Science.gov

Sample records for environmental concerns arising

  1. Environmental Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alma, Peter

    1995-04-01

    This series of A-level social biology topic books responds to the changing demands of social biology syllabuses, with each text dealing with a particular area of interest. Although the series is primarily intended for students of A-level social biology, the books will appeal to students studying a wide range of biological subjects at A-level. Environmental Concerns covers topics common to several A-level human and social biology syllabuses. It is particularly relevant to the human ecology and conservation options. The text focuses on the social and economic implications of current ecological issues as well as the basic biological concepts involved. It deals with the causes, effects and prevention of atmospheric and water pollution as well as with the disruption of ecosystems by changes in land use. The conflict of interests between conservation and exploitation is discussed, along with management techniques including the controversial method of culling to maintain diversity. The moral and aesthetic aspects of conservation and management are emphasised throughout, in addition to the scientific background of these techniques.

  2. Energy Problems and Environmental Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Train, Russell E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses problems encountered in energy extraction and consumption, involving nuclear power plant construction, environmental consequences of energy systems, and energy conservation ethics. Indicates that the increasing concern over environmental quality is not the true cause of present energy problems. (CC)

  3. TAPS design concepts: environmental concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.J.

    1981-05-01

    The engineering concepts used in the design, construction, and operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) were often new and in many cases in the state of the art. To accommodate environmental concerns for operating a hot oil pipeline in permafrost soil, unique features were incorporated into TAPS. Design concepts include a sophisticated leak detection and internal pipeline monitoring system. Additional features for accommodating thaw-unstable soils, earthquakes, and river systems are described. (23 references)

  4. Phytotoxins: environmental micropollutants of concern?

    PubMed

    Bucheli, Thomas D

    2014-11-18

    Natural toxins such as mycotoxins or phytotoxins (bioactive compounds from fungi and plants, respectively) have been widely studied in food and feed, where they are stated to out-compete synthetic chemicals in their overall human and animal toxicological risk. A similar perception and awareness is yet largely missing for environmental safety. This article attempts to raise concern in this regard, by providing (circumstantial) evidence that phytotoxins in particular can be emitted into the environment, where they may contribute to the complex mixture of organic micropollutants. Exposures can be orders-of-magnitude higher in anthropogenically managed/affected (agro-)ecosystems than in the pristine environment. PMID:25325883

  5. Phytotoxins: environmental micropollutants of concern?

    PubMed

    Bucheli, Thomas D

    2014-11-18

    Natural toxins such as mycotoxins or phytotoxins (bioactive compounds from fungi and plants, respectively) have been widely studied in food and feed, where they are stated to out-compete synthetic chemicals in their overall human and animal toxicological risk. A similar perception and awareness is yet largely missing for environmental safety. This article attempts to raise concern in this regard, by providing (circumstantial) evidence that phytotoxins in particular can be emitted into the environment, where they may contribute to the complex mixture of organic micropollutants. Exposures can be orders-of-magnitude higher in anthropogenically managed/affected (agro-)ecosystems than in the pristine environment.

  6. Children's Environmental Concerns: Expressing Ecophobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strife, Susan Jean

    2012-01-01

    While numerous quantitative studies across disciplines have investigated children's knowledge and attitudes about environmental problems, few studies examine children's feelings about environmental problems--and even fewer have focused on the child's point of view. Through 50 in-depth interviews with urban children (ages 10-12) this research aimed…

  7. Academic Major, Environmental Concern, and Arboretum Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherburn, Meghan; Devlin, Ann Sloan

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between academic major, environmental concern, and the presence of a campus arboretum. Twenty-seven men and 43 women from a small liberal arts college, ages 18-36, completed a series of surveys including the Environmental Preference Questionnaire (EPQ), the Environmental Concern Scale (EC), and the New…

  8. Environmental concerns and international migration.

    PubMed

    Hugo, G

    1996-01-01

    "This article focuses on international migration occurring as a result of environmental changes and processes. It briefly reviews attempts to conceptualize environment-related migration and then considers the extent to which environmental factors have been and may be significant in initiating migration. Following is an examination of migration as an independent variable in the migration-environment relationship. Finally, ethical and policy dimensions are addressed."

  9. Environmental concerns and international migration.

    PubMed

    Hugo, G

    1996-01-01

    "This article focuses on international migration occurring as a result of environmental changes and processes. It briefly reviews attempts to conceptualize environment-related migration and then considers the extent to which environmental factors have been and may be significant in initiating migration. Following is an examination of migration as an independent variable in the migration-environment relationship. Finally, ethical and policy dimensions are addressed." PMID:12291410

  10. Rational readings on environmental concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Lehr, J.H.

    1992-12-31

    This book offers a wide range of insights on the state of environmental science today, including many alternative interpretations. Chapters include the following subjects: agricultural chemicals, asbestos, biotechnology; DDT; dioxin; electromagnetic radiation; ground water contamination; nuclear energy; ionizing radiation; global warming; wetlands.

  11. Environmental Concerns and the New Environmental Paradigm in Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostrom, Ann; Barke, Richard; Turaga, Rama Mohana R.; O'Connor, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about environmental concerns and attitudes among people in former Soviet bloc countries in Eastern Europe despite widespread perceptions of severe environmental problems. The authors addressed this gap by examining Bulgarians' environmental concerns with a focus on whether the new environmental paradigm (NEP) scale can reliably…

  12. Universalism Values: Blueprint for Environmental Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II

    Empirical research has consistently shown human values to be significantly related to both attitudes and behaviors. This paper unites the value theories of several researchers into an explanation of environmental concern, and provides some preliminary data to support the model. Attitudes toward environmental choices should be determined by…

  13. Space station internal environmental and safety concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Matthew B.

    1987-01-01

    Space station environmental and safety concerns, especially those involving fires, are discussed. Several types of space station modules and the particular hazards associated with each are briefly surveyed. A brief history of fire detection and suppression aboard spacecraft is given. Microgravity fire behavior, spacecraft fire detector systems, space station fire suppression equipment and procedures, and fire safety in hyperbaric chambers are discussed.

  14. General Beliefs and Environmental Concern: Transatlantic Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olofsson, Anna; Ohman, Susanna

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to empirically test whether grouping people according to their general beliefs, combined with positional factors, can explain environmental concern, and whether there are country differences in this respect. The study is based on the United States, Canadian, Norwegian, and Swedish parts of The International Social Survey…

  15. Wood combustion systems: status of environmental concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Dunwoody, J.E.; Takach, H.; Kelley, C.S.; Opalanko, R.; High, C.; Fege, A.

    1980-01-01

    This document addresses the uncertainties about environmental aspects of Wood Combustion Systems that remain to be resolved through research and development. The resolution of these uncertainties may require adjustments in the technology program before it can be commercialized. The impacts and concerns presented in the document are treated generically without reference to specific predetermined sites unless these are known. Hence, site-specific implications are not generally included in the assessment. The report consists of two main sections which describe the energy resource base involved, characteristics of the technology, and introduce the environmental concerns of implementing the technology; and which review the concerns related to wood combustion systems which are of significance for the environment. It also examines the likelihood and consequence of findings which might impede wood commercialization such as problems and uncertainties stemming from current or anticipated environmental regulation, or costs of potential environmental controls. This document is not a formal NEPA document. Appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared after a formal wood combustion commercialization program is approved by DOE.

  16. Environmental concerns and diet in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Fleischer, Jennifer; Jeitner, Chris; Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-08-01

    Many factors affect how people perceive the world and their environment, and how such perceptions affect lifestyle decisions, yet the relationship between personal perceptions about environmental hazards and diet is rarely examined. In this study, environmental concerns on a local and global scale were examined, along with dietary patterns, to determine if there were associations and age-related differences. The hypothesis that concerns about water pollution might be reflected in choices about seafood consumption was examined. Many aspects of dietary choices varied significantly by age, including (1) younger people ate more "fast food" than others, (2) subjects aged 22-32 yr ate more meals in restaurants than older or younger people, (3) older individuals drank more tea than younger subjects, while younger people drank more soda than older people, and (4) there were few significant differences in total fish and shellfish meals, although young people ate more meals of other types of meat. Individuals who rated their health the best reported significantly fewer seafood meals than others. People who listed pollution as the major environmental problem did not consume seafood less often than others. While pollution was listed as the most important environmental problem globally, people distinguished between air and water pollution only for Singapore. Although Singapore, with its rapidly expanding economy, has reason to be concerned about both water and air pollution, only 14% of those listing pollution as the main Singapore environmental problem mentioned "water pollution." Singapore has been able to take measures to reduce water pollution from internal sources. Respondents considered air pollution a greater problem, perhaps reflecting recent haze disasters from deliberately set forest fires in Indonesia, which are beyond the direct control of Singapore or Singaporeans. PMID:12857632

  17. Environmental concerns and diet in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Fleischer, Jennifer; Jeitner, Chris; Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-08-01

    Many factors affect how people perceive the world and their environment, and how such perceptions affect lifestyle decisions, yet the relationship between personal perceptions about environmental hazards and diet is rarely examined. In this study, environmental concerns on a local and global scale were examined, along with dietary patterns, to determine if there were associations and age-related differences. The hypothesis that concerns about water pollution might be reflected in choices about seafood consumption was examined. Many aspects of dietary choices varied significantly by age, including (1) younger people ate more "fast food" than others, (2) subjects aged 22-32 yr ate more meals in restaurants than older or younger people, (3) older individuals drank more tea than younger subjects, while younger people drank more soda than older people, and (4) there were few significant differences in total fish and shellfish meals, although young people ate more meals of other types of meat. Individuals who rated their health the best reported significantly fewer seafood meals than others. People who listed pollution as the major environmental problem did not consume seafood less often than others. While pollution was listed as the most important environmental problem globally, people distinguished between air and water pollution only for Singapore. Although Singapore, with its rapidly expanding economy, has reason to be concerned about both water and air pollution, only 14% of those listing pollution as the main Singapore environmental problem mentioned "water pollution." Singapore has been able to take measures to reduce water pollution from internal sources. Respondents considered air pollution a greater problem, perhaps reflecting recent haze disasters from deliberately set forest fires in Indonesia, which are beyond the direct control of Singapore or Singaporeans.

  18. Evaluating minerals of environmental concern using spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, G.A.; Clark, R.N.; Higgins, C.T.; Kokaly, R.F.; Eric, Livo K.; Hoefen, T.M.; Ong, C.; Kruse, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy has been successfully used to aid researchers in characterizing potential environmental impacts posed by acid-rock drainage, ore-processing dust on mangroves, and asbestos in serpentine mineral deposits and urban dust. Many of these applications synergistically combine field spectroscopy with remote sensing data, thus allowing more-precise data calibration, spectral analysis of the data, and verification of mapping. The increased accuracy makes these environmental evaluation tools efficient because they can be used to focus field work on those areas most critical to the research effort. The use of spectroscopy to evaluate minerals of environmental concern pushes current imaging spectrometer technology to its limits; we present laboratory results that indicate the direction for future designs of imaging spectrometers.

  19. School Nurses' Descriptions of Concerns Arising during Pupils' Health Check-Ups: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poutiainen, Hannele; Holopainen, Arja; Hakulinen-Viitanen, Tuovi; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the concerns and modes of action of Finnish school nurses during pupils' health check-ups. Methods: Focus group interviews with 17 school nurses were performed in 2011 and again in 2013. Data were analysed using inductive content analysis. Results: School nurses' concerns were mostly associated with the psychosocial…

  20. Interactions between electric arc furnace operations and environmental concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.A.T.

    1995-12-01

    The electric arc furnace has evolved considerably over the past 20 years. Gone are the days when electric power was the only source of energy for scrap melting. As more companies turn to oxygen to reduce electrical consumption, there will be a considerably greater need for improved and expanded fume capture systems in the meltshop. This is usually one of the factors that is ignored until after the burners or lances are installed. To make a fair evaluation of the benefits that burners or oxygen lancing might offer, it is necessary that the costs for environmental upgrades be included. This article attempts to address the benefits and problems that might arise in the electric furnace and reviews methods by which process and environmental goals may be concurrently achieved. It also considers future environmental concerns and the benefits of some new steelmaking technologies. 31 refs.

  1. Environmental Education in Northern Ireland: Concern and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Tom

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the current status of environmental education in primary and secondary schools in Northern Ireland, identifying issues and concerns, and summarizing recent developments that address these concerns. (DC)

  2. Gender Differences in Environmental Concern and Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momsen, Janet Henshall

    2000-01-01

    Examines cross-culturally the assertion that women have a special relationship with the environment and are more motivated than men to work for environmental sustainability. Explores the discourse on ecofeminism and evaluates alternative explanations of gender differences in environmental awareness. (CMK)

  3. Advanced Space Flight and Environmental Concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A.

    2001-01-01

    The aerospace industry has conquered numerous environmental challenges during the last decade. The aerospace industry of today has evolved due in part to the environmental challenges, becoming stronger, more robust, learning to push the limits of technology, materials and manufacturing, and performing cutting edge engineering.

  4. Environmental Concern and Involvement of Individuals in Selected Voluntary Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuett, Michael A.; Ostergren, David.

    2003-01-01

    The authors examined environmental concern and involvement of individuals in two voluntary associations, the International Mountain Bicycling Association (IMBA) and National Off-Highway Vehicle Conservation Council, Inc. (NOHVCC). Environmental concerns were assessed using the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP). When compared, results from 10 of 12…

  5. Incorporating social concerns in environmental impact assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.K.

    1990-03-01

    Social impact assessments most often focus on the population-driven impacts of projects. Such impacts may be insignificant when compared with social structural impacts of complex, controversial projects. This set of impacts includes social disruption, social group formation, and stigma effects. The National Environmental Policy Act does not explicitly call for assessment of, and assessors often are reluctant to address, these complex issues. This paper discusses why such impacts are critical to assess and gives examples of how they have been incorporated into environmental assessment documents. 6 refs.

  6. New safety valve addresses environmental concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J. ); Austin, R. )

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports that Conoco Pipeline is using a unique relief valve to reduce costs while improving environmental protection at its facilities. Conoco Pipeline Co. Inc. began testing new relief valves in 1987 to present over-pressuring its pipelines while enhancing the safety, environmental integrity and profitability of its pipelines. Conoco worked jointly with Rupture Pin Technology Inc., Oklahoma City, to seek a solution to a series of safety, environmental, and operational risks in the transportation of crude oil and refined products through pipelines. Several of the identified problems were traced to a single equipment source: the reliability of rupture discs used at pipeline stations to relieve pressure by diverting flow to tanks during over-pressure conditions. Conoco's corporate safety and environmental policies requires solving problems that deal with exposure to hydrocarbon vapors, chemical spills or the atmospheric release of fugitive emissions, such as during rupture disc maintenance. The company had used rupture pin valves as vent relief devices in conjunction with development by Rick Austin of inert gas methods to protect the inner casing wall and outer carrier pipeline wall in pipeline road crossings. The design relies on rupture pin valves set at 5 psi to isolate vent openings from the atmosphere prior to purging the annular space between the pipeline and casing with inert gas to prevent corrosion. Speciality Pipeline Inspection and Engineering Inc., Houston, is licensed to distribute the equipment for the new cased-crossing procedure.

  7. Comparing Cars--Environmental and Cost Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaros, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    Most high school students are at an age when they are learning to drive. They often want to offer input when their parents decide on what vehicle to purchase, so the activity described in this article should have direct personal interest for them. It allows students to use technology and mathematics to determine the environmental impacts of…

  8. Treatment of environmental concerns expressed by the public

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report describes the means of dealing with environmental concerns addressed by the public. A number of specific concerns and their linkage to scientific/pollution issues are listed, as are a number of other environmental issues and their impacts.

  9. Environmental concerns drive project planning and design

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the measures used to retrofit and requalify a Northwest Pipeline Corp., pipeline near Seattle, Washington. The pipeline is a 26 inch transmission line which has lost operating pressure because of the growth in Seattle`s population. The pipeline was redesigned to requalify to a maximum pressure of 809 pounds per square inch. The paper describes the environmental issues faced during the construction and reconstruction efforts to protect wetlands and dispose of pipeline wastes. It describes the methods for cleaning the inside of the pipelines using various chemicals and cleaning tools.

  10. THE VARIED INFLUENCE OF SES ON ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cross-national studies have found positive relationships of socioeconomic status (SES) with environmental concern at the individual level but have not systematically examined how the relationships may differ across nations. Such comparisons have relevance to identifying the generality of theories of postmaterialism, affluence, and global environmentalism. Methods This study specifies how the individual-level influence of SES varies across national contexts and tests predictions using four waves of the World Values Survey on up to 96 nations. Results The results show that SES is associated only weakly with environmental concern in lower income nations with poor environmental conditions but is associated strongly and positively in higher income nations with better environmental conditions. Conclusion SES has a contingent relationship with environmental concern such that the global environmentalism theory receives support for lower income nations, while the postmaterialism and affluence theories receive support for higher income nations. PMID:24678128

  11. 10 CFR 51.67 - Environmental information concerning geologic repositories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... law, the Department of Energy may be required to supplement its final environmental impact statement... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental information concerning geologic repositories. 51.67 Section 51.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL...

  12. 10 CFR 51.67 - Environmental information concerning geologic repositories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental information concerning geologic repositories. 51.67 Section 51.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy...

  13. Rural-Urban Differences in Environmental Concern in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddart-Kennedy, Emily; Beckley, Thomas M.; McFarlane, Bonita L.; Nadeau, Solange

    2009-01-01

    Distinctions between rural and urban populations are well documented in environmental sociology literature. Rural and urban places may exert different influences on participation in environmentally supportive behavior (ESB) as well as on other forms of environmental concern (EC). The influence of these distinct geographies may be due to present…

  14. National income and environmental concern: Observations from 35 countries.

    PubMed

    Lo, Alex Y

    2016-10-01

    National income produces mixed impacts on public environmental concern. In a cross-national survey, environmental concern was measured in terms of propensity to act and environmental risk perception. Results of a multilevel regression analysis show that these two measures respond to gross domestic product per capita in opposite ways. Citizens of advanced industrial countries are more likely than those of lower-income countries to contribute to environmental protection. However, they are less likely to see the harmful impacts on the environment as very dangerous. Using an indicator of national adaptive capacity, this article demonstrates that environmental risk perception is a function of a country's estimated capacity for coping with condition changes. The stronger sense of collective security among citizens of wealthier nations offers a possible explanation for the negative effects of national income. These results indicate the complex relationship between development and public environmental concern across countries.

  15. Environmental Worldview and Concern of College Students in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Glenn L. Sia

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Most people profess to care for the environment, but there is considerable diversity on what people generally care for and the reasons for their concern. This study aims to understand college students' worldviews, attitudes, and perceptions and determine the factors affecting their environmental concern. The study aims to focus on college…

  16. Concern With Environmental Deterioration and Attitudes Toward Population Limitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Larry D.

    1970-01-01

    Analysis of Gallup Poll data of Junuary 1969 reveals weak association between concern about environmental deterioration and the recognition of need for eventual limitation of human population. Suggests that to increase favorable attitudes to population control, role of overpopulation in causing environmental deterioration needs to be presented to…

  17. Examining Influences on Environmental Concern and Career Choice among a Cohort of Environmental Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tarah S. A.; Wyatt, S. Lilith

    2008-01-01

    Although there is considerable literature discussing influence of environmental concern in the general population, and some literature specific to certain populations, to date there has not been a study that investigates the influences on environmental concern and career path for environmental scientists. With complex environmental issues becoming…

  18. The politics of environmental concern: A cross-national analysis*

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research in the U.S. has found that liberals are generally more environmentally concerned than conservatives. The present study explores whether conservatives’ opposition to environmental protection is solely a U.S. or a universal phenomenon and whether this association is contingent on country-level characteristics such as development, environmental conditions, and communist history. Employing data for 19 countries from the ISSP module “Environment II,” this paper explores inter-country variations in the relationship between individual conservatism and environmental concern using multilevel modeling with cross-level interactions. The models reveal a number of intriguing associations. Most important, conservatives’ support for environmental protection varies by country. This variation is a function of country-level characteristics. The strongest opposition of conservatives’ toward environmental protection was observed in developed, capitalist nations, with superior environmental conditions. On the other hand, in less developed countries, and countries characterized by poor environmental quality, conservatives are more environmentally concerned than liberals.

  19. The politics of environmental concern: A cross-national analysis*

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research in the U.S. has found that liberals are generally more environmentally concerned than conservatives. The present study explores whether conservatives’ opposition to environmental protection is solely a U.S. or a universal phenomenon and whether this association is contingent on country-level characteristics such as development, environmental conditions, and communist history. Employing data for 19 countries from the ISSP module “Environment II,” this paper explores inter-country variations in the relationship between individual conservatism and environmental concern using multilevel modeling with cross-level interactions. The models reveal a number of intriguing associations. Most important, conservatives’ support for environmental protection varies by country. This variation is a function of country-level characteristics. The strongest opposition of conservatives’ toward environmental protection was observed in developed, capitalist nations, with superior environmental conditions. On the other hand, in less developed countries, and countries characterized by poor environmental quality, conservatives are more environmentally concerned than liberals. PMID:27616877

  20. Environmental Justice: Co-evolution of Environmental Concerns and Social Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarokin, David J.; Schulkin, Jay

    1994-01-01

    Describes the coevolution of environmental concerns with civil rights that has found overlap in the environmental justice movement. Discusses implications for decision making and protecting both environmental quality and civil rights. (LZ)

  1. Food concerns and support for environmental food policies and purchasing.

    PubMed

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei C; Burton, Melissa

    2015-08-01

    Consumer support for pro environmental food policies and food purchasing are important for the adoption of successful environmental policies. This paper examines consumers' views of food policy options as their predisposition to purchase pro environmental foods along with their likely demographic, educational and cognitive antecedents including food and environmental concerns and universalism values (relating to care for others and the environment). An online survey to assess these constructs was conducted among 2204 Australian adults in November 2011. The findings showed strong levels of support for both environmental food policies (50%-78% support) and pro environmental food purchasing (51%-69% intending to purchase pro environmental foods). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling showed that different cognitive mediators exist along pathways between demographics and the two outcome variables. Support for food policy was positively related to food and environment concerns (std. Beta = 0.25), universalism (0.41), perceived control (0.07), and regulatory issues (0.64 but negatively with food security issues (-0.37). Environment purchasing intentions were positively linked to food and nutrition concerns (0.13), food and environment concerns (0.24), food safety concerns (0.19), food and animal welfare concerns (0.16), universalism (0.25), female gender (0.05), education (0.04), and perceived influence over the food system (0.17). In addition, health study in years 11 and 12 was positively related to the beginning of both of these pathways (0.07 for each). The results are discussed in relation to the opportunities that communications based on the mediating variables offer for the promotion of environmental food policies and purchasing.

  2. Food concerns and support for environmental food policies and purchasing.

    PubMed

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei C; Burton, Melissa

    2015-08-01

    Consumer support for pro environmental food policies and food purchasing are important for the adoption of successful environmental policies. This paper examines consumers' views of food policy options as their predisposition to purchase pro environmental foods along with their likely demographic, educational and cognitive antecedents including food and environmental concerns and universalism values (relating to care for others and the environment). An online survey to assess these constructs was conducted among 2204 Australian adults in November 2011. The findings showed strong levels of support for both environmental food policies (50%-78% support) and pro environmental food purchasing (51%-69% intending to purchase pro environmental foods). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling showed that different cognitive mediators exist along pathways between demographics and the two outcome variables. Support for food policy was positively related to food and environment concerns (std. Beta = 0.25), universalism (0.41), perceived control (0.07), and regulatory issues (0.64 but negatively with food security issues (-0.37). Environment purchasing intentions were positively linked to food and nutrition concerns (0.13), food and environment concerns (0.24), food safety concerns (0.19), food and animal welfare concerns (0.16), universalism (0.25), female gender (0.05), education (0.04), and perceived influence over the food system (0.17). In addition, health study in years 11 and 12 was positively related to the beginning of both of these pathways (0.07 for each). The results are discussed in relation to the opportunities that communications based on the mediating variables offer for the promotion of environmental food policies and purchasing. PMID:25841645

  3. Rural-Urban Differences in Environmental Concern: A Closer Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenburg, William R.; McGinn, Barbara

    This paper presents survey results from rural areas having significant levels of employment both in agriculture and in extraction industries (coal mining). Although a review of the literature suggests that rural residents may express lower levels of environmental concern than urban residents, one study proposed that rural residents in farm-related…

  4. Environmental Health concerns in natural and man-made environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergtholdt, C. P.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial hygene and environmental health aspects of ground operation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory were investigated. Major areas of concern are: (1) toxic substances, (2) noise pollution, (3) electromagnetic radiation; and (4) biohazards and sanitation. Each of these categories are also studied in a closed environment, such as encountered aboard of a spacecraft.

  5. Environmental Concern, Moral Education and Our Place in Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnett, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Some strands of environmental concern invite a radical re-evaluation of many taken for granted assumptions of late modern ways of life--particularly those that structure how we relate to the natural world. This article explores some of the implications of such a re-evaluation for our understanding of moral education by examining the significance…

  6. Environmental Concern and Sociodemographic Variables: A Study of Statistical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Chenyang; McCright, Aaron M.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of the social bases of environmental concern over the past 30 years have produced somewhat inconsistent results regarding the effects of sociodemographic variables, such as gender, income, and place of residence. The authors argue that model specification errors resulting from violation of two statistical assumptions (interval-level…

  7. Views on Environmental Concerns of University Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubrica, Maria Azucena B.; Lubrica, Joel V.

    2010-07-01

    The study investigated the views of graduate students on various environmental concerns. There were thirty (30) respondents, enrolled at Benguet State University of the Republic of the Philippines during the period March-May 2009, distributed as follows: nine for Master of Arts (MA) in Physics, two for MA General Science, fifteen for MA Mathematics, and four for MA Applied Statistics. There were ten males and twenty females. Likert-type responses for sixty-nine items were elicited through a questionnaire regarding levels of a) awareness, b) perceived knowledge, c) agreement, d) commitment, and e) expectations. Data analysis involved tests on means, based on the assumption that the responses were interval data. Results indicated that respondents lacked awareness about important national documents (such as Philippine Agenda 21 and Philippine Environment Code), perceived that they had a great knowledge of environmental topics (e.g., climate change and global warming), agreed to various environmental issues (involving balance of nature and sustainable development, among others), held a strong commitment to do action (especially in terms of integrating environmental education with their classes, if they were teachers), and held great expectations of the University's roles as an Organic Agriculture University (such as integrating environmental concerns in the curriculum, or introducing adaptation strategies for dealing with environmental problems, among others). In general, the respondents held similar perceptions, whether grouped according to sex or degree program. The major implication is that the MA Physics program, like the other three, can be a fertile ground for the inclusion of environmental concerns, towards the goal of producing solutions for both local and global challenges.

  8. Assisting a concerned person to motivate someone experiencing cybersex into treatment: application of invitational intervention: the arise model to cybersex.

    PubMed

    Landau, Judith; Garrett, James; Webb, Robert

    2008-10-01

    Cybersex and Internet pornography addiction are new problem areas confronting couples and families. A most significant experience inducing family members to reach out to a therapist or an Interventionist for help with their addicted member is the realization that the individual they are living with has become a stranger. This article focuses on the changes in the attitude, emotions, and behaviors of the addicted individual from compulsive Internet pornography use and cybersex. Identifying these changes for the family members validates their experience of now living with a stranger. This article then presents the three-level empirically based, manual-driven method of Invitational Intervention, A Relational Intervention Sequence for Engagement (ARISE) as an effective tool for helping families to get their loved ones into treatment. PMID:19017188

  9. Individual environmental concern in the world polity: A multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Givens, Jennifer E; Jorgenson, Andrew K

    2013-03-01

    The authors assess the extent to which national-level integration in the world polity influences individual-level concern for the environment. While theoretically-derived propositions about such relationships have a deep history in comparative sociology, they-with few exceptions-remain untested. Consistent with past research, employed national-level measures of world polity integration include the relative presence of environmental international nongovernmental organizations (EINGOs) and the existence of environmental ministries. Results of multilevel analyses of individual-level environmental concern in 37 nations indicate that both forms of world polity integration increase the likelihood of individual-level environmental concern, net of other national-level factors and individual-level characteristics; although we find stronger support for the influence of EINGOs as a key variable indicating world polity connection. The findings provide unique support for world polity theory, suggesting that future research should consider how elements of world polity integration influence other forms of individual attitudes and behaviors. The results also highlight the importance in considering global and transnational factors when assessing the determinants of individual attitudes about the environment.

  10. Affluence and objective environmental conditions: Evidence of differences in environmental concern in metropolitan Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Guedes, Gilvan; do Carmo, Roberto Luiz

    2016-01-01

    In an age of climate change, researchers need to form a deepened understanding of the determinants of environmental concern, particularly in countries of emerging economies. This paper provides a region-specific investigation of the impact of socio-economic status (SES) and objective environmental conditions on environmental concern in urban Brazil. We make use of data that were collected from personal interviews of individuals living in the metropolitan areas of Baixada Santista and Campinas, in the larger São Paulo area. Results from multilevel regression models indicate that wealthier households are more environmentally concerned, as suggested by affluence and post-materialist hypotheses. However, we also observe that increasing environmental concern correlates with a decline in objective environmental conditions. Interactions between objective environmental conditions and SES reveal some intriguing relationships: Among poorer individuals, a decline in environmental conditions increases environmental concern as suggested by the objective problems hypothesis, while for the wealthy, a decline in environmental conditions is associated with lower levels of environmental concern.

  11. Affluence and objective environmental conditions: Evidence of differences in environmental concern in metropolitan Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Guedes, Gilvan; do Carmo, Roberto Luiz

    2016-01-01

    In an age of climate change, researchers need to form a deepened understanding of the determinants of environmental concern, particularly in countries of emerging economies. This paper provides a region-specific investigation of the impact of socio-economic status (SES) and objective environmental conditions on environmental concern in urban Brazil. We make use of data that were collected from personal interviews of individuals living in the metropolitan areas of Baixada Santista and Campinas, in the larger São Paulo area. Results from multilevel regression models indicate that wealthier households are more environmentally concerned, as suggested by affluence and post-materialist hypotheses. However, we also observe that increasing environmental concern correlates with a decline in objective environmental conditions. Interactions between objective environmental conditions and SES reveal some intriguing relationships: Among poorer individuals, a decline in environmental conditions increases environmental concern as suggested by the objective problems hypothesis, while for the wealthy, a decline in environmental conditions is associated with lower levels of environmental concern. PMID:27594931

  12. Measuring Values-Based Environmental Concerns in Children: An Environmental Motives Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruni, Coral M.; Chance, Randie C.; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2012-01-01

    The Environmental Motives Scale (EMS) was developed to measure an individual's concerns about environmental issues. The measure provides subscale scores for egoistic, social-altruistic, and biospheric concerns. Prior studies have shown a good fit for the 3-factor structure, but the measure has yet to be used with children. In this paper we report…

  13. Environmental health concerns of the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed Central

    Young, R. C.; Rachal, R. E.; Huguley, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental health concerns in the Persian Gulf are peculiar to the geography of the region. Prevention of heat and solar injury deserves primary consideration, but cold injury also may occur in the desert. Immunizations are recommended against a number of diseases, while malarial chemoprophylaxis is necessary in Iraq and Kuwait. In addition to malaria, other parasitic diseases deserve consideration. Diarrheal diseases, diseases from the desert dust, and products of infected desert animals are of concern. Additional natural hazards are venomous bites from scorpions and desert snakes. Finally, threats of enemy action necessitated protection from nuclear biological and chemical weapons and LASER eye/skin injury. Unexploded ordinance will constitute a continuing hazard into the future. Images Figure 2 PMID:1495114

  14. Environmental health concerns of the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Young, R C; Rachal, R E; Huguley, J W

    1992-05-01

    Environmental health concerns in the Persian Gulf are peculiar to the geography of the region. Prevention of heat and solar injury deserves primary consideration, but cold injury also may occur in the desert. Immunizations are recommended against a number of diseases, while malarial chemoprophylaxis is necessary in Iraq and Kuwait. In addition to malaria, other parasitic diseases deserve consideration. Diarrheal diseases, diseases from the desert dust, and products of infected desert animals are of concern. Additional natural hazards are venomous bites from scorpions and desert snakes. Finally, threats of enemy action necessitated protection from nuclear biological and chemical weapons and LASER eye/skin injury. Unexploded ordinance will constitute a continuing hazard into the future. PMID:1495114

  15. Environmental health concerns of the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Young, R C; Rachal, R E; Huguley, J W

    1992-05-01

    Environmental health concerns in the Persian Gulf are peculiar to the geography of the region. Prevention of heat and solar injury deserves primary consideration, but cold injury also may occur in the desert. Immunizations are recommended against a number of diseases, while malarial chemoprophylaxis is necessary in Iraq and Kuwait. In addition to malaria, other parasitic diseases deserve consideration. Diarrheal diseases, diseases from the desert dust, and products of infected desert animals are of concern. Additional natural hazards are venomous bites from scorpions and desert snakes. Finally, threats of enemy action necessitated protection from nuclear biological and chemical weapons and LASER eye/skin injury. Unexploded ordinance will constitute a continuing hazard into the future.

  16. Public Perception of Environmental Issues in a Developing Setting: Environmental Concern in Coastal Ghana.

    PubMed

    White, Michael J; Hunter, Lori M

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: Balancing environmental quality with economic growth in less developed settings is clearly a challenge. Still surprisingly little empirical evidence has been brought to bear on the relative priority given environmental and socioeconomic issues among the residents themselves of such settings. This research explores such perceptions. METHODS: We undertake survey research with 2500 residents of coastal Ghana on policy issues, focusing on environmental topics. RESULTS: Our analyses reveal a significant amount of environmental awareness, with education and political engagement consistently predicting higher levels of concern. In addition, environmental issues are deemed important even when considered relative to other socioeconomic issues. CONCLUSION: In the end, we argue that our work sheds light on global environmentalism and the ways in which local populations in less developed settings prioritize social and environmental concerns. This work also has important policy implications since insight on local perceptions may help buttress policy responses designed to cope with global change. PMID:22639472

  17. Public Perception of Environmental Issues in a Developing Setting: Environmental Concern in Coastal Ghana

    PubMed Central

    White, Michael J.; Hunter, Lori M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Balancing environmental quality with economic growth in less developed settings is clearly a challenge. Still surprisingly little empirical evidence has been brought to bear on the relative priority given environmental and socioeconomic issues among the residents themselves of such settings. This research explores such perceptions. Methods We undertake survey research with 2500 residents of coastal Ghana on policy issues, focusing on environmental topics. Results Our analyses reveal a significant amount of environmental awareness, with education and political engagement consistently predicting higher levels of concern. In addition, environmental issues are deemed important even when considered relative to other socioeconomic issues. Conclusion In the end, we argue that our work sheds light on global environmentalism and the ways in which local populations in less developed settings prioritize social and environmental concerns. This work also has important policy implications since insight on local perceptions may help buttress policy responses designed to cope with global change. PMID:22639472

  18. Public Perception of Environmental Issues in a Developing Setting: Environmental Concern in Coastal Ghana.

    PubMed

    White, Michael J; Hunter, Lori M

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: Balancing environmental quality with economic growth in less developed settings is clearly a challenge. Still surprisingly little empirical evidence has been brought to bear on the relative priority given environmental and socioeconomic issues among the residents themselves of such settings. This research explores such perceptions. METHODS: We undertake survey research with 2500 residents of coastal Ghana on policy issues, focusing on environmental topics. RESULTS: Our analyses reveal a significant amount of environmental awareness, with education and political engagement consistently predicting higher levels of concern. In addition, environmental issues are deemed important even when considered relative to other socioeconomic issues. CONCLUSION: In the end, we argue that our work sheds light on global environmentalism and the ways in which local populations in less developed settings prioritize social and environmental concerns. This work also has important policy implications since insight on local perceptions may help buttress policy responses designed to cope with global change.

  19. Overview of the environmental concerns of coal transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bertram, K.; Dauzvardis, P.; Fradkin, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-02-01

    More than 30 environmental concerns were analyzed for the transportation of coal by rail, roads (trucks), high voltage transmission lines (that is, from mine-mouth generating plants to distribution networks), coal slurry pipelines, and barges. The following criteria were used to identify these problems: (1) real physical environmetal impacts for which control technologies must be developed, or regulation made effective where control technologies presently exist; (2) the level of impact is uncertain, although the potential impact may be moderate to high; (3) the concerns identified by the first two criteria are specific to or exacerbated by coal transportation. Generic transportation problems are not included. The significant environmental problems identified as a result of this study are: (1) rail transport - community traffic disruption and human health, safety, and habitat destruction; (2) coal haul roads - road degradation, traffic congestion and safety, air quality, and noise; (3) high voltage transmission lines - changed land use without local benefits, biological health and safety effects, and disruption of world weather patterns; (4) slurry pipelines - water availability, water quality, and possible spills from non-water slurry pipelines; and (5) barge transport - impacts common to all barge traffic. (DMC)

  20. Environmental Perceptions of Rural South African Residents: The Complex Nature of Environmental Concern

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lori M.; Strife, Susie; Twine, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The state of the local environment shapes the well-being of millions of rural residents in developing nations. Still, we know little of these individuals’ environmental perceptions. This study analyzes survey data collected in an impoverished, rural region in northeast South Africa, to understand the factors that shape concern with local environmental issues. We use the “post-materialist thesis” to explore the different explanations for environmental concern in less developed regions of the world, with results revealing the importance of both cultural and physical context. In particular, gendered interaction with natural resources shapes perceptions, as does the local setting. Both theoretical and policy implications are discussed. PMID:20514147

  1. Environmental remediation: Addressing public concerns through effective community relations

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.; Heywood, J.; Wood, M.B.; Arellano, M.; Pfister, S.

    1998-12-31

    The public`s perception of risk drives their response to any potential environmental remediation project. Even if the actual environmental and health risks may be relatively low, public perception of high risk may doom the project to an uphill struggle characterized by heated public meetings, negative media coverage, reluctant regulators, project delays and increased costs. The ultimate Catch 22 in such a case is that the contamination remains in-place until the public drama is concluded. This paper explores the development and implementation of a Community Relations Plan for the clean up of a Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) site owned and operated by corporate predecessors of Arizona Public Service Company (APS) near the turn of the century. The unique challenges associated with this project were that the former MGP was located in downtown Phoenix at the site of a future federal courthouse. Although the MGP site had been under investigation for some time, the clean-up schedule was driven by a tight courthouse construction schedule. Compounding these challenges were the logistics associated with conducting a large-scale cleanup in a congested, highly visible downtown location. An effective Community Relations Plan can mean the difference between the success and failure of an environmental remediation project. Elements of an effective plan are: identifying key stakeholders and involving them in the project from the beginning; providing timely information and being open and honest about the potential environmental and health risks; involving your company`s community relations and media staff; and educating affected company employees. The Community Relations Plan developed for this project was designed to alleviate public concern about potential risks (perceived or real) associated with the project by keeping key stakeholders informed of all activities well in advance.

  2. Addressing environmental health concerns near Trecatti landfill site, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Fielder, H M; Palmer, S R; Poon-King, C; Moss, N; Coleman, G

    2001-01-01

    Residents near the Trecatti landfill site located in South Wales, United Kingdom, expressed concern about odors and health effects they attributed to site emissions. The authors compared routinely collected, population-based, health data from potentially exposed electoral wards (i.e., United Kingdom electoral tracts) with data from both wards nearby, matched for socioeconomic deprivation scores, and with wards where residents were likely to attend the same hospital. Mortality rates were higher for all causes and neoplastic diseases (but not respiratory disease) in the exposed wards, but there was no change in rates after the site opened. Hospital data revealed a transient increase in admissions for asthma during the 3 yr that preceded the peak in odor complaints. The birth prevalence of congenital malformations was raised in the exposed wards, but the authors could not exclude a possible artifact resulting from differences in reporting practices between hospitals. The absence of environmental monitoring in the community during the period of public concern was a significant weakness of this study. PMID:11958553

  3. Addressing environmental health concerns near Trecatti landfill site, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Fielder, H M; Palmer, S R; Poon-King, C; Moss, N; Coleman, G

    2001-01-01

    Residents near the Trecatti landfill site located in South Wales, United Kingdom, expressed concern about odors and health effects they attributed to site emissions. The authors compared routinely collected, population-based, health data from potentially exposed electoral wards (i.e., United Kingdom electoral tracts) with data from both wards nearby, matched for socioeconomic deprivation scores, and with wards where residents were likely to attend the same hospital. Mortality rates were higher for all causes and neoplastic diseases (but not respiratory disease) in the exposed wards, but there was no change in rates after the site opened. Hospital data revealed a transient increase in admissions for asthma during the 3 yr that preceded the peak in odor complaints. The birth prevalence of congenital malformations was raised in the exposed wards, but the authors could not exclude a possible artifact resulting from differences in reporting practices between hospitals. The absence of environmental monitoring in the community during the period of public concern was a significant weakness of this study.

  4. Contextual influences on environmental concerns cross-nationally: A multilevel investigation.

    PubMed

    Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra T

    2012-09-01

    Environmental issues continue to grow in international prominence, as environmental conditions are recognized as some of the most important problems facing the world. Research examining this globalization of environmental concern shown in public opinion surveys emphasizes the importance of context yet is currently underspecified. To address this gap, this research uses a multi-level, cross-national study to examine individual-level and country-level influences on three measures of environmental concern: environmental threat awareness, environmental efficacy, and willingness to pay. At the individual level, education, age, and gender affect environmental concerns. At the national level, economic, political, and environmental factors affect environmental concerns. Importantly, contextual factors differ in their effects depending on the dimension of environmental concern measured. Results from cross-level interactions for education confirm these complexities across these measures, supporting a dimensionality argument. The importance of the measurement of environmental concern shown in this research is emphasized for future cross-national scholarship. PMID:23017919

  5. Environmental concerns of desalinating seawater using reverse osmosis.

    PubMed

    Tularam, Gurudeo Anand; Ilahee, Mahbub

    2007-08-01

    This Critical Review on environmental concerns of desalination plants suggests that planning and monitoring stages are critical aspects of successful management and operation of plants. The site for the desalination plants should be selected carefully and should be away from residential areas particularly for forward planning for possible future expansions. The concerning issues identified are noise pollution, visual pollution, reduction in recreational fishing and swimming areas, emission of materials into the atmosphere, the brine discharge and types of disposal methods used are the main cause of pollution. The reverse osmosis (RO) method is the preferred option in modern times especially when fossil fuels are becoming expensive. The RO has other positives such as better efficiency (30-50%) when compared with distillation type plants (10-30%). However, the RO membranes are susceptible to fouling and scaling and as such they need to be cleaned with chemicals regularly that may be toxic to receiving waters. The input and output water in desalination plants have to be pre and post treated, respectively. This involves treating for pH, coagulants, Cl, Cu, organics, CO(2), H(2)S and hypoxia. The by-product of the plant is mainly brine with concentration at times twice that of seawater. This discharge also includes traces of various chemicals used in cleaning including any anticorrosion products used in the plant and has to be treated to acceptable levels of each chemical before discharge but acceptable levels vary depending on receiving waters and state regulations. The discharge of the brine is usually done by a long pipe far into the sea or at the coastline. Either way the high density of the discharge reaches the bottom layers of receiving waters and may affect marine life particularly at the bottom layers or boundaries. The longer term effects of such discharge concentrate has not been documented but it is possible that small traces of toxic substances used in the

  6. Environmental concerns of desalinating seawater using reverse osmosis.

    PubMed

    Tularam, Gurudeo Anand; Ilahee, Mahbub

    2007-08-01

    This Critical Review on environmental concerns of desalination plants suggests that planning and monitoring stages are critical aspects of successful management and operation of plants. The site for the desalination plants should be selected carefully and should be away from residential areas particularly for forward planning for possible future expansions. The concerning issues identified are noise pollution, visual pollution, reduction in recreational fishing and swimming areas, emission of materials into the atmosphere, the brine discharge and types of disposal methods used are the main cause of pollution. The reverse osmosis (RO) method is the preferred option in modern times especially when fossil fuels are becoming expensive. The RO has other positives such as better efficiency (30-50%) when compared with distillation type plants (10-30%). However, the RO membranes are susceptible to fouling and scaling and as such they need to be cleaned with chemicals regularly that may be toxic to receiving waters. The input and output water in desalination plants have to be pre and post treated, respectively. This involves treating for pH, coagulants, Cl, Cu, organics, CO(2), H(2)S and hypoxia. The by-product of the plant is mainly brine with concentration at times twice that of seawater. This discharge also includes traces of various chemicals used in cleaning including any anticorrosion products used in the plant and has to be treated to acceptable levels of each chemical before discharge but acceptable levels vary depending on receiving waters and state regulations. The discharge of the brine is usually done by a long pipe far into the sea or at the coastline. Either way the high density of the discharge reaches the bottom layers of receiving waters and may affect marine life particularly at the bottom layers or boundaries. The longer term effects of such discharge concentrate has not been documented but it is possible that small traces of toxic substances used in the

  7. Young Voices: The Challenges and Opportunities That Arise in Early Childhood Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boileau, Elizabeth Yvonne Shaw

    2013-01-01

    The number of early childhood environmental education programs are on the rise in Canada and although young children have been quite marginalized from environmental education research, better understanding young children's relationships with the natural world is increasingly seen as important. Including young children themselves in research is…

  8. Environmental Behavior's Dirty Secret: The Prevalence of Waste Management in Discussions of Environmental Concern and Action.

    PubMed

    Gould, Rachelle K; Ardoin, Nicole M; Biggar, Matt; Cravens, Amanda E; Wojcik, Deb

    2016-08-01

    Humankind and the planet face many thorny environmentally related challenges that require a range of responses, including changing behaviors related to transportation, eating habits, purchasing, and myriad other aspects of life. Using data from a 1201-person survey and 14 Community Listening Sessions (CLSs), we explore people's perceptions of and actions taken to protect the environment. Our data indicate a striking prevalence of waste management-related actions. Survey respondents described actions and concerns related to trash, recycling, and composting as the most common environmental behaviors; similarly, participants in CLSs discussed waste-related topics, for which we did not prompt, as frequently as those topics for which we specifically prompted. Explanations for this prevalence emerging from the data include (1) the nature of waste-related behaviors (concrete, supported by infrastructure, simple, compatible with lifestyle); (2) norms and social dynamics (family interactions, feelings of belonging/participation, government policy); and (3) internal psychological processes (internalized norms and environmental concern). We also found that many waste-related discussions were relatively superficial, focusing on immediate waste-related issues (e.g., litter or recycling) rather than larger issues such as consumption. Our results may provide insight into future efforts to encourage pro-environmental behavior. Given that most pro-environmental behavior involves tasks more complex and lifestyle-changing than those related to simple aspects of waste management, we suggest focusing on the latter two intertwined categories that our data suggest are important: encouraging social dynamics and related development of norms concerning environmental behavior (category 2), and fostering internalized norms and environmental concern (category 3).

  9. Environmental Behavior's Dirty Secret: The Prevalence of Waste Management in Discussions of Environmental Concern and Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Rachelle K.; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Biggar, Matt; Cravens, Amanda E.; Wojcik, Deb

    2016-08-01

    Humankind and the planet face many thorny environmentally related challenges that require a range of responses, including changing behaviors related to transportation, eating habits, purchasing, and myriad other aspects of life. Using data from a 1201-person survey and 14 Community Listening Sessions (CLSs), we explore people's perceptions of and actions taken to protect the environment. Our data indicate a striking prevalence of waste management-related actions. Survey respondents described actions and concerns related to trash, recycling, and composting as the most common environmental behaviors; similarly, participants in CLSs discussed waste-related topics, for which we did not prompt, as frequently as those topics for which we specifically prompted. Explanations for this prevalence emerging from the data include (1) the nature of waste-related behaviors (concrete, supported by infrastructure, simple, compatible with lifestyle); (2) norms and social dynamics (family interactions, feelings of belonging/participation, government policy); and (3) internal psychological processes (internalized norms and environmental concern). We also found that many waste-related discussions were relatively superficial, focusing on immediate waste-related issues (e.g., litter or recycling) rather than larger issues such as consumption. Our results may provide insight into future efforts to encourage pro-environmental behavior. Given that most pro-environmental behavior involves tasks more complex and lifestyle-changing than those related to simple aspects of waste management, we suggest focusing on the latter two intertwined categories that our data suggest are important: encouraging social dynamics and related development of norms concerning environmental behavior (category 2), and fostering internalized norms and environmental concern (category 3).

  10. Environmental Behavior's Dirty Secret: The Prevalence of Waste Management in Discussions of Environmental Concern and Action.

    PubMed

    Gould, Rachelle K; Ardoin, Nicole M; Biggar, Matt; Cravens, Amanda E; Wojcik, Deb

    2016-08-01

    Humankind and the planet face many thorny environmentally related challenges that require a range of responses, including changing behaviors related to transportation, eating habits, purchasing, and myriad other aspects of life. Using data from a 1201-person survey and 14 Community Listening Sessions (CLSs), we explore people's perceptions of and actions taken to protect the environment. Our data indicate a striking prevalence of waste management-related actions. Survey respondents described actions and concerns related to trash, recycling, and composting as the most common environmental behaviors; similarly, participants in CLSs discussed waste-related topics, for which we did not prompt, as frequently as those topics for which we specifically prompted. Explanations for this prevalence emerging from the data include (1) the nature of waste-related behaviors (concrete, supported by infrastructure, simple, compatible with lifestyle); (2) norms and social dynamics (family interactions, feelings of belonging/participation, government policy); and (3) internal psychological processes (internalized norms and environmental concern). We also found that many waste-related discussions were relatively superficial, focusing on immediate waste-related issues (e.g., litter or recycling) rather than larger issues such as consumption. Our results may provide insight into future efforts to encourage pro-environmental behavior. Given that most pro-environmental behavior involves tasks more complex and lifestyle-changing than those related to simple aspects of waste management, we suggest focusing on the latter two intertwined categories that our data suggest are important: encouraging social dynamics and related development of norms concerning environmental behavior (category 2), and fostering internalized norms and environmental concern (category 3). PMID:27234803

  11. Investigating Environmental Concerns and Health Issues in Clarksville, Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Shirley A.; Jones, Robert Emmet

    2005-01-01

    Environmental degradation is a serious problem for millions of people who are unjustly exposed to environmental conditions that threaten their everyday survival. A growing body of research shows race and class as significant predictors to exposure to environmental hazards and associated health problems. Presented are perceptions of environmental…

  12. 10 CFR 51.67 - Environmental information concerning geologic repositories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... submit to the Commission any final environmental impact statement which the Department prepares in... law, the Department of Energy may be required to supplement its final environmental impact statement... environmental impact statement to the Commission. (See § 60.22 or § 63.22 of this chapter as to the...

