Science.gov

Sample records for environmental epidemiologic research

  1. Environmental epidemiology

    SciTech Connect

    Kopfler, F.C.; Craun, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    This volume is a compendium of peer-reviewed papers presented at the Symposium on Exposure Measurement and Evaluation Methods for Epidemiology, cosponsored in 1985 by the Health Effects Research Laboratory, USEPA, and the Division of Environmental Chemistry of the American Chemical Society. The book is divided into four sections: Use of Biological Monitoring to Assess Exposure, Epidemiologic Considerations for Assessing Exposure, Health and Exposure Data Bases, and Assessment of Exposure to Environmental Contaminants for Epidemiologic Studies. Both background papers and detailed reports of human studies are presented. The Biological Monitoring section contains reports of efforts to quantify adducts in blood and urine samples. In the section on Epidemiologic Considerations the feasibility of conducting epidemiologic studies of persons residing near hazardous waste sites and those exposed to arsenic in drinking water is described. The review of Data Bases includes government and industry water quality monitoring systems, the FDA Market Basket Study, major EPA air monitoring data, the National Database on Body Burden of Toxic chemicals, and the National Human Adipose Tissue Survey. Methods of assessing current exposure and estimating past exposure are detailed in the final section. Exposure to trichloroethylene in shower water, the relationship between water quality and cardiovascular disease, the contribution of environmental lead exposures to pediatric blood lead levels, and data from the TEAM study in which researchers compare indoor, outdoor, and breath analysis of air pollutant exposures are also discussed.

  2. [Epidemiological research on environmental health risks and their economic consequences].

    PubMed

    Haucke, F; Holle, R; Wichmann, H E

    2009-12-01

    In environmental health research, methods for quantitative analysis of human population studies data are gaining importance. In recent years, it has been realized that they can also provide an important link to the economic view on environmental health effects. In this review, fundamental concepts and methods from environmental epidemiology and health economics are presented and it is shown how they can be linked in order to support environmental policy decisions. In addition, the characteristics of environmental epidemiology and the role of epidemiologic studies in risk assessment are discussed. From the economic point of view, cost-of-illness studies and cost effectiveness studies are the main approaches, and we have placed special focus on methods of monetary valuation of health effects that are generally proposed in the environmental context. Two conceptually differing strategies to combine epidemiologic and economic evidence are presented: the environmental attributable fraction model as a top-down approach and the impact pathway approach which follows a bottom-up analysis strategy. Finally, two examples are used to illustrate the application of these concepts and methods: health risks caused by fine particle air pollution and their costs, and the cost-effectiveness of radon exposure reduction policies.

  3. Toward a global agenda for research in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Soskolne, Colin L; Butler, Colin D; Ijsselmuiden, Carel; London, Leslie; von Schirnding, Yasmin

    2007-01-01

    The global environment is in critical decline. Whether one's concern about environmental epidemiology stems from the perspectives of environmental health, climate change, ecological collapse, or growing inequity, clear problems exist. Natural capital resources are being depleted; disregard for the integrity of ecosystems is entrenched in current business practices. Indeed, despite increasing rhetoric to the contrary, the disregard displayed by those who hold power globally toward long-term sustainability and, thus, the health and well-being of future generations, could be described as wanton. Six years ago, the Millennium Development Goals were announced by the United Nations as a rallying point for action to achieve a sustainable future, particularly by reducing the gap between the "have mores" and "have nots." The attainment of these Goals is now endangered, as is, apparently, the spirit of optimism and idealism that inspired them at the Millennium Summit. We call for a reinvigoration of both concern about-and action on-sustainability. In particular, we appeal to those engaged in the field of environmental epidemiology (and other specialties with whom they engage) to consider how they might help by incorporating sustainability issues (including global ecological integrity and global environmental justice) into their own research programs. This incorporation would make a vital contribution to protect both present and future generations and to reduce resource and health gaps between North and South. Simply put, we propose that sustainability becomes integral to advancing the science of environmental epidemiology and related environmental disciplines.

  4. Methodologic research needs in environmental epidemiology: data analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, R L; Thomas, D

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is given of data analysis methods for the identification and quantification of associations between environmental exposures and health events of interest. Data analysis methods are outlined for each of the study designs mentioned, with an emphasis on topics in need of further research. Particularly noted are the need for improved methods for accommodating exposure assessment measurement errors in analytic epidemiologic studies and for improved methods for the conduct and analysis of aggregate data (ecologic) studies. PMID:8206041

  5. Challenges for environmental epidemiology research: are biomarker concentrations altered by kidney function or urine concentration adjustment?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological monitoring has become a standard approach to exposure assessment in occupational and environmental epidemiology. The use of biological effect markers to identify early adverse changes in target organs has also become widely adopted. Recently, nephrotoxicant research us...

