) g) and moons (e.g. Earth's moon, (1)/(6) g) differ from spacecraft orbiting the Earth (e.g. Space stations) or orbital transfer vehicles that are subject to microgravity. The movement of heat, water vapor, CO2 and O2 between plant surfaces and their environment is also affected by gravity. In microgravity, these processes may also be affected by reduced mass transport and thicker boundary layers around plant organs caused by the absence of buoyancy dependent convective transport. Future space farmers will have to adapt their practices to accommodate microgravity, high and low extremes in ambient temperatures, reduced atmospheric pressures, atmospheres containing high volatile organic carbon contents, and elevated to super-elevated CO2 concentrations. Farming in space must also be carried out within power-, volume-, and mass-limited life support systems and must share resources with manned crews. Improved lighting and sensor technologies will have to be developed and tested for use in space. These developments should also help make crop production in terrestrial controlled environments (plant growth chambers and greenhouses) more efficient and, therefore, make these alternative agricultural systems more economically feasible food production systems.

  9. Farming in space: environmental and biophysical concerns.

    PubMed

    Monje, O; Stutte, G W; Goins, G D; Porterfield, D M; Bingham, G E

    2003-01-01

    The colonization of space will depend on our ability to routinely provide for the metabolic needs (oxygen, water, and food) of a crew with minimal re-supply from Earth. On Earth, these functions are facilitated by the cultivation of plant crops, thus it is important to develop plant-based food production systems to sustain the presence of mankind in space. Farming practices on earth have evolved for thousands of years to meet both the demands of an ever-increasing population and the availability of scarce resources, and now these practices must adapt to accommodate the effects of global warming. Similar challenges are expected when earth-based agricultural practices are adapted for space-based agriculture. A key variable in space is gravity; planets (e.g. Mars, 1/3 g) and moons (e.g. Earth's moon, 1/6 g) differ from spacecraft orbiting the Earth (e.g. Space stations) or orbital transfer vehicles that are subject to microgravity. The movement of heat, water vapor, CO2 and O2 between plant surfaces and their environment is also affected by gravity. In microgravity, these processes may also be affected by reduced mass transport and thicker boundary layers around plant organs caused by the absence of buoyancy dependent convective transport. Future space farmers will have to adapt their practices to accommodate microgravity, high and low extremes in ambient temperatures, reduced atmospheric pressures, atmospheres containing high volatile organic carbon contents, and elevated to super-elevated CO2 concentrations. Farming in space must also be carried out within power-, volume-, and mass-limited life support systems and must share resources with manned crews. Improved lighting and sensor technologies will have to be developed and tested for use in space. These developments should also help make crop production in terrestrial controlled environments (plant growth chambers and greenhouses) more efficient and, therefore, make these alternative agricultural systems more economically feasible food production systems.

  10. Farming in space: environmental and biophysical concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monje, O.; Stutte, G. W.; Goins, G. D.; Porterfield, D. M.; Bingham, G. E.

    2003-01-01

    The colonization of space will depend on our ability to routinely provide for the metabolic needs (oxygen, water, and food) of a crew with minimal re-supply from Earth. On Earth, these functions are facilitated by the cultivation of plant crops, thus it is important to develop plant-based food production systems to sustain the presence of mankind in space. Farming practices on earth have evolved for thousands of years to meet both the demands of an ever-increasing population and the availability of scarce resources, and now these practices must adapt to accommodate the effects of global warming. Similar challenges are expected when earth-based agricultural practices are adapted for space-based agriculture. A key variable in space is gravity; planets (e.g. Mars, 1/3 g) and moons (e.g. Earth's moon, 1/6 g) differ from spacecraft orbiting the Earth (e.g. Space stations) or orbital transfer vehicles that are subject to microgravity. The movement of heat, water vapor, CO2 and O2 between plant surfaces and their environment is also affected by gravity. In microgravity, these processes may also be affected by reduced mass transport and thicker boundary layers around plant organs caused by the absence of buoyancy dependent convective transport. Future space farmers will have to adapt their practices to accommodate microgravity, high and low extremes in ambient temperatures, reduced atmospheric pressures, atmospheres containing high volatile organic carbon contents, and elevated to super-elevated CO2 concentrations. Farming in space must also be carried out within power-, volume-, and mass-limited life support systems and must share resources with manned crews. Improved lighting and sensor technologies will have to be developed and tested for use in space. These developments should also help make crop production in terrestrial controlled environments (plant growth chambers and greenhouses) more efficient and, therefore, make these alternative agricultural systems more economically feasible food production systems. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Endocrine-Active Pharmaceuticals: An Environmental Concern?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, there has been growing interest in pharmaceuticals that are specifically designed to have endocrine activity, such as the estrogens used in birth control pills, exerting unintended effects on fish and other aquatic organisms. These pharmaceuticals may not be persistent...

  12. Endocrine-Active Pharmaceuticals: An Environmental Concern?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, there has been growing interest in pharmaceuticals that are specifically designed to have endocrine activity, such as the estrogens used in birth control pills, exerting unintended effects on fish and other aquatic organisms. These pharmaceuticals may not be persistent...

  13. Leiomyosarcoma arising from the inferior mesenteric vein

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Gennaro; Sarno, Gerardo; Barbaro, Brunella; Nuzzo, Gennaro

    2009-01-01

    Leyomiosarcomas arising from the portal/mesenteric venous system are very rare tumours, and only a few cases have been reported in the global literature. As the other leyomiosarcomas of vascular origin, they are associated with a poor prognosis. The present report describes the case of a 66-year-old woman with a leyomiosarcoma of the inferior mesenteric vein, unexpectedly found during a CT scan performed for another indication. A brief review of the literature is also given. The patient underwent radical surgical excision and enjoys a good health, without radiological signs of recurrence, 24 months after surgery. In this case, an early incidental diagnosis determined an early treatment and, probably, a favourable prognosis. This is the second case of leyomiosarcoma of the inferior mesenteric vein reported in the literature. PMID:21686492

  14. Microbial diversity arising from thermodynamic constraints

    PubMed Central

    Großkopf, Tobias; Soyer, Orkun S

    2016-01-01

    The microbial world displays an immense taxonomic diversity. This diversity is manifested also in a multitude of metabolic pathways that can utilise different substrates and produce different products. Here, we propose that these observations directly link to thermodynamic constraints that inherently arise from the metabolic basis of microbial growth. We show that thermodynamic constraints can enable coexistence of microbes that utilise the same substrate but produce different end products. We find that this thermodynamics-driven emergence of diversity is most relevant for metabolic conversions with low free energy as seen for example under anaerobic conditions, where population dynamics is governed by thermodynamic effects rather than kinetic factors such as substrate uptake rates. These findings provide a general understanding of the microbial diversity based on the first principles of thermodynamics. As such they provide a thermodynamics-based framework for explaining the observed microbial diversity in different natural and synthetic environments. PMID:27035705

  15. Ethnic differences in ecological concerns: Spanish-speaking Hispanics are more concerned than others

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna . E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Greenberg, Michael

    2006-09-15

    We postulated that environmental concern encompasses a wide range of different issues, often lumping pollution with habitat loss (or land use) and ecological resources (fish and wildlife). In this paper, we compare perceptions about a range of environmental and ecological resource issues, and explore ethnic/racial differences. We surveyed 1513 residents of New Jersey about 'environmental concerns', using both general environmental questions (two questions: How serious are environmental problems in New Jersey? Are you concerned about the loss of open space?) and ecological resource questions (12 questions: e.g., how important is planting trees in your neighborhood, how concerned are you about loss of breeding and feeding habitat for fish and birds?) in New Jersey. Not all concerns were rated equally. For the ecological questions, there were no ethnic differences in concerns over preserving areas around water supplies, loss of places to hunt and fish, and loss of places for quiet walks and cycling, but there were for the other 9 ecological concerns. For eight of these nine concerns, Spanish-speaking Hispanics were more concerned than others (including English-speaking Hispanics). We divided the ecological resources into three categories: ecological services (clean water and safety), ecological resources (fish and wildlife), and recreational services. The strongest correlates of people's association with enlarging and enhancing recreational services were Spanish-speaking Hispanics, who are supportive of regulations and believe local government is not doing enough for environmental problems. People concerned about the loss of ecological resources and open space believe the federal government and the state are not doing enough for the environment, were non-Hispanic White, want continued environmental regulations, were longer-term residents, were high school graduates, and were older (45-54 years). People interested in ecological services were college-educated, non

  16. Ethnic differences in ecological concerns: Spanish-speaking Hispanics are more concerned than others.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Greenberg, Michael

    2006-09-01

    We postulated that environmental concern encompasses a wide range of different issues, often lumping pollution with habitat loss (or land use) and ecological resources (fish and wildlife). In this paper, we compare perceptions about a range of environmental and ecological resource issues, and explore ethnic/racial differences. We surveyed 1513 residents of New Jersey about "environmental concerns", using both general environmental questions (two questions: How serious are environmental problems in New Jersey? Are you concerned about the loss of open space?) and ecological resource questions (12 questions: e.g., how important is planting trees in your neighborhood, how concerned are you about loss of breeding and feeding habitat for fish and birds?) in New Jersey. Not all concerns were rated equally. For the ecological questions, there were no ethnic differences in concerns over preserving areas around water supplies, loss of places to hunt and fish, and loss of places for quiet walks and cycling, but there were for the other 9 ecological concerns. For eight of these nine concerns, Spanish-speaking Hispanics were more concerned than others (including English-speaking Hispanics). We divided the ecological resources into three categories: ecological services (clean water and safety), ecological resources (fish and wildlife), and recreational services. The strongest correlates of people's association with enlarging and enhancing recreational services were Spanish-speaking Hispanics, who are supportive of regulations and believe local government is not doing enough for environmental problems. People concerned about the loss of ecological resources and open space believe the federal government and the state are not doing enough for the environment, were non-Hispanic White, want continued environmental regulations, were longer-term residents, were high school graduates, and were older (45-54 years). People interested in ecological services were college-educated, non

  17. Assessing Attitudes Toward Urban Teaching: Concerns and Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookingham, Frank G.

    This paper deals with six sets of concerns and suggestions that arise as attitudes toward urban teaching are assessed. The first set arises from the complexity of measuring attitudes. It is strongly recommended that critiques of attitude data be based on plausible rival hypotheses. The second set involves the identification of beliefs related to a…

  18. Assessing Attitudes Toward Urban Teaching: Concerns and Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookingham, Frank G.

    This paper deals with six sets of concerns and suggestions that arise as attitudes toward urban teaching are assessed. The first set arises from the complexity of measuring attitudes. It is strongly recommended that critiques of attitude data be based on plausible rival hypotheses. The second set involves the identification of beliefs related to a…

  19. 32 CFR 536.112 - Settlement authority for claims arising under international agreements (for those claims arising...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Settlement authority for claims arising under international agreements (for those claims arising in the United States). 536.112 Section 536.112 National... arising under international agreements (for those claims arising in the United States)....

  20. 40 CFR 60.1800 - May I deviate from the 13-month testing schedule if unforeseen circumstances arise?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I deviate from the 13-month testing schedule if unforeseen circumstances arise? 60.1800 Section 60.1800 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... schedule if unforeseen circumstances arise? You may not deviate from the 13-month testing...

  1. 40 CFR 60.1310 - May I deviate from the 13-month testing schedule if unforeseen circumstances arise?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I deviate from the 13-month testing schedule if unforeseen circumstances arise? 60.1310 Section 60.1310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Testing § 60.1310 May I deviate from the 13-month testing schedule if unforeseen circumstances arise?...

  2. Concern About Petrochemical Health Risk Before and After a Refinery Explosion

    PubMed Central

    Cutchin, Malcolm P.; Martin, Kathryn Remmes; Owen, Steven V.; Goodwin, James S.

    2014-01-01

    On March 23, 2005, a large explosion at an oil refinery in Texas City, Texas caused 15 deaths and approximately 170 injuries. Little is known about how such an industrial accident influences concern about environmental health risks. We used measures of environmental health concern about nearby petrochemical production with a sample of Texas City residents to understand patterns of concern and change in concern after an industrial accident, as well as individual and contextual factors associated with those patterns. Survey interviews with residents of Texas City, Texas (N =315) both pre- and postexplosion using a brief Concern About Petrochemical Health Risk Scale (CAPHRS) and other questions were used to collect pertinent predictor information. CAPHRS baseline, postexplosion, and change scores were compared and modeled using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and a mixed model. Higher preexplosion CAPHRS scores were predicted by younger adults, foreign-born Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks, lower- and middle-income groups, and those who live with someone who has worked at the petrochemical plants. Higher CAPHRS change scores are predicted by the same variables (except income), as well as proximity to, or perception of, the explosion, and reports of neighborhood damage. Findings suggest these groups’ concern scores could indicate a greater vulnerability to psychological and physical harm generated by concern and stress arising from local petrochemical activities. A clearer understanding of concern about actual environmental health risks in exposed populations may enhance the evolving theory of stress and coping and eventually enable public health professionals to develop appropriate mitigation strategies. PMID:18643817

  3. Teachers' Concerns About Biotechnology Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2013-04-01

    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns about biotechnology instruction and their reported practices. Consistent with the Stages of Concern framework as modified by Hord et al., we investigated teachers' awareness, informational, personal, management, consequences, collaboration, and refocusing concerns about biotechnology teaching by employing a qualitative design that allowed for the emergence of teachers' ideas. Twenty high school life science teachers attending a biotechnology institute were interviewed using an interview protocol specifically designed to target various Stages of Concern. Although the Stages of Concern framework guided the development of interview questions in order to target a wide range of concerns, data analysis employed a grounded theory approach wherein patterns emerged from teachers' own words and were constantly compared with each other to generate larger themes. Our results have potential to provide guidance for professional development providers and curriculum developers committed to supporting initial implementation of biotechnology education. Recommendations include supporting teacher development of biotechnology content knowledge; promoting strategies for obtaining, storing and managing biotechnology equipment and materials; providing opportunities for peer teaching as a means of building teacher confidence; and highlighting career opportunities in biotechnology and the intersections of biotechnology and everyday life.

