Science.gov

Sample records for environmental deterioration correspond

  1. Concern With Environmental Deterioration and Attitudes Toward Population Limitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Larry D.

    1970-01-01

    Analysis of Gallup Poll data of Junuary 1969 reveals weak association between concern about environmental deterioration and the recognition of need for eventual limitation of human population. Suggests that to increase favorable attitudes to population control, role of overpopulation in causing environmental deterioration needs to be presented to…

  2. Environmental deterioration increases tadpole vulnerability to predation.

    PubMed

    Squires, Zoe E; Bailey, Paul C E; Reina, Richard D; Wong, Bob B M

    2008-08-23

    Human-induced environmental change is occurring at an unprecedented rate and scale. Many freshwater habitats, in particular, have been degraded as a result of increased salinity. Little is known about the effects of anthropogenic salinization on freshwater organisms, especially at sublethal concentrations, where subtle behavioural changes can have potentially drastic fitness consequences. Using a species of Australian frog (Litoria ewingii), we experimentally examined the effects of salinization on tadpole behaviour and their vulnerability to a predatory dragonfly nymph (Hemianax papuensis). We found that tadpoles exposed to an ecologically relevant concentration of salt (15% seawater, SW) were less active than those in our freshwater control (0.4% SW). Tadpoles in elevated salinity also experienced a higher risk of predation, even though the strike rate of the predator did not differ between salt and freshwater treatments. In a separate experiment testing the burst-speed performance of tadpoles, we found that tadpoles in saltwater were slower than those in freshwater. Thus, it would appear that salt compromised the anti-predator response of tadpoles and made them more susceptible to being captured. Our results demonstrate that environmentally relevant concentrations of aquatic contaminants can, even at sublethal levels, severely undermine the fitness of exposed organisms. PMID:18492650

  3. [The ravages of environmental deterioration in Third World cities].

    PubMed

    Carty, W P

    1990-10-01

    2 articles examine different aspects of environmental deterioration in Third World cities. The 1st, by Winthrop Carty, notes that by the early 21st century the world's population will be predominantly urban for the 1st time. 3.5 billion persons will reside in cities covering 1% of the earth's land area. 90% of urban growth in the next 28 years will be in the least developed countries, and only 4 of the 23 largest cities in 2000 will be in the industrialized world. The current rate of urban growth in developing countries, 3.6%/year, is a result largely of influx from rural areas of migrants in search of a better life. Rapid urbanization was not unknown in Europe and North America, but it did not approach the speed of growth in the urban areas of developing countries today. The population of Lagos for example grew from 700,000 in 1965 to 5.6 million in 1985, and Cairo grew by nearly 6.5 million between 1947-81. Environmental degradation and a rapid decline in the quality of life have been among the results of this rapid urban growth. There is considerable evidence, however, that cities in developing countries are powerful motors of development. Nearly 60% of the gross national products of the least developed countries is generated in their urban areas by 1/3 of their total populations. Air pollution, lack of sewage disposal, and lack of potable water are among the most pressing environmental problems in urban areas of developing countries. The 30-60% of their populations who are the most impoverished are most vulnerable to the health problems resulting from environmental deterioration. But developing countries lack the substantial resources that would be needed to improve living conditions for their urban populations. The 2nd article, by Aliou Diongue, focuses on overly rapid and unplanned development in the cities of the Sahel. Although Sahel cities are not large in absolute terms, their recent very rapid growth has obliterated their identities. The growth rate of

  4. Benthic macroinvertebrates as indicators of environmental deterioration in a large microtidal estuary.

    PubMed

    Wildsmith, M D; Rose, T H; Potter, I C; Warwick, R M; Clarke, K R

    2011-03-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that, during recent years, the benthic macroinvertebrate fauna of the large basin of the Swan-Canning Estuary has changed in ways consistent with deteriorating environmental conditions in that estuary. Between 1986/7 and 2003/4, the compositions of that fauna altered markedly at the species and even family levels. Thus, the densities and number of species of molluscs, and especially of crustaceans, which are particularly susceptible to environmental stress, declined, while those of the more tolerant polychaetes increased. However, taxonomic distinctness declined consistently only at one of the four widely-spaced sampling sites and the dispersion of samples did not differ markedly between periods, indicating that the benthic fauna has not undergone such extreme changes as in the nearby Peel-Harvey Estuary. It is thus proposed that benthic macroinvertebrates can act as important indicators of the severity of environmental degradation in microtidal estuaries in regions where such perturbations are increasing.

  5. Numerical analysis of deteriorated sub-sea pipelines under environmental loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gücüyen, Engin

    2015-11-01

    The significant point is the bidirectional interaction technique in FSI analysis while investigating subsea corrosion effect. By this way, pipe environment is accurately modelled and fluid effects are also considered. The effect of external corrosion defects on structural behaviour of a pipeline is studied by creating a nonlinear numerical model based on the finite element method according to ABAQUS analysis program. Corrosion losses of sections are obtained from experimental results and applied to the model. Numerical model is formed by a span of sub-sea pipeline that is subjected to environmental loads. Seismic and wind-generated irregular wave loads are considered as environmental loads. Irregular wave is represented with equivalent eight regular waves via FFT. The pipe is modelled according to two different types which are non-corroded(intact) and corroded (deteriorated) to demonstrate corrosion effects on it. The visible type of corrosion in marine environment is named `pitting' corrosion, in which the material loss is locally interpenetrated over the surface. By considering this situation, the corroded and non-corroded pipes are modelled as 3D solid elements. The main point is revealing how the subsea corrosion affects the structural behaviour of pipelines on the basis of implementation of experimental results to a model structure due to changes of stresses and displacement.

  6. Phenotypic differentiation of the Red Sea gastropods in response to the environmental deterioration: Geometric morphometric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelhady, Ahmed Awad

    2016-03-01

    The negative impacts of degradation in the coastal zone of the Red Sea are becoming well known in upper portions of the trophic web (e.g., humans and fish), but are less well known among the benthic primary consumers. In addition, the degree to which heavy metals are entering the trophic web can be better-quantified using macrobenthos. Two-gastropod genera encompassing Echinolittorina subnodosa and Planaxis sulcatus from three different localities on the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea were examined in order to deduce the impact of environmental deterioration on the morphology of shells. The examined sites include clean pristine, slightly polluted, and markedly polluted rocky shores. Phosphate/lead industry is the main source of pollution in this zone. Because landmarks on the rugose Echinolittorina are difficult to define and to ensure finer resolution of the analyses, a newly 'grid-based' landmarks was implemented. Both Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) and Thin Plate Spline (TPS) were particularly capable to capture and terrace the minor morphological variations accurately. Two phenotypes portioned among the environmentally different populations were recognized and interpreted as ecotypes with many intermediate forms. The first ecotype has a higher spire and smaller aperture and dominating the pristine site North of Marsa Alam, whereas the second ecotype has a globular shell shape with big aperture and dominating the markedly polluted site. The intermediate forms dominating the slightly polluted site. The shape differences are interpreted as an adaptive differentiation to different metal concentrations. As the morphological variation between the two-ecotypes of both taxa is still minors, and both ecotypes occur together with many intermediate forms, the phenotypic divergence stage has not yet accomplished. The gradational shape change among the investigated populations was positively correlated with index of Pollution (IP). As the human activities were the main

  7. Population increase and environmental deterioration correspond with microlithic innovations in South Asia ca. 35,000 years ago

    PubMed Central

    Petraglia, Michael; Clarkson, Christopher; Boivin, Nicole; Haslam, Michael; Korisettar, Ravi; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Ditchfield, Peter; Fuller, Dorian; James, Hannah; Jones, Sacha; Kivisild, Toomas; Koshy, Jinu; Lahr, Marta Mirazón; Metspalu, Mait; Roberts, Richard; Arnold, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Genetic studies of South Asia's population history have led to postulations of a significant and early population expansion in the subcontinent, dating to sometime in the Late Pleistocene. We evaluate this argument, based on new mtDNA analyses, and find evidence for significant demographic transition in the subcontinent, dating to 35–28 ka. We then examine the paleoenvironmental and, particularly, archaeological records for this time period and note that this putative demographic event coincides with a period of ecological and technological change in South Asia. We document the development of a new diminutive stone blade (microlithic) technology beginning at 35–30 ka, the first time that the precocity of this transition has been recognized across the subcontinent. We argue that the transition to microlithic technology may relate to changes in subsistence practices, as increasingly large and probably fragmented populations exploited resources in contracting favorable ecological zones just before the onset of full glacial conditions. PMID:19620737

  8. Study of glazed building ceramics from central Europe (Budapest, Hungary) in aspect of deterioration by environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baricza, Ágnes; Bajnóczi, Bernadett; Tóth, Mária; Szabó, Csaba

    2014-05-01

    The Zsolnay products are one of the most famous Hungarian ceramics. The glazed building ceramics, which were produced by this factory, were often applied in Hungary and the surrounding countries. Since their outplacements the ceramics have suffered from numerous environmental and human influences. There is no profound knowledge about deterioration of these building materials. Beside the characterization of the Zsolnay ceramics, our purpose is to attempt to explain the deterioration caused by environmental factors considering that these ceramics have never been studied in this aspect before. Other goal is to reveal if there is any influence on the deterioration depending on the location of building covered by Zsolnay ceramics. The studied objects were used on buildings of the Museum of Applied Arts (in the center with high traffic) and the Hungarian Geological and Geophysical Institute in Budapest (in a quarter with moderate traffic). We examined the physical and chemical features of the glaze and the ceramic body (e.g., phase composition, texture, microstructure, alteration) and the depositions on the glazed and the unglazed sides of some selected ceramics. Based on the results, three different types of ceramics were used as building materials. We observed several kinds of damage (e.g. cracks, pitting corrosions), black deposition layer and alterations in different extent. Natural and artificial particles (e.g. iron-oxide, mica, calcite and glauberithe) and spherules were deposited on the surface. Traces of biological activity were also found and connected to these organic residues calcium-oxalate was detected. On some objects of the Museum the glaze has started to weather and its lead was leached glaze by rainfall. Weathering also occurs along cracks in the glaze interior together with precipitation of lead-rich phases. Gypsum layer frequently covers the ceramics. In conclusions, the ceramics from the Museum are in worse condition than the ceramics from the

  9. Valuation and the consequences of multiple sources of environmental deterioration: The case of the New York striped bass fishery

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, J.R. ); Buerger, R.B. )

    1994-03-01

    This paper examines two sources of environmental degradation in the New York striped bass fishery. The first is the decline in environmental quality in the Chesapeake Bay, the spawning ground for the majority of fish in New York waters. The second is the PCB contamination of striped bass from the Hudson River, the other primary spawning ground for striped bass in New York waters. The paper develops methodologies for examining loss in economic value, when the loss stems from two sources. The estimates resulting from the application of these methodologies suggest that the general deterioration of the Chesapeake Bay generated 2[center dot]3 to 7[center dot]7 million dollars in annual losses to the New York striped bass fishery, and that the annual losses from PCB contamination of the Hudson striped bass are between 0[center dot]745 and 3[center dot]7 million dollars. The paper also discusses how the dual sources of degradation generate barriers to the formation of effective management policy, and develops policy recommendations based on the estimated losses. 9 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Methodology for definition of yellow fever priority areas, based on environmental variables and multiple correspondence analyses.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Eduardo Stramandinoli; Barata, Rita de Cássia Barradas

    2012-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is endemic in much of Brazil, where cases of the disease are reported every year. Since 2008, outbreaks of the disease have occurred in regions of the country where no reports had been registered for decades, which has obligated public health authorities to redefine risk areas for the disease. The aim of the present study was to propose a methodology of environmental risk analysis for defining priority municipalities for YF vaccination, using as example, the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The municipalities were divided into two groups (affected and unaffected by YF) and compared based on environmental parameters related to the disease's eco-epidemiology. Bivariate analysis was used to identify statistically significant associations between the variables and virus circulation. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used to evaluate the relationship among the variables and their contribution to the dynamics of YF in Sao Paulo. The MCA generated a factor that was able to differentiate between affected and unaffected municipalities and was used to determine risk levels. This methodology can be replicated in other regions, standardized, and adapted to each context.

  11. The Mediation Effect of Outdoor Recreation Participation on Environmental Attitude-Behavior Correspondence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thapa, Brijesh

    2010-01-01

    Outdoor recreation participation has increased over the past decades and is projected for further growth. Given the increase, it is important to assess recreationists' environmental values, activity style, general, and site-specific attitudes and behaviors to promote environmental stewardship, and to develop effective strategies in natural…

  12. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1929 Section 52.1929 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air... preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  13. Pest Management and Environmental Quality. Course 181. Correspondence Courses in Agriculture, Family Living and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.; And Others

    This publication is the course book for a correspondence course in pest control with the Pennsylvania State University. It contains basic information for agricultural producers on pest management and the proper and safe use of pesticides. The course consists of eleven lessons which can be completed at one's leisure. The first nine lessons contain…

  14. How to Prevent Microfilm from Deteriorating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrie, Milton I.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests optimum environmental conditions (temperature, humidity), microfilm reader specifications, and handling, cleaning, repairing, and storing procedures to prevent the early deterioration of microfilm. (MBR)

  15. Correspondence standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This revised handbook covers the drafting, preparation, and review of NASA letters, memorandums, informal communications, electronic communications, envelopes and mailing, and classified correspondence. The appendices address specific guidelines for administrator's correspondence, White House and Congressional correspondance, Privacy Act correspondence, and foreign correspondence. Also incorporated as appendices are quick references for forms of address, compound words, and capitalization of words frequently used at NASA.

  16. 40 CFR 1033.245 - Deterioration factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 1033.245 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Certifying Engine Families § 1033.245 Deterioration factors... locomotives will meet emission standards for each pollutant throughout the useful life....

  17. Environmental cues induce changes of steviol glycosides contents and transcription of corresponding biosynthetic genes in Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongheng; Huang, Suzhen; Han, Yulin; Yuan, Haiyan; Gu, Chunsun; Wang, Zhongwei

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth and secondary metabolism are commonly regulated by external cues such as light, temperature and water availability. In this study, the influences of low and high temperatures, dehydration, photoperiods, and different growing stages on the changes of steviol glycosides (SGs) contents and transcription levels of fifteen genes involved in SGs biosynthesis of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni were examined using HPLC and RT-PCR. The observations showed that the transcript levels of all the fifteen genes were maximum under 25 °C treatment, and the transcription of SrDXS, SrDXR, SrMCT, SrCMK, SrMDS, SrHDS, SrHDR, SrIDI, SrGGDPS, SrCPPS1, SrUGT85C2 and SrUGT76G1 were restrained both in low temperature (15 °C) and high temperature (35 °C). Most genes in SGs biosynthesis pathway exhibited down-regulation in dehydration. To elucidate the effect of photoperiods, the plants were treated by different simulated photoperiods (8 L/16 D, 1 0L/14 D, 14 L/10 D and 16 L/8 D), but no significant transcription changes were observed. In the study of growing stages, there were evident changes of SGs contents, and the transcript levels of all the fifteen genes were minimal in fast growing period, and exhibited evident increase both in flower-bud appearing stage and flowering stage. The obtained results strongly suggest that the effect of environmental cues on steviol glycosides contents and transcription of corresponding biosynthetic genes in S. rebaudiana is significant. It is worth to study deeply.

  18. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  19. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  20. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  1. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  3. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  4. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  5. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  6. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  12. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  13. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  14. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  15. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  19. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  20. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  1. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  3. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  4. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality,...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  6. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  12. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  13. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  14. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  15. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  19. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  20. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  1. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  2. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  3. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  4. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  5. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  6. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  12. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  13. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  14. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  15. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.1689 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1689 Section 52.1689 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  19. Correspondencia (Correspondence).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannan, Robert

    The language of Spanish correspondence possesses particular characteristics that lie somewhere between the everyday conversational style and the more formal literary style. This minicourse contains three lessons intended to enable the student to learn the letter-writing style and to write letters in Spanish. It is also intended to encourage and…

  20. Correspondence analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Correspondence analysis is a powerful exploratory multivariate technique for categorical variables with many levels. It is a data analysis tool that characterizes associations between levels of 2 or more categorical variables using graphical representations of the information in a contingency table...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR Chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR Chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR Chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  4. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.96 Section 52.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation Air Quality... deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR chapter 340, Divisions 200,...

  6. [Community structure of sponges (Porifera) in three reefs at Morrocoy National Park, Venezuela and its correspondence with some environmental variables].

    PubMed

    Romero, Marco A; Villamizar, Estrella; Malaver, Nora

    2013-09-01

    Sponges have an important ecological role in coral reef ecosystems. However, when compared to other benthic Phyla, it has been little researched. This research was focused in the variability of the community structure of sponges in three locations at Morrocoy National Park (Cayo Sombrero, Playa Mero and Punta Brava) exposed to different environmental conditions (transparency and currents intensity) and affected in different degree of severity by a mass mortality event in 1996. A total of 15 transects (10 m long and 1 m wide) were evaluated in three strata (between 3 and 15 m depth) in each site, where all the individuals were counted by species. Relative abundance by species, diversity and evenness were calculated. Locations showed differences respect turbidity, wave and current intensity. 27 species were found in Morrocoy; Cayo Sombrero (23), Playa Mero (18) and Punta Brava (15). Agelas sceptrum, Amphimedon erina and Niphates erecta were the most common in first location; Niphates erecta and Dysidea etheria in Playa Mero and Dysidea etheria, Niphates erecta and Amphimedon erina in Punta Brava. The species composition showed statistical differences between all three locations; Cayo Sombrero resulted the most diverse and even, followed by Playa Mero and Punta Brava. According to Sorensen Similarity Index results, Cayo Sombrero and Playa Mero were more similar, while Punta Brava resulted the most different. The variability in environmental conditions and the differential mass mortality effects of 1996 in all three reefs, were probably the main causes of the differences between their sponge communities. Nevertheless, we cannot conclude about the weight of these factors.

  7. The deteriorating artificial slate

    SciTech Connect

    Gumpertz, W.H.; Condren, S.J.

    1999-07-01

    Wood fibers were substituted for asbestos fibers as reinforcing in cement-fiber shingle products used as imitation roofing slate when governmental action outlawed the use of asbestos in this application. Field experience with many installations of one brand of these new products, however, has been unsatisfactory. The authors have observed the rapid deterioration, often within two to three years, of shingles in service, primarily by the development of extensive cracking. Research finds that these failures result from layering of the mortar materials during manufacture, combined with petrifaction and loss of ductility of the organic fibers. The authors suggest changes to the requirements of the applicable ASTM standard to help ensure that the product has the attributes necessary for satisfactory performance in service.

  8. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the...

  9. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  10. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  11. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  12. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air...

  15. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.270 Section 52.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... plan does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  20. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air...

  3. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.270 Section 52.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... plan does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2922 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2922 Section 52.2922 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Northern Mariana Islands § 52.2922 Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of... procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for...

  5. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  6. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  8. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean...

  10. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  11. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and...

  13. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  14. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.270 Section 52.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... plan does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting...

  17. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  20. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting...

  2. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  3. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  4. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  5. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.343 Section 52.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for the following categories of sources for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and...

  7. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  8. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  9. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  10. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  11. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2131 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2131 Section 52.2131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new...

  14. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new...

  16. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of...

  17. 40 CFR 52.986 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.986 Section 52.986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of Louisiana on August 14, 1984 (as adopted... preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of...

  18. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2131 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2131 Section 52.2131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean...

  1. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting...

  3. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the...

  4. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2131 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2131 Section 52.2131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required...

  6. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  11. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  12. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting...

  14. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the...

  15. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2131 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2131 Section 52.2131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new...

  20. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  1. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  2. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air...

  6. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean...

  9. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  10. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air...

  12. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.343 Section 52.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for the following categories of sources for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  14. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  15. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements...

  16. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b)...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and...

  20. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  1. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean...

  3. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of...

  4. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention...

  6. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2131 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2131 Section 52.2131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required...

  8. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.270 Section 52.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... plan does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to §...

  10. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air...

  12. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  14. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to §...

  16. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.343 Section 52.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for the following categories of sources for preventing the significant deterioration of air...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  2. Overcoming environmental deterioration through defensive expenditures: field evidence from Bahía del Tóbari (Sonora, México) and implications for coastal impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Escofet, A; Bravo-Peña, L C

    2007-08-01

    The costs of the maneuvers that fishermen and shrimp farmers have to undertake in a coastal scenario where both the access to navigable waters and water quality have decreased were interpreted as defensive expenditures. Maneuvers were prompted by profound changes in water circulation and siltation mode imposed by major shifts in regional and local land-use patterns. In coastal scenarios under heavy land-based discharges and local geomorphic modifications, local users with little chance to move away may modify their routines in order to maintain existing levels of utility. The concept of defensive expenditures could be used to assess social responses to adverse changes in environmental and resource conditions, as a means to distinguish stages in which local sectors respond individually from qualitatively different stages in which intersectoral events are more conspicuous.

  3. Detection of environmental deterioration in fiber reinforced composites by Ft-Raman spectroscopy. Phase I. Final report, 30 July 1993-30 April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Farquharson, S.; Bananno, A.; Basilakis, R.; Carangelo, M.; DiTaranto, M.

    1994-05-01

    A number of advanced fiber reinforced organic matrix composites are being developed and applied in the aerospace industry. In these applications, the composites may be exposed to a variety of harsh environments, which may induce chemical and physical changes in the composite material, and ultimately lead to component failure. The successful use of these composites, therefore, requires methods to reliably detect and assess these changes. During this Phase I Program, a fiber optic based Fourier transform Raman spectrometer was specifically developed to perform nondestructive evaluation of environmentally damaged composites. Specifically, graphite and Kevlar reinforced epoxy and polyimide composite samples were subjected to thermal cycling, moisture exposure and ultraviolet irradiation. Three point flexure tests were used to measure flexural strength, flexural modulus, failure strain and failure load to assess induced mechanical property changes in the composites. Reflectance infrared spectra of the sample surfaces, as well as transmission infrared spectra of evolved gas phase chemical species were used to further characterize these changes.

  4. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52... Address: Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Pollution Control, Air Division,...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52... Address: Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Pollution Control, Air Division,...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52... Address: Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, Office of Pollution Control, Air Division,...

  7. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Environmental Management, 105 South Meridian Street, P.O. Box 6015, Indianapolis, IN 46206. ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  8. Non-destructive assessment of parchment deterioration by optical methods.

    PubMed

    Dolgin, Bella; Bulatov, Valery; Schechter, Israel

    2007-08-01

    A non-destructive and non-invasive method for quantitative characterization of parchment deterioration, based on spectral measurements, is proposed. Deterioration due to both natural aging (ancient parchments) and artificial aging (achieved by means of controlled UV irradiation and temperature treatment) was investigated. The effect of aging on parchment native fluorescence was correlated with its deterioration condition. Aging causes fluorescence intensity drop, spectral shift of the main peak, and an overall change in the fluorescence spectral features. Digital color imaging analysis based on visible reflectance from the parchment surface was also applied, and the correspondent color components (RGB) were successively correlated with the state of parchment deterioration/aging. The fluorescence and color imaging data were validated by analysis of historical parchments, aged between 50 and 2000 years and covering a large variety of states of deterioration. The samples were independently assessed by traditional microscopy methods. We conclude that the proposed optical method qualifies well as a non-destructive tool for rapid assessment of the stage of parchment deterioration.

  9. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's regulations... requesting innovative technology waivers which would significantly impact air quality in adjacent states....

  10. 40 CFR 52.1634 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1634 Section 52.1634 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on February 21... adopted by the NMEID on March 9, 1990), Air Quality Control Regulation 707—Permits, Prevention...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality rules identified in paragraph (a) of this section, and the Lane Regional Air Pollution...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1634 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1634 Section 52.1634 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on February 21... adopted by the NMEID on March 9, 1990), Air Quality Control Regulation 707—Permits, Prevention...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's regulations... requesting innovative technology waivers which would significantly impact air quality in adjacent states....

  15. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's regulations... requesting innovative technology waivers which would significantly impact air quality in adjacent states....

  16. 40 CFR 52.1634 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1634 Section 52.1634 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on February 21... adopted by the NMEID on March 9, 1990), Air Quality Control Regulation 707—Permits, Prevention...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's regulations... requesting innovative technology waivers which would significantly impact air quality in adjacent states....

  18. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1634 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1634 Section 52.1634 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on February 21... adopted by the NMEID on March 9, 1990), Air Quality Control Regulation 707—Permits, Prevention...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's regulations... requesting innovative technology waivers which would significantly impact air quality in adjacent states....

  1. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant... Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local agencies,...

  4. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for...

  5. Quantitative analysis of trace elements in environmental powders with laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry using non-sample-corresponding reference materials for signal evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Gerald; Limbeck, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is an attractive alternative to traditional procedures for the analysis of environmental samples (i.e., conventional liquid measurement after sample digestion). However, for accurate quantification, certified reference materials (CRM) are necessary which match the composition of the sample and include all elements of interest at the required concentration levels. The limited availability of appropriate CRMs hampers therefore substantial application. In this work, an LA-ICP-MS procedure allowing for accurate determination of trace element contents in powdered environmental samples is presented. For LA-ICP-MS analysis, the samples are mixed with an internal standard (silver oxide) and a binder (sodium tetra borate) and subsequently pressed to pellets. Quantification is accomplished using a calibration function determined using CRMs with varying matrix composition and analyte content, pre-treated and measured in the same way as the samples. With this approach, matrix-induced ablation differences resulting from varying physical/chemical properties of the individual CRMs could be compensated. Furthermore, ICP-related matrix-effects could be minimized using collision/reaction cell technology. Applicability of the procedure has been demonstrated by assessment of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn in four different environmental CRMs (NIST SRM1648a (urban particulate matter), NIST SRM2709 (San Joaquin Soil), BCR144 (sewage sludge), and BCR723 (road dust)). Signal evaluation was performed by alternative use of three CRMs for calculation of the calibration function whereas the remaining fourth CRM acted as unknown sample, resulting in a good agreement between measured and certified values for all elements and reference materials.