  6. Reporting of occupational and environmental research: use and misuse of statistical and epidemiological methods

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, L.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To report some of the most serious omissions and errors which may occur in papers submitted to Occupational and Environmental Medicine, and to give guidelines on the essential components that should be included in papers reporting results from studies of occupational and environmental health.
METHODS—Since 1994 Occupational and Environmental Medicine has used a panel of medical statisticians to review submitted papers which have a substantial statistical content. Although some studies may have genuine errors in their design, execution, and analysis, many of the problems identified during the reviewing process are due to inadequate and incomplete reporting of essential aspects of a study. This paper outlines some of the most important errors and omissions that may occur. Observational studies are often the preferred choice of design in occupational and environmental medicine. Some of the issues relating to design, execution, and analysis which should be considered when reporting three of the most common observational study designs, cross sectional, case-control, and cohort are described. An illustration of good reporting practice is given for each. Various mathematical modelling techniques are often used in the analysis of these studies, the reporting of which causes a major problem to some authors. Suggestions for the presentation of results from modelling are made.
CONCLUSIONS—There is increasing interest in the development and application of formal "good epidemiology practices". These not only consider issues of data quality, study design, and study conduct, but through their structured approach to the documentation of the study procedures, provide the potential for more rigorous reporting of the results in the scientific literature.


Keywords: research reporting; statistical methods; epidemiological methods PMID:10711263

  7. Challenges for environmental epidemiology research: are biomarker concentrations altered by kidney function or urine concentration adjustment?

    PubMed

    Weaver, Virginia M; Kotchmar, Dennis J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2016-01-01

    Biomonitoring has become a standard approach for exposure assessment in occupational and environmental epidemiology. The use of biological effect markers to identify early adverse changes in target organs has also become widely adopted. However, the potential for kidney function to affect biomarker levels in the body and the optimal approach to adjustment of biomarker concentrations in spot urine samples for hydration status are two important but underappreciated challenges associated with biomarker use. Several unexpected findings, such as positive associations between urine nephrotoxicant levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), have been reported recently in research using biomarkers. These and other findings, discussed herein, suggest an impact of kidney glomerular filtration or tubule processing on biomarker levels. This is more commonly raised in the context of decreased kidney filtration, traditionally referred to as reverse causality; however, recent data suggest that populations with normal kidney filtration may be affected as well. Misclassification bias would result if biomarkers reflect kidney function as well as either exposures or early biological effect outcomes. Furthermore, urine biomarker associations with eGFR that differ markedly by approach used to adjust for urine concentration have been reported. Associations between urine measures commonly used for this adjustment, such as urine creatinine, and specific research outcomes could alter observed biomarker associations with outcomes. Research recommendations to address the potential impact of kidney function and hydration status adjustment on biomarkers are provided, including a range of approaches to study design, exposure and outcome assessment, and adjustment for urine concentration.

  8. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajan R; Chetlapally, Satish Kumar; Bagvandas, M

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution.

  9. Molecular epidemiologic research on the effects of environmental pollutants on the fetus.

    PubMed Central

    Perera, F P; Jedrychowski, W; Rauh, V; Whyatt, R M

    1999-01-01

    Evidence shows that fetuses and infants are more affected than adults by a variety of environmental toxicants because of differential exposure, physiologic immaturity, and a longer lifetime over which disease initiated in early life can develop. In this article we review data on the effects of in utero exposure to common environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), particulate matter and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). We then summarize results from our molecular epidemiologic study to assess risks from in utero exposures to ambient air pollution and ETS. This research study, conducted in Poland, used biomarkers to measure the internal and bioeffective dose of toxicants and individual susceptibility factors. The study included 160 mothers and 160 newborns. Ambient air pollution was significantly associated (p= 0.05) with the amount of PAH bound to DNA (PAH-DNA adducts) in both maternal and infant cord white blood cells (WBC). Newborns with elevated PAH-DNA adducts (greater than the median) had significantly decreased birth weight (p= 0.05), birth length (p= 0.02), and head circumference (p= 0.0005) compared to the newborns with lower adducts (n= 135). Maternal and infant cotinine levels were increased by active and passive cigarette smoke exposure of the mother (p= 0.01). An inverse correlation was seen between newborn plasma cotinine (nanograms per milliliter) and birth weight (p= 0.0001) and length (p= 0.003). Adducts were elevated in placental tissue and WBC of newborns who were heterozygous or homozygous for the cytochrome P4501A1 MspI restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) compared to newborns without the RFLP. Levels of PAH-DNA and cotinine were higher in newborns than mothers. These results document that there is significant transplacental transfer of PAH and ETS constituents from mother to fetus; that PAH-DNA adduct levels in maternal and newborn WBC were increased with environmental exposure to PAH from ambient