  4. Fibrous dysplasia arising from the calcaneus.

    PubMed

    Isefuku, S; Hatori, M; Ehara, S; Hosaka, M; Ito, K; Kokubun, S

    1999-11-01

    A case of an 18-year-old woman with fibrous dysplasia arising in the calcaneus, which is extremely rare, is reported, with the emphasis placed on differential diagnosis from low-grade central osteosarcoma. She had a severe pain in her left ankle after sprain. Plain radiographs showed a radiolucent lesion measuring 6.3 x 2.5 cm with a sclerotic margin in the left calcaneus. CT scans showed a well-defined lytic lesion with disruption of the lateral cortex and an ossification or calcification in its center. On MR imaging, the lesion had isointensities and high intensities on T1 and T2 weighted images, respectively, but its central portions showed lower intensities both on T1 and T2 weighted images. The lesion was enhanced with gadolinium except for the central portions. The specimen obtained by open biopsy consisted of fibrous tissue and foci of irregular woven bone. None of the nuclear atypia, mitoses, longitudinal stream of bone or invasive nature of growth was detected. The diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia was histologically made. The lesion was curetted and packed with autogenous bone chips. No evidence of recurrence was noted postoperatively.

  5. Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in a smallpox scar.

    PubMed

    Pol, Robert A; Dannenberg, Hilde; Robertus, Jan-Lukas; van Ginkel, Robert J

    2012-07-16

    Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma (CLM) is a very rare smooth muscle tumour that accounts for about 2-3% of all superficial soft tissue sarcomas. Although the development of various malignancies in scar tissue is well known, we report the first case of a CLM developing in a small pox scar. A 66-year-old man presented with a painless, slow-growing lump in a small pox scar on his left shoulder. Histological biopsies showed the lesion to be a primary, well-differentiated cutaneous leiomyosarcoma. A CT scan of the thorax was conducted, which showed no signs of metastases. The complete lesion was then surgically excised, and histopathological examination revealed a radically excised cutaneous type leiomyosarcoma After 13 months' review the patient was doing well with no evidence of tumour recurrence. This is the first report of a CLM arising in a small pox scar. Although the extended time interval between scarring and malignant changes makes it difficult to advise strict follow-up for patients with small pox scars, one should be aware that atypical changes and/or symptoms occurring in a small pox scar could potentially mean malignant transformation.

  6. Quantum discord of states arising from graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Supriyo; Adhikari, Bibhas; Banerjee, Subhashish

    2017-08-01

    Quantum discord refers to an important aspect of quantum correlations for bipartite quantum systems. In our earlier works, we have shown that corresponding to every graph (combinatorial) there are quantum states whose properties are reflected in the structure of the corresponding graph. Here, we attempt to develop a graph theoretic study of quantum discord that corresponds to a necessary and sufficient condition of zero quantum discord states which says that the blocks of density matrix corresponding to a zero quantum discord state are normal and commute with each other. These blocks have a one-to-one correspondence with some specific subgraphs of the graph which represents the quantum state. We obtain a number of graph theoretic properties representing normality and commutativity of a set of matrices which are indeed arising from the given graph. Utilizing these properties, we define graph theoretic measures for normality and commutativity that results in a formulation of graph theoretic quantum discord. We identify classes of quantum states with zero discord using the developed formulation.

  7. Chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures

    SciTech Connect

    Dickens, W.J.; Million, R.R.; Cassisi, N.J.; Singleton, G.T.

    1982-02-01

    Eighteen patients with chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures were evaluated and treated at the University of Florida. Seventeen patients have each been followed a minimum of 3 years. Patients were retrospectively staged as having ''local'' or ''advanced'' disease, depending on the presence or absence of bone destruction and/or cranial nerve involvement. Fourteen of the patients received radiation therapy as all or part of their therapy; 6 patients were treated with radiation therapy alone, 3 patients were irradiated immediately postoperatively for residual disease, and 5 patients had radiation therapy for recurrence after operation. They were treated with cobalt-60 radiation with doses ranging from 3760 to 5640 rad. All irradiated patients demonstrated evidence of tumor regression, and none have had tumor recurrence with followup of 3-12 years. Of the 8 patients with cranial nerve paralysis prior to therapy, 5 had return of function of 1 or more cranial nerves. One of 6 patients treated initially with radiation therapy had a complication, while 6 of 8 patients irradiated postoperatively had complications. None of the complications were fatal. Three patients treated by operation for early disease limited to the hypotympanum had the disease controlled for 11-12 years. Guidelines for the selection of initial therapy are discussed.

  8. Environmental aspects of solar energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Strojan, C.L.

    1980-09-01

    Solar energy technologies have environmental effects, and these may be positive or negative compared with current ways of producing energy. In this respect, solar energy technologies are no different from other energy systems. Where solar energy technologies differ is that no unresolvable technological problems (e.g., CO/sub 2/ emissions) or sociopolitical barriers (e.g., waste disposal, catastrophic accidents) have been identified. This report reviews some of the environmental aspects of solar energy technologies and ongoing research designed to identify and resolve potential environmental concerns. It is important to continue research and assessment of environmental aspects of solar energy to ensure that unanticipated problems do not arise. It is also important that the knowledge gained through such environmental research be incorporated into technology development programs and policy initiatives.

  9. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... facts and situations that arise in the course of railroad operations. These agency communications take... new regulations, persistent safety concerns, emerging technology, and compliance issues. Also, FRA...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 209 - FRA's Policy Statement Concerning Small Entities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... facts and situations that arise in the course of railroad operations. These agency communications take... new regulations, persistent safety concerns, emerging technology, and compliance issues. Also, FRA...

  11. Estimation of measurement uncertainty arising from manual sampling of fuels.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Dimitrios; Liapis, Nikolaos; Zannikos, Fanourios

    2013-02-15

    Sampling is an important part of any measurement process and is therefore recognized as an important contributor to the measurement uncertainty. A reliable estimation of the uncertainty arising from sampling of fuels leads to a better control of risks associated with decisions concerning whether product specifications are met or not. The present work describes and compares the results of three empirical statistical methodologies (classical ANOVA, robust ANOVA and range statistics) using data from a balanced experimental design, which includes duplicate samples analyzed in duplicate from 104 sampling targets (petroleum retail stations). These methodologies are used for the estimation of the uncertainty arising from the manual sampling of fuel (automotive diesel) and the subsequent sulfur mass content determination. The results of the three methodologies statistically differ, with the expanded uncertainty of sampling being in the range of 0.34-0.40 mg kg(-1), while the relative expanded uncertainty lying in the range of 4.8-5.1%, depending on the methodology used. The estimation of robust ANOVA (sampling expanded uncertainty of 0.34 mg kg(-1) or 4.8% in relative terms) is considered more reliable, because of the presence of outliers within the 104 datasets used for the calculations. Robust ANOVA, in contrast to classical ANOVA and range statistics, accommodates outlying values, lessening their effects on the produced estimates. The results of this work also show that, in the case of manual sampling of fuels, the main contributor to the whole measurement uncertainty is the analytical measurement uncertainty, with the sampling uncertainty accounting only for the 29% of the total measurement uncertainty.

  12. An "EAR" on Environmental Surveillance and Monitoring: A Case Study on the Use of Exposure-Activity Ratios (EARs) to Prioritize Sites, Chemicals, and Bioactivities of Concern in Great Lakes Waters.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Brett R; Ankley, Gerald T; Corsi, Steven R; DeCicco, Laura A; Houck, Keith A; Judson, Richard S; Li, Shibin; Martin, Matthew T; Murphy, Elizabeth; Schroeder, Anthony L; Smith, Edwin R; Swintek, Joe; Villeneuve, Daniel L

    2017-08-01

    Current environmental monitoring approaches focus primarily on chemical occurrence. However, based on concentration alone, it can be difficult to identify which compounds may be of toxicological concern and should be prioritized for further monitoring, in-depth testing, or management. This can be problematic because toxicological characterization is lacking for many emerging contaminants. New sources of high-throughput screening (HTS) data, such as the ToxCast database, which contains information for over 9000 compounds screened through up to 1100 bioassays, are now available. Integrated analysis of chemical occurrence data with HTS data offers new opportunities to prioritize chemicals, sites, or biological effects for further investigation based on concentrations detected in the environment linked to relative potencies in pathway-based bioassays. As a case study, chemical occurrence data from a 2012 study in the Great Lakes Basin along with the ToxCast effects database were used to calculate exposure-activity ratios (EARs) as a prioritization tool. Technical considerations of data processing and use of the ToxCast database are presented and discussed. EAR prioritization identified multiple sites, biological pathways, and chemicals that warrant further investigation. Prioritized bioactivities from the EAR analysis were linked to discrete adverse outcome pathways to identify potential adverse outcomes and biomarkers for use in subsequent monitoring efforts.

  13. Lead toxicity: current concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Goyer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. Images FIGURE 2. PMID:8354166

  14. Lead toxicity: Current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A. )

    1993-04-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. 97 refs.

  15. Groups concerned about Congress and criticism

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, A.

    1994-12-07

    Environmental groups are concerned about the impact a Republican-dominated Congress will have on their activities. The Republican agenda would {open_quotes}severely undercut public health and environmental protection, {close_quotes} says the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC; Washington).

  16. Panglobalism and pandemics: ecological and ethical concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Rolston, Holmes

    2005-01-01

    A pandemic is a human medical problem but must be understood at multiple levels. Analysis of social and commercial forces is vital, and, more comprehensively, an ecological framework is necessary for an inclusive picture. Ecological health webworked with political and social determinants surrounds issues of human health. In this constellation of both natural and social factors, ethical concerns will arise at these multiple levels, from human health to the conservation and health of wild nature. PMID:17132337

  17. 32 CFR 536.110 - Notification of incidents arising under international agreements (for claims arising in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Notification of incidents arising under international agreements (for claims arising in the United States). 536.110 Section 536.110 National Defense... Claims Cognizable Under International Agreements § 536.110 Notification of incidents arising...

  18. Mathematical problems arising in interfacial electrohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseluiko, Dmitri

    In this work we consider the nonlinear stability of thin films in the presence of electric fields. We study a perfectly conducting thin film flow down an inclined plane in the presence of an electric field which is uniform in its undisturbed state, and normal to the plate at infinity. In addition, the effect of normal electric fields on films lying above, or hanging from, horizontal substrates is considered. Systematic asymptotic expansions are used to derive fully nonlinear long wave model equations for the scaled interface motion and corresponding flow fields. For the case of an inclined plane, higher order terms are need to be retained to regularize the problem in the sense that the long wave approximation remains valid for long times. For the case of a horizontal plane the fully nonlinear evolution equation which is derived at the leading order, is asymptotically correct and no regularization procedure is required. In both physical situations, the effect of the electric field is to introduce a non-local term which arises from the potential region above the liquid film, and enters through the electric Maxwell stresses at the interface. This term is always linearly destabilizing and produces growth rates proportional to the cubic power of the wavenumber - surface tension is included and provides a short wavelength cut-off, that is, all sufficiently short waves are linearly stable. For the case of film flow down an inclined plane, the fully nonlinear equation can produce singular solutions (for certain parameter values) after a finite time, even in the absence of an electric field. This difficulty is avoided at smaller amplitudes where the weakly nonlinear evolution is governed by an extension of the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky (KS) equation. Global existence and uniqueness results are proved, and refined estimates of the radius of the absorbing ball in L2 are obtained in terms of the parameters of the equations for a generalized class of modified KS equations. The

  19. Food Concerns. Research Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Debra J.

    1998-01-01

    Adolescent vegetarianism is most frequent among females, and involves meat avoidance, concern for the environment and animal welfare, gender equality, weight loss behaviors, and a concern with body appearance. It can be a precursor to eating disorders. Training and ongoing follow-up are necessary to instill proper food handling procedures in…

  20. Food Concerns. Research Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Debra J.

    1998-01-01

    Adolescent vegetarianism is most frequent among females, and involves meat avoidance, concern for the environment and animal welfare, gender equality, weight loss behaviors, and a concern with body appearance. It can be a precursor to eating disorders. Training and ongoing follow-up are necessary to instill proper food handling procedures in…

  1. Art as Social Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her eleventh- and twelfth-grade portfolio class used art as a social concern through a sketchbook and a linoleum print. Students thumbed through copies of the "New York Times" to find an article that described a modern-day social concern. Students were assigned to choose an article, summarize it, and come…

  2. Dioxins: diagnostic and prognostic challenges arising from complex mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Rysavy, Noel M.; Maaetoft-Udsen, Kristina; Turner, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Dioxins are ubiquitous environmental challenges to humans, with a pervasiveness that arises from two hundred years of rapid industrialization and mechanization of Western societies and which is now extending into the developing world. Despite their penetrance of the human biota, these compounds are poorly understood in terms of their true physiological potential for harm, and the mechanisms by which they impact cellular and organ level function are only recently becoming clear. Emerging awareness that chronic exposures to toxins may have generational and subtle effects on the outcomes of diseases such as cancer and diabetes, which are already multifactorial and highly complex, creates the context for the current review paper. Here, we summarize dioxin exposure paradigms and the resulting physiological effects that have been documented in animals and humans. Novel insights into potential endogenous end exogenous ligands, as well as the mechanisms by which these ligands impact acute and chronic cellular processes, are discussed. We develop the idea that the diagnosis of dioxin exposure, the subtleties of the cellular effects of the compounds and prognosis of the long term effects of exposure are problems requiring that researchers leverage the power of genomics and epigenetics. However, the continuation of longitudinal epidemiological studies and development of a firmer basis from which to extrapolate animal studies will be critical in ensuring optimal insight from these resource-intensive techniques. PMID:22610997

  3. A Stochastic Problem Arising in the Storage of Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.M.R.

    2004-07-15

    Nuclear waste drums can contain a collection of radioactive components of uncertain activity and randomly dispersed in position. This implies that the dose-rate at the surface of different drums in a large assembly of similar drums can have significant variations according to the physical makeup and configuration of the waste components. The present paper addresses this problem by treating the drum, and its waste, as a stochastic medium. It is assumed that the sources in the drum contribute a dose-rate to some external point. The strengths and positions are chosen by random numbers, the dose-rate is calculated and, from several thousand realizations, a probability distribution for the dose-rate is obtained. It is shown that a very close approximation to the dose-rate probability function is the log-normal distribution. This allows some useful statistical indicators, which are of environmental importance, to be calculated with little effort.As an example of a practical situation met in the storage of radioactive waste containers, we study the problem of 'hotspots'. These arise in drums in which most of the activity is concentrated on one radioactive component and hence can lead to the possibility of large surface dose-rates. It is shown how the dose-rate, the variance, and some other statistical indicators depend on the relative activities on the sources. The results highlight the importance of such hotspots and the need to quantify their effect.