  6. 40 CFR 52.2630 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of air quality. 52.2630 Section 52.2630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.2630 Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Wyoming plan, as submitted...) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The Wyoming plan, as submitted, does...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2630 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of air quality. 52.2630 Section 52.2630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.2630 Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Wyoming plan, as submitted...) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The Wyoming plan, as submitted, does...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1382 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of air quality. 52.1382 Section 52.1382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1382 Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Montana plan, as submitted... significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph (a)(1) are...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2058 - Prevention of significant air quality deterioration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prevention of significant air quality deterioration. 52.2058 Section 52.2058 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Prevention of significant air quality deterioration. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1829 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of air quality. 52.1829 Section 52.1829 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Dakota § 52.1829 Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The North Dakota plan, as... of significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph (a)(1)...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2058 - Prevention of significant air quality deterioration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prevention of significant air quality deterioration. 52.2058 Section 52.2058 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Prevention of significant air quality deterioration. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1382 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of air quality. 52.1382 Section 52.1382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1382 Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Montana plan, as submitted... significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph (a)(1) are...

  13. 75 FR 27191 - Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and Nonattainment New Source Review (NSR): Aggregation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 51 and 52 RIN 2060-AP80 Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and Nonattainment New Source Review (NSR): Aggregation AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... period on our proposed reconsideration of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD)...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1829 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1829 Section 52.1829 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Dakota § 52.1829 Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The North Dakota plan,...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2058 - Prevention of significant air quality deterioration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of significant air quality deterioration. 52.2058 Section 52.2058 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Prevention of significant air quality deterioration. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1382 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1382 Section 52.1382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1382 Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Montana plan, as...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2630 - Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2630 Section 52.2630 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.2630 Prevention of significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Wyoming plan, as...

  18. Demonstrating the Correspondence Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Jennifer L.; Shepperd, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Among the best-known and most robust biases in person perception is the correspondence bias--the tendency for people to make dispositional, rather than situational, attributions for an actor's behavior. The correspondence bias appears in virtually every social psychology textbook and in many introductory psychology textbooks, yet the authors'…

  19. Environmental variables across Pan troglodytes study sites correspond with the carbon, but not the nitrogen, stable isotope ratios of chimpanzee hair.

    PubMed

    Schoeninger, Margaret J; Most, Corinna A; Moore, Jim J; Somerville, Andrew D

    2016-10-01

    Diet influences the stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen (δ(13) C and δ(15) N values) in animal tissue; but here we explore the influences of particular aspects of the local environment on those values in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). In this article we present new δ(13) C and δ(15) N values in Gombe chimpanzees using hairs collected from night nests in 1989. Then, we explore the influence of environmental factors by comparing our Gombe data to those from eight additional Pan study sites with previously published stable isotope data. We compare chimpanzee δ(13) Chair and δ(15) Nhar values to specific characteristics of local site ecology (biome and ecoregion) and to local Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP) to test hypotheses based on known effects of these variables on the δ(13) C and δ(15) N values in plant tissues. The comparison shows that hair from chimpanzees living in savanna sites with lower MAP have higher δ(13) Chair values than do chimpanzees living in woodland and forested sites with higher MAP. These results demonstrate the potential of using δ(13) C values in primate tissue to indicate aspects of their local ecology in cases where the ecology is uncertain, such as samples collected early in the last century and in fossil hominins. In contrast to expectations, however, chimpanzee δ(15) Nhair values from some savanna sites with lower MAP are lower, not higher, than those living in more forested areas with higher MAP. It is likely that diet selectivity by chimpanzees affects δ(15) Nhair values to a greater extent than does the influence of precipitation on plants. Am. J. Primatol. 78:1055-1069, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Does job insecurity deteriorate health?

    PubMed

    Caroli, Eve; Godard, Mathilde

    2016-02-01

    This paper estimates the causal effect of perceived job insecurity - that is, the fear of involuntary job loss - on health in a sample of men from 22 European countries. We rely on an original instrumental variable approach on the basis of the idea that workers perceive greater job security in countries where employment is strongly protected by the law and more so if employed in industries where employment protection legislation is more binding; that is, in induastries with a higher natural rate of dismissals. Using cross-country data from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey, we show that, when the potential endogeneity of job insecurity is not accounted for, the latter appears to deteriorate almost all health outcomes. When tackling the endogeneity issue by estimating an instrumental variable model and dealing with potential weak-instrument issues, the health-damaging effect of job insecurity is confirmed for a limited subgroup of health outcomes; namely, suffering from headaches or eyestrain and skin problems. As for other health variables, the impact of job insecurity appears to be insignificant at conventional levels.

  1. A method for detecting structural deterioration in bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, H. A., Jr.; Reed, R. E., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of detecting deterioration in bridge structures is studied with the use of Randomdec analysis. Randomdec signatures, derived from the ambient bridge vibrations in the acoustic range, were obtained for a girder bridge over a period of a year to show the insensitivity of the signatures to environmental changes. A laboratory study was also conducted to show the sensitivity of signatures to fatigue cracks on the order of a centimeter in length in steel beams.

  2. 40 CFR 1033.245 - Deterioration factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... locomotives will meet emission standards for each pollutant throughout the useful life. Determine... deterioration expected to result during the useful life of a locomotive maintained as specified in § 1033.125... deterioration factors that predict emission increases over the useful life of a locomotive or locomotive...

  3. Orbital fracture deterioration after scuba diving.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Hiroko; Yoshioka, Nobutaka

    2009-07-01

    Sinus barotrauma is a common disease in divers. However, it is not familiar to maxillofacial surgeon. We presented orbital fracture deterioration by sinus barotrauma in scuba diving and a review of literatures. We also discussed the clinical features, the prevention, and the possible mechanism of orbital fracture deterioration after scuba diving.

  4. 40 CFR 1033.245 - Deterioration factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... analysis, explain why this is appropriate and include a statement that all data, analyses, evaluations, and... deterioration factors as described in this section, either with an engineering analysis, with pre-existing test data, or with new emission measurements. The deterioration factors are intended to reflect...

  5. Multiclass Continuous Correspondence Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Brian D,; Thompson, David R.

    2011-01-01

    We extend the Structural Correspondence Learning (SCL) domain adaptation algorithm of Blitzer er al. to the realm of continuous signals. Given a set of labeled examples belonging to a 'source' domain, we select a set of unlabeled examples in a related 'target' domain that play similar roles in both domains. Using these 'pivot samples, we map both domains into a common feature space, allowing us to adapt a classifier trained on source examples to classify target examples. We show that when between-class distances are relatively preserved across domains, we can automatically select target pivots to bring the domains into correspondence.

  6. Correspondence: A Medium Rediscovered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilworth, Collett B., Jr.; Wilde, Pat

    Two English teachers, one in North Carolina and one in Missouri, structured a correspondence project for their senior English classes so that 60 students at each school exchanged personal letters once each week during the semester. The students responded to the project with an interest and drive that overshadowed their interest in the normal…

  7. The Correspondence Principle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liboff, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    Addresses the question of frequency correspondence in the domain of large quantum numbers, with reference to periodic systems. Provides two simple counterexamples (a particle in a cubical box and a rigid rotator) to show that the classical result is not always recovered in the limit of large quantum numbers. (JM)

  8. Summer Correspondence Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulphur Springs Union Elementary School District, Canyon Country, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: The goals of the Summer Correspondence Program have been to help students maintain their basic skills and avoid summer fall-out, as well as to promote parent involvement and positive community relations. After Proposition 13 left no funds for continuation of summer school programs, Sulphur Springs…

  9. Microbiologically induced deterioration of concrete - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shiping; Jiang, Zhenglong; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Dongsheng; Sanchez-Silva, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically induced deterioration (MID) causes corrosion of concrete by producing acids (including organic and inorganic acids) that degrade concrete components and thus compromise the integrity of sewer pipelines and other structures, creating significant problems worldwide. Understanding of the fundamental corrosion process and the causal agents will help us develop an appropriate strategy to minimize the costs in repairs. This review presents how microorganisms induce the deterioration of concrete, including the organisms involved and their colonization and succession on concrete, the microbial deterioration mechanism, the approaches of studying MID and safeguards against concrete biodeterioration. In addition, the uninvestigated research area of MID is also proposed. PMID:24688488

  10. A correspondence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Barry D.; Ninham, Barry W.

    2016-02-01

    A single mathematical theme underpins disparate physical phenomena in classical, quantum and statistical mechanical contexts. This mathematical "correspondence principle", a kind of wave-particle duality with glorious realizations in classical and modern mathematical analysis, embodies fundamental geometrical and physical order, and yet in some sense sits on the edge of chaos. Illustrative cases discussed are drawn from classical and anomalous diffusion, quantum mechanics of single particles and ideal gases, quasicrystals and Casimir forces.

  11. The deterioration of intermediate moisture foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labruza, T. P.

    1971-01-01

    Deteriorative reactions are low and food quality high if intermediate moisture content of a food is held at a water activity of 0.6 to 0.75. Information is of interest to food processing and packaging industry.

  12. 40 CFR 1033.245 - Deterioration factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-hour test point. For example, if you use aftertreatment technology that controls emissions of a... multiplicative or additive) or include the effects in combined deterioration factors that include exhaust...

  13. Correspondence: Searching sequence space

    SciTech Connect

    Youvan, D.C.

    1995-08-01

    This correspondence debates the efficiency and application of genetic algorithms (GAs) to search protein sequence space. The important experimental point is that such sparse searches utilize physically realistic syntheses. In this regard, all GA-based technologies are very similar; they {open_quotes}learn{close_quotes} from their initial sparse search and then generate interesting new proteins within a few iterations. Which GA-based technology is best? That probably depends on the protein and the specific engineering goal. Given the fact that the field of combinatorial chemistry is still in its infancy, it is probably wise to consider all of the proven mutagenesis methods. 19 refs.

  14. [Pteridophytes that indicate environmental alteration in the temperate forest of San Jerónimo Amanalco, Texcoco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Lucía Rodríguez, Romero; Pacheco, Leticia; Zavala Hurtado, José Alejandro

    2008-06-01

    Pteridophytes that indicate environmental alteration in the San Jer6nimo Amanalco temperate forest, Texcoco, Mexico. The patterns of distribution of 26 pteridophyte species were studied as possible indicators of environmental alteration in the temperate forest of San Jer6nimo Amanalco, Texcoco, State of Mexico. The presence and abundance of the pteridoflora was studied in relation to edaphic, topographic and vegetation variables in 100 sampling locations within an area of 494 hectares. The relationship between these variables was studied using Canonical Correspondence Analysis. Five landscapes were recognized in the study zone according to the degree of deterioration: severe erosion, erosion, mountain with moderate reversible deterioration, mountain with no evident deterioration, and canyon with no evident deterioration. Cheilanthes bonariensis and Pellaea ternifolia are indicators of environmental degradation. The taxa that only grow in landscapes without apparent alteration are Adiantum andicola, Adiantum poiretii, Argyrochosma incana, Asplenium blepharophorum, Dryopteris pseudo filix-mas, Equisetum hyemale and Pteris cretica.

  15. 76 FR 55799 - Approval of Clean Air Act Prevention of Significant Deterioration Permit Issued to Avenal Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval of Clean Air Act Prevention of Significant Deterioration Permit Issued to Avenal Power Center, LLC To Construct the Avenal Energy Project AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... decision granting the Clean Air Act Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit...

  16. Single-machine group scheduling problems with deteriorating and learning effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xingong, Zhang; Yong, Wang; Shikun, Bai

    2016-07-01

    The concepts of deteriorating jobs and learning effects have been individually studied in many scheduling problems. However, most studies considering the deteriorating and learning effects ignore the fact that production efficiency can be increased by grouping various parts and products with similar designs and/or production processes. This phenomenon is known as 'group technology' in the literature. In this paper, a new group scheduling model with deteriorating and learning effects is proposed, where learning effect depends not only on job position, but also on the position of the corresponding job group; deteriorating effect depends on its starting time of the job. This paper shows that the makespan and the total completion time problems remain polynomial optimal solvable under the proposed model. In addition, a polynomial optimal solution is also presented to minimise the maximum lateness problem under certain agreeable restriction.

  17. Similarities and differences in bare concrete deck deterioration curves from multi NDE technology surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinyoung; Gucunski, Nenad; Dinh, Kien

    2016-04-01

    Reinforced concrete decks are in most cases the fastest deteriorating components of a bridge due to the multitude of influencing factors: direct traffic loading and environmental effects, maintenance activities (salting), etc. Among many deterioration types, corrosion-induced deterioration is the most common problem in reinforced concrete decks. The study concentrates on the condition assessment of bridge decks using complementary NDE techniques. The assessment has three main components: assessment of corrosive environment and corrosion processes, and assessment with respect to the deck delamination. The study concentrates on a complementary use of five NDE techniques: impact echo (IE) to detect and characterize delamination, ground penetrating radar (GPR) to describe the corrosive environment and detect delamination, and electrical resistivity (ER) to estimate the corrosion rate by measuring concrete resistivity. The ability of the NDE methods to objectively characterize deterioration progression is illustrated by the results from NDE surveys of 10 bridges of different ages in New Jersey during a period of one year. The deterioration progression is illustrated by condition maps and condition indices. As demonstrated in the paper, multiple deterioration models are developed utilizing the proposed methodology, which shows high potential for development of more realistic deterioration and life cycle cost models for bridge decks.

  18. 40 CFR 94.218 - Deterioration factor determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... technology (e.g., catalyst). For each applicable emission constituent, a multiplicative deterioration factor... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Deterioration factor determination. 94... Deterioration factor determination. Manufacturers shall determine exhaust emission deterioration factors...

  19. 40 CFR 94.218 - Deterioration factor determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... technology (e.g., catalyst). For each applicable emission constituent, a multiplicative deterioration factor... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deterioration factor determination. 94... Deterioration factor determination. Manufacturers shall determine exhaust emission deterioration factors...

  20. 40 CFR 1042.245 - Deterioration factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... deterioration factors for an engine family with established technology based on engineering analysis instead of... considered to rely on established technology for control of gaseous emissions, except that this does not include any engines that use exhaust-gas recirculation or aftertreatment. In most cases, technologies...

  1. 40 CFR 1042.245 - Deterioration factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... deterioration factors for an engine family with established technology based on engineering analysis instead of... considered to rely on established technology for control of gaseous emissions, except that this does not include any engines that use exhaust-gas recirculation or aftertreatment. In most cases, technologies...

  2. 40 CFR 1042.245 - Deterioration factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... deterioration factors for an engine family with established technology based on engineering analysis instead of... considered to rely on established technology for control of gaseous emissions, except that this does not include any engines that use exhaust-gas recirculation or aftertreatment. In most cases, technologies...

  3. 40 CFR 1042.245 - Deterioration factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... deterioration factors for an engine family with established technology based on engineering analysis instead of... considered to rely on established technology for control of gaseous emissions, except that this does not include any engines that use exhaust-gas recirculation or aftertreatment. In most cases, technologies...

  4. 40 CFR 1042.245 - Deterioration factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... deterioration factors for an engine family with established technology based on engineering analysis instead of... considered to rely on established technology for control of gaseous emissions, except that this does not include any engines that use exhaust-gas recirculation or aftertreatment. In most cases, technologies...

  5. 77 FR 64237 - Notice of Approval of Clean Air Act Prevention of Significant Deterioration Permit Issued to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... Issued to the City of Palmdale for the Palmdale Hybrid Power Project AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Deterioration (PSD) permit for the City of Palmdale (City) for the construction of the Palmdale Hybrid...

  6. Updated Principle of Corresponding States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Amotz, Dor; Gift, Alan D.; Levine, R. D.

    2004-01-01

    The rule of corresponding states, which shows the connection between the thermodynamic properties of various liquids is re-examined. The overall likeness is observed by using an updated scaling technique of Lennard-Jones corresponding states (LJ-CS).

  7. CORRESPONDENCE EDUCATION IN THE NETHERLANDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SLOOS, ISAAEC; AND OTHERS

    RECENT TRENDS AND EVIDENCES OF PROGRESS IN CORRESPONDENCE EDUCATION IN THE NETHERLANDS ARE CONSIDERED, TOGETHER WITH RESEARCH ON THE SOCIOCULTURAL AND MOTIVATIONAL ASPECTS OF PARTICIPATION IN CORRESPONDENCE STUDY, AND THE SPECIAL FUNCTIONS AND ADVANTAGES OF THE CORRESPONDENCE METHOD. THEORIES AND IDEAS UNDERLYING THE DIDACTICS OF CORRESPONDENCE…

  8. Transcriptional profiling of trait deterioration in the insect pathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The success of a biological control agent depends on key traits, particularly reproductive potential, environmental tolerance, and ability to be cultured. These traits can deteriorate rapidly when the biological control agent is reared in culture. Trait deterioration under laboratory conditions has been widely documented in the entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Hb) but the specific mechanisms behind these genetic processes remain unclear. This research investigates the molecular mechanisms of trait deterioration of two experimental lines of Hb, an inbred line (L5M) and its original parental line (OHB). We generated transcriptional profiles of two experimental lines of Hb, identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and validated their differential expression in the deteriorated line. Results An expression profiling study was performed between experimental lines L5M and OHB of Hb with probes for 15,220 ESTs from the Hb transcriptome. Microarray analysis showed 1,185 DEGs comprising of 469 down- and 716 up-regulated genes in trait deteriorated nematodes. Analysis of the DEGs showed that trait deterioration involves massive changes of the transcripts encoding enzymes involved in metabolism, signal transduction, virulence and longevity. We observed a pattern of reduced expression of enzymes related to primary metabolic processes and induced secondary metabolism. Expression of sixteen DEGs in trait deteriorated nematodes was validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) which revealed similar expression kinetics for all the genes tested as shown by microarray. Conclusion As the most closely related major entomopathogen to C. elegans, Hb provides an attractive near-term application for using a model organism to better understand interspecies interactions and to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying trait deterioration in biological control agents. This information could also be used to

  9. 75 FR 28227 - Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and Nonattainment New Source Review (NSR): Aggregation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 51 and 52 RIN 2060-AP80 Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and Nonattainment New Source Review (NSR): Aggregation Correction Proposed Rule document 2010-11578...

  10. 40 CFR 1045.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? 1045.520 Section 1045.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  11. 40 CFR 1045.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? 1045.520 Section 1045.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  12. 40 CFR 1045.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? 1045.520 Section 1045.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  13. 40 CFR 1045.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? 1045.520 Section 1045.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  14. 40 CFR 1045.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? 1045.520 Section 1045.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  15. Selective language deterioration in chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed Central

    Silverberg-Shalev, R; Gordon, H W; Bentin, S; Aranson, A

    1981-01-01

    Chronic schizophrenics as a group were inferior to controls on tests of neuropsychological function. When divided into groups according to length of illness they differed from each other primarily in tests of language. No other deficits in cognitive function progressed; the performance of the patients on memory, visuo-spatial tasks, rate of information processing and abstract thinking did not decline according to length of illness. The results indicate that chronic schizophrenia is characterised by a selective deterioration of language, which correlates with the notion that schizophrenia may be associated with left hemisphere dysfunction. PMID:7276969

  16. 30 CFR 57.6900 - Damaged or deteriorated explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. 57... Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6900 Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. Damaged or deteriorated explosive material shall be disposed of in a safe manner in accordance with...

  17. 30 CFR 57.6900 - Damaged or deteriorated explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. 57... Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6900 Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. Damaged or deteriorated explosive material shall be disposed of in a safe manner in accordance with...

  18. 30 CFR 56.6900 - Damaged or deteriorated explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. 56... Explosives General Requirements § 56.6900 Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. Damaged or deteriorated explosive material shall be disposed of in a safe manner in accordance with the instructions of...

  19. 30 CFR 56.6900 - Damaged or deteriorated explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. 56... Explosives General Requirements § 56.6900 Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. Damaged or deteriorated explosive material shall be disposed of in a safe manner in accordance with the instructions of...

  20. 30 CFR 57.6900 - Damaged or deteriorated explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. 57... Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6900 Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. Damaged or deteriorated explosive material shall be disposed of in a safe manner in accordance with...

  1. 30 CFR 56.6900 - Damaged or deteriorated explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. 56... Explosives General Requirements § 56.6900 Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. Damaged or deteriorated explosive material shall be disposed of in a safe manner in accordance with the instructions of...

  2. 30 CFR 56.6900 - Damaged or deteriorated explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. 56... Explosives General Requirements § 56.6900 Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. Damaged or deteriorated explosive material shall be disposed of in a safe manner in accordance with the instructions of...

  3. 30 CFR 57.6900 - Damaged or deteriorated explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. 57... Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6900 Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. Damaged or deteriorated explosive material shall be disposed of in a safe manner in accordance with...

  4. Application of Chemical Kinetics to Deterioration of Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labuza, T. P.

    1984-01-01

    Possible modes of food deterioration (such as microbial decay, nonenzymatic browning, senescence, lipid oxidation) are reviewed. A basic mathematical approach to the kinetics of food deterioration, kinetic approach to accelerating shelf-life deterioration, and shelf-life predictions are discussed. (JN)

  5. Atmospheric deterioration of ancient and modern hydraulic mortars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbioni, C.; Zappia, G.; Riontino, C.; Blanco-Varela, M. T.; Aguilera, J.; Puertas, F.; Balen, K. Van; Toumbakari, E. E.

    Different types of ancient and recent hydraulic mortars were collected from well-documented archaeological, historic and modern buildings in various geographical locations (urban, suburban, rural and maritime) of Italy, Spain and Belgium, representative of different environmental impacts, types and degrees of deterioration. A synthesis of the characteristics of the collected samples is presented, along with the identification of the formation products that occurred on the sample surfaces as a result of the reaction of the mortars with atmospheric pollutants. The analyses were performed by means of optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX) and ion chromatography (IC). The results obtained prove that sulphation processes takes place on hydraulic mortars, leading to gypsum formation on the external surface of the samples. Through the reaction of gypsum with the aluminate hydrate of the binder, ettringite formation was found to occur on a cement-based restoration mortar sampled in Antwerp.

  6. Texture-Based Correspondence Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Texture-based correspondence display is a methodology to display corresponding data elements in visual representations of complex multidimensional, multivariate data. Texture is utilized as a persistent medium to contain a visual representation model and as a means to create multiple renditions of data where color is used to identify correspondence. Corresponding data elements are displayed over a variety of visual metaphors in a normal rendering process without adding extraneous linking metadata creation and maintenance. The effectiveness of visual representation for understanding data is extended to the expression of the visual representation model in texture.

  7. The profiles of clinical deterioration in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    McGlashan, T H

    1998-01-01

    Deterioration has been a part of the description and process of schizophrenia since Kraepelin. The underlying nature of these neurodynamic deficit processes remains unknown, but their clinical manifestations demonstrate somewhat predictable patterns of expression and progression. Symptomatically, strong affects and positive psychotic symptoms in the early course become less conspicuous with time and are replaced by more thought disorder, disorganized behavior, negative symptoms and deficit cognitive states. Subtypes, when unstable, drift from paranoid to disorganized and undifferentiated and from non-deficit to deficit. Longitudinal data from the schizophrenia sample of the Chestnut Lodge follow-up study illustrate some of these patterns. While the data remain heterogeneous, it is likely these deficit processes begin some time before the first manifest signs and symptoms of illness in the prodromal phase and are time limited, diminishing in activity at or shortly after onset in the majority of cases. Currently these processes appear irreversible but anecdotal experience with treatment in the very early phases of schizophrenia suggests that brain plasticity may be retained and that efforts at preventing deterioration should become a focus of active scientific clinical research.

  8. Age-Related Deterioration of Rod Vision in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kolesnikov, Alexander V.; Fan, Jie; Crouch, Rosalie K.; Kefalov, Vladimir J.

    2010-01-01

    Even in healthy individuals, aging leads to deterioration in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, visual field, and dark adaptation. Little is known about the neural mechanisms that drive the age-related changes of the retina and more specifically of photoreceptors. According to one hypothesis, the age-related deterioration in rod function is due to the limited availability of 11-cis-retinal for rod pigment formation. To determine how aging affects rod photoreceptors and to test the retinoid deficiency hypothesis, we compared the morphological and functional properties of rods of adult and aged B6D2F1/J mice. We found that the number of rods and the length of their outer segments were significantly reduced in 2.5 year-old mice compared to 4 month-old animals. Aging also resulted in a 2-fold reduction in the total level of opsin in the retina. Behavioral tests revealed that scotopic visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were decreased by 2-fold in aged mice, and rod ERG recordings demonstrated reduced amplitudes of both a- and b-waves. Sensitivity of aged rods determined from single-cell recordings was also decreased by 1.5-fold, corresponding to not more than 1% free opsin in these photoreceptors, and kinetic parameters of dim flash response were not altered. Notably, the rate of rod dark adaptation was unaffected by age. Thus, our results argue against age-related deficiency of 11-cis-retinal in the B6D2F1/J mouse rod visual cycle. Surprisingly, the level of cellular dark noise was increased in aged rods providing an alternative mechanism for their desensitization. PMID:20720130

  9. Born-Infeld/gravity correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grignani, Gianluca; Harmark, Troels; Marini, Andrea; Orselli, Marta

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we explore the correspondence between four-dimensional Born-Infeld theory and five-dimensional classical gravity. The Born-Infeld theory side corresponds to the low-energy effective theory for open strings ending on coincident D3-branes in a (slowly varying) background Kalb-Ramond field, including all higher-derivative corrections. On the gravity side one has the gravitational (closed-string) description of D3-branes in the same background Kalb-Ramond field and the correspondence is thus a consequence of the open/closed-string duality. According to the correspondence the gravity side provides a description of the strong coupling limit of Born-Infeld theory. This is a correspondence between effective theories in a similar sense as in the fluid/gravity correspondence. We match the Born-Infeld and gravity sides up to, and including, two-derivative corrections. To this end, we find a new gravity solution for D3-branes with flat embedding in the background of an arbitrary constant background Kalb-Ramond field and show that there are no two-derivative corrections to this for a slowly varying Kalb-Ramond field.

  10. How automatic are crossmodal correspondences?

    PubMed

    Spence, Charles; Deroy, Ophelia

    2013-03-01

    The last couple of years have seen a rapid growth of interest (especially amongst cognitive psychologists, cognitive neuroscientists, and developmental researchers) in the study of crossmodal correspondences - the tendency for our brains (not to mention the brains of other species) to preferentially associate certain features or dimensions of stimuli across the senses. By now, robust empirical evidence supports the existence of numerous crossmodal correspondences, affecting people's performance across a wide range of psychological tasks - in everything from the redundant target effect paradigm through to studies of the Implicit Association Test, and from speeded discrimination/classification tasks through to unspeeded spatial localisation and temporal order judgment tasks. However, one question that has yet to receive a satisfactory answer is whether crossmodal correspondences automatically affect people's performance (in all, or at least in a subset of tasks), as opposed to reflecting more of a strategic, or top-down, phenomenon. Here, we review the latest research on the topic of crossmodal correspondences to have addressed this issue. We argue that answering the question will require researchers to be more precise in terms of defining what exactly automaticity entails. Furthermore, one's answer to the automaticity question may also hinge on the answer to a second question: Namely, whether crossmodal correspondences are all 'of a kind', or whether instead there may be several different kinds of crossmodal mapping (e.g., statistical, structural, and semantic). Different answers to the automaticity question may then be revealed depending on the type of correspondence under consideration. We make a number of suggestions for future research that might help to determine just how automatic crossmodal correspondences really are. PMID:23370382

  11. 40 CFR 150.17 - Addresses for applications and correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... correspondence. 150.17 Section 150.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED..., Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington DC 20460-0001. (b) Hand/courier delivery address. Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 2777 S. Crystal...