  13. 10 CFR 51.67 - Environmental information concerning geologic repositories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... submit to the Commission any final environmental impact statement which the Department prepares in... law, the Department of Energy may be required to supplement its final environmental impact statement... environmental impact statement to the Commission. (See § 60.22 or § 63.22 of this chapter as to the...

  14. Model of Environmental Problems Priority Arising from the use of Environmental and Natural Resources in Machinery Sectors of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutthichaimethee, Pruethsan; Sawangdee, Yothin

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to evaluate environmental impacts from the Machinery sectors of Thailand, leading to more sustainable consumption and production in this sector of the economy. The factors used to calculate the Forward Linkage, Backward Linkage and Real Benefit were the Total Environmental Costs. The highest total environmental cost was Railway Equipment which needs to be resolved immediately because it uses natural resources more than its carrying capacity, higher environmental cost than standard, and contributes low real benefit. Electric Accumulator & Battery, Secondary Special Industrial Machinery, Motorcycle, Bicycle & Other Carriages, and Engines and Turbines need to be monitored closely because they are able to link to other production sectors more than any other production sectors do, and they have high environmental cost. To decide a sustainable development strategy of the country, therefore, results of this research must be used to support decision-making.

  15. Sex Differences in Environmental Concern and Knowledge: The Case of Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcury, Thomas A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents results of a telephone survey of 516 adults which focused on sex differences in concern and knowledge about one environmental issue, acid rain. The findings contradict predictions that women are more concerned about environmental issues: if there is a sex difference, men are found to be more concerned and knowledgeable about acid rain.…

  16. Environmental justice and health practices: understanding how health inequities arise at the local level.

    PubMed

    Frohlich, Katherine L; Abel, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    While empirical evidence continues to show that people living in low socio-economic status neighbourhoods are less likely to engage in health-enhancing behaviour, our understanding of why this is so remains less than clear. We suggest that two changes could take place to move from description to understanding in this field; (i) a move away from the established concept of individual health behaviour to a contextualised understanding of health practices; and (ii) a switch from focusing on health inequalities in outcomes to health inequities in conditions. We apply Pierre Bourdieu's theory on capital interaction but find it insufficient with regard to the role of agency for structural change. We therefore introduce Amartya Sen's capability approach as a useful link between capital interaction theory and action to reduce social inequities in health-related practices. Sen's capability theory also elucidates the importance of discussing unequal chances in terms of inequity, rather than inequality, in order to underscore the moral nature of inequalities. We draw on the discussion in social geography on environmental injustice, which also underscores the moral nature of the spatial distribution of opportunities. The article ends by applying this approach to the 'Interdisciplinary study of inequalities in smoking' framework. PMID:24372359

  17. Environmental justice and health practices: understanding how health inequities arise at the local level.

    PubMed

    Frohlich, Katherine L; Abel, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    While empirical evidence continues to show that people living in low socio-economic status neighbourhoods are less likely to engage in health-enhancing behaviour, our understanding of why this is so remains less than clear. We suggest that two changes could take place to move from description to understanding in this field; (i) a move away from the established concept of individual health behaviour to a contextualised understanding of health practices; and (ii) a switch from focusing on health inequalities in outcomes to health inequities in conditions. We apply Pierre Bourdieu's theory on capital interaction but find it insufficient with regard to the role of agency for structural change. We therefore introduce Amartya Sen's capability approach as a useful link between capital interaction theory and action to reduce social inequities in health-related practices. Sen's capability theory also elucidates the importance of discussing unequal chances in terms of inequity, rather than inequality, in order to underscore the moral nature of inequalities. We draw on the discussion in social geography on environmental injustice, which also underscores the moral nature of the spatial distribution of opportunities. The article ends by applying this approach to the 'Interdisciplinary study of inequalities in smoking' framework.

  18. ARISE antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Arthur B.; Noca, Muriel; Ulvestad, James

    2000-03-01

    Supermassive black holes are among the most spectacular objects in the Universe, and are laboratories for physics in extreme conditions. Understanding the physics of massive black holes and related phenomena is a primary goal of the ARISE mission. The scientific goals of the mission are described in detail on the ARISE web site http://arise.ipl.nasa.gov and in the ARISE Science Goals document. The following paper, as the title suggests, is not intended to be a comprehensive description of ARISE, but deals only with one aspect of the ARISE mission-the inflatable antenna which is the key element of the ARISE spacecraft. This spacecraft,due to the extensive reliance on inflatables, may be considered as the first generation Gossamer spacecraft

  19. Environmental impacts on soil and groundwater at airports: origin, contaminants of concern and environmental risks.

    PubMed

    Nunes, L M; Zhu, Y-G; Stigter, T Y; Monteiro, J P; Teixeira, M R

    2011-11-01

    Environmental impacts of airports are similar to those of many industries, though their operations expand over a very large area. Most international impact assessment studies and environmental management programmes have been giving less focus on the impacts to soil and groundwater than desirable. This may be the result of the large attention given to air and noise pollution, relegating other environmental descriptors to a second role, even when the first are comparatively less relevant. One reason that contributes to such "biased" evaluation is the lack of systematic information about impacts to soil and groundwater from airport activities, something the present study intends to help correct. Results presented here include the review of over seven hundred documents and online databases, with the objective of obtaining the following information to support environmental studies: (i) which operations are responsible for chemical releases?; (ii) where are these releases located?; (iii) which contaminants of concern are released?; (iv) what are the associated environmental risks? Results showed that the main impacts occur as a result of fuel storage, stormwater runoff and drainage systems, fuel hydrant systems, fuel transport and refuelling, atmospheric deposition, rescue and fire fighting training areas, winter operations, electrical substations, storage of chemical products by airport owners or tenants, and maintenance of green areas. A new method for ranking environmental risks of organic substances, based on chemical properties, is proposed and applied. Results show that the contaminants with the highest risks are the perfluorochemicals, benzene, trichloroethylene and CCl(4). The obtained information provides a basis for establishing the planning and checking phases of environmental management systems, and may also help in the best design of pollution prevention measures in order to avoid or reduce significant environmental impacts from airports.

  20. Environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity: potential public health concerns

    PubMed Central

    Marczylo, Emma L.; Jacobs, Miriam N.; Gant, Timothy W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Throughout our lives, epigenetic processes shape our development and enable us to adapt to a constantly changing environment. Identifying and understanding environmentally induced epigenetic change(s) that may lead to adverse outcomes is vital for protecting public health. This review, therefore, examines the present understanding of epigenetic mechanisms involved in the mammalian life cycle, evaluates the current evidence for environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity in human cohorts and rodent models and highlights the research considerations and implications of this emerging knowledge for public health and regulatory toxicology. Many hundreds of studies have investigated such toxicity, yet relatively few have demonstrated a mechanistic association among specific environmental exposures, epigenetic changes and adverse health outcomes in human epidemiological cohorts and/or rodent models. While this small body of evidence is largely composed of exploratory in vivo high-dose range studies, it does set a precedent for the existence of environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity. Consequently, there is worldwide recognition of this phenomenon, and discussion on how to both guide further scientific research towards a greater mechanistic understanding of environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity in humans, and translate relevant research outcomes into appropriate regulatory policies for effective public health protection. PMID:27278298

  1. An Educational Tool for Outdoor Education and Environmental Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Klas; Ohman, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest an outdoor education model that respects the need to critically discuss the general belief in a causal relationship between experiences of nature, environmentally-friendly attitudes and behavioural change, but that at the same time respects the legitimate claims on the part of outdoor education practice for…

  2. Including environmental concerns in management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, M.; Avci, H.I.; Bradley, C.E.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major programs within the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) management program. The program is intended to find a long-term management strategy for the DUF{sub 6} that is currently stored in approximately 46,400 cylinders at Paducah, KY; Portsmouth, OH; and Oak Ridge, TN, USA. The program has four major components: technology assessment, engineering analysis, cost analysis, and the environmental impact statement (EIS). From the beginning of the program, the DOE has incorporated the environmental considerations into the process of strategy selection. Currently, the DOE has no preferred alternative. The results of the environmental impacts assessment from the EIS, as well as the results from the other components of the program, will be factored into the strategy selection process. In addition to the DOE`s current management plan, other alternatives continued storage, reuse, or disposal of depleted uranium, will be considered in the EIS. The EIS is expected to be completed and issued in its final form in the fall of 1997.

  3. Effects of Recreation Participation and Tildenian Interpretation on Tourists' Environmental Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satchabut, Thitikan

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from correlational studies suggests outdoor recreation may enhance participants' environmental concern, but findings are inconclusive. Also, previous research has not systematically addressed the influence of interpretation services on environmental concern, and little research has been conducted in developing Eastern countries.…

  4. The Social Basis of Agro-Environmental Concern: Physical versus Social Proximity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Jeff; Adua, Lazarus

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we explore the social basis of environmental concern, specifically focusing on attitudes about the agricultural environment in relation to an individual's geographic and social distance from agriculture. We also consider the significance of rural recreational behaviors in relation to agro-environmental concern. The analysis, based…

  5. Site Acquisition and Related Environmental Concerns. Report of the Joint Legislative Audit Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Legislature, Sacramento. Joint Legislative Audit Committee.

    A public hearing of California's Joint Legislative Audit Committee examined land acquisition policy and practice in relation to new school construction projects during which the following two areas of concern were identified: (1) acquiring land for new schools in congested urban settings; and (2) managing the conflict that may arise from local,…

  6. Below Regulatory Concern Owners Group: Nonradiologic characterization and environmental assessment of BRC (Below-Regulatory Concern) waste: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.F.; Vogt, D.K.

    1989-02-01

    EPRI is characterizing nonradiologic properties and assessing the environmental impact of candidate BRC waste types in support of a utility rulemaking petition. Recent investigations confirmed that these chemical and physical properties resembled those of conventional wastes and would not preclude disposal by conventional methods. In accordance with the NRC policy statement on below regulatory concern (BRC) waste, petitions to exempt certain wastes from low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal regulations must include an assessment of the waste's nonradiologic properties. Petitions must also assure no significant environmental impact from BRC waste disposal, compatibility of the nonradiologic properties with the intended method of disposal, and negligible potential for recycling. This document characterizes the nonradiologic properties of candidate BRC waste types, as well as the properties of conventional waste and other materials associated with BRC waste disposal, and performs an environmental impact assessment of BRC waste disposal options.

  7. Genetically modified crops: environmental and human health concerns.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, João Lúcio; Araujo, Welington Luiz

    2003-11-01

    About 10,000 years ago subsistence farmers started to domesticate plants and it was only much later, after the discovery of the fundaments of genetics, those organisms were submitted to rational genetic improvement mainly by selecting of traits of interest. Breeders used appropriate gene combinations to produce new animal races, plant varieties and hybrids, as well as improved microorganisms such as yeasts. After the introduction of recombinant DNA techniques, the transfer of DNA between species belonging to different genera, families or kingdoms became possible. The release of transgenic plants has aroused debates about several aspects of the environmental and human risks that could result from the introduction of genetically modified crops. Less effort has been dedicated to evaluate the impact of transgenic plants on their associated microorganisms, some of which (e.g. nitrogen-fixing bacteria, mycorrhizal fungi and endophytic microbiota) are extremely important for the survival of the plant. Investigations have been made regarding the horizontal transfer of genetic material between transgenic plants and microorganisms and on the disturbance of useful symbiotic associations between plants and endophytic, epiphytic and rhizosphere communities. In most cases the results do no show any adverse effect of transgenic plants on autochthonous plant-associated microorganisms. Results from our laboratory show small changes caused by genetically modified endophytic bacteria on the indigenous endophytic population of the sweet orange Citrus sinensis. In tests using appropriated fungal strains preliminary results using extracts from transgenic plants indicate that these plants do not affect haploidization, mitotic crossing-over, mutation rate or chromosomal alterations.

  8. An urban survey of paediatric environmental health concerns: Perceptions of parents, guardians and health care professionals

    PubMed Central

    Buka, Irena; Rogers, W Todd; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R; Hoffman, Harold; Pearce, Marni; Li, Yuen Yee

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To conduct a survey in Edmonton, Alberta, to gather information regarding concerns about the influence of environmental factors on children’s health and to use the information to set an agenda for the resources of the Paediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit at Misericordia Hospital (Edmonton, Alberta). METHODS Two questionnaires with 28 closed-ended questions were developed to examine parents’, guardians’ and health care professionals’ concerns. They comprised items about six environmental factors (air, water and food quality; household supplies; radiation; and waste disposal). Health care professionals were also asked four questions about their knowledge of and their needs in Paediatric Environmental Health. Parents and guardians attending the public health centres and nurses working therein received questionnaires. Physicians were surveyed by e-mail. RESULTS After verification, the questionnaire data from 400 parents or guardians and 152 health care professionals were used for analyses. Results from contingency table, Hotelling’s T2 and effect size analyses revealed similarities in the levels of concern in both groups, and the results were combined. The greatest concern of both groups was with environmental tobacco smoke, followed by pesticides in water. Concerns about six additional environmental elements were also expressed. The health care professionals showed a high level of concern about the need for resources, specific training and public education regarding paediatric environmental health. CONCLUSION A significant level of concern was consistently found between the two groups studied, regardless of professional training. The highest level of concern was with a well-documented topic (ie, environmental tobacco smoke). Less concern associated with decreased documentation calls for increasing the knowledge of society, including health care professionals, to address the adverse effects of environmental factors on children. PMID

  9. Fipronil: environmental fate, ecotoxicology, and human health concerns.

    PubMed

    Tingle, Colin C D; Rother, Joachim A; Dewhurst, Charles F; Lauer, Sasha; King, William J

    2003-01-01

    be warranted. The use of some fipronil-based products on domestic animals is not recommended where handlers spend significant amounts of time grooming or handling treated animals. In general, it would appear unwise to use fipronil-based insecticides without accompanying environmental and human health monitoring, in situations, regions, or countries where it has not been used before, and where its use may lead to its introduction into the wider environment or bring it into contact with people. Further work is needed on the impacts of fipronil on nontarget vertebrate fauna (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) in the field before the risk to wildlife from this insecticide can be adequately validated. Further field study of the effects of fipronil on the nutrient cycling and soil water-infiltration activities of beneficial termites is required to assess the ecological impacts of the known toxicity of fipronil to these insects.

  10. Cultural Models of Nature and Society: Reconsidering Environmental Attitudes and Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ignatow, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Social scientists have long debated the factors influencing public concern for the natural environment. This study attempts to contribute to this debate by arguing that environmental concern is shaped by both "spiritual" and "ecological" cultural models of nature-society relations and that by distinguishing between these two, we can better…

  11. Sowing Seeds for Future Generations: Development of Generative Concern and Its Relation to Environmental Narrative Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Fanli; Soucie, Kendall; Alisat, Susan; Pratt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between the trajectory of generative concern measured at ages 23, 26 and 32 and environmental narrative identity at age 32. Canadian participants completed a questionnaire on generative concern at ages 23, 26 and 32 and were then interviewed about their personal experiences with the…

  12. Earth Mothers (and Fathers): Examining Generativity and Environmental Concerns in Adolescents and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Michael W.; Norris, Joan E.; Alisat, Susan; Bisson, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Erikson's construct of generative concern for future generations seems a plausible structure for supporting environmental behavior and socialization in the family. The present study of 44 Canadian middle-class families with a focal child aged 14-16 years, examined variations in generative concern among parents and their children and tested how…

  13. Marine environmental contamination: public awareness, concern and perceived effectiveness in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Rosseel, Yves; Calis, Tanja; Tediosi, Alice; Nadal, Martí; Marques, António; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-11-01

    Given the potential of Perceived Consumer Effectiveness (PCE) in shaping pro-environmental behavior, the relationships between PCE, awareness of causes of contaminants in the marine environment, and concern about marine environmental contamination were investigated using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). PCE is the belief that an individual has in being able to make a difference when acting alone. A web-based survey was performed in one western European country (Belgium), one northern European country (Ireland) and three southern European countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain), resulting in a total sample size of 2824 participants. The analyses confirm that European citizens are concerned about marine environmental problems. Participants from the southern countries reported the highest concern. In addition, the study participants did not have a strong belief in themselves in being capable of making a difference in tackling marine environmental problems. However, a higher awareness, which was associated with a higher degree of concern, enhanced the belief that an individual can make a difference in tackling marine environmental problems, though only when a concrete action was proposed. Consequently, information campaigns focusing on pro-environmental behavior are recommended to raise public awareness about marine environmental problems and at the same time explicitly refer to concrete possible actions. The findings indicate that when only awareness and concern are raised without mentioning a concrete action, PCE might even decrease and render the communication effort ineffective.

  14. Variation in Environmentalism among University Students: Majoring in Outdoor Recreation, Parks, and Tourism Predicts Environmental Concerns and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnocky, Steven; Stroink, Mirella L.

    2011-01-01

    In a survey of Canadian university students (N = 205), the relationship between majoring in an outdoor recreation university program and environmental concern, cooperation, and behavior were examined. Stepwise linear regression indicated that enrollment in outdoor recreation was predictive of environmental behavior and ecological cooperation; and…

  15. Merging Economic and Environmental Concerns through Ecopreneurship. Digest Number 98-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Gwyer

    Ecopreneurs are entrepreneurs whose business efforts are not only driven by profit, but also by a concern for the environment. Ecopreneurship, also known as environmental entrepreneurship and eco-capitalism, is becoming more widespread as a new market-based approach to identifying opportunities for improving environmental quality and capitalizing…

  16. A Social Capital Basis for Environmental Concern: Evidence from Northern New England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macias, Thomas; Nelson, Elysia

    2011-01-01

    This study, based on a random-digit-dialing telephone survey of adults in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, uses ordinary least squares regression to examine a relatively neglected element in the sociological literature on environmental concern, namely, the influence of an individual's social capital on the formation of environmental attitudes.…

  17. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) environmental control concerns and program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Beckwith, M.A.; Boehm, D.W.

    1980-06-01

    This report assesses the required environmental research and recommends a program plan to assist DOD's Environmental Control Technology Division (ECT) in performing its mission of ensuring that the procedures, processes, systems, and strategies necessary to minimize any adverse environmental impacts of compressed air energy storage (CAES) are developed in a timely manner so as not to delay implementation of the technology. To do so, CAES technology and the expected major environmental concerns of the technology are described. Second, ongoing or planned research in related programs and the applicability of results from these programs to CAES environmental research are discussed. Third, the additional research and development required to provide the necessary environmental data base and resolve concerns in CAES are outlined. Finally, a program plan to carry out this research and development effort is presented.

  18. A participatory assessment of environmental health concerns in an Ojibwa community.

    PubMed

    Severtson, Dolores J; Baumann, Linda C; Will, James A

    2002-01-01

    This research employed a participatory approach to explore environmental health (EH) concerns among Lac Courte Oreilles (LCO) Ojibwa Indians in Sawyer County, Wisconsin. The project was grounded in a broad ecological conceptualization of EH and in principles of health promotion and community participation. Community participation was accomplished through a steering committee that consisted of the primary author and LCO College faculty and community members. The selected assessment methodology was a self-administered survey mailed to LCO members in Sawyer County. Concern for environmental issues was high in this tribal community, especially for future generations. Concern was higher among older members and tribal members living on rather than off the reservation. Local environmental issues of concern were motorized water vehicles, effects from global warming, aging septic systems on waterways, unsafe driving, and contaminated lakes/streams. The LCO community can use survey results to inform further data needs and program development. PMID:11841682

  19. Egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric environmental concerns: a path analytic investigation of their determinants.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Snelgar, Rosemary; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that environmental concerns (ECs) can be reduced to a three-factor model - comprising altruistic, biospheric, and egoistic concerns - but there have been few studies examining individual difference predictors of ECs. In this study with 203 individuals from a British community sample, we show that biospheric concern was significantly associated with participants' age, political orientation, Machiavellianism, and the Big Five personality traits of Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, and Conscientiousness. Altruistic concern was significantly associated with sex, age, political orientation, and Machiavellianism, but not the Big Five traits, whereas egoistic concern was not significantly associated with any of these predictors except sex. These results are discussed in relation to previous work on ECs and pro-environmental behavior.

  20. Environmental Behavior and Gender: An Emerging Area of Concern for Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakellari, Maria; Skanavis, Constantina

    2013-01-01

    Ecofeminism suggests that women are more active than men regarding environmental issues for a variety of social, cultural, and biological reasons. In support to these arguments, women predominate within the overall grassroots of the Environmental Justice movement. However, claims have been made that environmental education theory and research are…

  1. Assessing environmental attitudes and concerns about a contaminated site in a densely populated suburban environment.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2005-02-01

    Considerable attention has been devoted to the concerns and perceptions of people residing around contaminated facilities, both brownfields in urban areas and others located in remote and lightly populated areas. This paper examines the concerns of recreationists and sportsmen residing near the Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory, in central Long Island, one of the most densely populated regions in the United States, where tourism is of prime importance. On an open-ended question, the greatest concern was pollution, followed by environmental health as a global concern, and human health as a concern for Brookhaven. Accidents/spills, loss of public health, and loss of ecological health were rated highest among a list of concerns, and change in property values was rated lowest. When asked to rank seven concerns, protecting human health was ranked the highest, and economic interests were ranked the lowest. For future land use at Brookhaven, recreational uses were rated the highest, while building houses and factories, and storage of nuclear material were rated the lowest. These data can be used by managers, decision and policy makers, and the general public to assess and manage local and regional environmental concerns and to consider future land uses for decommissioned lands, such as those at Brookhaven.

  2. The Politics of Environmental Concern: The Impacts of Party Identification and Political Ideology on Environmental Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttel, Frederick H.; Flinn, William L.

    1978-01-01

    The literature on the political context of the environmental movement entertains competing hypotheses that environmentalism either transcends or embodies traditional left-right cleavages in American society. Findings from a statewide survey in Wisconsin indicate substantial relationships between sociopolitical ideologies and support for…

  3. Environmental Sustainability as a Generative Concern: An Exploratory Study of the Narrative Identities of Leaders in the Environmental Sustainability Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Tiffany Simons

    2009-01-01

    Environmental sustainability is one of the most pressing concerns of the twenty-first century, and working toward sustainability will require broad lifestyle and cultural shifts, particularly in industrialized societies. Yet despite a growing recognition of the importance of issues such as climate change, food security, transportation, and…

  4. Revisiting the Democratic Paradox of Environmental and Sustainability Education: Sustainability Issues as Matters of Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Poeck, Katrien; Goeminne, Gert; Vandenabeele, Joke

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we address the democratic paradox in environmental and sustainability education (ESE) by drawing on Bruno Latour's conceptual distinction between "matters of fact" and "matters of concern" and the notion of attachments that goes with it. We present an analysis of three cases (nature excursions, workshops that…

  5. The Intergenerational Transmission of Environmental Concern: The Influence of Parents and Communication Patterns within the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeusen, Cecil

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the intergenerational transmission of environmental concern and the explanatory power of communication patterns within the family. Using representative data from the Parent-Child Socialization Study in Belgium (PCSS, 2012), this article focuses on the relative influence of the mother and the father, and gender-specific…

  6. Development of Decision-Making Skills and Environmental Concern through Computer-Based, Scaffolded Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaou, Christiana Th.; Korfiatis, Konstantinos; Evagorou, Maria; Constantinou, Constantinos

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of decision-making skills and environmental concern by 11- and 12-year-old students through computer-based, scaffolded learning activities. The enacted activities provided necessary scientific information and allowed for the consideration of multiple aspects of the problem, the study of the effects of every…

  7. Personal and social factors that influence pro-environmental concern and behaviour: a review.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Robert; Nilsson, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    We review the personal and social influences on pro-environmental concern and behaviour, with an emphasis on recent research. The number of these influences suggests that understanding pro-environmental concern and behaviour is far more complex than previously thought. The influences are grouped into 18 personal and social factors. The personal factors include childhood experience, knowledge and education, personality and self-construal, sense of control, values, political and world views, goals, felt responsibility, cognitive biases, place attachment, age, gender and chosen activities. The social factors include religion, urban-rural differences, norms, social class, proximity to problematic environmental sites and cultural and ethnic variations We also recognize that pro-environmental behaviour often is undertaken based on none of the above influences, but because individuals have non-environmental goals such as to save money or to improve their health. Finally, environmental outcomes that are a result of these influences undoubtedly are determined by combinations of the 18 categories. Therefore, a primary goal of researchers now should be to learn more about how these many influences moderate and mediate one another to determine pro-environmental behaviour. PMID:24821503

  8. Personal and social factors that influence pro-environmental concern and behaviour: a review.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Robert; Nilsson, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    We review the personal and social influences on pro-environmental concern and behaviour, with an emphasis on recent research. The number of these influences suggests that understanding pro-environmental concern and behaviour is far more complex than previously thought. The influences are grouped into 18 personal and social factors. The personal factors include childhood experience, knowledge and education, personality and self-construal, sense of control, values, political and world views, goals, felt responsibility, cognitive biases, place attachment, age, gender and chosen activities. The social factors include religion, urban-rural differences, norms, social class, proximity to problematic environmental sites and cultural and ethnic variations We also recognize that pro-environmental behaviour often is undertaken based on none of the above influences, but because individuals have non-environmental goals such as to save money or to improve their health. Finally, environmental outcomes that are a result of these influences undoubtedly are determined by combinations of the 18 categories. Therefore, a primary goal of researchers now should be to learn more about how these many influences moderate and mediate one another to determine pro-environmental behaviour.

  9. A comparative review of environmental concern prioritization: LEED vs other major certification systems.

    PubMed

    Suzer, Ozge

    2015-05-01

    The matter of environmental concern prioritization integrated into globally used green building rating systems is a fundamental issue since it determines how the performance of a structure or development is reflected. Certain nationally-developed certification systems are used globally without being subjected to adjustments with respect to local geographical, cultural, economic and social parameters. This may lead to a situation where the results of an evaluation may not reflect the reality of the region and/or the site of construction. The main objective of this paper is to examine and underline the problems regarding the issue of weighting environmental concerns in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification system, which is a US-originated but globally used assessment tool. The methodology of this study consists of; (i) an analysis of the approach of LEED in the New Construction and Major Renovations scheme in version 3 (LEED NC, v.3) and the Building Design and Construction scheme in version 4 (LEED BD + C, v.4), (ii) case studies in which regional priority credits (RPCs) set by LEED for four countries (Canada, Turkey, China and Egypt) are criticized with respect to countries' own local conditions, and, (iii) an analysis of the approaches of major environmental assessment tools, namely; BREEAM, SBTool, CASBEE and Green Star, in comparison to the approach in LEED, regarding the main issue of this paper. This work shows that, even in its latest version (v.4) LEED still displays some inadequacies and inconsistencies from the aspect of environmental concern prioritization and has not yet managed to incorporate a system which is more sensitive to this issue. This paper further outlines the differences and similarities between the approaches of the aforementioned major environmental assessment tools with respect to the issue of concern and the factors that should be integrated into future versions of LEED. PMID:25745844

  10. A comparative review of environmental concern prioritization: LEED vs other major certification systems.

    PubMed

    Suzer, Ozge

    2015-05-01

    The matter of environmental concern prioritization integrated into globally used green building rating systems is a fundamental issue since it determines how the performance of a structure or development is reflected. Certain nationally-developed certification systems are used globally without being subjected to adjustments with respect to local geographical, cultural, economic and social parameters. This may lead to a situation where the results of an evaluation may not reflect the reality of the region and/or the site of construction. The main objective of this paper is to examine and underline the problems regarding the issue of weighting environmental concerns in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification system, which is a US-originated but globally used assessment tool. The methodology of this study consists of; (i) an analysis of the approach of LEED in the New Construction and Major Renovations scheme in version 3 (LEED NC, v.3) and the Building Design and Construction scheme in version 4 (LEED BD + C, v.4), (ii) case studies in which regional priority credits (RPCs) set by LEED for four countries (Canada, Turkey, China and Egypt) are criticized with respect to countries' own local conditions, and, (iii) an analysis of the approaches of major environmental assessment tools, namely; BREEAM, SBTool, CASBEE and Green Star, in comparison to the approach in LEED, regarding the main issue of this paper. This work shows that, even in its latest version (v.4) LEED still displays some inadequacies and inconsistencies from the aspect of environmental concern prioritization and has not yet managed to incorporate a system which is more sensitive to this issue. This paper further outlines the differences and similarities between the approaches of the aforementioned major environmental assessment tools with respect to the issue of concern and the factors that should be integrated into future versions of LEED.

  11. Cohort change and the diffusion of environmental concern: A cross-national analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Pampel, Fred C.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores value change across cohorts for a multinational population sample. Employing a diffusion-of-innovations approach, we combine competing theories predicting the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and environmentalism: post-materialism and affluence theories, and global environmentalism theory. The diffusion argument suggests that high-SES groups first adopt pro-environmental views, but as time passes by, environmentalism diffuses to lower-SES groups. We test the diffusion argument using a sample of 18 countries for two waves (years 1993 and 2000) from the International Social Survey Project (ISSP). Cross-classified multilevel modeling allows us to identify a non-linear interaction between cohort and education, our core measure of SES, in predicting environmental concern, while controlling for age and period. We find support for the diffusion argument and demonstrate that the positive effect of education on environmental concern first increases among older cohorts, then starts to level off until a bend-point is reached for individuals born around 1940 and becomes progressively weaker for younger cohorts. PMID:24179313

  12. Cohort change and the diffusion of environmental concern: A cross-national analysis.

    PubMed

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Pampel, Fred C

    2013-09-01

    This study explores value change across cohorts for a multinational population sample. Employing a diffusion-of-innovations approach, we combine competing theories predicting the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and environmentalism: post-materialism and affluence theories, and global environmentalism theory. The diffusion argument suggests that high-SES groups first adopt pro-environmental views, but as time passes by, environmentalism diffuses to lower-SES groups. We test the diffusion argument using a sample of 18 countries for two waves (years 1993 and 2000) from the International Social Survey Project (ISSP). Cross-classified multilevel modeling allows us to identify a non-linear interaction between cohort and education, our core measure of SES, in predicting environmental concern, while controlling for age and period. We find support for the diffusion argument and demonstrate that the positive effect of education on environmental concern first increases among older cohorts, then starts to level off until a bend-point is reached for individuals born around 1940 and becomes progressively weaker for younger cohorts. PMID:24179313

  13. Cohort change and the diffusion of environmental concern: A cross-national analysis.

    PubMed

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Pampel, Fred C

    2013-09-01

    This study explores value change across cohorts for a multinational population sample. Employing a diffusion-of-innovations approach, we combine competing theories predicting the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and environmentalism: post-materialism and affluence theories, and global environmentalism theory. The diffusion argument suggests that high-SES groups first adopt pro-environmental views, but as time passes by, environmentalism diffuses to lower-SES groups. We test the diffusion argument using a sample of 18 countries for two waves (years 1993 and 2000) from the International Social Survey Project (ISSP). Cross-classified multilevel modeling allows us to identify a non-linear interaction between cohort and education, our core measure of SES, in predicting environmental concern, while controlling for age and period. We find support for the diffusion argument and demonstrate that the positive effect of education on environmental concern first increases among older cohorts, then starts to level off until a bend-point is reached for individuals born around 1940 and becomes progressively weaker for younger cohorts.

  14. Why Should I Care? Exploring the Use of Environmental Concern as a Frame of Communication in Zoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yocco, Victor S.; Bruskotter, Jeremy; Wilson, Robyn; Heimlich, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Effectively communicating environmental issues to motivate visitors' behavior is critical for zoos to accomplish their missions. We examined the relationship between zoo visitors' environmental concern and agreement with messages framed by environmental concern. Findings from two zoos (N = 298; N = 400), using two message formats,…

  15. 25 CFR 224.102 - Must a tribe establish a comment or hearing process for addressing environmental concerns?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... addressing environmental concerns? 224.102 Section 224.102 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... or hearing process for addressing environmental concerns? Yes. The Act (25 U.S.C. 3504(e)(2)(C)(iii... establish an environmental review process under a TERA that: (a) Ensures that the public is notified...

  16. An Assessment of the Scientific Basis Behind Global Environmental Concerns in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The notion that human activities may endanger the earth's environment has emerged as a leading societal concern in the post industrial era. Under the ever increasing pressures of population growth and industrialization, the problems of local air pollution have now become matters of both local and global concern. Smog, toxic chemicals, acid rain, ozone depletion, and climate change have become household words and an intense public policy debate about the cost and benefits of environmental protection continues. There is a growing realization that the consequences of air pollution can be felt in unpredictable ways in near and far away places. Unpopulated regions of the world such as the arctic now suffer from arctic haze and ozone depletions are the largest in the Antarctic stratosphere. In the last4ol three decades many countries have instituted ambient air quality standards designed to mitigate problems of health and welfare associated with the release of chemicals. Global agreements to prevent the depletion of ozone layer and to slow down climatic warming are being actively debated and formulated. In parallel there has been an intense exploration of the science of air pollution all over the world. The scientific basis behind environmental concerns is imperfect and is central to this debate. I will review our current scientific understanding of some of the major environmental concerns. An assessment of the forthcoming efforts to put this science on a more solid footing will be provided.

  17. Biomass stakeholder views and concerns: Environmental groups and some trade association

    SciTech Connect

    Peelle, E.

    2000-01-01

    This exploratory study of the views and concerns of 25 environmental organizations found high interest and concern about which biomass feedstocks would be used and how these biomass materials would be converted to energy. While all favored renewable energy over fossil or nuclear energy, opinion diverged over whether energy crops, residues, or both should be the primary source of a biomass/bioenergy fuel cycle. About half of the discussants favored biomass ``in general'' as a renewable energy source, while the others were distributed about equally over five categories, from favor-with-conditions, uncertain, skeptical, opposed, to ``no organizational policy.''

  18. Earth Day plus 30 years: public concern and support for environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, M

    2001-01-01

    A clear majority of Americans are concerned about environmental threats to public health and do not want to weaken antipollution regulations. The strongest supporters for maintaining environmental regulations are affluent mainstream White suburban populations who are thriving economically, but support is also strong in every other major segment of the population. Overt attempts to weaken the basic regulations are unlikely, barring an obvious economic downturn that would cause a large proportion of the public to consider loosening standards in the belief that such changes would increase the number of available jobs. Given this context, environmental health was and will continue to be a core topic in the Journal. We will emphasize the nexus of environmental health and policy by publishing research, exemplary public health practice, and the views of key decision makers. PMID:11291364

  19. Earth Day plus 30 years: public concern and support for environmental health.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M

    2001-04-01

    A clear majority of Americans are concerned about environmental threats to public health and do not want to weaken antipollution regulations. The strongest supporters for maintaining environmental regulations are affluent mainstream White suburban populations who are thriving economically, but support is also strong in every other major segment of the population. Overt attempts to weaken the basic regulations are unlikely, barring an obvious economic downturn that would cause a large proportion of the public to consider loosening standards in the belief that such changes would increase the number of available jobs. Given this context, environmental health was and will continue to be a core topic in the Journal. We will emphasize the nexus of environmental health and policy by publishing research, exemplary public health practice, and the views of key decision makers. PMID:11291364

  20. Age Differences in Genetic and Environmental Influences on Weight and Shape Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Klump, Kelly L.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Spanos, Alexia; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.; Wade, Tracey D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Previous research has shown important developmental shifts in genetic and environmental influences for disordered eating. However, little research has examined age differences for weight/shape concerns, two key components of eating disorders. The goal of the present study was to investigate these age differences in pre-adolescent, adolescent, young adult, and mid-adult twins. Method Participants included 2,618 female twins (ages of 10-41 years) from three large twin registries. Shape and weight concerns were assessed with the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire. Results Genetic influences were modest in pre-adolescent twins, but significant from early-adolescence through middle adulthood. Shared environmental factors showed the opposite pattern, with the largest shared environmental contributions occurring in the youngest age group. Nonshared environmental effects remained relatively constant across age. Discussion Findings highlight the importance of age differences in genetic and environmental influences. Possible mechanisms include gene × environment interactions and biological changes associated with key developmental stages. PMID:19950189

  1. Environmental concerns among under-represented groups at the Hanford nuclear site

    SciTech Connect

    Gougis, R.A.; Serban, W.; Coles-Coghi, A.A.

    1997-08-01

    Recent executive branch actions require federal agencies to include more under-represented groups in the environmental policy making process. Previous studies on environmental risk communication and participation either (1) minimize the attention on minority group participation, (2) reflect environmental justice issues not associated with hazardous nuclear waste, or (3) find an under-representation of minorities at meetings and activities designed to solicit public input. This study reports on a public opinion survey of a weighted random sample of citizens from six counties in the Hanford Nuclear Installation region of Washington state. According to the opinions of 358 respondents, minority groups share a degree of environmental concern and perceive environmental threats, although not over the same issues. Moreover, minorities do not share the same perceptions of information sources about the environment. One noticeable difference found in this study is the tendency for Hispanic respondents to have more trust in those institutions addressing environmental issues whereas other respondents lacked trust. Finally, Hispanic respondents showed a higher disinclination to participate in environmental activities compared with other group respondents who were slightly more active, but participated in different endeavors.

  2. Exploring the Effects of Communication Framed by Environmental Concern in Informal Science Education Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yocco, Victor S.

    Informal science education (ISE) venues such as zoos, nature centers, parks, and natural history museums play a critical role in allowing the general public to learn scientific concepts (National Research Council, 2009; 2010). Most adult learning of scientific concepts takes place outside of classrooms and away from work (Rennie and Williams, 2006). It is also true that zoos and natural history museums have stated missions regarding conveying concepts related to the conservation of our natural resources (Krishtalka and Humphrey, 2000; Patrick, Mathews, Ayers, and Tunicliffe, 2007). Theoretically, the successful communication of the desired message of these ISE institutions would inspire a more informed citizenry on the use and conservation of our natural resources. Framing communication is to present a topic in a manner that promote a specific view of the information. Effectively framing information can be an avenue to achieving the goal of ISE institutions (Chong & Druckman, 2007; Nisbet, 2009). Shultz and Zelezny (2003) posit that messages framed by egoistic concerns, concerns which focus on the individual, will be better received by the general public, leading to a greater likelihood for them to become engaged. This dissertation reports on a series of descriptive mixed methods studies conducted at a zoo, a natural history museum, and a science center, exploring the framing effects of communications framed by environmental concern (Schultz, 2001). In two of the studies the researcher examined the relationship between individuals' perceptions of the overlap between their lives and nature, their levels of environmental concern, and their preferences for statements designed to align with the types of environmental concern (i.e. egoistic, social-altruistic, and biospheric). Two studies were conducted using a quasi-experimental design in which the researcher randomly assigned messages framed by environmental concern while also taking measurements of prior involvement

  3. When Environmental Action Does Not Activate Concern: The Case of Impaired Water Quality in Two Rural Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stough-Hunter, Anjel; Lekies, Kristi S.; Donnermeyer, Joseph F.

    2014-12-01

    Little research has considered how residents' perceptions of their local environment may interact with efforts to increase environmental concern, particularly in areas in need of remediation. This study examined the process by which local environmental action may affect environmental concern. A model was presented for exploring the effects of community-based watershed organizations (CWOs) on environmental concern that also incorporates existing perceptions of the local environment. Survey data were collected from area residents in two watersheds in southwestern Pennsylvania, USA, an area affected by abandoned mine drainage. The findings suggest that residents' perceptions of local water quality and importance of improving water quality are important predictors of level of environmental concern and desire for action; however, in this case, having an active or inactive CWO did not influence these perceptions. The implications of these findings raise important questions concerning strategies and policy making around environmental remediation at the local level.

  4. When environmental action does not activate concern: the case of impaired water quality in two rural watersheds.

    PubMed

    Stough-Hunter, Anjel; Lekies, Kristi S; Donnermeyer, Joseph F

    2014-12-01

    Little research has considered how residents' perceptions of their local environment may interact with efforts to increase environmental concern, particularly in areas in need of remediation. This study examined the process by which local environmental action may affect environmental concern. A model was presented for exploring the effects of community-based watershed organizations (CWOs) on environmental concern that also incorporates existing perceptions of the local environment. Survey data were collected from area residents in two watersheds in southwestern Pennsylvania, USA, an area affected by abandoned mine drainage. The findings suggest that residents' perceptions of local water quality and importance of improving water quality are important predictors of level of environmental concern and desire for action; however, in this case, having an active or inactive CWO did not influence these perceptions. The implications of these findings raise important questions concerning strategies and policy making around environmental remediation at the local level.

  5. Development of a model to assess environmental performance, concerning HSE-MS principles.

    PubMed

    Abbaspour, M; Hosseinzadeh Lotfi, F; Karbassi, A R; Roayaei, E; Nikoomaram, H

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of the present study was to develop a valid and appropriate model to evaluate companies' efficiency and environmental performance, concerning health, safety, and environmental management system principles. The proposed model overcomes the shortcomings of the previous models developed in this area. This model has been designed on the basis of a mathematical method known as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). In order to differentiate high-performing companies from weak ones, one of DEA nonradial models named as enhanced Russell graph efficiency measure has been applied. Since some of the environmental performance indicators cannot be controlled by companies' managers, it was necessary to develop the model in a way that it could be applied when discretionary and/or nondiscretionary factors were involved. The model, then, has been modified on a real case that comprised 12 oil and gas general contractors. The results showed the relative efficiency, inefficiency sources, and the rank of contractors.

  6. National differences in environmental concern and performance are predicted by country age.

    PubMed

    Hershfield, Hal E; Bang, H Min; Weber, Elke U

    2014-01-01

    There are obvious economic predictors of ability and willingness to invest in environmental sustainability. Yet, given that environmental decisions represent trade-offs between present sacrifices and uncertain future benefits, psychological factors may also play a role in country-level environmental behavior. Gott's principle suggests that citizens may use perceptions of their country's age to predict its future continuation, with longer pasts predicting longer futures. Using country- and individual-level analyses, we examined whether longer perceived pasts result in longer perceived futures, which in turn motivate concern for continued environmental quality. Study 1 found that older countries scored higher on an environmental performance index, even when the analysis controlled for country-level differences in gross domestic product and governance. Study 2 showed that when the United States was framed as an old country (vs. a young one), participants were willing to donate more money to an environmental organization. The findings suggest that framing a country as a long-standing entity may effectively prompt proenvironmental behavior. PMID:24264938

  7. National differences in environmental concern and performance are predicted by country age.

    PubMed

    Hershfield, Hal E; Bang, H Min; Weber, Elke U

    2014-01-01

    There are obvious economic predictors of ability and willingness to invest in environmental sustainability. Yet, given that environmental decisions represent trade-offs between present sacrifices and uncertain future benefits, psychological factors may also play a role in country-level environmental behavior. Gott's principle suggests that citizens may use perceptions of their country's age to predict its future continuation, with longer pasts predicting longer futures. Using country- and individual-level analyses, we examined whether longer perceived pasts result in longer perceived futures, which in turn motivate concern for continued environmental quality. Study 1 found that older countries scored higher on an environmental performance index, even when the analysis controlled for country-level differences in gross domestic product and governance. Study 2 showed that when the United States was framed as an old country (vs. a young one), participants were willing to donate more money to an environmental organization. The findings suggest that framing a country as a long-standing entity may effectively prompt proenvironmental behavior.

  8. The inherent tensions arising from attempting to carry out strategic environmental assessments on all policies, plans and programmes

    SciTech Connect

    McLauchlan, Anna; Joao, Elsa

    2012-09-15

    This paper evaluates the tensions that result from routinely applying SEA to all policies, plans and programmes within Scotland. The European Union SEA Directive, effective in many EU member states from 2004, introduced a requirement for environmental assessment of certain plans and programmes. Scotland, a devolved nation within the EU member state of the United Kingdom, aimed to be a 'world leader in SEA' by legislating for SEA to be undertaken of all public sector plans, programmes and strategies, with the word 'strategies' being equated with 'policies'. This paper presents detailed data regarding Scottish SEA activity between 2004 and 2007, including responses to consultations on SEA reports. This empirical research found that, reflecting a general difficulty in determining where and when SEA should be applied, engagement with the SEA process was not as widespread as intended (including the pre-screening and screening stages). Eight tensions evident from Scotland's application of SEA are identified, and their broader relevance is examined. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine detailed data regarding Scottish strategic environmental assessment (SEA) activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a general difficulty in determining where SEA should be applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Engagement with the SEA process was not as widespread as intended. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eight 'tensions' that question the efficacy of applying SEA to all plans, programmes and policies were identified.

  9. Environmental concerns and future oil and gas developments in Coastal Wetlands of Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    John, C.J.; Harder, B.J.; Groat, C.G. )

    1993-09-01

    Recent studies have confirmed that much oil and natural gas have been overlooked and increases in future recoverable reserves will come from drilling in these areas. Increased production will result from identifying unexploited compartmentalized reservoirs, new infield reservoirs, and bypassed reservoirs, and by using enhanced recovery technologies for hydrocarbon recovery in incompletely drained reservoirs previously left unproduced for economic reasons. Most of southern Louisiana's hydrocarbon reserves underlie coastal wetland areas of the state. Major environmental concerns associated with the future development of existing reserves are canal dredging and destruction of wildlife habitat, use and disposal of oil-based muds, mitigation for wetland damage, and the recent emerging issue of surface contamination by naturally occurring radioactive materials with potential liabilities and future remedial regulation. To reduce wetland environmental damage caused by access canals to drilling sites, the Coastal Management Division of the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources instituted a geologic reviews program to review drilling permit application in the coastal wetlands. This process provides a mechanism for state and federal agencies to comment on the requested drilling permit. As a result of this process, the total average wetland disturbed area has been reduced from 767 ac per year in 1982 to approximately 76 ac per year in 1991. Average lengths of access canals also have been reduced by approximately 78% during the period. Oil and gas companies are becoming increasingly aware of the environmental consequences of drilling in wetlands and are considering them in planning for development activities. In the current climate of increasing public consciousness about the environment, addressing environmental concerns in the planning state will go a long way in helping alleviate future environmental problems.

  10. Environmental security in the Czech Republic: Status and concerns in the post Communist era

    SciTech Connect

    Valley, P.J.

    1998-10-01

    The Czech Republic has made great strides toward reconciling its political and economic development with environmental protection and security issues since its recent democratization. Although new technological and legislative efforts continue to work at reducing emissions from automobiles, industries, power plants and coal mining, the Republic is committed to continuing its battle against air and water pollution, poor waste management, and needless destruction of nature. Shifting the structure of primary energy sources to qualitatively better fuels, along with the introduction of less energy-consuming technologies and the activation of new nuclear reactors, would eventually replace most of the output of coal burning power plants. However, the use of nuclear power has been opposed by several political and environmental activists groups. At the international level, Austria`s opposition to the Temelin Nuclear Power plant is of great concern since Austria, as a non-nuclear state, propagates negative information about nuclear power to its citizens and other countries.

  11. Recommendations concerning research and model evaluation needs to support breeder reactor environmental radiological assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C. W.; Dunning, Jr., D. E.; Etnier, E. L.; Kocher, D. C.; McDowell-Boyer, L. M.; Meyer, H. R.; Rohwer, P. S.

    1980-12-01

    Purpose of this report is to present recommendations concerning needs for model evaluations, environmental research, and biomedical research to support breeder reactor environmental radiological assessments. More data are needed to specify dry deposition velocities and to validate plume depletion models. More atmospheric dispersion data are required to characterize flow near buildings, in complex terrain, and for travel distances at 100 km or more. Field data are needed for terrestrial food chain transport models, especially those used to assess the impact of acute radionuclide releases. Efforts are needed to develop models for the estimation of dose from external exposure to photons from a finite, elevated plume resulting from an acute radionuclide release to the atmosphere. Estimates of doses to man from internally deposited radionuclides require scrutiny. Further study of tritium is needed to determine its dependence on dose and dose rate and to specify the relative toxicity of various physiochemical forms of tritium in the environment.

  12. Framework for Identifying Key Environmental Concerns in Marine Renewable Energy Projects- Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Sharon; Previsic, Mirko; Nelson, Peter; Woo, Sheri

    2010-06-17

    Marine wave and tidal energy technology could interact with marine resources in ways that are not well understood. As wave and tidal energy conversion projects are planned, tested, and deployed, a wide range of stakeholders will be engaged; these include developers, state and federal regulatory agencies, environmental groups, tribal governments, recreational and commercial fishermen, and local communities. Identifying stakeholders’ environmental concerns in the early stages of the industry’s development will help developers address and minimize potential environmental effects. Identifying important concerns will also assist with streamlining siting and associated permitting processes, which are considered key hurdles by the industry in the U.S. today. In September 2008, RE Vision consulting, LLC was selected by the Department of Energy (DoE) to conduct a scenario-based evaluation of emerging hydrokinetic technologies. The purpose of this evaluation is to identify and characterize environmental impacts that are likely to occur, demonstrate a process for analyzing these impacts, identify the “key” environmental concerns for each scenario, identify areas of uncertainty, and describe studies that could address that uncertainty. This process is intended to provide an objective and transparent tool to assist in decision-making for siting and selection of technology for wave and tidal energy development. RE Vision worked with H. T. Harvey & Associates, to develop a framework for identifying key environmental concerns with marine renewable technology. This report describes the results of this study. This framework was applied to varying wave and tidal power conversion technologies, scales, and locations. The following wave and tidal energy scenarios were considered: 4 wave energy generation technologies 3 tidal energy generation technologies 3 sites: Humboldt coast, California (wave); Makapu’u Point, Oahu, Hawaii (wave); and the Tacoma Narrows, Washington (tidal

  13. Geology, fossil fuel potential and environmental concerns of the Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinowitz, P.; Yusifov, M.; Arnoldi, J.