  4. LGBT Caregiver Concerns

    MedlinePlus

    LGBT CAREGIVER CONCERNS IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS FOR LGBT CAREGIVERS LGBT CAREGIVER CONSIDERATIONS As a caregiver for someone with Alzheimer’s disease, you will face various challenges. Some are common among all ...

  5. Food biotechnology: benefits and concerns.

    PubMed

    Falk, Michael C; Chassy, Bruce M; Harlander, Susan K; Hoban, Thomas J; McGloughlin, Martina N; Akhlaghi, Amin R

    2002-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have highlighted the need for experimental evidence and sound scientific judgment to assess the benefits and risks to society. Nutrition scientists and other animal biologists need a balanced understanding of the issues to participate in this assessment. To date most modifications to crop plants have benefited producers. Crops have been engineered to decrease pesticide and herbicide usage, protect against stressors, enhance yields and extend shelf life. Beyond the environmental benefits of decreased pesticide and herbicide application, consumers stand to benefit by development of food crops with increased nutritional value, medicinal properties, enhanced taste and esthetic appeal. There remains concern that these benefits come with a cost to the environment or increased risk to the consumer. Most U.S. consumers are not aware of the extent that genetically modified foods have entered the marketplace. Consumer awareness of biotechnology seems to have increased over the last decade, yet most consumers remain confused over the science. Concern over the impact on the safety of the food supply remains low in the United States, but is substantially elevated in Europe. Before a genetically engineered crop is introduced into commerce it must pass regulatory scrutiny by as many as four different federal regulatory bodies to ensure a safe food supply and minimize the risk to the environment. Key areas for more research are evaluation of the nutritional benefits of new crops, further investigation of the environmental impact, and development of better techniques to identify and track genetically engineered products.

  6. 32 CFR 537.19 - Demands arising from maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Demands arising from maritime claims. 537.19 Section 537.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.19 Demands arising from maritime claims. (a) It...

  7. Spitz nevus arising upon a congenital glomuvenous malformation.

    PubMed

    Arica, Deniz A; Arica, Ibrahim E; Yayli, Savas; Cobanoglu, Umit; Akay, Bengu N; Anadolu, Rana; Bahadir, Sevgi

    2013-01-01

    There are several reports of the collision of vascular and pigmentary anomalies (e.g., phakomatosis pigmentovascularis) and the association between congenital melanocytic nevi and infantile hemangiomas. We report a case of Spitz nevus arising in skin overlying a congenital plaque-like glomuvenous malformation (GVM). This is the first report of a Spitz nevus arising in direct contiguity to a GVM.

  8. Complex population dynamics in mussels arising from density-linked stochasticity.

    PubMed

    Wootton, J Timothy; Forester, James D

    2013-01-01

    Population fluctuations are generally attributed to the deterministic consequences of strong non-linear interactions among organisms, or the effects of random stochastic environmental variation superimposed upon the deterministic skeleton describing population change. Analysis of the population dynamics of the mussel Mytilus californianus taken in 16 plots over 18-years found no evidence that these processes explained observed strong fluctuations. Instead, population fluctuations arose because environmental stochasticity varied with abundance, which we term density-linked stochasticity. This phenomenon arises from biologically relevant mechanisms: recruitment variation and transmission of disturbance among neighboring individuals. Density-linked stochasticity is probably present frequently in populations, as it arises naturally from several general ecological processes, including stage structure variation with density, ontogenetic niche shifts, and local transmission of stochastic perturbations. More thoroughly characterizing and interpreting deviations from the mean behavior of a system will lead to better ecological prediction and improved insight into the important processes affecting populations and ecosystems.

  9. Complex Population Dynamics in Mussels Arising from Density-Linked Stochasticity

    PubMed Central

    Wootton, J. Timothy; Forester, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Population fluctuations are generally attributed to the deterministic consequences of strong non-linear interactions among organisms, or the effects of random stochastic environmental variation superimposed upon the deterministic skeleton describing population change. Analysis of the population dynamics of the mussel Mytilus californianus taken in 16 plots over 18-years found no evidence that these processes explained observed strong fluctuations. Instead, population fluctuations arose because environmental stochasticity varied with abundance, which we term density-linked stochasticity. This phenomenon arises from biologically relevant mechanisms: recruitment variation and transmission of disturbance among neighboring individuals. Density-linked stochasticity is probably present frequently in populations, as it arises naturally from several general ecological processes, including stage structure variation with density, ontogenetic niche shifts, and local transmission of stochastic perturbations. More thoroughly characterizing and interpreting deviations from the mean behavior of a system will lead to better ecological prediction and improved insight into the important processes affecting populations and ecosystems. PMID:24086617

  10. Fairness and nanotechnology concern.

    PubMed

    McComas, Katherine A; Besley, John C

    2011-11-01

    Research suggests that fairness perceptions matter to people who are asked to evaluate the acceptability of risks or risk management. Two separate national random surveys (n = 305 and n = 529) addressed Americans' concerns about and acceptance of nanotechnology risk management in the context of the degree to which they view scientists and risk managers as fair. The first survey investigated general views about scientists across four proposed dimensions of fairness (distributional, procedural, interpersonal, and informational). The results show that respondents who believe that the outcomes of scientific research tend to result in unequal benefits (distributional fairness) and that the procedures meant to protect the public from scientific research are biased (procedural fairness) were more concerned about nanotechnology. Believing scientists would treat them with respect (interpersonal fairness) and ensure access to information (informational fairness) were not significant predictors of concern. The second study also looked at these four dimensions of fairness but focused on perceptions of risk managers working for government, universities, and major companies. In addition to concern, it also examined acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Study 2 results were similar to those of study 1 for concern; however, only perceived informational fairness consistently predicted acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Overall, the study points to the value of considering fairness perceptions in the study of public perceptions of nanotechnology. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. 32 CFR 536.111 - Investigation of claims arising under international agreements (for those claims arising in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Investigation of claims arising under international agreements (for those claims arising in the United States). 536.111 Section 536.111 National... UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under International Agreements § 536.111 Investigation of claims...

  12. Expression of Concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delvaux, Damien

    2016-08-01

    This is a note of a temporary expression of concern related to the publication titled, "Sapphirine and fluid inclusions in Tel Thanoun mantle xenoliths, Syria" by Ahmad Bilal, which appeared in Journal of African Earth Sciences, 116 (2016) 105-113.

  13. The Concerned Observer Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabiger, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Describes a classroom experiment--the "concerned observer" experiment--for production students that dramatizes basic film language by relating it to several levels of human observation. Details the experiment's three levels, and concludes that film language mimics wide-ranging states of human emotion and ideological persuasion. (PRA)

  14. Quebec's Toxic Pollution Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    The best solution to the problems of increased pollution of Quebec lakes and rivers with toxic wastes and increased incidence of pollution related diseases is to educate children, to make them aware of the environment and man's interrelationship with it. Attitudes of concern, based on knowledge, must be developed so that as adults, they will take…

  15. The Concerned Observer Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabiger, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Describes a classroom experiment--the "concerned observer" experiment--for production students that dramatizes basic film language by relating it to several levels of human observation. Details the experiment's three levels, and concludes that film language mimics wide-ranging states of human emotion and ideological persuasion. (PRA)

  16. Quebec's Toxic Pollution Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    The best solution to the problems of increased pollution of Quebec lakes and rivers with toxic wastes and increased incidence of pollution related diseases is to educate children, to make them aware of the environment and man's interrelationship with it. Attitudes of concern, based on knowledge, must be developed so that as adults, they will take…

  17. Food allergy: current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Fries, J.H.

    1981-05-01

    This commentary focuses on the author's concerns with various aspects of food allergy. Strict criteria should be applied to the definition of food allergy and its diagnostic techniques. Industrial inhalational exposures, food contaminations and cross-sensitization all are important influences which demand studious attention.

  18. Incidents of Security Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation addresses incidents of security concern and an incident program for addressing them. It addresses the phases of an inquiry, and it divides incidents into categories based on severity and interest types based on whether security, management, or procedural interests are involved. A few scenarios are then analyzed according to these breakdowns.

  19. Antisocial Conduct: Whose Concern?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Sula

    1987-01-01

    Outlines differing perspectives of practitioners in child psychiatry and general psychiatry concerning antisocial behavior. Discusses changes in attitudes toward deviancy in the United Kingdom since 1967. Urges strengthening of links in training, research, and practice between subspecialties of psychiatry and renewal of psychiatric interest in the…

  20. Expression of concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-02-01

    This is an expression of concern related to the following publications: Nanostructures formed by cyclodextrin covered procainamide through supramolecular self assembly - Spectral and molecular modeling study (2015) Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 136 (PB), pp. 875-883, by Rajendiran, N., Mohandoss, T., Sankaranarayanan, R.K.

  1. Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor Arising on the Scapular Region

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Asako; Ueno, Takashi; Takayama, Ryoko; Ansai, Shin-ichi; Futagami, Ayako; Kawana, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    Tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TSGCT) is a benign soft tissue tumor arising from the synovial membrane that composes the lining of joints, tendons and bursae. TSGCT is a common tumor occurring in the hands and fingers, and also consecutively in the knees, ankles, feet and hips. It is rarely found in the scapular region. To the best of our knowledge, only 2 cases arising on the upper back have been reported. This report presents the case of a 44-year-old Japanese female with a TSGCT arising on her right scapular region. PMID:24403889

  2. Environmental and health aspects of biomass energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Braunstein, H. M.; Kornegay, F. C.

    1980-01-01

    In a recent study undertaken to ensure the early incorporation of environmental considerations in decisions concerning biomass-to-energy systems, a number of issues emerged indicating the need for early attention to environmental, socioeconomic and health concerns. Both production of biomass as well as conversion can lead to environmental impact, and although most impacts will be site-specific, some generic effects can be identified. The most important potential impacts arise first, from the need for large-scale commitment of resources for production, and second, from uncontrolled widespread small-scale utilization. Because biomass-related impacts cover a very broad spectrum of materials, processes, end products, and effects, the discussion presented here, except for an overview of generic effects and comment on production impacts, will be directed primarily to those resulting from residential wood combustion.

  3. Solid Waste: Health Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duel, Ward

    1975-01-01

    In this article the means of disposing solid wastes are discussed with reference to their health hazards and environmental desirability. Included in the discussion are solid waste dumps, landfills, incinerators, and grinders. Some attention is given to the reclamation of mineral resources from trash. (MA)

  4. Solid Waste: Health Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duel, Ward

    1975-01-01

    In this article the means of disposing solid wastes are discussed with reference to their health hazards and environmental desirability. Included in the discussion are solid waste dumps, landfills, incinerators, and grinders. Some attention is given to the reclamation of mineral resources from trash. (MA)

  5. Technology characteristics and concerns arising in the design and fabrication of an entire signal processor using gallium arsenide integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naused, Barbara A.; Samson, Mark L.; Schwab, Daniel J.; Gilbert, Barry K.

    Various GaAs transistor and gate technologies that have been developed since 1980 are analyzed. The characteristics of GaAs logic gates and ICs and the buffered FET logic, Shottky diode FET logic, direct coupled FET logic, and heterojunction integrated injection logic used to implement GaAs gate arrays of LSI complexity are described. The use of digital GaAs in a complex target signal processor, the Advanced Onboard Signal Processor (AOSP), is studied. Data from the testing of GaAs components for the AOSP at the wafer probe, package, and assembled circuit board levels are examined.

  6. Industrialized farm animal production: health concerns.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennan A

    2014-05-01

    Modern livestock farming industry practice continues to cause concern about hazardous exposures among workers and nearby residents. Occupational and environmental health nurses can join other advocates and encourage policies that protect workers, communities, and the environment from confined animal feeding operations health hazards.