  10. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  11. Evidence-based selection of environmental factors and datasets for measuring multiple environmental deprivation in epidemiological research

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This Environment and Human Health project aims to develop a health-based summary measure of multiple physical environmental deprivation for the UK, akin to the measures of multiple socioeconomic deprivation that are widely used in epidemiology. Here we describe the first stage of the project, in which we aimed to identify health-relevant dimensions of physical environmental deprivation and acquire suitable environmental datasets to represent population exposure to these dimensions at the small-area level. We present the results of this process: an evidence-based list of environmental dimensions with population health relevance for the UK, and the spatial datasets we obtained and processed to represent these dimensions. This stage laid the foundations for the rest of the project, which will be reported elsewhere. PMID:20102585

  12. Gene-Environment Research and Cancer Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program supports extramural research that investigates both genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to the etiology of cancer and/or impact cancer outcomes.

  13. Advances in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Caroline M

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is likely due to the combined effects of environment and genes in most cases. Environmental factors inversely associated with PD (or, putative protective factors) include cigarette smoking, use of coffee/caffeine, higher uric acid levels, and anti-inflammatory drug use. Less well-established inverse associations with PD include higher cholesterol levels, statin use, higher dietary vitamin B6, and night shift work. Putative risk factors are pesticide exposure, head trauma, certain occupations, and milk consumption. The pathogenesis of PD may begin decades before motor symptoms. PD may have shared determinants with other neurodegenerative disorders involving abnormal protein aggregation.

  14. The intersection of sound principles of environmental epidemiologic research and ethical guidelines and review: an example from Canada of an environmental case-control study.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Mark S

    2010-01-01

    The present article challenges the ways in which ethical guidelines are implemented in reviewing the design and conduct of research involving human participants in observational studies in Canada. Fieldwork procedures should be designed in such a way as to be valid scientifically but also acceptable in terms of local ethical considerations, such as confidentiality of participant's identity and information, and other social norms. To set the stage, I present briefly essential information regarding the valid design and conduct of observational epidemiologic studies. As an example of the difficulties encountered in implementing these procedures, I present my experience in gaining ethical approval for a population-based, case-control study of environmental causes of postmenopausal breast cancer.

  15. Epigenetic Epidemiology: Promises for Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Bakulski, Kelly M.; Fallin, M. Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic changes underlie developmental and age related biology. Promising epidemiologic research implicates epigenetics in disease risk and progression, and suggests epigenetic status depends on environmental risks as well as genetic predisposition. Epigenetics may represent a mechanistic link between environmental exposures, or genetics, and many common diseases, or may simply provide a quantitative biomarker for exposure or disease for areas of epidemiology currently lacking such measures. This great promise is balanced by issues related to study design, measurement tools, statistical methods, and biological interpretation that must be given careful consideration in an epidemiologic setting. This article describes the promises and challenges for epigenetic epidemiology, and suggests directions to advance this emerging area of molecular epidemiology. PMID:24449392

  16. Courses in environmental and occupational epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Philipp, R; Kjellström, T

    1994-01-01

    The results of a survey are reported in which members of WHO's Global Environmental Epidemiology Network were asked for details of free-standing environmental and occupational epidemiology courses that were offered or planned for 1991-93 with tuition in English, French or Spanish and with places for persons living outside the countries concerned. Of the 126 courses on which information was received, 72 were open to health professionals from more than one discipline.

  17. Epidemiologic research in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A study of epidemiology of respiratory viruses that was begun in the early 1960's is described. Locations selected for the study included a Wisconsin University housing village, a second grade school population, individual volunteers who associated socially, married couples, and the winter-over population at McMurdo Bay and at Scott Base in the Antarctic. It was concluded that most rhinovirus transmission is through aerosolized particles. Air filtration and careful nasal sanitation with virucidal tissues are determined to be effective in blocking rhinovirus transmission and should be useful in both isolated space colonies and in ordinary earth-bound populations.