    2003-04-01

    The fossil fuel producing areas of the Caspian region consists primarily of two basins, the Precaspian and South Caspian basins, both containing sediments in excess of 20km. The South Caspian Basin, a remnant of Tethys, was formed commencing in the Early-Middle Jurassic as a result of opening of back-arc basins behind volcanic arcs. The PreCaspian Basin extends onshore onto Kazakhstan and Russia and commenced its complicated geological evolution in the Middle Devonian. These basins are presently producing oil and gas in excess of one million barrels per day and two trillion cubic feet per day, respectively. They contain oil and gas reserves that are comparable to those of most other of the world's fossil fuel producing regions, excluding the Middle East. It is anticipated that within a decade these basins will produce over three million barrels of oil and four trillion cubic feet of gas per day. We review the economic, environmental, and geopolitical concerns with respect to exploration and recovery of the region’s fossil fuels. For one, the presence of mud volcanoes, gas hydrates, and earthquakes are a hazard for installation of oil platforms and other facilities. Pollution, attributed in large part to the fossil fuel industry, has created health and other environmental problems such as mass die-off of the Caspian seal, and in part to the large decrease in sturgeon population. Other important environmental concerns include the relatively rapid changes in sea level and desertification of the surrounding regions. There are also important legal questions with respect to ownership of resources beneath the seafloor. In addition, the transportation routes (pipelines) of fossil fuels that are anticipated to be recovered over the next decades have yet to be fully determined. Despite many of the political uncertainties, significant advances have been made in the short time since the breakup of the Soviet Union fueling optimism for the future of the region.

  14. From Cancer to Diarrhea: The Moving Target of Public Concern about Environmental Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Morrone, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Public concern about the environment can be unpredictable because it is influenced by numerous factors. Environmental health issues often emerge as important because the public is worried about their health especially when it comes to cancer. Public fear of cancer from environmental exposures is reinforced by many of the US regulations that set pollutant limits based on reducing the risk of cancers rather than other health outcomes. While fear of cancer will never dissipate, recent foodborne outbreaks are contributing to raising public awareness of the health effects from microbes. This paper adds to the dialogue about the challenges of enhancing public understanding of environmental health issues. Internal factors, such as worry, that contribute to public outrage are sometimes more important than external factors such as the media. In addition, relying on the media to inform the public about imminent public health risks may be an ineffective approach to enhancing understanding. In the end, scientists and risk communicators are forced to compete with politicians who are often very effective at manipulating public understanding of risk. PMID:22174587

  15. It is time to develop ecological thresholds of toxicological concern to assist environmental hazard assessment.

    PubMed

    Belanger, Scott E; Sanderson, Hans; Embry, Michelle R; Coady, Katie; DeZwart, Dick; Farr, Brianna A; Gutsell, Steve; Halder, Marlies; Sternberg, Robin; Wilson, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concept is well established for assessing human safety of food-contact substances and has been reapplied for a variety of endpoints, including carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and reproductive toxicity. The TTC establishes an exposure level for chemicals below which no appreciable risk to human health or the environment is expected, based on a de minimis value for toxicity identified for many chemicals. Threshold of toxicological concern approaches have benefits for screening-level risk assessments, including the potential for rapid decision-making, fully utilizing existing knowledge, reasonable conservativeness for chemicals used in lower volumes (low production volume chemicals (e.g., < 1 t/yr), and reduction or elimination of unnecessary animal tests. Higher production volume chemicals (>1 t/yr) would in principle always require specific information because of the presumed higher exposure potential. The TTC approach has found particular favor in the assessment of chemicals used in cosmetics and personal care products, as well as other chemicals traditionally used in low volumes. Use of the TTC in environmental safety is just beginning, and initial attempts are being published. Key questions focus on hazard extrapolation of diverse taxa across trophic levels, importance of mode of action, and whether safe concentrations for ecosystems estimated from acute or chronic toxicity data are equally useful and in what contexts. The present study provides an overview of the theoretical basis for developing an ecological (eco)-TTC, with an initial exploration of chemical assessment and boundary conditions for use. An international collaboration under the International Life Sciences Institute Health and Environmental Sciences Institute has been established to address challenges related to developing and applying useful eco-TTC concepts.

  16. Benefits, environmental risks, social concerns, and policy implications of biotechnology in aquaculture

    SciTech Connect

    Kapuscinski, A.R.; Hallerman, E.M.

    1994-10-01

    Among the many methodologies encompassing biotechnology in aquaculture, this report addresses: the production of genetically modified aquatic organisms (aquatic GMOs) by gene transfer, chromosome set manipulation, or hybridization or protoplast fusion between species; new health management tools, including DNA-Based diagnostics and recombinant DNA vaccines; Marker-assisted selection; cryopreservation; and stock marking. These methodologies pose a wide range of potential economic benefits for aquaculture by providing improved or new means to affect the mix of necessary material inputs, enhance production efficiency, or improve product quality. Advances in aquaculture through biotechnology could simulate growth of the aquaculture industry to provide a larger proportion of consummer demand, and thereby reduce pressure and natural stocks from over-harvest. Judicious application of gamete cryopreservation and chromosome set manipulations to achieve sterilization could reduce environmental risks of some aquaculture operations. Given the significant losses to disease in many aquaculture enterprises, potential benefits of DNA-based health management tools are very high and appear to pose no major environmental risks or social concerns.

  17. Offshore environmental concerns mitigated by onshore-based, extended-reach drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-04

    Extended-reach drilling may alleviate California environmental concerns by targeting distant offshore plays using onshore localities adjacent to preexisting facilities. If successful, it may set a precedent for offshore development without the use of new offshore platforms, thereby reducing the risk of offshore spills. Politicians, environmentalists, and the industry will closely watch the Gaviota No. 7 well, an extended-reach well operated by Benton Oil and Gas Co. in partnership with Molino Energy Co. The companies aim to find sweet gas in the Gaviota structure, an anticline hemmed in by two faults, located abut 1 1/4 miles offshore in the Santa Barbara Channel. Frank Reiber, project manager for Benton, characterizes the technologies used in the Gaviota No. 7, as fairly routine. However, state officials hail this onshore-to-offshore technique as the only practical way to develop oil or gas in state waters, given the political and environmental constraints that have virtually closed all waters within the 3-mile limit for decades. The paper describes the drilling and production program.

  18. Chemicals of emerging concern in the Great Lakes Basin: an analysis of environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    Klecka, Gary; Persoon, Carolyn; Currie, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This review and statistical analysis was conducted to better understand the nature and significance of environmental exposures in the Great Lakes Basin and watershed to a variety of environmental contaminants. These contaminants of interest included current-use pesticides, pharmaceuticals, organic wastewater contaminants, alkylphenol ethoxylates, perfluorinated surfactants, flame retardants, and chlorinated paraffins. The available literature was critically reviewed and used to develop a database containing 19,611 residue values for 326 substances. In many papers, sampling locations were characterized as being downstream from municipal wastewater discharges, receiving waters for industrial facilities, areas susceptible to agricultural or urban contamination, or harbors and ports. To develop an initial assessment of their potential ecological significance, the contamination levels found were compared with currently available regulatory standards, guidelines, or criteria. This review was prepared for the IJC multi-board work group, and served as background material for an expert consultation, held in March, 2009, in which the significance of the contaminants found was discussed. Moreover, the consultation attempted to identify and assess opportunities for strengthening future actions that will protect the Great Lakes. Based on the findings and conclusions of the expert consultation, it is apparent that a wide variety of chemicals of emerging concern have been detected in environmental media (air, water, sediment, biota) from the Great Lakes Basin, although many are present at only trace levels. Although the presence of these contaminants raises concerns in the public and among the scientific community, the findings must be placed in context. Significant scientific interpretation is required to understand the extent to which these chemicals may pose a threat to the ecosystem and to human health. The ability to detect chemicals in environmental media greatly surpasses

  19. A Socioeconomic Analysis of Environmental Concern: Case of the Four Corners Electric Power Complex. Bulletin No. 626.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Clyde; And Others

    Recently American attention has focused on the problems of pollution and environmental protection. Focusing on the Four Corners Interstate Air Quality Control Region, this study determined which socioeconomic characteristics were associated with concern for environmental quality as measured by willingness to pay for pollution abatement. Sample…

  20. Removal of ash, sulfur, and trace elements of environmental concern from eight selected Illinois coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demir, I.

    1998-01-01

    Release analysis (RA) and float-sink (F-S) data were generated to assess the beneficiation potential of washed coals from selected Illinois coal preparation plants through the use of advanced physical cleaning at -60 mesh size. Generally, the F-S process removed greater amounts of ash, sulfur, and trace elements of environmental concern from the coals than the RA process, indicating that the cleanability of Illinois coals by advanced methods can be estimated best by F-S testing. At an 80%-combustibles recovery, the ash yield in the clean F-S products decreased by 47-75%, relative to the parent coals. Average decreases for the elements As(67%), Cd(78%), Hg(73%), Mn(71%), and P(66%) exceeded the average decrease for ash yield (55%). Average decreases for other elements were: Co(31%), Cr(27%), F(39%), Ni(25%), Pb(50%), S(28%), Sb(20%), Se(39), Th(32%), and U(8%). Only Be was enriched (up to 120%) in the clean products relative to the parent coals. These results suggested that the concentration of elements with relatively high atmospheric mobilities (As, Cd, F, Hg, Pb, and Se) during coal combustion can be reduced substantially in Illinois coals through the use of advanced physical cleaning. Advanced physical cleaning can be effective also for the removal of inorganic S. Environmental risks from the emission of other elements with enrichment or relatively low cleanabilities could be small because these elements generally have very low concentrations in Illinois coals or are largely retained in solid residues during coal combustion. ?? 1998 OPA (Overseas Publishers Association) N.V. Published by license under the Gordon and Breach Science Publishers imprint.

  1. A review of environmental and occupational exposure to xylene and its health concerns.

    PubMed

    Niaz, Kamal; Bahadar, Haji; Maqbool, Faheem; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Xylene is a cyclic hydrocarbon, and an environmental pollutant. It is also used in dyes, paints, polishes, medical technology and different industries as a solvent. Xylene easily vaporizes and divides by sunlight into other harmless chemicals. The aim of the present review is to collect the evidence of the xylene toxicity, related to non-cancerous health hazards, as well as to provide possible effective measurement to minimize its risk ratio. For current study a bibliographic search of more than 250 peer-reviewed papers in scientific data including PubMed, and Google Scholar about xylene was done. But approximately 130 peer-reviewed papers relevant to xylene were included (Figure 1(Fig. 1)). All scientific data was reviewed with key words of "xylene toxicity", "xylene toxic health effects", "environmental volatile organic compounds", "human exposure to xylene", "xylene poisoning in laboratory workers", "effects of xylene along with other hydrocarbons", "neurotoxicity of selected hydrocarbons", and "toxic effects of particular xylene isomers in animals". According to these studies, xylene is released into the atmosphere as fugitive emissions from petrochemical industries, fire, cigarette, from different vehicles. Short term exposure to mixed xylene or their individual isomers result in irritation of the nose, eyes and throat subsequently leading toward neurological, gastrointestinal and reproductive harmful effects. In addition long term exposure to xylene may cause hazardous effects on respiratory system, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and renal system. The health concerns of xylene are well documented in animals and human. It is important to improve health policies, launch xylene related health and toxicity awareness campaigns, to get rid of its dangerous outcomes. Chronic diseases have become a threat to human globally, with special prominence in regions, where xylene is used with other chemicals (benzene, toluene etc.) especially in petroleum and

  2. Urban effluent discharges as causes of public and environmental health concerns in South Africa's aquatic milieu.

    PubMed

    Sibanda, Timothy; Selvarajan, Ramganesh; Tekere, Memory

    2015-12-01

    The water quality in South Africa's river systems is rapidly deteriorating as a consequence of increased discharge of wastewater effluents. The natural ability of rivers and reservoirs to trap toxic chemicals and nutrients in their sediments enables these systems to accumulate contaminants, altering the natural balance in environmental water quality, thereby raising a plethora of public and environmental health concerns. Impaired water quality has been linked to an array of problems in South Africa including massive fish mortalities, altered habitat template leading to the thinning of riverine macroinvertebrate diversity, shifts in microbial community structures with drastic ecological consequences and evolvement of antibiotic resistance genes that, under natural conditions, can be transferred to waterborne pathogens. Urban wastewater discharge has also been implicated in increased bioaccumulation of metals in edible plant parts, elevated concentrations of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), which are blamed for reduced fertility and increased cancer risk, excessive growth of toxic cyanobacteria and an increase in concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms which constitute a potential health threat to humans. However, despite the ecotoxicological hazards posed by wastewater effluents, ecotoxicological studies are currently underutilised in South African aquatic ecosystem assessments, and where they have been done, the observation is that ecotoxicological studies are mostly experimental and restricted to small study areas. More research is still needed to fully assess especially the ecotoxicological consequences of surface water pollution by urban wastewater effluents in South Africa. A review of the effects of urban effluent discharges that include domestic effluent mixed with industrial effluent and/or urban stormwater run-off is hereby presented. PMID:26408112

  3. Urban effluent discharges as causes of public and environmental health concerns in South Africa's aquatic milieu.

    PubMed

    Sibanda, Timothy; Selvarajan, Ramganesh; Tekere, Memory

    2015-12-01

    The water quality in South Africa's river systems is rapidly deteriorating as a consequence of increased discharge of wastewater effluents. The natural ability of rivers and reservoirs to trap toxic chemicals and nutrients in their sediments enables these systems to accumulate contaminants, altering the natural balance in environmental water quality, thereby raising a plethora of public and environmental health concerns. Impaired water quality has been linked to an array of problems in South Africa including massive fish mortalities, altered habitat template leading to the thinning of riverine macroinvertebrate diversity, shifts in microbial community structures with drastic ecological consequences and evolvement of antibiotic resistance genes that, under natural conditions, can be transferred to waterborne pathogens. Urban wastewater discharge has also been implicated in increased bioaccumulation of metals in edible plant parts, elevated concentrations of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), which are blamed for reduced fertility and increased cancer risk, excessive growth of toxic cyanobacteria and an increase in concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms which constitute a potential health threat to humans. However, despite the ecotoxicological hazards posed by wastewater effluents, ecotoxicological studies are currently underutilised in South African aquatic ecosystem assessments, and where they have been done, the observation is that ecotoxicological studies are mostly experimental and restricted to small study areas. More research is still needed to fully assess especially the ecotoxicological consequences of surface water pollution by urban wastewater effluents in South Africa. A review of the effects of urban effluent discharges that include domestic effluent mixed with industrial effluent and/or urban stormwater run-off is hereby presented.

  4. Potential of low-temperature anaerobic digestion to address current environmental concerns on swine production.

    PubMed

    Massé, D I; Masse, L; Xia, Y; Gilbert, Y

    2010-04-01

    Environmental issues associated with swine production are becoming a major concern among the general public and are thus an important challenge for the swine industry. There is now a renewed interest in environmental biotechnologies that can minimize the impact of swine production and add value to livestock by-products. An anaerobic biotechnology called psychrophilic anaerobic digestion (PAD) in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) has been developed at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. This very stable biotechnology recovers usable energy, stabilizes and deodorizes manure, and increases the availability of plant nutrients. Experimental results indicated that PAD of swine manure slurry at 15 to 25 degrees C in intermittently fed SBR reduces the pollution potential of manure by removing up to 90% of the soluble chemical oxygen demand. The process performs well under intermittent feeding, once to 3 times a week, and without external mixing. Bioreactor feeding activities can thus be easily integrated into the routine manure removal procedures in the barn, with minimal interference with other farm operations and use of existing manure-handling equipment. Process stability was not affected by the presence of antibiotics in manure. The PAD process was efficient in eliminating populations of zoonotic pathogens and parasites present in raw livestock manure slurries. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion in SBR could also be used for swine mortality disposal. The addition of swine carcasses, at loading rates representing up to 8 times the normal mortality rates on commercial farms, did not affect the stability of SBR. No operational problems were related to the formation of foam and scum. The biotechnology was successfully operated at semi-industrial and full commercial scales. Biogas production rate exceeded 0.20 L of methane per gram of total chemical oxygen demand fed to the SBR. The biogas was of excellent quality, with a methane concentration ranging from 70 to 80%. The

  5. Environmental concerns of roxarsone in broiler poultry feed and litter in Maryland, USA.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Daniel J; Yonkos, Lance T; Staver, Kenneth W

    2015-02-17

    Roxarsone has been used extensively in the broiler chicken industry. We reviewed the environmental concerns of this usage. To summarize, arsenic added to poultry feed as roxarsone ends up in poultry litter. Fresh litter contains predominately roxarsone, whereas aged litter contains predominately inorganic arsenic. Soil arsenic concentrations from long-term poultry litter applications can exceed Maryland arsenic soil background remediation standards. Due to continued soil accumulation, arsenic-amended litter use as fertilizer is thought to be unsustainable. Surface-applied roxarsone-amended litter does not influence deep aquifer arsenic concentrations but is transported as inorganic arsenic to receiving waters and very shallow groundwater after precipitation. Arsenic in some receiving waters and sediments from agriculturally dominated watersheds have levels above established criteria. Arsenic in fish and shellfish is mostly organic. Phosphorus-based nutrient management will tend to limit PL application rates in areas that have over-applied phosphorus relative to crop needs, resulting in decreased rates of arsenic application and accumulation. Despite most arsenic in surface soils being tightly bound, as surface soils become more enriched in arsenic, the potential for downward movement increases but is limited in most soils due to the high capacity for binding of arsenic to clay minerals and oxides of iron and aluminum in subsoil horizons. In 2012, Maryland passed a law banning the use of arsenic additives except nitarsone in poultry feed. In 2013, the USFDA withdrew approval of roxarsone, carbarsone, and arsanilic but is reviewing nitarsone. PMID:25608233

  6. Perception and acceptance of technological and environmental risks: why are poor countries less concerned?

    PubMed

    Sokolowska, J; Tyszka, T

    1995-12-01

    The research has been aimed at answering two questions: (1) What factors impact perception and acceptance of technological and environmental hazards? (2) Why are rich societies involved more in protecting their environment and health than poor societies? Data has been collected from representative samples of two countries--Poland and Sweden. The results indicate that (1) contrary to earlier findings, the inverse relations between perceived benefits and dangers of hazards has not been observed, (2) acceptance of a risk has been mostly influenced by perceived benefits, (3) rejection of a risk has been mostly influenced by its perceived harmful consequences. Concerning the second question, it has been found that: (1) perceived hazard's danger and benefit is not the only factor that impacts its acceptance, and (2) a broader economic context can impact acceptance (tolerance) of hazards. It has been found that being aware of high dangers and not very high benefits of hazardous activities, Poles still have accepted them. Thus, Poles seem to follow an old proverb: "When one does not have what one likes, one has to like what one has." PMID:8559983

  7. Environmental concerns of roxarsone in broiler poultry feed and litter in Maryland, USA.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Daniel J; Yonkos, Lance T; Staver, Kenneth W

    2015-02-17

    Roxarsone has been used extensively in the broiler chicken industry. We reviewed the environmental concerns of this usage. To summarize, arsenic added to poultry feed as roxarsone ends up in poultry litter. Fresh litter contains predominately roxarsone, whereas aged litter contains predominately inorganic arsenic. Soil arsenic concentrations from long-term poultry litter applications can exceed Maryland arsenic soil background remediation standards. Due to continued soil accumulation, arsenic-amended litter use as fertilizer is thought to be unsustainable. Surface-applied roxarsone-amended litter does not influence deep aquifer arsenic concentrations but is transported as inorganic arsenic to receiving waters and very shallow groundwater after precipitation. Arsenic in some receiving waters and sediments from agriculturally dominated watersheds have levels above established criteria. Arsenic in fish and shellfish is mostly organic. Phosphorus-based nutrient management will tend to limit PL application rates in areas that have over-applied phosphorus relative to crop needs, resulting in decreased rates of arsenic application and accumulation. Despite most arsenic in surface soils being tightly bound, as surface soils become more enriched in arsenic, the potential for downward movement increases but is limited in most soils due to the high capacity for binding of arsenic to clay minerals and oxides of iron and aluminum in subsoil horizons. In 2012, Maryland passed a law banning the use of arsenic additives except nitarsone in poultry feed. In 2013, the USFDA withdrew approval of roxarsone, carbarsone, and arsanilic but is reviewing nitarsone.

  8. Geochemical Analyses of Geologic Materials from Areas of Critical Environmental Concern, Clark and Nye Counties, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Castor, Stephen B.; Budahn, James R.; Flynn, Kathryn S.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION An assessment of known and undiscovered mineral resources of selected areas administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Clark and Nye Counties, Nevada was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG), and University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV). The purpose of this work was to provide the BLM with information for use in their long-term planning process in southern Nevada so that they can make better-informed decisions. The results of the assessment are in Ludington (2006). Existing information about the areas, including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and mineral-deposit information was compiled, and field examinations of selected areas and mineral occurrences was conducted. This information was used to determine the geologic setting, metallogenic characteristics, and mineral potential of the areas. Twenty-five Areas of Critical Environmental Concern (ACECs) were identified by BLM as the object of this study. They range from tiny (less than one km2) to large (more than 1,000 km2). The location of the study areas is shown on Figure 1. This report includes geochemical data for rock samples collected by staff of the USGS and NBMG in these ACECs and nearby areas. Samples have been analyzed from the Big Dune, Ash Meadows, Arden, Desert Tortoise Conservation Center, Coyote Springs Valley, Mormon Mesa, Virgin Mountains, Gold Butte A and B, Whitney Pockets, Rainbow Gardens, River Mountains, and Piute-Eldorado Valley ACECs.

  9. Blaming the Government for Environmental Problems: A Multilevel and Cross-National Analysis of the Relationship between Trust in Government and Local and Global Environmental Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cin, Cigdem Kentmen

    2013-01-01

    Although the determinants of trust in governments have received significant attention in the literature on political trust, there has been no attention paid to whether environmental concerns affect governmental trust. Yet, if individuals are worried about local and global environmental degradation, they may think that the government has failed in…

  10. Concern about Environmental Pollution: How Much Difference Do Race and Ethnicity Make? A New Jersey Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    A survey conducted among 1,513 residents of New Jersey during March–May 2004 showed that non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and English-speaking Hispanic Americans were significantly more concerned about environmental pollution problems than were Asian Americans and Spanish-language Hispanic Americans. For example, an average of > 40% of the first three groups was very concerned about New Jersey’s environmental problems, compared with 15% of the last two populations. There were also racial/ethnic differences among these groups in their desire for government action to protect the environment and in their personal support of the environmental movement. Regression analyses suggest that the 1970s and 1980s model of core support for environmental protection from white, female, young, educated, and politically liberal people has largely, but not completely, continued among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and English-language Hispanic populations. But these demographic pointers do not hold for Asian and Spanish-language Hispanic Americans, except indicating more support among the more formally educated. The last two groups are the two fastest-growing subpopulations in the United States, and although acculturation may slowly increase their concern about environmental pollution, it is more prudent for proponents of environmental protection not to wait and instead to try to better understand the environmental perceptions of these groups. PMID:15811824

  11. A review of environmental and occupational exposure to xylene and its health concerns

    PubMed Central

    Niaz, Kamal; Bahadar, Haji; Maqbool, Faheem; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Xylene is a cyclic hydrocarbon, and an environmental pollutant. It is also used in dyes, paints, polishes, medical technology and different industries as a solvent. Xylene easily vaporizes and divides by sunlight into other harmless chemicals. The aim of the present review is to collect the evidence of the xylene toxicity, related to non-cancerous health hazards, as well as to provide possible effective measurement to minimize its risk ratio. For current study a bibliographic search of more than 250 peer-reviewed papers in scientific data including PubMed, and Google Scholar about xylene was done. But approximately 130 peer-reviewed papers relevant to xylene were included (Figure 1(Fig. 1)). All scientific data was reviewed with key words of “xylene toxicity”, “xylene toxic health effects”, “environmental volatile organic compounds”, “human exposure to xylene”, “xylene poisoning in laboratory workers”, “effects of xylene along with other hydrocarbons”, “neurotoxicity of selected hydrocarbons”, and “toxic effects of particular xylene isomers in animals”. According to these studies, xylene is released into the atmosphere as fugitive emissions from petrochemical industries, fire, cigarette, from different vehicles. Short term exposure to mixed xylene or their individual isomers result in irritation of the nose, eyes and throat subsequently leading toward neurological, gastrointestinal and reproductive harmful effects. In addition long term exposure to xylene may cause hazardous effects on respiratory system, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and renal system. The health concerns of xylene are well documented in animals and human. It is important to improve health policies, launch xylene related health and toxicity awareness campaigns, to get rid of its dangerous outcomes. Chronic diseases have become a threat to human globally, with special prominence in regions, where xylene is used with other chemicals (benzene, toluene

  12. 77 FR 76050 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact Concerning a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... Significant Impact Concerning a Genetically Engineered Atlantic Salmon; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... a new animal drug application (NADA) concerning a genetically engineered (GE) Atlantic salmon. Also... EA prepared by FDA in support of an NADA associated with AQUADVANTAGE Salmon, a GE Atlantic...

  13. 78 FR 10620 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact Concerning a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    .... Background In the Federal Register of December 26, 2012 (77 FR 76050), FDA published a notice of availability... Significant Impact Concerning a Genetically Engineered Atlantic Salmon; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY... animal drug application (NADA) concerning a genetically engineered (GE) Atlantic salmon and a...

  14. An ID Network System to Prepare for Global Environmental/Health Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Shoichiro; Yoneda, Susumu

    Climate change and/or pandemics are global life threatening concerns. For verifying and utilizing monitored data for solving to the Climate Change concerns, a network system based on device ID would be proposed. In this paper, we review the recent standardization initiatives in ITU-T, and propose an ID network that can be used to verify the solutions.

  15. Incorporating environmental concerns into power sector decision-making: A case study of Sri Lanka. World Bank Environment Paper 6

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, P.; Munasinghe, M.; Team, S.L.S.

    1994-04-01

    Weighs Sri Lanka`s options for addressing environmental concerns during the planning stages of energy policymaking. Here is a holistic approach to analyzing the environmental impact of various power systems. Unlike standard impact studies that begin at the project level, this method calls for environmental assessments that start at the planning stage of a national framework for energy policymaking. The framework would take into account the energy needs of Sri Lanka`s total economy. It also would make it easier to incorporate environmental goals into power sector decisionmaking at the critical investment stage. Sri Lanka`s development options for the power sector are reviewed in detail. Topics include alternative ways to assess the economic value of a power plant`s impact on biodiversity, human health, and air and water pollution. The study also assesses which energy planning options work best and recommends ways in which the Ceylon Electricity Board can improve its environmental policies.

  16. Environmental Application, Fate, Effects, and Concerns of Ionic Liquids: A Review.

    PubMed

    Amde, Meseret; Liu, Jing-Fu; Pang, Long

    2015-11-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) comprise mostly of organic salts with negligible vapor pressure and low flammability that are proposed as replacements for volatile solvents. ILs have been promoted as "green" solvents and widely investigated for their various applications. Although the utility of these chemicals is unquestionable, their toxic effects have attracted great attention. In order to manage their potential hazards and design environmentally benign ILs, understanding their environmental behavior, fate and effects is important. In this review, environmentally relevant issues of ILs, including their environmental application, environmental behavior and toxicity are addressed. In addition, also presented are the influence of ILs on the environmental fate and toxicity of other coexisting contaminants, important routes for designing nontoxic ILs and the techniques that might be adopted for the removal of ILs. PMID:26445034

  17. Environmental Application, Fate, Effects, and Concerns of Ionic Liquids: A Review.

    PubMed

    Amde, Meseret; Liu, Jing-Fu; Pang, Long

    2015-11-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) comprise mostly of organic salts with negligible vapor pressure and low flammability that are proposed as replacements for volatile solvents. ILs have been promoted as "green" solvents and widely investigated for their various applications. Although the utility of these chemicals is unquestionable, their toxic effects have attracted great attention. In order to manage their potential hazards and design environmentally benign ILs, understanding their environmental behavior, fate and effects is important. In this review, environmentally relevant issues of ILs, including their environmental application, environmental behavior and toxicity are addressed. In addition, also presented are the influence of ILs on the environmental fate and toxicity of other coexisting contaminants, important routes for designing nontoxic ILs and the techniques that might be adopted for the removal of ILs.

  18. Education about environmental issues, conservation, and management: a study of form four secondary school pupils' concerns about environmental issues in Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Maghenda, W.M.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study is threefold: first, to develop and administer a questionnaire designed to determine Kenyan students' concerns about environmental issues; second to investigate the primary environmental factors facing the country; and finally, to utilize the findings of the study to develop a conceptual framework for environmental education in Kenya. To develop an environmental education framework for Kenya, baseline data was obtained from a survey of Form IV secondary school students' concerns about environmental issues. A split-half technique was used to establish the reliability of the questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to test the construct validity of the questionnaire and as a data reduction method. This technique resulted in reducing the 81 items developed for the study to eight Factor as follows: (F1) Land use and health stresses; (F2) Community environmental risks; (F3) National environmental problems; (F4) Careless land use practices at community level; (F5) Socioeconomic elements; (F6) Sources of environmental information; (F7) Careless land use at national level; and (F8) Primary population pressures. Results are presented briefly.

  19. Secondary School Students' Interests, Attitudes and Values Concerning School Science Related to Environmental Issues in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Meisalo, Veijo

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between students' interests in environmental issues, attitudes to environmental responsibility and biocentric values in school science education. The factors were investigated within the framework of three moderators: gender, school and residential area of the school. The survey was carried out using the…

  20. Report Calls for Balancing Energy Security, Energy Equity, and Environmental Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-12-01

    Balancing the sometimes conflicting needs for energy security, energy equity, and environmental sustainability—including trying to limit average global temperature increases—can be a daunting task for countries. A new report focuses on the challenges and potential pathways to achieving this energy "trilemma" of meeting energy and environmental needs.

  1. Using a Physical Education Environmental Survey to Identify Areas of Concern and Improve Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Grant; Hulbert, George

    2007-01-01

    School environmental conditions can impact learning in physical educational classes. It is important for schools to control environmental health hazards, not only to promote a conducive school learning environment, but to also reduce associated health risks. To help physical education leaders determine the quality of physical education facilities…

  2. A Response to Scott's Concerns about the Relevance of Environmental Education Research: Applying Social-Ecological Systems Thinking and Consilience to Defining Research Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasny, Marianne E.

    2009-01-01

    In William Scott's plenary address at the World Environmental Education Conference, he expressed concerns about the relevance of environmental education research in a world facing global environmental and demographic change. In responding to Scott's concerns, I argue that addressing challenges related to development and the environment requires…

  3. Human exposure to environmental health concern by types of urban environment: The case of Tel Aviv.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Izhak; Potchter, Oded; Yaakov, Yaron; Epstein, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    This study classifies urban environments into types characterized by different exposure to environmental risk factors measured by general sense of discomfort and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). We hypothesize that a set of environmental factors (micro-climatic, CO, noise and individual heart rate) that were measured simultaneously in random locations can provide a better understanding of the distribution of human exposure to environmental loads throughout the urban space than results calculated based on measurements from close fixed stations. We measured micro-climatic and thermal load, CO and noise, individual Heart Rate, Subjective Social Load and Sense of Discomfort (SD) were tested by questionnaire survey. The results demonstrate significant differences in exposure to environmental factors among 8 types of urban environments. It appears that noise and social load are the more significant environmental factors to enhance health risks and general sense of discomfort. PMID:26344491

  4. Human exposure to environmental health concern by types of urban environment: The case of Tel Aviv.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Izhak; Potchter, Oded; Yaakov, Yaron; Epstein, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    This study classifies urban environments into types characterized by different exposure to environmental risk factors measured by general sense of discomfort and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). We hypothesize that a set of environmental factors (micro-climatic, CO, noise and individual heart rate) that were measured simultaneously in random locations can provide a better understanding of the distribution of human exposure to environmental loads throughout the urban space than results calculated based on measurements from close fixed stations. We measured micro-climatic and thermal load, CO and noise, individual Heart Rate, Subjective Social Load and Sense of Discomfort (SD) were tested by questionnaire survey. The results demonstrate significant differences in exposure to environmental factors among 8 types of urban environments. It appears that noise and social load are the more significant environmental factors to enhance health risks and general sense of discomfort.

  5. Development of EPA's (Environmental Protection Agency) BRC (below regulatory concern) criteria for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gruhlke, J.M.; Galpin, F.L.; Holcomb, W.F. )

    1989-11-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) program to develop proposed generally applicable environmental standards for land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and certain naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive wastes has been completed. The elements of the proposed standards for LLW under 40CFR193 of the Code of Federal Regulations include the following: 1. exposure limits for predisposal management and storage operations; 2. criteria for other regulatory agencies to follow in specifying wastes that are below regulatory concern (BRC); 3. postdisposal exposure limits; 4. groundwater protection requirements; and 5. qualitative implementation requirements. This paper focuses on the development of EPA's BRC criteria applicable to the disposal of LLW.

  6. Recommendations concerning models and parameters best suited to breeder reactor environmental radiological assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.W.; Baes, C.F. III; Dunning, D.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Recommendations are presented concerning the models and parameters best suited for assessing the impact of radionuclide releases to the environment by breeder reactor facilities. These recommendations are based on the model and parameter evaluations performed during this project to date. Seven different areas are covered in separate sections.

  7. Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood--European database on contaminant levels.

    PubMed

    Vandermeersch, Griet; Lourenço, Helena Maria; Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Cunha, Sara; Diogène, Jorge; Cano-Sancho, German; Sloth, Jens J; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Barcelo, Damia; Allegaert, Wim; Bekaert, Karen; Fernandes, José Oliveira; Marques, Antonio; Robbens, Johan

    2015-11-01

    Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment to seafood. So-called "contaminants of emerging concern" are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data to scientists and regulatory authorities, was developed. The present paper reviews a selection of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood including toxic elements, endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives, microplastics and marine toxins. Current status on the knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation are briefly presented and the outcome from scientific publications reporting on the levels of these compounds in seafood is presented and discussed.

  8. Concern-Focused Evaluation for Ambiguous and Conflicting Policies: An Approach from the Environmental Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mermet, Laurent; Bille, Raphael; Leroy, Maya

    2010-01-01

    Environment and sustainable development show how policies are becoming ever more complex and ambiguous. This trend calls for new evaluation approaches. They need to be more clearly focused on specific, explicit concerns. They must be driven by a strategic concept of use to overcome the vulnerability to manipulation of many integrative, essentially…

  9. Ethylene dibromide: Biochemical effects and environmental concerns. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxicity and environmental issues pertaining to the fumigant ethylene dibromide. Topics include effects on liver activity, respiratory systems and DNA synthesis in laboratory animals, comparisons and synergistic effects with other pesticides, and occupational health considerations. The distribution of the compound in the environment and its effectiveness as a fumigant are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 100 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on terrestrial plants. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II; Will, M.E.; Evans, C.

    1993-09-01

    One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment for hazardous waste sites is the screening of contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration as ``contaminants of potential concern.`` This process is termed ``contaminant screening.`` It is performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals to benchmark concentrations. Currently, no standard benchmark concentrations exist for assessing contaminants in soil with respect to their toxicity to plants. This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for this purpose (phytotoxicity benchmarks), a set of data concerning effects of chemicals in soil or soil solution on plants, and a set of phytotoxicity benchmarks for 34 chemicals potentially associated with US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Chemicals that are found in soil at concentrations exceeding both the phytotoxicity benchmark and the background concentration for the soil type should be considered contaminants of potential concern. The purpose of this report is to present plant toxicity data and discuss their utility as benchmarks for determining the hazard to terrestrial plants caused by contaminants in soil. Benchmarks are provided for soils and solutions.

  11. The Association of Outdoor Recreation and Environmental Concern: Reexamining the Dunlap-Heffernan Thesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodori, Gene L.; Luloff, A. E.; Willits, Fern K.

    1998-01-01

    Survey of 1,491 rural Pennsylvania residents found that, as in previous research, pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors were related to greater education, more liberal political orientation, and participation in outdoor recreational activities. Contrary to previous research, no significant differences were found between participants in…

  12. 43 CFR 1610.7-2 - Designation of areas of critical environmental concern.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Resource Management Planning § 1610.7-2 Designation of areas of critical environmental... protection management shall be identified and considered throughout the resource management planning process... fish or wildlife resource or other natural system or process; or natural hazard. (2) Importance....

  13. Environmental concern and the political process in France: Patterns of the 1981 elections

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The environment as a political cause emerged on the national scene in France in 1978, when the ''green'' party captured an impressive share of the initial parliamentary vote. In the presidential election of April, 1981, the environmental candidate ran moderately well, polling over one million votes and leading all other minority and special interest party candidates. In subsequent parliamentary elections (June, 1981), however, ''green'' candidates attracted only about half of their 1978 support, a decline attributable largely to the success of socialist candidates. Despite this setback, it is possible to identify persistent areas of strong environmental electoral support in Alsace, the Paris metropolitan area, the Rhone-Alpes region, and to a lesser extent lower Normandy and Brittany.

  14. Balancing energy and environmental concerns: the case of the Kayraktepe dam, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sever, Ö.; Tiğrek, Ş.; Şarlak, N.

    2012-10-01

    In this study, an alternative solution for a large dam, namely the Kayraktepe Dam in Turkey, is investigated. The dam was planned for flood control, energy generation and flow regulation for a downstream irrigation project more than 30 yr ago, but until now the project has not begun due to it receiving severe criticism about environmental and social considerations. The project formulation was redeveloped several times in the past but the options were not found to be feasible. In this study, a detailed analysis of the available feasibility studies is provided and then a new formulation, consisting of the proposed one medium dam and five run-of-river type hydropower stations instead of a large scale dam, is evaluated. The new formulation is equivalent to the existing project in terms of energy production and flood control. On the other hand, there are some benefits relative to other configurations as solutions to some of the environmental and social problems being addressed.

  15. The NASA role in major areas of human concern: Environmental quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    After introducing some of the general factors that have affected progress in the area of environmental quality, NASA program elements are examined to illustrate relevant points of contact. Interpretive steps are taken throughout the report to show a few of the more important ways people's lives have been affected as a result of the work of NASA and other organizations functioning in this area. The principal documents used and interviews conducted are identified.

  16. Ergonomics standards concerning human-system interaction: visual displays, controls and environmental requirements.

    PubMed

    Stewart, T

    1995-08-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to explain one of the most important ergonomics standards for computer equipment (ISO 9241), and help the reader to understand how to use it when selecting or designing visual display unit (VDU) equipment and systems. In this paper, we cover general issues, then consider hardware and environmental issues. The software ergonomics and dialogue design issues and corresponding parts will be addressed by Susan Harker in another paper in this special issue. PMID:15677029

  17. RO concentrate minimization by electrodialysis: techno-economic analysis and environmental concerns.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Ghyselbrecht, Karel; Vanherpe, Ruben; Meesschaert, Boudewijn; Pinoy, Luc; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2012-09-30

    This paper presents a systematic techno-economical analysis and an environmental impact evaluation of a reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate treatment process using electrodialysis (ED) in view of environmental management of brine discharges. The concentrate originates from a secondary effluent treated by RO. Without any treatment, the concentrate would have to be discharged; this is compared in this study to the costs and benefits of an effective treatment method in a pilot scale ED plant. A technical analysis was done both on lab scale and pilot scale for the determination of operational and maintenance costs for the ED installation at the required conditions of process performance and safety. Subsequently, an economical analysis was done to calculate the cost of the different parts of the ED system. It was shown that an operational cost of 0.19 EUR m(-3) can be achieved, assuming that the ED concentrate is to decarbonated at pH 6.0 to prevent membrane scaling. Finally, environmental impact issues were calculated and discussed for the overall system. Results imply that if renewable energy is applied for the ED power source, CO(2) emission from membrane processes can be much less than from the conventional treatment methods. PMID:22579771

  18. A note on attitudes and knowledge concerning environmental issues in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Boman, Mattias; Mattsson, Leif

    2008-02-01

    As part of a larger research effort, the empirical basis for this note is responses to four out of many questions in a mailed survey, which primarily focused on national environmental objectives in Sweden. The results show that out of eight broad areas for use of tax money, five-including environment-are rated as important by over 90% of the respondents. Respondents appear to be less willing to discriminate between different issues covered by national environmental objectives, as all of these are rated as important by more than 80% of the respondents. The function of the ozone layer is an example of an environmental issue where the knowledge among people is relatively high, while this is not the case when it comes to the amount of pesticides used in agriculture. The results also show less support for actions at the individual level to improve the environment, as compared to support for actions taken by society at large through, e.g., technological improvement or policy intervention.

  19. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  20. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  1. A risk assessment framework for assessing metallic nanomaterials of environmental concern: aquatic exposure and behavior.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Niall Joseph; Cummins, Enda J

    2011-05-01

    Nanomaterials are finding application in many different environmentally relevant products and processes due to enhanced catalytic, antimicrobial, and oxidative properties of materials at this scale. As the market share of nano-functionalized products increases, so too does the potential for environmental exposure and contamination. This study presents some exposure ranking methods that consider potential metallic nanomaterial surface water exposure and fate, due to nano-functionalized products, through a number of exposure pathways. These methods take into account the limited and disparate data currently available for metallic nanomaterials and apply variability and uncertainty principles, together with qualitative risk assessment principles, to develop a scientific ranking. Three exposure scenarios with three different nanomaterials were considered to demonstrate these assessment methods: photo-catalytic exterior paint (nano-scale TiO₂), antimicrobial food packaging (nano-scale Ag), and particulate-reducing diesel fuel additives (nano-scale CeO₂). Data and hypotheses from literature relating to metallic nanomaterial aquatic behavior (including the behavior of materials that may relate to nanomaterials in aquatic environments, e.g., metals, pesticides, surfactants) were used together with commercial nanomaterial characteristics and Irish natural aquatic environment characteristics to rank the potential concentrations, transport, and persistence behaviors within subjective categories. These methods, and the applied scenarios, reveal where data critical to estimating exposure and risk are lacking. As research into the behavior of metallic nanomaterials in different environments emerges, the influence of material and environmental characteristics on nanomaterial behavior within these exposure- and risk-ranking methods may be redefined on a quantitative basis.

  2. Emerging Environmental Contaminants: What’s New

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  3. OVERVIEW OF EMERGING CONTAMINANTS OF CONCERN IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this grou...

  4. Rapeseed species and environmental concerns related to loss of seeds of genetically modified oilseed rape in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Toru; Tamaoki, Masanori; Aono, Mitsuko; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Feral rapeseed in Japan consists of Brassica rapa, B. juncea and B. napus, mostly produced by escape from crops. Brassica rapa and B. juncea were introduced from abroad long ago as leaf and root vegetables and as an oil crop and breeders have developed various cultivars. Brassica napus was introduced in the late 1800s, mainly as an oil crop. Rapeseed production in Japan is low, and most demand is met by imports from Canada (94.4% of the 2009 trade volume). Recently, spontaneous B. napus, including genetically modified (GM) herbicide-resistant individuals, has been detected along Japanese roads, probably originating from seeds lost during transportation of imports. As GM oilseed production increases abroad, the probability of escape of GM oilseed rape in Japan will increase, raising environmental biosafety concerns related to the impact of feral rapeseed on heirloom brassicaceous crops. In this paper, we review the history of rapeseed introduction in Japan and future concerns.

  5. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products found in the Great Lakes above concentrations of environmental concern.

    PubMed

    Blair, Benjamin D; Crago, Jordan P; Hedman, Curtis J; Klaper, Rebecca D

    2013-11-01

    The monitoring of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) has focused on the distribution in rivers and small lakes, but data regarding their occurrence and effects in large lake systems, such as the Great Lakes, are sparse. Wastewater treatment processes have not been optimized to remove influent PPCPs and are a major source of PPCPs in the environment. Furthermore, PPCPs are not currently regulated in wastewater effluent. In this experiment we evaluated the concentration, and corresponding risk, of PPCPs from a wastewater effluent source at varying distances in Lake Michigan. Fifty-four PPCPs and hormones were assessed on six different dates over a two-year period from surface water and sediment samples up to 3.2 km from a wastewater treatment plant and at two sites within a harbor. Thirty-two PPCPs were detected in Lake Michigan and 30 were detected in the sediment, with numerous PPCPs being detected up to 3.2 km away from the shoreline. The most frequently detected PPCPs in Lake Michigan were metformin, caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, and triclosan. To determine the ecological risk, the maximum measured environmental concentrations were compared to the predicted no-effect concentration and 14 PPCPs were found to be of medium or high ecological risk. The environmental risk of PPCPs in large lake systems, such as the Great Lakes, has been questioned due to high dilution; however, the concentrations found in this study, and their corresponding risk quotient, indicate a significant threat by PPCPs to the health of the Great Lakes, particularly near shore organisms.

  6. Ranking of concern, based on environmental indexes, for pharmaceutical and personal care products: an application to the Spanish case.

    PubMed

    Ortiz de García, Sheyla; Pinto, Gilberto Pinto; García-Encina, Pedro A; Irusta Mata, Rubén I

    2013-11-15

    A wide range of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) are present in the environment, and many of their adverse effects are unknown. The emergence of new compounds or changes in regulations have led to dynamical studies of occurrence, impact and treatment, which consider geographical areas and trends in consumption and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry. A Quantitative study of Structure-Activity Relationship ((Q)SAR) was performed to assess the possible adverse effects of ninety six PPCPs and metabolites with negligible experimental data and establish a ranking of concern, which was supported by the EPA EPI Suite™ interface. The environmental and toxicological indexes, the persistence (P), the bioaccumulation (B), the toxicity (T) (extensive) and the occurrence in Spanish aquatic environments (O) (intensive) were evaluated. The most hazardous characteristics in the largest number of compounds were generated by the P index, followed by the T and B indexes. A high number of metabolites has a concern score equal to or greater than their parent compounds. Three PBT and OPBT rankings of concern were proposed using the total and partial ranking method (supported by a Hasse diagram) by the Decision Analysis by Ranking Techniques (DART) tool, which was recently recommended by the European Commission. An analysis of the sensibility of the relative weights of these indexes has been conducted. Hormones, antidepressants (and their metabolites), blood lipid regulators and all of the personal care products considered in this study were at the highest levels of risk according to the PBT and OPBT total rankings. Furthermore, when the OPBT partial ranking was performed, X-ray contrast media, H2 blockers and some antibiotics were included at the highest level of concern. It is important to improve and incorporate useful indexes for the predicted environmental impact of PPCPs and metabolites and thus focus experimental analysis on the compounds that require

  7. Ranking of concern, based on environmental indexes, for pharmaceutical and personal care products: an application to the Spanish case.

    PubMed

    Ortiz de García, Sheyla; Pinto, Gilberto Pinto; García-Encina, Pedro A; Irusta Mata, Rubén I

    2013-11-15

    A wide range of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) are present in the environment, and many of their adverse effects are unknown. The emergence of new compounds or changes in regulations have led to dynamical studies of occurrence, impact and treatment, which consider geographical areas and trends in consumption and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry. A Quantitative study of Structure-Activity Relationship ((Q)SAR) was performed to assess the possible adverse effects of ninety six PPCPs and metabolites with negligible experimental data and establish a ranking of concern, which was supported by the EPA EPI Suite™ interface. The environmental and toxicological indexes, the persistence (P), the bioaccumulation (B), the toxicity (T) (extensive) and the occurrence in Spanish aquatic environments (O) (intensive) were evaluated. The most hazardous characteristics in the largest number of compounds were generated by the P index, followed by the T and B indexes. A high number of metabolites has a concern score equal to or greater than their parent compounds. Three PBT and OPBT rankings of concern were proposed using the total and partial ranking method (supported by a Hasse diagram) by the Decision Analysis by Ranking Techniques (DART) tool, which was recently recommended by the European Commission. An analysis of the sensibility of the relative weights of these indexes has been conducted. Hormones, antidepressants (and their metabolites), blood lipid regulators and all of the personal care products considered in this study were at the highest levels of risk according to the PBT and OPBT total rankings. Furthermore, when the OPBT partial ranking was performed, X-ray contrast media, H2 blockers and some antibiotics were included at the highest level of concern. It is important to improve and incorporate useful indexes for the predicted environmental impact of PPCPs and metabolites and thus focus experimental analysis on the compounds that require

  8. Shuttle Environmental Assurance: Brominated Flame Retardants - Concerns, Drivers, Potential Impacts and Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    2010-01-01

    Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) are widely used in the manufacture of electrical and electronic components and as additives in formulations for foams, plastics and rubbers. The United States (US) and the European Union (EU)have increased regulation and monitoring of of targeted BFRs, such as Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) due to the bioaccumulative effects in humans and animals. In response, manufacturers and vendors of BFR-containing materials are changing flame-retardant additives, sometimes without notifying BFR users. In some instances, Deca-bromodiphenylether (Deca-BDE) and other families of flame retardants are being used as replacement flame retardants for penta-BDE and octa-BDE. The reformulation of the BFR-containing material typically results in the removal of the targeted PBDE and replacement with a non-PBDE chemical or non-targeted PBDE. Many users of PBDE -based materials are concerned that vendors will perform reformulation and not inform the end user. Materials performance such as flammability, adhesion , and tensile strength may be altered due to reformulation. The requalification of newly formulated materials may be required, or replacement materials may have to be identified and qualified. The Shuttle Enviornmental Assurance (SEA) team indentified a risk to the Space Shuttle Program associated with the possibility that targeted PBDEs may be replaced without notification. Resultant decreases in flame retardancy, Liquid Oxygen (LOX) compatibility, or material performance could have serious consequences.

  9. Karst Lands: The dissolution of carbonate rock produces unique landscapes and poses significant hydrological and environmental concerns

    SciTech Connect

    White, W.B.; Culver, D.C.; Herman, J.S.

    1995-09-01

    Karst lands are produced by the action of water on soluble rocks, a process among the most dynamic of all erosive forces that counterbalance the uplifting forces of tectonics. The dissolution of carbonate rock, primarily limestone and dolomite, produces unique landscapes and poses significant hydrological and environmental concerns. The major topic areas discussed in this article include the following: processes that form karst; karst drainage basins; discharge from karst aquifers; caves as paleoclimatic recorders; caves as ecosystems; water issues in karst regions; and sinkholes, soil piping and subsidence. 20 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Cross-species sensitivity to a novel androgen receptor agonist of potential environmental concern, spironolactone.