  7. Geoengineering: A humanitarian concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Pablo; van Aalst, Maarten K.

    2017-02-01

    The humanitarian sector is active at the global frontline of climate impacts, and has a track record in influencing the climate change policy agenda. Geoengineering is a humanitarian concern: the potential for deliberate large-scale intervention in the Earth's climate system has major implications in terms of impacts on the most vulnerable. Yet, so far the humanitarian community has largely been absent from geoengineering deliberations. Geoengineering may be perceived as too theoretical, too complex, and not imminent enough to merit attention. However, early engagement by the sector is imperative to ensure that humanitarian considerations are integrated into policy decisions. Those who can suffer the worst outcomes need to be involved; especially given the plausibility of "predatory geoengineering" where recklessly self-concerned actions may result in harmful consequences to others. This paper explores the humanitarian dimensions of geoengineering, specifically relating to solar radiation management (SRM). Drawing from the engagement of the Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Centre in SRM discussions, we discuss how to improve linkages between science, policy and humanitarian practice. We further propose the creation of a geoengineering risk management framework to ensure that the interests of the most vulnerable are considered and addressed - including the voices of all stakeholders.

  8. School Transportation Issues, Laws and Concerns: Implications for Future Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durick, Jody M.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly all building administrators are confronted with a variety of transportation issues. Challenges, concerns and questions can arise from various aspects, including student misbehaviors, transportation laws and its implications at the school level, to importance and implementation of a school bus safety program. As new and upcoming future…

  9. The Environment: A Global Concern, An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Elizabeth; And Others

    This document describes an interdisciplinary approach for encouraging students to become more cognizant of environmental concerns. Environmental issues are addressed in high school social studies, chemistry, and German language classes. The objectives of the plan are as follows: 1) develop student awareness of environmental issues and the…

  10. The Environment: A Global Concern, An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Elizabeth; And Others

    This document describes an interdisciplinary approach for encouraging students to become more cognizant of environmental concerns. Environmental issues are addressed in high school social studies, chemistry, and German language classes. The objectives of the plan are as follows: 1) develop student awareness of environmental issues and the…

  11. [Unpublished documents concerning Dupuytren].

    PubMed

    Boulinier, G

    1996-01-01

    In the present paper is proposed a first incursion in various archives - mainly notarial ones - concerning Dupuytren and his close relatives, investigated by the author. They will be more thoroughly dealt with in a forthcoming book. These documents give us a better knowledge of various events of Dupuytren's public and private life. They namely disclose the great challenge shown by the surgeon-in-chief of the Hôtel-Dieu in marrying his daughter Adeline in the midst of the Paris cholera epidemic in 1832. They show moreover in this unusual character the essential role continually played by some preoccupations such as nobility, power, religion and wealth, amidst a family of which he is the only member to have shown the ambition to become famous in the medical field.

  12. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Arising From a Gastric Duplication Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Machicado, Jorge; Davogustto, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Gastric duplication cysts (GDC) are rarely diagnosed in adults, but previous cases have been associated with malignancy. We present a case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) arising from a GDC in a 71-year-old woman who presented with 3 years of early satiety, anorexia, abdominal distention, and weight loss. Abdominal CT showed a 9.3 x 5.2 x 9.5-cm well-circumscribed cystic mass arising 3 cm above the gastroduodenal junction. The cyst was resected, and histopathology was consistent with GDC. Future studies are needed to clarify the malignant potential of GDC and the molecular pathways for its development. PMID:27144196

  13. Thymoma type B1 arising in a giant supradiaphragmatic thymolipoma.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Tevfik; Han, Serdar; Han, Unsal; Atac, Gokce Kaan; Yanik, Serdar

    2014-11-01

    Thymolipomas are uncommon tumors of the anterior mediastinum. They may extend into, but rarely stem from, the chest cavity. Furthermore, thymoma arising in a thymolipoma is extremely rare. We report a unique case of thymoma type B1 that originated form a giant thymolipoma located in the chest cavity, which was resected by a lateral thoracotomy in a 23-year-old woman. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of thymoma type B1 arising within a giant thymolipoma. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Papillary serous carcinoma arising from adenomyosis presenting as intramural leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Izadi-Mood, Narges; Samadi, Nasrin; Sarmadi, Soheila; Eftekhar, Zahra

    2007-04-01

    Adenocarcinoma arising from adenomyosis uteri is rare. Herein, we reported a patient with papillary serous carcinoma arising from adenomyosis. The patient was a 61-year-old woman who received tamoxifen for treatment of her breast cancer over the past five years. In hysterectomy specimen taken for investigating her uncontrolled bleeding with suspicion of uterine myoma, multiple adenomyotic foci were found in the uterine wall. In one of these foci, papillary serous carcinoma was found. No evidence of tumor was seen in endometrial surface, peritoneum, and both adnexa.

  15. 12 CFR 221.110 - Questions arising under this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... maximum loan value of such margin stock shall be a fixed percentage “of its current market value.” (b) The... PURCHASING OR CARRYING MARGIN STOCK (REGULATION U) Interpretations § 221.110 Questions arising under this... by margin stock” and defines “purpose credit” as “any credit for the purpose, whether immediate...

  16. Transcultural Knowledge and Skills Transfer: Issues Arising from Evaluation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Anita J.; Holloway, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The transfer of knowledge, policy and practice between nations increasingly involves knowledge of the theory and practice of evaluation. This article examines issues arising from the transcultural evaluation of a drug and alcohol misuse knowledge and skills transfer programme for nurses, nurse teachers and medical staff in the narcology service in…

  17. 5 CFR 359.404 - Removal: Conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... appointment. 359.404 Section 359.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REMOVAL FROM THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE; GUARANTEED PLACEMENT IN OTHER PERSONNEL SYSTEMS Removal of Career Appointees During Probation § 359.404 Removal: Conditions arising before appointment. (a...

  18. 5 CFR 359.404 - Removal: Conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Career Appointees During Probation § 359.404 Removal: Conditions arising before appointment. (a) Coverage. (1) This section covers the removal of a career appointee from the SES during the probationary...) This section does not apply, however, when the career appointee was covered under 5 U.S.C....

  19. 5 CFR 359.404 - Removal: Conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Career Appointees During Probation § 359.404 Removal: Conditions arising before appointment. (a) Coverage. (1) This section covers the removal of a career appointee from the SES during the probationary...) This section does not apply, however, when the career appointee was covered under 5 U.S.C....

  20. 5 CFR 359.404 - Removal: Conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of Career Appointees During Probation § 359.404 Removal: Conditions arising before appointment. (a) Coverage. (1) This section covers the removal of a career appointee from the SES during the probationary...) This section does not apply, however, when the career appointee was covered under 5 U.S.C....

  1. 5 CFR 359.404 - Removal: Conditions arising before appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Career Appointees During Probation § 359.404 Removal: Conditions arising before appointment. (a) Coverage. (1) This section covers the removal of a career appointee from the SES during the probationary...) This section does not apply, however, when the career appointee was covered under 5 U.S.C....

  2. Transcultural Knowledge and Skills Transfer: Issues Arising from Evaluation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Anita J.; Holloway, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The transfer of knowledge, policy and practice between nations increasingly involves knowledge of the theory and practice of evaluation. This article examines issues arising from the transcultural evaluation of a drug and alcohol misuse knowledge and skills transfer programme for nurses, nurse teachers and medical staff in the narcology service in…

  3. Best approach to impact assessment is to use empirically based or simulation models to forecast impacts. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 1538. [Concerning the impact at power plants on fish populations

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, S W

    1980-01-01

    This paper advocates the utility of mathematical models, as contrasted with statistical procedures and processional judgment, for assessing environmental impacts. While it would be desirable to use statistical tests to detect and estimate impacts, this is generally difficult or impossible to do, even with existing sources of impact. Empirical modeling, supported by statistical analyses when possible, is proffered as the logical alternative. Next, for purposes of forecasting impacts, the use of models as opposed to professional judgment or experience is considered. The conclusion is reached that, while models cannot answer all of the relevant questions, they can be used effectively and can address problems that are beyond the reach of statistical methods.

  4. Nuisance Odors: Is there a Concern - 12340

    SciTech Connect

    Brounstein, Robert A.

    2012-07-01

    standards. Another area of consideration would be whether nuisance odors will need separate and distinct criteria with regards to hazard identification and control. While evidence suggests that odorants do not cause direct toxicological effects to the various biologic systems, they can be influential by initiating symptoms that are associated with known toxins. The difference between the classic toxic systemic reactions and those initiated by nuisance odors can be summarized as one causing a dysfunction of a target organ or system as opposed to triggering a message to the brain which causes a physical reaction. While strong odors may exist at HAZWOPER work sites, their particular risk of pathogenic disease has yet to be established. This leaves many unanswered questions; the most obvious being, 'can an odorous chemical that can result in headaches, nausea, changes in blood pressure, body temperature, etc., be considered a toxin even if biological systems remain unaffected and sampling/monitoring protocol negative stimuli, thereby causing symptomatic experiences; will such disciplines as psychology need to be considered as part of the expertise within the field a environmental and occupational health? In the classic text, 'The Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene' industrial hygiene has been defined as 'that science and art devoted to the anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and control of those environmental factors or stressors arising in or from the workplace that may cause sickness, impaired health and well-being, or significant discomfort among workers or among the citizens of the community'. Based on this definition, it is indeed the responsibility of the occupational health professional to move forward and to provide an effective program to 'anticipate, recognize, evaluate, and control' such airborne contaminants that may not be adequately controlled based on current knowledge and technology. The question is, 'Is the industrial hygiene community equipped to carry out

  5. Adolescent fertility: worldwide concerns.

    PubMed

    Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M

    1985-04-01

    There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex

  6. Body image concerns after colorectal cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Claire

    Body image is understood to be a person's perception of his or her own physical appearance although, as this article highlights, it embraces a greater range of bodily attributes than is often appreciated. It can be significantly affected by a diagnosis of colorectal cancer and subsequent treatment, which may modify the way the body looks, feels and functions. One of the major aesthetic and functional consequences of colorectal cancer surgery is the possibility of stoma formation, which is of particular concern to many. However, the range of other bodily effects following surgery should not be overlooked, not least because of they may result in distress. While concerns about changes in body image generally decrease over time, people recovering from cancer treatment often feel their relationship with their body has been permanently altered. Specialist support is often required when adjusting to any changes in bodily appearance and function. Care outcomes can be improved by having a sound understanding of the body image concerns likely to arise following treatment, as well as the skills to identify and support patients at risk of altered body image. This article provides guidance to nurses caring for individuals who may be experiencing distress over how their body is now perceived by themselves and others following colorectal cancer surgery.

  7. Arsenic residue in the products and by-products of chicken and ducks: a possible concern of avian health and environmental hazard to the population in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Rana, Tanmoy; Bera, Asit Kumar; Mondal, Dipak Kumar; Das, Subhashree; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Samanta, Srikanta; Pan, Diganta; Das, Subrata Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Arsenicosis caused due to drinking of arsenic contaminated ground water is a major environmental health hazard throughout the world. We evaluated the ecotoxicological effect of arsenic on chicken and duck in an arsenic endemic zone. The concentration of arsenic was higher in chicken and duck feed and their by-products than that in the respective samples of control area. Arsenic concentration in the eggs of both chicken and duck was higher than that in the respective samples of control area. Thus, we concluded that arsenic enters into food chain through the intake of contaminated eggs. Furthermore, adverse health effect of arsenic on avian population is due to the alteration in haematobiochemical indices. © The Author(s) 2012.

  8. A Rare Nasopharyngeal Teratoma Arising From the Vomer.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiaoxiao; Kwon, Hyuk-Jae; Shi, Bing; Li, Chenghao

    2016-03-01

    Teratomas are rare germ cell neoplasms derived from the 3 germinal layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm). Nasopharyngeal teratoma is a very rare teratoma arising anywhere from the oronasal cavity, regarded as an expanding, avity filling lesion, with a high mortality rate because of severe airway obstruction, especially in the neonatal period and make up only 2% of all teratomas. The authors present a case of an infant girl with a single, finger-like, hairy teratoma arising from the vomer and protruding from the mouth with bilateral complete cleft palate, cleft lip, and cleft alveolus. Complete intraoral resection of the teratoma and cleft lip repair was conducted simultaneously. Reconstruction of the cleft palate was performed at a later stage. Recurrence occurred 9 months after surgery and extended complete surgical excision was performed after recurrence, with no recurrence observed again to date. Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of congenital mature teratoma.

  9. Analysis of the vibratory excitation arising from spiral bevel gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, William D.

    1987-01-01

    Tools required to understand and predict in terms of its underlying causes the vibratory excitation arising from meshing spiral bevel gears are developed. A generalized three component transmission error of meshing spiral bevel gears is defined. Equations are derived that yield the three components of the generalized transmission error in terms of deviations of tooth running surfaces from equispaced perfect spherical involute surfaces and tooth/gearbody elastic deformations arising from the three components of the generalized force transmitted by the meshing gears. A method for incorporating these equations into the equations of motion of a gear system is described. Equations are derived for the three components of the generalized force transmitted by the gears which are valid whenever inertial effects of the meshing gears and their supports are negligible. Bearing offsets from the positions occupied by the shaft centerlines of perfect spherical involute bevel gears and bearing/bearing support flexibilities enter into the computation of these forces.