  18. Improving Concordance in Environmental Epidemiology: A Three-Part Proposal

    PubMed Central

    LaKind, Judy S.; Goodman, Michael; Makris, Susan L.; Mattison, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    In observational research, evidence is usually derived from multiple studies, and any single result is rarely considered sufficient for public health decision making. Despite more than five decades of research and thousands of studies published, the ability to draw robust conclusions regarding the presence or absence of causal links between specific environmental exposures and human health remains limited. To develop policies that are protective of public health and can withstand scrutiny, agencies need to rely on investigations of satisfactory quality that follow sufficiently concordant protocols in terms of exposure assessment, outcome ascertainment, data analysis, and reporting of results. Absent such concordance, the ability of environmental epidemiology studies to inform decision making is greatly diminished. Systems and tools are proposed here to improve concordance among environmental epidemiology studies. Specifically, working systems in place in other fields of research are critically examined and used as guidelines to develop analogous policies and procedures for environmental epidemiology. A three-part path forward toward more concordant, transparent, and readily accessible environmental epidemiology evidence that parallels ongoing efforts in medical research is proposed. The three parts address methods for improving quality and accessibility of systematic reviews, access to information on ongoing and completed studies, and principles for reporting. The goals are to increase the value of epidemiological research in public health decision making and to stimulate discussions around solutions proposed herein. PMID:26158301

  19. Prevention, communication and equity in environmental epidemiology: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Pagliarani, Giovanna; Botti, Caterina

    2011-01-01

    In environmental epidemiology research, decisions about when and how to intervene requires adequate ethical reflection. In fact, different kinds of issues may arise about: research methods and knowledge production; management of the results in terms of their overall assessments or for the implementation of preventive actions; reclamation intervention. In this contribution we propose to consider three topics we regard as crucial to this ethical debate: the reporting of conclusive research data; the correct application of the precautionary principle; and the environmental equity issues.

  20. Environmental exposure measurement in cancer epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Environmental exposures, used in the broadest sense of lifestyle, infections, radiation, natural and man-made chemicals and occupation, are a major cause of human cancer. However, the precise contribution of specific risk factors and their interaction, both with each other and with genotype, continues to be difficult to elucidate. This is partially due to limitations in accurately measuring exposure with the subsequent risk of misclassification. One of the primary challenges of molecular cancer epidemiology therefore is to improve exposure assessment. Progress has been made with biomarkers such as carcinogens and their metabolites, DNA and protein adducts and mutations measured in various tissues and body fluids. Nevertheless, much remains to be accomplished in order to establish aetiology and provide the evidence base for public health decisions. This review considers some of the principles behind the application of exposure biomarkers in cancer epidemiology. It also demonstrates how the same biomarkers can contribute both to establishing the biological plausibility of associations between exposure and disease and be valuable endpoints in intervention studies. The potential of new technologies such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabonomics to provide a step change in environmental exposure assessment is discussed. An increasing recognition of the role of epigenetic changes in carcinogenesis presents a fresh challenge as alterations in DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA in response to environmental exposures demand a new generation of exposure biomarker. The overall importance of this area of research is brought into sharp relief by the large prospective cohort studies (e.g. UK Biobank) which need accurate exposure measurement in order to shed light on the complex gene:environment interactions underlying common chronic disorders including cancer. It is suggested that a concerted effort is now required, with appropriate funding, to develop and

  1. About the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    Epidemiology is the scientific study of the causes and distribution of disease in populations. NCI-funded epidemiology research is conducted through research at institutions in the United States and internationally.

  2. Evolution of environmental epidemiologic risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, H.A.

    1985-10-01

    Epidemiology has historically played an important role in the recognition of causes for diseases affecting the health of the public. Initially, epidemiology was concerned with infectious diseases. Later it became involved in metabolic and dietary deficiency diseases. Most recently, epidemiology has addressed the question of the public health effects of chemicals from production facilities, accidental spills, and chemical waste disposal sites. Concurrent improvements in the sensitivity of chemical analyses have enabled the identification of chemicals arising from waste disposal sites in the soil, air, drinking water, and food supplies of neighboring residential areas, albeit usually at very low concentrations. This knowledge has created great concerns among the affected populations and their public health agencies. The responsibility for interpreting the potential severity of the health effects of these environmental contaminants has fallen to those scientists experienced in epidemiology. This has led to a subdiscipline, reactive epidemiology, which describes investigations focused on specific events, usually under emotion-laden circumstances, rather than scientific merit. The reactive epidemiologist is rigidly constrained as to the size, timing, and location of the study. There is a strong requirement for public communication skills. New data bases are needed including ''sentinel'' diseases that are linked to exposure to chemicals, records of land use, and residency data for the population at risk.