  12. 40 CFR 150.17 - Addresses for applications and correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... correspondence. 150.17 Section 150.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED..., Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington DC 20460-0001. (b) Hand/courier delivery address. Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 2777 S. Crystal...

  13. 40 CFR 150.17 - Addresses for applications and correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... correspondence. 150.17 Section 150.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED..., Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington DC 20460-0001. (b) Hand/courier delivery address. Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 2777 S. Crystal...

  14. [Study of mobile Raman spectroscopy for rapid evaluation of deteriorating of art materials under UV irradiation].

    PubMed

    Luo, Xi-yun; Ye, Fei; Wu, Lai-ming; Yuan, Sheng-wei; Zhang, Wei-bing; Du, Yi-ping

    2010-09-01

    Identification and characterization of materials used in cultural heritage and conservation can provide important information for dating, authentication and deteriorating situation in general. How to extract useful information from these materials in-situ is one of the main concerns. Application of mobile Raman spectroscopy for this purpose has great attentions for scientists and conservators. The present paper aims to investigate the mobile Raman spectroscopy in studying the effect of UV light on the deterioration of silk, seal ink and Chinese traditional colorants such as kermes, vermillion and zhubiao, which is commonly appeared on painted works of art, and the silk sample is also often used as an consolidant for repairing destroyed textile objects. Spectra were recorded from predefined regions on the samples before and after ultraviolet radiation with 360 nm wavelength and 0.68 W x m(-2) intensity. The result revealed obvious effects of ultraviolet radiation on the materials simulated in this research. The original kind of seal ink has been clearly identified. The changes in spectra of all samples with and without UV radiation were further distinguished and studied. The result will assist for scientists and conservators to determine the safe treatments and suitable environmental condition for storage, display and transport. The result will also help for studying mechanism of deterioration of museum objects influenced by environmental factors. The mobile Raman spectroscopy showed a suitable and convenient means for in-situ non-destructive detection and study of deterioration in practical conditions. PMID:21105406

  15. Quantum Painleve-Calogero correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Zabrodin, A.; Zotov, A.

    2012-07-15

    The Painleve-Calogero correspondence is extended to auxiliary linear problems associated with Painleve equations. The linear problems are represented in a new form which has a suggestive interpretation as a 'quantized' version of the Painleve-Calogero correspondence. Namely, the linear problem responsible for the time evolution is brought into the form of non-stationary Schroedinger equation in imaginary time, {partial_derivative}{sub t}{psi}=((1/2) {partial_derivative}{sub x}{sup 2}+V(x,t)){psi}, whose Hamiltonian is a natural quantization of the classical Calogero-like Hamiltonian H=(1/2) p{sup 2}+V(x,t) for the corresponding Painleve equation. In present paper, we present explicit constructions for the first five equations from the Painleve list.

  16. Mental deterioration at epilepsy onset: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Meinardi, H; Aldenkamp, A P; Nunes, B

    1992-01-01

    In this study, we hypothesized a type of mental deterioration in epilepsy, characterized as a discontinued, cascading process, i.e. a sudden mental decline in a limited time interval, immediately after the onset of the seizures. The posttraumatic epilepsy model (PTE) may appear to be exceptionally useful in avoiding one of the major methodological obstacles for testing this hypothesis, i.e. the unavailability of test results obtained with the same battery of tests prior to and directly after the onset of the seizures. We propose a multicentre study in which a large group of patients are assessed, after recovering from the direct aftermath of head injury, but before the onset of PTE. This baseline provides an opportunity for longitudinal follow-up. Full recovery from head injury before the onset of PTE is to be expected in the mild and moderate groups of closed head injury patients. In this category, approximately 2000 head injured patients have to be assessed to obtain a reasonable group of approximately 100-200 PTE patients. This group will be followed during the critical period of 2-3 years after the onset of epilepsy. PMID:1414549

  17. Early deterioration of coarse woody debris.

    SciTech Connect

    Tainter, Frank, H.; McMinn, James, W.

    1999-02-16

    Tainter, F.H., and J.W. McMinn. 1999. Early deterioration of coarse woody debris. In: Proc. Tenth Bien. South. Silv. Res. Conf. Shreveport, LA, February 16-18, 1999. Pp. 232-237 Abstract - Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important structural component of southern forest ecosystems. CWD loading may be affected by different decomposition rates on sites of varying quality. Bolts of red oak and loblolly pine were placed on plots at each of three (hydric, mesic. and xerlc) sites at the Savannah River Site and sampled over a I6-week period. Major changes were in moisture content and nonstructural carbohydrate content (total carbohydrates, reducing sugars, and starch) of sapwood. Early changes in nonstructural carbohydrate levels following placement of the bolts were likely due to reallocation of these materials by sapwood parenchyma cells. These carbohydrates later formed pools increasingly metabolized by bacteria and invading fungi. Most prevalent fungi in sapwood were Ceratocysfis spp. in pine and Hypoxy/on spp. in oak. Although pine sapwood became blue stained and oak sapwood exhibited yellow soft decay with black zone lines, estimators of decay (specific gravity, sodium hydroxide solubility, and holocellulose content) were unchanged during the 16-week study period. A small effect of site was detected for starch content of sapwood of both species. Fungal biomass in sapwood of both species, as measured by ergosterol content, was detectable at week zero, increased somewhat by week three and increased significantly by week 16.

  18. The hydraulic capacity of deteriorating sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Pollert, J; Ugarelli, R; Saegrov, S; Schilling, W; Di Federico, V

    2005-01-01

    Sewer and wastewater systems suffer from insufficient capacity, construction flaws and pipe deterioration. Consequences are structural failures, local floods, surface erosion and pollution of receiving waters bodies. European cities spend in the order of five billion Euro per year for wastewater network rehabilitation. This amount is estimated to increase due to network ageing. The project CARE-S (Computer Aided RE-habilitation of Sewer Networks) deals with sewer and storm water networks. The final project goal is to develop integrated software, which provides the most cost-efficient system of maintenance, repair and rehabilitation of sewer networks. Decisions on investments in rehabilitation often have to be made with uncertain information about the structural condition and the hydraulic performance of a sewer system. Because of this, decision-making involves considerable risks. This paper presents the results of research focused on the study of hydraulic effects caused by failures due to temporal decline of sewer systems. Hydraulic simulations are usually carried out by running commercial models that apply, as input, default values of parameters that strongly influence results. Using CCTV inspections information as dataset to catalogue principal types of failures affecting pipes, a 3D model was used to evaluate their hydraulic consequences. The translation of failures effects in parameters values producing the same hydraulic conditions caused by failures was carried out through the comparison of laboratory experiences and 3D simulations results. Those parameters could be the input of 1D commercial models instead of the default values commonly inserted. PMID:16477988

  19. CF6 jet engine performance deterioration results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, R. J.; Humerickhouse, C. E.; Paas, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    The use of the performance baseline from the flight planning manual as a reference to measure changes in cruise fuel flow rates was discussed. For the CF6-6D engine, the introduction of design changes for performance and durability reasons was seen to introduce an average increment relative to this baseline of 3.2% WFM increase at Nl, 2.5% Fn increase at Nl, 0.8% specific fuel consumption (SFC) increase at Fn, and 7 C EGT increase at Nl, while maintaining sufficient SFC margin of the delivered airplane. The effect of revenue service deterioration and performance restoration relative to the reference was shown to be an adder on top of these design effects. A schematic of typical CF6-6D performance through revenue service and airline maintenance is presented in terms of percent cruise SFC relative to an airline datum point (average level upon entering revenue service). The typical changes in SFC margin are shown for airline revenue service through for installations and refurbishments.

  20. Dementia paralytica: deterioration from communicating hydrocephalus.

    PubMed Central

    Giménez-Roldán, S; Benito, C; Martin, M

    1979-01-01

    Five patients suffering from dementia paralytica who failed to improve or deteriorated after one or several high dosage courses of penicillin, had pneumoencephalographic patterns suggesting communicating hydrocephalus. Measurements of the ventricular index, ratio of cella media to width of the temporal horn, and the callosal angle differed from that in seven cases of dementia paralytica with associated cerebral atrophy. An isotope cisternogram in three cases with communicating hydrocephalus further confirmed a blockage of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at the parasagittal subarachnoid space. Three patients exhibited the full syndrome of gait apraxia, incontinence, and pyramidal tract signs associated with a severe degree of dementia. Shunting of the CSF in three cases was followed by immediate improvement in two, one in a longlasting way. No active parenchymal inflammation was observed in any of three brain biopsy samples taken during surgery, except for leptomeningeal fibrosis in one. Chronic leptomeningitis in dementia paralytica may impair subarachnoid CSF absorption with subsequent communicating hydrocephalus. Progression or inadequate responses after therapeutic dose of penicillin in dementia paralytica should prompt investigation for this complication as an alternative, effective treatment could be offered. Images PMID:469557

  1. Core Characteristics Deterioration due to Plastic Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaido, Chikara; Arai, Satoshi

    This paper discusses the effect of plastic deformation at core manufacturing on the characteristics of cores where non-oriented electrical steel sheets are used as core material. Exciting field and iron loss increase proportionally to plastic deformation in the case of rP<10, where rP is a ratio of plastic deformation to that at yield point. In this region, anomalous eddy currents increase because plastic deformations of crystalline grains are distributed and then the flux distribution is induced. In the case of rP>20, the deterioration tend to saturate, and the increases in magnetic field and iron loss are 1000 to 1500A/m and 2 to 4W/kg. They are related to grain size, and high grade with larger grain may have lager field increase and smaller iron loss increase. Anomalous eddy current losses scarcely increase in this region. In actual motors, the plastic deformation affects iron loss increase although exciting current increases a little.

  2. National Security Management Correspondence Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Industrial Coll. of the Armed Forces (DOD), Washington, DC.

    A course of study on the fundamental aspects of the areas of knowledge which are essential to effective management of national security is presented. The course presents the substance of the Industrial College resident curriculum adapted to the correspondence method of study. The subject matter is designed to impart knowledge and understanding of…

  3. The Traps of Formal Correspondence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Sandor

    The dangers of translation are discussed when the translator does not try to create textual equivalence, but settles for formal correspondence (i.e., with simple transcoding at a linguistic level) during the process of translating. Difficulties of explaining, commenting, or summarizing rather than translating are also discussed. Pedagogical and…

  4. MODELING PAVEMENT DETERIORATION PROCESSES BY POISSON HIDDEN MARKOV MODELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Le Thanh; Kaito, Kiyoyuki; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Okizuka, Ryosuke

    In pavement management, it is important to estimate lifecycle cost, which is composed of the expenses for repairing local damages, including potholes, and repairing and rehabilitating the surface and base layers of pavements, including overlays. In this study, a model is produced under the assumption that the deterioration process of pavement is a complex one that includes local damages, which occur frequently, and the deterioration of the surface and base layers of pavement, which progresses slowly. The variation in pavement soundness is expressed by the Markov deterioration model and the Poisson hidden Markov deterioration model, in which the frequency of local damage depends on the distribution of pavement soundness, is formulated. In addition, the authors suggest a model estimation method using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, and attempt to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed Poisson hidden Markov deterioration model by studying concrete application cases.

  5. Monitoring the Deterioration of Stone at Mindener MUSEUM'S Lapidarium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomaska, G.

    2013-07-01

    Mindener Museum's Lapidarium incorporates a collection of stone work like reliefs, sculptures and inscriptions from different time epochs as advices of the city's history. These gems must be protected against environmental influences and deterioration. In advance of the measures a 3D reconstruction and detailed documentation has to be taken. The framework to establish hard- and software must match the museum's infrastructure. Two major question will be answered. Are low-cost scanning devices like depth cameras and digital of the shelf cameras suitable for the data acquisition? Does the functionality of open source and freeware covers the demand on investigation and analysis in this application? The working chain described in this contribution covers the structure from motion method and the reconstruction with RGB-D cameras. Mesh processing such as cleaning, smoothing, poisson surface reconstruction and texturing will be accomplished with MeshLab. Data acquisition and modelling continues in structure analysis. Therefore the focus lies as well on latest software developments related to 3D printing technologies. Repairing and finishing of meshes is a task for MeshMixer. Netfabb as a tool for positioning, dimensioning and slicing enables virtual handling of the items. On the Sketchfab web site one can publish and share 3D objects with integration into web pages supported by WebGL. Finally if a prototype is needed, the mesh can be uploaded to a 3D printing device provided by an online service.

  6. 40 CFR 55.5 - Corresponding onshore area designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Corresponding onshore area designation. 55.5 Section 55.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS § 55.5 Corresponding onshore area designation. (a) Proposed exploratory sources. The NOA...

  7. 40 CFR 55.5 - Corresponding onshore area designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Corresponding onshore area designation. 55.5 Section 55.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS § 55.5 Corresponding onshore area designation....

  8. Effects of gamma irradiation on deteriorated paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicchieri, Marina; Monti, Michela; Piantanida, Giovanna; Sodo, Armida

    2016-08-01

    Even though gamma radiation application, also at the minimum dosage required for disinfection, causes depolymerization and degradation of the paper substrate, recently published papers seemed, instead, to suggest that γ-rays application could be envisaged in some conditions for Cultural Heritage original documents and books. In some of the published papers, the possible application of γ-rays was evaluated mainly by using mechanical tests that scarcely reflect the chemical modifications induced in the cellulosic support. In the present article the effect of low dosage γ-irradiation on cellulosic substrates was studied and monitored applying different techniques: colorimetry, spectroscopic measurements, carbonyl content and average viscometric degree of polymerization. Two different papers were investigated, a non-sized, non-filled cotton paper, and a commercial permanent paper. To simulate a real deteriorated document, which could need γ-rays irradiation, some samples were submitted to a hydrolysis treatment. We developed a treatment based on the exposition of paper to hydrochloric acid vapors, avoiding any contact of the samples with water. This method induces a degradation similar to that observed on original documents. The samples were then irradiated with 3 kGy γ-rays at a 5258 Gy/h rate. The aforementioned analyses were performed on the samples just irradiated and after artificial ageing. All tests showed negative effects of gamma irradiation on paper. Non-irradiated paper preserves better its appearance and chemical properties both in the short term and after ageing, while the irradiated samples show appreciable color change and higher oxidation extent. Since the Istituto centrale restauro e conservazione patrimonio archivistico e librario is responsible for the choice of all restoration treatments that could be applied on library and archival materials under the protection of the Italian State (http://www.icpal.beniculturali.it/allegati/DM-7

  9. Magnetized Kerr/CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siahaan, Haryanto M.

    2016-08-01

    We extend the conjectured Kerr/CFT correspondence to the case of extremal Kerr black holes immersed by a magnetic field, namely the extremal Melvin–Kerr black holes. We compute the central charge which appears in the associated Virasoro algebra generated by a class of diffeomorphisms that satisfies a set of boundary conditions in the near horizon of an extremal Melvin–Kerr black hole. Our results support the Kerr/CFT conjecture, where the macroscopic Bekenstein–Hawking entropy for an extremal Melvin–Kerr black hole matches the result obtained from a dual 2D CFT microscopic computation using Cardy formula. Interestingly, the dual CFT description could be non-unitary, due to the possibility of negative central charge.

  10. The Schwarzschild/CFT Correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shajiee, Vahid Reza

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the holographic description of the Schwarzschild black hole is investigated. Since the Schwarzschild solution could be mapped to the near horizon limit of the Reissner-Nordstrom solution, the dual metric is obtained by using hidden conformal symmetry. Because the near horizon spacetime admits an A d S 2 factor, a well-defined 2D (quantum) gravity, dimensionally reduced from near horizon metric, is elected. It is demonstrated that the dual CFT has a central charge c=96 M 3 which is an asymptotic conserved charge of the near horizon solution. As the most important consequence of AdS/CFT correspondence for a black hole, the entropy of Schwarzschild black hole is obtained by using Cardy formula. It is shown that the microscopic entropy of CFT is equal to the macroscopic Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the Schwarzschild black hole.

  11. Holographic correspondence in topological superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Giandomenico; Pachos, Jiannis K.

    2016-09-01

    We analytically derive a compatible family of effective field theories that uniquely describe topological superconductors in 3D, their 2D boundary and their 1D defect lines. We start by deriving the topological field theory of a 3D topological superconductor in class DIII, which is consistent with its symmetries. Then we identify the effective theory of a 2D topological superconductor in class D living on the gapped boundary of the 3D system. By employing the holographic correspondence we derive the effective chiral conformal field theory that describes the gapless modes living on the defect lines or effective boundary of the class D topological superconductor. We demonstrate that the chiral central charge is given in terms of the 3D winding number of the bulk which by its turn is equal to the Chern number of its gapped boundary.

  12. Applications of Bohr's correspondence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1989-07-01

    The Bohr correspondence-principle (cp) formula dE/dn=ℏω is presented (ω is the classical angular frequency) and its predicted energy levels En are compared to those given by the stationary state solutions of the Schrödinger equation, first for several examples in one dimension (1D), including the ``quantum bouncer,'' and then for several examples in three dimensions (3D), including the hydrogen atom and the isotropic harmonic oscillator. For the 3-D cases, the cp predictions based on classical circular orbits are compared with the ``circlelike'' Schrödinger solutions (those with the lowest energy eigenvalue for a given l) and the cp predictions based on classical ``needle'' orbits (having zero angular momentum) with the Schrödinger l=0 solutions. For the H atom and the isotropic oscillator, the cp prediction does not depend on the classical orbit chosen because of a ``degeneracy'': the fact that for these systems ω is independent of the orbit. As a more stringent test of the cp, analogous nondegenerate systems V=-k/r3/2 in place of the H-atom potential V=-e2/r and V=kr4 in place of the oscillator potential V=(1/2)mω2r2 are therefore considered. An interesting anomaly that occurs for the harmonic oscillator and its nondegenerate analog V=kr4 is encountered (but not for the H atom nor its nondegenerate analog V=-k/r3/2), wherein half of the states predicted by application of the cp to the needle orbits are ``spurious'' in that there are no corresponding Schrödinger l=0 states. The assumption that generated the spurious cp states is uncovered—a plausible, but erroneous factor of 2 in calculating the classical frequency—and thus the spurious states are eliminated.

  13. Microbiologically induced deterioration of concrete--a review.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shiping; Jiang, Zhenglong; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Dongsheng; Sanchez-Silva, Mauricio

    2013-12-01

    Microbiologically induced deterioration (MID) causes corrosion of concrete by producing acids (including organic and inorganic acids) that degrade concrete components and thus compromise the integrity of sewer pipelines and other structures, creating significant problems worldwide. Understanding of the fundamental corrosion process and the causal agents will help us develop an appropriate strategy to minimize the costs in repairs. This review presents how microorganisms induce the deterioration of concrete, including the organisms involved and their colonization and succession on concrete, the microbial deterioration mechanism, the approaches of studying MID and safeguards against concrete biodeterioration. In addition, the uninvestigated research area of MID is also proposed.

  14. Detection Of Concrete Deterioration By Staining

    DOEpatents

    Guthrie, Jr., George D.; Carey, J. William

    1999-09-21

    A method using concentrated aqueous solutions of sodium cobaltinitrite and a rhodamine dye is described which can be used to identify concrete that contains gels formed by the alkali-silica reaction (ASR), and to identify degraded concrete which results in a porous or semi-permeable paste due to carbonation or leaching. These solutions present little health or environmental risk, are readily applied, and rapidly discriminate between two chemically distinct gels; K-rich, Na--K--Ca--Si gels are identified by yellow staining, and alkali-poor, Ca--Si gels are identified by pink staining.

  15. Brown and green sugarcane leaves as potential biomass: How they deteriorate under dry and wet storage conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current trends to (1) investigate sugarcane leaves as a sustainable biomass feedstock for the production of biofuels and bioproducts and (2) delivery of more leaves to factories for processing with stalks, have made information on how it deteriorates on storage during dry and wet environmental c...

  16. Stereo Correspondence Using Moment Invariants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premaratne, Prashan; Safaei, Farzad

    Autonomous navigation is seen as a vital tool in harnessing the enormous potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and small robotic vehicles for both military and civilian use. Even though, laser based scanning solutions for Simultaneous Location And Mapping (SLAM) is considered as the most reliable for depth estimation, they are not feasible for use in UAV and land-based small vehicles due to their physical size and weight. Stereovision is considered as the best approach for any autonomous navigation solution as stereo rigs are considered to be lightweight and inexpensive. However, stereoscopy which estimates the depth information through pairs of stereo images can still be computationally expensive and unreliable. This is mainly due to some of the algorithms used in successful stereovision solutions require high computational requirements that cannot be met by small robotic vehicles. In our research, we implement a feature-based stereovision solution using moment invariants as a metric to find corresponding regions in image pairs that will reduce the computational complexity and improve the accuracy of the disparity measures that will be significant for the use in UAVs and in small robotic vehicles.

  17. 46. VIEW, LOOKING WEST FROM DETERIORATED END OF FLUME AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. VIEW, LOOKING WEST FROM DETERIORATED END OF FLUME AT RESERVOIR'S EAST EDGE, SHOWING DREDGE IN LEFT BACKGROUND, SIDE VIEW OF FOREBAY SHED ON RIGHT - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  18. Rapid clinical deterioration in an individual with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Julia; Schwartz, Alison; McDougle, Christopher J; Skotko, Brian G

    2016-07-01

    A small percentage of adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome experience a rapid and unexplained deterioration in cognitive, adaptive, and behavioral functioning. Currently, there is no standardized work-up available to evaluate these patients or treat them. Their decline typically involves intellectual deterioration, a loss of skills of daily living, and prominent behavioral changes. Certain cases follow significant life events such as completion of secondary school with friends who proceed on to college or employment beyond the individual with DS. Others develop this condition seemingly unprovoked. Increased attention in the medical community to clinical deterioration in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome could provide a framework for improved diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment. This report presents a young adult male with Down syndrome who experienced severe and unexplained clinical deterioration, highlighting specific challenges in the systematic evaluation and treatment of these patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. 23. Detail, ridge cresting and finial elements, deteriorated slates, southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Detail, ridge cresting and finial elements, deteriorated slates, southeast roof slope, view to northwest from lift-bed truck, 135mm lens. - Southern Pacific Depot, 559 El Camino Real, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  20. 4. EAST VIEW OF HEAVILY DETERIORATED SECTION OF SEA WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EAST VIEW OF HEAVILY DETERIORATED SECTION OF SEA WALL LOOKING ACROSS ERODED EASTERN CORNER OF PEA PATCH ISLAND. BUILDING FOUNDATION REMAINS IN FOREGROUND. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  1. A Raman, IR and XRD analysis of the deterioration on historical monuments: case study from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ostrooumov, Mikhail

    2009-08-01

    Raman, infrared and XRD analysis have been applied to the examination of deterioration on historical monuments (Morelia, Mexico). Forty-three samples pyroclastic volcanic rocks (ignimbrites) have been studied, all originating from two ex-convents San Francisco and San Agustin, which were the first architectonic complexes in the city of Morelia. Several new mineral neoformation such as sulfates, carbonates, halides, and phosphates were identified in these samples with spectrometric and XRD technique. The observed Raman and infrared spectra are reported and some mineral compound assignments in unaltered and deteriorated volcanic rocks have been made. This survey is the first Raman and infrared spectrometric examination of the environmental mineralogy in Mexico under conditions of urban weathering that are characterized mainly by one secondary alteration formations of low scale.

  2. A Raman, IR and XRD analysis of the deterioration on historical monuments: Case study from Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrooumov, Mikhail

    2009-08-01

    Raman, infrared and XRD analysis have been applied to the examination of deterioration on historical monuments (Morelia, Mexico). Forty-three samples pyroclastic volcanic rocks (ignimbrites) have been studied, all originating from two ex-convents San Francisco and San Agustin, which were the first architectonic complexes in the city of Morelia. Several new mineral neoformation such as sulfates, carbonates, halides, and phosphates were identified in these samples with spectrometric and XRD technique. The observed Raman and infrared spectra are reported and some mineral compound assignments in unaltered and deteriorated volcanic rocks have been made. This survey is the first Raman and infrared spectrometric examination of the environmental mineralogy in Mexico under conditions of urban weathering that are characterized mainly by one secondary alteration formations of low scale.

  3. Performance deterioration of commercial high-bypass ratio turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehalic, C. M.; Ziemianski, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The results of engine performance deterioration investigations based on historical data, special engine tests, and specific tests to define the influence of flight loads and component clearances on performance are presented. The results of analyses of several damage mechanisms that contribute to performance deterioration such as blade tip rubs, airfoil surface roughness and erosion, and thermal distortion are also included. The significance of these damage mechanisms on component and overall engine performance is discussed.