  10. Antrochoanal polyp arising from benign pseudocyst of maxillary antrum.

    PubMed

    Keshri, Neha; Bansal, Avi; Popli, Gourav; Venkatesh, Arvind; Goel, Siddhartha

    2017-01-01

    Antrochoanal polyps (ACPs) are benign lesions that arise from the mucosa of the maxillary antrum, grow into the maxillary sinus, and reach the choana with nasal obstruction being their main symptom. Most of these lesions are small and clinically silent and found as incidental finding, but large cysts which occupy the entire antrum have also been reported in literature. Nasal endoscopy and computer tomography (CT) are the golden standard in the diagnosis of ACPs, and enucleation by Caldwell-Luc approach is the recommended treatment for larger antral cysts. This article is a report of a 9-year-old male patient diagnosed with ACP arising from a benign cyst of maxillary antrum with characteristic clinical, CT, and histopathological features along with brief review of literature.

  11. Emerging Contaminants and Federal Facility Contaminants of Concern

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page links to fact sheets summarizing contaminants of concern and emerging contaminants that present unique issues and challenges to the environmental community in general and to FFRRO in particular.

  12. Apocrine carcinoma arising in a complex fibroadenoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mele, Marco; Vahl, Pernille; Funder, Jonas Amstrup; Sorensen, Anne Schmidt; Jensen, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    A carcinoma arising in a fibroadenoma is a rare event, which often entails a diagnostic challenge. The most common type is the lobular carcinoma and secondary a ductal carcinoma. We present an extremely rare case of malignant development of an invasive apocrine carcinoma in a complex fibroadenoma and underline the importance for clinicians to recognize the possibility of benign and malignant co-existence especially in older women.

  13. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Tattooed Eyebrow

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Park, Jin; Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Han-Uk

    2009-01-01

    Malignant skin tumors, including squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, have occurred in tattoos. Seven documented cases of basal cell carcinoma associated with tattoos have also been reported in the medical literature. We encountered a patient with basal cell carcinoma in a tattooed eyebrow. We report on this case as the eighth reported case of a patient with basal cell carcinoma arising in a tattooed area. PMID:20523804

  14. Squamous neoplasms arising within tattoos: clinical presentation, histopathology and management.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, A L; Wanat, K A; Farah, R S

    2017-08-01

    Tattooing, which involves the placement of ink into the skin, is an ancient decorative technique that has remained popular in modern society. Tattoos have long been known to cause cutaneous reactions, which include the emergence of neoplasms such as keratoacanthoma (KA) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in tattooed areas of the skin. We review the clinical presentations, histology and treatment options for squamous neoplasms, primarily KA and SCC, arising in tattoos. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Solitary osteochondroma arising from cervical spina bifida occulta.

    PubMed

    Ofluoglu, Ali Ender; Abdallah, Anas; Gokcedag, Akin

    2013-01-01

    Solitary osteochondromas are common benign long bone tumors originating from cartilage. They may produce a wide variety of symptoms and complications depending on their spinal location. These may include compressive myelopathy, nerve root compression, pathologic fracture and malignant degeneration, or in some cases only pain. Solitary cervical spine osteochondromas have been reported mostly in the neural arch or vertebral body. This report describes a patient presenting with neck pain, with a benign osteochondroma arising in the right bifid C5 lamina.

  16. A Primary Ossifying Intracranial Myxoma Arising from the Ethmoid Sinus

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Je Il; Kim, Jae Min; Kim, Choong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Myxomas are rare benign tumors that originate from mesenchymal tissue. They usually develop in the atrium of the heart, the skin, subcutaneous tissue, or bone. Involvement of the skull base with an intracranial extension is very rare and not well-described in the literature. We report a rare case of primary intracranial ossifying myxoma arising from the anterior skull base and mimicking a huge chondrosarcoma, and we review the relevant literature. PMID:26539274

  17. Cross-Cultural Counseling Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahia, Chikezie Emmanuel

    1984-01-01

    Examines problems and concerns of cross cultural counseling and psychotherapy. Raises specific questions concerning research designs and approaches, differences in cosmology, epistemology, differences in nosology, and problems of evaluation or testing. (JAC)

  18. Cross-Cultural Counseling Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahia, Chikezie Emmanuel

    1984-01-01

    Examines problems and concerns of cross cultural counseling and psychotherapy. Raises specific questions concerning research designs and approaches, differences in cosmology, epistemology, differences in nosology, and problems of evaluation or testing. (JAC)

  19. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in previously burned or irradiated skin

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M.J.; Hirsch, R.M.; Broadwater, J.R.; Netscher, D.T.; Ames, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in previously burned or irradiated skin was reviewed in 66 patients treated between 1944 and 1986. Healing of the initial injury was complicated in 70% of patients. Mean interval from initial injury to diagnosis of SCC was 37 years. The overwhelming majority of patients presented with a chronic intractable ulcer in previously injured skin. The regional relapse rate after surgical excision was very high, 58% of all patients. Predominant patterns of recurrence were in local skin and regional lymph nodes (93% of recurrences). Survival rates at 5, 10, and 20 years were 52%, 34%, and 23%, respectively. Five-year survival rates in previously burned and irradiated patients were not significantly different (53% and 50%, respectively). This review, one of the largest reported series, better defines SCC arising in previously burned or irradiated skin as a locally aggressive disease that is distinct from SCC arising in sunlight-damaged skin. An increased awareness of the significance of chronic ulceration in scar tissue may allow earlier diagnosis. Regional disease control and survival depend on surgical resection of all known disease and may require radical lymph node dissection or amputation.

  20. Common menstrual concerns of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, Diane

    1998-01-01

    Symptoms associated with menstruation are among the most common concerns of adolescent women. However, the factual information that adolescent women need is not always available to them. Physicians can do much to correct the myths and misinformation that the teenager may have concerning her menstrual cycle. This paper addresses clinical office concerns about normal menstruation, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea and dysfunctional uterine bleeding. PMID:20401253

  1. Proposed nomination of sites for site characterization and recommendation of issues for environmental assessments and site characterization plans. Technical report. Summary of issues and concerns expressed during the April-May 1983 US Department of Energy public hearings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    As required by Section 112(b)(2) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Public Law 97-425), the US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted a series of nine formal public hearings during April and May 1983 in local communities in the vicinity of seven identified potentially acceptable salt sites and in the state capitals of the States of Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas, and Utah. The public hearings focused on the proposed nomination of the Vacherie Dome site in Louisiana; the Richton and Cypress Creek Salt Dome sites in Mississippi; the Deaf Smith County and Swisher County bedded salt sites in Texas; and the Davis and Lavender Canyon bedded salt sites in Utah. The issues expressed during area public hearings are summarized in this document, which serves as a digest of and as an index to the public hearing records of each of the four salt states. Specifically, almost 1100 paraphrased public hearing comments are identified and grouped into 62 subjects within the following nine general topical areas: NWTS Program Planning Process, Consultation and Cooperation, Engineering/Repository Design, Geology, Hydrology, Transportation, Public Health and Safety, Environmental Quality, and Socioeconomics.

  2. 40 CFR 35.940-5 - Disputes concerning allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disputes concerning allowable costs. 35.940-5 Section 35.940-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... § 35.940-5 Disputes concerning allowable costs. The grantee should seek to resolve any questions...

  3. 40 CFR 35.940-5 - Disputes concerning allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disputes concerning allowable costs. 35.940-5 Section 35.940-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... § 35.940-5 Disputes concerning allowable costs. The grantee should seek to resolve any questions...

  4. From Environmental Awareness to Environmental Responsibility: Towards a Stewardship Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omoogun, Ajayi C.; Egbonyi, Etuki E.; Onnoghen, Usang N.

    2016-01-01

    The period of environmentalism heightened environmental concern and subsequently the emergence of Environmental Education (EE) that is anchored on awareness. It is thought that an increase in environmental awareness will reverse the misuse of the environment and its resources. Four decades after the international call for Environmental Education,…

  5. Environmental Epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Bollati, Valentina; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the review Epigenetics investigates heritable changes in gene expression occurring without changes in DNA sequence. Several epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, can change genome function under exogenous influence. We review current evidence indicating that epigenetic alterations mediate effects from exposure to environmental toxicants. Recent findings Results from animal models indicate that in-utero or early-life environmental exposures produce effects that can be inherited transgenerationally and are accompanied by epigenetic alterations. The search for human equivalents of the epigenetic mechanisms identified in animal models is under way. Recent investigations have identified a number of environmental toxicants that cause altered methylation of human repetitive elements or genes. Some exposures can alter epigenetic states and the same and/or similar epigenetic alterations can be found in patients with the disease of concern. Based on current evidence, we propose possible models for the interplay between environmental exposures and the human epigenome. Summary Several investigations have examined the relation between exposure to environmental chemicals and epigenetics, and identified toxicants that modify epigenetic states. Whether environmental exposures have transgenerational epigenetic effects in humans remains to be elucidated. In spite of the current limitations, available evidence supports the concept that epigenetics holds substantial potential for furthering our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of environmental toxicants, as well as for predicting health-related risks due to conditions of environmental exposure and individual susceptibility. PMID:20179736

  6. Endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the rectosigmoid.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shigeru; Sasaki, Morio; Goto, Tatsuya; Asakage, Naoki; Sekine, Masayuki; Suzuki, Takahisa; Tsukada, Kenji; Yamasaki, Shigetaka; Ukawa, Shiro

    2010-01-01

    A case of endometrioid adenocarcinoma supposedly arising from endometriosis of the rectum is reported. Malignant transformation is uncommon but a well-known complication of endometriosis. In the present case, it was proved by histopathological findings and immunophenotype such as cytokeratin7+/cytokeratin20-/estrogen receptor+. The cause of rectal endometriosis in this case might have been related with previously received hormone replacement therapy for ovarian endometriosis. Following surgical removal of the lesion, this patient underwent adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin, although this kind of therapy is still controversial as to its effectiveness.

  7. Uniform Asymptotics of Orthogonal Polynomials Arising from Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Dan; Hu, Weiying; Wang, Xiang-Sheng

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we study a family of orthogonal polynomials {φ_n(z)} arising from nonlinear coherent states in quantum optics. Based on the three-term recurrence relation only, we obtain a uniform asymptotic expansion of φ_n(z) as the polynomial degree n tends to infinity. Our asymptotic results suggest that the weight function associated with the polynomials has an unusual singularity, which has never appeared for orthogonal polynomials in the Askey scheme. Our main technique is the Wang and Wong's difference equation method. In addition, the limiting zero distribution of the polynomials φ_n(z) is provided.

  8. Parabolic Perturbation of a Nonlinear Hyperbolic Problem Arising in Physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colli, P.; Grasselli, M.

    We study a transport-diffusion initial value problem where the diffusion codlicient is "small" and the transport coefficient is a time function depending on the solution in a nonlinear and nonlocal way. We show the existence and the uniqueness of a weak solution of this problem. Moreover we discuss its asymptotic behaviour as the diffusion coefficient goes to zero, obtaining a well-posed first-order nonlinear hyperbolic problem. These problems arise from mathematical models of muscle contraction in the framework of the sliding filament theory.

  9. Poorly differentiated carcinoma arising from adenolymphoma of the parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, Stefano; Cattaneo, Laura; Peri, Andrea; Braidotti, Paola; Cioffi, Ugo; Scaramellini, Gabriele; Ciulla, Michele M; De Simone, Matilde; Arizzi, Carmelo; Pignataro, Lorenzo

    2003-01-01

    Background There is only one previous case report of a poorly differentiated carcinoma arising from an adenolymphoma of the parotid gland (Warthin's tumour). The absence of clinical symptoms, and the aspecificity of the radiological pattern make the diagnosis very difficult. Case presentation We here report the case of a 73-year-old man with Warthin's tumour who was brought to our attention because of a swelling in the parotid region. Conclusions In this case with an atypical clinical presentation, the intra-operative examination of a frozen section of the parotid mass allowed us to diagnose the malignant tumour correctly and consequently undertake its radical excision. PMID:12533195

  10. Painful focal sensory seizure arising from the primary somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, Shogo; Ikeda, Akio; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Terada, Kiyohito; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Tanaka, Mayako; Shibasaki, Hiroshi

    2003-09-01

    A 31-year-old, right-handed woman had frequent focal painful seizures involving the right hand without any movement. EEG demonstrated an ictal activity arising from the left centroparietal region. No cerebral structural abnormality was seen on MRI. Ictal single photon emission CT showed markedly increased activity in the left perirolandic cortex, which remained active following the ictal symptoms when the EEG seizure pattern had completely disappeared. It is concluded that the painful seizures in the present patient originated from the primary somatosensory cortex. The prolonged increase of regional blood flow in the perirolandic area may reflect the possibility of persistent subclinical epileptogenicity.

  11. Syphilitic gumma arising in association with foreign material.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Alan S

    2016-11-01

    Until recently the number of patients with syphilis has been diminishing. Although that trend has reversed cases of tertiary syphilis are rare and often difficult to diagnose as a substantial number of patients will have a negative rapid plasma reagin. Histologically, cutaneous lesions in late stage syphilis exist in two forms, noduloulcerative and gummatous. Silver stains for spirochetes are almost invariably negative and, surprisingly, immunohistochemical stains are problematic as most lesions contain few, if any organisms. Presented here is a case of gummatous tertiary syphilis arising in association with foreign material deposited after a motor vehicle accident.

  12. Dealing with uncertainty arising out of probabilistic risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, K.A.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Nelson, P.F.

    1984-03-01

    In addressing the area of safety goal implementation, the question of uncertainty arises. This report suggests that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) should examine how other regulatory organizations have addressed the issue. Several examples are given from the chemical industry, and comparisons are made to nuclear power risks. Recommendations are made as to various considerations that the NRC should require in probabilistic risk assessments in order to properly treat uncertainties in the implementation of the safety goal policy. 40 references, 7 figures, 5 tables.