    PubMed

    LaLone, Carlie A; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Cavallin, Jenna E; Kahl, Michael D; Durhan, Elizabeth J; Makynen, Elizabeth A; Jensen, Kathleen M; Stevens, Kyle E; Severson, Megan N; Blanksma, Chad A; Flynn, Kevin M; Hartig, Philip C; Woodard, Jonne S; Berninger, Jason P; Norberg-King, Teresa J; Johnson, Rodney D; Ankley, Gerald T

    2013-11-01

    Spironolactone is a pharmaceutical that in humans is used to treat conditions like hirsutism, various dermatologic afflictions, and female-pattern hair loss through antagonism of the androgen receptor. Although not routinely monitored in the environment, spironolactone has been detected downstream of a pharmaceutical manufacturer, indicating a potential for exposure of aquatic species. Furthermore, spironolactone has been reported to cause masculinization of female western mosquitofish, a response indicative of androgen receptor activation. Predictive methods to identify homologous proteins to the human and western mosquitofish androgen receptor suggest that vertebrates would be more susceptible to adverse effects mediated by chemicals like spironolactone that target the androgen receptor compared with invertebrate species that lack a relevant homolog. In addition, an adverse outcome pathway previously developed for activation of the androgen receptor suggests that androgen mimics can lead to reproductive toxicity in fish. To assess this, 21-d reproduction studies were conducted with 2 fish species, fathead minnow and Japanese medaka, and the invertebrate Daphnia magna. Spironolactone significantly reduced the fecundity of medaka and fathead minnows at 50 μg/L, whereas daphnia reproduction was not affected by concentrations as large as 500 μg/L. Phenotypic masculinization of females of both fish species was observed at 5 μg/L as evidenced by formation of tubercles in fathead minnows and papillary processes in Japanese medaka. Effects in fish occurred at concentrations below those reported in the environment. These results demonstrate how a priori knowledge of an adverse outcome pathway and the conservation of a key molecular target across vertebrates can be utilized to identify potential chemicals of concern in terms of monitoring and highlight potentially sensitive species and endpoints for testing.

  11. Leaching composted lignocellulosic wastes to prepare container media: feasibility and environmental concerns.

    PubMed

    Fornes, Fernando; Carrión, Carolina; García-de-la-Fuente, Rosana; Puchades, Rosa; Abad, Manuel

    2010-08-01

    The leaching of salt and mineral elements from three composts prepared with residual vegetable crop biomass (melon, pepper or zucchini) was studied using methacrylate columns and distilled water. The benefits of the leached composts to be used for ornamental potted plant production were also analysed. After leaching 5 container capacities of effluent, both the electrical conductivity and the concentration of soluble mineral elements in compost leachates decreased substantially and remained close to the target levels. Composts reacted differently to leaching due to differences in the raw waste sources and the composting process and hence, in their physical and chemical characteristics. At the end of the experiment, after pouring 8 container capacities of water, the leaching efficiency of the salts was 96%, 93% and 87% for melon, pepper and zucchini-based composts, respectively. Mineral elements differed in their ability to be removed from the composts; N (NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-)), K(+), Na(+), Cl(-), and SO(4)(2-) were leached readily, whereas H(2)PO(4)(-), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) were removed hardly. Leached composts showed a range of physico-chemical and chemical characteristics suitable for use as growing media constituents. Potted Calendula and Calceolaria plants grew in the substrates prepared with the leached composts better than in those made with the non-leached ones. Finally, special emphasis must be paid to the management of the effluents produced under commercial conditions to avoid environmental pollution. PMID:20456858

  12. Nonradiological chemical pathway analysis and identification of chemicals of concern for environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, M.L.; Cooper, A.T.; Castleton, K.J.

    1995-11-01

    Pacific Northwest`s Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is an ongoing effort tot design, review, and conducted monitoring on and off the Hanford site. Chemicals of concern that were selected are listed. Using modeled exposure pathways, the offsite cancer incidence and hazard quotient were calculated and a retrospective pathway analysis performed to estimate what onsite concentrations would be required in the soil for each chemical of concern and other detected chemicals that would be required to obtain an estimated offsite human-health risk of 1.0E-06 cancer incidence or 1.0 hazard quotient. This analysis indicates that current nonradiological chemical contamination occurring on the site does not pose a significant offsite human-health risk; the highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual was from arsenic (1.76E-10); the highest hazard quotient was chromium(VI) (1.48E-04). The most sensitive pathways of exposure were surfacewater and aquatic food consumption. Combined total offsite excess cancer incidence was 2.09E-10 and estimated hazard quotient was 2.40E-04. Of the 17 identified chemicals of concern, the SESP does not currently (routinely) monitor arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, bis(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP), and chrysene. Only 3 of the chemicals of concern (arsenic, BEHP, chloroform) could actually occur in onsite soil at concern high enough to cause a 1.0E-06 excess cancer incidence or a 1.0 hazard index for a given offsite exposure pathway. During the retrospective analysis, 20 other chemicals were also evaluated; only vinyl chloride and thallium could reach targeted offsite risk values.

  13. Environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with oil recovery from US tar-sand deposits: state-of-knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Ricker, Y.E.

    1982-01-08

    Tar-sand petroleum-extraction procedures undergoing field testing for possible commercial application in the US include both surface (above-ground) and in situ (underground) procedures. The surface tar-sand systems currently being field tested in the US are thermal decomposition processes (retorting), and suspension methods (solvent extraction). Underground bitumen extraction procedures that are also being field tested domestically are in situ combustion and steam-injection. Environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with construction and operation of 20,000-bbl/d commercial tar-sand surface and in situ facilities have been estimated and are summarized in this report. The principal regulations that commercial tar-sand facilities will need to address are also discussed, and environmental control technologies are summarized and wherever possible, projected costs of emission controls are stated. Finally, the likelihood-of-occurrence of potential environmental, health, and safety problems that have been determined are reviewed, and from this information inference is made as to the environmental acceptability of technologically feasible 20,000-bbl/d commercial tar-sand oil-extraction procedures.

  14. Radon Update: Facts concerning environmental radon: Levels, mitigation strategies, dosimetry, effects and guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, A.B.; Becker, D.V.; Donahoe, K.

    1994-02-01

    The risk from environmental radon levels is not higher now than in the past, when residential exposures were not considered to be a significant health hazard. The majority of the radon dose is not from radon itself, but from short-lived alpha-emitting radon daughters, most notably {sup 218}Po (T{sub {1/2}}3min) and {sup 214}Po(T{sub {1/2}}19.7 min). Radon gas can penetrate homes from many sources and in various fashions. Measuring radon in homes is simple and relatively inexpensive and may be accomplished in a variety of ways. Although it is not possible to radon-proof a house, it is possible to reduce the level. In high radon areas, if the average level is higher than 4-8 pCi/liter (NCRP recommended level is 8 pCi/liter; EPA recommmended level is 4 PCi/liter), appropriate action is advised. The shape of the dose response curves for miners exposed to alpha-emitting particles in the workplace is consistent with current biologic knowledge. It is linear in the low dose range and saturates in the high dose range. No detectable increase in lung cancer frequency is seen in the lowest exposed miners (those with exposures <120 WLM, the relevant dose interval for most homes). Evidence for a health effect from radon exposure is based on data from animal studies and epidemiologic studies of mines. Extensive radiobiologic data predict a linear dose-response curve in the low dose region due to poor biological repair mechanisms for the high density of ionizing events that alpha particles create. However, no compelling evidence for increased cancer risks has yet been demonstrated from {open_quotes}acceptable{close_quotes}levels (<4-8 pCi/liter). 58 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. Popular epidemiology and "fracking": citizens' concerns regarding the economic, environmental, health and social impacts of unconventional natural gas drilling operations.

    PubMed

    Powers, Martha; Saberi, Poune; Pepino, Richard; Strupp, Emily; Bugos, Eva; Cannuscio, Carolyn C

    2015-06-01

    Pennsylvania sits atop the Marcellus Shale, a reservoir of natural gas that was untapped until the 2004 introduction of unconventional natural gas drilling operations (UNGDO) in the state. Colloquially known as fracking, UNGDO is a controversial process that employs large volumes of water to fracture the shale and capture gas; it has become a multi-billion dollar industry in Pennsylvania. We analyzed letters to the editor of the most widely circulated local newspaper in the most heavily drilled county in Pennsylvania (Bradford County) in order to characterize residents' concerns and their involvement in popular epidemiology--the process by which citizens investigate risks associated with a perceived environmental threat. We reviewed 215 letters to the editor that referenced natural gas operations and were published by The Daily Review between January 1, 2008 and June 8, 2013. We used NVivo 10 to code and analyze letters and identify major themes. Nvivo is qualitative data analysis software (http://www.qsrinternational.com/products_nvivo.aspx) that allows researchers to code and analyze "unstructured" data, including text files of any type (e.g., interview transcripts, news articles, letters, archival materials) as well as photographs and videos. Nvivo can be used to classify, sort, query, comment on, and share data across a research group. Letters demonstrated citizen engagement in beginning and intermediate stages of lay epidemiology, as well as discord and stress regarding four main issues: socio-economic impacts, perceived threats to water, population growth and implications, and changes to the rural landscape. Residents called for stronger scientific evidence and a balance of economic development and health and environmental protections. Citizens' distress regarding UNGDO appeared to be exacerbated by a dearth of information to guide economic growth and health, environmental, and social concerns. This analysis proposes locally informed questions to guide future

  16. Popular epidemiology and "fracking": citizens' concerns regarding the economic, environmental, health and social impacts of unconventional natural gas drilling operations.

    PubMed

    Powers, Martha; Saberi, Poune; Pepino, Richard; Strupp, Emily; Bugos, Eva; Cannuscio, Carolyn C

    2015-06-01

    Pennsylvania sits atop the Marcellus Shale, a reservoir of natural gas that was untapped until the 2004 introduction of unconventional natural gas drilling operations (UNGDO) in the state. Colloquially known as fracking, UNGDO is a controversial process that employs large volumes of water to fracture the shale and capture gas; it has become a multi-billion dollar industry in Pennsylvania. We analyzed letters to the editor of the most widely circulated local newspaper in the most heavily drilled county in Pennsylvania (Bradford County) in order to characterize residents' concerns and their involvement in popular epidemiology--the process by which citizens investigate risks associated with a perceived environmental threat. We reviewed 215 letters to the editor that referenced natural gas operations and were published by The Daily Review between January 1, 2008 and June 8, 2013. We used NVivo 10 to code and analyze letters and identify major themes. Nvivo is qualitative data analysis software (http://www.qsrinternational.com/products_nvivo.aspx) that allows researchers to code and analyze "unstructured" data, including text files of any type (e.g., interview transcripts, news articles, letters, archival materials) as well as photographs and videos. Nvivo can be used to classify, sort, query, comment on, and share data across a research group. Letters demonstrated citizen engagement in beginning and intermediate stages of lay epidemiology, as well as discord and stress regarding four main issues: socio-economic impacts, perceived threats to water, population growth and implications, and changes to the rural landscape. Residents called for stronger scientific evidence and a balance of economic development and health and environmental protections. Citizens' distress regarding UNGDO appeared to be exacerbated by a dearth of information to guide economic growth and health, environmental, and social concerns. This analysis proposes locally informed questions to guide future

  17. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction].

    PubMed

    Pakulska, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extreiely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest, concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction.

  18. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction].

    PubMed

    Pakulska, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extreiely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest, concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction. PMID:26016049

  19. Preliminary study of the potential environmental concerns associated with surface waters and geothermal development of the Valles Caldera

    SciTech Connect

    Langhorst, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    A preliminary evaluation is presented of possible and probable problems that may be associated with hydrothermal development of the Valles Caldera Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), with specific reference to surface waters. Because of the history of geothermal development and its associated environmental impacts, this preliminary evaluation indicates the Valles Caldera KGRA will be subject to these concerns. Although the exact nature and size of any problem that may occur is not predictable, the baseline data accumulated so far have delineated existing conditions in the streams of the Valles Caldera KGRA. Continued monitoring will be necessary with the development of geothermal resources. Further studies are also needed to establish guidelines for geothermal effluents and emissions.

  20. Confirming the Environmental Concerns of Community Members Utilizing Participatory-Based Research in the Houston Neighborhood of Manchester

    PubMed Central

    Sansom, Garett; Berke, Philip; McDonald, Thomas; Shipp, Eva; Horney, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, there has been an increase in community-based participatory research being conducted within the United States. Recent research has demonstrated that working with local community organizations, interest groups, and individuals can assist in the creation of, and sustainability in, health initiatives, adoption of emergency protocols, and potentially improve health outcomes for at-risk populations. However little research has assessed if communal concerns over environmental contaminants would be confirmed through environmental research. This cross-sectional study collected survey data and performed surface water analysis for heavy metals in a small neighborhood in Houston, TX, which is characterized by industrial sites, unimproved infrastructure, nuisance flooding, and poor air quality. Surveys were completed with 109 residents of the Manchester neighborhood. Water samples were taken from thirty zones within the neighborhood and assessed for arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), and mercury (Hg). Survey results showed that the vast majority of all respondents were concerned over proximity to industry and waste facilities, as well as exposure to standing surface water. Barium was discovered in every sample and many of the zones showed alarming levels of certain metals. For example, one zone, two blocks from a public park, showed levels of arsenic at 180 (μg/L), barium at 3296 (μg/L), chromium at 363 (μg/L), lead at 1448 (μg/L), and mercury at 10 (μg/L). These findings support the hypothesis that neighborhood members are aware of the issues affecting their community and can offer researchers valuable assistance in every stage of study design and execution. PMID:27563915

  1. Confirming the Environmental Concerns of Community Members Utilizing Participatory-Based Research in the Houston Neighborhood of Manchester.

    PubMed

    Sansom, Garett; Berke, Philip; McDonald, Thomas; Shipp, Eva; Horney, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, there has been an increase in community-based participatory research being conducted within the United States. Recent research has demonstrated that working with local community organizations, interest groups, and individuals can assist in the creation of, and sustainability in, health initiatives, adoption of emergency protocols, and potentially improve health outcomes for at-risk populations. However little research has assessed if communal concerns over environmental contaminants would be confirmed through environmental research. This cross-sectional study collected survey data and performed surface water analysis for heavy metals in a small neighborhood in Houston, TX, which is characterized by industrial sites, unimproved infrastructure, nuisance flooding, and poor air quality. Surveys were completed with 109 residents of the Manchester neighborhood. Water samples were taken from thirty zones within the neighborhood and assessed for arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), and mercury (Hg). Survey results showed that the vast majority of all respondents were concerned over proximity to industry and waste facilities, as well as exposure to standing surface water. Barium was discovered in every sample and many of the zones showed alarming levels of certain metals. For example, one zone, two blocks from a public park, showed levels of arsenic at 180 (μg/L), barium at 3296 (μg/L), chromium at 363 (μg/L), lead at 1448 (μg/L), and mercury at 10 (μg/L). These findings support the hypothesis that neighborhood members are aware of the issues affecting their community and can offer researchers valuable assistance in every stage of study design and execution.

  2. Confirming the Environmental Concerns of Community Members Utilizing Participatory-Based Research in the Houston Neighborhood of Manchester.

    PubMed

    Sansom, Garett; Berke, Philip; McDonald, Thomas; Shipp, Eva; Horney, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, there has been an increase in community-based participatory research being conducted within the United States. Recent research has demonstrated that working with local community organizations, interest groups, and individuals can assist in the creation of, and sustainability in, health initiatives, adoption of emergency protocols, and potentially improve health outcomes for at-risk populations. However little research has assessed if communal concerns over environmental contaminants would be confirmed through environmental research. This cross-sectional study collected survey data and performed surface water analysis for heavy metals in a small neighborhood in Houston, TX, which is characterized by industrial sites, unimproved infrastructure, nuisance flooding, and poor air quality. Surveys were completed with 109 residents of the Manchester neighborhood. Water samples were taken from thirty zones within the neighborhood and assessed for arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), and mercury (Hg). Survey results showed that the vast majority of all respondents were concerned over proximity to industry and waste facilities, as well as exposure to standing surface water. Barium was discovered in every sample and many of the zones showed alarming levels of certain metals. For example, one zone, two blocks from a public park, showed levels of arsenic at 180 (μg/L), barium at 3296 (μg/L), chromium at 363 (μg/L), lead at 1448 (μg/L), and mercury at 10 (μg/L). These findings support the hypothesis that neighborhood members are aware of the issues affecting their community and can offer researchers valuable assistance in every stage of study design and execution. PMID:27563915

  3. Toxicological benchmarks for screening contaminants of potential concern for effects on sediment-associated biota: 1994 Revision. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, R.N. |; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-06-01

    Because a hazardous waste site may contain hundreds of chemicals, it is important to screen contaminants of potential concern for the ecological risk assessment. Often this screening is done as part of a Screening Assessment, the purpose of which is to evaluate the available data, identify data gaps, and screen contaminants of potential concern. Screening may be accomplished by using a set of toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks are helpful in determining whether contaminants warrant further assessment or are at a level that requires no further attention. If a chemical concentration or the reported detection limit exceeds a proposed lower benchmark, more analysis is needed to determine the hazards posed by that chemical. If, however, the chemical concentration falls below the lower benchmark value, the chemical may be eliminated from further study. This report briefly describes three categories of approaches to the development of sediment quality benchmarks. These approaches are based on analytical chemistry, toxicity test and field survey data. A fourth integrative approach incorporates all three types of data. The equilibrium partitioning approach is recommended for screening nonpolar organic contaminants of concern in sediments. For inorganics, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has developed benchmarks that may be used for screening. There are supplemental benchmarks from the province of Ontario, the state of Wisconsin, and US Environmental Protection Agency Region V. Pore water analysis is recommended for polar organic compounds; comparisons are then made against water quality benchmarks. This report is an update of a prior report. It contains revised ER-L and ER-M values, the five EPA proposed sediment quality criteria, and benchmarks calculated for several nonionic organic chemicals using equilibrium partitioning.

  4. MEETING IN NEW ZEALAND: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  5. MEETING IN GERMANY: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  6. MEETING IN CHINA: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental c...

  7. MEETING IN CANADA: EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will discuss emerging environmental co...

  8. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems for Mars Exploration: Issues and Concerns for Planetary Protection and the Protection of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Lange, Kevin; Anderson, Molly; Vonau, Walter

    2016-07-01

    Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that generally have not been considered by developers of technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Forward contamination concerns will affect release of gases and discharge of liquids and solids, including what may be left behind after planetary vehicles are abandoned upon return to Earth. A crew of four using a state of the art ECLSS could generate as much as 4.3 metric tons of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes and trash during a 500-day surface stay. These may present issues and concerns for both planetary protection and planetary science. Certainly, further closure of ECLSS systems will be of benefit by greater reuse of consumable products and reduced generation of waste products. It can be presumed that planetary protection will affect technology development by constraining how technologies can operate: limiting or prohibiting certain kinds of operations or processes (e.g. venting); necessitating that other kinds of operations be performed (e.g. sterilization; filtration of vent lines); prohibiting what can be brought on a mission (e.g. extremophiles); creating needs for new capabilities/ technologies (e.g. containment). Although any planned venting could include filtration to eliminate micro-organisms from inadvertently exiting the spacecraft, it may be impossible to eliminate or filter habitat structural leakage. Filtration will add pressure drops impacting size of lines and ducts, affect fan size and energy requirements, and add consumable mass. Technologies that may be employed to remove biomarkers and microbial contamination from liquid and solid wastes prior to storage or release may include mineralization technologies such as incineration, super critical wet oxidation and pyrolysis. These technologies, however, come with significant penalties for mass, power and consumables. This paper will estimate the nature and amounts of materials generated during Mars

  9. An overview of current knowledge concerning the health and environmental consequences of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Wu, Junwen; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the scientific community has worked to identify the exact transport and deposition patterns of radionuclides released from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan. Nevertheless, there still remain many unknowns concerning the health and environmental impacts of these radionuclides. The present paper reviews the current understanding of the FDNPP accident with respect to interactions of the released radionuclides with the environment and impacts on human and non-human biota. Here, we scrutinize existing literature and combine and interpret observations and modeling assessments derived after Fukushima. Finally, we discuss the behavior and applications of radionuclides that might be used as tracers of environmental processes. This review focuses on (137)Cs and (131)I releases derived from Fukushima. Published estimates suggest total release amounts of 12-36.7PBq of (137)Cs and 150-160PBq of (131)I. Maximum estimated human mortality due to the Fukushima nuclear accident is 10,000 (due to all causes) and the maximum estimates for lifetime cancer mortality and morbidity are 1500 and 1800, respectively. Studies of plants and animals in the forests of Fukushima have recorded a range of physiological, developmental, morphological, and behavioral consequences of exposure to radioactivity. Some of the effects observed in the exposed populations include the following: hematological aberrations in Fukushima monkeys; genetic, developmental and morphological aberrations in a butterfly; declines in abundances of birds, butterflies and cicadas; aberrant growth forms in trees; and morphological abnormalities in aphids. These findings are discussed from the perspective of conservation biology.

  10. An overview of current knowledge concerning the health and environmental consequences of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Wu, Junwen; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the scientific community has worked to identify the exact transport and deposition patterns of radionuclides released from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan. Nevertheless, there still remain many unknowns concerning the health and environmental impacts of these radionuclides. The present paper reviews the current understanding of the FDNPP accident with respect to interactions of the released radionuclides with the environment and impacts on human and non-human biota. Here, we scrutinize existing literature and combine and interpret observations and modeling assessments derived after Fukushima. Finally, we discuss the behavior and applications of radionuclides that might be used as tracers of environmental processes. This review focuses on (137)Cs and (131)I releases derived from Fukushima. Published estimates suggest total release amounts of 12-36.7PBq of (137)Cs and 150-160PBq of (131)I. Maximum estimated human mortality due to the Fukushima nuclear accident is 10,000 (due to all causes) and the maximum estimates for lifetime cancer mortality and morbidity are 1500 and 1800, respectively. Studies of plants and animals in the forests of Fukushima have recorded a range of physiological, developmental, morphological, and behavioral consequences of exposure to radioactivity. Some of the effects observed in the exposed populations include the following: hematological aberrations in Fukushima monkeys; genetic, developmental and morphological aberrations in a butterfly; declines in abundances of birds, butterflies and cicadas; aberrant growth forms in trees; and morphological abnormalities in aphids. These findings are discussed from the perspective of conservation biology. PMID:26425805

  11. Results of a modeling workshop concerning economic and environmental trends and concomitant resource management issues in the Mobile Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, David B.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.; Ellison, Richard A.; Johnson, Richard A.; Roelle, James E.; Staley, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    During the past decade, the southern regions of the U.S. have experienced rapid change which is expected to continue into the foreseeable future. Growth in population, industry, and resource development has been attributed to a variety of advantages such as an abundant and inexpensive labor force, a mild climate, and the availability of energy, water, land, and other natural resources. While this growth has many benefits for the region, it also creates the potential for increased air, water, and solid waste pollution, and modification of natural habitats. A workshop was convened to consider the Mobile Bay area as a site-specific case of growth and its environmental consequences in the southern region. The objectives of the modeling workshop were to: (1) identify major factors of economic development as they relate to growth in the area over the immediate and longer term; (2) identify major environmental and resource management issues associated with this expected growth; and (3) identify and characterize the complex interrelationships among economic and environmental factors. This report summarizes the activities and results of a modeling workshop concerning economic growth and concomitant resource management issues in the Mobile Bay area. The workshop was organized around construction of a simulation model representing the relationships between a series of actions and indicators identified by participants. The workshop model had five major components. An Industry Submodel generated scenarios of growth in several industrial and transportation sectors. A Human Population/Economy Submodel calculated human population and economic variables in response to employment opportunities. A Land Use/Air Quality Submodel tabulated changes in land use, shoreline use, and air quality. A Water Submodel calculated indicators of water quality and quantity for fresh surface water, ground water, and Mobile Bay based on discharge information provided by the Industry and Human

  12. Humankind Takes up Environmental Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huiying, Xu

    2004-01-01

    Environmental ethics examines the relationship between human beings and nature from the moral perspective. It is also a kind of ethics arising from a concern with an earth which is on the verge of losing balance. Environmental ethics originated at the end of the 1940s. Since the 1970s, great progress has been made in environmental ethics. This…

  13. Environmental concerns related to high thallium levels in soils and thallium uptake by plants in southwest Guizhou, China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Tangfu; Guha, Jayanta; Boyle, Dan; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Chen, Jingan

    2004-01-01

    health hazard, but mercury has an insignificant health risk. This study illustrates a real environmental concern related to land use and human health in areas containing high contents of Tl in soils associated with the natural occurrence of Tl-rich sulfides and coals, with or without mining activities. Thallium contamination in soils should be a critical parameter for proper land use and health related environmental planning and regulations.

  14. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna

    2011-01-15

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  15. Simple SPE-HPLC determination of some common drugs and herbicides of environmental concern by pulsed amperometry.

    PubMed

    Rivoira, L; De Carlo, R M; Cavalli, S; Bruzzoniti, M C

    2015-01-01

    In this work the electrochemical behavior of substances of environmental concern [bentazone, atrazine, carbamazepine, phenytoin and its metabolite 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin, HPPH] on a glassy carbon working electrode (Ag/AgCl reference electrode) was studied with the aim to develop a HPLC method coupled with amperometric detection. Constant potential (DC), pulsed amperometric detection modes were studied. For the pulsed mode, several waveforms were set and investigated. Detection conditions were optimized as a function of eluent pH. In order to reduce the limits of detection and to analyze natural water samples, a SPE protocol was optimized to be coupled to the developed procedure. For this aim, five sorbents of different physico-chemical characteristics were tested optimizing a recovery procedure for each of the cartridge evaluated. At the optimized SPE conditions, recoveries were included in the range (R=90.2-100.5% for all the analytes, with excellent reproducibility (<%, n=3). The method detection limits obtained by pulsed amperometry after the SPE protocol (preconcentration factor 100) were 113 ng L(-1) (0.47 nmol L(-1)), 67 ng L(-1) (0.25 nmol L(-1)), 234 ng L(-1) (1.1 nmol L(-1)), for bentazone, HPPH and carbamazepine, respectively. Robustness of the method was assessed for each analyte at a concentration level corresponding to about three times the limit of detection, through the evaluation of intra-day (n=13) and inter-day tests (4 days, n=52). Finally the method was successfully applied for the analysis of a river sample (Po River, Turin, Italy).

  16. A Re-Assessment of Factors Associated with Environmental Concern and Behavior Using the 2010 General Social Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Todd P.; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The associations between social and psychological influences and environmental attitudes, intentions and behavior have generated considerable interest, both in the fields of environmental behavior and of environmental education. We use the 2010 General Social Survey (GSS) to study these associations and expand the scope of earlier studies by…

  17. Use of Biostratigraphy to Increase Production, Reduce Operating Costs and Risks and Reduce Environmental Concerns in Oil Well Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Marks

    2005-09-09

    out at the top of the late Miocene, early Mohnian: Bolivina aff hughesi, Rotalia becki, Suggrunda californica, Virgulina grandis, Virgulina ticensis, Bulimina ecuadorana, Denticula lauta and Nonion medio-costatum. Please see Appendix B, Fig. 1, Neogene Zones, p. 91 and Appendix C, chart 5, p. 99 By the use of Stratigraphy, employing both Paleontology and Lithology, we can increase hydrocarbon production, reduce operating costs and risks by the identification of the productive sections, and reduce environmental concerns by drilling less dry holes needlessly.

  18. A Comparative Study of Canadian and Taiwanese Grade 5 Children's Environmental Behaviors, Attitudes, Concerns, Emotional Dispositions, and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsin-Ping; Yore, Larry D.

    This study explored the cultural influences on children's self-reported environmental actions, perceptions, and understandings; investigated the relationships among the behavioral, affective, cognitive, and demographic variables; and developed models of children's responsible environmental behavior (Huang, 2001). The cross-cultural comparison…

  19. Conceptions and Awareness Concerning Environmental Education: A Zimbabwean Case-Study in Three Secondary Teacher Education Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Petegem, Peter; Blieck, An; Van Ongevalle, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a baseline survey, designed to collect information on students' and teachers' conceptions on environmental issues and their involvement in three Zimbabwean colleges of secondary teacher training. The survey was the first step of a research programme designed to evaluate the Secondary Teacher Training Environmental Education…

  20. Transport properties of interfacial Si-rich layers formed on silicate minerals during weathering: Implications for environmental concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daval, Damien; Rémusat, Laurent; Bernard, Sylvain; Wild, Bastien; Micha, Jean-Sébastien; Rieutord, François; Fernandez-Martinez, Alejandro

    2015-04-01

    tracer in nm-thick ASSL by means of nanoSIMS analyses. However, estimated diffusion coefficients remain up to 20 orders of magnitude greater than those corresponding to solid-state diffusion, indicating that such ASSL were not formed through a solid-state transformation of wollastonite. In addition, the estimation of diffusion coefficients of the tracer for samples recovered after two different time durations indicates that such a diffusion coefficient may decrease with time. This result may be explained by the spontaneous evolution of the density of ASSL, which increased as the dissolution reaction proceeds, as shown from modeling of time-resolved in situ X-ray reflectivity spectra obtained on the dissolving surfaces. Overall, these results emphasize the need for the recognition of the importance of the interfacial fluid/mineral medium for adequately modeling the dissolution kinetics of silicate minerals relevant for environmental concerns. [1] Daval, D. et al., 2013. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 107, 121-134.

  1. Ethylene dibromide: biochemical effects and environmental concerns. January 1978-September 1988 (Citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for January 1978-September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the toxicity and environmental issues pertaining to the fumigant ethylene dibromide. Topics include effects on liver activity, respiratory systems and DNA synthesis in laboratory animals, comparisons and synergistic effects with other pesticides, and occupational-health considerations. The distribution of the compound in the environment and its effectiveness as a fumigant are also considered. (This updated bibliography contains 193 citations, 51 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  2. Risk concerns, land use, stewardship, and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory: attitudes of the Shoshone-Bannock and other American Indians.

    PubMed

    Burger, J; Roush, D E; Ramos, R; Gochfeld, M

    2000-07-01

    This paper examines the attitudes and perceptions of 277 American Indians about hunting and fishing, risk, and future land use of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in southeastern Idaho. Nearly half of our sample were Shoshone-Bannock tribal members living on the nearby Fort Hall Reservation, and half were American Indians from elsewhere in the western United States. We also interviewed an additional 44 White people. We examine the hypothesis that there are differences in environmental concerns and attitudes toward future land use at IN-EEL as a function of tribal affiliation (ethnicity), educational level, gender, and age. Such perceptions are important because of the existence of tribal treaties that govern the legal and cultural rights of the Shoshone-Bannock. Returning INEEL to the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, hunting, fishing, camping, hiking, and a National Environmental Research Park ranked as the highest preferred future land uses, whereas continuing nuclear materials reprocessing and increasing the storage of nuclear wastes ranked as the lowest. There were tribal differences in land use preferences, with those of the Fort Hall Indians being more similar to those of the local Whites than to other American Indians. All groups ranked storage of nuclear material, storage of additional nuclear material, and spills and accidents as the most serious of a list of concerns provided about the site. Fort Hall Indians answered an open-ended question with concerns for population levels and migration routes of game animals and other wildlife, more than hunting and human health. The Shoshone-Bannock from Fort Hall showed an environmental sensitivity for the well-being of wildlife and the health of the ecosystem and were interested in long-term stewardship, in addition to 29 concern for human health.

  3. Adenocarcinoma arising in a gastrocystoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Balachandra, B; Swanson, P E; Upton, M P; Yeh, M M

    2007-01-01

    Gastrocystoplasty is a form of surgical bladder augmentation or neobladder used to restore bladder capacity and compliance in children and in patients with neurogenic bladder. Other forms of bladder augmentation include ileocystoplasty and colocystoplasty. Reported complications of gastrocystoplasty include post‐operative bleeding, haematuria, stricture, metabolic alkalosis and rupture of the gastric segment. There are reports of adenocarcinomas arising in the setting of ileocystoplasty and colocystoplasty. However, the first case of adenocarcinoma arising in the setting of a gastrocystoplasty is reported. PMID:17213351

  4. Adenocarcinoma arising in a gastrocystoplasty.

    PubMed

    Balachandra, B; Swanson, P E; Upton, M P; Yeh, M M

    2007-01-01

    Gastrocystoplasty is a form of surgical bladder augmentation or neobladder used to restore bladder capacity and compliance in children and in patients with neurogenic bladder. Other forms of bladder augmentation include ileocystoplasty and colocystoplasty. Reported complications of gastrocystoplasty include post-operative bleeding, haematuria, stricture, metabolic alkalosis and rupture of the gastric segment. There are reports of adenocarcinomas arising in the setting of ileocystoplasty and colocystoplasty. However, the first case of adenocarcinoma arising in the setting of a gastrocystoplasty is reported.

  5. Achieving Healthy School Siting and Planning Policies: Understanding Shared Concerns of Environmental Planners, Public Health Professionals, and Educators

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Policy decisions regarding the quality of the physical school environment—both, school siting and school facility planning policies—are often considered through the lens of environmental planning, public health, or education policy, but rarely through all three. Environmental planners consider environmental justice issues on a local level and/or consider the regional impact of a school. Public health professionals focus on toxic exposures and populations particularly vulnerable to negative health outcomes. Educators and education policymakers emphasize investing in human capital of both students and staff. By understanding these respective angles and combining these efforts around the common goals of achieving adequacy and excellence, we can work towards a regulatory system for school facilities that recognizes children as a uniquely vulnerable population and seeks to create healthier school environments in which children can learn and adults can work. PMID:20359991

  6. Environmental Law: Fundamentals for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, David R.

    This booklet outlines the environmental problems most likely to arise in schools. An overview provides a fundamental analysis of environmental issues rather than comprehensive analysis and advice. The text examines the concerns that surround superfund cleanups, focusing on the legal framework, and furnishes some practical pointers, such as what to…

  7. Regulatory requirements and tools for environmental assessment of hazardous wastes: understanding tribal and stakeholder concerns using Department of Energy sites.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Powers, Charles; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Many US governmental and Tribal Nation agencies, as well as state and local entities, deal with hazardous wastes within regulatory frameworks that require specific environmental assessments. In this paper we use Department of Energy (DOE) sites as examples to examine the relationship between regulatory requirements and environmental assessments for hazardous waste sites and give special attention to how assessment tools differ. We consider federal laws associated with environmental protection include the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as well as regulations promulgated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Tribal Nations and state agencies. These regulatory regimes require different types of environmental assessments and remedial investigations, dose assessments and contaminant pathways. The DOE case studies illustrate the following points: 1) there is often understandable confusion about what regulatory requirements apply to the site resources, and what environmental assessments are required by each, 2) the messages sent on site safety issued by different regulatory agencies are sometimes contradictory or confusing (e.g. Oak Ridge Reservation), 3) the regulatory frameworks being used to examine the same question can be different, leading to different conclusions (e.g. Brookhaven National Laboratory), 4) computer models used in support of groundwater models or risk assessments are not necessarily successful in convincing Native Americans and others that there is no possibility of risk from contaminants (e.g. Amchitka Island), 5) when given the opportunity to choose between relying on a screening risk assessments or waiting for a full site-specific analysis of contaminants in biota, the screening risk assessment option is rarely selected (e.g. Amchitka, Hanford Site), and finally, 6) there needs to be agreement on whether

  8. Regulatory requirements and tools for environmental assessment of hazardous wastes: Understanding tribal and stakeholder concerns using Department of Energy sites

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Powers, Charles; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many US governmental and Tribal Nation agencies, as well as state and local entities, deal with hazardous wastes within regulatory frameworks that require specific environmental assessments. In this paper we use Department of Energy (DOE) sites as examples to examine the relationship between regulatory requirements and environmental assessments for hazardous waste sites and give special attention to how assessment tools differ. We consider federal laws associated with environmental protection include the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as well as regulations promulgated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Tribal Nations and state agencies. These regulatory regimes require different types of environmental assessments and remedial investigations, dose assessments and contaminant pathways. The DOE case studies illustrate the following points: 1) there is often understandable confusion about what regulatory requirements apply to the site resources, and what environmental assessments are required by each, 2) the messages sent on site safety issued by different regulatory agencies are sometimes contradictory or confusing (e.g. Oak Ridge Reservation), 3) the regulatory frameworks being used to examine the same question can be different, leading to different conclusions (e.g. Brookhaven National Laboratory), 4) computer models used in support of groundwater models or risk assessments are not necessarily successful in convincing Native Americans and others that there is no possibility of risk from contaminants (e.g. Amchitka Island), 5) when given the opportunity to choose between relying on a screening risk assessments or waiting for a full site-specific analysis of contaminants in biota, the screening risk assessment option is rarely selected (e.g. Amchitka, Hanford Site), and finally, 6) there needs to be agreement on whether

  9. Regulatory requirements and tools for environmental assessment of hazardous wastes: understanding tribal and stakeholder concerns using Department of Energy sites.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Powers, Charles; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Many US governmental and Tribal Nation agencies, as well as state and local entities, deal with hazardous wastes within regulatory frameworks that require specific environmental assessments. In this paper we use Department of Energy (DOE) sites as examples to examine the relationship between regulatory requirements and environmental assessments for hazardous waste sites and give special attention to how assessment tools differ. We consider federal laws associated with environmental protection include the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as well as regulations promulgated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Tribal Nations and state agencies. These regulatory regimes require different types of environmental assessments and remedial investigations, dose assessments and contaminant pathways. The DOE case studies illustrate the following points: 1) there is often understandable confusion about what regulatory requirements apply to the site resources, and what environmental assessments are required by each, 2) the messages sent on site safety issued by different regulatory agencies are sometimes contradictory or confusing (e.g. Oak Ridge Reservation), 3) the regulatory frameworks being used to examine the same question can be different, leading to different conclusions (e.g. Brookhaven National Laboratory), 4) computer models used in support of groundwater models or risk assessments are not necessarily successful in convincing Native Americans and others that there is no possibility of risk from contaminants (e.g. Amchitka Island), 5) when given the opportunity to choose between relying on a screening risk assessments or waiting for a full site-specific analysis of contaminants in biota, the screening risk assessment option is rarely selected (e.g. Amchitka, Hanford Site), and finally, 6) there needs to be agreement on whether

  10. Meeting in Dallas: Emerging Environmental Contaminants: What's New

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientific meeting presentation. Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise (including potential adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, and widespread distribution). This presentation will...

  11. Aggregate resource availability in the conterminous United States, including suggestions for addressing shortages, quality, and environmental concerns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Although potential sources of aggregate are widespread throughout the United States, many sources may not meet certain physical property requirements, such as soundness, hardness, strength, porosity, and specific gravity, or they may contain contaminants or deleterious materials that render them unusable. Encroachment by conflicting land uses, permitting considerations, environmental issues, and societal pressures can prevent or limit development of otherwise suitable aggregate. The use of sustainable aggregate resource management can help ensure an economically viable supply of aggregate. Sustainable aggregate resource management techniques that have successfully been used include (1) protecting potential resources from encroachment; (2) using marginal-quality local aggregate for applications that do not demand a high-quality resource; (3) using substitute materials such as clinker, scoria, and recycled asphalt and concrete; and (4) using rail and water to transport aggregates from remote sources.

  12. Mars and Venus - The Express Way : Evolution and Heritage in Flexi Type Missions Concerning Model Philosophy and Environmental Test Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustichelli, S.; McCoy, D.; Florino, T.; Pereira, J.; Pendaries, M.

    2004-08-01

    Mars Express is the first example of ESA's "Flexible Missions", a new and more economic way of building space science missions based on maximum use of existing technology that is either 'off-the-shelf' or technology that has already been developed for other programs. The high level of recurrence in the design, the re-use of existing hardware and the implementation of new project management practices made possible to Mars Express to meet the objective of shortening the time from original concept to launch, being built unusually quickly to meet its narrow launch window in June 2003. The objective of being assembled, fully tested and prepared for launch in a record time, 30% faster than other comparable missions and with reduced financial funding, could be achieved only with a thorough re- thinking of the model philosophy and environmental test design. The encouraging results obtained with Mars Express are the basis of the AIV program of the second ESA's Flexible Mission, Venus Express. Highly recurrent of Mars Express, even if with important peculiarities due to the different mission and planetary environment, this Project will benefit of the qualifications achieved on its predecessor, allowing a single module approach where the AIT campaign will start directly on the PFM. This paper presents the innovative concepts implemented in the definition of Mars Express Model Philosophy and Environmental Test campaigns, showing the influence of the adopted solutions on the in-flight performances. An overview of Venus Express Test Campaign is also given, focusing on the effects of the previous experience and the lessons learned as well as the peculiarities of the new mission.

  13. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  14. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  15. Schwannoma arising from intramasseteric region.

    PubMed

    He, Yue; Fu, Hong Hai; He, Jie; Zhu, Han Guang; Zhang, Zhi Yuan

    2010-11-01

    Schwannoma in the head and neck is usually arising in the parapharyngeal space, but intramasseteric schwannoma is very rare. We report a schwannoma arising from masseter muscle in a middle-aged woman, who presented with a history of a painless right cheek mass for 3 years. Computed tomography scan suggested that the mass was located within the masseter muscle. Fine-needle aspiration was performed and showed spindle neoplastic cells, which were suspected to be of mesenchymal tissue origin. The mass was completely resected under general anesthesia. It was a well-circumscribed and lobulated mass, 4 × 3 × 2 cm in size. Histological examination gave the diagnosis of schwannoma, which was also confirmed by immunohistochemical stainings for S-100 and vimentin. Neurologic sequelae and recurrence were not found at 2 years after surgery. PMID:21119484

  16. Results of an adaptive environmental assessment modeling workshop concerning potential impacts of drilling muds and cuttings on the marine environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auble, Gregor T.; Andrews, Austin K.; Ellison, Richard A.; Hamilton, David B.; Johnson, Richard A.; Roelle, James E.; Marmorek, David R.

    1983-01-01

    communities which were conceptualized as being adapted to frequent storms. This behavior was generated by the set of assumptions about linkages and functional relationships used to construct the model. Areas of uncertainty included methods for extrapolating 96-hr LC50 so results to exposures of varying lengths and concentrations; recovery rates of benthic communities; responses to various depths and rates of burial; fate and effects of the plume in relationship to stratification layers; and long-term and sub-lethal effects of slightly elevated concentrations of discharged materials. Evaluation of the assumptions of the Soft Bottom Submodel suggest that the assumptions used may have been relatively liberal estimates of resiliency of these communities. Discussion of "closed" water bodies such as bays and estuaries indicated several reasons to expect different and more complex fate and effects behavior in these areas. These factors included different species and communities (such as aquatic macrophytes and oyster beds), more complex circulation and stratification patterns, and potentially more active resuspension processes. Much of the possible difference in behavior in these areas centers around the extent to which they are “closed” or in the relative residence times of water and sediments in these areas as they determine the long-term dispersion of discharged material. Despite the complexity and variability of these areas, a large body of knowledge (such as that concerning fate and physical effects of dredge spoil) that could be effectively employed in analysis of potential fate and physical effects in enclosed areas was identified.

  17. Concern and Helplessness: Citizens' Assessments of Individual and Collective Action on the Provision of Environmental Public Goods in a Coastal City at Risk of Inundation.

    PubMed

    Bunyan, Sabrina; Collins, Alan; Duffy, David

    2016-09-01

    Survey data from a representative sample of 1005 households in the UK coastal city of Portsmouth are examined to discern commonalities and contrasts in their assessment of actions to address the related environmental threats of climate change and flooding. The city of Portsmouth is at risk of inundation from rising sea levels and the city has recent experience of flooding. A simple local and global public good framework is used to organize the understanding of reported attitudes and their determinants. The findings show that it is not always the same individuals who express concern about both climate change and flooding. Investigation into perceptions of helplessness in tackling climate change indicates that individuals more often perceived themselves to be helpless in tackling climate but perceived local collective action to be more effective. Individuals considered local collective action to be more effective in tackling climate change. Perceptions of individual helplessness are in turn related to reported concern. Several socioeconomic characteristics of individuals are shown to be useful in explaining the determinants of concern and perceptions of helplessness among respondents. As other cities face climate change-related challenges, the empirical findings, based upon attitudes from an alert urban population, are informative to policy design.

  18. Concern and Helplessness: Citizens' Assessments of Individual and Collective Action on the Provision of Environmental Public Goods in a Coastal City at Risk of Inundation.

    PubMed

    Bunyan, Sabrina; Collins, Alan; Duffy, David

    2016-09-01

    Survey data from a representative sample of 1005 households in the UK coastal city of Portsmouth are examined to discern commonalities and contrasts in their assessment of actions to address the related environmental threats of climate change and flooding. The city of Portsmouth is at risk of inundation from rising sea levels and the city has recent experience of flooding. A simple local and global public good framework is used to organize the understanding of reported attitudes and their determinants. The findings show that it is not always the same individuals who express concern about both climate change and flooding. Investigation into perceptions of helplessness in tackling climate change indicates that individuals more often perceived themselves to be helpless in tackling climate but perceived local collective action to be more effective. Individuals considered local collective action to be more effective in tackling climate change. Perceptions of individual helplessness are in turn related to reported concern. Several socioeconomic characteristics of individuals are shown to be useful in explaining the determinants of concern and perceptions of helplessness among respondents. As other cities face climate change-related challenges, the empirical findings, based upon attitudes from an alert urban population, are informative to policy design. PMID:27357807

  19. Concern and Helplessness: Citizens' Assessments of Individual and Collective Action on the Provision of Environmental Public Goods in a Coastal City at Risk of Inundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunyan, Sabrina; Collins, Alan; Duffy, David

    2016-09-01

    Survey data from a representative sample of 1005 households in the UK coastal city of Portsmouth are examined to discern commonalities and contrasts in their assessment of actions to address the related environmental threats of climate change and flooding. The city of Portsmouth is at risk of inundation from rising sea levels and the city has recent experience of flooding. A simple local and global public good framework is used to organize the understanding of reported attitudes and their determinants. The findings show that it is not always the same individuals who express concern about both climate change and flooding. Investigation into perceptions of helplessness in tackling climate change indicates that individuals more often perceived themselves to be helpless in tackling climate but perceived local collective action to be more effective. Individuals considered local collective action to be more effective in tackling climate change. Perceptions of individual helplessness are in turn related to reported concern. Several socioeconomic characteristics of individuals are shown to be useful in explaining the determinants of concern and perceptions of helplessness among respondents. As other cities face climate change-related challenges, the empirical findings, based upon attitudes from an alert urban population, are informative to policy design.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

  1. Leiomyosarcoma arising in a lipoleiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Scurry, J; Hack, M

    1990-12-01

    A leiomyosarcoma arising in a uterine lipoleiomyoma is described in a 70-year-old woman. The tumor measured 11 cm and was located in the corpus uteri. It was composed of a mixture of firm, pale tan, whorled tissue and soft, white or hemorrhagic areas. Histologically, the firm tissue was a mixture of bland smooth muscle, fat and fibrous tissue, whereas the soft areas showed a malignant spindle cell tumor with smooth muscle differentiation. Pure sarcoma similar to the malignant portion of the lipoleiomyoma had metastasized to the vaginal wall.

  2. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes within an established Area of Critical Environmental Concern, of the Amargosa River Canyon and Willow Creek, Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoppettone, G. Gary; Hereford, Mark E.; Rissler, Peter H.; Johnson, Danielle M.; Salgado, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The Amargosa River Canyon of San Bernardino and Inyo County, California, has been designated by the Bureau of Land Management as an Area of Critical Environmental Concern, due in part to its unique flora and fauna. As a task of the Area of Critical Environmental Concern implementation plan, a survey of native fishes was conducted from June 21 to August 12, 2010. Geographic Information System tools were used to map sampling locations, which were spaced at 50-meter intervals. Global Positioning Systems were used to locate sampling stations, and stations with adequate water for successful trapping were sampled with baited minnow traps. Amargosa River pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae) and speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus spp.) were widespread throughout Armargosa River Canyon. Throughout the study area 8,558 pupfish were captured at 194 stations; 3,472 speckled dace were captured at 210 stations; 238 red-swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkia) were captured at 83 stations; and 1,095 western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinus) were captured at 110 stations. Pupfish were most abundant in open water habitat with native riparian vegetation, and they were significantly less abundant where the stream was completely covered by cattails or where saltcedar (Tamarix sp.) dominated the riparian corridor. There was no relationship between stream cover and speckled dace distribution. Non-native western mosquitofish and red-swamp crayfish densities were significantly higher in stream reaches dominated by saltcedar. The continued spread of saltcedar threatens to negatively affect pupfish and potentially reduce speckled dace abundance throughout the Amargosa River Canyon. This study can serve as baseline information for observing native fish populations in the future, as related to potential changes to the Amargosa River Canyon ecosystem.

  3. Guidelines to Avoid Biocontamination of Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments: Forward Contamination Concerns, Environmental Management and Scientific Stewardship of Icy analogue environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, M. S.; Hobbie, J.; et al.