  4. Minister Peng answers correspondents' questions.

    PubMed

    1991-02-01

    Following a press conference where she presented the results of the 1990 census and the accomplishments of China's family planning program, Peng Peiyun, minister of the State Family Planning Commission, and other officials answered the questions of Chinese and foreign correspondents. Asked about the implementation of family planning in rural areas, Peng explained that while the 1-child policy has been followed, farmers with only 1 daughter have been allowed a second child. Nonetheless, the total fertility rate (TFR) of rural women has fallen bellow 4. On the issue of abortion, an official explained that for the past few years, there have been 10 million abortions annually. Abortion, however, is used only when contraception fails. Despite China's impressive achievements in curbing population growth, Peng noted that the country still faces serious problems. As the country enters its 8th 5-year plan, China will undergo a baby boom. An average of 17 million births each year is expected throughout the plan's duration. Peng acknowledged that the previous target of controlling China's population to 1.2 billion by the year 2000 will not be achieved. Under the new plan, which hopes to reduce the TFR from 2.35 in 1989 to 2.0 by the turn of the century, calls for the population to stabilize somewhere between 1.5 and 1.6 billion. Peng also answered questions concerning abuses by family planning workers. She stressed that China's family planning program is voluntary, although economic disincentives are used. Furthermore, Peng addressed issues concerning religion and family planning, infanticide, the safety of contraceptives, and concerns over the ageing of the population. PMID:12284670

  5. β-cell deterioration during diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, R. Paul

    2009-01-01

    Clinical management of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) successfully prevents extreme hyperglycemia but does not precisely control glucose levels throughout the day. The pathogenesis of T2D is akin to a double barrel shotgun. The first trigger causes an explosion that sets genetic expression of the disease in motion; the second trigger discharges a host of environmental factors that worsen its clinical course. Candidate shells include glucolipotoxicity, cytokines, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and insulin resistance. This review considers how each candidate adversely impacts β-cell function to create the downward spiral of glycemic control. Their roles in pathogenesis raise possibilities for new drug therapies designed to protect against adverse effects of residual hyperglycemia in patients treated with conventional drugs. PMID:19748794

  6. Engine diagnostics program: CF6-50 engine performance deterioration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wulf, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    Cockpit cruise recordings and test cell data in conjunction with hardware inspection results from airline overhaul shops were analyzed to define the extent and magnitude of performance deterioration of the General Electric CF6-50 high bypass turbofan engine. The magnitude of short term deterioration was isolated from the long term, and the individual damage mechanisms that were the cause for the majority of the performance deterioration was identified. It was determined that the long term engine performance deterioration characteristics were different for the 3 aircraft types currently powered by the CF6-50 engine, but these differences were due to operational considerations (flight length and takeoff derate) and not to differences associated with the aircraft type. Unrestored losses, that is, performance deterioration which remains after engine refurbishment, represents over 70 percent of the total performance deterioration at engine shop visit. Superficial damage, such as, increased surface roughness, leading edge shape changes on airfoils, and increases in the average clearances between rotating and stationary components is the major contributor to these losses. Seventy one percent of the unrestored losses are cost effective to restore, and if implemented could reduce fuel consumed by CF6-50 engines by 26 million gallons in 1980.

  7. 75 FR 52916 - Action To Ensure Authority To Issue Permits Under the Prevention of Significant Deterioration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... Prevention of Significant Deterioration Program to Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Federal... Ensure Authority to Issue Permits under the Prevention of Significant Deterioration Program to Sources of... Review Prevention of Significant Deterioration program for sources of greenhouse gases. Public...

  8. Stochastic modeling of deterioration in nuclear power plant components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xianxun

    2007-12-01

    The risk-based life-cycle management of engineering systems in a nuclear power plant is intended to ensure safe and economically efficient operation of energy generation infrastructure over its entire service life. An important element of life-cycle management is to understand, model and forecast the effect of various degradation mechanisms affecting the performance of engineering systems, structures and components. The modeling of degradation in nuclear plant components is confounded by large sampling and temporal uncertainties. The reason is that nuclear systems are not readily accessible for inspections due to high level of radiation and large costs associated with remote data collection methods. The models of degradation used by industry are largely derived from ordinary linear regression methods. The main objective of this thesis is to develop more advanced techniques based on stochastic process theory to model deterioration in engineering components with the purpose of providing more scientific basis to life-cycle management of aging nuclear power plants. This thesis proposes a stochastic gamma process (GP) model for deterioration and develops a suite of statistical techniques for calibrating the model parameters. The gamma process is a versatile and mathematically tractable stochastic model for a wide variety of degradation phenomena, and another desirable property is its nonnegative, monotonically increasing sample paths. In the thesis, the GP model is extended by including additional covariates and also modeling for random effects. The optimization of age-based replacement and condition-based maintenance strategies is also presented. The thesis also investigates improved regression techniques for modeling deterioration. A linear mixed-effects (LME) regression model is presented to resolve an inconsistency of the traditional regression models. The proposed LME model assumes that the randomness in deterioration is decomposed into two parts: the unobserved

  9. Deterioration modeling for condition assessment of flexible pavements considering extreme weather events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi Tari, Yasamin; Shahini Shamsabadi, Salar; Birken, Ralf; Wang, Ming

    2015-04-01

    Accurate pavement management systems are essential for states' Department Of Transportation and roadway agencies to plan for cost-effective maintenance and repair (M and R) strategies. Pavement deterioration model is an imperative component of any pavement management system since the future budget and M and R plans would be developed based on the predicted pavement performance measures. It is crucial for the pavement deterioration models to consider the factors that significantly aggravate the pavement condition. While many studies have highlighted the impact of different environmental, load, and pavement's structure on the life cycle of the pavement, effect of extreme weather events such as Floods and Snow Storms have often been overlooked. In this study, a pavement deterioration model is proposed which would consider the effect of traffic loads, climate conditions, and extreme weather events. Climate, load and performance data has been compiled for over twenty years and for eight states using the Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) databases. A stepwise regression approach is undertaken to quantify the effect of the extreme weather events, along with other influential factors on pavement performance in terms of International Roughness Index (IRI). Final results rendered more than 90% correlation with the quantified impact values of extreme weather events.

  10. Deterioration of bioplastic carrier bags in the environment and assessment of a new recycling alternative.

    PubMed

    Accinelli, Cesare; Saccà, Maria Ludovica; Mencarelli, Mariangela; Vicari, Alberto

    2012-09-01

    Increasing environmental concerns and the introduction of technologies based on renewable resources have stimulated the replacement of persistent petroleum-derived plastics with biodegradable plastics from biopolymers. As a consequence, a variety of products are currently manufactured from bioplastic, including carrier bags. This series of studies investigated the deterioration of carrier bags made with Mater-Bi (MB), a starch-based bioplastic, in soil, compost and two aquatic ecosystems, a littoral marsh and seawater. Results from the laboratory study indicated that bioplastic carrier bags were rapidly deteriorated in soil and compost. After three months of incubation, weight loss of specimens was of 37% and 43% in soil and compost, respectively. Conversely, little deterioration was observed in specimens buried in soil under field conditions or exposed to water of a littoral marsh and of the Adriatic Sea. These findings were consistent with the greater number of bacteria and especially fungi capable of degrading MB that were recovered from soil and compost with respect to the two aquatic ecosystems. Considering that a variety of microbial isolates are capable of using MB as a source of carbon, a new alternative to recycle these MB-based carrier bags was explored. More specifically, starchy residues from bags were fermented by the fungus Rhizopus oryzae to produce up to 35 mg of lactic acid per g of bag residues.

  11. Deterioration of bioplastic carrier bags in the environment and assessment of a new recycling alternative.

    PubMed

    Accinelli, Cesare; Saccà, Maria Ludovica; Mencarelli, Mariangela; Vicari, Alberto

    2012-09-01

    Increasing environmental concerns and the introduction of technologies based on renewable resources have stimulated the replacement of persistent petroleum-derived plastics with biodegradable plastics from biopolymers. As a consequence, a variety of products are currently manufactured from bioplastic, including carrier bags. This series of studies investigated the deterioration of carrier bags made with Mater-Bi (MB), a starch-based bioplastic, in soil, compost and two aquatic ecosystems, a littoral marsh and seawater. Results from the laboratory study indicated that bioplastic carrier bags were rapidly deteriorated in soil and compost. After three months of incubation, weight loss of specimens was of 37% and 43% in soil and compost, respectively. Conversely, little deterioration was observed in specimens buried in soil under field conditions or exposed to water of a littoral marsh and of the Adriatic Sea. These findings were consistent with the greater number of bacteria and especially fungi capable of degrading MB that were recovered from soil and compost with respect to the two aquatic ecosystems. Considering that a variety of microbial isolates are capable of using MB as a source of carbon, a new alternative to recycle these MB-based carrier bags was explored. More specifically, starchy residues from bags were fermented by the fungus Rhizopus oryzae to produce up to 35 mg of lactic acid per g of bag residues. PMID:22717162

  12. Cognitive deterioration and electrical status epilepticus during slow sleep.

    PubMed

    Scholtes, F B J; Hendriks, M P H; Renier, W O

    2005-03-01

    The results of long-term follow-up of 10 children with global or specific cognitive deterioration and, on the electroencephalogram, electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) are described. They were referred because of cognitive deterioration and underwent repeated neurological and neuropsychological examinations and all-night electroencephalography. A previous cognitive level was known or could be estimated in all. Seven children had a continuous spikes and waves during sleep (CSWS) syndrome, with global cognitive deterioration in four and more specific cognitive decline in three, and another three children had Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS). Of the last three, two children never had seizures, while the other had localization-related epilepsy. No children experienced aggravation of clinical seizures. However, therapy was disappointing. Cognitive dysfunction did not respond to valproate and/or benzodiazepines in 9 of the 10 children. A frontal epileptic focus was found in 5 of 7 children with CSWS, and a left temporal focus in 2 of 3 children with LKS. The ESES persisted in CSWS for 5-9 years and in LKS for 1-5 years, and disappeared at puberty. Good cognitive recovery after disappearance of ESES occurred in only one child, and partial recovery in four. An unfavorable prognosis of cognitive deterioration seems to be related to long-duration ESES and/or early onset epileptic activity. The authors are of the opinion that cognitive deterioration in children, with or without manifest epileptic seizures, should mandate electroencephalographic investigation during sleep.

  13. Continued urbanization of the United States is causing the deterioration of the central city; costly suburban developments; and increases in congestion, pollution, crime, violence and alienation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that urban sprawl and the abuses of technological industries result in substantial environmental and economic costs at the expense of center city locations and populations. Socioeconomic deterioration and modification of the biosphere triggers climatic and environmental changes leading to ecosystem damage and destruction, health consequences and international conflict.

  14. Heat Transfer at Supercritical Pressures and the Onset of Deterioration

    SciTech Connect

    Kirillov, Pavel L.; Grabezhnaya, Vera A.

    2006-07-01

    The comparison of the data on heat transfer at supercritical pressures (SCP) demonstrates that they have a considerable spread, which shows a complex nature of the process and a probable inaccuracy in the methods of data processing caused by a sharp change in thermophysical properties near the pseudo-critical point. The recent experimental data at SCP for upward flow of water are compared with some correlations applicable to engineering analysis. The correlations for the onset of heat transfer deterioration against the experimental data were analyzed. The heat transfer deterioration in this data was far from test section inlet The generalization of data on the onset of heat transfer deterioration for various coolants (water, CO{sub 2}, R12) was proposed. (authors)

  15. Application of Artificial Intelligence for Bridge Deterioration Model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhang; Wu, Yangyang; Li, Li; Sun, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    The deterministic bridge deterioration model updating problem is well established in bridge management, while the traditional methods and approaches for this problem require manual intervention. An artificial-intelligence-based approach was presented to self-updated parameters of the bridge deterioration model in this paper. When new information and data are collected, a posterior distribution was constructed to describe the integrated result of historical information and the new gained information according to Bayesian theorem, which was used to update model parameters. This AI-based approach is applied to the case of updating parameters of bridge deterioration model, which is the data collected from bridges of 12 districts in Shanghai from 2004 to 2013, and the results showed that it is an accurate, effective, and satisfactory approach to deal with the problem of the parameter updating without manual intervention.

  16. The deterioration of Circular Mausoleum, Roman Necropolis of Carmona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Cañaveras, Juan C; Fernandez-Cortes, Angel; Elez, Javier; Cuezva, Soledad; Jurado, Valme; Miller, Ana Zelia; Rogerio-Candelera, Miguel A; Benavente, David; Hernandez-Marine, Mariona; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio

    2015-06-15

    The Circular Mausoleum tomb in the Roman Necropolis of Carmona was carved on a calcarenite sequence in an ancient quarry located in the town of Carmona, Southern Spain. This rock-cut tomb, representative of Roman burial practices, currently suffers from serious deterioration. A detailed survey over several years permitted the identification of the main tomb's pathologies and damaging processes, which include loss of material (scaling, flaking, granular disintegration), surface modifications (efflorescences, crusts and deposits) and extensive biological colonization. The results obtained in this study indicated that anthropogenic changes were largely responsible and enhanced the main alteration mechanisms observed in the Circular Mausoleum. Based on the deterioration diagnosis, effective corrective actions were proposed. This study shows that any conservative intervention in the interior of the tomb should be preceded by accurate in situ measurements and laboratory analyses to ascribe the source of the deterioration damages and thus designing effective treatments. PMID:25747366

  17. Application of Artificial Intelligence for Bridge Deterioration Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhang; Wu, Yangyang; Li, Li; Sun, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    The deterministic bridge deterioration model updating problem is well established in bridge management, while the traditional methods and approaches for this problem require manual intervention. An artificial-intelligence-based approach was presented to self-updated parameters of the bridge deterioration model in this paper. When new information and data are collected, a posterior distribution was constructed to describe the integrated result of historical information and the new gained information according to Bayesian theorem, which was used to update model parameters. This AI-based approach is applied to the case of updating parameters of bridge deterioration model, which is the data collected from bridges of 12 districts in Shanghai from 2004 to 2013, and the results showed that it is an accurate, effective, and satisfactory approach to deal with the problem of the parameter updating without manual intervention. PMID:26601121

  18. Conductive polymeric cable anodes for pipelines with deteriorating coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, W.F.; Pikas, J.L. )

    1993-03-01

    Deteriorating pipeline coating systems have been a dilemma in the industry for many years. The interaction between coatings and cathodic protection (CP) is based on the type of coating and the amount of deterioration. There are two primary strategies to approach the problem: recoat, which is very expensive and may require taking the line out of service and cause loss of revenue; or install additional conventional CP groundbed systems. This article presents a state-of-the-art groundbed system using close-coupled conductive polymeric cable anodes that eliminate the problems of conventional groundbeds.

  19. Effect of flight loads on turbofan engine performance deterioration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stakolich, E. G.; Jay, A.; Todd, E. S.; Kafka, P. G.; White, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A significant percentage of high-bypass-ratio turbofan engine performance deterioration is caused by an increase in operating clearance between fan/compressor and turbine blades and their outer air seals. These increased clearances result from rubs induced by a combination of engine power transients and aircraft flight loads. An analytical technique for predicting the effect of quasi-steady state aircraft flight loads on engine performance deterioration has been developed and is presented. Thrust, aerodynamic and inertia loads are considered. Analytical results are shown and compared to actual engine test experience.

  20. Effect of flight loads on turbofan engine performance deterioration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stakolich, E. G.; Jay, A.; Todd, E. S.; Kafka, P. G.; White, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    A significant percentage of high bypass ratio, turbofan engine performance deterioration was caused by an increase in operating clearance between fan/compressor and turbine blades and their outer air seals. These increased clearances resulted from rubs induced by a combination of engine power transients and aircraft flight loads. An analytical technique for predicting the effect of quasi-steady state aircraft flight loads on engine performance deterioration was developed and is presented. Thrust, aerodynamic and inertia loads were considered. Analytical results are shown and compared to actual engine test experience.

  1. Monitoring, Controlling And Prevention Of The Fungal Deterioration Of Textile Artifacts In The Museum Of Jordanian Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Kareem, O.

    This study aims at monitoring, controlling and prevention the fungal deterioration of the museum textiles in the museum of Jordanian heritage as a case study. In this study valuable fungal deteriorated textile samples collected from different areas in the storage rooms and the display halls in the selected museum, were used for isolating fungi. Both of the plate method with the manual key and the direct observation method by SEM were used for identification of the fungi. The results show that the most dominant fungi isolated from tested samples belong to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Chaetomium and Alternaria species. The results show that all kinds of textile fibers in both storage room and display halls in the selected museum suffer from fungal attack. This study confirms that the textile collections are displayed and storied in very poor environmental conditions. This study established a strategy for controlling and prevention of the fungal deterioration problem on textile objects in the Museum of Jordanian Heritage and includes disinfection of the biodeteriorated textile objects, and then controlling the environmental conditions surrounding the objects in display showcases and storage cabinets. For disinfection of fungal deteriorated textiles with active fungal infestation the study suggested some fungicides that are safe for both textile objects and conservators.

  2. Catalyst deterioration over the lifetime of small utility engines.

    PubMed

    Doll, Nicholas J; Reisel, John R

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, the deterioration of catalysts in small, four-stroke, spark-ignition engines is described. The laboratory testing performed followed a proven test method that mimics the lifetime of a small air-cooled utility engine operating under normal field conditions. The engines used were single-cylinder, 6.5-hp, side-valve engines. These engines have a nominal 125-hr lifetime. The effectiveness of the catalysts was determined by testing exhaust emissions before and after the catalyst to determine the catalyst's efficiency. This was done several times during the lifetime of the engines to determine the deterioration in the performance of the catalysts at lowering pollutant emissions. Additional testing was performed on the catalysts to determine wear patterns, contamination, and recoverable activity. The results indicate that considerable catalyst deterioration is occurring over the lifetime of the engine. The results reveal that soot buildup, poisons, and active surface loss appear to be the contributing factors to the deterioration. These results were determined after analyzing the exhaust emissions data, scanning electron microscope results analysis, and the impact of regeneration attempts. An ANOVA statistical analysis was performed, and it was determined that the emissions are also impacted, to some degree, by time and the engine itself.

  3. Can Library Collections Survive? The Problem of Paper Deterioration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmude, Karl G.

    1984-01-01

    Examines physical deterioration of library collections as result of acidic content of books published since mid-nineteenth century. Dimensions of problem, solutions being developed by libraries, and professional challenges posed by preservation (collection management, organizational structures, technical processes, educational programs) are…

  4. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... under § 52.21 and which would either have stacks taller than 65 meters or would use “dispersion... than 65 meters or would use “dispersion techniques” as defined in § 51.1. (iii) Sources for which...

  5. Detection of structural deterioration and associated airline maintenance problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henniker, H. D.; Mitchell, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    Airline operations involving the detection of structural deterioration and associated maintenance problems are discussed. The standard approach to the maintenance and inspection of aircraft components and systems is described. The frequency of inspections and the application of preventive maintenance practices are examined. The types of failure which airline transport aircraft encounter and the steps taken to prevent catastrophic failure are reported.

  6. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2303 Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the...) December 11, 1985 (as adopted by the Texas Air Control Board (TACB) on July 26, 1985). (ii) October...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2303 Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the...) December 11, 1985 (as adopted by the Texas Air Control Board (TACB) on July 26, 1985). (ii) October...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2303 Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the...) December 11, 1985 (as adopted by the Texas Air Control Board (TACB) on July 26, 1985). (ii) October...

  9. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regulation” in 40 CFR 52.21(b)(49) for the purpose of greenhouse gases only. (b) The requirements of sections... Control Regulations as in effect on December 3, 2005 (specifically 18 AAC 50.010 except (7) and (8); 50... deterioration of air quality. The introductory paragraph to 18 AAC 50.040(h) as in effect on December 9, 2010...

  10. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulation” in 40 CFR 52.21(b)(49) for the purpose of greenhouse gases only. (b) The requirements of sections... Control Regulations as in effect on December 3, 2005 (specifically 18 AAC 50.010 except (7) and (8); 50... deterioration of air quality. The introductory paragraph to 18 AAC 50.040(h) as in effect on December 9, 2010...

  11. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Control Regulations as in effect on December 3, 2005 (specifically 18 AAC 50.010 except (7) and (8); 50... deterioration of air quality. The following regulations as in effect on April 1, 2010, are also approved as... with respect to the incorporation by reference of 40 CFR part 50, Appendix P; 18 AAC...

  12. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Control Regulations as in effect on December 3, 2005 (specifically 18 AAC 50.010 except (7) and (8); 50... deterioration of air quality. The following regulations as in effect on April 1, 2010, are also approved as... with respect to the incorporation by reference of 40 CFR part 50, Appendix P; 18 AAC...

  13. 40 CFR 94.218 - Deterioration factor determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (iii) Engineering analysis for established technologies. In the case where an engine family uses technology which is well established, an analysis based on good engineering practices may be used in lieu of... good engineering judgement according to the provisions of this section. Every deterioration factor...

  14. 75 FR 23764 - Correspondent Concentration Risks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... more normal market functioning resumes. 74 FR 25,626 (May 29, 2009). The Board will consider these... deposit insurance (FDI)).\\2\\ 500,000 Due from DDA with correspondent's two affiliated IDIs (less FDI).\\2\\ 750,000 CDs issued by correspondent bank (less FDI). 250,000 CDs issued by one of correspondent's...

  15. 31 CFR 561.306 - Correspondent account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correspondent account. 561.306 Section 561.306 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 561.306 Correspondent account. The term correspondent account means an account established by...

  16. 31 CFR 561.306 - Correspondent account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Correspondent account. 561.306 Section 561.306 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 561.306 Correspondent account. The term correspondent account means an account established by...

  17. 31 CFR 561.306 - Correspondent account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Correspondent account. 561.306 Section... Definitions § 561.306 Correspondent account. For purposes of this part, the term correspondent account means an account established by a U.S. financial institution for a foreign financial institution to...

  18. 31 CFR 561.306 - Correspondent account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correspondent account. 561.306 Section 561.306 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 561.306 Correspondent account. The term correspondent account means an account established by...

  19. 28 CFR 540.19 - Legal correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal correspondence. 540.19 Section 540... WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.19 Legal correspondence. (a) Staff shall mark each envelope of incoming legal mail (mail from courts or attorneys) to show the date and time of receipt,...

  20. 28 CFR 540.19 - Legal correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal correspondence. 540.19 Section 540... WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.19 Legal correspondence. (a) Staff shall mark each envelope of incoming legal mail (mail from courts or attorneys) to show the date and time of receipt,...

  1. 34 CFR 690.66 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Correspondence study. 690.66 Section 690.66 Education... § 690.66 Correspondence study. (a) An institution calculates the Federal Pell Grant for a payment period for a student in a program of study offered by correspondence courses without terms, but not...

  2. 34 CFR 690.66 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correspondence study. 690.66 Section 690.66 Education... § 690.66 Correspondence study. (a) An institution calculates the Federal Pell Grant for a payment period for a student in a program of study offered by correspondence courses without terms, but not...

  3. 34 CFR 690.66 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correspondence study. 690.66 Section 690.66 Education... § 690.66 Correspondence study. (a) An institution calculates the Federal Pell Grant for a payment period for a student in a program of study offered by correspondence courses without terms, but not...

  4. 34 CFR 690.66 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Correspondence study. 690.66 Section 690.66 Education... § 690.66 Correspondence study. (a) An institution calculates the Federal Pell Grant for a payment period for a student in a program of study offered by correspondence courses without terms, but not...

  5. The investigation of the light radiation caused polyethylene based materials deterioration by means of atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, A.; Grabarek, A.; Moroń, L.; Wałecki, M.; Kryla, P.

    2016-02-01

    The impact of the environmental conditions on the materials used in various devices and constructions, in particular in electrotechnical applications, has an critical impact in terms of their reliability and utilization range in specific climatic conditions. Due to increasing utilitarian requirements, technological processes complexity and introducing new materials (for instance nanomaterials), advanced diagnostic techniques are desired. One of such techniques is atomic force microscopy (AFM), which allows to study the changes of the roughness and mechanical properties of the surface at the submicrometer scale, enabling the investigation of the degradation processes. In this work the deterioration of selected group of polyethylene based materials have been measured by means of AFM, as the samples were exposed to the simulated solar light and UV-C radiation. Such an analysis of the environmental conditions impact on the deterioration process using AFM methods for various versions of specific material was not presented before.

  6. Rock Pore Structure as Main Reason of Rock Deterioration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondrášik, Martin; Kopecký, Miloslav

    2014-03-01

    Crashed or dimensional rocks have been used as natural construction material, decoration stone or as material for artistic sculptures. Especially old historical towns not only in Slovakia have had experiences with use of stones for construction purposes for centuries. The whole buildings were made from dimensional stone, like sandstone, limestone or rhyolite. Pavements were made especially from basalt, andesite, rhyolite or granite. Also the most common modern construction material - concrete includes large amounts of crashed rock, especially limestone, dolostone and andesite. However, rock as any other material if exposed to exogenous processes starts to deteriorate. Especially mechanical weathering can be very intensive if rock with unsuitable rock properties is used. For long it had been believed that repeated freezing and thawing in relation to high absorption is the main reason of the rock deterioration. In Slovakia for many years the high water absorption was set as exclusion criterion for use of rocks and stones in building industry. Only after 1989 the absorption was accepted as merely informational rock property and not exclusion. The reason of the change was not the understanding of the relationship between the porosity and rock deterioration, but more or less good experiences with some high porous rocks used in constructions exposed to severe weather conditions and proving a lack of relationship between rock freeze-thaw resistivity and water absorption. Results of the recent worldwide research suggest that understanding a resistivity of rocks against deterioration is hidden not in the absorption but in the structure of rock pores in relation to thermodynamic properties of pore water and tensile strength of rocks and rock minerals. Also this article presents some results of research on rock deterioration and pore structure performed on 88 rock samples. The results divide the rocks tested into two groups - group N in which the pore water does not freeze

  7. Cortical Correspondence with Probabilistic Fiber Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Oguz, Ipek; Niethammer, Marc; Cates, Josh; Whitaker, Ross; Fletcher, Thomas; Vachet, Clement; Styner, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method of optimizing point-based correspondence among populations of human cortical surfaces by combining structural cues with probabilistic connectivity maps. The proposed method establishes a tradeoff between an even sampling of the cortical surfaces (a low surface entropy) and the similarity of corresponding points across the population (a low ensemble entropy). The similarity metric, however, isn’t constrained to be just spatial proximity, but uses local sulcal depth measurements as well as probabilistic connectivity maps, computed from DWI scans via a stochastic tractography algorithm, to enhance the correspondence definition. We propose a novel method for projecting this fiber connectivity information on the cortical surface, using a surface evolution technique. Our cortical correspondence method does not require a spherical parameterization. Experimental results are presented, showing improved correspondence quality demonstrated by a cortical thickness analysis, as compared to correspondence methods using spatial metrics as the sole correspondence criterion. PMID:19694301

  8. Effect of rubber dam isolation on restoration deterioration.

    PubMed

    Smales, R J

    1992-10-01

    The consequence of using either rubber dam or cotton roll isolation on the subsequent clinical deterioration of 546 polished amalgam and 148 anterior enamel-bonded resin composite restorations was evaluated over periods of up to 15 and 10 years, respectively. Double-blind assessments for several clinical factors or parameters of the restorations were made using both direct and indirect observation methods. The transformed rating scores obtained were evaluated using a mixed model analysis of variance. With very few exceptions, all restoration placements were of high quality, and there were relatively few unsatisfactory rating scores given for any of the clinical factors assessed over the study. The low mean deterioration scores for most of the clinical factors assessed were also fairly similar, irrespective of the isolation method used. Therefore, although a statistically significant difference was found between the two isolation methods for marginal fracture of the composites, the clinical relevance of this difference is questionable.