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a multiple verrucous epidermal nevus*

    PubMed Central

    Yarak, Samira; Machado, Taila Yuri Siqueira; Ogawa, Marilia Marufuji; Almeida, Mirian Luzia da Silva; Enokihara, Milvia Maria Simões e Silva; Porro, Adriana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous epidermal nevi are hamartomatous lesions of the epidermis that, unlike other epidermal nevi (such as sebaceous nevus or nevus comedonicus), are rarely associated with malignant neoplasms. The majority of squamous cell carcinoma develop in linear or multiple epidermal nevus and rarely in solitary epidermal nevus. In general, the prognosis is favorable. We report a case of well-differentiated invasive squamous cell carcinoma arising from a multiple verrucous epidermal nevus. Although there is no consensus on prophylactic removal of epidermal nevus, its removal and biopsy should be considered if changes occur. PMID:28300931

  14. Asset retirement obligations: a reporting concern for healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Berg, Gary G; Bayes, Paul E; Morgan, Robert G

    2008-11-01

    FASB statements and SEC guidelines give direction as to how healthcare organizations should account for their asset retirement obligations (AROs) where environmental issues are concerned. A key consideration is that current costs associated with environmental problems, such as encapsulating asbestos, are to be accounted for as part of an asset's cost and depreciated over the asset's remaining life.

  15. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Tiffany J.; Pantanowitz, Liron; Weiss, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up. PMID:26366310

  16. Vascular leiomyoma of the lung arising from pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Leiomyoma of the lung is extremely rare. The entity is not described in WHO blue book. Less than 100 cases of leiomyoma of the lung have been reported in the literature. However, vascular leiomyoma has not been reported in the literature, to the author's best knowledge. Herein reported is the first case of vascular leiomyoma of the lung arising from smooth muscles of the pulmonary artery. A 62-year-old woman (non-smoker) was found to have a small tumor in the upper lobe in the right lung in routine check. Imaging modalities including CT demonstrated no metastatic lesions. Although clinical cytology and biopsy revealed no malignant cell, right upper lobectomy was performed under the clinical diagnosis of lung carcinoma. Grossly, a white tumor of 1 x 0.8 cm was recognized in the lung. Microscopically, the tumor was connected to the pulmonary arteries. The tumor was composed of mature smooth muscles. Small pulmonary arteries are embedded in the tumor. No lymphatics were seen. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were poisitive for alpha-smooth muscle actin, vimentin and Ki-67 (labeling 2%). However, they were negative for cytokeratin (CK) AE1/3, CK CAM5.2, desmin, S100 protein, p53, CD34, KIT, HMB45, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and myoglobin. A pathological diagnosis of primary vascular leiomyoma arising from the smooth muscle of pulmonary artery was made. The patient is now free from tumor, and is now alive 10 year after the operation.

  17. Multiple Ectopic Hepatocellular Carcinomas Arising in the Abdominal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Toru; Hoshino, Seiichiro; Yoshida, Yoichiro; Aisu, Naoya; Tanimura, Syu; Hisano, Satoshi; Kuno, Nobuaki; Sohda, Tetsuro; Sakisaka, Shotaro; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a very rare clinical entity that is defined as HCC arising from extrahepatic liver tissue. This report presents a case of ectopic multiple HCC arising in the abdominal cavity. A 42-year-old otherwise healthy male presented with liver dysfunction at a general health checkup. Both HCV antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen were negative. Laboratory examination showed elevations in serum alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed multiple nodular lesions in the abdominal cavity with ascites without a possible primary tumor. Exploratory laparoscopy was performed, which revealed bloody ascites and multiple brown nodular tumors measuring approximately 10 mm in size that were disseminated on the perineum and mesentery. A postoperative PET-CT scan was performed but it did not reveal any evidence of a tumor in the liver. The tumors resected from the peritoneum were diagnosed as HCC. The present case of HCC was thought to have possibly developed from ectopic liver on the peritoneum or mesentery. PMID:23139654

  18. Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma arising in tattooed skin.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Deba P; Dentlinger, Renee B; Forystek, Amanda M; Stevens, Todd; Huerter, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Tattoos have increasingly become accepted by mainstream Western society. As a result, the incidence of tattoo-associated dermatoses is on the rise. The presence of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in an old tattooed skin is of interest as it has not been previously documented. Case Presentation. A 79-year-old white homeless man of European descent presented to the dermatology clinic with a painless raised nodule on his left forearm arising in a tattooed area. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating into a tattoo. The lesion was completely excised and the patient remains disease-free one year later. Conclusion. All previous reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising in tattoos have been well-differentiated low-grade type or keratoacanthoma-type and are considered to be coincidental rather than related to any carcinogenic effect of the tattoo pigments. Tattoo-associated poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma appears to be extremely rare.

  19. Giant cell tumor of soft tissue arising in breast.

    PubMed

    May, Steve A; Deavers, Michael T; Resetkova, Erika; Johnson, Deborah; Albarracin, Constance T

    2007-10-01

    Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue (GCT-ST) arising in breast is exceedingly rare. We report a case of a 60-year-old woman with a primary breast giant cell tumor that appeared histologically identical to giant cell tumor of bone and had a clinically malignant course. The patient presented with a cystic mass of the breast, suspected on imaging to be an organizing hematoma, possibly related to previous injury. Histopathological evaluation revealed a neoplasm composed of mononuclear cells admixed with osteoclast-like giant cells resembling giant cell tumor of bone. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for CD68, smooth muscle actin, and vimentin, but was negative for a panel of epithelial and additional muscle markers. These features were most consistent with GCT-ST, an uncommon neoplasm of low malignant potential. Despite aggressive surgical treatment achieving clear surgical margins, the patient expired with pulmonary metastases within a year of her initial presentation. This case demonstrates the difficulty of predicting clinical behavior of GCT-ST of breast on the basis of histological features and depth of tumor alone. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a GCT-ST arising in the breast associated with a fatal outcome. The distinction of this entity from other more common primary breast tumors with giant cell morphology is also emphasized.

  20. Multiple ectopic hepatocellular carcinomas arising in the abdominal cavity.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Toru; Hoshino, Seiichiro; Yoshida, Yoichiro; Aisu, Naoya; Tanimura, Syu; Hisano, Satoshi; Kuno, Nobuaki; Sohda, Tetsuro; Sakisaka, Shotaro; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2012-09-01

    Ectopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a very rare clinical entity that is defined as HCC arising from extrahepatic liver tissue. This report presents a case of ectopic multiple HCC arising in the abdominal cavity. A 42-year-old otherwise healthy male presented with liver dysfunction at a general health checkup. Both HCV antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen were negative. Laboratory examination showed elevations in serum alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed multiple nodular lesions in the abdominal cavity with ascites without a possible primary tumor. Exploratory laparoscopy was performed, which revealed bloody ascites and multiple brown nodular tumors measuring approximately 10 mm in size that were disseminated on the perineum and mesentery. A postoperative PET-CT scan was performed but it did not reveal any evidence of a tumor in the liver. The tumors resected from the peritoneum were diagnosed as HCC. The present case of HCC was thought to have possibly developed from ectopic liver on the peritoneum or mesentery.

  1. Sebaceous carcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of ovary.

    PubMed

    An, Hyo Jeong; Jung, Yong Han; Yoon, Hye Kyoung; Jung, Soo Jin

    2013-08-01

    Roughly 1% of mature cystic teratomas undergo malignant transformation. In particular, cutaneous-type adnexal neoplasms may occur in mature cystic teratomas. Sebaceous carcinomas, which arise from mature cystic teratomas, have rarely been observed, with only seven cases previously reported. Here, we present a case of a 69-year-old female who had pelvic pain for two weeks and who subsequently underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and hysterectomy. Her left ovary showed a unilocular cyst, measuring 22.0 cm in diameter, filled with sebaceous material and a few hairs. A luminally-protruding solid mass measuring 4.0 cm in diameter was also noted. Microscopic findings revealed lobular or diffusely arranged basophilic, atypical sebaceous cells connected to a typical mature cystic teratoma. Tumor cells demonstrated positive immunoreactivity for high molecular weight cytokeratin, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 19, epithelial membrane antigen, and carcinoembryonic antigen. Here, we present a case of sebaceous carcinoma arising from a mature cystic teratoma along with a review of previously published reports.

  2. Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in Tattooed Skin

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Deba P.; Dentlinger, Renee B.; Forystek, Amanda M.; Stevens, Todd; Huerter, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Tattoos have increasingly become accepted by mainstream Western society. As a result, the incidence of tattoo-associated dermatoses is on the rise. The presence of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in an old tattooed skin is of interest as it has not been previously documented. Case Presentation. A 79-year-old white homeless man of European descent presented to the dermatology clinic with a painless raised nodule on his left forearm arising in a tattooed area. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating into a tattoo. The lesion was completely excised and the patient remains disease-free one year later. Conclusion. All previous reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising in tattoos have been well-differentiated low-grade type or keratoacanthoma-type and are considered to be coincidental rather than related to any carcinogenic effect of the tattoo pigments. Tattoo-associated poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma appears to be extremely rare. PMID:21274289

  3. Trichoepithelioma Arising in an Ovarian Mature Cystic Teratoma

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Satoru; Muto, Haruka; Shimizu, Shinichi; Otsuki, Yoshiro; Adachi, Hiroshi; Murakoshi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report an extremely rare case of trichoepithelioma (TE)—a benign epithelial tumor originating from the outer root sheath of a hair follicle—arising in an ovarian mature cystic teratoma (MCT) with fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) findings. A 48-year-old Japanese woman presented to our hospital for her annual follow-up of adenomyosis. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left ovarian tumor with irregular-shaped septum, which was suspicious of malignancy. However, tumor marker levels were within normal range. On FDG-PET, the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the tumor was 2.9. Laparotomy with left salpingooophorectomy was performed. Pathologic examination revealed the probability of TE, rather than basal cell carcinoma (BCC), arising in an ovarian MCT. After five years of follow-up, the patient had no sign of recurrence. The FDG-PET SUVmax was low in TE, as with other benign tumor. However, future investigation is needed to evaluate the findings of FDG-PET imaging in TE cases. PMID:28127486

  4. Extranodal lymphoma arising within the maxillary alveolus: a case report.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, David; Li, Thomas; Leung, Siu Fai; Curtin, Justin; Yeung, Andy; Martin, Montgomery A

    2017-09-01

    Extranodal lymphomas affecting the head and neck arise infrequently within the bones of the jaws. This is a report of a symptom-free patient whose general dentist detected a radiolucency as an incidental finding on conventional radiography. The conventional radiography of lesions in the maxilla displayed "floating teeth" indicative of malignancy. This case was then imaged by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The lymphoma grew rapidly in less than a week between the MDCT and the MRI. All the above cross-sectional modalities elicited a provisional diagnosis of a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Evaluation of the extent of the lesion and its encroachment on adjacent structures is limited by conventional radiography. Nevertheless, conventional radiography can display features that are suggestive of malignant disease. Although cross-sectional imaging of lesions within the anatomically-complex-maxilla has generally taken the form of MDCT and MRI, CBCT has a role. In hindsight, the absence of central necrosis should have directed the inclusion of "extranodal lymphoma arising within the maxillary alveolus" in the provisional diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Breast Augmentation Scar.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Lisa R; Cresce, Nicole D; Russell, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    We report a case of a 46-year-old female who presented with a persistent lesion on the inferior right breast. The lesion was located within the scar from a breast augmentation procedure 12 years ago. The lesion had been treated as several conditions with no improvement. Biopsy revealed a superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma, and the lesion was successfully removed with Mohs micrographic surgery. Basal cell carcinoma arising in a surgical scar is exceedingly rare with only 13 reported cases to date. This is the first reported case of basal cell carcinoma arising in a breast augmentation scar. We emphasize the importance of biopsy for suspicious lesions or those refractory to treatment, particularly those lesions that form within a scar. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  6. Accelerated Radiation-Damping for Increased Spin Equilibrium (ARISE)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Susie Y.; Witzel, Thomas; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2008-01-01

    Control of the longitudinal magnetization in fast gradient echo sequences is an important factor enabling the high efficiency of balanced Steady State Free Precession (bSSFP) sequences. We introduce a new method for accelerating the return of the longitudinal magnetization to the +z-axis that is independent of externally applied RF pulses and shows improved off-resonance performance. The Accelerated Radiation damping for Increased Spin Equilibrium (ARISE) method uses an external feedback circuit to strengthen the Radiation Damping (RD) field. The enhanced RD field rotates the magnetization back to the +z-axis at a rate faster than T1 relaxation. The method is characterized in gradient echo phantom imaging at 3T as a function of feedback gain, phase, and duration and compared with results from numerical simulations of the Bloch equations incorporating RD. A short period of feedback (10ms) during a refocused interval of a crushed gradient echo sequence allowed greater than 99% recovery of the longitudinal magnetization when very little T2 relaxation has time to occur. Appropriate applications might include improving navigated sequences. Unlike conventional flip-back schemes, the ARISE “flip-back” is generated by the spins themselves, thereby offering a potentially useful building block for enhancing gradient echo sequences. PMID:18956463

  7. Careers in Environmental Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Reed

    The book presents concerns of our society in protecting our environment and the challenges involved in meaningful careers in environmental protection and management. "Estimates by the Environmental Protection Agency indicate that, compared with their numbers in the mid-'70's, the need for environmental professionals will triple by…

  8. Careers in Environmental Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Reed

    The book presents concerns of our society in protecting our environment and the challenges involved in meaningful careers in environmental protection and management. "Estimates by the Environmental Protection Agency indicate that, compared with their numbers in the mid-'70's, the need for environmental professionals will triple by…

  9. Community and occupational health concerns in pork production: a review.

    PubMed

    Donham, K J

    2010-04-01

    Public concerns relative to adverse consequences of large-scale livestock production have been increasingly voiced since the late 1960s. Numerous regional, national, and international conferences have been held on the subject since 1994. This paper provides a review of the literature on the community and occupational health concerns of large-scale livestock production with a focus on pork production. The industry has recognized the concerns of the public, and the national and state pork producer groups are including these issues as an important component of their research and policy priorities. One reason large-scale livestock production has raised concern is that a significant component of the industry has separated from traditional family farming and has developed like other industries in management, structure, and concentration. The magnitude of the problem cited by environmental groups has often been criticized by the pork production industry for lack of science-based evidence to document environmental concerns. In addition to general environmental concerns, occupational health of workers has become more relevant because many operations now are employing more than 10 employees, which brings many operations in the United States under the scrutiny of the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration. In this paper, the scientific literature is reviewed relative to the science basis of occupational and environmental impacts on community and worker health. Further, recommendations are made to help promote sustainability of the livestock industry within the context of maintaining good stewardship of our environmental and human capital.