    2007-12-01

    For more than a decade, scientists and space mission planners have recognized the importance of collaborative information exchange with the Antarctic research community to address their many shared exploration challenges, from drilling methods, remote sample collection, and data interpretation, to concerns about cross contamination that could adversely impact both the environment and interpretation of scientific data. Another shared concern exists in the regulatory realm; both the Antarctic and outer space environments are subject to separate international treaties that impose regulatory controls and oversight with serious implications for exploration planning. In recent years, both communities have faced the need to adjust their regulatory controls in light of fast-paced advances in scientific understanding of extreme environments, particularly related to potential microbial life. Both communities have sought and received advice from the National Research Council (NRC) through studies that suggested ways to update their respective oversight and regulatory systems while allowing for continued scientific exploration. A recently completed NRC study "Exploration of Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments: Environmental and Scientific Stewardship" provided a suite of recommendations to address1) 'cleanliness' levels necessary for equipment and devices used in exploration of subglacial aquatic environments, as well as 2) the scientific basis for contamination standards, and 3) the steps for defining an overall exploration strategy conducive to sound environmental management and scientific stewardship. This talk will present the findings of the recent multinational NRC study, which is likely to translate into useful information for analogue studies that proceed to test techniques and capabilities for exploring an Europan ocean, other icy celestial locations, and related science targets on Earth. As the science and exploration of subglacial environments grows beyond its

  4. Addressing Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Greg; Helmig, Mary; Kaplan, Bill; Kosch, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    Four camp directors discuss how the September 11 tragedy and current world events will affect their camps. They describe how they are addressing safety concerns, working with parents, cooperating with outside agencies, hiring and screening international staff, and revising emergency plans. Camps must continue to offer community and support to…

  5. Melanoma arising after imiquimod use.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sharad P

    2014-01-01

    Imiquimod belongs to the class of 1H-imidazo-[4,5-c]quinolones-drugs originally developed as nucleoside analogues with the aim of finding new potential antiviral agents (Harrison et al., 1988). Indeed, Imiquimod was first released as treatment for genital warts before its actions against skin cancer were studied. Imiquimod is a relatively small sized molecule (Mr = 240.3) and is hydrophobic, allowing it to penetrate the skin epidermal barrier and therefore making it suitable for topical formulations (Gerster et al., 2005). Imiquimod has shown itself effective against skin cancers and precancerous lesions, especially basal cell cancers and actinic keratosis (Salasche et al., 2002, Beutner et al., 1999). There have been reports of Imiquimod being used as topical treatment against cutaneous metastases of melanoma and some authors have reported its use as first-line therapy against melanoma in situ (Smyth et al., 2011, Gagnon, 2011). We report a case of an invasive malignant melanoma arising de novo at the specific site of application of Imiquimod (Aldara cream 5%) for a biopsy-proven superficial BCC. Therefore while Imiquimod has added to our topical armamentarium against skin cancer, care must be exercised in prescribing this treatment and it is especially important to follow up patients regularly. PMID:25431597

  6. Utilizing relative potency factors (RPF) and threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concepts to assess hazard and human risk assessment profiles of environmental metabolites: a case study.

    PubMed

    Terry, C; Rasoulpour, R J; Knowles, S; Billington, R

    2015-03-01

    There is currently no standard paradigm for hazard and human risk assessment of environmental metabolites for agrochemicals. Using an actual case study, solutions to challenges faced are described and used to propose a generic concept to address risk posed by metabolites to human safety. A novel approach - built on the foundation of predicted human exposures to metabolites in various compartments (such as food and water), the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) and the concept of comparative toxicity - was developed for environmental metabolites of a new chemical, sulfoxaflor (X11422208). The ultimate aim was to address the human safety of the metabolites with the minimum number of in vivo studies, while at the same time, ensuring that human safety would be considered addressed on a global regulatory scale. The third component, comparative toxicity, was primarily designed to determine whether the metabolites had the same or similar toxicity profiles to their parent molecule, and also to one another. The ultimate goal was to establish whether the metabolites had the potential to cause key effects - such as cancer and developmental toxicity, based on mode-of-action (MoA) studies - and to develop a relative potency factor (RPF) compared to the parent molecule. Collectively, the work presented here describes the toxicology programme developed for sulfoxaflor and its metabolites, and how it might be used to address similar future challenges aimed at determining the relevance of the metabolites from a human hazard and risk perspective. Sulfoxaflor produced eight environmental metabolites at varying concentrations in various compartments - soil, water, crops and livestock. The MoA for the primary effects of the parent molecule were elucidated in detail and a series of in silico, in vitro, and/or in vivo experiments were conducted on the environmental metabolites to assess relative potency of their toxicity profiles when compared to the parent. The primary metabolite

  7. EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES, MEETING IN SEATTLE, WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL MASS SPECTROMETRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

  9. Ethical Concerns: Negotiating Truth and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarvey, Lynn M.; Sterenberg, Gladys

    2009-01-01

    Few studies in mathematics education explicitly address ethical issues arising from student interactions. The ethical concerns held by students are expressed in their words, actions, and interactions. The purpose of this article is to explore the ethical nature of copying as it arises in a mathematics classroom. We investigate the basis for…

  10. An organism arises from every nucleus.

    PubMed

    Keklikoglu, Nurullah

    2009-01-01

    The fact that, cloning using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) method has been performed, opened new horizons for cloning, and changed the way of our understanding and approach to cell and nucleus. The progress in cloning technology, brought the anticipation of the ability to clone an organism from each somatic cell nucleus. Therefore, the 'Cell Theory' is about to take the additional statement as "An organism arises from every nucleus". The development of gene targeting procedures which can be applied with SCNT, showed us that it may be possible to obtain different versions of the original genetic constitution of a cell. Because of this opportunity which is provided by SCNT, in reproductive cloning, it would be possible to clone enhanced organisms which can adapt to different environmental conditions and survive. Furthermore, regaining the genetic characteristics of ancestors or reverse herediter variations would be possible. On the other hand, in therapeutic cloning, more precise and easily obtainable alternatives for cell replacement therapy could be presented. However, while producing healthier or different organisms from a nucleus, it is hard to foresee the side effects influencing natural processes in long term is rather difficult.

  11. Canalicular adenoma arising in the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Erin E; Rulyak, Stephen J; Sekijima, John H; Yeh, Matthew M

    2007-10-01

    Canalicular adenomas are benign neoplasms that arise from salivary glands and often present as painless enlarging nodules. They have a predilection for upper lip but can be found throughout the oropharynx. To our knowledge, canalicular adenoma arising in the esophagus has never been described in the English literature. Here we report a canalicular adenoma occurring in the esophagus.

  12. Emerging Environmental Contaminants: What’s New

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise; for example, potential adverse health effects (e.g., cancer, reproductive and developmental effects, and endocrine disruption), bioaccumulation, an...

  13. Present, Absent, or Tardy? A Study of the Barriers, Bridges, and Beliefs Concerning Environmental Education among a Cohort of Sixth Grade Teachers in Nova Scotia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Elizabeth; Wright, Tarah; Castleden, Heather

    2013-01-01

    The increasing importance of formal environmental education underscores a teacher's role in the development of knowledge, attitudes, and actions toward nature. This qualitative study explores how a cohort of sixth grade teachers (18) in Nova Scotia conceptualize environmental education and perceive teaching challenges. Data were collected…

  14. Regional pipeline environmental assessment record: an aggregate analysis of major areas of pipeline concern and impact on the Outer Continental Shelf (Gulf of Mexico)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Oil and gas pipeline activities on the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) affect a wide range of living and nonliving environmental variables (i.e., water, biologically sensitive areas, and food-web relations). These industrial activities have been increasing steadily over the past 20 years. Much of the information included herein pertains to a description of the existing environment for offshore Louisiana and Texas and an analysis of potential pipeline proposals and alternatives. The document is not as complete as an environmental impact statement (EIS) but it is sufficient in scope to consider the analysis of impacts of the majority of pipeline activities occurring in the northern and western Gulf of Mexico OCS. This report will be useful in evaluating pipeline impacts on the regional environment in the future. Rather than treating each pipeline application extensively, the information included herein will be referenced, thereby reducing the paperwork involved in environmental analysis.

  15. Knowledge and Values in Science Textbooks Concerning Complexity in Ecological Systems and Environmental Problems: A Cross-cultural Study on Secondary School Manuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boujemaa, Agorram; Silvia, Caravita; Adriana, Valente; Daniela, Luzi; Nicola, Margnelli

    2009-01-01

    The study was carried out within the European research project "Biology, Health and Environmental Education for Better Citizenship" that joined 18 European and North-African countries. We report here the methodology and some of the conclusions drawn from an analysis of science textbooks that considered the topics ecology and environmental…

  16. "Bad for the Penguins ... because They Need Ice and that to Live On": An Exploratory Study into the Environmental Views, Concerns and Knowledge of Socially Disadvantaged Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sarah Jane; Snell, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Environmental policies and practices have maintained a high status internationally, nationally and locally, but limited literature relates to the perspective of social disadvantage in England, with a particular under-representation of young people. The research presented in this paper has been driven by the supposition that a lack of knowledge and…

  17. The legal and ethical concerns that arise from using complex predictive analytics in health care.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn; Amarasingham, Ruben; Shah, Anand; Xie, Bin; Lo, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Predictive analytics, or the use of electronic algorithms to forecast future events in real time, makes it possible to harness the power of big data to improve the health of patients and lower the cost of health care. However, this opportunity raises policy, ethical, and legal challenges. In this article we analyze the major challenges to implementing predictive analytics in health care settings and make broad recommendations for overcoming challenges raised in the four phases of the life cycle of a predictive analytics model: acquiring data to build the model, building and validating it, testing it in real-world settings, and disseminating and using it more broadly. For instance, we recommend that model developers implement governance structures that include patients and other stakeholders starting in the earliest phases of development. In addition, developers should be allowed to use already collected patient data without explicit consent, provided that they comply with federal regulations regarding research on human subjects and the privacy of health information. PMID:25006139

  18. The legal and ethical concerns that arise from using complex predictive analytics in health care.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I Glenn; Amarasingham, Ruben; Shah, Anand; Xie, Bin; Lo, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Predictive analytics, or the use of electronic algorithms to forecast future events in real time, makes it possible to harness the power of big data to improve the health of patients and lower the cost of health care. However, this opportunity raises policy, ethical, and legal challenges. In this article we analyze the major challenges to implementing predictive analytics in health care settings and make broad recommendations for overcoming challenges raised in the four phases of the life cycle of a predictive analytics model: acquiring data to build the model, building and validating it, testing it in real-world settings, and disseminating and using it more broadly. For instance, we recommend that model developers implement governance structures that include patients and other stakeholders starting in the earliest phases of development. In addition, developers should be allowed to use already collected patient data without explicit consent, provided that they comply with federal regulations regarding research on human subjects and the privacy of health information.

  19. Population-level assessments should be emphasized over community/ecosystem-level assessments. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 1535. [Concerning the impact of power plants on fish populations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Winkle, W

    1980-01-01

    Arguments are presented in favor of emphasizing population-level assessments over community/ecosystem-level assessments. The two approaches are compared on each of four issues: (1) the nature of entrainment/impingement impacts; (2) the ability to forecast reliably for a single fish population as contrasted to the ability to forecast for an aquatic community or ecosystem; (3) practical considerations involving money, manpower, time, and the need to make decisions; and (4) the nature of societal and economic concerns. The conclusion on each of these four issues is that population-level assessments provide the optimal approach for evaluating the effects of entrainment and impingement mortality.

  20. Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on sediment-associated biota. Environmental Restoration Program ESD Publication 4107

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, R.N.; Suter, G.W. II

    1993-08-01

    Because a hazardous waste site may contain hundreds of chemicals, it is important to screen contaminants of concern for the ecological risk assessment. Often this screening is done as part of a Screening Assessment, the purpose of which is to evaluate the available data, identify data gaps, and screen potential contaminants of concern. Screening may be accomplished by using a set of toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks are helpful in determining whether contaminants warrant further assessment or are at a level that requires no further attention. If a chemical concentration or the reported detection limit exceeds a proposed lower benchmark, more analysis is needed to determine the hazards posed by that chemical. If, however, the chemical concentration falls below the lower benchmark value, the chemical may be eliminated from further study. This report briefly describes three categories of approaches to the development of sediment quality benchmarks. These approaches are based on analytical chemistry, toxicity test results, and field survey data. A fourth integrative approach incorporates all three types of data.

  1. ARISE: American renaissance in science education

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-14

    The national standards and state derivatives must be reinforced by models of curricular reform. In this paper, ARISE presents one model based on a set of principles--coherence, integration of the sciences, movement from concrete ideas to abstract ones, inquiry, connection and application, sequencing that is responsive to how people learn.

  2. Epidermoid carcinoma arising in Warthin's tumor.

    PubMed

    Bolat, Filiz; Kayaselcuk, Fazilet; Erkan, Alper Nabi; Cagici, Can Alper; Bal, Nebil; Tuncer, Ilhan

    2004-01-01

    Warthin's tumor is a well-defined salivary gland neoplasm consisting of benign epithelial and lymphoid components. However, malignant transformation is extremely rare and the differential diagnosis of metastasis from an epidermoid carcinoma in Warthin's tumor is important. We present a case with epidermoid carcinoma arising in Warthin's tumor of parotid gland in a 48-year-old woman, and differential diagnosis is discussed.

  3. New challenges of the ARISE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    It has been robustly demonstrated that variations in the circulation of the middle atmosphere influence weather and climate throughout the troposphere all the way to the Earth's surface. A key part of the coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere occurs through the propagation and breaking of planetary-scale Rossby waves and gravity waves. Limited observation of the middle atmosphere and these waves in particular limits the ability to faithfully reproduce the dynamics of the middle atmosphere in numerical weather prediction and climate models. The ARISE project combines for the first time international networks with complementary technologies such as infrasound, lidar and airglow. This joint network provided advanced data products that started to be used as benchmarks for weather forecast models. The ARISE network also allows enhanced and detailed monitoring of other extreme events in the Earth system such as erupting volcanoes, magnetic storms, tornadoes and tropical thunderstorms. In order to improve the ability of the network to monitor atmospheric dynamics, ARISE proposes to extend i) the existing network coverage in Africa and the high latitudes, ii) the altitude range in the stratosphere and mesosphere, iii) the observation duration using routine observation modes, and to use complementary existing infrastructures and innovative instrumentations. Data will be collected over the long term to improve weather forecasting to monthly or seasonal timescales, to monitor atmospheric extreme events and climate change. ARISE focuses on the link between models and observations for future assimilation of data by operational weather forecasting models. Among the applications, ARISE2 proposes infrasound remote volcano monitoring to provide notifications to civil aviation.

  4. Overview of Chemicals of Emerging Concern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminants of emerging concern or environmental emerging contaminants, are chemicals, products and materials that are detected with increasing frequency in all environmental media including surface, ground water and drinking water. Examples of these contaminants include pharmac...

  5. Global trade, local impacts: lessons from California on health impacts and environmental justice concerns for residents living near freight rail yards.

    PubMed

    Hricko, Andrea; Rowland, Glovioell; Eckel, Sandrah; Logan, Angelo; Taher, Maryam; Wilson, John

    2014-02-01

    Global trade has increased nearly 100-fold since 1950, according to the World Trade Organization. Today, major changes in trade are occurring with the advent of mega-ships that can transport thousands more containers than cargo ships now in use. Because global trade is expected to increase dramatically, the railroad industry-in the U.S. alone-has invested more than $5 billion a year over the past decade to expand rail yards and enhance rail routes to transport goods from ports to retail destinations. This article describes cancer risks for residents living in close proximity to rail yards with emissions of diesel particulate matter pollution from locomotives, trucks and yard equipment. The article examines the demographics (income, race/ethnicity) of populations living in the highest estimated cancer risk zones near 18 major rail yards in California, concluding that the majority are over-represented by either lower-income or minority residents (or both). The authors also describe a review of the news media and environmental impact reports to determine if rail yards are still being constructed or expanded in close proximity to homes and schools or in working class/working poor communities of color. The paper suggests policy efforts that might provide more public health protection and result in more "environmentally just" siting of rail yards. The authors conclude that diesel pollution from rail yards, which creates significant diesel cancer risks for those living near the facilities, is an often overlooked public health, health disparities and environmental justice issue in the U.S. The conclusions are relevant to other countries where international trade is increasing and large new intermodal rail facilities are being considered. PMID:24518649

  6. Global trade, local impacts: lessons from California on health impacts and environmental justice concerns for residents living near freight rail yards.

    PubMed

    Hricko, Andrea; Rowland, Glovioell; Eckel, Sandrah; Logan, Angelo; Taher, Maryam; Wilson, John

    2014-02-10

    Global trade has increased nearly 100-fold since 1950, according to the World Trade Organization. Today, major changes in trade are occurring with the advent of mega-ships that can transport thousands more containers than cargo ships now in use. Because global trade is expected to increase dramatically, the railroad industry-in the U.S. alone-has invested more than $5 billion a year over the past decade to expand rail yards and enhance rail routes to transport goods from ports to retail destinations. This article describes cancer risks for residents living in close proximity to rail yards with emissions of diesel particulate matter pollution from locomotives, trucks and yard equipment. The article examines the demographics (income, race/ethnicity) of populations living in the highest estimated cancer risk zones near 18 major rail yards in California, concluding that the majority are over-represented by either lower-income or minority residents (or both). The authors also describe a review of the news media and environmental impact reports to determine if rail yards are still being constructed or expanded in close proximity to homes and schools or in working class/working poor communities of color. The paper suggests policy efforts that might provide more public health protection and result in more "environmentally just" siting of rail yards. The authors conclude that diesel pollution from rail yards, which creates significant diesel cancer risks for those living near the facilities, is an often overlooked public health, health disparities and environmental justice issue in the U.S. The conclusions are relevant to other countries where international trade is increasing and large new intermodal rail facilities are being considered.

  7. Global Trade, Local Impacts: Lessons from California on Health Impacts and Environmental Justice Concerns for Residents Living near Freight Rail Yards

    PubMed Central

    Hricko, Andrea; Rowland, Glovioell; Eckel, Sandrah; Logan, Angelo; Taher, Maryam; Wilson, John

    2014-01-01

    Global trade has increased nearly 100-fold since 1950, according to the World Trade Organization. Today, major changes in trade are occurring with the advent of mega-ships that can transport thousands more containers than cargo ships now in use. Because global trade is expected to increase dramatically, the railroad industry—in the U.S. alone—has invested more than $5 billion a year over the past decade to expand rail yards and enhance rail routes to transport goods from ports to retail destinations. This article describes cancer risks for residents living in close proximity to rail yards with emissions of diesel particulate matter pollution from locomotives, trucks and yard equipment. The article examines the demographics (income, race/ethnicity) of populations living in the highest estimated cancer risk zones near 18 major rail yards in California, concluding that the majority are over-represented by either lower-income or minority residents (or both). The authors also describe a review of the news media and environmental impact reports to determine if rail yards are still being constructed or expanded in close proximity to homes and schools or in working class/working poor communities of color. The paper suggests policy efforts that might provide more public health protection and result in more “environmentally just” siting of rail yards. The authors conclude that diesel pollution from rail yards, which creates significant diesel cancer risks for those living near the facilities, is an often overlooked public health, health disparities and environmental justice issue in the U.S. The conclusions are relevant to other countries where international trade is increasing and large new intermodal rail facilities are being considered. PMID:24518649

  8. Biotechnology in agriculture, 1986-May 1992. Citation from agricola concerning diseases and other environmental considerations. Bibliographies and literature of agriculture (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Bebee, C.N.

    1992-08-01

    The citations in this bibliography, Biotechnology in Agriculture, 1986 - May 1992, are selected from the AGRICOLA database and cover diseases, insects, nematodes, weeds, chemicals, and other environmental considerations. This is the 46th volume in a series of commodity-oriented listings of citations from AGRICOLA. Entries in the bibliography are subdivided into a series of section headings used in the contents of the Bibliography of Agriculture. Each item appears under every section heading assigned to the cited document. A personal author index accompanies this publication.

  9. Environmental impact and regulatory concerns for the protection of a freshwater aquifer impacted by a gas well blowout in northwest Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, W.H.; McKenzie, D.T.; Kline, M.S.

    1996-09-01

    The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, Ground Water Protection Division (GWPD) is responsible for oversight of the investigation and remediation of unpermitted releases to the waters of the State. In March, 1994, a Sligo Field gas well blowout caused artificial artesian conditions in the shallow Wilcox aquifer resulting in flowing water wells near the drilling location. The eruption of sand and formation water created a crater around an old abandoned well south of the active rig and a collapse crater north of the rig. The company, in cooperation with the GWPD, began an investigation of the environmental impacts of the blowout. An electric log run in a stratigraphic boring and newly installed monitor wells were used to determine the sand/shale distribution and to assess the extent of contamination in the aquifer. Monitor wells and nearby water supply wells were sampled for BETX. Only the wells nearest to the blowout showed constituents above regulatory limits. The well, positioned between the blowout and residential wells, showed no BETX. This paper will present the continued investigation and remedial activities planned for this site. They include additional wells or borings to delineate the horizontal area impacted by the blowout and evaluation of pump and treat methods to establish hydrologic control of the Wilcox Aquifer in the immediate area. Periodic testing of the residential and monitor wells will ensure that appropriate efforts are made to protect the local residents.

  10. Evaluation of the potential for using old-field vegetation as an energy feedstock: Biomass yield, chemical composition, environmental concerns, and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, J.W. Jr.

    1990-07-01

    The major focus of current research on production of biomass for use as energy feedstock involves selection of species and genotypes best suited for specific regions of the United States and development of crop management techniques that maximize biomass productivity while minimizing environmental impacts and economic costs. The two experimental sites, and abandoned soybean field (AS) and an abandoned pasture (AP) were studied. At the AS site, the effects of two harvest frequencies (1 or 2 harvests annually), two nitrogen fertilizer treatments (1 or 2 harvests annually), two nitrogen fertilizer treatments (0 or 87 kg{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}), and two phosphorous fertilizer treatments (0 or 111 kg{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}) were determined. At the AP site, the effects of two harvest treatments (1 or 2 harvests annually), two fertilizer treatments (56:56:135 kg of N:P:K{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}), and two lime treatments (0 or 4600 kg{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}) were determined. At both sites, treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block 2 {times} 2 {times} 2 factorial experiment. The results of this research indicated that old-field vegetation is: (1) sufficiently productive to provide significant quantities of energy feedstock; (2) chemically suitable as an energy feedstock; (3) environmentally benign with respect to impacts related to soil erosion and nutrient depletion; (4) relatively unresponsive to fertilizer and lime inputs; and (5) economically competitive with other biomass energy feedstock candidates. 38 refs., 8 figs., 68 tabs.

  11. Ameloblastic Fibrosarcoma Arising in the Maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Rachael R.; Bilski, Arthur; Batstone, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AFS) is a rare odontogenic neoplasm of the jaw that usually arises de novo or through a malignant change in the mesenchymal component of a preexisting or recurrent benign fibroma. The majority of AFS cases reported in the literature arise in the mandible. Case Report: A 35-year-old male presented with an asymptomatic left maxillary mass that on imaging was found to be effacing most of his maxillary sinus. He underwent a left maxillectomy with free-flap reconstruction and adjuvant radiotherapy to the tumor bed. Conclusion: Wide local excision remains the treatment of choice for AFS, given the poor survival rates of patients with recurrent disease. However, long-term studies and follow-up are needed to elucidate the role of adjuvant therapies in the primary treatment of AFS. PMID:27303223

  12. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  13. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  14. Environmental, health and safety assessment of photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, E. C.

    1983-01-01

    The environmental, health, and safety (E, H and S) concerns associated with the fabrication, deployment, and decommissioning of photovoltaic (PV) systems in terrestial applications are identified and assessed. Discussion is limited to crystalline silicon technologies. The primary E, H, and S concerns that arise during collector fabrication are associated with occupational exposure to materials of undetermined toxicity or to materials that are known to be hazardous, but for which process control technology may be inadequate. Stricter exposure standards are anticipated for some materials and may indicate a need for further control technology development. Minimizing electric shock hazards is a significant concern during system construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning.

  15. Land-cover mapping of Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and Coyote Springs, Piute-Eldorado Valley, and Mormon Mesa Areas of Critical Environmental Concern, Clark County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J. LaRue; Damar, Nancy A.; Charlet, David A.; Westenburg, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    DigitalGlobe’s QuickBird satellite high-resolution multispectral imagery was classified by using Visual Learning Systems’ Feature Analyst feature extraction software to produce land-cover data sets for the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and the Coyote Springs, Piute-Eldorado Valley, and Mormon Mesa Areas of Critical Environmental Concern in Clark County, Nevada. Over 1,000 vegetation field samples were collected at the stand level. The field samples were classified to the National Vegetation Classification Standard, Version 2 hierarchy at the alliance level and above. Feature extraction models were developed for vegetation on the basis of the spectral and spatial characteristics of selected field samples by using the Feature Analyst hierarchical learning process. Individual model results were merged to create one data set for the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and one for each of the Areas of Critical Environmental Concern. Field sample points and photographs were used to validate and update the data set after model results were merged. Non-vegetation data layers, such as roads and disturbed areas, were delineated from the imagery and added to the final data sets. The resulting land-cover data sets are significantly more detailed than previously were available, both in resolution and in vegetation classes.

  16. Kapteyn series arising in radiation problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerche, I.; Tautz, R. C.

    2008-01-01

    In discussing radiation from multiple point charges or magnetic dipoles, moving in circles or ellipses, a variety of Kapteyn series of the second kind arises. Some of the series have been known in closed form for a hundred years or more, others appear not to be available to analytic persuasion. This paper shows how 12 such generic series can be developed to produce either closed analytic expressions or integrals that are not analytically tractable. In addition, the method presented here may be of benefit when one has other Kapteyn series of the second kind to consider, thereby providing an additional reason to consider such series anew.

  17. Clear cell chondrosarcomas arising from rare sites.

    PubMed

    Ogose, A; Motoyama, T; Hotta, T; Emura, I; Inoue, Y; Morita, T; Watanabe, H

    1995-09-01

    Three cases are reported of clear cell chondrosarcoma arising from unusual sites: talus, rib and vertebra. Radiographically, two tumors showed osteolytic features and the vertebral tumor showed osteoplastic change. Histologically, all tumors consisted of clear cells that had a centrally placed nucleus surrounded by clear cytoplasm, osteoclast-like giant cells, areas of conventional chondrosarcoma, and various amounts of reactive bone. The tumor in the talus was initially diagnosed as benign chondroblastoma, but it recurred. The rib tumor showed marked cystic formation stimulating aneurysmal bone cyst. The osteoplastic radiographic feature in vertebral tumor was considered to be due to the abundant bone formation. PMID:8548042

  18. Boundary estimation problems arising in thermal tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Kojima, Fumio; Winfree, W. P.

    1989-01-01

    Problems on the identification of two-dimensional spatial domains arising in the detection and characterization of structural flaws in materials are considered. For a thermal diffusion system with external boundary input, observations of the temperature on the surface are used in a output least squares approach. Parameter estimation techniques based on the method of mappings are discussed and approximation schemes are developed based on a finite element Galerkin approach. Theoretical convergence results for computational techniques are given and the results are applied to experimental data for the identification of flaws in the thermal testing of materials.

  19. Eccrine Poroma Arising within Nevus Sebaceous

    PubMed Central

    Girdwichai, Natnicha; Chanprapaph, Kumutnart; Vachiramon, Vasanop

    2016-01-01

    Nevus sebaceous is a congenital, benign hamartomatous lesion, characterized by a yellowish to skin-colored, hairless, verrucous plaque on the head and neck region. In later life, a secondary tumor, either benign or malignant, can develop within nevus sebaceous. Eccrine poroma developing on nevus sebaceous is extremely rare. There are few case reports of eccrine poroma developing within nevus sebaceous. We report a case of a 30-year-old female who presented with a congenital, hairless, verrucous, yellowish lesion on the scalp and an erythematous nodule arising within the yellowish lesion for 8 months. Her clinical presentation and histopathological findings were compatible with nevus sebaceous and eccrine poroma. PMID:27194975

  20. Solitary fibrous tumor arising in gastric serosa.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Ae; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jeen, Yoon Mi; Kie, Jeong-Hae; Chung, Jae-Joon; Yun, Seong Hyeon

    2004-06-01

    The solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of peritoneum, especially arising in gastric serosa, is extremely rare. A case of SFT arising in gastric serosa of a 70-year-old man is reported. On abdominal computed tomography scan, an approximate 8.0 x 5.3 cm-sized solid mass with multiple nodular calcifications was noted in the omentomesentery of right upper abdomen, which was abutting to the gastric antral wall. At laparotomy the tumor was tightly attached to the gastric serosa and was completely excised by wedge resection of the stomach. The cut surfaces of the tumor were pale brown to pale yellow, firm, with multifocal yellowish, gritty, stony-hard nodules and cystic changes. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of mildly cellular benign-appearing spindle-shaped cells and bands of hyalinized collagen in varying proportions. The tumor revealed predominantly sclerosing pattern with extensive hyalinized fibrosis and multifocal dystrophic calcifications. The tumor was mainly located at the gastric serosa and subserosa, and its growth pattern was expansile with entrapping of muscularis propria and submucosa in the periphery of the tumor. By immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells were diffusely positive for CD34 and vimentin but negative for cytokeratin, desmin, smooth muscle actin, CD99 and c-kit. Although its occurrence is rare, SFT should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mesenchymal tumors of the stomach.

  1. Glioblastoma arising within a mediastinal mature teratoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liping; Jentoft, Mark E; Boland, Jennifer M

    2016-10-01

    Herein we present the case of a 42-year-old man who presented with an anterior mediastinal mass, which was found to represent a mature teratoma. Within it, there was a secondary somatic malignant glial neoplasm with mitotic activity and necrosis, compatible with glioblastoma. He experienced early local recurrence and lymph node metastasis, but is alive and well 3 1/2 years after diagnosis. Neither the teratoma nor the glioblastoma components had abnormalities of chromosome 12, which may implicate that this teratoma was more closely related to those arising along the midline of infants and children (type I germ cell tumor) than to the typically malignant testicular examples, which often contain mixed germ cell elements (type II germ cell tumor). PMID:27327191

  2. Ethnic differences in ecological concerns: Spanish-speaking Hispanics are more concerned than others.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Greenberg, Michael

    2006-09-01

    We postulated that environmental concern encompasses a wide range of different issues, often lumping pollution with habitat loss (or land use) and ecological resources (fish and wildlife). In this paper, we compare perceptions about a range of environmental and ecological resource issues, and explore ethnic/racial differences. We surveyed 1513 residents of New Jersey about "environmental concerns", using both general environmental questions (two questions: How serious are environmental problems in New Jersey? Are you concerned about the loss of open space?) and ecological resource questions (12 questions: e.g., how important is planting trees in your neighborhood, how concerned are you about loss of breeding and feeding habitat for fish and birds?) in New Jersey. Not all concerns were rated equally. For the ecological questions, there were no ethnic differences in concerns over preserving areas around water supplies, loss of places to hunt and fish, and loss of places for quiet walks and cycling, but there were for the other 9 ecological concerns. For eight of these nine concerns, Spanish-speaking Hispanics were more concerned than others (including English-speaking Hispanics). We divided the ecological resources into three categories: ecological services (clean water and safety), ecological resources (fish and wildlife), and recreational services. The strongest correlates of people's association with enlarging and enhancing recreational services were Spanish-speaking Hispanics, who are supportive of regulations and believe local government is not doing enough for environmental problems. People concerned about the loss of ecological resources and open space believe the federal government and the state are not doing enough for the environment, were non-Hispanic White, want continued environmental regulations, were longer-term residents, were high school graduates, and were older (45-54 years). People interested in ecological services were college-educated, non

  3. Ethnic differences in ecological concerns: Spanish-speaking Hispanics are more concerned than others.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Greenberg, Michael

    2006-09-01

    We postulated that environmental concern encompasses a wide range of different issues, often lumping pollution with habitat loss (or land use) and ecological resources (fish and wildlife). In this paper, we compare perceptions about a range of environmental and ecological resource issues, and explore ethnic/racial differences. We surveyed 1513 residents of New Jersey about "environmental concerns", using both general environmental questions (two questions: How serious are environmental problems in New Jersey? Are you concerned about the loss of open space?) and ecological resource questions (12 questions: e.g., how important is planting trees in your neighborhood, how concerned are you about loss of breeding and feeding habitat for fish and birds?) in New Jersey. Not all concerns were rated equally. For the ecological questions, there were no ethnic differences in concerns over preserving areas around water supplies, loss of places to hunt and fish, and loss of places for quiet walks and cycling, but there were for the other 9 ecological concerns. For eight of these nine concerns, Spanish-speaking Hispanics were more concerned than others (including English-speaking Hispanics). We divided the ecological resources into three categories: ecological services (clean water and safety), ecological resources (fish and wildlife), and recreational services. The strongest correlates of people's association with enlarging and enhancing recreational services were Spanish-speaking Hispanics, who are supportive of regulations and believe local government is not doing enough for environmental problems. People concerned about the loss of ecological resources and open space believe the federal government and the state are not doing enough for the environment, were non-Hispanic White, want continued environmental regulations, were longer-term residents, were high school graduates, and were older (45-54 years). People interested in ecological services were college-educated, non

  4. Ethnic differences in ecological concerns: Spanish-speaking Hispanics are more concerned than others

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna . E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Greenberg, Michael

    2006-09-15

    We postulated that environmental concern encompasses a wide range of different issues, often lumping pollution with habitat loss (or land use) and ecological resources (fish and wildlife). In this paper, we compare perceptions about a range of environmental and ecological resource issues, and explore ethnic/racial differences. We surveyed 1513 residents of New Jersey about 'environmental concerns', using both general environmental questions (two questions: How serious are environmental problems in New Jersey? Are you concerned about the loss of open space?) and ecological resource questions (12 questions: e.g., how important is planting trees in your neighborhood, how concerned are you about loss of breeding and feeding habitat for fish and birds?) in New Jersey. Not all concerns were rated equally. For the ecological questions, there were no ethnic differences in concerns over preserving areas around water supplies, loss of places to hunt and fish, and loss of places for quiet walks and cycling, but there were for the other 9 ecological concerns. For eight of these nine concerns, Spanish-speaking Hispanics were more concerned than others (including English-speaking Hispanics). We divided the ecological resources into three categories: ecological services (clean water and safety), ecological resources (fish and wildlife), and recreational services. The strongest correlates of people's association with enlarging and enhancing recreational services were Spanish-speaking Hispanics, who are supportive of regulations and believe local government is not doing enough for environmental problems. People concerned about the loss of ecological resources and open space believe the federal government and the state are not doing enough for the environment, were non-Hispanic White, want continued environmental regulations, were longer-term residents, were high school graduates, and were older (45-54 years). People interested in ecological services were college-educated, non

  5. Environmental development plan for transportation programs: FY80 update

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C.L.; Singh, M.K.; Bernard, M.J. III; Bevilacqua, O.M.

    1980-09-01

    This is the second annual update of the environmental development plan (EDP) for transportation programs. It has been prepared as a cooperative effort of the Assistant Secretaries for Conservation and Solar Energy (ASCS) Office of Transportation Programs (CS/TP) and the Environment (ASEV) Office of Environmental Assessments. EDPs identify the ecosystem, resource, physical environment, health, safety, socioeconomic, and environmental control concerns associated with DOE programs. The programs include the research, development, demonstration, and assessment (RDD and A) of 14 transportation technologies and several strategy implementation projects. This EDP update presents a research and assessment plan for resolving any potentially adverse environmental concerns arising from these programs. The EDP process provides a framework for: incorporating environmental concerns into CS/TP planning and decision processes early to ensure they are assigned the same importance as technological, fiscal, and institutional concerns in decision making; resolving environmental concerns concurrently with energy technology and strategy development; and providing a research schedule that mitigates adverse environmental effects through sound technological design or policy analysis. This EDP also describes the status of each environmental concern and the plan for its resolution. Much of ongoing DOE reseirch and technology development is aimed at resolving concerns identified in this EDP. Each EDP is intended to be so comprehensive that no concerns escape notice. Care is taken to include any CS/TP action that may eventually require an Environmental Impact Statement. Because technology demonstration and commercialization tend to raise more environmental concerns than other portions of the transportation program, most of this EDP addresses these concerns.

  6. Farming in space: environmental and biophysical concerns.

    PubMed

    Monje, O; Stutte, G W; Goins, G D; Porterfield, D M; Bingham, G E

    2003-01-01

    The colonization of space will depend on our ability to routinely provide for the metabolic needs (oxygen, water, and food) of a crew with minimal re-supply from Earth. On Earth, these functions are facilitated by the cultivation of plant crops, thus it is important to develop plant-based food production systems to sustain the presence of mankind in space. Farming practices on earth have evolved for thousands of years to meet both the demands of an ever-increasing population and the availability of scarce resources, and now these practices must adapt to accommodate the effects of global warming. Similar challenges are expected when earth-based agricultural practices are adapted for space-based agriculture. A key variable in space is gravity; planets (e.g. Mars, 1/3 g) and moons (e.g. Earth's moon, 1/6 g) differ from spacecraft orbiting the Earth (e.g. Space stations) or orbital transfer vehicles that are subject to microgravity. The movement of heat, water vapor, CO2 and O2 between plant surfaces and their environment is also affected by gravity. In microgravity, these processes may also be affected by reduced mass transport and thicker boundary layers around plant organs caused by the absence of buoyancy dependent convective transport. Future space farmers will have to adapt their practices to accommodate microgravity, high and low extremes in ambient temperatures, reduced atmospheric pressures, atmospheres containing high volatile organic carbon contents, and elevated to super-elevated CO2 concentrations. Farming in space must also be carried out within power-, volume-, and mass-limited life support systems and must share resources with manned crews. Improved lighting and sensor technologies will have to be developed and tested for use in space. These developments should also help make crop production in terrestrial controlled environments (plant growth chambers and greenhouses) more efficient and, therefore, make these alternative agricultural systems more economically feasible food production systems. PMID:12577999

  7. Farming in space: environmental and biophysical concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monje, O.; Stutte, G. W.; Goins, G. D.; Porterfield, D. M.; Bingham, G. E.

    2003-01-01

    The colonization of space will depend on our ability to routinely provide for the metabolic needs (oxygen, water, and food) of a crew with minimal re-supply from Earth. On Earth, these functions are facilitated by the cultivation of plant crops, thus it is important to develop plant-based food production systems to sustain the presence of mankind in space. Farming practices on earth have evolved for thousands of years to meet both the demands of an ever-increasing population and the availability of scarce resources, and now these practices must adapt to accommodate the effects of global warming. Similar challenges are expected when earth-based agricultural practices are adapted for space-based agriculture. A key variable in space is gravity; planets (e.g. Mars, 1/3 g) and moons (e.g. Earth's moon, 1/6 g) differ from spacecraft orbiting the Earth (e.g. Space stations) or orbital transfer vehicles that are subject to microgravity. The movement of heat, water vapor, CO2 and O2 between plant surfaces and their environment is also affected by gravity. In microgravity, these processes may also be affected by reduced mass transport and thicker boundary layers around plant organs caused by the absence of buoyancy dependent convective transport. Future space farmers will have to adapt their practices to accommodate microgravity, high and low extremes in ambient temperatures, reduced atmospheric pressures, atmospheres containing high volatile organic carbon contents, and elevated to super-elevated CO2 concentrations. Farming in space must also be carried out within power-, volume-, and mass-limited life support systems and must share resources with manned crews. Improved lighting and sensor technologies will have to be developed and tested for use in space. These developments should also help make crop production in terrestrial controlled environments (plant growth chambers and greenhouses) more efficient and, therefore, make these alternative agricultural systems more economically feasible food production systems. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Farming in space: Environmental and biophysical concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monje, O.; Stutte, G. W.; Goins, G. D.; Porterfield, D. M.; Bingham, G. E.

    The colonization of space will depend on our ability to routinely provide for the metabolic needs (oxygen, water, and food) of a crew with minimal re-supply from Earth. On Earth, these functions are facilitated by the cultivation of plant crops, thus it is important to develop plant-based food production systems to sustain the presence of mankind in space. Farming practices on earth have evolved for thousands of years to meet both the demands of an ever-increasing population and the availability of scarce resources, and now these practices must adapt to accommodate the effects of global warming. Similar challenges are expected when earth-based agricultural practices are adapted for space-based agriculture. A key variable in space is gravity; planets (e.g. Mars, (1)/(3) g) and moons (e.g. Earth's moon, (1)/(6) g) differ from spacecraft orbiting the Earth (e.g. Space stations) or orbital transfer vehicles that are subject to microgravity. The movement of heat, water vapor, CO2 and O2 between plant surfaces and their environment is also affected by gravity. In microgravity, these processes may also be affected by reduced mass transport and thicker boundary layers around plant organs caused by the absence of buoyancy dependent convective transport. Future space farmers will have to adapt their practices to accommodate microgravity, high and low extremes in ambient temperatures, reduced atmospheric pressures, atmospheres containing high volatile organic carbon contents, and elevated to super-elevated CO2 concentrations. Farming in space must also be carried out within power-, volume-, and mass-limited life support systems and must share resources with manned crews. Improved lighting and sensor technologies will have to be developed and tested for use in space. These developments should also help make crop production in terrestrial controlled environments (plant growth chambers and greenhouses) more efficient and, therefore, make these alternative agricultural systems more economically feasible food production systems.

  9. Farming in space: environmental and biophysical concerns.

    PubMed

    Monje, O; Stutte, G W; Goins, G D; Porterfield, D M; Bingham, G E

    2003-01-01

    The colonization of space will depend on our ability to routinely provide for the metabolic needs (oxygen, water, and food) of a crew with minimal re-supply from Earth. On Earth, these functions are facilitated by the cultivation of plant crops, thus it is important to develop plant-based food production systems to sustain the presence of mankind in space. Farming practices on earth have evolved for thousands of years to meet both the demands of an ever-increasing population and the availability of scarce resources, and now these practices must adapt to accommodate the effects of global warming. Similar challenges are expected when earth-based agricultural practices are adapted for space-based agriculture. A key variable in space is gravity; planets (e.g. Mars, 1/3 g) and moons (e.g. Earth's moon, 1/6 g) differ from spacecraft orbiting the Earth (e.g. Space stations) or orbital transfer vehicles that are subject to microgravity. The movement of heat, water vapor, CO2 and O2 between plant surfaces and their environment is also affected by gravity. In microgravity, these processes may also be affected by reduced mass transport and thicker boundary layers around plant organs caused by the absence of buoyancy dependent convective transport. Future space farmers will have to adapt their practices to accommodate microgravity, high and low extremes in ambient temperatures, reduced atmospheric pressures, atmospheres containing high volatile organic carbon contents, and elevated to super-elevated CO2 concentrations. Farming in space must also be carried out within power-, volume-, and mass-limited life support systems and must share resources with manned crews. Improved lighting and sensor technologies will have to be developed and tested for use in space. These developments should also help make crop production in terrestrial controlled environments (plant growth chambers and greenhouses) more efficient and, therefore, make these alternative agricultural systems more economically feasible food production systems.

  10. Endocrine-Active Pharmaceuticals: An Environmental Concern?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, there has been growing interest in pharmaceuticals that are specifically designed to have endocrine activity, such as the estrogens used in birth control pills, exerting unintended effects on fish and other aquatic organisms. These pharmaceuticals may not be persistent...

  11. Cyanobacterial toxins: a growing environmental concern.

    PubMed

    Haider, Shamama; Naithani, Vijay; Viswanathan, P N; Kakkar, Poonam

    2003-07-01

    Unusual blooms of toxic cyanobacteria in water bodies have drawn attention of environmentalists world over. Major blooms of Anabaena, Microcystis and Nodularia in water storage reservoirs, rivers and lakes leading to adverse health effects have been reported from Australia, England and many other parts of the world. An overview of the morphology and taxonomy of these toxic blue-green algae; their possible sources of contamination including dietary supplements and their potential to cause hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity is given in this review. A detailed description of different cyanotoxins, and their mode of action has also been compiled. Reports of acute and chronic exposure to these toxic algae and their health effects on unsuspecting population along with a critical evaluation of efficacy of water treatment procedures to control them is presented here. PMID:12729683

  12. Teachers' Concerns About Biotechnology Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2013-04-01

    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns about biotechnology instruction and their reported practices. Consistent with the Stages of Concern framework as modified by Hord et al., we investigated teachers' awareness, informational, personal, management, consequences, collaboration, and refocusing concerns about biotechnology teaching by employing a qualitative design that allowed for the emergence of teachers' ideas. Twenty high school life science teachers attending a biotechnology institute were interviewed using an interview protocol specifically designed to target various Stages of Concern. Although the Stages of Concern framework guided the development of interview questions in order to target a wide range of concerns, data analysis employed a grounded theory approach wherein patterns emerged from teachers' own words and were constantly compared with each other to generate larger themes. Our results have potential to provide guidance for professional development providers and curriculum developers committed to supporting initial implementation of biotechnology education. Recommendations include supporting teacher development of biotechnology content knowledge; promoting strategies for obtaining, storing and managing biotechnology equipment and materials; providing opportunities for peer teaching as a means of building teacher confidence; and highlighting career opportunities in biotechnology and the intersections of biotechnology and everyday life.

  13. Chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures

    SciTech Connect

    Dickens, W.J.; Million, R.R.; Cassisi, N.J.; Singleton, G.T.

    1982-02-01

    Eighteen patients with chemodectomas arising in temporal bone structures were evaluated and treated at the University of Florida. Seventeen patients have each been followed a minimum of 3 years. Patients were retrospectively staged as having ''local'' or ''advanced'' disease, depending on the presence or absence of bone destruction and/or cranial nerve involvement. Fourteen of the patients received radiation therapy as all or part of their therapy; 6 patients were treated with radiation therapy alone, 3 patients were irradiated immediately postoperatively for residual disease, and 5 patients had radiation therapy for recurrence after operation. They were treated with cobalt-60 radiation with doses ranging from 3760 to 5640 rad. All irradiated patients demonstrated evidence of tumor regression, and none have had tumor recurrence with followup of 3-12 years. Of the 8 patients with cranial nerve paralysis prior to therapy, 5 had return of function of 1 or more cranial nerves. One of 6 patients treated initially with radiation therapy had a complication, while 6 of 8 patients irradiated postoperatively had complications. None of the complications were fatal. Three patients treated by operation for early disease limited to the hypotympanum had the disease controlled for 11-12 years. Guidelines for the selection of initial therapy are discussed.

  14. Simple and quick determination of analgesics and other contaminants of emerging concern in environmental waters by on-line solid phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Aguirre, Alejandra; Romero-González, Roberto; Vidal, J L Martínez; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2016-05-13

    A simple and quick analytical method has been developed for the determination of pharmaceutical compounds in water. An on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been optimized to determine 7 contaminants of emerging concern in environmental waters at ngL(-1) levels. This procedure requires minimal sample handling and small sample volume (900μL) with a total running time of 18min. Several SPE parameters were evaluated and optimized in order to achieve a high sample throughput. Therefore sample volume, carryover and reusability of the cartridges were evaluated. Performance characteristics were evaluated and good linearity was obtained (R(2)>0.98). Recoveries were evaluated in spiked samples at three concentrations and the values ranged from 71 to 104%. Intra and inter-day precision was lower than 10 and 13% respectively. Limits of quantification were equal to or lower than 10ngL(-1), except for 1,7-dimethylxanthine (20ngL(-1)) and ibuprofen (50ngL(-1)). The method was applied to 20 environmental water samples, and ibuprofen was the compound most widely detected at concentrations up to 42.06μgL(-1), whereas the other compounds were detected in fewer samples at lower concentrations (up to 15.99μgL(-1)).

  15. Concern About Petrochemical Health Risk Before and After a Refinery Explosion

    PubMed Central

    Cutchin, Malcolm P.; Martin, Kathryn Remmes; Owen, Steven V.; Goodwin, James S.

    2014-01-01

    On March 23, 2005, a large explosion at an oil refinery in Texas City, Texas caused 15 deaths and approximately 170 injuries. Little is known about how such an industrial accident influences concern about environmental health risks. We used measures of environmental health concern about nearby petrochemical production with a sample of Texas City residents to understand patterns of concern and change in concern after an industrial accident, as well as individual and contextual factors associated with those patterns. Survey interviews with residents of Texas City, Texas (N =315) both pre- and postexplosion using a brief Concern About Petrochemical Health Risk Scale (CAPHRS) and other questions were used to collect pertinent predictor information. CAPHRS baseline, postexplosion, and change scores were compared and modeled using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and a mixed model. Higher preexplosion CAPHRS scores were predicted by younger adults, foreign-born Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks, lower- and middle-income groups, and those who live with someone who has worked at the petrochemical plants. Higher CAPHRS change scores are predicted by the same variables (except income), as well as proximity to, or perception of, the explosion, and reports of neighborhood damage. Findings suggest these groups’ concern scores could indicate a greater vulnerability to psychological and physical harm generated by concern and stress arising from local petrochemical activities. A clearer understanding of concern about actual environmental health risks in exposed populations may enhance the evolving theory of stress and coping and eventually enable public health professionals to develop appropriate mitigation strategies. PMID:18643817

  16. Estimation of measurement uncertainty arising from manual sampling of fuels.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Dimitrios; Liapis, Nikolaos; Zannikos, Fanourios

    2013-02-15

    Sampling is an important part of any measurement process and is therefore recognized as an important contributor to the measurement uncertainty. A reliable estimation of the uncertainty arising from sampling of fuels leads to a better control of risks associated with decisions concerning whether product specifications are met or not. The present work describes and compares the results of three empirical statistical methodologies (classical ANOVA, robust ANOVA and range statistics) using data from a balanced experimental design, which includes duplicate samples analyzed in duplicate from 104 sampling targets (petroleum retail stations). These methodologies are used for the estimation of the uncertainty arising from the manual sampling of fuel (automotive diesel) and the subsequent sulfur mass content determination. The results of the three methodologies statistically differ, with the expanded uncertainty of sampling being in the range of 0.34-0.40 mg kg(-1), while the relative expanded uncertainty lying in the range of 4.8-5.1%, depending on the methodology used. The estimation of robust ANOVA (sampling expanded uncertainty of 0.34 mg kg(-1) or 4.8% in relative terms) is considered more reliable, because of the presence of outliers within the 104 datasets used for the calculations. Robust ANOVA, in contrast to classical ANOVA and range statistics, accommodates outlying values, lessening their effects on the produced estimates. The results of this work also show that, in the case of manual sampling of fuels, the main contributor to the whole measurement uncertainty is the analytical measurement uncertainty, with the sampling uncertainty accounting only for the 29% of the total measurement uncertainty.

  17. Species of conservation concern and environmental stressors: local regional and global effects: Chapter 6 in The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership science and research synthesis: science to support land management in southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pendleton, Burton

    2013-01-01

    Species conservation has traditionally been based on individual species within the context of their requisite habitat, which is generally defined as the communities and ecosystems deemed necessary for their presence. Conservation decisions are hampered by the fact that environmental stressors that poetically threaten the persistence of species can operate at organizational levels larger than the habitat or home range of a focal species. Resource managers must therefore simultaneously consider local, regional, and/or global scale stressors for effective conservation and management of species of concern. The wide ranging effects associated with global stressors such as climate change may exceed or exacerbate the effects of local or regional stressors, they still need to understand the direct and interactive effects of global stressors and ultimately how they affect the lands they manage. Conservation of species in southern Nevada is further complication by the fact that the region includes one of the largest and fastest growing urban centers in North America. To accomplish the goal of species conservation, resource managers must identify actionable management options that mitigate the effects of local and regional stressor in the context of the effects of global stressors that are beyond their control. Species conservation is typically focused on a subset often referred to as species of conservation concern that have either demonstrated considerable decline or are naturally rare or have limited distributions. Stressors can directly and indirectly impact species in a variety of ways and through a diversity of mechanisms. Some stressors have been more intense in the past (e.g., livestock grazing) whereas other are now only emerging as new stressors (e.g., solar energy development, climate change). The primary stressors affecting southern Nevada ecosystems are listed in table 2.1 and reviewed in detail in Chapter 2. This chapter addresses Dub-goal 1.4 in the SNAP

  18. Lead toxicity: current concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Goyer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. Images FIGURE 2. PMID:8354166

  19. Lead toxicity: Current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A. )

    1993-04-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. 97 refs.