  9. CF6-6D engine performance deterioration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wulf, R. H.; Kramer, W. H.; Pass, J. E.; Smith, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Cruise cockpit recordings and test cell performance data in conjunction with hardware inspection data from airline overhaul shops were analyzed to define the extent and magnitude of performance deterioration of the General Electric CF6-6D model engine. These studies successfully isolated short-term deterioration from the longer term, and defined areas where a significant reduction in aircraft energy requirements for the 1980's can be realized. Unrestored losses which remain after engine refurbishment represent over 70% of the loss at engine shop visit. Sixty-three percent of the unrestored losses are cost-effective to restore which could reduce fuel consumed by CF6-6D engines in 1980 by 10.9 million gallons.

  10. High Cholesterol Deteriorates Bone Health: New Insights into Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Chandi C.

    2015-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies show a positive connection between cardiovascular diseases and risk of osteoporosis, suggesting a role of hyperlipidemia and/or hypercholesterolemia in regulating osteoporosis. The majority of the studies indicated a correlation between high cholesterol and high LDL-cholesterol level with low bone mineral density, a strong predictor of osteoporosis. Similarly, bone metastasis is a serious complication of cancer for patients. Several epidemiological and basic studies have established that high cholesterol is associated with increased cancer risk. Moreover, osteoporotic bone environment predisposes the cancer cells for metastatic growth in the bone microenvironment. This review focuses on how cholesterol and cholesterol-lowering drugs (statins) regulate the functions of bone residential osteoblast and osteoclast cells to augment or to prevent bone deterioration. Moreover, this study provides an insight into molecular mechanisms of cholesterol-mediated bone deterioration. It also proposes a potential mechanism by which cellular cholesterol boosts cancer-induced bone metastasis. PMID:26557105

  11. Seed deterioration in flooded agricultural fields during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelms, C.O.; Twedt, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    We determined rate of seed deterioration for 3 crops (corn, rice, and soybean) and 8 weeds commonly found in agricultural fields and moist-soil management units in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). The weeds were broadleaf signalgrass (Brachiaria platyphylla), junglerice barnyardgrass (Echinochloa colonum), morningglory (Ipomoea sp.), panic grass (Panicum sp.), bull paspalum (Paspalum boscianum), red rice (Oryza sativa), hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata), and bristlegrass (Setaria sp.). Weed seeds, except morningglory, deteriorated slower than corn and soybean, whereas rice decomposed slower than all weed seeds except red rice and bull paspalum. For land managers desiring to provide plant food for wintering waterfowl, rice is clearly the most persistent small grain crop in the MAV. Persistence of weed seeds under flooded conditions throughout winter makes them a cost-effective alternative to traditional crops on land managed for waterfowl.

  12. Can Sensors Solve the Deterioration Problems of Public Infrastructure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, Chitoshi

    2014-11-01

    Various deteriorations are detected in public infrastructures, such as bridges, viaducts, piers and tunnels and caused fatal accidents in some cases. The possibility of the applications of health monitoring by using sensors is the issues of this lecture. The inspection and diagnosis are essential in the maintenance works which include appropriate rehabilitations and replacements. The introduction of monitoring system may improve accuracy and efficiency of inspection and diagnosis. This seems to be innovation of maintenance, old structures may change smart structures by the installation of nerve network and brain, specifically. Cost- benefit viewpoint is also important point, because of public infrastructures. The modes of deterioration are fatigue, corrosion, and delayed fracture in steel, and carbonization and alkali aggregate reaction in concrete. These are like adult disease in human bodies. The developments of Infrastructures in Japan were concentrated in the 1960th and 1970th. These ages are approaching 50 and deterioration due to aging has been progress gradually. The attacks of earthquakes are also a major issue. Actually, these infrastructures have been supporting economic and social activities in Japan and the deterioration of public infrastructure has become social problems. How to secure the same level of safety and security for all public infrastructures is the challenge we face now. The targets of monitoring are external disturbances such as traffic loads, earthquakes, winds, temperature, responses against external disturbances, and the changes of performances. In the monitoring of infrastructures, 3W1H(WHAT, WHERE, WHEN and HOW) are essential, that is what kind of data are necessary, where sensors place, when data are collected, and how to collect and process data. The required performances of sensors are accuracy, stability for long time. In the case of long term monitoring, the durability of systems needs more than five years, because the interval

  13. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the... 164 of the Clean Air Act and the provisions of 40 CFR 52.21(g), those parcels of the Forest County... T35N R15E. (xxx) E1/2 of Section 28 of T35N R15E. (xxxi) E1/2 of NW1/4 of Section 28 of T35N...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the... 164 of the Clean Air Act and the provisions of 40 CFR 52.21(g), those parcels of the Forest County... T35N R15E. (xxx) E1/2 of Section 28 of T35N R15E. (xxxi) E1/2 of NW1/4 of Section 28 of T35N...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the... 164 of the Clean Air Act and the provisions of 40 CFR 52.21(g), those parcels of the Forest County... T35N R15E. (xxx) E1/2 of Section 28 of T35N R15E. (xxxi) E1/2 of NW1/4 of Section 28 of T35N...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the... 164 of the Clean Air Act and the provisions of 40 CFR 52.21(g), those parcels of the Forest County... T35N R15E. (xxx) E1/2 of Section 28 of T35N R15E. (xxxi) E1/2 of NW1/4 of Section 28 of T35N...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the... 164 of the Clean Air Act and the provisions of 40 CFR 52.21(g), those parcels of the Forest County... T35N R15E. (xxx) E1/2 of Section 28 of T35N R15E. (xxxi) E1/2 of NW1/4 of Section 28 of T35N...

  18. Geoenvironmental weathering/deterioration of landfilled MSWI-BA glass.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yunmei; Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Zhao, Chun; Peng, Xuya; Gao, Junmin

    2014-08-15

    Municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI-BA) glass serves as a matrix of assorted bottom ash (BA) compounds. Deterioration of the BA glass phases is quite important as they regulate the distribution of a series of toxic elements. This paper studied landfilled MSWI-BA samples from the mineralogical and geochemical viewpoint to understand the deterioration behavior of the BA glass phases as well as mechanisms involved. Bulk analysis by PXRD as well as micro-scale analysis by optical microscopy and SEM/EDX was conducted for such purposes. The results revealed that dissolution of the BA glass phases has resulted in a deterioration layer of 10(0)-10(2)μm thickness after years of disposal. This rapid weathering process is highly relevant to the specific glass characteristics and solution pH. The BA glass phases with more embedded compounds and cracks/fissures tend to be more vulnerable. Moreover, the generally alkaline pH in ash deposit favors a rapid disruption of the glass phase. The weathering products are mainly gel phases (including Al-Si gel, Ca-Al-Si gel, Fe-Al-Si gel etc.) with iron oxide/hydroxide as accessory products. Breakdown of the BA glass phases triggers chemical evolution of the embedded compounds. Based on all the findings above, a model is proposed to illustrate a general evolution trend for the landfilled MSWI-BA glass phases.

  19. [Impact of thymic function in age-related immune deterioration].

    PubMed

    Ferrando-Martínez, Sara; de la Fuente, Mónica; Guerrero, Juan Miguel; Leal, Manuel; Muñoz-Fernández, M Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Age-related biological deterioration also includes immune system deterioration and, in consequence, a rise in the incidence and prevalence of infections and cancers, as well as low responses to vaccination strategies. Out of all immune cell subsets, T-lymphocytes seem to be involved in most of the age-related defects. Since T-lymphocytes mature during their passage through the thymus, and the thymus shows an age-related process of atrophy, thymic regression has been proposed as the triggering event of this immune deterioration in elderly people. Historically, it has been accepted that the young thymus sets the T-lymphocyte repertoire during the childhood, whereupon atrophy begins until the elderly thymus is a non-functional evolutionary trace. However, a rising body of knowledge points toward the thymus functioning during adulthood. In the elderly, higher thymic function is associated with a younger immune system, while thymic function failure is associated with all-cause mortality. Therefore, any new strategy focused on the improvement of the elderly quality of life, especially those trying to influence the immune system, should take into account, together with peripheral homeostasis, thymus function as a key element in slowing down age-related decline.

  20. Evidence of Online Performance Deterioration in User Sessions on Reddit

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Philipp; Ferrara, Emilio; Kooti, Farshad; Strohmaier, Markus; Lerman, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents evidence of performance deterioration in online user sessions quantified by studying a massive dataset containing over 55 million comments posted on Reddit in April 2015. After segmenting the sessions (i.e., periods of activity without a prolonged break) depending on their intensity (i.e., how many posts users produced during sessions), we observe a general decrease in the quality of comments produced by users over the course of sessions. We propose mixed-effects models that capture the impact of session intensity on comments, including their length, quality, and the responses they generate from the community. Our findings suggest performance deterioration: Sessions of increasing intensity are associated with the production of shorter, progressively less complex comments, which receive declining quality scores (as rated by other users), and are less and less engaging (i.e., they attract fewer responses). Our contribution evokes a connection between cognitive and attention dynamics and the usage of online social peer production platforms, specifically the effects of deterioration of user performance. PMID:27560185

  1. Study on the deterioration origin of thermomechanical contact fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudose-Sandu-Ville, O. F.

    2016-08-01

    Thermomechanical wear is a complex phenomenon present in a number of industrial domains, such as rolling bearings, gears, friction wheels, rolling mill rollers. In this type of surface tribological deterioration, both fundamental and some peculiar wears are combined (abrasive, adhesive, corrosive wear and contact fatigue), with mechanical ant thermal causes. The present paper takes into account the contact fatigue type of deterioration, with both causes in mechanical variable load and the thermal tide action on the contact surface. There are some theories synthetically presented regarding the location of critical stresses in rolling contact fatigue. The Jacq thermal effect is briefly presented with some considerations concerning the temperature gradient in the metallic wall. The connection between the Jacq thermal anomaly and the thermomechanical contact fatigue is considered to be a new approach. Also, the same location for both mechanical and thermal critical stresses gives a strong support for the thermomechanical contact fatigue primary deterioration, according to the results obtained during the author's PhD research.

  2. Neurological deterioration during intubation in cervical spine disorders

    PubMed Central

    Durga, Padmaja; Sahu, Barada Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Anaesthesiologists are often involved in the management of patients with cervical spine disorders. Airway management is often implicated in the deterioration of spinal cord function. Most evidence on neurological deterioration resulting from intubation is from case reports which suggest only association, but not causation. Most anaesthesiologists and surgeons probably believe that the risk of spinal cord injury (SCI) during intubation is largely due to mechanical compression produced by movement of the cervical spine. But it is questionable that the small and brief deformations produced during intubation can produce SCI. Difficult intubation, more frequently encountered in patients with cervical spine disorders, is likely to produce greater movement of spine. Several alternative intubation techniques are shown to improve ease and success, and reduce cervical spine movement but their role in limiting SCI is not studied. The current opinion is that most neurological injuries during anaesthesia are the result of prolonged deformation, impaired perfusion of the cord, or both. To prevent further neurological injury to the spinal cord and preserve spinal cord function, minimizing movement during intubation and positioning for surgery are essential. The features that diagnose laryngoscopy induced SCI are myelopathy present on recovery, short period of unconsciousness, autonomic disturbances following laryngoscopy, cranio-cervical junction disease or gross instability below C3. It is difficult to accept or refute the claim that neurological deterioration was induced by intubation. Hence, a record of adequate care at laryngoscopy and also perioperative period are important in the event of later medico-legal proceedings. PMID:25624530

  3. Parallel deterioration to language processing in a bilingual speaker.

    PubMed

    Druks, Judit; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The convergence hypothesis [Green, D. W. (2003). The neural basis of the lexicon and the grammar in L2 acquisition: The convergence hypothesis. In R. van Hout, A. Hulk, F. Kuiken, & R. Towell (Eds.), The interface between syntax and the lexicon in second language acquisition (pp. 197-218). Amsterdam: John Benjamins] assumes that the neural substrates of language representations are shared between the languages of a bilingual speaker. One prediction of this hypothesis is that neurodegenerative disease should produce parallel deterioration to lexical and grammatical processing in bilingual aphasia. We tested this prediction with a late bilingual Hungarian (first language, L1)-English (second language, L2) speaker J.B. who had nonfluent progressive aphasia (NFPA). J.B. had acquired L2 in adolescence but was premorbidly proficient and used English as his dominant language throughout adult life. Our investigations showed comparable deterioration to lexical and grammatical knowledge in both languages during a one-year period. Parallel deterioration to language processing in a bilingual speaker with NFPA challenges the assumption that L1 and L2 rely on different brain mechanisms as assumed in some theories of bilingual language processing [Ullman, M. T. (2001). The neural basis of lexicon and grammar in first and second language: The declarative/procedural model. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 4(1), 105-122]. PMID:24527801

  4. Parallel deterioration to language processing in a bilingual speaker.

    PubMed

    Druks, Judit; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The convergence hypothesis [Green, D. W. (2003). The neural basis of the lexicon and the grammar in L2 acquisition: The convergence hypothesis. In R. van Hout, A. Hulk, F. Kuiken, & R. Towell (Eds.), The interface between syntax and the lexicon in second language acquisition (pp. 197-218). Amsterdam: John Benjamins] assumes that the neural substrates of language representations are shared between the languages of a bilingual speaker. One prediction of this hypothesis is that neurodegenerative disease should produce parallel deterioration to lexical and grammatical processing in bilingual aphasia. We tested this prediction with a late bilingual Hungarian (first language, L1)-English (second language, L2) speaker J.B. who had nonfluent progressive aphasia (NFPA). J.B. had acquired L2 in adolescence but was premorbidly proficient and used English as his dominant language throughout adult life. Our investigations showed comparable deterioration to lexical and grammatical knowledge in both languages during a one-year period. Parallel deterioration to language processing in a bilingual speaker with NFPA challenges the assumption that L1 and L2 rely on different brain mechanisms as assumed in some theories of bilingual language processing [Ullman, M. T. (2001). The neural basis of lexicon and grammar in first and second language: The declarative/procedural model. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 4(1), 105-122].

  5. 45 CFR 170.405 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.405 Correspondence....

  6. 45 CFR 170.405 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.405 Correspondence....

  7. 45 CFR 170.405 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.405 Correspondence....

  8. 45 CFR 170.505 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ONC HIT Certification Program § 170.505 Correspondence....

  9. 45 CFR 170.505 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Permanent Certification Program for HIT § 170.505 Correspondence....

  10. 45 CFR 170.505 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ONC HIT Certification Program § 170.505 Correspondence....

  11. 45 CFR 170.405 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.405 Correspondence....

  12. 45 CFR 170.505 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Permanent Certification Program for HIT § 170.505 Correspondence....

  13. 12 CFR 7.5007 - Correspondent services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Correspondent services. 7.5007 Section 7.5007 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Electronic Activities § 7.5007 Correspondent services. It is part of the business of banking for a national bank to offer as a...

  14. 48 CFR 852.236-76 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Correspondence. 852.236-76 Section 852.236-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.236-76 Correspondence....

  15. Computer Networking with the Victorian Correspondence School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conboy, Ian

    During 1985 the Education Department installed two-way radios in 44 remote secondary schools in Victoria, Australia, to improve turn-around time for correspondence assignments. Subsequently, teacher supervisors at Melbourne's Correspondence School sought ways to further augument audio interactivity with computer networking. Computer equipment was…

  16. 45 CFR 170.405 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION... FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.405 Correspondence. (a) Correspondence and communication with the National Coordinator shall be conducted by e-mail, unless...

  17. 48 CFR 42.401 - Contract correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... administration office (CAO) to the contractor and (2) provide a copy for the CAO's file. When urgency requires sending such correspondence directly to the contractor, a copy shall be sent concurrently to the CAO. (b) The CAO shall send the contracting office a copy of pertinent correspondence conducted between the...

  18. 32 CFR 845.11 - Correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correspondence. 845.11 Section 845.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE CLAIMS AND LITIGATION COUNSEL FEES AND OTHER EXPENSES IN FOREIGN TRIBUNALS § 845.11 Correspondence. Judge advocates who advise...

  19. Visualising nursing data using correspondence analysis.

    PubMed

    Kokol, Peter; Vošner, Helena Blažun; Železnik, Danica

    2016-09-01

    Background Digitally stored, large healthcare datasets enable nurses to use 'big data' techniques and tools in nursing research. Big data is complex and multi-dimensional, so visualisation may be a preferable approach to analyse and understand it. Aim To demonstrate the use of visualisation of big data in a technique called correspondence analysis. Discussion In the authors' study, relations among data in a nursing dataset were shown visually in graphs using correspondence analysis. The case presented demonstrates that correspondence analysis is easy to use, shows relations between data visually in a form that is simple to interpret, and can reveal hidden associations between data. Conclusion Correspondence analysis supports the discovery of new knowledge. Implications for practice Knowledge obtained using correspondence analysis can be transferred immediately into practice or used to foster further research. PMID:27641707

  20. Visualising nursing data using correspondence analysis.

    PubMed

    Kokol, Peter; Vošner, Helena Blažun; Železnik, Danica

    2016-09-01

    Background Digitally stored, large healthcare datasets enable nurses to use 'big data' techniques and tools in nursing research. Big data is complex and multi-dimensional, so visualisation may be a preferable approach to analyse and understand it. Aim To demonstrate the use of visualisation of big data in a technique called correspondence analysis. Discussion In the authors' study, relations among data in a nursing dataset were shown visually in graphs using correspondence analysis. The case presented demonstrates that correspondence analysis is easy to use, shows relations between data visually in a form that is simple to interpret, and can reveal hidden associations between data. Conclusion Correspondence analysis supports the discovery of new knowledge. Implications for practice Knowledge obtained using correspondence analysis can be transferred immediately into practice or used to foster further research.

  1. Molluscan subfossil assemblages reveal the long-term deterioration of coral reef environments in Caribbean Panama.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Katie L; Leonard-Pingel, Jill S; Rodríguez, Félix; Jackson, Jeremy B C

    2015-07-15

    Caribbean reef corals have declined sharply since the 1980s, but the lack of prior baseline data has hindered identification of drivers of change. To assess anthropogenic change in reef environments over the past century, we tracked the composition of subfossil assemblages of bivalve and gastropod mollusks excavated from pits below lagoonal and offshore reefs in Bocas del Toro, Panama. The higher prevalence of (a) infaunal suspension-feeding bivalves and herbivorous and omnivorous gastropods in lagoons and (b) epifaunal and suspension-feeding bivalves and carnivorous and suspension-feeding gastropods offshore reflected the greater influence of land-based nutrients/sediments within lagoons. Temporal changes indicated deteriorating environmental conditions pre-1960 in lagoons and post-1960 offshore, with offshore communities becoming more similar to lagoonal ones since 1960. Relative abundances of dominant bivalve species tracked those of their coral hosts, revealing broader ecosystem effects of coral community change. The nature and timing of changes implicate land-based runoff in reef deterioration. PMID:26031382

  2. Assessing causes of quality deterioration of groundwater in Puttalam, Sri Lanka, using isotope and hydrochemical tools.

    PubMed

    Edirisinghe, E A N V; Karunarathne, G R R; Samarakoon, A S M N B; Pitawala, H M T G A; Dharmagunawardhane, H A; Tilakarathna, I A N D P

    2016-01-01

    Extensive extraction of groundwater has resulted in deterioration of the groundwater quality in the Puttalam area in the northwestern coastal zone of Sri Lanka. This situation led us to carry out the present comprehensive study based on environmental isotopic ((18)O, (2)H, (3)H) and geochemical evaluation to understand the root cause for water quality deterioration. The isotopic data suggest that the surface water and shallow groundwaters are subjected to intensive evaporation and, as a result, increase in their salinity. Deep groundwater of the area is mostly recharged by direct infiltration of rainwater and at few places by nearby surface water bodies. The salinity increase of deep groundwater depends on the specific hydrogeological zones and would be due to dissolution of salts which are precipitated in soil through the seawater spray over the time, dissolution of minerals in geological matrix and leaching of salts from salterns. The quality of the deep groundwater is relatively good in the granitic gneiss zone and nearby areas outside the sedimentary aquifer. There is no evidence from isotope and hydrogeochemical evaluation for seawater intrusion into groundwater in the Puttalam area. PMID:26906143

  3. Molluscan subfossil assemblages reveal the long-term deterioration of coral reef environments in Caribbean Panama.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Katie L; Leonard-Pingel, Jill S; Rodríguez, Félix; Jackson, Jeremy B C

    2015-07-15

    Caribbean reef corals have declined sharply since the 1980s, but the lack of prior baseline data has hindered identification of drivers of change. To assess anthropogenic change in reef environments over the past century, we tracked the composition of subfossil assemblages of bivalve and gastropod mollusks excavated from pits below lagoonal and offshore reefs in Bocas del Toro, Panama. The higher prevalence of (a) infaunal suspension-feeding bivalves and herbivorous and omnivorous gastropods in lagoons and (b) epifaunal and suspension-feeding bivalves and carnivorous and suspension-feeding gastropods offshore reflected the greater influence of land-based nutrients/sediments within lagoons. Temporal changes indicated deteriorating environmental conditions pre-1960 in lagoons and post-1960 offshore, with offshore communities becoming more similar to lagoonal ones since 1960. Relative abundances of dominant bivalve species tracked those of their coral hosts, revealing broader ecosystem effects of coral community change. The nature and timing of changes implicate land-based runoff in reef deterioration.

  4. Transcriptional profiling of trait deterioration in the insect pathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trait deterioration under laboratory conditions has been widely documented in the entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Hb) but the specific mechanisms behind these genetic processes remain unclear. This research investigates the molecular mechanisms of trait deterioration ...

  5. The AdS/CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.

    2015-06-01

    We give a brief review of the AdS/CFT correspondence, which posits the equivalence between a certain gravitational theory and a lower-dimensional non-gravitational one. This remarkable duality, formulated in 1997, has sparked a vigorous research program that has gained in breadth over the years, with applications to many aspects of theoretical (and even experimental) physics, not least to general relativity and quantum gravity. To put the AdS/CFT correspondence into historical context, we start by reviewing the relevant aspects of string theory (of which no prior knowledge is assumed). We then develop the statement of the correspondence, and explain how the two sides of the duality map into each other. Finally, we discuss the implications and applications of the correspondence, and indicate some of the current trends in this subject. The presentation attempts to convey the main concepts in a simple and self-contained manner, relegating supplementary remarks to footnotes.

  6. 48 CFR 871.210 - Correspondence courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTY AND VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.210 Correspondence courses. Contracts with institutions...) Trainees must be provided with prompt and adequate lessons service and, unless otherwise specified in...

  7. 48 CFR 871.210 - Correspondence courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTY AND VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.210 Correspondence courses. Contracts with institutions...) Trainees must be provided with prompt and adequate lessons service and, unless otherwise specified in...

  8. An EOQ Model with Two-Parameter Weibull Distribution Deterioration and Price-Dependent Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukhopadhyay, Sushanta; Mukherjee, R. N.; Chaudhuri, K. S.

    2005-01-01

    An inventory replenishment policy is developed for a deteriorating item and price-dependent demand. The rate of deterioration is taken to be time-proportional and the time to deterioration is assumed to follow a two-parameter Weibull distribution. A power law form of the price dependence of demand is considered. The model is solved analytically…

  9. Subtype progression and pathophysiologic deterioration in early schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    McGlashan, T H; Fenton, W S

    1993-01-01

    It is important to elaborate what we know about the symptomatic, syndromal, and functional course of schizophrenia in order to test models for this illness. The sample of schizophrenic patients from the Chestnut Lodge followup study was subtyped using classical (modified DSM-III-R) criteria and deficit/nondeficit (Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome) criteria. During the first 5 years of manifest illness, the subtype phenomenologies were moderately stable. Instability consisted of a drift toward disorganization (hebephrenia) and nonspecificity (undifferentiated) among the classical subtypes, and toward the deficit subtype within that categorization. Over the same time, positive symptoms were relatively stable, but negative symptoms became significantly worse. Such changes probably reflect "deterioration" because they were associated with poorer functional outcome an average of 15 years later. These data dovetail with other reports in the literature and suggest a hierarchy of symptomatic/syndromal progression in early manifest schizophrenia that may reflect active deterioration processes at work. We suggest that any theory of schizophrenic pathophysiology must account for these patterns of symptom course.

  10. SYDDARTA: new methodology for digitization of deterioration estimation in paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granero-Montagud, Luís.; Portalés, Cristina; Pastor-Carbonell, Begoña.; Ribes-Gómez, Emilio; Gutiérrez-Lucas, Antonio; Tornari, Vivi; Papadakis, Vassilis; Groves, Roger M.; Sirmacek, Beril; Bonazza, Alessandra; Ozga, Izabela; Vermeiren, Jan; van der Zanden, Koen; Föster, Matthias; Aswendt, Petra; Borreman, Albert; Ward, Jon D.; Cardoso, António; Aguiar, Luís.; Alves, Filipa; Ropret, Polonca; Luzón-Nogué, José María.; Dietz, Christian

    2013-05-01

    The SYDDARTA project is an on-going European Commission funded initiative under the 7th Framework Programme. Its main objective is the development of a pre-industrial prototype for diagnosing the deterioration of movable art assets. The device combines two different optical techniques for the acquisition of data. On one hand, hyperspectral imaging is implemented by means of electronically tunable filters. On the other, 3D scanning, using structured light projection and capturing is developed. These techniques are integrated in a single piece of equipment, allowing the recording of two optical information streams. Together with multi-sensor data merging and information processing, estimates of artwork deterioration and degradation can be made. In particular, the resulting system will implement two optical channels (3D scanning and short wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging) featuring a structured light projector and electronically tunable spectral separators. The system will work in the VIS-NIR range (400-1000nm), and SWIR range (900-2500nm). It will be also portable and user-friendly. Among all possible art work under consideration, Baroque paintings on canvas and wooden panels were selected as the project case studies.