  3. Defending legitimate epidemiologic research: combating Lysenko pseudoscience

    PubMed Central

    Enstrom, James E

    2007-01-01

    This analysis presents a detailed defense of my epidemiologic research in the May 17, 2003 British Medical Journal that found no significant relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and tobacco-related mortality. In order to defend the honesty and scientific integrity of my research, I have identified and addressed in a detailed manner several unethical and erroneous attacks on this research. Specifically, I have demonstrated that this research is not "fatally flawed," that I have not made "inappropriate use" of the underlying database, and that my findings agree with other United States results on this relationship. My research suggests, contrary to popular claims, that there is not a causal relationship between ETS and mortality in the U.S. responsible for 50,000 excess annual deaths, but rather there is a weak and inconsistent relationship. The popular claims tend to damage the credibility of epidemiology. In addition, I address the omission of my research from the 2006 Surgeon General's Report on Involuntary Smoking and the inclusion of it in a massive U.S. Department of Justice racketeering lawsuit. I refute erroneous statements made by powerful U.S. epidemiologists and activists about me and my research and I defend the funding used to conduct this research. Finally, I compare many aspect of ETS epidemiology in the U.S. with pseudoscience in the Soviet Union during the period of Trofim Denisovich Lysenko. Overall, this paper is intended to defend legitimate research against illegitimate criticism by those who have attempted to suppress and discredit it because it does not support their ideological and political agendas. Hopefully, this defense will help other scientists defend their legitimate research and combat "Lysenko pseudoscience." PMID:17927827

  4. [DOHaD: epidemiological researches].

    PubMed

    Delpierre, Cyrille; Lepeule, Johanna; Cordier, Sylvaine; Slama, Remy; Heude, Barbara; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological researches in the field of DOHaD are in favor of a role of early environment, including chemical (pesticides), physical (air pollution), nutritional or psychosocial environment, on child and adult health. Disentangling the different factors of environment that may affect health, especially over time, and identifying critical periods of exposure remains a major challenge. The biological mechanisms involved remain elusive in human beings. Nevertheless, it seems that whatever the nature of the exposure, epigenetic mechanisms are currently discussed to explain how the environment may alter biological systems over time.

  5. Clinical Epidemiology Unit - overview of research areas

    Cancer.gov

    Clinical Epidemiology Unit (CEU) conducts etiologic research with potential clinical and public health applications, and leads studies evaluating population-based early detection and cancer prevention strategies

  6. National Environmental Research Parks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The National Environmental Research Parks are outdoor laboratories that provide opportunities for environmental studies on protected lands that act as buffers around Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The research parks are used to evaluate the environmental consequences of energy use and development as well as the strategies to mitigate these effects. They are also used to demonstrate possible environmental and land-use options. The seven parks are: Fermilab National Environmental Research Park; Hanford National Environmental Research Park; Idaho National Environmental Research Park; Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park; Nevada National Environmental Research Park; Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park; and Savannah River National Environmental Research Park. This document gives an overview of the events that led to the creation of the research parks. Its main purpose is to summarize key points about each park, including ecological research, geological characteristics, facilities, and available databases.

  7. Clinical research: up from 'clinical epidemiology'.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Olli S; Bachmann, Lucas M; Steurer, Johann

    2009-12-01

    Clinical research must be understood to be the foundation of scientific medicine of the clinical type. But the essence of scientific clinical medicine remains a matter of profound confusion, even in clinical academia, and so does the essence of clinical research. The confusion now revolves, principally, around 'clinical epidemiology'. We address clinical research in the meaning of quintessentially 'applied' clinical research, which we take to be the foundation of the scientific knowledge base of clinical medicine, of gnosis (dia-, etio-, pro-) in it. More specifically, we address the essence, priorities, and status quo of this research - and argue that the requisite theory of this is not a matter of 'clinical epidemiology' but of theory of clinical research endogenous to clinical (rather than epidemiological) academia.

  8. Summer Undergraduate Research Program: Environmental studies

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. The students are offered research topics at the Medical University in the scientific areas of pharmacology and toxicology, epidemiology and risk assessment, environmental microbiology, and marine sciences. Students are also afforded the opportunity to work with faculty at the University of Charleston, SC, on projects with an environmental theme. Ten well-qualified students from colleges and universities throughout the eastern United States were accepted into the program.

  9. Children's Environmental Health Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Conducted in-house, with our federal partners like NIH’s National Institute of Environmental Health Services (NIEHS), and by external researchers through a research grants program administered through the agency’s Office of Research & Development.

  10. The role of epigenetics in genetic and environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Ladd-Acosta, Christine; Fallin, M Daniele

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiology is the branch of science that investigates the causes and distribution of disease in populations in order to provide preventative measures and promote human health. The fields of genetic and environmental epidemiology primarily seek to identify genetic and environmental risk factors for disease, respectively. Epigenetics is emerging as an important piece of molecular data to include in these studies because it can provide mechanistic insights into genetic and environmental risk factors for disease, identify potential intervention targets, provide biomarkers of exposure, illuminate gene-environment interactions and help localize disease-relevant genomic regions. Here, we describe the importance of including epigenetics in genetic and environmental epidemiology studies, provide a conceptual framework when considering epigenetic data in population-based studies and touch upon the many challenges that lie ahead.