  20. Panglobalism and pandemics: ecological and ethical concerns.

    PubMed Central

    Rolston, Holmes

    2005-01-01

    A pandemic is a human medical problem but must be understood at multiple levels. Analysis of social and commercial forces is vital, and, more comprehensively, an ecological framework is necessary for an inclusive picture. Ecological health webworked with political and social determinants surrounds issues of human health. In this constellation of both natural and social factors, ethical concerns will arise at these multiple levels, from human health to the conservation and health of wild nature. PMID:17132337

  1. Groups concerned about Congress and criticism

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, A.

    1994-12-07

    Environmental groups are concerned about the impact a Republican-dominated Congress will have on their activities. The Republican agenda would {open_quotes}severely undercut public health and environmental protection, {close_quotes} says the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC; Washington).

  2. Art as Social Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her eleventh- and twelfth-grade portfolio class used art as a social concern through a sketchbook and a linoleum print. Students thumbed through copies of the "New York Times" to find an article that described a modern-day social concern. Students were assigned to choose an article, summarize it, and come…

  3. Food Concerns. Research Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Debra J.

    1998-01-01

    Adolescent vegetarianism is most frequent among females, and involves meat avoidance, concern for the environment and animal welfare, gender equality, weight loss behaviors, and a concern with body appearance. It can be a precursor to eating disorders. Training and ongoing follow-up are necessary to instill proper food handling procedures in…

  4. Mathematical problems arising in interfacial electrohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseluiko, Dmitri

    In this work we consider the nonlinear stability of thin films in the presence of electric fields. We study a perfectly conducting thin film flow down an inclined plane in the presence of an electric field which is uniform in its undisturbed state, and normal to the plate at infinity. In addition, the effect of normal electric fields on films lying above, or hanging from, horizontal substrates is considered. Systematic asymptotic expansions are used to derive fully nonlinear long wave model equations for the scaled interface motion and corresponding flow fields. For the case of an inclined plane, higher order terms are need to be retained to regularize the problem in the sense that the long wave approximation remains valid for long times. For the case of a horizontal plane the fully nonlinear evolution equation which is derived at the leading order, is asymptotically correct and no regularization procedure is required. In both physical situations, the effect of the electric field is to introduce a non-local term which arises from the potential region above the liquid film, and enters through the electric Maxwell stresses at the interface. This term is always linearly destabilizing and produces growth rates proportional to the cubic power of the wavenumber - surface tension is included and provides a short wavelength cut-off, that is, all sufficiently short waves are linearly stable. For the case of film flow down an inclined plane, the fully nonlinear equation can produce singular solutions (for certain parameter values) after a finite time, even in the absence of an electric field. This difficulty is avoided at smaller amplitudes where the weakly nonlinear evolution is governed by an extension of the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky (KS) equation. Global existence and uniqueness results are proved, and refined estimates of the radius of the absorbing ball in L2 are obtained in terms of the parameters of the equations for a generalized class of modified KS equations. The

  5. Environmental aspects of solar energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Strojan, C.L.

    1980-09-01

    Solar energy technologies have environmental effects, and these may be positive or negative compared with current ways of producing energy. In this respect, solar energy technologies are no different from other energy systems. Where solar energy technologies differ is that no unresolvable technological problems (e.g., CO/sub 2/ emissions) or sociopolitical barriers (e.g., waste disposal, catastrophic accidents) have been identified. This report reviews some of the environmental aspects of solar energy technologies and ongoing research designed to identify and resolve potential environmental concerns. It is important to continue research and assessment of environmental aspects of solar energy to ensure that unanticipated problems do not arise. It is also important that the knowledge gained through such environmental research be incorporated into technology development programs and policy initiatives.

  6. A Stochastic Problem Arising in the Storage of Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.M.R.

    2004-07-15

    Nuclear waste drums can contain a collection of radioactive components of uncertain activity and randomly dispersed in position. This implies that the dose-rate at the surface of different drums in a large assembly of similar drums can have significant variations according to the physical makeup and configuration of the waste components. The present paper addresses this problem by treating the drum, and its waste, as a stochastic medium. It is assumed that the sources in the drum contribute a dose-rate to some external point. The strengths and positions are chosen by random numbers, the dose-rate is calculated and, from several thousand realizations, a probability distribution for the dose-rate is obtained. It is shown that a very close approximation to the dose-rate probability function is the log-normal distribution. This allows some useful statistical indicators, which are of environmental importance, to be calculated with little effort.As an example of a practical situation met in the storage of radioactive waste containers, we study the problem of 'hotspots'. These arise in drums in which most of the activity is concentrated on one radioactive component and hence can lead to the possibility of large surface dose-rates. It is shown how the dose-rate, the variance, and some other statistical indicators depend on the relative activities on the sources. The results highlight the importance of such hotspots and the need to quantify their effect.

  7. Food biotechnology: benefits and concerns.

    PubMed

    Falk, Michael C; Chassy, Bruce M; Harlander, Susan K; Hoban, Thomas J; McGloughlin, Martina N; Akhlaghi, Amin R

    2002-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have highlighted the need for experimental evidence and sound scientific judgment to assess the benefits and risks to society. Nutrition scientists and other animal biologists need a balanced understanding of the issues to participate in this assessment. To date most modifications to crop plants have benefited producers. Crops have been engineered to decrease pesticide and herbicide usage, protect against stressors, enhance yields and extend shelf life. Beyond the environmental benefits of decreased pesticide and herbicide application, consumers stand to benefit by development of food crops with increased nutritional value, medicinal properties, enhanced taste and esthetic appeal. There remains concern that these benefits come with a cost to the environment or increased risk to the consumer. Most U.S. consumers are not aware of the extent that genetically modified foods have entered the marketplace. Consumer awareness of biotechnology seems to have increased over the last decade, yet most consumers remain confused over the science. Concern over the impact on the safety of the food supply remains low in the United States, but is substantially elevated in Europe. Before a genetically engineered crop is introduced into commerce it must pass regulatory scrutiny by as many as four different federal regulatory bodies to ensure a safe food supply and minimize the risk to the environment. Key areas for more research are evaluation of the nutritional benefits of new crops, further investigation of the environmental impact, and development of better techniques to identify and track genetically engineered products.

  8. 32 CFR 537.19 - Demands arising from maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Demands arising from maritime claims. 537.19 Section 537.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.19 Demands arising from maritime claims. (a) It is essential that Army claims personnel...

  9. Quebec's Toxic Pollution Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    The best solution to the problems of increased pollution of Quebec lakes and rivers with toxic wastes and increased incidence of pollution related diseases is to educate children, to make them aware of the environment and man's interrelationship with it. Attitudes of concern, based on knowledge, must be developed so that as adults, they will take…

  10. Incidents of Security Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation addresses incidents of security concern and an incident program for addressing them. It addresses the phases of an inquiry, and it divides incidents into categories based on severity and interest types based on whether security, management, or procedural interests are involved. A few scenarios are then analyzed according to these breakdowns.

  11. Food allergy: current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Fries, J.H.

    1981-05-01

    This commentary focuses on the author's concerns with various aspects of food allergy. Strict criteria should be applied to the definition of food allergy and its diagnostic techniques. Industrial inhalational exposures, food contaminations and cross-sensitization all are important influences which demand studious attention.

  12. Expression of Concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delvaux, Damien

    2016-08-01

    This is a note of a temporary expression of concern related to the publication titled, "Sapphirine and fluid inclusions in Tel Thanoun mantle xenoliths, Syria" by Ahmad Bilal, which appeared in Journal of African Earth Sciences, 116 (2016) 105-113.

  13. Widening Privacy Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amidon, Paige

    1992-01-01

    Discusses privacy concerns relating to electronic information media. European privacy initiatives from the European Community are described, including personal data protection, impact on the online industry, and telecommunications privacy; and activities in the United States are examined, including telephone caller privacy, electronic mail…

  14. Complex Population Dynamics in Mussels Arising from Density-Linked Stochasticity

    PubMed Central

    Wootton, J. Timothy; Forester, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Population fluctuations are generally attributed to the deterministic consequences of strong non-linear interactions among organisms, or the effects of random stochastic environmental variation superimposed upon the deterministic skeleton describing population change. Analysis of the population dynamics of the mussel Mytilus californianus taken in 16 plots over 18-years found no evidence that these processes explained observed strong fluctuations. Instead, population fluctuations arose because environmental stochasticity varied with abundance, which we term density-linked stochasticity. This phenomenon arises from biologically relevant mechanisms: recruitment variation and transmission of disturbance among neighboring individuals. Density-linked stochasticity is probably present frequently in populations, as it arises naturally from several general ecological processes, including stage structure variation with density, ontogenetic niche shifts, and local transmission of stochastic perturbations. More thoroughly characterizing and interpreting deviations from the mean behavior of a system will lead to better ecological prediction and improved insight into the important processes affecting populations and ecosystems. PMID:24086617

  15. Bridgman`s concern

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    In 1956 P.W. Bridgman published a letter to the editor in the Journal of Applied Physics reporting results of electrical resistance measurements on iron under static high pressure. The work was undertaken to verify the existence of a polymorphic phase transition at 130 kbar (13 GPa) reported in the same journal and year by the Los Alamos authors, Bancroft, Peterson and Minshall for high pressure, shock-compression loading. In his letter, Bridgman reported that he failed to find any evidence for the transition. Further, he raised some fundamental concerns as to the state of knowledge of shock-compression processes in solids. Later it was determined that Bridgman`s static pressure scale was in error, and the shock observations became the basis for calibration of pressure values in static high pressure apparatuses. In spite of the error in pressure scales, Bridgman`s concerns on descriptions of shock-compression processes were perceptive and have provided the basis for subsequent fundamental studies of shock-compressed solids. The present paper, written in response to receipt of the 1993 American Physical Society Shock-Compression Science Award, provides a brief contemporary assessment of those shock-compression issues which were the basis of Bridgman`s 1956 concerns.

  16. Solid Waste: Health Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duel, Ward

    1975-01-01

    In this article the means of disposing solid wastes are discussed with reference to their health hazards and environmental desirability. Included in the discussion are solid waste dumps, landfills, incinerators, and grinders. Some attention is given to the reclamation of mineral resources from trash. (MA)

  17. Localised fibrous mesothelioma arising in an intralobar pulmonary sequestration.

    PubMed Central

    Paksoy, N; Demircan, A; Altiner, M; Artvinli, M

    1992-01-01

    A localised fibrous mesothelioma arising from an intralobar lung sequestration occurred in a 64 year old Turkish woman. This appears to be the first report of a mesothelioma occurring within a pulmonary sequestration. Images PMID:1481189

  18. Warthin tumor arising from the minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Toshinori; Baba, Junichi; Murata, Shogo; Mitsudo, Kenji; Maegawa, Jiro; Nagahama, Kiyotaka; Tohnai, Iwai

    2012-09-01

    Warthin tumor (WT) accounts for 4% to 13% of all salivary gland tumors. This benign tumor, which commonly arises in the parotid gland, is the second most common tumor of the salivary gland. WT is multicentric in 12% to 20% of patients and is bilateral in 5% to 14%. The mean age at diagnosis is 62 years (range, 12-92 years), and it rarely presents (<6%) before age 40 years. Extraparotid WT, arising from the submandibular gland or cervical lymph node for example, is very infrequent, with corresponding incidences of 0.4% to 6.9% and 8%, respectively. Moreover, WT arising from the minor salivary gland is extremely rare, with a reported incidence of merely 0.1% to 1.2%. We report here WT arising from the minor salivary gland in the buccal mucosa in a 66-year-old woman and review cases of WT of the minor salivary gland reported in the English literature.

  19. Electric reaction arising in bone subjected to mechanical loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murasawa, Go; Cho, Hideo; Ogawa, Kazuma

    2006-03-01

    The aim of present study is the investigation of the electric reaction arising in bone subjected to mechanical loadings. Firstly, specimen was fabricated from femur of cow, and ultrasonic propagation in bone was measured by ultrasonic technique. Secondary, 4-point bending test was conducted up to fracture, and electric reaction arising in bone was measured during loading. Thirdly, cyclic 4-point bending test was conducted to investigate the effect of applied displacement speed on electric reaction.

  20. Thymoma type B1 arising in a giant supradiaphragmatic thymolipoma.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Tevfik; Han, Serdar; Han, Unsal; Atac, Gokce Kaan; Yanik, Serdar

    2014-11-01

    Thymolipomas are uncommon tumors of the anterior mediastinum. They may extend into, but rarely stem from, the chest cavity. Furthermore, thymoma arising in a thymolipoma is extremely rare. We report a unique case of thymoma type B1 that originated form a giant thymolipoma located in the chest cavity, which was resected by a lateral thoracotomy in a 23-year-old woman. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of thymoma type B1 arising within a giant thymolipoma.

  1. Pineal region schwannoma arising from the trochlear nerve.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Nauman S; Ahmad, Faiz U; Morcos, Jacques J

    2016-10-01

    Schwannomas arising from the trochlear nerve are very rare and to our knowledge, less than 35 histologically documented cases have been reported in the literature. There are no reports of a schwannoma in the pineal region. We report a 24-year-old woman who underwent a para-occipital trans-tentorial approach and gross total excision of a pineal region schwannoma arising from the trochlear nerve. This is the first such reported case. PMID:27496528

  2. 76 FR 52580 - Procedures To Adjudicate Claims for Personal Injury or Property Damage Arising Out of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... 912 Procedures To Adjudicate Claims for Personal Injury or Property Damage Arising Out of the... the Postal Service's regulations concerning tort claims to update the mailing address of the National Tort Center. DATES: Effective Date: August 23, 2011. ADDRESSES: Written communications should...

  3. Inference Concerning Physical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    The question of whether the universe "is" just an information- processing system has been extensively studied in physics. To address this issue, the canonical forms of information processing in physical systems - observation, prediction, control and memory - were analyzed in [24]. Those forms of information processing are all inherently epistemological; they transfer information concerning the universe as a whole into a scientist's mind. Accordingly, [24] formalized the logical relationship that must hold between the state of a scientist's mind and the state of the universe containing the scientist whenever one of those processes is successful. This formalization has close analogs in the analysis of Turing machines. In particular, it can be used to define an "informational analog" of algorithmic information complexity. In addition, this formalization allows us to establish existence and impossibility results concerning observation, prediction, control and memory. The impossibility results establish that Laplace was wrong to claim that even in a classical, non-chaotic universe the future can be unerringly predicted, given sufficient knowledge of the present. Alternatively, the impossibility results can be viewed as a non-quantum mechanical "uncertainty principle". Here I present a novel motivation of the formalization introduced in [24] and extend some of the associated impossibility results.

  4. School Transportation Issues, Laws and Concerns: Implications for Future Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durick, Jody M.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly all building administrators are confronted with a variety of transportation issues. Challenges, concerns and questions can arise from various aspects, including student misbehaviors, transportation laws and its implications at the school level, to importance and implementation of a school bus safety program. As new and upcoming future…

  5. Four Different Tumors Arising in a Nevus Sebaceous.

    PubMed

    Namiki, Takeshi; Miura, Keiko; Ueno, Makiko; Arima, Yumi; Nishizawa, Aya; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    Nevus sebaceous is known by its association with one or more secondary tumors, but more than three multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous is extremely rare. A 67-year-old female presented with a light brown plaque on the back of her head that contained a dome-shaped black node and an erosive lesion. Histopathological examination showed atypical basaloid cells in the black node. At the periphery of that node, structures resembling follicular germs extruded from interlacing cords in the upper portion and tumor nests with sebocytes were in the lower portion. In the erosive lesion, papillated structures with an apocrine epithelium were observed. In the light brown plaque, enlargement of sebaceous lobules was noted. From those histopathological features, a diagnosis of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, sebaceoma, trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma arising from a nevus sebaceous was made. We discuss the rarity of multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous. PMID:27194974

  6. Primary salivary duct carcinoma arising from the Stensen duct.

    PubMed

    Noda, Kenji; Hirano, Takashi; Okamoto, Tomoyo; Suzuki, Masashi

    2016-09-01

    This report describes a salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) arising from the extraglandular portion of the Stensen duct. The patient was a 56-year-old man who presented with a palpable, elastic, hard mass without tenderness in the right cheek. Computed tomography revealed a tumor of the extraglandular portion of the Stensen duct. Supraomohyoid right neck dissection and total right parotidectomy were performed, and the histologic diagnosis was SDC of the Stensen duct. Postoperatively, the patient received no additional treatment. Neither recurrence nor metastasis was observed during 4 years of follow-up examination. SDC of the Stensen duct is extremely rare. To our knowledge, there is no report that describes primary SDC arising from that location. We also believe this is the first report that describes the clinical course of primary SDC arising from a Stensen duct. PMID:27657321

  7. Four Different Tumors Arising in a Nevus Sebaceous

    PubMed Central

    Namiki, Takeshi; Miura, Keiko; Ueno, Makiko; Arima, Yumi; Nishizawa, Aya; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    Nevus sebaceous is known by its association with one or more secondary tumors, but more than three multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous is extremely rare. A 67-year-old female presented with a light brown plaque on the back of her head that contained a dome-shaped black node and an erosive lesion. Histopathological examination showed atypical basaloid cells in the black node. At the periphery of that node, structures resembling follicular germs extruded from interlacing cords in the upper portion and tumor nests with sebocytes were in the lower portion. In the erosive lesion, papillated structures with an apocrine epithelium were observed. In the light brown plaque, enlargement of sebaceous lobules was noted. From those histopathological features, a diagnosis of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, sebaceoma, trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma arising from a nevus sebaceous was made. We discuss the rarity of multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous. PMID:27194974

  8. Lesions Arising in a Tattoo of an Active Duty US Marine Corps Woman.

    PubMed

    Winn, Aubrey E; Rivard, Shayna C; Green, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Tattoos are ubiquitous in modern society; however, they do not come without risk of medical complications. When complications arise in the military community, a particularly thorough differential diagnosis should be considered based on the increased exposures service members have during deployment and throughout their military career. We present a case of a 38-year-old active duty US Marine Corps woman with worsening skin lesions arising within a tattoo 6 weeks after acquiring the tattoo on her right chest. Given environmental exposures from a recent deployment to the Middle East, a wide differential was considered. Ultimately, a skin biopsy revealed early hypertrophic scar formation responsive to therapy with intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (Kenalog® [ILK]). However, given the Marine had recently deployed and is part of the active duty population, consideration of alternative, albeit rare, etiologies was imperative. PMID:27450611

  9. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Arising From a Gastric Duplication Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Machicado, Jorge; Davogustto, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Gastric duplication cysts (GDC) are rarely diagnosed in adults, but previous cases have been associated with malignancy. We present a case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) arising from a GDC in a 71-year-old woman who presented with 3 years of early satiety, anorexia, abdominal distention, and weight loss. Abdominal CT showed a 9.3 x 5.2 x 9.5-cm well-circumscribed cystic mass arising 3 cm above the gastroduodenal junction. The cyst was resected, and histopathology was consistent with GDC. Future studies are needed to clarify the malignant potential of GDC and the molecular pathways for its development. PMID:27144196

  10. Malignancy arising in endometriosis associated with unopposed estrogen replacement.

    PubMed

    Reimnitz, C; Brand, E; Nieberg, R K; Hacker, N F

    1988-03-01

    Malignant transformation of endometriosis is a well documented phenomenon. Although it occurs most commonly in the ovaries, there have been approximately 50 reported cases of extraovarian malignant transformation of endometriosis. This paper presents two cases of malignancy arising from a dormant focus of endometriosis after total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and exogenous estrogen replacement therapy. These malignancies are often well differentiated and may behave similarly to estrogen-induced endometrial carcinomas. After surgical castration of a premenopausal woman with endometriosis, the use of progestins in replacement therapy may reduce the risk of malignancy arising in endometriosis.

  11. The Environment: A Global Concern, An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Elizabeth; And Others

    This document describes an interdisciplinary approach for encouraging students to become more cognizant of environmental concerns. Environmental issues are addressed in high school social studies, chemistry, and German language classes. The objectives of the plan are as follows: 1) develop student awareness of environmental issues and the…

  12. Biosimilars: Hope and concern.

    PubMed

    Emmanouilides, Christos E; Karampola, Maria I; Beredima, Maria

    2016-08-01

    As patents of the first introduced biologic therapeutics in oncology have begun to expire, competing pharmaceutical companies are allowed to produce and market the same protein as the original agent. These products are called biosimilars. Upon patent expiration, biosimilars would hopefully be a cheaper alternative to the original agent and that is the main reason for their existence. Although the financial aspect is similar to generics, the complex nature of these products generates the need for a distinct regulatory environment. Biosimilars are produced by DNA technology in bacteria, plant cells, or animal cells, while generics are produced by chemical synthesis. Details in the process of synthesis, selection of the microorganism, protein extraction, purification and manufacturing, affect the precise nature of the end product. Monoclonal antibodies are large proteins with four polypeptide chains and interact variably with each other and with the environment. It is important for payors to realize that biosimilars are different from generics; therefore, they need to develop different set of rules for approving, registering, and dispensing biosimilars. Regulators ought to respect the physicians' request for non-interchangeability and facilitate in any possible way of traceability. Such regulations along with a rigorous pharmacovigilance program will satisfy the concerns for true equivalence in activity and long-term safety. This is the only way to accumulate over time reliable safety information for new biosimilars. In conclusion, the wish born by the medical community and the society for a more affordable health system triggers the emergence of biosimilars, which could meet that goal if properly regulated. PMID:26391898

  13. Adolescent fertility: worldwide concerns.

    PubMed

    Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M

    1985-04-01

    There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex

  14. A leiomyoma arising from the deep palmar arterial arch.

    PubMed

    Yagi, K; Hamada, Y; Yasui, N

    2006-12-01

    Vascular leiomyomas, or angioleiomyomas, are benign tumours originating from smooth non-striated muscle. Leiomyomas in the hand are uncommon and their pre-operative diagnosis is difficult. We report a 65 year-old woman who developed a vascular leiomyoma arising from the deep palmar arterial arch.

  15. ARISE: A Challenging 25-m Space Antenna Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahmat-Samii, Yahya; Hoferer, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    ARISE (Advanced Radio Interferometry between Space and Earth). Future scientific and communications missions are conceptualizing using very large reflector antennas in space. The antenna dimensions are targeted from lOm to 25m beyond. Frequencies coveting L-band through W-band are being considered. these challenging missions, one may refer to ARISE (Advanced Radio Interferometry between Space and Earth), which is projected to utilize a 25-m dual Gregorian optics operating from 8 GHz to 86 Gl-lz . An artist's renditions Gregorian antenna concept is shown . The objective of this mission is to create a space-based VLBI system (integrated with ground based antennas) for high resolution mapping of black holes. Successful realization of ARISE necessitates development of several technologies . The most crucial technology is that of the deployable 25-m reflector that must work at frequencies as high as 43 and 86 GHz. The current baseline selection for ARISE is an inflatable antenna, under development for several other applications in communications and remote sensing.

  16. Transcultural Knowledge and Skills Transfer: Issues Arising from Evaluation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Anita J.; Holloway, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The transfer of knowledge, policy and practice between nations increasingly involves knowledge of the theory and practice of evaluation. This article examines issues arising from the transcultural evaluation of a drug and alcohol misuse knowledge and skills transfer programme for nurses, nurse teachers and medical staff in the narcology service in…

  17. Errors arising from incorrect orientation of E test strips.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton-Miller, J M; Shah, S; Yam, T S

    1995-01-01

    Major errors arise if E test strips are placed upside down. Asymmetric zones, or no zone at all, may result. MICs indicated by upside-down tests were almost always considerably higher than true values. This situation differs markedly from that for conventional testing, where orientation of disks is not important. PMID:7665686

  18. Nuisance Odors: Is there a Concern - 12340

    SciTech Connect

    Brounstein, Robert A.

    2012-07-01

    standards. Another area of consideration would be whether nuisance odors will need separate and distinct criteria with regards to hazard identification and control. While evidence suggests that odorants do not cause direct toxicological effects to the various biologic systems, they can be influential by initiating symptoms that are associated with known toxins. The difference between the classic toxic systemic reactions and those initiated by nuisance odors can be summarized as one causing a dysfunction of a target organ or system as opposed to triggering a message to the brain which causes a physical reaction. While strong odors may exist at HAZWOPER work sites, their particular risk of pathogenic disease has yet to be established. This leaves many unanswered questions; the most obvious being, 'can an odorous chemical that can result in headaches, nausea, changes in blood pressure, body temperature, etc., be considered a toxin even if biological systems remain unaffected and sampling/monitoring protocol negative stimuli, thereby causing symptomatic experiences; will such disciplines as psychology need to be considered as part of the expertise within the field a environmental and occupational health? In the classic text, 'The Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene' industrial hygiene has been defined as 'that science and art devoted to the anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and control of those environmental factors or stressors arising in or from the workplace that may cause sickness, impaired health and well-being, or significant discomfort among workers or among the citizens of the community'. Based on this definition, it is indeed the responsibility of the occupational health professional to move forward and to provide an effective program to 'anticipate, recognize, evaluate, and control' such airborne contaminants that may not be adequately controlled based on current knowledge and technology. The question is, 'Is the industrial hygiene community equipped to carry out

  19. Cross-Cultural Counseling Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahia, Chikezie Emmanuel

    1984-01-01

    Examines problems and concerns of cross cultural counseling and psychotherapy. Raises specific questions concerning research designs and approaches, differences in cosmology, epistemology, differences in nosology, and problems of evaluation or testing. (JAC)

  20. Nutritional concerns in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiology and fundamental etiologic mechanism of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not well understood even though therapeutic regimens and drugs are rapidly evolutionary. IBD has complicated connections with genetic, immunologic, gut microbial, environmental, and nutritional factors. It is not clearly well known to the physicians how to feed, what nutrients are more helpful, and what food to be avoided. This review discusses the issues of growth and important nutritional concerns in the management of IBD in childhood. PMID:27462352

  1. Wetlands production: a balancing of concerns. [Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Cluck, A.

    1983-01-01

    Oil and gas operations along the Texas Gulf Coast require, not only special technical and operational considerations, but also special attention to environmental concerns. A Texas Gulf Coast oil and gas operator must work his way through a complex and sometimes contradictory maze of federal, state and city regulations in order to obtain appropriate permits to drill a well, lay a pipeline or install a production facility.

  2. Health Concerns of Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobal, Jeffery

    1987-01-01

    Examined health concerns of 278 urban junior high school students. Highest levels of concerns pertained to dental health, friendships, nutrition, and sex; lowest levels pertained to smoking, birth control, pregnancy, and homosexuality. Younger, female, and less healthy students expressed greater health concerns. (Author/NB)

  3. Concerns of Entering Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Robert H.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    First-year dental students from three schools were surveyed to assess their concern about psychosocial, academic, time, isolation, and money issues. Similarity in ranking of concerns, and differences in intensity of concern are examined for implications for research in stress management. (MSE)

  4. Analysis of the vibratory excitation arising from spiral bevel gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, William D.

    1987-01-01

    Tools required to understand and predict in terms of its underlying causes the vibratory excitation arising from meshing spiral bevel gears are developed. A generalized three component transmission error of meshing spiral bevel gears is defined. Equations are derived that yield the three components of the generalized transmission error in terms of deviations of tooth running surfaces from equispaced perfect spherical involute surfaces and tooth/gearbody elastic deformations arising from the three components of the generalized force transmitted by the meshing gears. A method for incorporating these equations into the equations of motion of a gear system is described. Equations are derived for the three components of the generalized force transmitted by the gears which are valid whenever inertial effects of the meshing gears and their supports are negligible. Bearing offsets from the positions occupied by the shaft centerlines of perfect spherical involute bevel gears and bearing/bearing support flexibilities enter into the computation of these forces.

  5. Angiosarcoma arising in an ovarian fibroma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cambruzzi, Eduardo; Pegas, Karla Lais; Milani, Daniel Marini; Cruz, Ricardo Pedrini; Guerra, Enilde Heloena; Ferrari, Márcio Balbinotti

    2010-01-01

    Primary ovarian angiosarcoma is a very rare gynaecological sarcoma, with poor prognosis. These tumors are though to arise from carcinosarcomas, teratomas, or the ovarian vasculature and occur at any age. There are only a few cases reported in the international literature, most commonly associated to surface epithelial-stromal or germ cell tumours. Herein, the authors report the clinicopathologic features of an angiosarcoma arising in an ovarian fibroma. A 65-year-old patient was admitted with a palpable mass in the hypogastrium. Grossly, the removed ovary was completely replaced by a solid tumor mass. On histological analysis, the lesion revealed the typical histological features of angiosarcoma with sinusoidal patterns and anaplastic cells, admixed with spindle-shaped cells arranged in fascicles or in a storiform pattern, compatible with a fibroma. The vascular component was strongly immunopositive for CD31 and CD34. The patient was submitted to chemotherapy, and she was alive for two months after surgical proceedings. PMID:21151524

  6. Myofibroblastoma arising in mammary hamartoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Uchôa, Diego M; Cruz, Dênnis Baroni; Schaefer, Pedro Guilherme; Pêgas, Karla Laís; Cambruzzi, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Myofibroblastoma (MFB) is a rare mesenchymal tumor arising in breast's soft tissue with a great variety of microscopic features that can be mistaken with a wide variety of biphasic lesions. The authors report a rare case of myofibroblastoma of the breast arising in a mammary hamartoma (MH), present a review of the clinicopathological features of these lesions, and make some diagnostic considerations. The tumour consisted of a well-circumscribed nodule. MFB component comprised about fifty percent of the lesion and was made up of bipolar spindle cells arranged in fascicular clusters separated by bands of hyalinized collagen. There were fat cells and several residual hamartoma glands intermingled and distorted in MFB area. MFB component was positive for Desmin, CD34, bcl-2, and Calponin. To the best of our knowledge, MFB has not been reported in MH, neither has any of the reports described mammary glands joined within MFB. PMID:21151720

  7. Adenocarcinoma arising in warthin tumor of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Sayar, Hamide; Öztarakçi, Hüseyin; Sayar, Çağdaş; Ağirbaş, Şule

    2012-01-01

    Warthin tumor is a well-defined benign salivary gland neoplasm consisting of both epithelial and lymphoid components. The tumor is the second most common benign tumor next to pleomorphic adenoma. We present a case of adenocarcinoma, not otherwise classified, arising in unilateral Warthin tumor of the parotid gland in a 63-year-old male patient. Carcinomas arising in or from the epithelial component of a preexisting parotid Warthin tumor are rare and differential diagnosis of metastasis from an adenocarcinoma in Warthin tumor is important. The patient underwent a complete and thorough work-up, and no other primary malignant lesion was found. No other primary malignant lesion had manifested at the last one year follow-up period.

  8. Solitary Osteochondroma Arising from Cervical Spina Bifida Occulta

    PubMed Central

    Ofluoglu, Ali Ender

    2013-01-01

    Solitary osteochondromas are common benign long bone tumors originating from cartilage. They may produce a wide variety of symptoms and complications depending on their spinal location. These may include compressive myelopathy, nerve root compression, pathologic fracture and malignant degeneration, or in some cases only pain. Solitary cervical spine osteochondromas have been reported mostly in the neural arch or vertebral body. This report describes a patient presenting with neck pain, with a benign osteochondroma arising in the right bifid C5 lamina. PMID:24383028

  9. Nasal solitary fibrous tumor arising from the anterior cranial fossa.

    PubMed

    Hicks, David L; Moe, Kris S

    2004-11-01

    The solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal, spindle cell neoplasm that was originally found in pleural tissue. Recently, however, numerous extrapleural sites have been discovered, including the nasal cavity. We present the 15th case of a nasal SFT, and the first such tumor to arise from the cribriform plate and extend into the anterior cranial fossa. In addition to highlighting the aggressive nature of this tumor, we review its clinical features and the diagnostic difficulties posed by SFT.

  10. Papillary cystadenoma arising from the upper lip: a case report.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaka, Kenichi; Kokubu, Eitoyo; Takeda, Eizo; Tanaka, Yoichi; Shimono, Masaki; Inoue, Takashi

    2003-11-01

    We report a rare case of a papillary cystadenoma arising from the upper lip. This tumor was not distinctly encapsulated and had proliferated replacing the ductal epithelium. Mast cells were found not only in the stroma but also in the oncocytic epithelial layer. There was a strong immunoreaction with mitochondrial antibody in the epithelial layer. Only one case (0.9%) of papillary cystadenoma has occurred among the 110 benign intraoral salivary gland tumors seen in our hospital from 1966 through September 2003.

  11. Three dialogues concerning robots in elder care.

    PubMed

    Metzler, Theodore A; Barnes, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    The three dialogues in this contribution concern 21st century application of life-like robots in the care of older adults. They depict conversations set in the near future, involving a philosopher (Dr Phonius) and a nurse (Dr Myloss) who manages care at a large facility for assisted living. In their first dialogue, the speakers discover that their quite different attitudes towards human-robot interaction parallel fundamental differences separating their respective concepts of consciousness. The second dialogue similarly uncovers deeply contrasting notions of personhood that appear to be associated with respective communities of nursing and robotics. The additional key awareness that arises in their final dialogue links applications of life-like robots in the care of older adults with potential transformations in our understandings of ourselves - indeed, in our understandings of the nature of our own humanity. This series of dialogues, therefore, appears to address a topic in nursing philosophy that merits our careful attention.

  12. Arsenic residue in the products and by-products of chicken and ducks: a possible concern of avian health and environmental hazard to the population in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Rana, Tanmoy; Bera, Asit Kumar; Mondal, Dipak Kumar; Das, Subhashree; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Samanta, Srikanta; Pan, Diganta; Das, Subrata Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Arsenicosis caused due to drinking of arsenic contaminated ground water is a major environmental health hazard throughout the world. We evaluated the ecotoxicological effect of arsenic on chicken and duck in an arsenic endemic zone. The concentration of arsenic was higher in chicken and duck feed and their by-products than that in the respective samples of control area. Arsenic concentration in the eggs of both chicken and duck was higher than that in the respective samples of control area. Thus, we concluded that arsenic enters into food chain through the intake of contaminated eggs. Furthermore, adverse health effect of arsenic on avian population is due to the alteration in haematobiochemical indices.

  13. Best approach to impact assessment is to use empirically based or simulation models to forecast impacts. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 1538. [Concerning the impact at power plants on fish populations

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, S W

    1980-01-01

    This paper advocates the utility of mathematical models, as contrasted with statistical procedures and processional judgment, for assessing environmental impacts. While it would be desirable to use statistical tests to detect and estimate impacts, this is generally difficult or impossible to do, even with existing sources of impact. Empirical modeling, supported by statistical analyses when possible, is proffered as the logical alternative. Next, for purposes of forecasting impacts, the use of models as opposed to professional judgment or experience is considered. The conclusion is reached that, while models cannot answer all of the relevant questions, they can be used effectively and can address problems that are beyond the reach of statistical methods.

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in previously burned or irradiated skin

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M.J.; Hirsch, R.M.; Broadwater, J.R.; Netscher, D.T.; Ames, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in previously burned or irradiated skin was reviewed in 66 patients treated between 1944 and 1986. Healing of the initial injury was complicated in 70% of patients. Mean interval from initial injury to diagnosis of SCC was 37 years. The overwhelming majority of patients presented with a chronic intractable ulcer in previously injured skin. The regional relapse rate after surgical excision was very high, 58% of all patients. Predominant patterns of recurrence were in local skin and regional lymph nodes (93% of recurrences). Survival rates at 5, 10, and 20 years were 52%, 34%, and 23%, respectively. Five-year survival rates in previously burned and irradiated patients were not significantly different (53% and 50%, respectively). This review, one of the largest reported series, better defines SCC arising in previously burned or irradiated skin as a locally aggressive disease that is distinct from SCC arising in sunlight-damaged skin. An increased awareness of the significance of chronic ulceration in scar tissue may allow earlier diagnosis. Regional disease control and survival depend on surgical resection of all known disease and may require radical lymph node dissection or amputation.

  15. Watchdog Audits Environmental Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Recent reorganization of the General Accounting Office is reviewed. With regard to environmental concerns it is aiming to see if federal environmental programs are meeting the congressionally mandated objectives of laws. Surveys and reviews are explained. (BL)

  16. Pedunculated solitary fibrous tumours arising from the pleura.

    PubMed

    Poyraz, A; Kilic, D; Hatipoglu, A; Bakirci, T; Bilezikci, B

    2006-09-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is one of the rare tumours which arise from visceral pleura. Klemperer and Rabin first described SFT as a distinct clinical entity among primary pleural tumoUrs in 1931. Approximately 820 cases have been reported in literature to date. The management of patients with SFT is complete resection of the tumour and follow up of the patient to detect any possible late recurrence. In the present paper, we report two cases of pedunculated solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura that appeared as a wandering chest nodule to which surgical resection undertaken at our hospital. The aim is to summarise our experience in the management of solitary fibrous tumour.

  17. Solitary fibrous tumor arising from the sphenoid sinus.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Kenji; Watanabe, Takeshi; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Kinoshita, Naoe; Kumagami, Hidetaka; Takahashi, Haruo

    2009-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon neoplasm that usually arises from the pleura. To our knowledge, only 30 cases of SFTs in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses have been reported in the literature. We describe an SFT that arose from the right sphenoid sinus and extended to the nasal cavity and epipharynx. The tumor was completely removed by endoscopic sinus surgery without complication. The patient is taking an uneventful course without any evidence of recurrence of the disease 8 months after surgery now.

  18. Dealing with uncertainty arising out of probabilistic risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, K.A.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Nelson, P.F.

    1984-03-01

    In addressing the area of safety goal implementation, the question of uncertainty arises. This report suggests that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) should examine how other regulatory organizations have addressed the issue. Several examples are given from the chemical industry, and comparisons are made to nuclear power risks. Recommendations are made as to various considerations that the NRC should require in probabilistic risk assessments in order to properly treat uncertainties in the implementation of the safety goal policy. 40 references, 7 figures, 5 tables.

  19. Surprises and pitfalls arising from (pseudo)symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Zwart, Peter H.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Lebedev, Andrey A.; Murshudov, Garib N.; Adams, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    It is not uncommon for protein crystals to crystallize with more than a single molecule per asymmetric unit. When more than a single molecule is present in the asymmetric unit, various pathological situations such as twinning, modulated crystals and pseudo translational or rotational symmetry can arise. The presence of pseudosymmetry can lead to uncertainties about the correct space group, especially in the presence of twinning. The background to certain common pathologies is presented and a new notation for space groups in unusual settings is introduced. The main concepts are illustrated with several examples from the literature and the Protein Data Bank. PMID:18094473

  20. Retroesophageal subclavian artery aneurysm arising from Kommerell's diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Sala, F; Bouillane, P J; Francisci, M P; Diaz, F; Lena, P; Kreitmann, P; Batt, M

    2001-11-01

    This report describes a novel technique used for management of retroesophageal subclavian artery aneurysm arising from Kommerell's diverticulum. The procedure consists of endoaortic exclusion of the aneurysmal neck, using a prosthetic patch after sternotomy during circulatory arrest, and antegrade cold blood cerebroplegia. The advantages of this technique are avoidance of hemorrhagic complications during clamping of the aneurysmal neck, limiting of the extent of dissection of the aortic arch, and elimination of the risk of inadvertent left recurrent nerve paralysis. Antegrade cold blood cerebroplegia provides good cerebral protection and decreases the duration and consequences of extracorporeal circulation.

  1. Endoscopic resection of pleomorphic adenoma arising in the nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jong-Lyel; Jung, Bong Jin; Rha, Ki Sang; Park, Chan Ii

    2005-08-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the commonest benign tumor of the salivary glands. It has rarely been reported arising in the nasopharynx. A pleomorphic adenoma originating from the left lateral wall of the nasopharynx was found in a 61-year-old female who presented with nasal obstruction and intermittent epistaxis. It was successfully removed by combined transnasal and transoral surgery under endoscopic visualization. Endoscope-guided surgery may be helpful for the complete resection of benign nasopharyngeal tumors whilst minimizing injury to the Eustachian tube openings or velopharynx.

  2. Renal cell carcinoma arising in ipsilateral duplex system.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Harsh; Kundu, Reetu; Dalal, Usha

    2014-09-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract are common and include a wide anatomic spectrum. Duplex systems are one of the more common renal anomalies, with the majority being asymptomatic. Little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of these anomalies; however, certain causative genes have been implicated. The finding of renal cell carcinoma arising in a kidney with the duplication of pelvicalyceal system and ureters, as in the present case, is uncommon. The association between a duplex system and renal cell carcinoma may be more than a coincidence, requiring a deeper insight and further elucidation. PMID:26328175

  3. Environmental Education: One Approach to Resolving the Environmental Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, James A.

    1971-01-01

    Examines major factors leading to increased public concern about environmental problems. Explains objectives of environmental education program at the University of Michigan. Proposes solutions to resolution of environmental problems. (LK)

  4. Accelerated Radiation-Damping for Increased Spin Equilibrium (ARISE)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Susie Y.; Witzel, Thomas; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2008-01-01

    Control of the longitudinal magnetization in fast gradient echo sequences is an important factor enabling the high efficiency of balanced Steady State Free Precession (bSSFP) sequences. We introduce a new method for accelerating the return of the longitudinal magnetization to the +z-axis that is independent of externally applied RF pulses and shows improved off-resonance performance. The Accelerated Radiation damping for Increased Spin Equilibrium (ARISE) method uses an external feedback circuit to strengthen the Radiation Damping (RD) field. The enhanced RD field rotates the magnetization back to the +z-axis at a rate faster than T1 relaxation. The method is characterized in gradient echo phantom imaging at 3T as a function of feedback gain, phase, and duration and compared with results from numerical simulations of the Bloch equations incorporating RD. A short period of feedback (10ms) during a refocused interval of a crushed gradient echo sequence allowed greater than 99% recovery of the longitudinal magnetization when very little T2 relaxation has time to occur. Appropriate applications might include improving navigated sequences. Unlike conventional flip-back schemes, the ARISE “flip-back” is generated by the spins themselves, thereby offering a potentially useful building block for enhancing gradient echo sequences. PMID:18956463

  5. Primary retroperitoneal Müllerian adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kei; Kobayashi, Yoichi; Shibuya, Hiromi; Nishigaya, Yoshiko; Momomura, Mai; Matsumoto, Hironori; Iwashita, Mitsutoshi

    2014-06-01

    Primary retroperitoneal Müllerian adenocarcinoma (PRMA) is an extremely rare tumor and the cause remains unknown. We report a case of PRMA arising from endometriosis. A 52-year-old woman with a history of malignant lymphoma underwent a follow-up computed tomography scan, which revealed a retroperitoneal tumor. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor resected during laparoscopic surgery showed adenocarcinoma positive for cytokeratin 7 and negative for cytokeratin 20. The patient had undergone hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy 14 years ago for myoma uteri and endometrial cysts and was treated with estrogen-replacement therapy. The size of the tumor increased and laparotomy was performed. Histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma resembling endometrial adenocarcinoma, which stained positive for cancer antigen 125, cancer antigen 19-9, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor immunohistochemically. The focus of the endometriosis was found at the edge of the tumor, and the stromal cells around the tumor cells were CD10 positive. The patient was diagnosed as having PRMA arising from endometriosis, and treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.

  6. Serous adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid mesentery arising in cystic endosalpingiosis.

    PubMed

    McCoubrey, A; Houghton, O; McCallion, K; McCluggage, W G

    2005-11-01

    This case report describes a Mullerian serous adenocarcinoma arising within a multoloculated cyst lined by ciliated serous-type epithelium located in the sigmoid mesentery. Twenty years previously the patient underwent a hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and omentectomy. The ovaries contained bilateral serous cystadenofibromas, and multiple cysts lined by ciliated serous-type epithelium were present in the omentum. The resection specimen 20 years later contained a 14 cm multiloculated cyst located in the sigmoid mesentery. This was lined largely by benign ciliated serous-type epithelium but a focus of well differentiated serous adenocarcinoma projected into the lumen. Two further peritoneal cysts were present, both of which were lined by ciliated serous-type epithelium. There was a coincidental renal cell carcinoma. This is a unique case of multiple omental, peritoneal, and retroperitoneal cysts (classified as cystic endosalpingiosis), one of which developed a focus of serous adenocarcinoma. Although rarely serous adenocarcinomas, similar to those occurring within the ovary, arise in the retroperitoneum, this is the first reported occurrence in association with a pre-existing benign lesion.

  7. Myoepithelial carcinoma arising in recurrent pleomorphic adenoma in maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashumi; Manipadam, Marie Therese; Michael, Rajiv

    2013-09-01

    Myoepithelial carcinoma is characterized by nearly exclusive myoepithelial differentiation and evidence of malignancy. It may arise de novo or in preexisting benign tumors including pleomorphic adenoma and benign myoepithelioma. A 39-year-old lady presented with painless progressive swelling on the right cheek and right side of palate. On surgery, there was a mass in right maxillary sinus which was surgically excised and diagnosed on histopathology as pleomorphic adenoma. Subsequently, there were two recurrences. The first recurrence was in the right maxilla after 2 years that was removed surgically and diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma. One year later, she came with rapidly progressive swelling in bilateral cheeks and face. Intraoperatively, there was a large tumor in both maxillary sinuses with extensive local infiltration. Histologically, it was diagnosed as myoepithelial carcinoma. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma is usually a high grade malignancy. It occurs most commonly in parotid gland followed by submandibular glands, minor salivary glands and occasionally in sublingual gland. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of myoepithelial carcinoma arising in a recurrent pleomorphic adenoma in the maxillary sinus.

  8. Asset retirement obligations: a reporting concern for healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Berg, Gary G; Bayes, Paul E; Morgan, Robert G

    2008-11-01

    FASB statements and SEC guidelines give direction as to how healthcare organizations should account for their asset retirement obligations (AROs) where environmental issues are concerned. A key consideration is that current costs associated with environmental problems, such as encapsulating asbestos, are to be accounted for as part of an asset's cost and depreciated over the asset's remaining life. PMID:18990844

  9. Expressed Concerns of Yemeni Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alzubaidi, Abdulgawi; Upton, Graham; Baluch, Bahman

    1998-01-01

    Examines the concerns of adolescents 13 to 17 years old (N=150) in the Republic of Yemen. Results indicate that the major concerns reported were related to vocational and educational future, recreational activities, religious matters, and school curriculum and teaching methods. Also discusses gender differences. (Author/MKA)

  10. Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jane S.

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that U.S. classrooms sometimes provide a forum for distorted views of environmental problems, noting that all those involved in education, from kindergarten through the graduate level, should be concerned about such distortions. Discusses the importance of providing students with accurate information and recommends that people directly…

  11. Community and occupational health concerns in pork production: a review.

    PubMed

    Donham, K J

    2010-04-01

    Public concerns relative to adverse consequences of large-scale livestock production have been increasingly voiced since the late 1960s. Numerous regional, national, and international conferences have been held on the subject since 1994. This paper provides a review of the literature on the community and occupational health concerns of large-scale livestock production with a focus on pork production. The industry has recognized the concerns of the public, and the national and state pork producer groups are including these issues as an important component of their research and policy priorities. One reason large-scale livestock production has raised concern is that a significant component of the industry has separated from traditional family farming and has developed like other industries in management, structure, and concentration. The magnitude of the problem cited by environmental groups has often been criticized by the pork production industry for lack of science-based evidence to document environmental concerns. In addition to general environmental concerns, occupational health of workers has become more relevant because many operations now are employing more than 10 employees, which brings many operations in the United States under the scrutiny of the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration. In this paper, the scientific literature is reviewed relative to the science basis of occupational and environmental impacts on community and worker health. Further, recommendations are made to help promote sustainability of the livestock industry within the context of maintaining good stewardship of our environmental and human capital. PMID:20154166

  12. Consumer perceptions and concerns about food contaminants.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, C M

    1999-01-01

    More consumers are concerned about microbiological hazards than any other area. Pesticide residues generate concern, especially among low income consumers with less formal education. Use of antibiotics and hormones in animal production is considered a serious hazard by fewer consumers. Consumer attitudes are influenced by media coverage. An increasing number of consumers expect food producers and retailers to assume a major role in providing safe food. A majority of consumers express interesting in purchasing irradiated food when specific benefits are described and the percentage increases when irradiation is more fully described. In actual market experiences, irradiated produce and poultry have been well received. Similarly, most consumers are positive toward biotechnology, with greatest support for environmental applications. The scientific community should use the media to reach the public with information identifying risks and protective strategies, including the use of new technology. PMID:10335365

  13. Malignant mixed tumors arising in salivary glands. I. Carcinomas arising in benign mixed tumors: a clinicopathologic study.

    PubMed

    LiVolsi, V A; Perzin, K H

    1977-05-01

    Forty-seven cases of malignant mixed tumor (MMT) arising in major and minor salivary glands are presented. By definition, all these lesions contained both a benign mixed tumor (BMT) as well as a malignant neoplasm, usually a poorly differentiated carcinoma. In some cases, the carcinoma developed in a previously untreated salivary gland mass which was known to have been present for many years, others evolved in a recurrent previously resected BMT and still others originated in a previously undetected BMT. Adverse prognostic factors included: carcinomatous involvement of the resection lines, perineural invasion, metastases in lymph nodes, and origin in a major salivary gland. Lesions arising in the palate had a better prognosis as compared to major salivary gland tumors. Some patients died of locally uncontrollable tumor and others because of metastatic disease. Local recurrences of MMT were seen frequently; 18 patients (38%) had a total of 32 local recurrences. Of patients followed five years or more, seven (35%) had died of tumor, 11 (55%) had no evidence of disease, and two (10%) had died of other causes. Prolonged follow-up is required because recurrences and death from tumor may be seen many years following the diagnosis of MMT. Recommendations for therapy are made. Criteria for differentiating MMT from recurrent BMT and from cylindromatous carcinoma are discussed.