  10. SEPARATION METHODS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES - SPECIAL ISSUE: MEMBRANES AND ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of the environmental damage in air, soil, sediment, surface and groundwater can be repaired, and much prevention of further damage achieved through the use of efficient separation technologies. Most environmental challenges arise because of dispersion of harmful pollutants ...

  11. SEPARATION METHODS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES - SPECIAL ISSUE: MEMBRANES AND ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of the environmental damage in air, soil, sediment, surface and groundwater can be repaired, and much prevention of further damage achieved through the use of efficient separation technologies. Most environmental challenges arise because of dispersion of harmful pollutants ...

  12. Breast Cancer Arising Adjacent to an Involuting Fibroadenoma: Serial Changes in Radiologic Features.

    PubMed

    Park, Chae Jung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Woo, Ha Young; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung

    2015-09-01

    Fibroadenoma is a common benign breast lesion and its malignant transformation is rare. There have been several case reports and studies that retrospectively reviewed breast cancers that arose within fibroadenomas; however, none of these studies reported serial changes in radiologic features of the cancer, including findings from mammography and ultrasound (US). We report a case of breast cancer arising adjacent to an involuting fibro adenoma in a 39-year-old woman who was undergoing serial follow-up after her fibroadenoma was diagnosed. Seven years after her diagnosis, the lesion showed evidence of coarse calcifications, a typical sign of involution. Four years later, US revealed a newly developed hypoechoic lesion with irregular margins and peripherally located calcifications adjacent to the fibroadenoma. A core biopsy was performed, and histopathological examination resulted in a diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma. When new suspicious features are observed in a fibroadenoma, radiologists should raise the concern for breast cancer and proceed with diagnosis and treatment accordingly.

  13. Mathematical Problems Concerning Rhythmic Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-30

    experimental on forced chains oscillators, motivated by problems concerning the lamprey CPG for undulatory locomotion. Work continued with K. Sivard on...problems concerning the lamprey CPG for undulatory locomotion [1,2]. Work continued with K. Sigvard on interpretation of experiment, and we are preparing

  14. Expressed Concerns of Yemeni Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alzubaidi, Abdulgawi; Upton, Graham; Baluch, Bahman

    1998-01-01

    Examines the concerns of adolescents 13 to 17 years old (N=150) in the Republic of Yemen. Results indicate that the major concerns reported were related to vocational and educational future, recreational activities, religious matters, and school curriculum and teaching methods. Also discusses gender differences. (Author/MKA)

  15. Expressed Concerns of Yemeni Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alzubaidi, Abdulgawi; Upton, Graham; Baluch, Bahman

    1998-01-01

    Examines the concerns of adolescents 13 to 17 years old (N=150) in the Republic of Yemen. Results indicate that the major concerns reported were related to vocational and educational future, recreational activities, religious matters, and school curriculum and teaching methods. Also discusses gender differences. (Author/MKA)

  16. Consumer perceptions and concerns about food contaminants.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, C M

    1999-01-01

    More consumers are concerned about microbiological hazards than any other area. Pesticide residues generate concern, especially among low income consumers with less formal education. Use of antibiotics and hormones in animal production is considered a serious hazard by fewer consumers. Consumer attitudes are influenced by media coverage. An increasing number of consumers expect food producers and retailers to assume a major role in providing safe food. A majority of consumers express interesting in purchasing irradiated food when specific benefits are described and the percentage increases when irradiation is more fully described. In actual market experiences, irradiated produce and poultry have been well received. Similarly, most consumers are positive toward biotechnology, with greatest support for environmental applications. The scientific community should use the media to reach the public with information identifying risks and protective strategies, including the use of new technology.

  17. Extravasation Mucocele Arising from a Lingual Thyroglossal Duct Remnant

    PubMed Central

    Nakahira, Mitsuhiko; Nakatani, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Although a thyroglossal duct cyst is a congenital anomaly, it can also appear in adults. Despite the presence of embryological remnants, it is still unclear why the cyst should suddenly develop later in life. We report a case of a 46-year-old male with an extravasation mucocele arising from a long-standing lingual thyroglossal duct remnant. MRI demonstrated a lingual cystic lesion near the hyoid bone associated with a suprahyoid tract-like structure masquerading as a thyroglossal duct cyst. However, histopathological examination demonstrated a mucocele secondary to a rupture of a thyroglossal duct remnant with numerous intramural heterotopic salivary glands. We propose a new mechanism of an acquired cystic formation of this congenital disease that excessive production of mucus from heterotopic salivary glands and a physical trauma such as swallowing may lead to extravasation of mucus from the thyroglossal duct. PMID:25861502

  18. Contextuality Scenarios Arising from Networks of Stochastic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Rodrigo; Tohmé, Fernando; Auday, Marcelo

    2016-10-01

    An empirical model is a generalization of a probability space. It consists of a simplicial complex of subsets of a class 𝒳 of random variables such that each simplex has an associated probability distribution. The ensuing marginalizations are coherent, in the sense that the distribution on a face of a simplex coincides with the marginal of the distribution over the entire simplex. An empirical model is called contextual if its distributions cannot be obtained by marginalizing a joint distribution over 𝒳. Contextual empirical models arise naturally in quantum theory, giving rise to some of its counter -intuitive statistical consequences. In this paper, we present a different and classical source of contextual empirical models: the interaction among many stochastic processes. We attach an empirical model to the ensuing network in which each node represents an open stochastic process with input and output random variables. The statistical behaviour of the network in the long run makes the empirical model generically contextual and even strongly contextual.

  19. Irregular activity arises as a natural consequence of synaptic inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Terman, D.; Rubin, J. E.; Diekman, C. O.

    2013-12-15

    Irregular neuronal activity is observed in a variety of brain regions and states. This work illustrates a novel mechanism by which irregular activity naturally emerges in two-cell neuronal networks featuring coupling by synaptic inhibition. We introduce a one-dimensional map that captures the irregular activity occurring in our simulations of conductance-based differential equations and mathematically analyze the instability of fixed points corresponding to synchronous and antiphase spiking for this map. We find that the irregular solutions that arise exhibit expansion, contraction, and folding in phase space, as expected in chaotic dynamics. Our analysis shows that these features are produced from the interplay of synaptic inhibition with sodium, potassium, and leak currents in a conductance-based framework and provides precise conditions on parameters that ensure that irregular activity will occur. In particular, the temporal details of spiking dynamics must be present for a model to exhibit this irregularity mechanism and must be considered analytically to capture these effects.

  20. Surprises and pitfalls arising from (pseudo)symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Zwart, Peter H.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Lebedev, Andrey A.; Murshudov, Garib N.; Adams, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    The presence of pseudosymmetry can cause problems in structure determination and refinement. The relevant background and representative examples are presented. It is not uncommon for protein crystals to crystallize with more than a single molecule per asymmetric unit. When more than a single molecule is present in the asymmetric unit, various pathological situations such as twinning, modulated crystals and pseudo translational or rotational symmetry can arise. The presence of pseudosymmetry can lead to uncertainties about the correct space group, especially in the presence of twinning. The background to certain common pathologies is presented and a new notation for space groups in unusual settings is introduced. The main concepts are illustrated with several examples from the literature and the Protein Data Bank.

  1. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy arising in the temporal bone.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-guo; Zhao, Rui-jiao; Kong, Ling-fei

    2015-04-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy is a rare melanin-containing neoplasm with locally aggressive and rapid expansile growth, usually involving the maxilla, skull, and mandible of early infancy. Radical surgery is critical for a long-term outcome. We present a case of 14-month-old girl with rapid-growing subcutaneous mass arising in the right temporal bone and extending intracranially on computed tomographic scan. Radical surgery was performed. A brownish-black tumor composed of large pigmented epithelioid cells, positive for cytokeratins and HMB-45, and nests of small neuroblast-like cells positive for neuron-specific enolase and synaptophysin, was diagnosed as melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy. The patient remained well without evidence of recurrence for 1 year after surgery. Clinicopathological features, management alternatives and outcome were discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Cesium vapor thermionic converter anomalies arising from negative ion emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasor, Ned S.

    2016-08-01

    Compelling experimental evidence is given that a longstanding limit encountered on cesium vapor thermionic energy converter performance improvement and other anomalies arise from thermionic emission of cesium negative ions. It is shown that the energy that characterizes thermionic emission of cesium negative ions is 1.38 eV and, understandably, is not the electron affinity 0.47 eV determined for the photodetachment threshold of the cesium negative ion. The experimental evidence includes measurements of collector work functions and volt-ampere characteristics in quasi-vacuum cesium vapor thermionic diodes, along with reinterpretation of the classic Taylor-Langmuir S-curve data on electron emission in cesium vapor. The quantitative effects of negative ion emission on performance in the ignited, unignited, and quasi-vacuum modes of cesium vapor thermionic converter operation are estimated.

  3. Lymphatic vessels arise from specialized angioblasts within a venous niche.

    PubMed

    Nicenboim, J; Malkinson, G; Lupo, T; Asaf, L; Sela, Y; Mayseless, O; Gibbs-Bar, L; Senderovich, N; Hashimshony, T; Shin, M; Jerafi-Vider, A; Avraham-Davidi, I; Krupalnik, V; Hofi, R; Almog, G; Astin, J W; Golani, O; Ben-Dor, S; Crosier, P S; Herzog, W; Lawson, N D; Hanna, J H; Yanai, I; Yaniv, K

    2015-06-04

    How cells acquire their fate is a fundamental question in developmental and regenerative biology. Multipotent progenitors undergo cell-fate restriction in response to cues from the microenvironment, the nature of which is poorly understood. In the case of the lymphatic system, venous cells from the cardinal vein are thought to generate lymphatic vessels through trans-differentiation. Here we show that in zebrafish, lymphatic progenitors arise from a previously uncharacterized niche of specialized angioblasts within the cardinal vein, which also generates arterial and venous fates. We further identify Wnt5b as a novel lymphatic inductive signal and show that it also promotes the ‘angioblast-to-lymphatic’ transition in human embryonic stem cells, suggesting that this process is evolutionarily conserved. Our results uncover a novel mechanism of lymphatic specification, and provide the first characterization of the lymphatic inductive niche. More broadly, our findings highlight the cardinal vein as a heterogeneous structure, analogous to the haematopoietic niche in the aortic floor.

  4. Sphenoid esthesioneuroblastoma arising from the hindmost olfactory filament.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Mami; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Tatsunori; Ito, Juichi

    2015-04-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB), or olfactory neuroblastoma, is a rare malignant neoplasm arising from the olfactory neuroepithelium. Typically, ENBs are found in the olfactory cleft with extension to the ethmoid sinuses or anterior skull base. Here we report a case of ENB located in the sphenoid sinus, which had been considered as an ectopic ENB. However, endoscopic resection revealed the continuity of the tumor with the hindmost olfactory filament. The present case suggests that an ENB in the sphenoid sinus was not ectopic, but arose from the normal olfactory neuroepithelium. This continuity of the ENB with this filament indicated that the tumor was not ectopic, and that there was possible tumor invasion into the olfactory neuroepithelium in the cribriform niche. Therefore, pathological examination of the olfactory neuroepithelium in the cribriform niche may be necessary in case of sphenoid ENBs.

  5. Transversely isotropic poroelasticity arising from thin isotropic layers

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J.G.

    1996-11-01

    Percolation phenomena play central roles in the field of poroelasticity, where two distinct sets of percolating continua intertwine. A connected solid frame forms the basis of the elastic behavior of a poroelastic medium in the presence of confining forces, while connected pores permit a percolating fluid (if present) to influence the mechanical response of the system from within. The present paper discusses isotropic and anisotropic poroelastic media and establishes general formulas for the behavior of transversely isotropic poroelasticity arising from laminations of isotropic components. The Backus averaging method is shown to provide elementary means of constructing general formulas. The results for confined fluids are then compared with the more general Gassmann formulas that must be satisfied by any anisotropic poroelastic medium and found to be in complete agreement.