  11. Sensing Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Alan

    2003-01-01

    The field of environmental education research has been moving away from scientistic and positivistic discourses for some time now ("Environmental Education Research," 2000; Hart & Nolan, 1999). However, it has been noted that the meta-discourse about this research continues to draw on their framings, registers, and lexicons (Hart, 2000;…

  12. Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series

    Cancer.gov

    Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series highlights emerging and cutting-edge research related to infection-associated cancers, shares scientific knowledge about technologies and methods, and fosters cross-disciplinary discussions on infectious agents and cancer epidemiology.

  13. Bourdieu does environmental justice? Probing the linkages between population health and air pollution epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Buzzelli, Michael

    2007-03-01

    The environmental justice literature faces a number of conceptual and methodological shortcomings. The purpose of this paper is to probe ways in which these shortcomings can be remedied via recent developments in related literatures: population health and air pollution epidemiology. More sophisticated treatment of social structure, particularly if based on Pierre Bourdieu's relational approach to forms of capital, can be combined with the methodological rigour and established biological pathways of air pollution epidemiology. The aim is to reformulate environmental justice research in order to make further meaningful contributions to the wider movement concerned with issues of social justice and equity in health research.

  14. Impact of environmental inequity on health outcome: where is the epidemiological evidence?

    PubMed Central

    René, A. A.; Daniels, D. E.; Martin, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    A significant amount of evidence reveals a presence of environmental inequity. Although there is a disproportionate distribution of waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities, and chemical and manufacturing plants in minority and low-income communities in the United States, little research has been devoted to show any associations based on analytic epidemiological methods. To date, attempts to quantify health disparities have included demographic data, race, sex, income, other socioeconomic factors, and broad symptomatic survey instruments. To study this, we examined the latest epidemiological evidence documenting the existence of adverse health impacts resulting from environmental inequity. We observed that the overwhelming majority of studies were descriptive in nature and lacked comparison populations. As a result, we believe that further research based on analytic epidemiological methods would further contribute to the determination of the cause-effect relationship between environmental exposure and health outcome. PMID:10918762

  15. Research Strategies for Nutritional and Physical Activity Epidemiology and Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    In response to a series of controversial articles about nutritional epidemiology and cancer published in 2014, staff from the Environmental Epidemiology Branch initiated a series of meetings to refine programmatic priorities for human nutrition/physical activity and cancer etiology research in the near term.

  16. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. During the past several years, a number of DOE sites have participated in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at FEMP and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  17. An introduction to epidemiologic and statistical methods useful in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Shin; Omori, Takashi; Sato, Tosiya

    2010-01-01

    Many developments in the design and analysis of environmental epidemiology have been made in air pollution studies. In the analysis of the short-term effects of particulate matter on daily mortality, Poisson regression models with flexible smoothing methods have been developed for the analysis of time-series data. Another option for such studies is the use of case-crossover designs, and there have been extensive discussions on the selection of control periods. In the Study on Respiratory Disease and Automobile Exhaust project conducted by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment, we adopted a new 2-stage case-control design that is efficient when both exposure and disease are rare. Based on our experience in conducting air pollution epidemiologic studies, we review 2-stage case-control designs, case-crossover designs, generalized linear models, generalized additive models, and generalized estimating equations, all of which are useful approaches in environmental epidemiology.

  18. The epidemiology of eating disorders: genetic, environmental, and societal factors

    PubMed Central

    Mitchison, Deborah; Hay, Phillipa J

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this review was to summarize the literature to date regarding the sociodemographic, environmental, and genetic correlates of eating disorders (EDs) in adults. Method A keyword search was entered into Scopus (SciVerse, Elsevier) to identify relevant articles published in English up until June 2013. Articles were assessed against a range of a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results A total of 149 full-text articles were found to be eligible for the review and included 86 articles with data on sociodemographic correlates, 57 on environmental correlates, and 13 on genetic correlates. Female sex, younger age, sexual and physical abuse, participation in esthetic or weight-oriented sports, and heritability were found to be most consistently associated with higher ED prevalence and incidence. Conversely, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, and urbanicity did not appear to have strong associations with ED epidemiology. Conclusion More community-based research, with an equal representation of males, needs to be conducted to confirm the current findings and provide evidence for emerging factors that may be related to EDs. PMID:24728136

  19. Aldrin and dieldrin: a review of research on their production, environmental deposition and fate, bioaccumulation, toxicology, and epidemiology in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Jorgenson, J L