  14. Spontaneous automaticity arising from a successfully ablated Mahaim fiber.

    PubMed

    Strohmer, Bernhard; Schernthaner, Christiana; Hwang, Chun

    2007-11-01

    The authors describe a 22-year-old woman with regular and irregular arrhythmias exhibiting left bundle branch block (LBBB) morphology at various heart rates. An atriofascicular fiber was diagnosed as the underlying mechanism for the antidromic reciprocating tachycardia. In addition, spontaneous automaticity of the Mahaim fiber was present during electrophysiologic study. The accessory pathway was ablated successfully, targeting a Mahaim potential at the supero-anterior tricuspid valve annulus. Relatively slow automatic rhythms with identical LBBB morphology were recorded immediately after ablation, as well as during long-term follow-up in a more sporadic and subclinical form. Abnormal automaticity arising from the distal portions of the remnant pathway was considered to be the origin of the slow ventricular rhythms in this peculiar case.

  15. Cesium vapor thermionic converter anomalies arising from negative ion emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasor, Ned S.

    2016-08-01

    Compelling experimental evidence is given that a longstanding limit encountered on cesium vapor thermionic energy converter performance improvement and other anomalies arise from thermionic emission of cesium negative ions. It is shown that the energy that characterizes thermionic emission of cesium negative ions is 1.38 eV and, understandably, is not the electron affinity 0.47 eV determined for the photodetachment threshold of the cesium negative ion. The experimental evidence includes measurements of collector work functions and volt-ampere characteristics in quasi-vacuum cesium vapor thermionic diodes, along with reinterpretation of the classic Taylor-Langmuir S-curve data on electron emission in cesium vapor. The quantitative effects of negative ion emission on performance in the ignited, unignited, and quasi-vacuum modes of cesium vapor thermionic converter operation are estimated.

  16. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy arising in the temporal bone.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-guo; Zhao, Rui-jiao; Kong, Ling-fei

    2015-04-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy is a rare melanin-containing neoplasm with locally aggressive and rapid expansile growth, usually involving the maxilla, skull, and mandible of early infancy. Radical surgery is critical for a long-term outcome. We present a case of 14-month-old girl with rapid-growing subcutaneous mass arising in the right temporal bone and extending intracranially on computed tomographic scan. Radical surgery was performed. A brownish-black tumor composed of large pigmented epithelioid cells, positive for cytokeratins and HMB-45, and nests of small neuroblast-like cells positive for neuron-specific enolase and synaptophysin, was diagnosed as melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy. The patient remained well without evidence of recurrence for 1 year after surgery. Clinicopathological features, management alternatives and outcome were discussed.

  17. Irregular activity arises as a natural consequence of synaptic inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Terman, D.; Rubin, J. E.; Diekman, C. O.

    2013-12-15

    Irregular neuronal activity is observed in a variety of brain regions and states. This work illustrates a novel mechanism by which irregular activity naturally emerges in two-cell neuronal networks featuring coupling by synaptic inhibition. We introduce a one-dimensional map that captures the irregular activity occurring in our simulations of conductance-based differential equations and mathematically analyze the instability of fixed points corresponding to synchronous and antiphase spiking for this map. We find that the irregular solutions that arise exhibit expansion, contraction, and folding in phase space, as expected in chaotic dynamics. Our analysis shows that these features are produced from the interplay of synaptic inhibition with sodium, potassium, and leak currents in a conductance-based framework and provides precise conditions on parameters that ensure that irregular activity will occur. In particular, the temporal details of spiking dynamics must be present for a model to exhibit this irregularity mechanism and must be considered analytically to capture these effects.

  18. Lymphatic vessels arise from specialized angioblasts within a venous niche.

    PubMed

    Nicenboim, J; Malkinson, G; Lupo, T; Asaf, L; Sela, Y; Mayseless, O; Gibbs-Bar, L; Senderovich, N; Hashimshony, T; Shin, M; Jerafi-Vider, A; Avraham-Davidi, I; Krupalnik, V; Hofi, R; Almog, G; Astin, J W; Golani, O; Ben-Dor, S; Crosier, P S; Herzog, W; Lawson, N D; Hanna, J H; Yanai, I; Yaniv, K

    2015-06-01

    How cells acquire their fate is a fundamental question in developmental and regenerative biology. Multipotent progenitors undergo cell-fate restriction in response to cues from the microenvironment, the nature of which is poorly understood. In the case of the lymphatic system, venous cells from the cardinal vein are thought to generate lymphatic vessels through trans-differentiation. Here we show that in zebrafish, lymphatic progenitors arise from a previously uncharacterized niche of specialized angioblasts within the cardinal vein, which also generates arterial and venous fates. We further identify Wnt5b as a novel lymphatic inductive signal and show that it also promotes the ‘angioblast-to-lymphatic’ transition in human embryonic stem cells, suggesting that this process is evolutionarily conserved. Our results uncover a novel mechanism of lymphatic specification, and provide the first characterization of the lymphatic inductive niche. More broadly, our findings highlight the cardinal vein as a heterogeneous structure, analogous to the haematopoietic niche in the aortic floor.

  19. Transversely isotropic poroelasticity arising from thin isotropic layers

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J.G.

    1996-11-01

    Percolation phenomena play central roles in the field of poroelasticity, where two distinct sets of percolating continua intertwine. A connected solid frame forms the basis of the elastic behavior of a poroelastic medium in the presence of confining forces, while connected pores permit a percolating fluid (if present) to influence the mechanical response of the system from within. The present paper discusses isotropic and anisotropic poroelastic media and establishes general formulas for the behavior of transversely isotropic poroelasticity arising from laminations of isotropic components. The Backus averaging method is shown to provide elementary means of constructing general formulas. The results for confined fluids are then compared with the more general Gassmann formulas that must be satisfied by any anisotropic poroelastic medium and found to be in complete agreement.

  20. Syringocystadenoma Papilliferum of the Scalp Arising from a Nevus Sebaceous

    PubMed Central

    Chandramouli, Mathangi; Sarma, Digvijay; Tejaswy, Kapil; Rodrigues, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP) is a rare, benign tumour with varied presentations that arises from the apocrine glands and at times can lead to a diagnostic dilemma. A 53-year-old male presented with a 40-year history of a scalp nodule and a recent 2-year change in its character, and a sanguinopurulent discharge. Examination revealed a 4 cm × 2 cm firm nodule upon left side of the scalp vertex, actively discharging pus and blood. No regional lymph nodes were noticeably palpable. Incision biopsy performed elsewhere showed evidence of a squamous cell carcinoma-in-situ. He underwent a wide local excision with a bilobed flap reconstruction. Histopathologically, the lesion was reported to be SCAP. On follow-up, the patient has since remained asymptomatic with an acceptable cosmetic recovery.

  1. Squamous carcinoma arising in a parotid Warthin's tumour.

    PubMed

    Allevi, Fabiana; Biglioli, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Warthin's tumour is the second most common benign neoplasm to affect the salivary glands. It virtually affects the sole parotid gland. A sudden increase in a tumour's size is usually due to a malignant transformation of the tumour. The transformation of the lymphoid stroma into malignant lymphoma is relatively common, while an epithelial malignancy is extremely rare. In this paper, the authors present a case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in Warthin's tumour. The patient underwent enucleoresection of the tumour. Intraoperative frozen section revealed the presence of a cystic component associated with the squamous cell carcinoma areas. In consideration of the result of the intraoperative consultation, the surgeons decided to enlarge the previous resection by removal of a 30×25 mm cuff from the surrounding parotid tissue. Close follow-up was carried out and 12 months after surgery there was no evidence of recurrence or metastatic neoplasm.

  2. Lymphadenoma arising in the parotid gland: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ghee Young; Kim, Eo-Jin; Go, Jai Hyang

    2002-08-01

    We report a case of lymphadenoma arising in the parotid gland. A 53-year-old female patient presented with a mass in the parotid gland. Grossly, it was a well-demarcated solid mass measuring 3 cm in diameter. Microscopic examination revealed many cysts or duct-like structures in the background of the prominent lymphoid stroma, confirming a diagnosis of lymphadenoma. This particular case was thought to have arisen from an intraparotid lymph node. Lymphadenoma is a rare benign neoplasm of the salivary gland with partial resemblance to other salivary gland tumors, such as Warthin's tumor, cystadenoma, sebaceous lymphadenoma or mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Therefore proper recognition of this rare entity is warranted to avoid confusion in the diagnosis.

  3. Estimation of uncertainty arising from different soil sampling devices: the use of variogram parameters.

    PubMed

    de Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Barbina, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Menegon, Sandro; Pati, Alessandra; Petruzzelli, Giannantonio; Sansone, Umberto; Van der Perk, Marcel

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy (APAT), uncertainties due to field soil sampling were assessed. Three different sampling devices were applied in an agricultural area using the same sampling protocol. Cr, Sc and Zn mass fractions in the collected soil samples were measured by k(0)-instrumental neutron activation analysis (k(0)-INAA). For each element-device combination the experimental variograms were calculated using geostatistical tools. The variogram parameters were used to estimate the standard uncertainty arising from sampling. The sampling component represents the dominant contribution of the measurement uncertainty with a sampling uncertainty to measurement uncertainty ratio ranging between 0.6 and 0.9. The approach based on the use of variogram parameters leads to uncertainty values of the sampling component in agreement with those estimated by replicate sampling approach.

  4. Environmental evaluation formats for citizen participation

    SciTech Connect

    Stapleton, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    A numerical format is developed to help citizens express, evaluate, and tradeoff perceived impacts arising from community actions that affect the environment. This format does not supply answers to decision problems, but is a tool to explore one's own values and evaluatory process, as well as the values and process of others. Part I is introductory. Part II provides historical background. Part III reviews existing methodologies for expressing environmental values. Part IV introduces the new evaluation formats. Part V is a workbook for using these formats, and Part VI evaluates the usefulness of the format in workshops and classrooms. Part II introduces 6 issues to be met by any effective environmental assessment format. These issues are used as criteria in Part III to assess current evaluation methods and as guides for constructing the new format elements in Part IV. The new method addresses these concerns either explicitly or implicitly by allowing the evaluator a free hand in identifying his/her concerns and by leading the evaluator to choose among arenas of concern. The method attempts to solve the traditional assessment problem of synthesizing (for the sake of a final decision) evaluations of impacts of different kinds, such as aesthetic and economic impacts.

  5. Network Structures Arising from Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babadi, Baktash

    Spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP), a widespread synaptic modification mechanism, is sensitive to correlations between presynaptic spike trains, and organizes neural circuits in functionally useful ways. In this dissertation, I study the structures arising from STDP in a population of synapses with an emphasis on the interplay between synaptic stability and Hebbian competition, explained in Chapter 1. Starting from the simplest description of STDP which relates synaptic modification to the intervals between pairs of pre- and postsynaptic spikes, I show in Chapter 2 that stability and Hebbian competition are incompatible in this class of "pair-based" STDP models, either when hard bounds or soft bounds are imposed to the synapses. In chapter 3, I propose an alternative biophysically inspired method for imposing bounds to synapses, i.e. introducing a small temporal shift in the STDP window. Shifted STDP overcomes the incompatibility of synaptic stability and competition and can implement both Hebbian and anti-Hebbian forms of competitive plasticity. In light of experiments the explored a variety of spike patterns, STDP models have been augmented to account for interactions between multiple pre- and postsynaptic action potentials. In chapter 4, I study the stability/competition interplay in three different proposed multi-spike models of STDP. I show that the "triplet model" leads to a partially steady-state distribution of synaptic weights and induces Hebbian competition. The "suppression model" develops a stable distribution of weights when the average weight is high and shows predominantly anti-Hebbian competition. The "NMDAR-based" model can lead to either stable or partially stable synaptic weight distribution and exhibits both Hebbian and anti-Hebbian competition, depending on the parameters. I conclude that multi-spike STDP models can produce radically different effects at the population level depending on how they implement multi-spike interactions

  6. Differential diagnosis of BPOP arising in relation to patella

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Jitendra Nath; Kar, Maitreyee; Hazra, Sunit; Basu, Anindya

    2015-01-01

    bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation’. There is no recurrence in five years of follow up. Conclusion: When exostosis like lesions arise from unusual site and at an unusual age group, other rare conditions need to be investigated. Though the final diagnosis of BPOP is obtained after careful histo-pathological examination, the clinico-radiological findings are also relevant. As literature search indicates, this is possibly second incidence where BPOP arised from sesamoid bone and first from patella. PMID:27299085

  7. The impact of alternate weekly collections on waste arisings.

    PubMed

    Williams, I D; Cole, C

    2013-02-15

    Residual waste is commonly collected separately from recyclable and organic materials. Different forms of collection and disposal are used internationally since regional or municipal authorities have to adapt to their own circumstances. Many authorities have adopted an alternate weekly collection (AWC) of residual waste and recyclables to force/encourage householders to recycle; however, the degree to which they achieve waste reduction has yet to be reliably quantified. This study reports on how the introduction of AWCs affects household waste arisings. The paper evaluates single and dual stream collection methods and compares their performance with the previous system. Household waste collection trials were conducted between March and June 2009 in England (Lichfield). The trials examined changes to frequency of collection, type of container issued, amounts of sorting required of residents, household participation and productivity levels. A survey of households was completed before any changes were implemented. The quantity of recyclates collected was examined for 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. The study showed that the AWC scheme positively impacted on recycling rates and household behaviour, with no adverse impacts on public participation, household waste arisings or the local environment. No public health problems were reported. Both trials saw an increase in the quantities of recyclates collected per household during the trial period compared to the same period of time in the previous year. The dual stream performed better than the single stream, collecting an average of 5.94 kg/hh/week compared to an average of 5.63 kg/hh/week. The single stream system showed a greater increase in the weight of material collected (0.53 kg/hh/week vs. 0.48 kg/hh/week). Participation and set-out rates showed an increase during the trial period. The single stream option (comingled materials in one container) outperformed the dual stream service. The reduction in costs and improved

  8. Mycobacterium fortuitum infection arising in a new tattoo.

    PubMed

    Philips, Rebecca C; Hunter-Ellul, Lindsey A; Martin, Julie E; Wilkerson, Michael G

    2014-06-01

    We report an uncommon case of a cutaneous infection with Mycobacterium fortuitum arising in a new tattoo. A 29-year-old man presented with a several month history of a non-pruritic papular eruption within a tattoo; the papules developed 1-to-2 weeks after the tattoo procedure. He denied similar symptoms with previous tattoos. He had been treated unsuccessfully with cephalexin. Histopathologic examination revealed perifollicular chronic and granulomatous inflammation, consistent with chronic folliculitis. Acid-fast bacilli culture identified Mycobacterium fortuitum complex. The patient was treated with a 2-month course of oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (160mg/800mg twice daily) and ciprofloxacin (250 mg twice daily), with clinical improvement at follow up after three weeks of the antibiotic regimen. Rapidly growing mycobacteria have emerged as a cause of tattoo-associated cutaneous infection in recent years. Diagnosis and treatment can be difficult without clinical suspicion. M. fortuitum and other rapidly growing mycobacteria should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tattoo-associated dermatologic complications. PMID:24945647

  9. Contribution to irradiation creep arising from gas-driven bubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, C.H.; Garner, F.A.

    1998-03-01

    In a previous paper the relationship was defined between void swelling and irradiation creep arising from the interaction of the SIPA and SIG creep-driven deformation and swelling-driven deformation was highly interactive in nature, and that the two contributions could not be independently calculated and then considered as directly additive. This model could be used to explain the recent experimental observation that the creep-swelling coupling coefficient was not a constant as previously assumed, but declined continuously as the swelling rate increased. Such a model thereby explained the creep-disappearance and creep-damping anomalies observed in conditions where significant void swelling occurred before substantial creep deformation developed. At lower irradiation temperatures and high helium/hydrogen generation rates, such as found in light water cooled reactors and some fusion concepts, gas-filled cavities that have not yet exceeded the critical radius for bubble-void conversion should also exert an influence on irradiation creep. In this paper the original concept is adapted to include such conditions, and its predictions then compared with available data. It is shown that a measurable increase in the creep rate is expected compared to the rate found in low gas-generating environments. The creep rate is directly related to the gas generation rate and thereby to the neutron flux and spectrum.

  10. Giant solitary fibrous tumor arising from greater omentum.

    PubMed

    Zong, Liang; Chen, Ping; Wang, Guang-Yao; Zhu, Qun-Shan

    2012-11-28

    Extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) have been described at almost every anatomic location of human body, but reports of SFT in the abdominal cavity are rare. We herein present a rare case of SFT originating from greater omentum. Computed tomography revealed a 15.8 cm × 21.0 cm solid mass located at superior aspect of stomach. Open laparotomy confirmed its mesenchymal origin. Microscopically, its tissue was composed of non-organized and spindle-shaped cells exhibiting atypical nuclei, which were divided up by branching vessel and collagen bundles. Immunohistochemical staining showed that this tumor was negative for CD117, CD99, CD68, cytokeratin, calretinin, desmin, epithelial membrane antigen, F8 and S-100, but positive for CD34, bcl-2, α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin. The patient presented no evidence of recurrence during follow-up. SFT arising from abdominal cavity can be diagnosed by histological findings and immunohistochemical markers, especially for CD34 and bcl-2 positive cases.

  11. Solitary fibrous tumor with malignant potential arising in sublingual gland.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Ikuko; Sato, Sunao; Kudo, Yasusei; Miyauchi, Mutsumi; Sugiyama, Masaru; Suei, Yoshikazu; Takata, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    A rare case is described of a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) with malignant potential arising in the sublingual gland. A 59-year-old man presented with a 4-month history of a slowly enlarging painless mass in the center of the floor of the mouth. The tumor was a well-demarcated, firm mass with a multicystic lesion. The tumor exhibited highly cellular areas of spindle cells with patternless architecture alternating with hypocellular areas. The tumor cells were positive for CD34 and bcl-2 as well as vimentin, and negative for epithelial, myogenic, neurogenic and histiocytic markers. The tumor cells formed multiple satellite nodules around dilated ducts in the multicystic lesion, indicating infiltrative growth. In addition, areas exhibiting higher cellularity with increased mitoses were noticed in the satellite nodules, although cellular atypia was not obvious. These findings led to a final diagnosis of SFT with malignant potential. There has been no recurrence or metastasis for 27 months after the surgery. Solitary fibrous tumor of the salivary gland must be differentiated from various spindle cell neoplasms including myogenic, peripheral nerve sheath, fibroblastic and fibro-histiocytic spindle cell neoplasms, hemangiopericytoma and myoepithelioma. In addition to characteristic morphological features, an immunohistochemical positivity for CD34 and bcl-2 may aid in the diagnosis of SFT.

  12. Solitary fibrous tumors arising in abdominal wall hernia sacs.

    PubMed

    Lee, J R; Hancock, S M; Martindale, R G

    2001-06-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the peritoneum is an unusual spindle-cell neoplasm. SFT was originally described in the pleura; however it is now diagnosed in multiple extrathoracic sites. Most believe that the tumor is of mesenchymal origin and should be classified as a variant of fibroma. SFT of the pleura and peritoneum have also been called fibrous mesothelioma, and the cell of origin is felt to be a pluripotential submesothelial mesenchymal cell. Primary tumors arising in hernia sacs are rare, and we report on two patients with hernia SFT. The first is a 67-year-old man who had a diffusely thickened distal left inguinal hernia sac. Within the sac was copious myxoid material mimicking pseudomyxoma peritonei. Herniorrhaphy and orchiectomy were performed. The second is a 44-year-old woman with a midepigastric mass attached to a ventral hernia. Wide local excision was performed. Both tumors demonstrated plump spindle cells, one with myxoid background and the other with keloidal collagen. Calretinin immunostaining was positive in both tumors, whereas CD34 was negative. This suggests tumor origin from a submesothial pluripotential cell that maintains potential for mesothelial differentiation. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice with the degree of resectability being a powerful predictor of outcome.

  13. Proprioceptive recalibration arises slowly compared to reach adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zbib, Basel; Henriques, Denise Y P; Cressman, Erin K

    2016-08-01

    When subjects reach in a novel visuomotor environment (e.g. while viewing a cursor representing their hand that is rotated from their hand's actual position), they typically adjust their movements (i.e. bring the cursor to the target), thus reducing reaching errors. Additionally, research has shown that reaching with altered visual feedback of the hand results in sensory changes, such that proprioceptive estimates of hand position are shifted in the direction of the visual feedback experienced (Cressman and Henriques in J Neurophysiol 102:3505-3518, 2009). This study looked to establish the time course of these sensory changes. Additionally, the time courses of implicit sensory and motor changes were compared. Subjects reached to a single visual target while seeing a cursor that was either aligned with their hand position (50 trials) or rotated 30° clockwise relative to their hand (150 trials). Reach errors and proprioceptive estimates of felt hand position were assessed following the aligned reach training trials and at seven different times during the rotated reach training trials by having subjects reach to the target without visual feedback, and provide estimates of their hand relative to a visual reference marker, respectively. Results revealed a shift in proprioceptive estimates throughout the rotated reach training trials; however, significant sensory changes were not observed until after 70 trials. In contrast, results showed a greater change in reaches after a limited number of reach training trials with the rotated cursor. These findings suggest that proprioceptive recalibration arises more slowly than reach adaptation.

  14. Sparse Gamma Rhythms Arising through Clustering in Adapting Neuronal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P.; Ermentrout, Bard

    2011-01-01

    Gamma rhythms (30–100 Hz) are an extensively studied synchronous brain state responsible for a number of sensory, memory, and motor processes. Experimental evidence suggests that fast-spiking interneurons are responsible for carrying the high frequency components of the rhythm, while regular-spiking pyramidal neurons fire sparsely. We propose that a combination of spike frequency adaptation and global inhibition may be responsible for this behavior. Excitatory neurons form several clusters that fire every few cycles of the fast oscillation. This is first shown in a detailed biophysical network model and then analyzed thoroughly in an idealized model. We exploit the fact that the timescale of adaptation is much slower than that of the other variables. Singular perturbation theory is used to derive an approximate periodic solution for a single spiking unit. This is then used to predict the relationship between the number of clusters arising spontaneously in the network as it relates to the adaptation time constant. We compare this to a complementary analysis that employs a weak coupling assumption to predict the first Fourier mode to destabilize from the incoherent state of an associated phase model as the external noise is reduced. Both approaches predict the same scaling of cluster number with respect to the adaptation time constant, which is corroborated in numerical simulations of the full system. Thus, we develop several testable predictions regarding the formation and characteristics of gamma rhythms with sparsely firing excitatory neurons. PMID:22125486

  15. Can CP violation arise solely from the gauge sector

    SciTech Connect

    London, D. )

    1992-05-01

    I consider the possibility that the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix is real, and that {vert bar}{epsilon}{vert bar}, the {ital CP}-violating parameter in the kaon system, is due indirectly to the existence of anomalous three-gauge-boson couplings which violate {ital CP}. Through these anomalous couplings, {ital CP}-violating interaictions of the {ital W} and quarks can be generated at one loop. The imaginary part of the {ital K}{sup 0-}{ital K{bar 0}} mixing box diagram is calculated using these effective {ital CP}-violating {ital W}-quark couplings. (This is a subset of all two-loop contributions to {vert bar}{epsilon}{vert bar}.) It is found that the values of the anomalous three-gauge-boson couplings required to reproduce the measured value of {vert bar}{epsilon}{vert bar} exceed their unitarity bounds. Thus, this scheme fails, offering compelling evidence that {ital CP} violation cannot arise solely from the gauge sector.

  16. Sound radiation quantities arising from a resilient circular radiator.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Ronald M; Janssen, Augustus J E M

    2009-10-01

    Power series expansions in ka are derived for the pressure at the edge of a radiator, the reaction force on the radiator, and the total radiated power arising from a harmonically excited, resilient, flat, circular radiator of radius a in an infinite baffle. The velocity profiles on the radiator are either Stenzel functions (1-(sigma/a)2)n, with sigma the radial coordinate on the radiator, or linear combinations of Zernike functions Pn(2(sigma/a)2-1), with Pn the Legendre polynomial of degree n. Both sets of functions give rise, via King's integral for the pressure, to integrals for the quantities of interest involving the product of two Bessel functions. These integrals have a power series expansion and allow an expression in terms of Bessel functions of the first kind and Struve functions. Consequently, many of the results in [M. Greenspan, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 65, 608-621 (1979)] are generalized and treated in a unified manner. A foreseen application is for loudspeakers. The relation between the radiated power in the near-field on one hand and in the far field on the other is highlighted.

  17. Primary seminoma arising in the middle mediastinum: A case report

    PubMed Central

    XU, JING; ZHAO, JINGLAN; GENG, SHAOQING; WANG, QI; WANG, PENGFEI; ZHANG, CHUNLING; ZHU, XIONGZENG; JI, YOUXIN

    2016-01-01

    Primary mediastinal seminoma often occurs in the anterior mediastinum of young males. It is unusual for the tumor to originate in the middle or posterior mediastinum, and such cases have rarely been reported in the English literature. The present study reports the case of a 52-year-old man with a 3.0-cm primary seminoma arising in the middle mediastinum. The patient presented with the symptoms of cough and chest tightness. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) scans revealed unique abnormal FDG uptake in the middle mediastinum. A mediastinoscopy was performed and integral excision was found to be difficult. A biopsy was performed and the histological examination revealed a primary seminoma. Following 4 cycles of a standard bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy regimen, and chest irradiation at a total dose of 40 Gy in 20 fractions, the tumor exhibited a partial response, decreasing in size, and FDG uptake was no longer observed on 18F-FDG-PET scan. The last follow-up date was April 2016 and the patient has remained disease-free for 20 months. PMID:27347149

  18. Clear cell carcinoma arising from a uterus-like mass.

    PubMed

    Nakakita, Baku; Abiko, Kaoru; Mikami, Yoshiki; Kido, Aki; Baba, Tsukasa; Yoshioka, Yumiko; Yamaguchi, Ken; Matsumura, Noriomi; Konishi, Ikuo

    2014-11-01

    A uterus-like mass is an extrauterine mass with a cavity lined by endometrial tissue and a smooth muscle layer resembling the uterine corpus. It is a rare condition of unknown histogenesis. Herein, we describe a case of clear cell carcinoma arising from a uterus-like mass located in the retroperitoneal space. The patient, a 67-year old nulliparous woman, had been followed with the diagnosis of an ovarian endometriotic cyst for 14 years until ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated an enlargement of the cystic mass with a thickened irregular wall. Suspicion of malignant transformation prompted us to excise the lesion. At laparotomy, the uterus and right ovary appeared normal, and a mass measuring 8 cm was identified in the retroperitoneal space without any connection to the uterus. Grossly, the removed mass was composed of a cyst filled with blackish-brownish fluid and a thick wall resembling uterine myometrium. Microscopically, endometrial tissue inside the cyst, which was diffusely lined by clear cell carcinoma, was identified. Although the histogenesis of a uterus-like mass remains unclear, this case indicates that malignant tumors may occur from a uterus-like mass through the pathway similar to the carcinogenesis of endometriosis-related ovarian neoplasms.

  19. The complex spectrum of forensic issues arising from obesity.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W

    2012-12-01

    The increasing numbers of obese and morbidly obese individuals in the community are having a direct effect on forensic facilities. In addition to having to install more robust equipment for handling large bodies, the quality of autopsy examinations may be reduced by the physical difficulties that arise in trying to position bodies correctly so that normal examinations can proceed. Accelerated putrefaction is often an added complication. Metabolic disturbances resulting from obesity increase susceptibility to a range of conditions that are associated with sudden and unexpected death, and surgery may have increased complications. The rates of a number of different malignancies, including lymphoma, leukemia, melanoma and multiple myeloma, and carcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, colon, gallbladder, thyroid, prostate, breast and endometrium, are increased. In addition, obese individuals have higher rates of diabetes mellitus, and sepsis. The unexpected collapse of an obese individual should raise the possibility of a wide range of conditions, many of which may be more difficult to demonstrate at autopsy than in an individual with a normal body mass index. Although sudden cardiac death due to cardiomegaly, pulmonary thromboembolism, or ischemic heart disease may be the most probable diagnosis in an unexpected collapse, the range of possible underlying conditions is extensive and often only determinable after full postmortem examination.

  20. On Bounded Posets Arising from Quantum Mechanical Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorninger, Dietmar; Länger, Helmut

    2016-10-01

    Let S be a set of states of a physical system. The probabilities p( s) of the occurrence of an event when the system is in different states s ∈ S define a function from S to [0, 1] called a numerical event or, more precisely, an S- probability. If one orders a set P of S-probabilities in respect to the order of functions, further includes the constant functions 0 and 1 and defines p' = 1 - p for every p ∈ P, then one obtains a bounded poset of S-probabilities with an antitone involution. We study these posets in respect to various conditions about the existence of the sum of certain functions within the posets and derive properties from these conditions. In particular, questions of relations between different classes of S-probabilities arising this way are settled, algebraic representations are provided and the property that two S-probabilities commute is characterized which is essential for recognizing a classical physical system.

  1. Exposures to asbestos arising from bandsawing gasket material.

    PubMed

    Fowler, D P

    2000-05-01

    A simulation of bandsawing sheet asbestos gasket material was performed as part of a retrospective exposure evaluation undertaken to assist in determining causation of a case of mesothelioma. The work was performed by bandsawing a chrysotile asbestos (80%)/neoprene gasket sheet with a conventional 16-inch woodworking bandsaw inside a chamber. Measurements of airborne asbestos were made using conventional area and personal sampling methods, with analysis of collected samples by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and phase contrast microscopy (PCM). These were supplemented by qualitative scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations of some of the airborne particles collected on the filters. In contrast with findings from studies examining manual handling (installation and removal) of gaskets, airborne asbestos concentrations from this operation were found to be well above current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) (eight-hour time-weighted average [TWA]) and excursion limit (30-minute) standards. Although some "encapsulation" effect of the neoprene matrix was seen on the particles in the airborne dust, unencapsulated individual fiber bundles were also seen. Suggestions for the implications of the work are given. In summary, the airborne asbestos concentrations arising from this work were quite high, and point to the need for careful observation of common sense precautions when manipulation of asbestos-containing materials (even those believed to have limited emissions potential) may involved machining operations.

  2. Risk analysis for renewable energy projects due to constraints arising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prostean, G.; Vasar, C.; Prostean, O.; Vartosu, A.

    2016-02-01

    Starting from the target of the European Union (EU) to use renewable energy in the area that aims a binding target of 20% renewable energy in final energy consumption by 2020, this article illustrates the identification of risks for implementation of wind energy projects in Romania, which could lead to complex technical implications, social and administrative. In specific projects analyzed in this paper were identified critical bottlenecks in the future wind power supply chain and reasonable time periods that may arise. Renewable energy technologies have to face a number of constraints that delayed scaling-up their production process, their transport process, the equipment reliability, etc. so implementing these types of projects requiring complex specialized team, the coordination of which also involve specific risks. The research team applied an analytical risk approach to identify major risks encountered within a wind farm project developed in Romania in isolated regions with different particularities, configured for different geographical areas (hill and mountain locations in Romania). Identification of major risks was based on the conceptual model set up for the entire project implementation process. Throughout this conceptual model there were identified specific constraints of such process. Integration risks were examined by an empirical study based on the method HAZOP (Hazard and Operability). The discussion describes the analysis of our results implementation context of renewable energy projects in Romania and creates a framework for assessing energy supply to any entity from renewable sources.

  3. Novel ethical dilemmas arising in geriatric clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Calleja-Sordo, Elisa Constanza; de Hoyos, Adalberto; Méndez-Jiménez, Jorge; Altamirano-Bustamante, Nelly F; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Valderrama, Alejandro; García-Peña, Carmen; Altamirano-Bustamante, Myriam M

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine empirically the state of the art of the medical care, when healthcare personal is confronted with ethical dilemmas related with the care they give to the geriatric population. An observational, longitudinal, prospective and qualitative study was conducted by analyzing the correlation between healthcare personnel-patient relationship, and ethical judgments regarding dilemmas that arise in daily clinical practice with geriatric patients. Mexican healthcare personnel with current active practices were asked to write up an ethical dilemma that arose frequently or that had impacted their medical practice. From the narrative input, we were able to draw up a database with 421 dilemmas, and those corresponding to patients 60 years and older were selected (n = 54, 12.8 %). The axiological analysis of the narrative dilemmas of geriatric patients was made using dialectical empiricism. The axiological analysis values found most frequently were classified into three groups: the impact of healthcare, the roles of the physician, and refusal of therapy; the healthcare role of educator, caring for the patients' life and the risk of imminent death where the values found more often. The persistence and universality of certain dilemmas in geriatrics calls for awareness and requires a good training in the ethical discernment of these dilemmas. This would help to improve substantially the care and the life quality of this population. PMID:25185872

  4. Myoepithelioma arising from the buccal gland: histopathological and immunohistochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, R; Kuyama, K; Utsunomiya, T; Morikawa, M; Fukumoto, M; Yamamoto, H

    2000-03-01

    A rare case of myoepithelioma of the buccal gland in a 54-year-old Japanese woman is reported. As the swelling exhibited a normal mucosal color and was relatively well defined, showing no ulcers, a benign salivary gland tumor was suspected upon clinical inspection. Microscopically, the parenchyma of the present case mainly consisted of plasmacytoid cells with round nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasm, and partial spindle cells with eccentric nuclei. The stroma was composed of fibro-hyalinized or myxoid connective tissue that separated from the parenchyma. Immunohistochemically, the cytoplasm of the plasmacytoid and spindle cells was moderately positive for vimentin and GFAP, whereas the buccal gland adjacent to the tumor was negative for these antibodies. S-100 protein reactivity is strong for both types tumor cells. Actin reactivity was negative for both types of tumor cells, notwithstanding the fact that myoepithelial cells of the buccal gland were positively stained. Anti-cytokeratin reactivity was weak for both types of tumor cells in portions of the plexiform and solid areas; nevertheless, the buccal glands were moderately positive. These results suggest that neoplasmic myoepithelial cells exhibit abnormal differentiation and modification. There have been only two published reports of myoepithelioma arising from the buccal gland in the literature to date.

  5. Prevalence, Knowledge, and Concern About Bed Bugs.

    PubMed

    Kaylor, Mary Beth; Wenning, Paul; Eddy, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the resurgence of bed bugs in the U.S. has occurred at an alarming rate. Assumptions have been made that socioeconomic status is not associated with the prevalence of bed bug infestations. Little information is available at the local level, however, about the prevalence of bed bugs in private homes. The authors' pilot study aimed to identify prevalence, knowledge, and concern about bed bugs in one higher income village in Ohio utilizing survey methodology. Responses from 96 individuals who completed the Prevalence, Knowledge, and Concern About Bed Bugs survey were utilized for analysis. The majority of the sample respondents were white and 95% reported that they owned their residence. Only 6% knew someone with bed bugs. Additionally, 52% reported they were somewhat concerned about bed bugs. About 46% reported that they had changed their behavior. For a higher income area, the prevalence was dissimilar to the rate reported in the general public (about 20%). This suggests that bed bugs may be an environmental issue effecting low-income populations disproportionately. Further research is needed in areas of differing socioeconomic levels. PMID:26427264

  6. Expressed concerns of Yemeni adolescents.

    PubMed

    Alzubaidi, A; Upton, G; Baluch, B

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the concerns of adolescents in the Republic of Yemen. A short version of the Mooney Problem Check List was administered to 150 13- to 17-year-old males and females. Results indicated that the major concerns and problems reported by Yemeni adolescents were related to their vocational and educational future, recreational activities, religious matters, and school curriculum and teaching methods. Problems related to social life, family, and health and physical issues were less prominent. Results also showed that though there were similarities in the number of concerns expressed by males and females, males reported more difficulties with their vocational and educational future, marriage and sexual matters, and finances and employment, while females reported more problems with recreational activities, personal relationships, and health. PMID:9583671

  7. Direct liquid-feed fuel cells: Thermodynamic and environmental concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirci, Umit B.

    The present paper briefly reviews the different direct liquid-feed fuel cells that have been regarded through the open literature. It especially focuses on thermodynamic-energetic data and toxicological-ecological hazards of the chemicals used as liquid fuels. The analysis of those two databases shows that borohydride, ethanol and 2-propanol would be the most adequate liquid fuels for the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell-type systems, even if they are inferior to hydrogen. All the fuels and also all the by-products stem from their decomposition are more or less harmful towards health and environment. More particularly, hydrazine should be avoided because it and its by-product are very dangerous. It is to note that the present paper does not intend to review and to compare the performances of those fuel cells because of great differences in the efforts devoted to each of them.

  8. Study of natural radioactivity in Mansehra granite, Pakistan: environmental concerns.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Aziz Ahmed; Jadoon, Ishtiaq Ahmed Khan; Wajid, Ali Abbas; Attique, Ahsan; Masood, Adil; Anees, Muhammad; Manzoor, Shahid; Waheed, Abdul; Tubassam, Aneela

    2014-03-01

    A part of Mansehra Granite was selected for the assessment of radiological hazards. The average activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were found to be 27.32, 50.07 and 953.10 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These values are in the median range when compared with the granites around the world. Radiological hazard indices and annual effective doses were estimated. All of these indices were found to be within the criterion limits except outdoor external dose (82.38 nGy h(-1)) and indoor external dose (156.04 nGy h(-1)), which are higher than the world's average background levels of 51 and 55 nGy h(-1), respectively. These values correspond to an average annual effective dose of 0.867 mSv y(-1), which is less than the criterion limit of 1 mSv y(-1) (ICRP-103). Some localities in the Mansehra city have annual effective dose higher than the limit of 1 mSv y(-1). Overall, the Mansehra Granite does not pose any significant radiological health hazard in the outdoor or indoor. PMID:24185916

  9. Assessing Caffeine as an Emerging Environmental Concern Using Conventional Approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic wastewater contaminants, including pharmaceuticals, caffeine, and nicotine, have received increased scrutiny because of their detection in water bodies receiving wastewater discharge. Despite recent measurement in US streams, caffeine’s effect on freshwater organisms is not well documented....

  10. Outdoor Recreation Participation and Environmental Concern: A Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berns, Gretchen Newhouse; Simpson, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Many experiential educators assume that participation in outdoor recreation creates an awareness and commitment to the environment through direct experience. This research summary looks to whether the research supports such an assumption. Specifically it reviews the key literature on this topic, examines the various classifications of outdoor…

  11. Status and future concerns of clinical and environmental aluminum toxicology.

    PubMed

    Flaten, T P; Alfrey, A C; Birchall, J D; Savory, J; Yokel, R A

    1996-08-30

    A wide range of toxic effects of aluminum (Al) have been demonstrated in plants and aquatic animals in nature, in experimental animals by several routes of exposure, and under different clinical conditions in humans. Aluminum toxicity is a major problem in agriculture, affecting perhaps as much as 40% of arable soils in the world. In fresh waters acidified by acid rain, Al toxicity has led to fish extinction. Aluminum is a very potent neurotoxicant. In humans with chronic renal failure on dialysis, Al causes encephalopathy, osteomalacia, and anemia. There are also reports of such effects in certain patient groups without renal failure. Subtle neurocognitive and psychomotor effects and electroencephalograph (EEG) abnormalities have been reported at plasma Al levels as low as 50 micrograms/L. Infants could be particularly susceptible to Al accumulation and toxicity, reduced renal function being one contributory cause. Recent reports clearly show that Al accumulation occurs in the tissues of workers with long-term occupational exposure to Al dusts or fumes, and also indicate that such exposure may cause subtle neurological effects. Increased efforts should be directed toward defining the full range of potentially harmful effects in humans. To this end, multidisciplinary collaborative research efforts are encouraged, involving scientists from many different specialties. Emphasis should be placed on increasing our understanding of the chemistry of Al in biological systems, and on determining the cellular and molecular mechanisms of Al toxicity.

  12. Study of natural radioactivity in Mansehra granite, Pakistan: environmental concerns.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Aziz Ahmed; Jadoon, Ishtiaq Ahmed Khan; Wajid, Ali Abbas; Attique, Ahsan; Masood, Adil; Anees, Muhammad; Manzoor, Shahid; Waheed, Abdul; Tubassam, Aneela

    2014-03-01

    A part of Mansehra Granite was selected for the assessment of radiological hazards. The average activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were found to be 27.32, 50.07 and 953.10 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These values are in the median range when compared with the granites around the world. Radiological hazard indices and annual effective doses were estimated. All of these indices were found to be within the criterion limits except outdoor external dose (82.38 nGy h(-1)) and indoor external dose (156.04 nGy h(-1)), which are higher than the world's average background levels of 51 and 55 nGy h(-1), respectively. These values correspond to an average annual effective dose of 0.867 mSv y(-1), which is less than the criterion limit of 1 mSv y(-1) (ICRP-103). Some localities in the Mansehra city have annual effective dose higher than the limit of 1 mSv y(-1). Overall, the Mansehra Granite does not pose any significant radiological health hazard in the outdoor or indoor.

  13. Canadian Environmental Concerns: Winnipeg, Manitoba. Progress Report. Project Canada West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Curriculum Project on Canada Studies, Edmonton (Alberta).

    Part I of this progress report places emphasis on curriculum development from the standpoint of the teacher-developer. The role is defined and factors such as teacher selection, release time, administrative cooperation, work schedules, assigned work space, and benefits to the school division and to the teacher are discussed. Recommendations deal…

  14. Aspects concerning the quality of aeration for environmental friendly turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunea, F.; Houde, S.; Ciocan, G. D.; Oprina, G.; Baran, G.; Pincovschi, I.

    2010-08-01

    The hydro renewable energy provides a reliable power source; it does not pollute the air or land but affects the aquatic habitat due to low dissolved oxygen (DO) level in the water discharged from turbines. Hydro-turbines intake generally withdraws water from the bottom layer of the reservoirs with low DO level. In the different methods used for improving DO downstream the hydropower plants the volume of air is considered to be the main parameter of the injection. The energetic consumption is affected, in terms of loss of turbine efficiency due to air injection. The authors propose a study to show the importance of the quality of air injection, meaning bubble size, pressure loss on the aeration device etc. Different types of fine bubble aeration systems have been tested and compared. The capacity to predict the aeration by numerical simulation is analysed.

  15. SEPARATION METHODS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES - SPECIAL ISSUE: MEMBRANES AND ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of the environmental damage in air, soil, sediment, surface and groundwater can be repaired, and much prevention of further damage achieved through the use of efficient separation technologies. Most environmental challenges arise because of dispersion of harmful pollutants ...

  16. Home-test support grows as more questions arise.

    PubMed

    1995-07-01

    As approval of the first home-access HIV test kit appears inevitable, various health care agencies are anticipating how the kit would change HIV testing methods. One survey indicates that home testing would be favored by minority groups, would decrease the burden on public testing sites, and would lessen the use of blood donation as a means of HIV testing. Three companies have home-access kits awaiting Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval: Johnson & Johnson of New Brunswick, NJ; Chem Trak of Sunnyvale, CA; and Home Access Health Corp. in Chicago. The Johnson & Johnson kit provides a lance for pricking the finger, filter paper on which to place a drop of blood, and a sealed envelope for mailing to a laboratory, which provides results by telephone within several weeks. Opposition to the concept of home-access testing has dwindled as the need for more accessible HIV testing takes on added urgency now that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has recommended routine, voluntary HIV testing for all pregnant women. The CDC reversed its earlier position and now supports the concept of home-access HIV testing and feels that it has the potential to expand access to testing. Of concern is the adequacy of telephone counseling. In addition, health officials are concerned about the impact on public testing sites and the possible threat to HIV prevention funding for HIV clinics.

  17. Community perspectives on the risk of indoor air pollution arising from contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jill E; Kramer, Amanda J; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2015-05-01

    The migration of volatile contaminants into overlying buildings, known as vapor intrusion, is a health concern for people living above contaminated groundwater. As public health and environmental agencies develop protocols to evaluate vapor intrusion exposure, little attention has been paid to the experiences and opinions of communities likely to be affected by vapor intrusion. Using a community-driven research approach and qualitative interviews, we explored community perspectives on the vapor intrusion pathway and the perceived impact on community health and well-being among neighbors living atop a large, shallow-chlorinated solvent plume in San Antonio, TX. Most participants associated vapor intrusion with health risks, expressing concern about the unavoidable and uncontrollable nature of their exposure. Few were satisfied with the responsiveness of public officials. Above all, participants wanted more accurate, transparent information and additional independent scientific investigations.

  18. Community perspectives on the risk of indoor air pollution arising from contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jill E; Kramer, Amanda J; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2015-05-01

    The migration of volatile contaminants into overlying buildings, known as vapor intrusion, is a health concern for people living above contaminated groundwater. As public health and environmental agencies develop protocols to evaluate vapor intrusion exposure, little attention has been paid to the experiences and opinions of communities likely to be affected by vapor intrusion. Using a community-driven research approach and qualitative interviews, we explored community perspectives on the vapor intrusion pathway and the perceived impact on community health and well-being among neighbors living atop a large, shallow-chlorinated solvent plume in San Antonio, TX. Most participants associated vapor intrusion with health risks, expressing concern about the unavoidable and uncontrollable nature of their exposure. Few were satisfied with the responsiveness of public officials. Above all, participants wanted more accurate, transparent information and additional independent scientific investigations. PMID:25815742

  19. Obesity, the Endocannabinoid System, and Bias Arising from Pharmaceutical Sponsorship

    PubMed Central

    McPartland, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown that academic physicians conflicted by funding from the pharmaceutical industry have corrupted evidence based medicine and helped enlarge the market for drugs. Physicians made pharmaceutical-friendly statements, engaged in disease mongering, and signed biased review articles ghost-authored by corporate employees. This paper tested the hypothesis that bias affects review articles regarding rimonabant, an anti-obesity drug that blocks the central cannabinoid receptor. Methods/Principal Findings A MEDLINE search was performed for rimonabant review articles, limited to articles authored by USA physicians who served as consultants for the company that manufactures rimonabant. Extracted articles were examined for industry-friendly bias, identified by three methods: analysis with a validated instrument for monitoring bias in continuing medical education (CME); analysis for bias defined as statements that ran contrary to external evidence; and a tally of misrepresentations about the endocannabinoid system. Eight review articles were identified, but only three disclosed authors' financial conflicts of interest, despite easily accessible information to the contrary. The Takhar CME bias instrument demonstrated statistically significant bias in all the review articles. Biased statements that were nearly identical reappeared in the articles, including disease mongering, exaggerating rimonabant's efficacy and safety, lack of criticisms regarding rimonabant clinical trials, and speculations about surrogate markers stated as facts. Distinctive and identical misrepresentations regarding the endocannabinoid system also reappeared in articles by different authors. Conclusions The findings are characteristic of bias that arises from financial conflicts of interest, and suggestive of ghostwriting by a common author. Resolutions for this scenario are proposed. PMID:19333392

  20. Transversely isotropic elasticity and poroelasticity arising from thin isotropic layers

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J.G.

    1997-07-01

    Since the classic work of Postma [1955] and Backus [1962], much has been learned about elastic constants in vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) media when the anisotropy is due to fine layering of isotropic elastic materials. However, new results are still being discovered. For example, the P-wave anisotropy parameter c{sub 11}/c{sub 33} lies in the range 1/4 {<=} c{sub 11}/c{sub 33} {<=} <{lambda}+2{mu}><1/({lambda}+2{mu})>, when the layers are themselves composed of isotropic elastic materials with Lame constants {lambda} and {mu} and the vertical average of the layers is symbolized by <{center_dot}>. The lower bound corrects a result of Postma. For porous layers, a connected solid frame forms the basis of the elastic behavior of a poroelastic medium in the presence of confining forces, while connected pores permit a percolating fluid (if present) to influence the mechanical response of the system from within. For isotropic and anisotropic poroelastic media, we establish general formulas for the behavior of transversely isotropic poroelasticity arising from laminations of isotropic components. The Backus averaging method is shown to provide elementary means of constructing general formulas. The results for confined fluids are then compared with the more general Gassmann [1951] formulas that must be satisfied by any anisotropic poroelastic medium and found to be in complete agreement. Such results are important for applications to oil exploration using AVO (amplitude versus offset) since the presence or absence of a fluid component, as well as the nature of the fluid, is the critical issue and the ways in which the fluid influences seismic reflection data still need to be better understood.