  11. Melatonin attenuates postharvest physiological deterioration of cassava storage roots.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiuxiang; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2016-05-01

    Melatonin reportedly increases abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in plants, but information on its in vivo effects during postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) in cassava is limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of melatonin in regulating cassava PPD. Treatment with 500 mg/L melatonin significantly delayed cassava PPD and reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) while increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR), but not ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Transcript analysis further showed that expression of copper/zinc SOD (MeCu/ZnSOD), MeCAT1, glutathione peroxidase (MeGPX), peroxidase 3 (MePX3), and glutathione S-transferases (MeGST) was higher in cassava roots sliced treated with 500 mg/L melatonin than in those not exposed to exogenous melatonin. These data demonstrate that melatonin delays cassava PPD by directly or indirectly maintaining homoeostasis of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that accumulation of endogenous melatonin and the transcript levels of melatonin biosynthesis genes changed dynamically during the PPD process. This finding suggested that endogenous melatonin acts as a signal modulator for maintaining cassava PPD progression and that manipulation of melatonin biosynthesis genes through genetic engineering might prevent cassava root deterioration. PMID:26989849

  12. Cognitive deterioration in adult epilepsy: Does accelerated cognitive ageing exist?

    PubMed

    Breuer, L E M; Boon, P; Bergmans, J W M; Mess, W H; Besseling, R M H; de Louw, A; Tijhuis, A G; Zinger, S; Bernas, A; Klooster, D C W; Aldenkamp, A P

    2016-05-01

    A long-standing concern has been whether epilepsy contributes to cognitive decline or so-called 'epileptic dementia'. Although global cognitive decline is generally reported in the context of chronic refractory epilepsy, it is largely unknown what percentage of patients is at risk for decline. This review is focused on the identification of risk factors and characterization of aberrant cognitive trajectories in epilepsy. Evidence is found that the cognitive trajectory of patients with epilepsy over time differs from processes of cognitive ageing in healthy people, especially in adulthood-onset epilepsy. Cognitive deterioration in these patients seems to develop in a 'second hit model' and occurs when epilepsy hits on a brain that is already vulnerable or vice versa when comorbid problems develop in a person with epilepsy. Processes of ageing may be accelerated due to loss of brain plasticity and cognitive reserve capacity for which we coin the term 'accelerated cognitive ageing'. We believe that the concept of accelerated cognitive ageing can be helpful in providing a framework understanding global cognitive deterioration in epilepsy.

  13. Cognitive deterioration in adult epilepsy: Does accelerated cognitive ageing exist?

    PubMed

    Breuer, L E M; Boon, P; Bergmans, J W M; Mess, W H; Besseling, R M H; de Louw, A; Tijhuis, A G; Zinger, S; Bernas, A; Klooster, D C W; Aldenkamp, A P

    2016-05-01

    A long-standing concern has been whether epilepsy contributes to cognitive decline or so-called 'epileptic dementia'. Although global cognitive decline is generally reported in the context of chronic refractory epilepsy, it is largely unknown what percentage of patients is at risk for decline. This review is focused on the identification of risk factors and characterization of aberrant cognitive trajectories in epilepsy. Evidence is found that the cognitive trajectory of patients with epilepsy over time differs from processes of cognitive ageing in healthy people, especially in adulthood-onset epilepsy. Cognitive deterioration in these patients seems to develop in a 'second hit model' and occurs when epilepsy hits on a brain that is already vulnerable or vice versa when comorbid problems develop in a person with epilepsy. Processes of ageing may be accelerated due to loss of brain plasticity and cognitive reserve capacity for which we coin the term 'accelerated cognitive ageing'. We believe that the concept of accelerated cognitive ageing can be helpful in providing a framework understanding global cognitive deterioration in epilepsy. PMID:26900650

  14. Melatonin attenuates postharvest physiological deterioration of cassava storage roots.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiuxiang; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2016-05-01

    Melatonin reportedly increases abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in plants, but information on its in vivo effects during postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) in cassava is limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of melatonin in regulating cassava PPD. Treatment with 500 mg/L melatonin significantly delayed cassava PPD and reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) while increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR), but not ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Transcript analysis further showed that expression of copper/zinc SOD (MeCu/ZnSOD), MeCAT1, glutathione peroxidase (MeGPX), peroxidase 3 (MePX3), and glutathione S-transferases (MeGST) was higher in cassava roots sliced treated with 500 mg/L melatonin than in those not exposed to exogenous melatonin. These data demonstrate that melatonin delays cassava PPD by directly or indirectly maintaining homoeostasis of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that accumulation of endogenous melatonin and the transcript levels of melatonin biosynthesis genes changed dynamically during the PPD process. This finding suggested that endogenous melatonin acts as a signal modulator for maintaining cassava PPD progression and that manipulation of melatonin biosynthesis genes through genetic engineering might prevent cassava root deterioration.

  15. Musculoskeletal Deterioration and Hemicorporectomy After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The long-term management following an hemicorporectomy (HCP) is not well documented in the scientific literature. The purpose of this case report is to describe the 25-year history of a man with a spinal cord injury who experienced severe musculoskeletal deterioration and hemicorporectomy. Case Description The client sustained T10 complete paraplegia at age 18 years, developed severe decubitus ulcers, and required an HCP as a lifesaving measure 13 years later. The authors describe the chronology of several rehabilitation and prosthetic strategies and speculate on factors that may have contributed to their successes and failures. Outcomes The client survived 12 years after the HCP and returned to independent mobility, self-care, and schooling despite complications with continued skin breakdown. Over the 12 years following discharge from the hospital after the spinal cord injury, he spent 749 days in the hospital. During the 12 years he lived after discharge from the hospital following the HCP, he was hospitalized 190 days. Discussion The authors discuss factors contributing to the client’s musculoskeletal deterioration including chronic wounds, postural deviations, and incomplete adherence to pressure-relief recommendations and raise considerations for physical therapists who treat patients after HCP. PMID:12620090

  16. Simulating the Gradually Deteriorating Performance of an RTG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Eric G.; Ewell, Richard C.; Patel, Jagdish; Hanks, David R.; Lozano, Juan A.; Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Noon, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Degra (now in version 3) is a computer program that simulates the performance of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) over its lifetime. Degra is provided with a graphical user interface that is used to edit input parameters that describe the initial state of the RTG and the time-varying loads and environment to which it will be exposed. Performance is computed by modeling the flows of heat from the radioactive source and through the thermocouples, also allowing for losses, to determine the temperature drop across the thermocouples. This temperature drop is used to determine the open-circuit voltage, electrical resistance, and thermal conductance of the thermocouples. Output power can then be computed by relating the open-circuit voltage and the electrical resistance of the thermocouples to a specified time-varying load voltage. Degra accounts for the gradual deterioration of performance attributable primarily to decay of the radioactive source and secondarily to gradual deterioration of the thermoelectric material. To provide guidance to an RTG designer, given a minimum of input, Degra computes the dimensions, masses, and thermal conductances of important internal structures as well as the overall external dimensions and total mass.

  17. Deterioration of concrete structures by acid deposition — an assessment of the role of rainwater on deterioration by laboratory and field exposure experiments using mortar specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okochi, Hiroshi; Kameda, Hideki; Hasegawa, Shin-ichi; Saito, Nobuhiko; Kubota, Ken; Igawa, Manabu

    Deterioration of concrete structures caused by acid deposition was investigated by laboratory and field exposure of portland cement mortar specimens to acid deposition. Laboratory exposure experiment showed that the dissolved amount of calcium hydrates, which were the major components in mortar, increased with the increase in the acidity of simulated acid rain solution and the decrease in the flow rate. There was little difference in their amount among different temperature treatments after each exposure to the solution with the same acidity, namely left at room temperature, heated at 70°C, and cooled at -2°C. The neutralization progressed more deeply under the heated and cooled condition and was accelerated by even acid rain with pH 4.7 during a long period (90 exposure cycles, which correspond to the rainfall amount of 15 years in Japan). A field exposure experiment for two years indicated that the carbonation of calcium hydrates and the formation of other corrosion products such as chloride, nitrate, and sulfate were limited to the surface of mortar specimens. The neutralization progressed more deeply in mortar specimens sheltered from rainwater than in those washed by rainwater.

  18. Factorization of correspondence and camera error for unconstrained dense correspondence applications

    SciTech Connect

    Knoblauch, D; Hess-Flores, M; Duchaineau, M; Kuester, F

    2009-09-29

    A correspondence and camera error analysis for dense correspondence applications such as structure from motion is introduced. This provides error introspection, opening up the possibility of adaptively and progressively applying more expensive correspondence and camera parameter estimation methods to reduce these errors. The presented algorithm evaluates the given correspondences and camera parameters based on an error generated through simple triangulation. This triangulation is based on the given dense, non-epipolar constraint, correspondences and estimated camera parameters. This provides an error map without requiring any information about the perfect solution or making assumptions about the scene. The resulting error is a combination of correspondence and camera parameter errors. An simple, fast low/high pass filter error factorization is introduced, allowing for the separation of correspondence error and camera error. Further analysis of the resulting error maps is applied to allow efficient iterative improvement of correspondences and cameras.

  19. Human dynamics: Darwin and Einstein correspondence patterns.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, João Gama; Barabási, Albert-László

    2005-10-27

    In an era when letters were the main means of exchanging scientific ideas and results, Charles Darwin (1809-82) and Albert Einstein (1879-1955) were notably prolific correspondents. But did their patterns of communication differ from those associated with the instant-access e-mail of modern times? Here we show that, although the means have changed, the communication dynamics have not: Darwin's and Einstein's patterns of correspondence and today's electronic exchanges follow the same scaling laws. However, the response times of their surface-mail communication is described by a different scaling exponent from e-mail communication, providing evidence for a new class of phenomena in human dynamics.

  20. Human dynamics: Darwin and Einstein correspondence patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, João Gama; Barabási, Albert-László

    2005-10-01

    In an era when letters were the main means of exchanging scientific ideas and results, Charles Darwin (1809-82) and Albert Einstein (1879-1955) were notably prolific correspondents. But did their patterns of communication differ from those associated with the instant-access e-mail of modern times? Here we show that, although the means have changed, the communication dynamics have not: Darwin's and Einstein's patterns of correspondence and today's electronic exchanges follow the same scaling laws. However, the response times of their surface-mail communication is described by a different scaling exponent from e-mail communication, providing evidence for a new class of phenomena in human dynamics.

  1. Melvin magnetic fluxtube/cosmology correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastor, David; Traschen, Jennie

    2015-12-01

    We explore a correspondence between Melvin magnetic fluxtubes and anisotropic cosmological solutions, which we call ‘Melvin cosmologies’. The correspondence via analytic continuation provides useful information in both directions. Solution generating techniques known on the fluxtube side can also be used for generating cosmological backgrounds. Melvin cosmologies interpolate between different limiting Kasner behaviors at early and late times. This has an analogue on the fluxtube side between limiting Levi-Civita behavior at small and large radii. We construct generalized Melvin fluxtubes and cosmologies in both Einstein-Maxwell theory and dilaton gravity and show that similar properties hold.

  2. 40 CFR 52.60 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Environmental Management, P.O. Box 301463, Montgomery, Alabama 36130-1463, rather than to EPA's Region 4 office.(b) On March 24, 1987, the Alabama Department of Environmental Management submitted a letter... quality. 52.60 Section 52.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  3. 40 CFR 52.60 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environmental Management, P.O. Box 301463, Montgomery, Alabama 36130-1463, rather than to EPA's Region 4 office.(b) On March 24, 1987, the Alabama Department of Environmental Management submitted a letter... quality. 52.60 Section 52.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  4. 40 CFR 52.60 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environmental Management, P.O. Box 301463, Montgomery, Alabama 36130-1463, rather than to EPA's Region 4 office.(b) On March 24, 1987, the Alabama Department of Environmental Management submitted a letter... quality. 52.60 Section 52.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  5. 40 CFR 52.60 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Management, P.O. Box 301463, Montgomery, Alabama 36130-1463, rather than to EPA's Region 4 office.(b) On March 24, 1987, the Alabama Department of Environmental Management submitted a letter... quality. 52.60 Section 52.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  6. 40 CFR 52.60 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Environmental Management, P.O. Box 301463, Montgomery, Alabama 36130-1463, rather than to EPA's Region 4 office.(b) On March 24, 1987, the Alabama Department of Environmental Management submitted a letter... quality. 52.60 Section 52.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  7. Why from Early Environmental Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabo, Helena Maria

    2010-01-01

    Nature protection is increasingly becoming one of the most important concerns of contemporary society and of 3 major issues: deterioration prevention, environmental remediation actions and environmental reconstruction, which mainly consist of remedies, and preservation or maintenance of the de-polluted areas. Interest and love for nature are…

  8. Fundamentals of Solar Heating. Correspondence Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association, Vienna, VA.

    This course is designed for the use of employees of the air conditioning industry, and offers supervised correspondence instruction about solar technology. The following aspects of applied solar technology are covered: solar heating and cooling, solar radiation, solar collectors, heat storage control devices and specialty items, sizing solar…

  9. 12 CFR 7.5007 - Correspondent services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Electronic Activities § 7.5007 Correspondent services. It is part of the business of banking for a national... any service it may perform for itself. The following list provides examples of electronic activities... marketing of products and processing services for transactions conducted at electronic terminal devices;...

  10. 12 CFR 7.5007 - Correspondent services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Electronic Activities § 7.5007 Correspondent services. It is part of the business of banking for a national... any service it may perform for itself. The following list provides examples of electronic activities... marketing of products and processing services for transactions conducted at electronic terminal devices;...

  11. Detecting Discrimination in Audit and Correspondence Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David

    2012-01-01

    Audit studies testing for discrimination have been criticized because applicants from different groups may not appear identical to employers. Correspondence studies address this criticism by using fictitious paper applicants whose qualifications can be made identical across groups. However, Heckman and Siegelman (1993) show that group differences…

  12. PROGRAMMED MATERIALS IN HIGH SCHOOL CORRESPONDENCE COURSES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SJOGREN, DOUGLAS D.

    THE PURPOSE WAS TO DETERMINE IF MATERIALS CONSTRUCTED ACCORDING TO PROGRAMING PRINCIPLES WOULD BE RELATED TO ACHIEVEMENT, COMPLETION TIME, AND DROPOUT RATE IN CORRESPONDENCE STUDY. THREE METHODS WERE USED IN ADMINISTERING THE NINTH-GRADE LEVEL TEMAC ALGEBRA PROGRAM AND THE ENGLISH 2600 PROGRAM. SUPPLEMENTARY PROGRAMED MATERIALS WERE PREPARED AND…

  13. Preschoolers' Use of Correspondence: Ineffective and Infrequent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blevins-Knabe, Belinda

    Examined were preschoolers' spontaneous use of correspondence strategies. A total of 40 children 4 and 5 years of age were asked to divide a pile of cookies into two equal groups. The cookies were two sizes, halves and wholes, so even though there were trials with an odd number of cookies, it was possible to divide the cookies evenly. When…

  14. 34 CFR 691.66 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Correspondence study. 691.66 Section 691.66 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) ACADEMIC COMPETITIVENESS GRANT (ACG) AND NATIONAL SCIENCE AND...

  15. 34 CFR 691.66 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Correspondence study. 691.66 Section 691.66 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) ACADEMIC COMPETITIVENESS GRANT (ACG) AND NATIONAL SCIENCE AND...

  16. 34 CFR 691.66 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Correspondence study. 691.66 Section 691.66 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) ACADEMIC COMPETITIVENESS GRANT (ACG) AND NATIONAL SCIENCE AND...

  17. 34 CFR 691.66 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correspondence study. 691.66 Section 691.66 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACADEMIC COMPETITIVENESS GRANT (ACG) AND NATIONAL SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS ACCESS...

  18. 34 CFR 691.66 - Correspondence study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Correspondence study. 691.66 Section 691.66 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) ACADEMIC COMPETITIVENESS GRANT (ACG) AND NATIONAL SCIENCE AND...

  19. Deterioration of polymethyl methacrylate dentures in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Hiroshi; Suenaga, Hanako; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Osamu; Sasaki, Keiichi; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-made prostheses used in the oral cavity were evaluated by multimodal assessment in order to elucidate the biodeterioration of PMMA. In used dentures (UD), the micro-Vickers hardness of the polished denture surface and denture basal surface was lower than that of the torn surface (p<0.05), whereas the shaved surface approximately 100 µm from the polished surface showed a similar value to the torn surface. By contrast, there were no differences among these surfaces in new resin (NR). The volatile content of UD was higher than that of NR (p<0.05). Component analysis by ATR-FTIR showed specific spectra (1,700-1,400 cm(-1)) only in UD. This study revealed that PMMA deteriorated during long-term use in the oral cavity in terms of hardness and volatile content with component alteration, and suggests the involvement of biodeterioration, possibly due to saliva and oral microbiota.

  20. Managing dual warehouses with an incentive policy for deteriorating items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jonas C. P.; Wang, Kung-Jeng; Lin, Yu-Siang

    2016-02-01

    Distributors in a supply chain usually limit their own warehouse in finite capacity for cost reduction and excess stock is held in a rent warehouse. In this study, we examine inventory control for deteriorating items in a two-warehouse setting. Assuming that there is an incentive offered by a rent warehouse that allows the rental fee to decrease over time, the objective of this study is to maximise the joint profit of the manufacturer and the distributor. An optimisation procedure is developed to derive the optimal joint economic lot size policy. Several criteria are identified to select the most appropriate warehouse configuration and inventory policy on the basis of storage duration of materials in a rent warehouse. Sensitivity analysis is done to examine the results of model robustness. The proposed model enables a manufacturer with a channel distributor to coordinate the use of alternative warehouses, and to maximise the joint profit of the manufacturer and the distributor.

  1. Testing the AdS/CFT Correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Klebanov, Igor R.

    2008-07-28

    This lecture begins with some history and basic facts about string theory and its connections with strong interactions. Comparisons of stacks of Dirichlet branes with curved backgrounds produced by them are used to motivate the AdS/CFT correspondence between superconformal gauge theory and string theory on a product of Anti-de Sitter space and a compact manifold. The ensuing duality between semi-classical spinning strings and long gauge theory operators is briefly reviewed. We go on to describe a recent test of the AdS/CFT correspondence using the Wilson loop cusp anomaly as a function of the coupling, which also enters dimensions of high-spin operators. Finally, strongly coupled thermal SYM theory is explored via a black hole in 5-dimensional AdS space, which leads to explicit results for its entropy and shear viscosity.

  2. Genome Data Exploration Using Correspondence Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tekaia, Fredj

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments of sequencing technologies that allow the production of massive amounts of genomic and genotyping data have highlighted the need for synthetic data representation and pattern recognition methods that can mine and help discovering biologically meaningful knowledge included in such large data sets. Correspondence analysis (CA) is an exploratory descriptive method designed to analyze two-way data tables, including some measure of association between rows and columns. It constructs linear combinations of variables, known as factors. CA has been used for decades to study high-dimensional data, and remarkable inferences from large data tables were obtained by reducing the dimensionality to a few orthogonal factors that correspond to the largest amount of variability in the data. Herein, I review CA and highlight its use by considering examples in handling high-dimensional data that can be constructed from genomic and genetic studies. Examples in amino acid compositions of large sets of species (viruses, phages, yeast, and fungi) as well as an example related to pairwise shared orthologs in a set of yeast and fungal species, as obtained from their proteome comparisons, are considered. For the first time, results show striking segregations between yeasts and fungi as well as between viruses and phages. Distributions obtained from shared orthologs show clusters of yeast and fungal species corresponding to their phylogenetic relationships. A direct comparison with the principal component analysis method is discussed using a recently published example of genotyping data related to newly discovered traces of an ancient hominid that was compared to modern human populations in the search for ancestral similarities. CA offers more detailed results highlighting links between modern humans and the ancient hominid and their characterizations. Compared to the popular principal component analysis method, CA allows easier and more effective interpretation of results

  3. Genome Data Exploration Using Correspondence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tekaia, Fredj

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments of sequencing technologies that allow the production of massive amounts of genomic and genotyping data have highlighted the need for synthetic data representation and pattern recognition methods that can mine and help discovering biologically meaningful knowledge included in such large data sets. Correspondence analysis (CA) is an exploratory descriptive method designed to analyze two-way data tables, including some measure of association between rows and columns. It constructs linear combinations of variables, known as factors. CA has been used for decades to study high-dimensional data, and remarkable inferences from large data tables were obtained by reducing the dimensionality to a few orthogonal factors that correspond to the largest amount of variability in the data. Herein, I review CA and highlight its use by considering examples in handling high-dimensional data that can be constructed from genomic and genetic studies. Examples in amino acid compositions of large sets of species (viruses, phages, yeast, and fungi) as well as an example related to pairwise shared orthologs in a set of yeast and fungal species, as obtained from their proteome comparisons, are considered. For the first time, results show striking segregations between yeasts and fungi as well as between viruses and phages. Distributions obtained from shared orthologs show clusters of yeast and fungal species corresponding to their phylogenetic relationships. A direct comparison with the principal component analysis method is discussed using a recently published example of genotyping data related to newly discovered traces of an ancient hominid that was compared to modern human populations in the search for ancestral similarities. CA offers more detailed results highlighting links between modern humans and the ancient hominid and their characterizations. Compared to the popular principal component analysis method, CA allows easier and more effective interpretation of results

  4. Genome Data Exploration Using Correspondence Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tekaia, Fredj

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments of sequencing technologies that allow the production of massive amounts of genomic and genotyping data have highlighted the need for synthetic data representation and pattern recognition methods that can mine and help discovering biologically meaningful knowledge included in such large data sets. Correspondence analysis (CA) is an exploratory descriptive method designed to analyze two-way data tables, including some measure of association between rows and columns. It constructs linear combinations of variables, known as factors. CA has been used for decades to study high-dimensional data, and remarkable inferences from large data tables were obtained by reducing the dimensionality to a few orthogonal factors that correspond to the largest amount of variability in the data. Herein, I review CA and highlight its use by considering examples in handling high-dimensional data that can be constructed from genomic and genetic studies. Examples in amino acid compositions of large sets of species (viruses, phages, yeast, and fungi) as well as an example related to pairwise shared orthologs in a set of yeast and fungal species, as obtained from their proteome comparisons, are considered. For the first time, results show striking segregations between yeasts and fungi as well as between viruses and phages. Distributions obtained from shared orthologs show clusters of yeast and fungal species corresponding to their phylogenetic relationships. A direct comparison with the principal component analysis method is discussed using a recently published example of genotyping data related to newly discovered traces of an ancient hominid that was compared to modern human populations in the search for ancestral similarities. CA offers more detailed results highlighting links between modern humans and the ancient hominid and their characterizations. Compared to the popular principal component analysis method, CA allows easier and more effective interpretation of results

  5. The interpretation of shoeprint comparison class correspondences.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Sheida; Morgan-Smith, Rian; Buckleton, John

    2012-12-01

    The underlying principles involved in the interpretation of shoeprint comparisons have become a topical subject due to criticisms in the 2009 National Academy of Science (NAS) report on forensic sciences [1]. Difficulties in the application and understanding of these principles were also highlighted in a recent court ruling [2-5]. We report here a survey that may inform some aspects of this interpretation and discuss the implications of findings from this survey in the light of that court ruling and more importantly the NAS report. Five hundred shoeprints taken from student volunteers in Auckland, New Zealand were compared against each other for the presence of any pattern correspondences. Comparisons were undertaken of the full outsole and of smaller portions of the more common patterns. Of the 500 shoe impressions collected 488 (97.6%) were ultimately represented only once in the survey. The greatest number of corresponding patterns was for the most common brand of shoe (Converse Chuck Taylor All Star) and occurred in 3 of 500 observations. No instances of an imitation brand matching the authentic brand were found. Smaller sections of the common patterns showed a greater number of corresponding prints. However, the greatest number of matching partial patterns was again for the most common brand of shoe (Converse Chuck Taylor All Star) and occurred in 29 of 500 observations. We conclude that pattern match alone is of considerable evidential value even when the print is partial. PMID:23068775

  6. A procedural analysis of correspondence training techniques

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, Freddy A.

    1990-01-01

    A variety of names have been given to procedures used in correspondence training, some more descriptive than others. In this article I argue that a terminology more accurately describing actual procedures, rather than the conceptual function that those procedures are assumed to serve, would benefit the area of correspondence training. I identify two documented procedures during the reinforcement of verbalization phase and five procedures during the reinforcement of correspondence phase and suggest that those procedures can be classified, or grouped into nonoverlapping categories, by specifying the critical dimensions of those procedures belonging to a single category. I suggest that the names of such nonoverlapping categories should clearly specify the dimensions on which the classification is based in order to facilitate experimental comparison of procedures, and to be able to recognize when a new procedure (as opposed to a variant of one already in existence) is developed. Future research involving comparative analysis across and within procedures is discussed within the framework of the proposed classification. PMID:22478059

  7. Environmental Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane; James, John; Russo, Dane; Limero, Thomas; Beck, Steve; Groves, Theron

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Health activity for the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was formed to develop an overall strategy for safeguarding crew members from potential airborne hazards anticipated on missions of extended duration. These efforts were necessary because of major modifications to the air revitalization system of the U.S. Space Shuttle and an increased potential for environmental health risks associated with longer space flights. Degradation of air quality in the Shuttle during a space flight mission has the potential to affect the performance of the crew not only during piloting, landing, or egress, but also during space flight. It was anticipated that the risk of significant deterioration in air quality would increase with extended mission lengths and could result from: (1) a major chemical contamination incident, such as a thermodegradation event or toxic leak, (2) continual accumulation of volatile organic compounds to unacceptable levels, (3) excessive levels of airborne particles, (4) excessive levels of microorganisms, or (5) accumulation of airborne pathogens.

  8. Protect and enhance: Lowi's juridical democracy and the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Meiburg, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The capture of Federal regulatory agencies by the groups they were supposed to be regulating has been a topic of concern in the traditional literature of public administration. In his influential book The End of Liberalism, Professor Theordore Lowi suggested that capture resulted in part from vauge delegations of authority of Congress to regulatory agencies. Lowi argued that democracy would be better served if Congress were more specific in drafting laws, if agencies made greater use of formal rulemaking in implementing them, and if the courts rejected statutes which contained excessively vague delegations of authority - a remedy which he labeled juridicial democracy. This dissertation examines Lowi's theory in light of the experience of Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with the requirements of the Clean Air Act to prevent the significant deterioration of air quality in areas where air was already relatively clean. The history of the program to develop and carry out these requirements, known as PSD, is described in detail from its inception in the late 1960's through EPA's final regulations in 1980. Special attention is given to the actions taken by EPA after environmental groups successfully used the courts to force EPA to develop a PSD program in 1974, how Congress responded by amending the Clean Air Act in 1977, and the difficulties these amendments and subsequent additional court reviews caused for EPA.

  9. Acid rain and deterioration of monuments: How old is the phenomenon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camuffo, Dario

    The first known articles on acid rain appeared when atmospheric pollution reached high levels in the industrial towns of England. Research was carried out to ascertain and interpret earlier documentation, mainly written or printed in Italy, that could throw new light on both the environmental history and the relationship between present-day pollution and weathering of monuments. Very important discussions on dispersion and transport of airborne pollutants, atmospheric scavenging, acid rain, as well as descriptions of effects on fruit, monuments and people, were found in scientific treatises of the 1600s and 1700s. The cause of acidification can be found in volcanic activity, especially that of Stromboli, Vulcano, Vesuvius and Etna, which increased in the 17th and 18th century. Although in the past some pollutants may have reached higher concentrations locally than at present, nowadays air pollution has become a global problem; there are many new species of pollutants and catalysts, and their combined action has increased impressively the environmental risk and the deterioration rate of historic buildings and monuments.