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade four international agreements have focused on a group of chemical substances known as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Global agreement on the reduction and eventual elimination of these substances by banning their production and trade is a long-term goal. Negotiations for these agreements have focused on the need to correlate data from scientists working on soil and water sampling and air pollution monitoring. Toxicologists and epidemiologists have focused on wildlife and human health effects and understanding patterns of disease requires better access to these data. In the last 20 years, substantial databases have been created and now are becoming available on the Internet. This review is a detailed examination of 2 of the 12 POPs, aldrin and dieldrin, and how scientific groups identify and measure their effects. It draws on research findings from a variety of environmental monitoring networks in the United States. An overview of the ecologic and health effects of aldrin and dieldrin provides examples of how to streamline some of the programs and improve access to mutually useful scientific data. The research groups are located in many government departments, universities, and private organizations. Identifying databases can provide an "information accelerator" useful to a larger audience and can help build better plant and animal research models across scientific fields. PMID:11250811

  20. [Ecological studies in environmental health: Beyond epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Becerra, Luis C; Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos E; Idrovo, Álvaro J

    2015-08-01

    Ecological studies provide important and frequent sources of evidence of environmental health, since their unit of analysis is populations. This review summarizes the foundations of ecological studies with the premise that they can be performed using quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods. It presents the logic behind their design, their role in exploring causality, the variables and categories of analysis and the design principles and techniques used to collect data. Examples of ecological studies performed in Latin America are then presented, as well as some common methodological problems and options to address them. Lastly, the relevance of quantitative and qualitative ecological studies to environmental health as a way to overcome the dominance of conceptual and methodological individualism is highlighted, though ecological studies alone do not suffice for studying population health.

  1. Poverty, environment, and health: the role of environmental epidemiology and environmental epidemiologists.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Marie S; McMichael, Anthony J; Schwartz, Joel; Wartenberg, Daniel

    2007-11-01

    International attention is focusing increasingly on environmental concerns, from global warming and extreme weather to persistent chemical pollutants that affect our food supplies, health and well-being. These environmental exposures disproportionately affect the poor and those residing in developing countries, and may partly explain the persistent social gradients in health that exist within and between nations. We support recent calls for environmental epidemiologists to play a more active role in furthering the global agenda for sustainability, environmental health and equity. We further suggest that the discipline of environmental epidemiology, as well as relevant funding agencies, broaden their focus to include rigorous research on the upstream, larger-scale societal factors that contribute to inequitable patterns of exposure and health outcomes. By widening the scope of our vision and increasing the strength and breadth of the evidence base about how poverty and environment together affect health, we can better participate in efforts to promote social justice and responsible use and protection of the environment, and thus reduce health inequities. That is both a primary mode and rationale for achieving sustainability.

  2. Review of developmental origins of health and disease publications in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Heindel, Jerrold J; Skalla, Lesley A; Joubert, Bonnie R; Dilworth, Caroline H; Gray, Kimberly A

    2017-03-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) scientific field investigates the influence of early life environmental stressors on later life health outcomes. Environmental chemical exposures are a particular focus area within this field. Although the DOHaD hypothesis originated in the 1990s, the data evaluating this hypothesis in environmental epidemiology has not been comprehensively summarized. We conducted a scoping literature review to describe the human evidence for the DOHaD hypothesis and to identify, 1) where there may be reasonable data to draw conclusions, and 2) areas warranting further research. Using PubMed and Web of Science we identified 425 publications through 2014 that met our criteria for evaluating the DOHaD hypothesis in environmental epidemiology. These publications covered 60 different chemicals. The majority of publications focused on neurological/cognitive outcomes, followed by cancer, and respiratory outcomes. We note areas ready for more detailed review, those requiring more data and ideas for future directions.

  3. DOE (Department of Energy) Epidemiologic Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Epidemiologic Research Program is to determine the human health effects resulting from the generation and use of energy, and of the operation of DOE facilities. The program is divided into seven general areas of activity; the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) which supports studies of survivors of the atomic weapons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, mortality and morbidity studies of DOE workers, studies on internally deposited alpha emitters, medical/histologic studies, studies on the aspects of radiation damage, community health surveillance studies, and the development of computational techniques and of databases to make the results as widely useful as possible. Excluding the extensive literature from the RERF, the program has produced 340 publications in scientific journals, contributing significantly to improving the understanding of the health effects of ionizing radiation exposure. In addition, a large number of public presentations were made and are documented elsewhere in published proceedings or in books. The purpose of this bibliography is to present a guide to the research results obtained by scientists supported by the program. The bibliography, which includes doctoral theses, is classified by laboratory and by year and also summarizes the results from individual authors by journal.