  1. Urban surface water pollution problems arising from misconnections.

    PubMed

    Revitt, D Michael; Ellis, J Bryan

    2016-05-01

    The impacts of misconnections on the organic and nutrient loadings to surface waters are assessed using specific household appliance data for two urban sub-catchments located in the London metropolitan region and the city of Swansea. Potential loadings of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), soluble reactive phosphorus (PO4-P) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N) due to misconnections are calculated for three different scenarios based on the measured daily flows from specific appliances and either measured daily pollutant concentrations or average pollutant concentrations for relevant greywater and black water sources obtained from an extensive review of the literature. Downstream receiving water concentrations, together with the associated uncertainties, are predicted from derived misconnection discharge concentrations and compared to existing freshwater standards for comparable river types. Consideration of dilution ratios indicates that these would need to be of the order of 50-100:1 to maintain high water quality with respect to BOD and NH4-N following typical misconnection discharges but only poor quality for PO4-P is likely to be achievable. The main pollutant loading contributions to misconnections arise from toilets (NH4-N and BOD), kitchen sinks (BOD and PO4-P) washing machines (PO4-P and BOD) and, to a lesser extent, dishwashers (PO4-P). By completely eliminating toilet misconnections and ensuring misconnections from all other appliances do not exceed 2%, the potential pollution problems due to BOD and NH4-N discharges would be alleviated but this would not be the case for PO4-P. In the event of a treatment option being preferred to solve the misconnection problem, it is shown that for an area the size of metropolitan Greater London, a sewage treatment plant with a Population Equivalent value approaching 900,000 would be required to efficiently remove BOD and NH4-N to safely dischargeable levels but such a plant is unlikely to have the capacity to deal

  2. Qualia Could Arise from Information Processing in Local Cortical Networks

    PubMed Central

    Orpwood, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Re-entrant feedback, either within sensory cortex or arising from prefrontal areas, has been strongly linked to the emergence of consciousness, both in theoretical and experimental work. This idea, together with evidence for local micro-consciousness, suggests the generation of qualia could in some way result from local network activity under re-entrant activation. This paper explores the possibility by examining the processing of information by local cortical networks. It highlights the difference between the information structure (how the information is physically embodied), and the information message (what the information is about). It focuses on the network’s ability to recognize information structures amongst its inputs under conditions of extensive local feedback, and to then assign information messages to those structures. It is shown that if the re-entrant feedback enables the network to achieve an attractor state, then the message assigned in any given pass of information through the network is a representation of the message assigned in the previous pass-through of information. Based on this ability the paper argues that as information is repeatedly cycled through the network, the information message that is assigned evolves from a recognition of what the input structure is, to what it is like, to how it appears, to how it seems. It could enable individual networks to be the site of qualia generation. The paper goes on to show networks in cortical layers 2/3 and 5a have the connectivity required for the behavior proposed, and reviews some evidence for a link between such local cortical cyclic activity and conscious percepts. It concludes with some predictions based on the theory discussed. PMID:23504586

  3. Movement Timing and Invariance Arise from Several Geometries

    PubMed Central

    Bennequin, Daniel; Fuchs, Ronit; Berthoz, Alain; Flash, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    Human movements show several prominent features; movement duration is nearly independent of movement size (the isochrony principle), instantaneous speed depends on movement curvature (captured by the 2/3 power law), and complex movements are composed of simpler elements (movement compositionality). No existing theory can successfully account for all of these features, and the nature of the underlying motion primitives is still unknown. Also unknown is how the brain selects movement duration. Here we present a new theory of movement timing based on geometrical invariance. We propose that movement duration and compositionality arise from cooperation among Euclidian, equi-affine and full affine geometries. Each geometry posses a canonical measure of distance along curves, an invariant arc-length parameter. We suggest that for continuous movements, the actual movement duration reflects a particular tensorial mixture of these canonical parameters. Near geometrical singularities, specific combinations are selected to compensate for time expansion or compression in individual parameters. The theory was mathematically formulated using Cartan's moving frame method. Its predictions were tested on three data sets: drawings of elliptical curves, locomotion and drawing trajectories of complex figural forms (cloverleaves, lemniscates and limaçons, with varying ratios between the sizes of the large versus the small loops). Our theory accounted well for the kinematic and temporal features of these movements, in most cases better than the constrained Minimum Jerk model, even when taking into account the number of estimated free parameters. During both drawing and locomotion equi-affine geometry was the most dominant geometry, with affine geometry second most important during drawing; Euclidian geometry was second most important during locomotion. We further discuss the implications of this theory: the origin of the dominance of equi-affine geometry, the possibility that the brain

  4. Special Issue featuring invited articles arising from UK Semiconductors 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Edmund; Wada, Osamu

    2013-07-01

    Semiconductor research has formed the basis of many technological advances over the past 50 years, and the field is still highly active, as new material systems and device concepts are developed to address new applications or operating conditions. In addition to the development of traditional semiconductor devices, the wealth of experience with these materials also allows their use as an ideal environment for testing new physics, leading to new classes of devices exploiting quantum mechanical effects that can also benefit from the advantages of existing semiconductor technology in scalability, compactness and ease of mass production. This special issue features papers arising from the UK Semiconductors 2012 Conference, held at the University of Sheffield. The annual conference covers all aspects of semiconductor research, from crystal growth, through investigations of the physics of semiconductor structures to realization of semiconductor devices and their application in emerging technologies. The 2012 conference featured over 150 presentations, including plenary sessions on interband cascade lasers for the 3-6 µm spectral band, efficient single photon sources based on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic nanowires, nitride-based quantum dot visible lasers and single photon sources, and engineering of organic light-emitting diodes. The seven papers collected here highlight current research advances, taken from across the scope of the conference. The papers feature growth of novel nitride-antimonide material systems for mid-infrared sources and detectors, use of semiconductor nanostructures for charge-based memory and visible lasers, optimization of device structures either to reduce losses in solar cells or achieve low noise amplification in transistors, design considerations for surface-emitting lasers incorporating photonic crystals and an assessment of laser power convertors for power transfer. The editors of this special issue and the conference

  5. Careers in Environmental Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Reed

    The book presents concerns of our society in protecting our environment and the challenges involved in meaningful careers in environmental protection and management. "Estimates by the Environmental Protection Agency indicate that, compared with their numbers in the mid-'70's, the need for environmental professionals will triple by 1980.'" In a…

  6. Concerns in Marine Renewable Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Sharon; Previsic, Mirko; Nelson, Peter; Woo, Sheri

    2010-06-17

    To accelerate the adoption of these emerging marine hydrokinetic technologies, navigational and environmental issues and concerns must be identified and addressed. As hydrokinetic projects move forward, various stakeholders will need to be engaged; one of the key issues that project proponents face as they engage stakeholders is that many conflicting uses and environmental issues are not well-understood. Much of this lack of understanding comes from a limited understanding of the technologies themselves. To address this issue, in September 2008, RE Vision consulting, LLC, was selected by the Department of Energy, under their market acceleration program, to apply a scenario-based assessment approach to the emerging hydrokinetic technology sector. The goal was to improve understanding of potential environmental and navigation impacts of these technologies and focus stakeholders on the critical issues. To meet this goal, the study established baseline scenarios for wave and tidal power conversion at potential future deployment sites. The scenarios captured variations in technical approaches and deployment scales and thus grounded the analysis in realistic constraints. The work conducted under this award provides an important foundation to other market acceleration activities carried out by the DOE and other stakeholders in this sector. The scenarios were then evaluated using a framework developed by H.T. Harvey & Associates to identify and characterize key environmental concerns and uncertainties. In collaboration with PCCI and the U.S. Coast Guard, navigation issues were assessed and guidelines developed to assure the safe operation of these systems. Finally, the work highlights “next steps” to take to continue development and adoption of marine hydrokinetic energy. Throughout the project, close collaboration with device developers, project developers and regulatory stakeholders was pursued to ensure that assumptions and constraints are realistic. Results concur

  7. Counseling Concerns and Bisexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Ralph

    1974-01-01

    This article focuses on counseling concerns for the practical living of individuals with homosexual tendencies. The author cautions against irresponsible promotion of a bisexual mode of life for many persons who have had to deny their homosexual desires under the heavy anti-homosexual bias of our society. (Author/BW)

  8. Teachers' Aides: Tasks and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  9. Consumer Concerns: Newcomer's Guide. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Jean

    A bilingual pamphlet containing practical law-related information for recent Russian Jewish immigrants to New York City, this document addresses consumer concerns. Following a brief description of the Newcomer series, 15 questions are listed, each followed by an answer. Questions asked include the meaning of the terms consumer and contract;…

  10. Practical Memory Concerns in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we focus on practical memory concerns in adulthood. Young, middle-aged, and community-dwelling older adults responded to seven open-ended questions covering the topics of memory self-efficacy, memory management, memory remediation, and fears about memory aging in adulthood. The results revealed several similarities among the age…

  11. Children's Views Concerning Phase Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar, Varda; Travis, Anthony S.

    1991-01-01

    This article reports on answers by children (grades 1-9, n=83) to oral and written questions concerning the phase change from liquid to gas. The development of concepts was followed, proceeding from concrete to abstract ideas. Many students were found to experience difficulties in problem solving even though they may have had the necessary level…

  12. Concerning Justice and Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I explore matters concerning justice and music education. I briefly sketch responses to five interrelated questions: Why should music educators be interested in justice? What is meant by the term social justice and how is it distinguished from justice of other kinds? How do liberal views of humanity, particularly the preciousness of…

  13. Online Catalogs: Issues and Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausser, Jaye

    This document explores the various issues and concerns related to the development of online systems in libraries and, in particular, online catalogs. Following a preface, foreword, and introduction, chapters are devoted to each of the following topics: (l) providing for special interests including the disabled; (2) authority control; (3) subject…

  14. Synthetic holography in microscopy: opportunities arising from advanced wavefront shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesacher, Alexander; Ritsch-Marte, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The advent of computer-generated or synthetic holography has created a wealth of possibilities for wavefront shaping in optics. We discuss the impact this has had on optical microscopy. Synthetic Holographic Microscopy utilises wavefront shaping by a computer-generated 'hologram' (CGH) to modify light on the illumination or the detection side, or both. This enables modifications of the general sample appearance concerning contrast, resolution and other aspects. Multiplexing CGHs can perform several tasks at once, for instance splitting the image into sub-images corresponding to different depths in the sample, or displaying differently contrasted images of the sample, e.g. bright field, darkfield or (spiral) phase contrast, in different sub-images. We give an overview of the options and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using programmable holographic elements inside an optical microscope.

  15. Human performance issues arising from manned space station missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, William K.

    1986-01-01

    Ten former NASA astronauts were interviewed using a set of 51 questions developed to encourage the contacts to discuss any thoughts, opinions, conclusions, or suggestions which might have evolved since they left the astronaut program. Strict confidentiality was maintained. At least one astronaut from each of the NASA manned space flight programs, excluding the Space Transportation System (Shuttle), was interviewed. The report records the answers to the questions asked, spontaneous comments, and the investigator's own personal evaluations of the material obtained. No statistical analysis of the material was attempted. The professional opinions of these ten experienced astronauts will be of value to persons concerned with the design and operation of manned spacecraft and manned space stations.

  16. Bulbous tracks arising from hypervelocity capture in aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Domínguez, G.; Burchell, M. J.; Hörz, F.; Llorca, J.

    2008-02-01

    The capture of 81P/Wild 2 cometary particles in aerogel with a well-defined impact velocity (6.1 km s-1) has provided a wealth of data concerning the composition of Jupiter-family comets. To interpret this data we must understand the capture processes in the aerogel. A major category of tracks are those with bulbous cavities lined with particle fragments. We present a new model to account for the production of these “turnip”-shaped impact cavities. The model uses a thermodynamic approach in order to account for the likely expansion of vapors from particles rich in volatile species. Volume measurements of some of the largest Stardust tracks analysed so far, together with theoretical considerations, indicate that for the majority of Stardust cometary aggregate particle impacts, fragmentation of relatively weak impactors (combined with radial expansion of the resulting subgrains) is the leading cause of bulbous track production, while volatile release of vapors played a secondary role.

  17. Boundary layer problem on a hyperbolic system arising from chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Qianqian; Wang, Zhi-An; Zhao, Kun

    2016-11-01

    This paper is concerned with the boundary layer problem for a hyperbolic system transformed via a Cole-Hopf type transformation from a repulsive chemotaxis model with logarithmic sensitivity proposed in [23,34] modeling the biological movement of reinforced random walkers which deposit a non-diffusible (or slowly moving) signal that modifies the local environment for succeeding passages. By prescribing the Dirichlet boundary conditions to the transformed hyperbolic system in an interval (0 , 1), we show that the system has the boundary layer solutions as the chemical diffusion coefficient ε → 0, and further use the formal asymptotic analysis to show that the boundary layer thickness is ε 1 / 2. Our work justifies the boundary layer phenomenon that was numerically found in the recent work [25]. However we find that the original chemotaxis system does not possess boundary layer solutions when the results are reverted to the pre-transformed system.

  18. Intraosseous verrucous carcinoma arising from an orthokeratinized odontogenic keratocyst: A report of a rarest entity

    PubMed Central

    Kamarthi, Nagaraju; Palakshappa, Suhasini Gotur; Wadhwan, Vijay; Mohan, Raviprakash Sasankoti

    2016-01-01

    Intraosseous verrucous carcinomas (VCs) arising from odontogenic cysts are a rare entity. An unusual case of a VC arising from the orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst is described for the first time. The microscopic features of the lesion are presented. PMID:27630514

  19. Intraosseous verrucous carcinoma arising from an orthokeratinized odontogenic keratocyst: A report of a rarest entity.

    PubMed

    Kamarthi, Nagaraju; Palakshappa, Suhasini Gotur; Wadhwan, Vijay; Mohan, Raviprakash Sasankoti

    2016-01-01

    Intraosseous verrucous carcinomas (VCs) arising from odontogenic cysts are a rare entity. An unusual case of a VC arising from the orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst is described for the first time. The microscopic features of the lesion are presented. PMID:27630514

  20. Modeling Environmental Literacy of University Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teksoz, Gaye; Sahin, Elvan; Tekkaya-Oztekin, Ceren

    2012-02-01

    The present study proposed an Environmental Literacy Components Model to explain how environmental attitudes, environmental responsibility, environmental concern, and environmental knowledge as well as outdoor activities related to each other. A total of 1,345 university students responded to an environmental literacy survey (Kaplowitz and Levine in Environ Educ Res 11:143-160, 2005). The structural equation model revealed that high levels of environmental knowledge stimulate a university student's concern, attitudes, and personal responsibility toward environmental protection. More specifically, environmental knowledge was reported to be a significant predictor of environmental concern, attitudes, and responsibility. Environmental knowledge had significant indirect relationships with environmental attitudes and responsibility. Moreover, while attitudes toward the environment were found to be a significant determinant of environmental responsibility, environmental concern held significant association with attitudes toward the environment and outdoor activities. Findings promise to give clues for finding an answer to the question "how education for sustainability can be improved in higher education curricula?"

  1. Jaguar critical habitat designation causes concern for Southwestern ranchers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Svancara, Colleen; Lien, Aaron M.; Vanasco, Wendy T.; Laura Lopez-Hoffman,; Ruyle, George B.

    2015-01-01

    The designation of jaguar critical habitat in April 2014 in southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico created concern for livestock ranchers in the region. We interviewed ranchers to understand their concerns with the jaguar critical habitat designation and their attitudes toward jaguars, wildlife conservation, and resource management in general. Ranchers we interviewed were concerned about direct impacts of designated critical habitat on ranching, as well as possible alternative agendas of critical habitat advocates and issues specific to the borderlands region. The ranchers were less concerned about the presence of jaguars but were more concerned about possible limiting effects of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), distrust of government entities, and litigious environmental groups. To maximize effectiveness, government agencies should work to foster trust in the ranching community, be cognizant of sensitive issues specific to the region that may challenge endangered species conservation goals, recognize the opportunity to work with ranchers for endangered species management, and provide outreach about implications of the ESA.

  2. Intersexuality in Crustacea: an environmental issue?

    PubMed

    Ford, Alex T

    2012-02-01

    This paper aims to give a historical overview of current understanding about intersexuality in crustaceans, assesses gaps in our knowledge and asks whether it should be an environmental concern. The oldest known cases of intersexuality come from 70 million year old fossil crabs whilst the oldest published case of intersex crustacean stems from a 1730 Royal Society report of a gynandromorph lobster. Many crustacean species are sequential hermaphroditic or simultaneous hermaphrodites. Consequently, there has been confusion as to whether accounts of intersex in the literature are correct. Intersexuality is fairly common throughout the Crustacea and it has been suggested that intersex may arise through different mechanisms. For example, sexual gynandromorphism may arise through disruption in early embryonic development whereas intersexuality may also arise through perturbations of androgenic gland hormone and sexual differentiation in later development. The causes of intersex are multifaceted and can occur through a number of mechanisms including parasitism, environmental sex determination, genetic abnormalities and increasingly pollution is being implicated. Despite many studies on the effects of endocrine disrupters on crustaceans, very few have focussed on wild populations or male related endpoints; rather many laboratory studies have been attempting to assess biomarkers of feminisation. This is surprising as many of the seminal papers on endocrine disruption focussed on effects found in the wild and male specimens. This paper argues that we might have been addressing the right questions (i.e. pollution induced intersex), but in the wrong way (feminisation); and therefore gives recommendations for future directions for research. Biomarker development has been hampered by paucity of genomic and endocrine knowledge of many crustacean model species; however this is rapidly changing with the advent of cheaper affordable genomic techniques and high throughput sequencing.

  3. Teachers' Concerns about Biotechnology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns…

  4. Perspectives: Concerns about Cancer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronck, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests teaching a unit on cancer in high school or introductory college courses for non-majors based on surveys of student interest and recommendations to teach prevention/cure of the disease. Discusses smoking, diet, and environmental factors as causes of cancer. Provides several instructional strategies, encouraging student…

  5. Environmental management in North American mining sector.

    PubMed

    Asif, Zunaira; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the environmental issues and management practices in the mining sector in the North America. The sustainable measures on waste management are recognized as one of the most serious environmental concerns in the mining industry. For mining activities, it will be no surprise that the metal recovery reagents and acid effluents are a threat to the ecosystem as well as hazards to human health. In addition, poor air quality and ventilation in underground mines can lead to occupational illness and death of workers. Electricity usage and fuel consumption are major factors that contribute to greenhouse gases. On the other hand, many sustainability challenges are faced in the management of tailings and disposal of waste rock. This paper aims to highlight the problems that arise due to poor air quality and acid mine drainage. The paper also addresses some of the advantages and limitations of tailing and waste rock management that still have to be studied in context of the mining sector. This paper suggests that implementation of suitable environmental management tools like life cycle assessment (LCA), cleaner production technologies (CPTs), and multicriteria decision analysis (MCD) are important as it ultimately lead to improve environmental performance and enabling a mine to focus on the next stage of sustainability.

  6. Environmental management in North American mining sector.

    PubMed

    Asif, Zunaira; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the environmental issues and management practices in the mining sector in the North America. The sustainable measures on waste management are recognized as one of the most serious environmental concerns in the mining industry. For mining activities, it will be no surprise that the metal recovery reagents and acid effluents are a threat to the ecosystem as well as hazards to human health. In addition, poor air quality and ventilation in underground mines can lead to occupational illness and death of workers. Electricity usage and fuel consumption are major factors that contribute to greenhouse gases. On the other hand, many sustainability challenges are faced in the management of tailings and disposal of waste rock. This paper aims to highlight the problems that arise due to poor air quality and acid mine drainage. The paper also addresses some of the advantages and limitations of tailing and waste rock management that still have to be studied in context of the mining sector. This paper suggests that implementation of suitable environmental management tools like life cycle assessment (LCA), cleaner production technologies (CPTs), and multicriteria decision analysis (MCD) are important as it ultimately lead to improve environmental performance and enabling a mine to focus on the next stage of sustainability. PMID:26527335

  7. Effects of environmental change on wildlife health

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Duffus, Amanda L. J.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental change has negatively affected most biological systems on our planet and is becoming of increasing concern for the well-being and survival of many species. At an organism level, effects encompass not only endocrine disruptions, sex-ratio changes and decreased reproductive parameters, but also include teratogenic and genotoxic effects, immunosuppression and other immune-system impairments that can lead directly to disease or increase the risk of acquiring disease. Living organisms will strive to maintain health by recognizing and resolving abnormal situations, such as the presence of invading microorganisms or harmful peptides, abnormal cell replication and deleterious mutations. However, fast-paced environmental changes may pose additional pressure on immunocompetence and health maintenance, which may seriously impact population viability and persistence. Here, we outline the importance of a functional immune system for survival and examine the effects that exposure to a rapidly changing environment might exert on immunocompetence. We then address the various levels at which anthropogenic environmental change might affect wildlife health and identify potential deficits in reproductive parameters that might arise owing to new immune challenges in the context of a rapidly changing environment. Throughout the paper, a series of examples and case studies are used to illustrate the impact of environmental change on wildlife health. PMID:19833653

  8. Site Environmental Report-Calendar Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Kayser

    2002-09-03

    The Laboratory's mission is to conduct fundamental research in the physical, chemical, materials, mathematical sciences and engineering which underlie energy generating, conversion, transmission and storage technologies, environmental improvement, and other technical areas essential to national needs. These efforts will be maintained so as to contribute to the achievement of the Department of Energy's Missions and Goals; more specifically, to increase the general levels of scientific knowledge and capabilities, to prepare engineering and physical sciences students for future scientific endeavors, and to initiate nascent technologies and practical applications arising from our basic scientific programs. The Laboratory will approach all its operations with the safety and health of all workers as a constant objective and with genuine concern for the environment. Ames Laboratory does not conduct classified research. The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the performance of Ames Laboratory's environmental programs, present highlights of significant environmental activities, and confirm compliance with environmental regulations and requirements for calendar year 2001. This report is a working requirement of Department of Energy Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting''.

  9. Analysis of issues concerning acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Bowsher, C.A.

    1984-12-11

    Although science has largely determined that man-made emissions cause acid rain, there is uncertainty concerning the extent and timing of its anticipated effects. Thus, at the present time scientific information alone does not lead unequivocally to a conclusion on whether it is appropriate to begin control actions now or to await better understanding. Given this uncertainty, decisionmakers must weigh the risks of further, potentially avoidable environmental damage against the risks of economic impacts from acid rain control actions which may ultimately prove to be unwarranted. GAO examines the implications of current scientific knowledge for policy decisions on acid rain and offers a series of observations on the following issues involved in the debate: To what extent has it been scientifically demonstrated that acid rain is resulting in damage to the environment. What are the causes of acid rain and where is it most prevalent. What alternatives exist for controlling acid rain and what are their economic effects. 5 figures, 20 tables.

  10. Space resources. Volume 4: Social concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Mary Fae (Editor); Mckay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael B. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and exploration of Mars. This volume, Social Concerns, covers some of the most important issues which must be addressed in any major program for the human exploration of space. The volume begins with a consideration of the economics and management of large scale space activities. Then the legal aspects of these activities are discussed, particularly the interpretation of treaty law with respect to the Moon and asteroids. The social and cultural issues of moving people into space are considered in detail, and the eventual emergence of a space culture different from the existing culture is envisioned. The environmental issues raised by the development of space settlements are faced. Some innovative approaches are proposed to space communities and habitats and self-sufficiency is considered along with human safety at a lunar base or outpost.

  11. Preliminary evaluation of environmental issues on the use of peat as an energy source

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.; Richardson, S.; Walters, A.; Boesch, L.; Thomson, W.; Irons, J.

    1980-03-14

    A study to characterize the environmental issues, that would arise from an extensive peat utilization program has been initiated. The objectives of this preliminary report are to: identify the environmental issues and potential problems; examine the significance of issues in the geographical regions where peat use could be developed; and establish a methodology by which issues can be resolved or clarified through future coordinated private, state, and federal programs. An overview of peat development including discussions on conversion technologies, extraction and harvesting procedures, and land reclamation is presented. Environmental concerns are in the areas of water resources and quality, air quality, health and safety issues, solid waste management, and land reclamation. The general environmental issues, resource availability, and attitudes associated with potential peat development in ten states, containing an estimated 90 percent of US peat resources were described. The ten states reviewed are Alaska, Minnesota, Michigan, Maine, North and South Carolina, Wisconsin, New York, Florida, and Louisiana. (DMC)

  12. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  13. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  14. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  15. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  16. 41 CFR 102-80.30 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning lead?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning lead? 102-80.30 Section 102-80.30 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Lead § 102-80.30 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning lead? Federal agencies have the...

  17. 41 CFR 102-80.30 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning lead?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning lead? 102-80.30 Section 102-80.30 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Lead § 102-80.30 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning lead? Federal agencies have the...

  18. 41 CFR 102-80.30 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning lead?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning lead? 102-80.30 Section 102-80.30 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Lead § 102-80.30 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning lead? Federal agencies have the...

  19. 41 CFR 102-80.30 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning lead?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning lead? 102-80.30 Section 102-80.30 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Lead § 102-80.30 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning lead? Federal agencies have the...

  20. 41 CFR 102-80.30 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning lead?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning lead? 102-80.30 Section 102-80.30 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Lead § 102-80.30 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning lead? Federal agencies have the...

  1. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?...

  2. Fine-Scale Genetic Structure Arises during Range Expansion of an Invasive Gecko

    PubMed Central

    Short, Kristen Harfmann; Petren, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Processes of range expansion are increasingly important in light of current concerns about invasive species and range shifts due to climate change. Theoretical studies suggest that genetic structuring may occur during range expansion. Ephemeral genetic structure can have important evolutionary implications, such as propagating genetic changes along the wave front of expansion, yet few studies have shown evidence of such structure. We tested the hypothesis that genetic structure arises during range expansion in Hemidactylus mabouia, a nocturnal African gecko recently introduced to Florida, USA. Twelve highly variable microsatellite loci were used to screen 418 individuals collected from 43 locations from four sampling sites across Florida, representing a gradient from earlier (∼1990s) to very recent colonization. We found earlier colonized locations had little detectable genetic structure and higher allelic richness than more recently colonized locations. Genetic structuring was pronounced among locations at spatial scales of tens to hundreds of meters near the leading edge of range expansion. Despite the rapid pace of range expansion in this introduced gecko, dispersal is limited among many suitable habitat patches. Fine-scale genetic structure is likely the result of founder effects during colonization of suitable habitat patches. It may be obscured over time and by scale-dependent modes of dispersal. Further studies are needed to determine if such genetic structure affects adaptation and trait evolution in range expansions and range shifts. PMID:22053186

  3. An Inquiry into Teacher Concerns in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yih-fen; Reeves, Carolyn

    This study identified concerns of teachers in Taiwan and contrasted concerns of these teachers with the 56 concerns which comprise the Teacher Concerns Checklist (TCC), Form B, developed in the United States. A total of 294 teachers (155 preservice teachers and 139 inservice teachers) completed a Chinese version of the Survey of Teacher Concerns.…

  4. Io. [theories concerning volcanic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. V.; Soderblom, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    A report on the continuing investigation of Io is presented. Gravitational resonance is discussed as the cause of Io's volcanism, and the volcanic activity is explained in terms of sulfur chemistry. Theories concerning the reasons for the two main types of volcanic eruptions on Io are advanced and correlated with geographical features of the satellite. The sulfur and silicate models of the calderas are presented, citing the strengths and weaknesses of each. Problems of the gravitational resonance theory of Io's heat source are then described. Finally, observations of Io planned for the Galileo mission are summarized.

  5. Customer concerns regarding satellite servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, Gordon

    1987-01-01

    The organization of orbital servicing of satellites is discussed. Provision of servicing equipment; design interfaces between the satellite and the servicing equipment; and the economic viability of the concept are discussed. The proposed solution for satisfying customer concerns is for the servicing organizations to baseline an adequate inventory of servicing equipment with standard interfaces and established servicing costs. With this knowledge, the customer can conduct tradeoff studies and make programmatic decisions regarding servicing options. A dialog procedure between customers and servicing specialists is outlined.

  6. Below Regulatory Concern Owners Group:

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.F.; Phillips, L.B.; Williams, W.J.

    1988-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has indicated that Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) exemption of waste streams from the disposal requirements for low level radioactive waste should be based on actual expected nuclide concentration and variability. Because of variations in the importance and relative abundance of nuclides in waste, one or a small number of nuclides may control the detemination of a waste steam as BRC. This study wasconducted to evaluate the relative importance of the major radionucldies in dose assessments for the disposal options and geographic regions under consideration for BRC waste. 6 refs., 25 tabs.

  7. 40 CFR 96.114 - Objections concerning CAIR designated representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Objections concerning CAIR designated representative. 96.114 Section 96.114 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR...

  8. 40 CFR 35.940-5 - Disputes concerning allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disputes concerning allowable costs. 35.940-5 Section 35.940-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water...

  9. Addressing concerns and achieving expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.

    1995-12-01

    Approximately 2-1/2 years ago many of us were gathered here in Prague at a similar conference with a similar name, {open_quotes}Energy and Environment: Transitions in Eastern Europe.{close_quotes} Over 300 professionals from 26 nations attended. The objective of the conference was to: Facilitate the Solution of Long and Short Term Energy and Environmental Problems in Eastern Europe by Bringing Together People, ideas and technologies which could be applied to specific problems in a logical step-by-step manner. It was conceded at the time that the long term solution would consist of thoughtfully integrated steps and that the conference was the first step. We are here in the Czech Republic again this week to continue what was started. As before, this conference continues to: (1) Provide a forum to identify and discuss cost-effective environmentally acceptable energy and environmental technology options and their associated socioeconomic issues. (2) Stimulate the Formation of business partnerships (3) Identify key barrier issues hindering technology applications and identify implementation pathways that eliminate or avoid obstacles to progress.

  10. Environmental Studies and Environmental Careers. ERIC/CSMEE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.

    Increased concern with the environment has increased opportunities for employment in the environmental job market. This digest helps clarify the meaning of environmental employment and discusses aspects of its present state. An examination of trends in environmental employment indicates a growing demand for new jobs in environmental fields created…

  11. Consumer concerns: motivating to action.

    PubMed Central

    Bruhn, C. M.

    1997-01-01

    Microbiologic safety is consumers' most frequently volunteered food safety concern. An increase in the level of concern in recent years suggests that consumers are more receptive to educational information. However, changing lifestyles have lessened the awareness of foodborne illness, especially among younger consumers. Failure to fully recognize the symptoms or sources of foodborne disease prevents consumers from taking corrective action. Consumer education messages should include the ubiquity of microorganisms, a comprehensive description of foodborne illnesses, and prevention strategies. Product labels should contain food-handling information and warnings for special populations, and foods processed by newer safety-enhancing technologies should be more widely available. Knowledge of the consequences of unsafe practices can enhance motivation and adherence to safety guidelines. When consumers mishandle food during preparation, the health community, food industry, regulators, and the media are ultimately responsible. Whether inappropriate temperature control, poor hygiene, or another factor, the error occurs because consumers have not been informed about how to handle food and protect themselves. The food safety message has not been delivered effectively. PMID:9366604

  12. Rapid environmental change during dynastic transitions in Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillman, Aubrey L.; Yu, JunQing; Abbott, Mark B.; Cooke, Colin A.; Bain, Daniel J.; Steinman, Byron A.

    2014-08-01

    Pollution and eutrophication of Chinese lakes are widely perceived to be 20th century phenomena. However, China has a long history of deforestation, agriculture, mineral resource extraction, and other anthropogenic activities that impact the environment. Here, we present a sediment record from Xing Yun Lake in the Yunnan Province of China that reveals significant alterations to the lake, its ecosystem, and its watershed beginning as early as 500 AD. A comprehensive suite of biogeochemical and isotopic proxies reveal several rapid transitions related to changes in agriculture and lake-level management that coincides with cultural and dynastic transitions. The deterioration of contemporary environmental conditions at Xing Yun arises from a long history of anthropogenic manipulation, eutrophication, and pollution of the lake and its watershed. This study highlights the importance of using historical records of industrial and agricultural activities, including landscape modification, in conjunction with records of climate change, to place present day environmental concerns into a long-term context.

  13. Aspects of spirituality concerning illness.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, René; Tiesinga, Lucas J; Jochemsen, Henk; Jochemasen, Henk; Post, Doeke

    2007-12-01

    The spiritual dimension of illness, health and care may be seen as a unique aspect in addition to the physical, mental and social dimension. This contribution describes experiences of patients, nurses and hospital chaplains in relation to the spiritual aspects of being ill. Qualitative research was performed with the design of a focus group study, consisting of 13 focus groups with a total of 67 participants. A purposive sample was used comprising patients, nurses and hospital chaplains working in oncology, cardiology and neurology in different institutions and regions in the Netherlands. The qualitative analysis consisted of open coding and the determining of topics, followed by the subsequent attachment of substantial dimensions and characteristic fragments. Data were analysed by using the computer program KWALITAN. Spirituality play various roles in patients lives during their illness. There is a wide range of topics that may have an individual effect on patients. Despite differences in emphasis, the topics play a role in different patient categories. Although the spiritual topics seem to manifest themselves more clearly in long-term care relationships, they may also play a role during brief admittance periods (such as treatment decisions). The spiritual topics that arise from this study offer caregivers a framework for signalling the spiritual needs of patients. The question is not whether spirituality is a relevant focus area in care, but how and to what degree it plays a role with individual patients. Follow up research should aim at further exploration of spiritual aspects in care, the relationship between spirituality and health and at effective training of caregivers.

  14. Environmental management system vs green specifications: how do they complement each other in the construction industry?

    PubMed

    Lam, Patrick T I; Chan, Edwin H W; Chau, C K; Poon, C S; Chun, K P

    2011-03-01

    Environmental Management System (EMS) has been one of the important tools for sustainable construction for around two decades. However, many issues concerning sustainable development have not been properly addressed, and there is a need for the introduction of green specifications to advance green performance in construction through contract management. This paper defines green specifications, identifies the reasons for adopting green specifications and highlights the environmental issues that may not be addressed by solely adopting EMS. It also presents the results of a recent survey of practitioners concerning their opinions towards green specifications and possible impacts arising from their adoption. From the results of the survey, a framework for developing green specifications is deemed valuable for the cities striving for sustainability. Interestingly, the level of acceptable changes brought about by green specifications as perceived by different industry stakeholders is found to be unrelated to whether they were from organizations implementing EMS or not.

  15. Impact on global metal flows arising from the use of portable rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Rydh, Carl Johan; Svärd, Bo

    2003-01-20

    The use of portable rechargeable battery cells and their effects on global metal flows were assessed or the following three cases: (1) the base case, which reflects the situation in 1999 of the global production of batteries; (2) the global production of portable nickel-cadmium batteries in 1999, assumed to be replaced by other battery types; and (3) assessment of the projected battery market in 2009. The study included the following battery technologies: nickel-cadmium (NiCd); nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) (AB(5), AB(2)); and lithium-based batteries (Li-ion: Co, Ni, Mn; Li-polymer: V). Based on the lithospheric extraction indicator (LEI), which is the ratio of anthropogenic to natural metal flows, and the significance of battery production related to global metal mining, the potential environmental impact of metals used in different battery types was evaluated. The LEIs and average metal demand for the battery market in 1999, expressed as a percentage of global mining output in 1999, were estimated to be as follows: Ni 5.6 (2.0%); Cd 4.4 (37%); Li 0.65 (3.8%); V 0.33 (6.5%); Co 0.18 (15%); Nd 0.18 (8.4%); La 0.10 (9.5%); Ce 0.083 (4.4%); and Pr 0.073 (9.4%). The use of Ni and Cd is of the greatest environmental interest, due to their high LEIs. In the case of complete replacement of portable NiCd batteries by NiMH or Li-based batteries, the LEI for Ni (5.6) would change by -0.1-0.5% and the LEI for Cd would decrease from 4.4 to 3.0 (-31%). Meanwhile, the mobilization of metals considered less hazardous than Cd (LEI 0 < 5) would increase less than 7%. Based on this assessment, the replacement of NiCd batteries would result in decreased environmental impact. To decrease the impact on global metal flows arising from the use of portable batteries the following points should be considered: (1) development of battery technologies should aim at high energy density and long service life; (2) metals with high natural occurrence should be used; and (3) metals from disused

  16. Impact on global metal flows arising from the use of portable rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Rydh, Carl Johan; Svärd, Bo

    2003-01-20

    The use of portable rechargeable battery cells and their effects on global metal flows were assessed or the following three cases: (1) the base case, which reflects the situation in 1999 of the global production of batteries; (2) the global production of portable nickel-cadmium batteries in 1999, assumed to be replaced by other battery types; and (3) assessment of the projected battery market in 2009. The study included the following battery technologies: nickel-cadmium (NiCd); nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) (AB(5), AB(2)); and lithium-based batteries (Li-ion: Co, Ni, Mn; Li-polymer: V). Based on the lithospheric extraction indicator (LEI), which is the ratio of anthropogenic to natural metal flows, and the significance of battery production related to global metal mining, the potential environmental impact of metals used in different battery types was evaluated. The LEIs and average metal demand for the battery market in 1999, expressed as a percentage of global mining output in 1999, were estimated to be as follows: Ni 5.6 (2.0%); Cd 4.4 (37%); Li 0.65 (3.8%); V 0.33 (6.5%); Co 0.18 (15%); Nd 0.18 (8.4%); La 0.10 (9.5%); Ce 0.083 (4.4%); and Pr 0.073 (9.4%). The use of Ni and Cd is of the greatest environmental interest, due to their high LEIs. In the case of complete replacement of portable NiCd batteries by NiMH or Li-based batteries, the LEI for Ni (5.6) would change by -0.1-0.5% and the LEI for Cd would decrease from 4.4 to 3.0 (-31%). Meanwhile, the mobilization of metals considered less hazardous than Cd (LEI 0 < 5) would increase less than 7%. Based on this assessment, the replacement of NiCd batteries would result in decreased environmental impact. To decrease the impact on global metal flows arising from the use of portable batteries the following points should be considered: (1) development of battery technologies should aim at high energy density and long service life; (2) metals with high natural occurrence should be used; and (3) metals from disused

  17. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented.

  18. Concerns About STEM Education Restructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-05-01

    Several education experts told Eos that they generally favored some improvements in U.S. federal science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, but they also expressed concern about the Obama administration's proposed STEM reorganization plan as it affects the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). John Farrington, chair of the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) panel that issued a review of the NOAA education program in 2010, told Eos that he is confident that a considerable amount of thought went into this proposal to consolidate the K-12 STEM efforts, that consolidation could make for greater efficiencies, and that a positive aspect of having the Department of Education (ED) as a lead is that STEM education should not be considered as separate from the education of the student as a whole.

  19. [Several problems concerning population investment].

    PubMed

    Liu, Z

    1982-07-29

    Population investment is a major topic in the studies of population and economic relations. In this particular area, numerous theoretical and practical problems are still in need of solution. Concerning the problem of population concept, there are three different approaches: (1) to determine the definition of population investment from the relationship between the population growth and the capital from national income used for investment, including investment in the newly increased population and investment in the entire population; (2) to explain population investment from the economic viewpoint that people are producers; and (3) to explain population investment from the expense needed to change a simple labor force to a skillful labor force. The expenses include educational costs, maintanance spending, wages needed to compensate workers in labor, costs for workers to master and learn modern scientific techniques to be used for production, and the costs of keeping a young labor force in the next generation.

  20. 7 CFR 799.13 - Environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental information. 799.13 Section 799.13... AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS-COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 799.13 Environmental information. Interested persons...

  1. 7 CFR 799.13 - Environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental information. 799.13 Section 799.13... AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS-COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 799.13 Environmental information. Interested persons...

  2. Modeling Environmental Literacy of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teksoz, Gaye; Sahin, Elvan; Tekkaya-Oztekin, Ceren

    2012-01-01

    The present study proposed an Environmental Literacy Components Model to explain how environmental attitudes, environmental responsibility, environmental concern, and environmental knowledge as well as outdoor activities related to each other. A total of 1,345 university students responded to an environmental literacy survey (Kaplowitz and Levine…

  3. 7 CFR 799.13 - Environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental information. 799.13 Section 799.13... AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS-COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 799.13 Environmental information. Interested persons...

  4. 7 CFR 799.13 - Environmental information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental information. 799.13 Section 799.13... AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS-COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 799.13 Environmental information. Interested persons...

  5. Undergraduate Course on Global Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, G. A.; Weidner, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    GEO 311: Geoscience and Global Concerns is an undergraduate course taught at Stony Brook University during each fall semester. The class meets twice per week, with one session consisting of a lecture and the other, an interactive activity in a computer laboratory that engages the students in exploring real world problems. A specific concern or issue serves as a focus during each session. The students are asked to develop answers to a series of questions that engage them in identifying causes of the problem, connections with the Earth system, relationships to other problems, and possible solutions on both a global and local scale. The questions are designed to facilitate an integrated view of the Earth system. Examples of topics that the students explore during the laboratory sessions are: 1) fossil fuel reserves and consumption rates and the effect of their use on climate, 2) alternative sources of energy and associated technologies, such as solar photovoltaics, nuclear energy, tidal power, geothermal energy, and wind power, 3) effects of tsunamis and earthquakes on human populations and infrastructure, 4) climate change, and 5) hurricanes and storms. The selection and scheduling of topics often takes advantage of the occurrence of media attention or events that can serve as case studies. Tools used during the computer sessions include Google Earth, ArcGIS, spreadsheets, and web sites that offer data and maps. The students use Google Earth or ArcGIS to map events such as earthquakes, storms, tsunamis, and changes in the extent of polar ice. Spreadsheets are employed to discern trends in fossil fuel supply and consumption, and to experiment with models that make predictions for the future. We present examples of several of these activities and discuss how they facilitate an understanding of interrelationships within the Earth system.

  6. Reuse of residues arising from lead batteries recycle: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, G; Medici, F; Montereali, M R; Pietrelli, L

    2002-01-01

    The performance of products arising from the stabilization/solidification of slags from lead batteries recycle into a Portland cement matrix has been evaluated not only in order to get a stabilized waste to be disposed of according to the current legislation, but also to obtain a recyclable material, with both economic and environmental benefits. Under this respect a detailed characterization of raw slags has been performed and different slag-cement samples have been prepared by varying the slag content. The parameters related to the cementation process have been evaluated and a series of tests on the final waste forms have been carried out, aimed at assessing both mechanical performance and leaching behaviour. In spite of the acceptable values for flexural, compressive and tensile strength, however, the high release of lead from the solidification products seems to be a limiting factor for a reusable material. While explanations of such phenomenon are given (high alkalinity of Portland cement; early "doping" of cementitious components by lead in the amorphous state), the main conclusion of the research work is that further efforts should be addressed to the adoption of a different or a modified incorporation matrix.

  7. Reuse of residues arising from lead batteries recycle: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, G; Medici, F; Montereali, M R; Pietrelli, L

    2002-01-01

    The performance of products arising from the stabilization/solidification of slags from lead batteries recycle into a Portland cement matrix has been evaluated not only in order to get a stabilized waste to be disposed of according to the current legislation, but also to obtain a recyclable material, with both economic and environmental benefits. Under this respect a detailed characterization of raw slags has been performed and different slag-cement samples have been prepared by varying the slag content. The parameters related to the cementation process have been evaluated and a series of tests on the final waste forms have been carried out, aimed at assessing both mechanical performance and leaching behaviour. In spite of the acceptable values for flexural, compressive and tensile strength, however, the high release of lead from the solidification products seems to be a limiting factor for a reusable material. While explanations of such phenomenon are given (high alkalinity of Portland cement; early "doping" of cementitious components by lead in the amorphous state), the main conclusion of the research work is that further efforts should be addressed to the adoption of a different or a modified incorporation matrix. PMID:12423056

  8. How mutualisms arise in phytoplankton communities: building eco-evolutionary principles for aquatic microbes.

    PubMed

    Kazamia, Elena; Helliwell, Katherine Emma; Purton, Saul; Smith, Alison Gail

    2016-07-01

    Extensive sampling and metagenomics analyses of plankton communities across all aquatic environments are beginning to provide insights into the ecology of microbial communities. In particular, the importance of metabolic exchanges that provide a foundation for ecological interactions between microorganisms has emerged as a key factor in forging such communities. Here we show how both studies of environmental samples and physiological experimentation in the laboratory with defined microbial co-cultures are being used to decipher the metabolic and molecular underpinnings of such exchanges. In addition, we explain how metabolic modelling may be used to conduct investigations in reverse, deducing novel molecular exchanges from analysis of large-scale data sets, which can identify persistently co-occurring species. Finally, we consider how knowledge of microbial community ecology can be built into evolutionary theories tailored to these species' unique lifestyles. We propose a novel model for the evolution of metabolic auxotrophy in microorganisms that arises as a result of symbiosis, termed the Foraging-to-Farming hypothesis. The model has testable predictions, fits several known examples of mutualism in the aquatic world, and sheds light on how interactions, which cement dependencies within communities of microorganisms, might be initiated.

  9. How mutualisms arise in phytoplankton communities: building eco-evolutionary principles for aquatic microbes.

    PubMed

    Kazamia, Elena; Helliwell, Katherine Emma; Purton, Saul; Smith, Alison Gail

    2016-07-01

    Extensive sampling and metagenomics analyses of plankton communities across all aquatic environments are beginning to provide insights into the ecology of microbial communities. In particular, the importance of metabolic exchanges that provide a foundation for ecological interactions between microorganisms has emerged as a key factor in forging such communities. Here we show how both studies of environmental samples and physiological experimentation in the laboratory with defined microbial co-cultures are being used to decipher the metabolic and molecular underpinnings of such exchanges. In addition, we explain how metabolic modelling may be used to conduct investigations in reverse, deducing novel molecular exchanges from analysis of large-scale data sets, which can identify persistently co-occurring species. Finally, we consider how knowledge of microbial community ecology can be built into evolutionary theories tailored to these species' unique lifestyles. We propose a novel model for the evolution of metabolic auxotrophy in microorganisms that arises as a result of symbiosis, termed the Foraging-to-Farming hypothesis. The model has testable predictions, fits several known examples of mutualism in the aquatic world, and sheds light on how interactions, which cement dependencies within communities of microorganisms, might be initiated. PMID:27282316

  10. Protecting confidentiality in small population health and environmental statistics.

    PubMed

    Cox, L H

    Public policy decisions are fuelled by information. Often, this information is in the form of statistical data. Questions stemming from public health and environmental concerns often arise or are studied within small subgroups of a population. Continuing improvements in the performance and availability of computing resources, including geographic information systems, and the need to better understand environmental exposures and consequent health effects create increasing demand for small population health and environmental data. These demands are at odds with the need to preserve the privacy and data confidentiality of persons, groups or organizations covered by the data. Although confidentiality issues for demographic and economic data are well-studied and are gaining maturity for health data, these issues are only beginning to emerge for environmental data and combined environmental-health data. The aim of this paper is to provide a framework for that examination. Herein we examine confidentiality problems posed by small population health and environmental data, summarize available statistical methods, and propose avenues for the solution of new problems.

  11. The Influence of an Introductory Environmental Science Class on Environmental Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstenberger, Shawn L.; Kelly, William E.; Cross, Chad L.

    2004-01-01

    An environmental concern scale (ECS) was administered to a group of college students before and after completion of an introductory environmental science class. A significant increase in the level of concern was seen in questions related to overall environmental awareness and personal responsibility. Specifically, concern was raised on questions…

  12. 31 CFR 535.335 - Claim arising out of events in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim arising out of events in Iran... General Definitions § 535.335 Claim arising out of events in Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, a claim is one “arising out of events” of the type specified only if such event is the specific act that is...

  13. 31 CFR 535.335 - Claim arising out of events in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claim arising out of events in Iran... General Definitions § 535.335 Claim arising out of events in Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, a claim is one “arising out of events” of the type specified only if such event is the specific act that is...

  14. 31 CFR 535.335 - Claim arising out of events in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claim arising out of events in Iran... General Definitions § 535.335 Claim arising out of events in Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, a claim is one “arising out of events” of the type specified only if such event is the specific act that is...

  15. Compensation for the damages arising from oil spill incidents: Legislation infrastructure and characteristics of the Chinese regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Sun, Ruijun; Ge, Linke; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Hong; Yao, Ziwei

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the current Chinese regime focusing on the compensation for the environmental damages arising from the seaborne oil spill pollution was introduced, with respect to legislation infrastructure and characteristics. By now, a two-tier compensation regime, consisting of a liability scheme and a fund scheme, has already been established in China through referring to the international conventions and other states' regimes. Although its essential parts were almost identical to those of international conventions, several significant differences exist, including the norms about liability exemption and the third party liability, the fund collection and usage, as well as the amount of the levied contribution and the Special Drawing Right ceiling. With the broadens of the environmental liabilities, the longstanding issues of environmental losses arising from oil pollution have been increasingly involved in intense debates since the international conventions and some states' legislation covered them into the claim scope. A Chinese technical guideline dealing exclusively with the environmental losses was presented in detail; moreover, the differences between this guideline with the US approach were compared with respect to the compensation goals, the calculation methodologies and the compensation pathways. In the past decades, the Chinese authority has successfully settled down some famous major oil spill incidents in courts under its domestic legislation and local regulations, but the arguments on these litigations kept heated, which prompted some eco-economical experts to resolve several issues urgently, such as the compensation scope, the compulsory claim procedures, and the assessment methods of ecological compensation. Hence, some continuous efforts should be taken to explore these solutions, which are truly helpful to satisfy the requirements of the full compensation for the oil pollution damage and the marine environment protection.

  16. Future Directions for EC Education: 10 Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Colin

    2009-01-01

    What are the problems that early childhood educators are trying to answer? In this article, the author presents his ten concerns for early childhood teacher education: (1) A concern about policymakers' pottery wheels; (2) A concern about "white shoe" education evangelists; (3) A concern that increasing control may cripple autonomy and build…

  17. Current Research on the Concerns of Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Frances F.; Parsons, Jane S.

    This paper familiarizes the educational community with the research on teacher concerns that has taken place since the publication of Fuller's 1969 article "Concerns of Teachers: A Developmental Conceptualization" (SP 003 919). Two studies are described concerning reliability of information for the Teacher Concerns Statement and the establishment…

  18. Teacher Concerns and Teacher Life Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Yan Fung

    2005-01-01

    This article examines teaching concerns at successive life stages among teachers with up to twenty years' or more teaching experience. Three concern stages are discerned. Nine common concern factors were found from factor-analysing thirty-three concern items. Results show that student discipline, relations with students, and students' learning and…

  19. Senior Nursing Students' Participation in a Community Research Project: Effect on Student Self-Efficacy and Knowledge Concerning Drug Interactions Arising from Self-Medication in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neafsey, Patricia J.; Shellman, Juliette

    2002-01-01

    Of 13 nursing students in a community nursing clinical project, 7 worked with older adults who received instruction about drug interaction. Compared to the six whose patients did not receive instruction, these students achieved greater knowledge and self-efficacy scores related to drug interaction. (Contains 16 references.) (SK)

  20. Nanoparticles: Is Toxicity a Concern?

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Pragna

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology involving manipulation of atoms and molecules at the nanoscale is one of the frontier areas of research in modern science. During the last few years, nanotechnology has witnessed breakthroughs in the fields of medicine, environment, therapeutics, drug development and biotechnology. This is due to the unique properties of nanomaterials (e.g. chemical, mechanical, optical, magnetic, and biological) which make them desirable for commercial and medical applications. Considering the theory and practice of using nanoparticles, nanotechnology has a great potential in improving treatment of various disorders and in vitro diagnostics. However, there is not much information available on the toxicity of nanoparticles in relation to human health. Toxic effect of nanomaterials on humans is the primary concern of the health industry. Nanomaterials are able to cross biological membranes and access cells, tissues and organs that larger-sized particles normally cannot. Nanomaterials can gain access to the blood stream via inhalation or ingestion. This may lead to both genotoxicity and biochemical toxicity. In this review we try to show which types, sizes and concentrations of nanoparticles are safe for human use and this will help in developing diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic models using nanoparticles.