  10. Time Course and Predictors of Neurological Deterioration after Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Aaron S.; Gilmore, Emily; Choi, H. Alex; Mayer, Stephan A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Neurological deterioration (ND) is a devastating complication following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) but little is known about time course and predictors. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of placebo patients in ICH trials. We performed CT scans within 3 hours of symptoms and at 24- and 72-hours; and clinical evaluations at baseline, 1-hour, and days 1, 2, 3, and 15. Timing of ND was predefined: hyperacute (within 1 hour), acute (1-24 hours), subacute (1-3 days), and delayed (3-15 days). Results We enrolled 376 patients and 176 (47%) had ND within 15 days. In multivariate analyses of ND by category, hyperacute ND was associated with hematoma expansion (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.7-7.6) and baseline ICH volume (OR 1.04 per mL, 95% CI 1.02-1.06) ; acute ND with hematoma expansion (OR 7.59, 95% CI 3.91-14.74), baseline ICH volume (OR 1.02 per mL, 95% CI 1.01-1.04), admission GCS (OR 0.77 per point, 95% CI 0.65-0.91) and interventricular hemorrhage (IVH) (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.05-4.35); subacute ND with 72-hour edema (OR 1.03 per mL, 95% CI 1.02-1.05) and fever (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.01-6.14); and delayed ND with age (OR 1.11 per year, 95% CI 1.04-1.18), troponin (OR 4.30 per point, 95% CI 1.71-10.77) and infections (OR 3.69, 95% CI 1.11-12.23). Patients with ND had worse 90-day modified Rankin scores (5 vs. 3, p<0.001). Conclusions Neurological deterioration occurs frequently and predicts poor outcomes. Our results implicate hematoma expansion and IVH in early ND, and cerebral edema, fever, and medical complications in later ND. PMID:25657190

  11. Analysing deterioration of marble stones exposed to underwater conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cámara, Beatriz; Álvarez de Buergo, Mónica; Bethencourt, Manuel; Freire-Lista, David; Fort, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    The peculiar conditions of the marine environment make the conservation of underwater archaeological sites an extremely complex procedure. This is due to the fact that the prevailing conditions in this environment promote the development of deterioration phenomena in submerged artefacts through the synergistic action of physical, chemical and biological factors. The objective of the present investigation was to determine how petrophysical properties of cultural heritage materials can be affected by being exposed to the specific underwater conditions of the sea bottom, and so, to evaluate how this can affect, in a long term, in their durability and evolution when they part of an archaeological site. For this purpose, two types of marble (the Italian Carrara and the Spanish Macael) were subjected to an experiment consisting of exposing stone materials for one and a half year to underwater conditions. The experimental test was located in an archaeological site in the Bay of Cadiz (southern Spain), Bajo del Chapitel (recognized as Cultural Interest), which includes remains of shipwrecks from different periods. In this site, samples were submerged to 12 m depth and placed in the sea bottom simulating the different positions in which underwater archaeological objects can be found (fully exposed, half buried and covered). Petrophysical characterisation involved determination of the apparent and bulk densities, water saturation (maximum water content a material may contain), open porosity (porosity accessible to water), chromatic parameters and ultrasonic velocity. Before measuring, samples were subjected to mechanical cleaning (in those samples with biological colonization) and to removal of salt deposits. Results showed significant differences in these petrophysical properties after underwater submersion, which were directly related to the type of underwater exposure condition. Comparative analysis of petrophysical properties, like the one conducted in this study

  12. Studies on the ADS/CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muck, Wolfgang

    1999-11-01

    This thesis summarizes original research on the topic of the ``AdS/CFT correspondence.'' This correspondence, which was first conjectured by Maldacena [ Adv. Theor. Math. Phys. 2, 231 (1998)] and subsequently formulated by Gubser, Klebanov and Polyakov [Phys. Lett. B 428, 105 (1998) and by Witten [Adv. Theor. Math. Phys. 2, 253 (1998)], relates field theories on (d + 1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) spaces and conformal field theories (CFTs) in d dimensions with each other. Its main prediction is that the correlation functions of certain quantum CFTs are determined by the dynamics of classical field theories on AdS spaces. Starting from a correspondence formula provided by the authors above, several CFT correlation functions are calculated and agreement with the forms dictated by conformal invariance is found. The necessary renormalization is carried out in the ``ɛ- prescription.'' Details of renormalization and the breaking of conformal symmetries in special cases are investigated by means of the example of the scalar field. The ``asymptotic prescription'' is used to prove a suggestion by Klebanov and Witten [hep- th/9905104] about the treatment of irregular boundary conditions valid to all orders of perturbation theory. The treatment of AdS gravity, which enables the calculation of correlation functions of CFT energy momentum tensors, is carried out in the time slicing formalism. The calculated two-point functions and Weyl anomalies agree with results known from pure CFT considerations. The Wess Zumino model on AdS4 is discussed as an example containing supersymmetry. It is shown that the model yields the correlation functions of conformal fields belonging to a d = 3, N = 1 superconformal multiplet.

  13. Dynamical Correspondence in a Generalized Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niestegge, Gerd

    2015-05-01

    In order to figure out why quantum physics needs the complex Hilbert space, many attempts have been made to distinguish the C*-algebras and von Neumann algebras in more general classes of abstractly defined Jordan algebras (JB- and JBW-algebras). One particularly important distinguishing property was identified by Alfsen and Shultz and is the existence of a dynamical correspondence. It reproduces the dual role of the selfadjoint operators as observables and generators of dynamical groups in quantum mechanics. In the paper, this concept is extended to another class of nonassociative algebras, arising from recent studies of the quantum logics with a conditional probability calculus and particularly of those that rule out third-order interference. The conditional probability calculus is a mathematical model of the Lüders-von Neumann quantum measurement process, and third-order interference is a property of the conditional probabilities which was discovered by Sorkin (Mod Phys Lett A 9:3119-3127, 1994) and which is ruled out by quantum mechanics. It is shown then that the postulates that a dynamical correspondence exists and that the square of any algebra element is positive still characterize, in the class considered, those algebras that emerge from the selfadjoint parts of C*-algebras equipped with the Jordan product. Within this class, the two postulates thus result in ordinary quantum mechanics using the complex Hilbert space or, vice versa, a genuine generalization of quantum theory must omit at least one of them.

  14. Study of marble deterioration at City Hall, Schenectady, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, R.J.; Castillo, R.

    1984-01-01

    Constructed in 1930 at a cost of over one million dollars, the City Hall in Schenectady, New York, is listed in the U.S. Register of Historical Buildings. The masonry materials were the finest available at the time of construction; granite, fire hardened exterior brick and Vermont marble - Imperical Danby, an equivalent to Carrara marble from Italy. It is known today that the lack of impurities in the Imperial Danby leads to weak crystalline properties. Cleaned with water, sponges and stiff brushes upon completion of construction, the exterior was not cleaned over a fifty-year period. The research indicated that the marble grains are being structurally weakened by a chemical conversion process of marble to gypsum crystals. The surface zone of chemical activity (2-5 mm) shows the presence of fly ash and iron particles and points to the possibility of a catalytic mechanism for the conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfate. This research has established symptoms which are consistent with prior reported research into building material deterioration. However, the results presented are not supportive of one mechanism over another.

  15. Flight into sanity. Jones's allegation of Ferenczi's mental deterioration reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, C

    1999-06-01

    In 'The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud', Volume III, Ernest Jones explained Ferenczi's final contributions as the product of a mental deterioration based on a progressive psychosis. Erich Fromm collected various testimonies by witnesses of Ferenczi's last years, all contrasting with Jones's assertions, and challenged Jones's manner of writing history. However, since Fromm was himself a dissident, and his witnesses were pupils, relatives or friends of Ferenczi's, they were discarded as 'partisans'. The present study aims at reconsidering the question of Ferenczi's insanity on the basis of many unpublished documents. The consulted documents do not support Jones's allegation of Ferenczi's insanity. At the same time, they show that Jones's allegation was not a one-man fabrication, but reflected a shared belief, eliciting many questions about the nature of this belief, the lack of scrutiny that characterised its spreading, and its possible function within the psychoanalytic community. It is suggested that Ferenczi's personality and teaching, especially his emphasis on the need to accept the patient's criticism, contrasted with the dominant conception of psychoanalysis, based on the analyst's infallibility.

  16. A damage mechanics based approach to structural deterioration and reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattcharya, B.; Ellingwood, B.

    1998-02-01

    Structural deterioration often occurs without perceptible manifestation. Continuum damage mechanics defines structural damage in terms of the material microstructure, and relates the damage variable to the macroscopic strength or stiffness of the structure. This enables one to predict the state of damage prior to the initiation of a macroscopic flaw, and allows one to estimate residual strength/service life of an existing structure. The accumulation of damage is a dissipative process that is governed by the laws of thermodynamics. Partial differential equations for damage growth in terms of the Helmholtz free energy are derived from fundamental thermodynamical conditions. Closed-form solutions to the equations are obtained under uniaxial loading for ductile deformation damage as a function of plastic strain, for creep damage as a function of time, and for fatigue damage as function of number of cycles. The proposed damage growth model is extended into the stochastic domain by considering fluctuations in the free energy, and closed-form solutions of the resulting stochastic differential equation are obtained in each of the three cases mentioned above. A reliability analysis of a ring-stiffened cylindrical steel shell subjected to corrosion, accidental pressure, and temperature is performed.

  17. Deterioration of Mechanical Properties of Discs in Chronically Inflamed TMJ

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X.D.; Cui, S.J.; Liu, Y.; Luo, Q.; Du, R.J.; Kou, X.X.; Zhang, J.N.; Zhou, Y.H.; Gan, Y.H.

    2014-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) discs frequently undergo degenerative changes in arthritis. However, the biomechanical properties of pathogenic discs remain to be explored. In this study, we evaluated the effects of chronic inflammation on the biomechanical properties of TMJ discs in rats. Chronic inflammation of TMJs was induced by double intra-articular injections of complete Freund’s adjuvant for 5 weeks, and biomechanical properties and ultrastructure of the discs were examined by mechanical testing, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The instantaneous compressive moduli of the anterior and posterior bands of discs in inflamed TMJs were decreased significantly compared with those in the control group. The instantaneous tensile moduli of the discs of inflamed TMJs also showed significant decreases in both the anterior-posterior and mesial-lateral directions. The relaxation moduli of the discs of inflamed TMJs showed nearly the same tendency as the instantaneous moduli. The surfaces of the discs of inflamed TMJs became rough and porous due to the loss of the superficial gel-like stratum, with many collagen fibers exposed and degradation of the sub-superficial collagen fibrils. Our results suggested that chronic inflammation of TMJ could lead to deterioration of mechanical properties and alteration of disc ultrastructure, which might contribute to TMJ disc displacement. PMID:25266714

  18. Electricity generating capacity and performance deterioration of a microbial fuel cell fed with beer brewery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Köroğlu, Emre Oğuz; Özkaya, Bestamin; Denktaş, Cenk; Çakmakci, Mehmet

    2014-12-01

    This study focused on using beer brewery wastewater (BBW) to evaluate membrane concentrate disposal and production of electricity in microbial fuel cells. In the membrane treatment of BBW, the membrane permeate concentration was 570 ± 30 mg/L corresponding to a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 75 ± 5%, and the flux values changed between 160 and 40 L/m(2)-h for all membrane runs. For electricity production from membrane concentrate, the highest current density in the microbial fuel cell (MFC) was observed to be 1950 mA/m(2) according to electrode surface area with 36% COD removal efficiency and 2.48% CE with 60% BBW membrane concentrate. The morphologies of the cation exchange membrane and the MFC deterioration were studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). A decrease in the thermal stability of the sulfonate (-SO3H) groups was demonstrated and morphological changes were detected in the SEM analysis. PMID:24958130

  19. Electricity generating capacity and performance deterioration of a microbial fuel cell fed with beer brewery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Köroğlu, Emre Oğuz; Özkaya, Bestamin; Denktaş, Cenk; Çakmakci, Mehmet

    2014-12-01

    This study focused on using beer brewery wastewater (BBW) to evaluate membrane concentrate disposal and production of electricity in microbial fuel cells. In the membrane treatment of BBW, the membrane permeate concentration was 570 ± 30 mg/L corresponding to a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 75 ± 5%, and the flux values changed between 160 and 40 L/m(2)-h for all membrane runs. For electricity production from membrane concentrate, the highest current density in the microbial fuel cell (MFC) was observed to be 1950 mA/m(2) according to electrode surface area with 36% COD removal efficiency and 2.48% CE with 60% BBW membrane concentrate. The morphologies of the cation exchange membrane and the MFC deterioration were studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). A decrease in the thermal stability of the sulfonate (-SO3H) groups was demonstrated and morphological changes were detected in the SEM analysis.

  20. The dS/dS Correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Karch, Andreas; Silverstein, Eva

    2004-12-10

    We present a holographic duality for the de Sitter static patch which consolidates basic features of its geometry and the behavior of gravity and brane probes, valid on timescales short compared to the decay or Poincare recurrence times. Namely de Sitter spacetime dSd(R) in d dimensions with curvature radius R is holographically dual to two conformal field theories on dSd-1(R), cut off at an energy scale 1/R where they couple to each other and to d - 1 dimensional gravity. As part of our analysis, we study brane probes in de Sitter and thermal Anti de Sitter spaces, and interpret the terms in the corresponding DBI action via strongly coupled thermal field theory. This provides a dual field theoretic interpretation of the fact that probes take forever to reach a horizon in general relativity.

  1. Feasibility study for fuel-grade-ethanol complex, Kennewick, Washington. Volume V of V. Environmental impact report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    Included in this volume are: ethyl alcohol production draft environmental impact statement, prevention of significant deterioration permit application, Hover Industrial Park draft environmental impact statement, and environmental permit application. (MHR)

  2. Drusen maculopathy: a risk factor for visual deterioration.

    PubMed

    Algvere, Peep V; Kvanta, Anders; Seregard, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of visual loss after the age of 65, displays a degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and photoreceptors in the retinal centre (macula). The central macula (fovea) that contains mostly cone photoreceptors mediates the high visual acuity. Drusen maculopathy may lead to visual deterioration. Drusen are extracellular deposits of debris that accumulate on Bruch's membrane. Drusen attract inflammatory, immunological and vasoactive stimuli. RPE and photoreceptor cells overlying drusen exhibit biochemical and morphological signs of degeneration. Strong and intermittent light exposure (photons) induces the formation of free radicals in the very high oxygen tension milieu of the retina. The negative effects of irradiation stimulate accumulation of lipofuscin in RPE and photoreceptor cells leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death. A hydrophobic barrier is built up in Bruch's membrane reducing diffusion to the choroid. Hereditary and inflammatory factors modify the risk for AMD. There is a genetic dysregulation of the complement system leading to inappropriate complement activation. The genetic polymorphism of complement factor H (CFH) and age-related maculopathy susceptibilty 2 (ARMS2) increase the risk of progression to advanced AMD. The photoelectric effect creates free radicals, resulting in a continuous increase of lipofuscin formation and impairing mitochondrial activity. In addition, inflammation and complement dysregulation contribute to the formation of drusen and vasoproliferative reactions with neovascularization. Antioxidants neutralize reactive oxygen species and reduce lipofuscin accumulation in RPE and photoreceptor cells. For prophylactic treatment of drusen maculopathy, high doses of antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, lutein, zeaxanthine and zinc are used according to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS 2). The risk of developing advanced AMD was

  3. Mechanisms of cementitious material deterioration in biogas digester.

    PubMed

    Voegel, C; Bertron, A; Erable, B

    2016-11-15

    Digesters produce biogas from organic wastes through anaerobic digestion processes. These digesters, often made of concrete, suffer severe premature deterioration caused mainly by the presence of fermentative microorganisms producing metabolites that are aggressive towards cementitious materials. To clarify the degradation mechanisms in an anaerobic digestion medium, ordinary Portland cement paste specimens were immersed in the liquid fraction of a running, lab-scale digester for 4weeks. The anaerobic digestion medium was a mixture of a biowaste substrate and sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant used as a source of anaerobic bacteria. The chemical characteristics of the anaerobic digestion liquid phase were monitored over time using a pH metre, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ion chromatography (HPIC). An initial critical period of low pH in the bioreactors was observed before the pH stabilized around 8. Acetic, propionic and butyric acids were produced during the digestion with a maximum total organic acid concentration of 50mmolL(-1). The maximum ammonium content of the liquid phase was 40mmolL(-1), which was about seven times the upper limit of the highly aggressive chemical environment class (XA3) as defined by the European standard for the specification of concrete design in chemically aggressive environments (EN 206). The changes in the mineralogical, microstructural and chemical characteristics of the cement pastes exposed to the solid and liquid phase of the digesters were analysed at the end of the immersion period by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and electron-probe micro-analysis (EPMA). A 700-μm thick altered layer was identified in the cement paste specimens. The main biodeterioration patterns in the bioreactors' solid/liquid phase were calcium leaching and carbonation of the cement matrix.

  4. Drusen maculopathy: a risk factor for visual deterioration.

    PubMed

    Algvere, Peep V; Kvanta, Anders; Seregard, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of visual loss after the age of 65, displays a degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and photoreceptors in the retinal centre (macula). The central macula (fovea) that contains mostly cone photoreceptors mediates the high visual acuity. Drusen maculopathy may lead to visual deterioration. Drusen are extracellular deposits of debris that accumulate on Bruch's membrane. Drusen attract inflammatory, immunological and vasoactive stimuli. RPE and photoreceptor cells overlying drusen exhibit biochemical and morphological signs of degeneration. Strong and intermittent light exposure (photons) induces the formation of free radicals in the very high oxygen tension milieu of the retina. The negative effects of irradiation stimulate accumulation of lipofuscin in RPE and photoreceptor cells leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death. A hydrophobic barrier is built up in Bruch's membrane reducing diffusion to the choroid. Hereditary and inflammatory factors modify the risk for AMD. There is a genetic dysregulation of the complement system leading to inappropriate complement activation. The genetic polymorphism of complement factor H (CFH) and age-related maculopathy susceptibilty 2 (ARMS2) increase the risk of progression to advanced AMD. The photoelectric effect creates free radicals, resulting in a continuous increase of lipofuscin formation and impairing mitochondrial activity. In addition, inflammation and complement dysregulation contribute to the formation of drusen and vasoproliferative reactions with neovascularization. Antioxidants neutralize reactive oxygen species and reduce lipofuscin accumulation in RPE and photoreceptor cells. For prophylactic treatment of drusen maculopathy, high doses of antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, lutein, zeaxanthine and zinc are used according to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS 2). The risk of developing advanced AMD was

  5. Microbial evaluation and deterioration of paints and paint-products.

    PubMed

    Obidi, O F; Aboaba, O O; Makanjuola, M S; Nwachukwu, S C U

    2009-09-01

    The microbial quality of materials and final products of a reputable paint industry in Lagos area were analysed. The bacterial contaminants isolated in the paint-products included Bacillus brevis, B. polymyxa, B. laterosporus, Lactobacillus gasseri, L. brevis, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. The fungal contaminants detected in the paints were mainly Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and Penicillium citrinum. The microbial populations in the raw materials ranged from 1.0 x 10(6) - 9.5 x 10(6) cfu g(-1) for bacteria and between 1.25 x 10(4) and 6.8 x 10(4) cfu g(-1) for fungi while those present in packaging materials ranged from 3.45 x 10(6) - 7.65 x 10(6) cfu g(-1) for bacteria and 2.4 x 10(3) - 2.8 x 10(3) cfu g(-1) for fungi respectively. The bacterial populations in the fresh paint samples monitored every two weeks from the time of production ranged from 1.6 x 10(1) - 4.7 x 10(5) cfu ml(-1) while the fungal populations ranged from 1.0 x 10(1) - 5.5 x 10(3) cfu ml(-1) over a ten-month study period. The optical density at 600 nm increased while transmittance, pH, specific gravity and viscosity of the paint samples decreased over the period suggesting gradual deterioration of the aesthetic qualities of the paint-products with time as indicated by the measured parameters.

  6. [Speech impairment predisposes to cognitive deterioration in hepatic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Meparidze, M M; Kodua, T E; Lashkhi, K S

    2010-04-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a reversible neuro-psychiatric syndrome that complicates liver insufficiency. The changes are complex and disorders are detected in digestive and neural systems. Disturbed consciousness and intellectual deterioration, particularly communicative difficulties are observed: speech is slurred, voice monotonous, writing disturbances, amimic face and rigid posture. Difficulties of socialization and tendency to self-isolation are observed. Memory, attention and perception are decreased. We suppose that disorders of cognitive functions are determined by impairment of speech and other communicative abilities. According to the theories of linguistic determinism and linguistic relativity thought categories move through the mould of native language. That means, speech impairment causes misperception of the real world. To confirm this hypothesis we investigated 106 patients with following diseases: peptic ulcer - 46, fatty liver - 30, liver cirrhosis - 19, viral hepatitis - 11 and 19 controls. Brain magnetic resonance tomography was carried out and psychometric tests were performed to patients with symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy. Atrophic changes in frontal, temporal and insular area of brain cortex were revealed in most cases. Those regions are responsible for actor observation, imitation and emotion, i.e. for empathy and sociability. They are very sensitive to the increased levels of ammonia and glutamine. In case of early treatment only slight atrophic changes are presented but without treatment atrophic processes become stable and expressed by impairments of speech and entire communicative ability. Human beings are very much at the mercy of the particular language which has become the medium of expression for their society. They do not live in the objective world alone, or in the world of social activity alone. Accordingly, damage of speech in hepatic encephalopathy is primary and predisposes to cognitive dysfunction. PMID:20495225

  7. Mechanisms of cementitious material deterioration in biogas digester.

    PubMed

    Voegel, C; Bertron, A; Erable, B

    2016-11-15

    Digesters produce biogas from organic wastes through anaerobic digestion processes. These digesters, often made of concrete, suffer severe premature deterioration caused mainly by the presence of fermentative microorganisms producing metabolites that are aggressive towards cementitious materials. To clarify the degradation mechanisms in an anaerobic digestion medium, ordinary Portland cement paste specimens were immersed in the liquid fraction of a running, lab-scale digester for 4weeks. The anaerobic digestion medium was a mixture of a biowaste substrate and sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant used as a source of anaerobic bacteria. The chemical characteristics of the anaerobic digestion liquid phase were monitored over time using a pH metre, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ion chromatography (HPIC). An initial critical period of low pH in the bioreactors was observed before the pH stabilized around 8. Acetic, propionic and butyric acids were produced during the digestion with a maximum total organic acid concentration of 50mmolL(-1). The maximum ammonium content of the liquid phase was 40mmolL(-1), which was about seven times the upper limit of the highly aggressive chemical environment class (XA3) as defined by the European standard for the specification of concrete design in chemically aggressive environments (EN 206). The changes in the mineralogical, microstructural and chemical characteristics of the cement pastes exposed to the solid and liquid phase of the digesters were analysed at the end of the immersion period by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and electron-probe micro-analysis (EPMA). A 700-μm thick altered layer was identified in the cement paste specimens. The main biodeterioration patterns in the bioreactors' solid/liquid phase were calcium leaching and carbonation of the cement matrix. PMID:27432729

  8. 75 FR 53892 - Action To Ensure Authority To Issue Permits Under the Prevention of Significant Deterioration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ...\\ ``Prevention of Significant Deterioration and Title V Greenhouse Gas Tailoring Rule; Final Rule.'' 75 FR 31514... regulation, including GHGs. See 75 FR 31560-62, ``Prevention of Significant Deterioration and Title V GHG... results when the mass emissions of each of these gases is multiplied by the Global Warming Potential...

  9. 75 FR 54292 - Action To Ensure Authority To Issue Permits Under the Prevention of Significant Deterioration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... the Prevention of Significant Deterioration Program to Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Federal... Under the Prevention of Significant Deterioration Program to Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions... Register on August 30, 2010, 75 FR 52916). We inadvertently within the summary section of the...

  10. Self healing of high strength concrete after deterioration by freeze/thaw

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, S.; Sellevold, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    Some experiments have been performed to investigate the self healing of concretes deteriorated by internal cracking in the ASTM C666 procedure A rapid freeze/thaw test. Six different well cured concretes were deteriorated to various degrees. Then the specimens (concrete beams) were stored in water for 2--3 months. Resonance frequency, weight, volume and compressive strength were measured during deterioration and self healing. Concretes that lost as much as 50% of their initial relative dynamic modulus during freeze/thaw could recover almost completely during subsequent storage in water, somewhat varying with concrete composition and degree of deterioration. Compressive strength showed reductions of 22--29% on deterioration, but only 4--5% recovery on self healing. Freeze/thaw tests on deteriorated and self-healed specimens in partly sealed condition showed clearly that the deterioration was governed by the ability to take up water; the more water that leaked through the plastic foil during freeze/thaw, the larger the deterioration. Self healing may be an important factor giving concrete better frost durability in field than when submitting specimens to freeze/thaw cycles in water.

  11. Reversing the Cycle of Deterioration in the Nation's Public School Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of the Great City Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Across the nation, large urban school districts are experiencing premature and rapidly accelerating deterioration of school buildings. The conditions of buildings and equipment, most importantly in classrooms and school support spaces, are deteriorating to the point of hindering the core mission of schools: educating children. This report is the…

  12. [Particular clinical situations in the glaucoma patient. True or false deterioration of the visual field?].

    PubMed

    Nordmann, J-P

    2004-06-01

    Measurement errors, correction errors, head position errors, changes in strategy, fluctuations. There are many parameters influencing the results of visual field measurement. When in doubt, it is indispensable to repeat the examination before concluding that the results have deteriorated. In addition to the qualitative assessment, the analysis of global indices can pinpoint the degree of visual field deterioration. PMID:15319754

  13. A new AdS/CFT correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastase, Horatiu Stefan; Siegel, Warren

    2000-10-01

    We consider a geometric zero-radius limit for strings on AdS5 × S5, where the Anti-de Sitter hyperboloid becomes the projective lightcone. In this limit the fifth dimension becomes non dynamical, yielding a different ``holographic'' interpretation than the usual ``bulk to boundary'' one. When quantized on the random lattice, the fifth coordinate acts as a new kind of Schwinger parameter, producing Feynman rules with normal propagators at the tree level: for example, in the bosonic case ordinary massless phi4 theory is obtained. In the superstring case we obtain new, manifestly Script N = 4 supersymmetric rules for Script N = 4 super Yang-Mills. These gluons are also different from those of the usual AdS/CFT correspondence: they are the ``partons'' that make up the usual ``hadrons'' of the open and closed strings in the familiar QCD string picture. Thus, their coupling gYM and rank N of the ``color'' gauge group are different from those of the ``flavor'' gauge group of the open string. As a result we obtain different perturbation expansions in radius, coupling, and 1/N.