  6. Central and Peripheral Retina Arise through Distinct Developmental Paths

    PubMed Central

    Venters, Sara J.; Mikawa, Takashi; Hyer, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    In the mature eye, three distinct tissue fates, retina, ciliary body, and iris, arrange with a strict linear organization along the central (back) to peripheral (front) axis. The establishment of this topographical relationship within the optic vesicle is not well understood. We use a targeted vital labeling strategy to test the derivation of mature eye tissues from the optic vesicle of the chick embryo. Fate mapping uncovers two distinct origins of the neural retina. Contrary to expectations, the central neural retina has a discrete origin within the posterior optic vesicle. The peripheral retina derives from the distal optic vesicle, sharing a common origin with more peripheral tissue fates. This study identifies for the first time two distinct retinal sub-domains, central and peripheral, which arise during embryogenesis. Identification of these discrete retinal compartments provides a framework for understanding functional and disease processes throughout retinal tissue. PMID:23613848

  7. Syringocystadenoma Papilliferum of the Scalp Arising from a Nevus Sebaceous

    PubMed Central

    Chandramouli, Mathangi; Sarma, Digvijay; Tejaswy, Kapil; Rodrigues, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP) is a rare, benign tumour with varied presentations that arises from the apocrine glands and at times can lead to a diagnostic dilemma. A 53-year-old male presented with a 40-year history of a scalp nodule and a recent 2-year change in its character, and a sanguinopurulent discharge. Examination revealed a 4 cm × 2 cm firm nodule upon left side of the scalp vertex, actively discharging pus and blood. No regional lymph nodes were noticeably palpable. Incision biopsy performed elsewhere showed evidence of a squamous cell carcinoma-in-situ. He underwent a wide local excision with a bilobed flap reconstruction. Histopathologically, the lesion was reported to be SCAP. On follow-up, the patient has since remained asymptomatic with an acceptable cosmetic recovery. PMID:27761094

  8. Child protection reports: key issues arising for public health nurses.

    PubMed

    Hanafin, Sinead

    2013-10-01

    Similar to other countries, there have been a number of high-profile reports into past and recent cases of child abuse and neglect in Ireland. The most recent of these have been the Monageer Inquiry, the Ryan Report, the Roscommon Child Care Case and the Report of the Independent Child Death Review Group. An analysis of these reports highlights the critical role played by public health nurses with troubled families. It also makes explicit key issues that consistently emerge as problematic in terms of professional practice. This paper summarises the main findings of the reports as they relate to the public health nursing service and identifies key themes emerging along with recommendations arising. The emerging themes relate to assessment, early intervention, record keeping, communication and interdisciplinary working and the role of public health nursing management.

  9. Rhabdomyosarcoma arising in the hand or foot: a clinicopathologic analysis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Dylan V; Coffin, Cheryl M; Zhou, Holly

    2004-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) arising at different anatomic sites have distinct clinicopathologic features that affect prognosis and outcome. RMS arising in the extremities generally have a worse prognosis. Case reports and anecdotal experience suggests the possibility that RMS of the hand or foot (RMSHF) may behave even more aggressively than RMS elsewhere in the extremities. This study describes clinicopathologic features and outcome of RMSHF. Charts and pathologic material from RMSHF cases from institutional files over a 32-year interval were reviewed. Additional cases from published reports and series over a 42-year interval were identified by a MEDLINE search. Pertinent clinicopathologic features for each case were compiled. Survival analysis and other data from these patients were compared with previously reported statistics in the literature for RMS at other anatomic sites, including elsewhere in the extremities. Six patients from the institutional files and 46 from published reports were identified. A number of adverse prognostic indicators were observed in the majority of these patients including alveolar morphology (86%) and distant metastasis at presentation (63%). Despite the aggressive nature of these tumors, the majority were smaller than 5 cm (61%). A propensity was observed for metastases to unusual sites such as breast, ovary, testis, pancreas, and kidney. The median survival was 19 months, and the 5-year survival was 27%. While these may reflect a constellation of findings related to site, it is also possible that alveolar histology is the main influence. RMSHF can present as a very small primary tumor with clinically evident or occult metastatic disease. Whether this reflects the location, the predominantly alveolar histologic type, or a molecular genetic subtype will require further analysis. Patients presenting with RMSHF should be thoroughly evaluated for occult metastases at the time of diagnosis and followed closely throughout treatment for

  10. Unbalanced translocations arise from diverse mutational mechanisms including chromothripsis.

    PubMed

    Weckselblatt, Brooke; Hermetz, Karen E; Rudd, M Katharine

    2015-07-01

    Unbalanced translocations are a relatively common type of copy number variation and a major contributor to neurodevelopmental disorders. We analyzed the breakpoints of 57 unique unbalanced translocations to investigate the mechanisms of how they form. Fifty-one are simple unbalanced translocations between two different chromosome ends, and six rearrangements have more than three breakpoints involving two to five chromosomes. Sequencing 37 breakpoint junctions revealed that simple translocations have between 0 and 4 base pairs (bp) of microhomology (n = 26), short inserted sequences (n = 8), or paralogous repeats (n = 3) at the junctions, indicating that translocations do not arise primarily from nonallelic homologous recombination but instead form most often via nonhomologous end joining or microhomology-mediated break-induced replication. Three simple translocations fuse genes that are predicted to produce in-frame transcripts of SIRPG-WWOX, SMOC2-PROX1, and PIEZO2-MTA1, which may lead to gain of function. Three complex translocations have inversions, insertions, and multiple breakpoint junctions between only two chromosomes. Whole-genome sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of two de novo translocations revealed at least 18 and 33 breakpoints involving five different chromosomes. Breakpoint sequencing of one maternally inherited translocation involving four chromosomes uncovered multiple breakpoints with inversions and insertions. All of these breakpoint junctions had 0-4 bp of microhomology consistent with chromothripsis, and both de novo events occurred on paternal alleles. Together with other studies, these data suggest that germline chromothripsis arises in the paternal genome and may be transmitted maternally. Breakpoint sequencing of our large collection of chromosome rearrangements provides a comprehensive analysis of the molecular mechanisms behind translocation formation. © 2015 Weckselblatt et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor

  11. The rise and fall of concern about urban sprawl in the United States: an updated analysis

    Treesearch

    David P. Fan; David N. Bengston; Robert S. Potts; Edward G. Goetz

    2005-01-01

    An indicator of public concern about urban sprawl is presented, based on computer content analysis of public discussion in the news media from 1995 through 2004. More than 50,000 news stories about sprawl were analyzed for expressions of concern. Overall concern about sprawl grew rapidly during the latter half of the 1990s. Concern about the environmental impacts of...

  12. Cervical Vagal Schwannoma: Anesthetic Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Suman; Sabharwal, Nikki; Agrawal, Nidhi; Singh, Bhupender

    2017-01-01

    Schwannomas arising from cervical vagus nerve is an extremely rare benign neoplasm. The majority of patients present with insidiously growing lateral neck mass without neurological deficit. We report a case of symptomatic cervical vagal nerve schwannoma in a 32-year-old female. Complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice. However, anesthetic management of these tumors can be challenging. We describe here the complications experienced during the management of the patient.

  13. Parental vaccine concerns in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael J; Woods, Charles R; Marshall, Gary S

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of parents are questioning the safety and necessity of routine childhood immunizations. Locally produced vaccine risk communication materials may be effective in reassuring these parents. However, little is known about specific vaccine safety concerns in the state of Kentucky. An Internet-based survey focusing on parental vaccine safety concerns and potential vaccine risk communication strategies was sent to all members of the Kentucky Chapter of the Amerian Academy of Pediatrics. There were 121 respondents who routinely administered childhood vaccines. Of these, 85% reported parental concern about the combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Concerns about the influenza and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines were also frequent. Of the respondents, 46% noted parental skepticism about all vaccines in general. However, refusal of all vaccines was uncommon in most practices (median 1%, interquartile range 1%-3%). The belief that vaccines cause autism was the most prevalent parental concern, reported by 70% of pediatricians. Physicians also reported that a list of reliable vaccine information Websites and pamphlets addressing common vaccine safety concerns would be the most helpful materials to use during their discussions with concerned parents. These findings suggest that specific information about the MMR, influenza, and HPV vaccines, as well as data refuting the putative link between vaccines and autism would be useful to physicians who administer vaccinations. Respondents were especially interested in reliable vaccine information on the Internet. The Websites listed below offer accurate scientific information about vaccines and the diseases they prevent.

  14. Study of natural radioactivity in Mansehra granite, Pakistan: environmental concerns.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Aziz Ahmed; Jadoon, Ishtiaq Ahmed Khan; Wajid, Ali Abbas; Attique, Ahsan; Masood, Adil; Anees, Muhammad; Manzoor, Shahid; Waheed, Abdul; Tubassam, Aneela

    2014-03-01

    A part of Mansehra Granite was selected for the assessment of radiological hazards. The average activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were found to be 27.32, 50.07 and 953.10 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These values are in the median range when compared with the granites around the world. Radiological hazard indices and annual effective doses were estimated. All of these indices were found to be within the criterion limits except outdoor external dose (82.38 nGy h(-1)) and indoor external dose (156.04 nGy h(-1)), which are higher than the world's average background levels of 51 and 55 nGy h(-1), respectively. These values correspond to an average annual effective dose of 0.867 mSv y(-1), which is less than the criterion limit of 1 mSv y(-1) (ICRP-103). Some localities in the Mansehra city have annual effective dose higher than the limit of 1 mSv y(-1). Overall, the Mansehra Granite does not pose any significant radiological health hazard in the outdoor or indoor.

  15. Canadian Environmental Concerns: Winnipeg, Manitoba. Progress Report. Project Canada West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Curriculum Project on Canada Studies, Edmonton (Alberta).

    Part I of this progress report places emphasis on curriculum development from the standpoint of the teacher-developer. The role is defined and factors such as teacher selection, release time, administrative cooperation, work schedules, assigned work space, and benefits to the school division and to the teacher are discussed. Recommendations deal…

  16. Environmental concerns associated with the design of genetic engineering facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Watt, J.C.; Wroniewicz, V.S.; Ioli, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    Recombinant DNA technology is being used to produce a wide spectrum of products, such as vaccines, interferon, insulin, and growth hormones. In the design of facilities employing this technology, critical consideration must be given to the protection of the environment, both in the prevention of releases of recombinant DNA organisms into the environment and in the treatment of wastes originating from the production facilities. The design requirements for containment of large-scale systems are complex and require detailed analysis to insure that the containment system can handle both the normal and emergency releases of recombinant DNA organisms. This must include the prevention of releases through either liquid discharges or air emissions. The ''killing'' method used in the process for either the cells (extracellular product) or the broth (intracellular product) is an important step and can have significant implications in downstream treatment of wastewaters. Since fermentation is the primary process used in the production of recombinant DNA products, wastewater characteristics from this area of the process are basically similar to those of other fermentation processes. They differ, however, because of the ''killing'' step in the process, which can introduce compounds not normally found in fermentation wastewaters. This can complicate the treatment process by requiring additional treatment operations. Characteristics of wastewaters from other areas of the process can be very diverse, and no general characterization can be made. Techniques for recovery and purification can vary from product to product or even from plant to plant, making characterization difficult. It is important, therefore, that each process be examined in detail so that waste characterization is meaningful and useful in the design of treatment facilities.

  17. Outdoor Recreation Participation and Environmental Concern: A Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berns, Gretchen Newhouse; Simpson, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Many experiential educators assume that participation in outdoor recreation creates an awareness and commitment to the environment through direct experience. This research summary looks to whether the research supports such an assumption. Specifically it reviews the key literature on this topic, examines the various classifications of outdoor…

  18. Assessing Caffeine as an Emerging Environmental Concern Using Conventional Approaches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic wastewater contaminants, including pharmaceuticals, caffeine, and nicotine, have received increased scrutiny because of their detection in water bodies receiving wastewater discharge. Despite recent measurement in US streams, caffeine’s effect on freshwater organisms is not well documented....

  19. Outdoor Recreation Participation and Environmental Concern: A Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berns, Gretchen Newhouse; Simpson, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Many experiential educators assume that participation in outdoor recreation creates an awareness and commitment to the environment through direct experience. This research summary looks to whether the research supports such an assumption. Specifically it reviews the key literature on this topic, examines the various classifications of outdoor…

  20. Status and future concerns of clinical and environmental aluminum toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Flaten, T.P.; Alfrey, A.C.; Birchall, J.D.

    1996-08-30

    A wide range of toxic effects of aluminum (Al) have been demonstrated in plants and aquatic animals in nature, in experimental animals by several routes of exposure, and under different clinical conditions in humans. Aluminum toxicity is a major problem in agriculture, affecting perhaps as much as 40% of arable soils in the world. In fresh waters acidified by acid rain, Al toxicity has led to fish extinction. Aluminum is a very potent neurotoxicant. In humans with chronic renal failure on dialysis, Al causes encephalopathy, osteomalacia, and anemia. There are also reports of such effects in certain patient groups without renal failure. Subtle neurocognitive and psychomotor effects and electroncephalograph (EEG) abnormalities have been reported at plasma Al levels as low as 50 {mu}g/L. Infants could be particularly susceptible to Al accumulation and toxicity, reduced renal function being one contributory cause. Recent reports clearly show that Al accumulation occurs in the tissues of workers with long-term occupational exposure to Al dusts or fumes, and also indicate that such exposure may cause subtle neurological effects increased efforts should be directed toward defining the full range of potentially harmful effects in humans. To this end, multidisciplinary collaborative research efforts are encouraged, involving scientists from many different specialities. Emphasis should be placed on increasing our understanding of the chemistry of Al in biological systems, and on determining the cellular and molecular mechanisms of Al toxicity. 95 refs.