  14. Deterioration of the Floor of Interior Courtyard of Sultan Hassan Mosque in Cairo, Egypt.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazel, Tarek

    The college- mosque of Sultan Hassan is considered one of the finest examples of Islamic architecture not only in Egypt but also in the East. Its open interior courtyard is paved with three different types of marble slabs. These marble slabs suffer from severe deterioration. Causes of this deterioration were determined accurately through the ocular examination of the courtyard and confirmed by the laboratory tests which were carried out on samples representing the three common types of marble used in the floor namely the white, the red and the black marble. Sun light and heat are the main deterioration factors and the consequent thermal expansion is the main property which led to the detected deterioration phenomena. Types and mechanisms of deterioration affected the floor were described and explained.

  15. Sudden gains and deteriorations in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in World Trade Center responders.

    PubMed

    Haugen, Peter Tejas; Goldman, Rachel E; Owen, Jesse

    2015-03-01

    This study sought to examine the prevalence of sudden gains and deteriorations (i.e., symptom reduction/improvement during treatment) and their influence on treatment outcomes among World Trade Center responders with probable posttraumatic stress disorder. Thirty-six outpatient clients received at least three sessions of integrative psychotherapy, which included elements of psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral therapy approaches, under routine clinical conditions. Approximately 19% of clients experienced a sudden gain and 27% of clients experienced a sudden deterioration. Those who experienced deteriorations had worse therapy outcomes compared with those who did not. Clinical implications are discussed, including the importance of routine monitoring of client treatment response for sudden deteriorations to enhance positive treatment outcomes. Future research with larger samples is needed to further evaluate the mechanisms of sudden gains and sudden deteriorations in this population. PMID:25674885

  16. Antagonistic coevolution limits population persistence of a virus in a thermally deteriorating environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan-Guo; Buckling, Angus

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the conditions under which rapid evolutionary adaptation can prevent population extinction in deteriorating environments (i.e. evolutionary rescue) is a crucial aim in the face of global climate change. Despite a rapidly growing body of work in this area, little attention has been paid to the importance of interspecific coevolutionary interactions. Antagonistic coevolution commonly observed between hosts and parasites is likely to retard evolutionary rescue because it often reduces population sizes, and results in the evolution of costly host defence and parasite counter-defence. We used experimental populations of a bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and a bacteriophage virus (SBW25Φ2), to study how host-parasite coevolution impacts viral population persistence in the face of gradually increasing temperature, an environmental stress for the virus but not the bacterium. The virus persisted much longer when it evolved in the presence of an evolutionarily constant host genotype (i.e. in the absence of coevolution) than when the bacterium and virus coevolved. Further experiments suggest that both a reduction in population size and costly infectivity strategies contributed to viral extinction as a result of coevolution. The results highlight the importance of interspecific evolutionary interactions for the evolutionary responses of populations to global climate change.

  17. Sclerostin antibody inhibits skeletal deterioration due to reduced mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Spatz, Jordan M; Ellman, Rachel; Cloutier, Alison M; Louis, Leeann; van Vliet, Miranda; Suva, Larry J; Dwyer, Denise; Stolina, Marina; Ke, Hua Zhu; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2013-04-01

    Sclerostin, a product of the SOST gene produced mainly by osteocytes, is a potent negative regulator of bone formation that appears to be responsive to mechanical loading, with SOST expression increasing following mechanical unloading. We tested the ability of a murine sclerostin antibody (SclAbII) to prevent bone loss in adult mice subjected to hindlimb unloading (HLU) via tail suspension for 21 days. Mice (n = 11-17/group) were assigned to control (CON, normal weight bearing) or HLU and injected with either SclAbII (subcutaneously, 25 mg/kg) or vehicle (VEH) twice weekly. SclAbII completely inhibited the bone deterioration due to disuse, and induced bone formation such that bone properties in HLU-SclAbII were at or above values of CON-VEH mice. For example, hindlimb bone mineral density (BMD) decreased -9.2% ± 1.0% in HLU-VEH, whereas it increased 4.2% ± 0.7%, 13.1% ± 1.0%, and 30.6% ± 3.0% in CON-VEH, HLU-SclAbII, and CON-SclAbII, respectively (p < 0.0001). Trabecular bone volume, assessed by micro-computed tomography (µCT) imaging of the distal femur, was lower in HLU-VEH versus CON-VEH (p < 0.05), and was 2- to 3-fold higher in SclAbII groups versus VEH (p < 0.001). Midshaft femoral strength, assessed by three-point bending, and distal femoral strength, assessed by micro-finite element analysis (µFEA), were significantly higher in SclAbII versus VEH-groups in both loading conditions. Serum sclerostin was higher in HLU-VEH (134 ± 5 pg/mL) compared to CON-VEH (116 ± 6 pg/mL, p < 0.05). Serum osteocalcin was decreased by hindlimb suspension and increased by SclAbII treatment. Interestingly, the anabolic effects of sclerostin inhibition on some bone outcomes appeared to be enhanced by normal mechanical loading. Altogether, these results confirm the ability of SclAbII to abrogate disuse-induced bone loss and demonstrate that sclerostin antibody treatment increases bone mass by increasing bone formation in

  18. Sclerostin Antibody Inhibits Skeletal Deterioration Due to Reduced Mechanical Loading

    PubMed Central

    Spatz, Jordan M; Ellman, Rachel; Cloutier, Alison M; Louis, Leeann; van Vliet, Miranda; Suva, Larry J; Dwyer, Denise; Stolina, Marina; Ke, Hua Zhu; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2014-01-01

    Sclerostin, a product of the SOST gene produced mainly by osteocytes, is a potent negative regulator of bone formation that appears to be responsive to mechanical loading, with SOST expression increasing following mechanical unloading. We tested the ability of a murine sclerostin antibody (SclAbII) to prevent bone loss in adult mice subjected to hindlimb unloading (HLU) via tail suspension for 21 days. Mice (n = 11–17/group) were assigned to control (CON, normal weight bearing) or HLU and injected with either SclAbII (subcutaneously, 25 mg/kg) or vehicle (VEH) twice weekly. SclAbII completely inhibited the bone deterioration due to disuse, and induced bone formation such that bone properties in HLU-SclAbII were at or above values of CON-VEH mice. For example, hindlimb bone mineral density (BMD) decreased –9.2%±1.0% in HLU-VEH, whereas it increased 4.2%±0.7%, 13.1%±1.0%, and 30.6%±3.0% in CON-VEH, HLU-SclAbII, and CON-SclAbII, respectively (p < 0.0001). Trabecular bone volume, assessed by micro–computed tomography (μCT) imaging of the distal femur, was lower in HLU-VEH versus CON-VEH (p < 0.05), and was 2- to 3-fold higher in SclAbII groups versus VEH (p < 0.001). Midshaft femoral strength, assessed by three-point bending, and distal femoral strength, assessed by micro–finite element analysis (μFEA), were significantly higher in SclAbII versus VEH-groups in both loading conditions. Serum sclerostin was higher in HLU-VEH (134±5 pg/mL) compared to CON-VEH (116±6 pg/mL, p < 0.05). Serum osteocalcin was decreased by hindlimb suspension and increased by SclAbII treatment. Interestingly, the anabolic effects of sclerostin inhibition on some bone outcomes appeared to be enhanced by normal mechanical loading. Altogether, these results confirm the ability of SclAbII to abrogate disuse-induced bone loss and demonstrate that sclerostin antibody treatment increases bone mass by increasing bone formation in both normally loaded and underloaded environments. PMID

  19. (Environmental technology)

    SciTech Connect

    Boston, H.L.

    1990-10-12

    The traveler participated in a conference on environmental technology in Paris, sponsored by the US Embassy-Paris, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the French Environmental Ministry, and others. The traveler sat on a panel for environmental aspects of energy technology and made a presentation on the potential contributions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to a planned French-American Environmental Technologies Institute in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Evry, France. This institute would provide opportunities for international cooperation on environmental issues and technology transfer related to environmental protection, monitoring, and restoration at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The traveler also attended the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Contamination in Barcelona. Conference topics included environmental chemistry, land disposal of wastes, treatment of toxic wastes, micropollutants, trace organics, artificial radionuclides in the environment, and the use biomonitoring and biosystems for environmental assessment. The traveler presented a paper on The Fate of Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.'' Those findings corresponded well with results from studies addressing the fate of fallout radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There was an exchange of new information on a number of topics of interest to DOE waste management and environmental restoration needs.

  20. Differential patterns of premorbid academic and social deterioration in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Allen, Daniel N; Frantom, Linda V; Strauss, Gregory P; van Kammen, Daniel P

    2005-06-15

    Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by a number of behavioral abnormalities that are present prior to onset. These premorbid abnormalities may serve as unique markers for the disorder. The current study examines academic and social functioning prior to schizophrenia onset in a group of 58 males diagnosed with schizophrenia. The pattern of deterioration for social and academic functioning was examined across three age periods including childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence, using the retrospective Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS). Results indicated that while increasing deterioration was present for both social and academic adjustment across age periods, there was a significant difference in deterioration between academic and social functioning (p<.05) during late adolescence, with greater deterioration in academic functioning. Results of the current study suggest that premorbid academic functioning is particularly susceptible to deterioration during late adolescence, with accelerating deterioration as schizophrenia onset becomes imminent. When considered together with results from other studies, the present findings suggest that deterioration in premorbid academic functioning from early to late adolescence may be a unique premorbid marker for schizophrenia.

  1. Performance deterioration based on in-service engine data: JT9D jet engine diagnostics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1979-01-01

    Results of analyses of engine performance deterioration trends and levels with respect to service usage are presented. Thirty-two JT9D-7A engines were selected for this purpose. The selection of this engine fleet provided the opportunity of obtaining engine performance data starting before the first flight through initial service such that the trend and levels of engine deterioration related to both short and long term deterioration could be more carefully defined. The performance data collected and analyzed included in-flight, on wing (ground), and test stand prerepair and postrepair performance calibrations with expanded instrumentation where feasible. The results of the analyses of these data were used to: (1) close gaps in previously obtained historical data as well as augment the historical data with more carefully obtained data; (2) refine preliminary models of performance deterioration with respect to usage; (3) establish an understanding of the relationships between ground and altitude performance deterioration trends; (4) refine preliminary recommendations concerning means to reduce and control deterioration; and (5) identify areas where additional effort is required to develop an understanding of complex deterioration issues.

  2. Sleep-Dependent Learning and Practice-Dependent Deterioration in an Orientation Discrimination Task

    PubMed Central

    Mednick, Sara C.; Drummond, Sean P.A.; Boynton, Geoffrey M.; Awh, Ed; Serences, John

    2009-01-01

    Learning new information requires practice. The degree of learning can be influenced by the amount of practice and whether subjects sleep between sessions. Over-practice, however, can lead to performance deterioration. The interaction between practice-dependent deterioration and sleep-dependent learning needs more study. We examine whether the amount of practice before sleep alters learning, and whether prior sleep protects against deterioration. Two groups (N = 33) were tested three times across two days on an orientation discrimination task. The High practice group was tested twice before a night of sleep and once after, at 9 a.m., 7 p.m., and 9 a.m. The Low practice group was tested once before a night of sleep and twice after, at 7 p.m., 9 a.m., and 7 p.m. Overall, both groups showed (1) deterioration with repeated, within-day testing, (2) performance improvement only after a night of sleep, (3) similar amounts of sleep-dependent learning and practice-dependent deterioration. In summary, we found that sleep resets visual contrast thresholds to a lower baseline (i.e., produces learning), but does not prevent over-practice deterioration effects. Likewise, over-practice deterioration does not influence the magnitude of overnight learning on this task. PMID:18410166

  3. 28 CFR 540.17 - Correspondence between confined inmates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.17 Correspondence between confined...); and (b)(1) The appropriate unit manager at each institution must approve of the correspondence if...

  4. Environmental Factors Affecting the Permanence of Library Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessel, Carl J.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews pertinent evidence relating to deterioration originating with air pollution, heat, humidity, light, and biological agents; and suggests how librarians may lengthen the useful life of library materials through environmental controls. (Author/JS)

  5. Degradation and corresponding failure mechanism for GaN-based LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jiajia; Zhao, Lixia; Cao, Haicheng; Sun, Xuejiao; Sun, Baojuan; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin

    2016-05-01

    The degradation behaviors of high power GaN-based vertical blue LEDs on Si substrates were measured using in-situ accelerated life test. The results show that the dominant failure mechanism would be different during the operation. Besides that, the corresponding associated failure mechanisms were investigated systematically by using different analysis technologies, such as Scan Electron Microscopy, Reflectivity spectroscopy, Transient Thermal Analysis, Raman Spectra, etc. It is shown that initially, the failure modes were mainly originated from the semiconductor die and interconnect, while afterwards, the following serious deterioration of the radiant fluxes was attributed to the package. The interface material and quality, such as die attach and frame, play an important role in determining the thermal performance and reliability. In addition, the heating effect during the operation will also release the compressive strain in the chip. These findings will help to improve the reliability of GaN-based LEDs, especially for the LEDs with vertical structure.

  6. A probability evaluation method of early deterioration condition for the critical components of wind turbine generator systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yaogang; Li, Hui; Liao, Xinglin; Song, Erbing; Liu, Haitao; Chen, Z.

    2016-08-01

    This study determines the early deterioration condition of critical components for a wind turbine generator system (WTGS). Due to the uncertainty nature of the fluctuation and intermittence of wind, early deterioration condition evaluation poses a challenge to the traditional vibration-based condition monitoring methods. Considering the its thermal inertia and strong anti-interference capacity, temperature characteristic parameters as a deterioration indication cannot be adequately disturbed by the uncontrollable noise and uncertainty nature of wind. This paper provides a probability evaluation method of early deterioration condition for critical components based only on temperature characteristic parameters. First, the dynamic threshold of deterioration degree function was proposed by analyzing the operational data between temperature and rotor speed. Second, a probability evaluation method of early deterioration condition was presented. Finally, two cases showed the validity of the proposed probability evaluation method in detecting early deterioration condition and in tracking their further deterioration for the critical components.

  7. Effect of steady flight loads on JT9D-7 performance deterioration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jay, A.; Todd, E. S.

    1978-01-01

    Short term engine deterioration occurs in less than 250 flights on a new engine and in the first flights following engine repair; while long term deterioration involves primarily hot section distress and compression system losses which occur at a somewhat slower rate. The causes for short-term deterioration are associated with clearance changes which occur in the flight environment. Analytical techniques utilized to examine the effects of flight loads and engine operating conditions on performance deterioration are presented. The role of gyroscopic, gravitational, and aerodynamic loads are discussed along with the effect of variations in engine build clearances. These analytical results are compared to engine test data along with the correlation between analytically predicted and measured clearances and rub patterns. Conclusions are drawn and important issues are discussed.

  8. Relationship between flavour deterioration and the volatile compound profile of semi-ripened sausage.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José Manuel; Bedia, Mario; Bañón, Sancho

    2013-03-01

    This study provides data on the relationship between flavour deterioration and the volatile compound profile of semi-ripened pork salami kept under retail conditions for up to 150 days. The flavour of salami deteriorated for 120 days, resulting in rancidity and a loss of acceptability. TBARS increased from 0.16 to 0.57 MDA/kg. The flavour changes during the shelf life of salami were monitored from changes in the volatile profile. The retailing time influenced (p<0.05) the level of 27 of the 30 headspace volatiles determined by SPME-GC/MS. Flavour deterioration was associated with the loss and/or degradation of volatiles resulting from spices and microbial activities, and the formation of volatiles from lipid oxidation. The levels of 2-heptenal and methyl esters of heptanoic, pentanoic and hexanoic acids were the best discriminators of storage time, and therefore seem to be promising as marker compounds of flavour deterioration and acceptability. PMID:23273472

  9. Toward better understanding of postharvest deterioration: biochemical changes in stored cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots.

    PubMed

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Coelho, Bianca; Moresco, Rodolfo; Domínguez, Moralba Garcia; Sánchez, Teresa; Meléndez, Jorge Luis Luna; Dufour, Dominique; Ceballos, Hernan; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Hershey, Clair; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-05-01

    Food losses can occur during production, postharvest, and processing stages in the supply chain. With the onset of worldwide food shortages, interest in reducing postharvest losses in cassava has been increasing. In this research, the main goal was to evaluate biochemical changes and identify the metabolites involved in the deterioration of cassava roots. We found that high levels of ascorbic acid (AsA), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), dry matter, and proteins are correlated with overall lower rates of deterioration. On the other hand, soluble sugars such as glucose and fructose, as well as organic acids, mainly, succinic acid, seem to be upregulated during storage and may play a role in the deterioration of cassava roots. Cultivar Branco (BRA) was most resilient to postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD), while Oriental (ORI) was the most susceptible. Our findings suggest that PPO, AsA, and proteins may play a distinct role in PPD delay.

  10. A comprehensive oral and dental management of an epileptic and intellectually deteriorated adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sourabh Ramesh; Pendyala, Gowri Swaminatham; Saraf, Veena; Choudhari, Shantanu; Mopagar, Viddyasagar

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy along with intellectual deterioration and other neurological disorders can have social, physical, and psychological consequences, especially, when they begin in childhood. Moreover, the seizure episode along with mental deterioration may compromise the oral and dental care resulting in numerous decayed teeth. This report presents the case history of an adolescent with poor oral hygiene and numerous decayed teeth. This report also presents the comprehensive endodontic, surgical, and prosthodontic management of epileptic mentally challenged patient in the dental office. Epilepsy along with intellectual deterioration and other neurological disorders can have social, physical, and psychological consequences, especially, when they begin in childhood. Moreover, the seizure episode along with mental deterioration may compromise the oral and dental care resulting in numerous decayed teeth. This report presents the case history of an adolescent with poor oral hygiene and numerous decayed teeth. This report also presents the comprehensive endodontic, surgical, and prosthodontic management of epileptic mentally challenged patient in the dental office. PMID:24130597

  11. Toward better understanding of postharvest deterioration: biochemical changes in stored cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots.

    PubMed

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Coelho, Bianca; Moresco, Rodolfo; Domínguez, Moralba Garcia; Sánchez, Teresa; Meléndez, Jorge Luis Luna; Dufour, Dominique; Ceballos, Hernan; Becerra Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto; Hershey, Clair; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-05-01

    Food losses can occur during production, postharvest, and processing stages in the supply chain. With the onset of worldwide food shortages, interest in reducing postharvest losses in cassava has been increasing. In this research, the main goal was to evaluate biochemical changes and identify the metabolites involved in the deterioration of cassava roots. We found that high levels of ascorbic acid (AsA), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), dry matter, and proteins are correlated with overall lower rates of deterioration. On the other hand, soluble sugars such as glucose and fructose, as well as organic acids, mainly, succinic acid, seem to be upregulated during storage and may play a role in the deterioration of cassava roots. Cultivar Branco (BRA) was most resilient to postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD), while Oriental (ORI) was the most susceptible. Our findings suggest that PPO, AsA, and proteins may play a distinct role in PPD delay. PMID:27247771

  12. The effect of unit-based simulation on nurses' identification of deteriorating patients.

    PubMed

    Disher, Jocelyn; Burgum, Angela; Desai, Anisha; Fallon, Cynthia; Hart, Patricia L; Aduddell, Kathie

    2014-01-01

    Patients are admitted to healthcare organizations with multiple, complex conditions that can lead to acute deterioration events. It is imperative that nurses are adequately trained to recognize and respond appropriately to these events to ensure positive patient outcomes. The purpose of this pilot research study was to examine the effects of a unit-based, high-fidelity simulation initiative on cardiovascular step-down unit registered nurses' identification and management of deteriorating patients.

  13. Determinants of neurologic deterioration and stroke-free survival after spontaneous cervicocranial dissections: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ameer E; Jadhav, Vikram; Zacharatos, Haralabos; Chaudhry, Saqib A; Rodriguez, Gustavo J; Mohammad, Yousef M; Suri, M Fareed K; Tariq, Nauman; Vazquez, Gabriela; Tummala, Ramachandra P; Taylor, Robert A; Qureshi, Adnan I

    2013-05-01

    Patients with spontaneous cervicocranial dissection (SCCD) may experience new or recurrent ischemic events despite antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy. Treatment with stent placement is an available option; however, the literature on patient selection is limited. Thus, identifying patients at high risk for neurologic deterioration after SCCD is of critical importance. The present study examined the rate of neurologic deterioration in medically treated patients with SCCD and evaluated demographic, clinical, and radiologic factors affecting this deterioration. We retrospectively identified consecutive patients with SCCD over a 7-year period from 3 medical institutions, and evaluated the relationships between demographic data, clinical characteristics, and angiographical findings and subsequent neurologic outcomes. Neurologic deterioration was defined as transient ischemic attack (TIA), ischemic stroke, or death occurring during hospitalization or within 1 year of diagnosis. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to determine neurologic event-free survival up to 12 months. A total of 69 patients (mean age, 47.8 ± 14 years; 45 males) with SCCD were included in the study. Eleven patients (16%) experienced in-hospital neurologic deterioration (TIA in 9, ischemic stroke in 1) or death (1 patient). An additional 8 patients developed neurologic deterioration within 1 year after discharge (TIA in 5, ischemic stroke in 2, and death in 1). The overall 1-year event-free survival rate was 72%. Women (P = .046), patients with involvement of both vertebral arteries (P = .02), and those with intracranial arterial involvement (P = .018) had significantly higher rates of neurologic deterioration. Our findings indicate that neurologic deterioration is relatively common after SCCD despite medical treatment in women, patients with bilateral vertebral artery involvement, and those with intracranial vessel involvement.

  14. CF6-6D engine short-term performance deterioration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, W. H.; Paas, J. E.; Smith, J. J.; Wulf, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    Studies conducted as part of the NASA-Lewis CF6 jet engine diagnostics program are summarized. An 82-engine sample of DC-10-10 aircraft engine checkout data that were gathered to define the extent and magnitude of CF6-6D short term performance deterioration were analyzed. These data are substantiated by the performance testing and analytical teardown of CF6-6D short term deterioration engine serial number (ESN) 451507.

  15. 77 FR 41051 - Prevention of Significant Deterioration and Title V Greenhouse Gas Tailoring Rule Step 3 and GHG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 RIN 2060-AR10 Prevention of Significant Deterioration and Title V Greenhouse Gas... rule completes Step 3 by determining not to lower the current Prevention of Significant Deterioration... facilities. \\1\\ ``Prevention of Significant Deterioration and Title V Greenhouse Gas Tailoring Rule;...

  16. Latest about Spoilage by Yeasts: Focus on the Deterioration of Beverages and Other Plant-Derived Products.

    PubMed

    Krisch, Judit; Chandrasekaran, Muthusamy; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Vágvölgyi, Csaba

    2016-05-01

    Food and beverage deterioration by spoilage yeasts is a serious problem that causes substantial financial losses each year. Yeasts are able to grow under harsh environmental conditions in foods with low pH, low water activity, and high sugar and/or salt content. Some of them are extremely resistant to the traditional preservatives used in the food industry. The search for new methods and agents for prevention of spoilage by yeasts is ongoing, but most of these are still at laboratory scale. This minireview gives an overview of the latest research issues relating to spoilage by yeasts, with a focus on wine and other beverages, following the interest of the research groups. It seems that a better understanding of the mechanisms to combat food-related stresses, the characteristics leading to resistance, and rapid identification of strains of yeasts in foods are the tools that can help control spoilage yeasts. PMID:27296433

  17. Latest about Spoilage by Yeasts: Focus on the Deterioration of Beverages and Other Plant-Derived Products.

    PubMed

    Krisch, Judit; Chandrasekaran, Muthusamy; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Vágvölgyi, Csaba

    2016-05-01

    Food and beverage deterioration by spoilage yeasts is a serious problem that causes substantial financial losses each year. Yeasts are able to grow under harsh environmental conditions in foods with low pH, low water activity, and high sugar and/or salt content. Some of them are extremely resistant to the traditional preservatives used in the food industry. The search for new methods and agents for prevention of spoilage by yeasts is ongoing, but most of these are still at laboratory scale. This minireview gives an overview of the latest research issues relating to spoilage by yeasts, with a focus on wine and other beverages, following the interest of the research groups. It seems that a better understanding of the mechanisms to combat food-related stresses, the characteristics leading to resistance, and rapid identification of strains of yeasts in foods are the tools that can help control spoilage yeasts.

  18. Beta-cell deterioration during diabetes: what's in the gun?

    PubMed

    Robertson, R Paul

    2009-10-01

    Clinical management of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) successfully prevents extreme hyperglycemia but does not precisely control glucose levels throughout the day. The pathogenesis of T2D is akin to a double-barrel shotgun. The first trigger causes an explosion that sets genetic expression of the disease in motion; the second trigger discharges a host of environmental factors that worsen its clinical course. Candidate shells include glucolipotoxicity, cytokines, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin resistance. This review considers how each candidate adversely impacts beta-cell function to create the downward spiral of glycemic control. Their roles in pathogenesis raise possibilities for new drug therapies designed to protect against adverse effects of residual hyperglycemia in patients treated with conventional drugs.

  19. Ozone depletion: Can global action rescue the deteriorating ozone layer

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.H.

    1992-04-03

    Until recently, severe depletion of the Earth's protective ozone layer - which blocks harmful solar radiation - was thought to be confined to a [open quotes]hole[close quotes] over Antarctica. But in February NASA scientists raised new concerns when they reported that the 25-mile-wide layer apparently is thinning over the Northern Hemisphere and other populated areas. Findings to be released this month may even show that a second hole has opened over northern New England, Canada, northern Europe, Russia and China. Led by the US, once complacent governments are now scrambling to accelerate the elimination of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other chemicals that destroy ozone. Their response to this global threat could provide a model for international cooperation in combating similar environmental dangers.

  20. 37 CFR 2.18 - Correspondence, with whom held.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... correspondence to only one address in an ex parte matter. (7) Once the Office has recognized a practitioner...(c). A written request to change the correspondence address does not revoke a power of attorney. (b) Changing the correspondence address. (1) If a physical or e-mail correspondence address changes,...