  4. Archeological/Environmental Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Landsat/Seasat remote sensing was used by Ames Research Center to evaluate environmental influence on ancient Mayan civilization. Over 35 archeological sites were imaged and valuable information concerning Maya settlement patterns, environment, and resource usage resulted. The imagery was also used by Mexican authorities to develop coastal management plans, establish Biosphere Reserves and assess damage from the 1988 Hurricane Gilbert. Imagery showed evidence of ancient coastlines, changes in sea level, an ancient river plain and Mayan canal systems. Previously unknown Mayan reservoirs were discovered. The project is considered a pioneering effort combining remote sensing, environmental studies and archeology.

  5. Epidemiologic analysis of an environmental disaster: The Schweizerhalle Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann-Liebrich, U.A.; Braun, C.; Rapp, R.C. )

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes the results of a fire in a Sandoz Chemical Company storehouse near Basel, Switzerland. In particular, an attempt is made to describe the impact the fire might have had on the health of the local population. When water came in contact with the fire, a foul-smelling cloud developed that was carried into the city of Basel. The psychological strain on the population was considerable and may have led to an increase in symptoms, either felt or reported. The authors emphasize the need to plan for environmental disasters; to promote legislation that promotes accident prevention as well as pollution containment; and to initiate epidemiological studies once an event occurs.

  6. A role for systems epidemiology in tuberculosis research

    PubMed Central

    Comas, Iñaki; Gagneux, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    Despite being a curable disease, tuberculosis (TB) killed more people in 2009 than during any previous year in history. Progress in TB research has been slow, and remains burdened by important gaps in our knowledge of the basic biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of TB, and its interaction with the human host. Fortunately, major systems biology initiatives have recently been launched that will help fill some of these gaps. However, to fully comprehend TB, and control this disease globally, current systems biological approaches will not suffice. The influence of host and pathogen diversity, changes in human demography, and socioeconomic and environmental factors will also need to be considered. Such a multidisciplinary approach might be best described as ‘systems epidemiology’ in an effort to overcome the traditional boundaries between basic biology and classical epidemiology. PMID:21831640

  7. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

  8. Epidemiology and the Tobacco Epidemic: How Research on Tobacco and Health Shaped Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Samet, Jonathan M

    2016-03-01

    In this article, I provide a perspective on the tobacco epidemic and epidemiology, describing the impact of the tobacco-caused disease epidemic on the field of epidemiology. Although there is an enormous body of epidemiologic evidence on the associations of smoking with health, little systematic attention has been given to how decades of research have affected epidemiology and its practice. I address the many advances that resulted from epidemiologic research on smoking and health, such as demonstration of the utility of observational designs and important parameters (the odds ratio and the population attributable risk), guidelines for causal inference, and systematic review approaches. I also cover unintended and adverse consequences for the field, including the strategy of doubt creation and the recruitment of epidemiologists by the tobacco industry to serve its mission. The paradigm of evidence-based action for addressing noncommunicable diseases began with the need to address the epidemic of tobacco-caused disease, an imperative for action documented by epidemiologic research.

  9. The Exposure Dimension of Environmental Epidemiology: A Critical but Under-ExploredStudy Quality Issue in Environmental Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological research plays a critical role in assessing the effects of various chemical, physical, oiological, and social exposures on human health both in the general population and the workplace. However, even epidemiological studies that are specifically designed to test c...

  10. Environmental Chemicals and Type 2 Diabetes: An Updated Systematic Review of the Epidemiologic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chin-Chi; Moon, Katherine; Thayer, Kristina A.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The burden of diabetes is increasing globally. Identifying novel preventable risk factors is an urgent need. In 2011, the U.S. National Toxicological Program (NTP) conducted a workshop to evaluate the epidemiologic and experimental evidence on the relationship of environmental chemicals with obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Although the evidence was insufficient to establish causality, the NTP workshop review identified an overall positive association between some environmental chemicals and diabetes. In this systematic review, our objective was to summarize the epidemiological research published since the NTP workshop. We identified a total of 29 articles (7 on arsenic, 3 on cadmium, 2 on mercury, 11 on persistent organic pollutants, 3 on phthalates and 4 on bisphenol A) including 7 prospective studies. Considering consistency, temporality, strength, dose-response, and biological plausibility (confounding), we concluded that the evidence is suggestive but not sufficient for a relationship between arsenic and persistent organic pollutants, and insufficient for mercury, phthalates and bisphenol A. For cadmium the epidemiologic evidence does not seem to suggest an association with diabetes. Important research questions include the need of additional prospective studies and the evaluation of the dose-response relationship, the role of joint exposures, and effect modification with other comorbidities and genetic variants. PMID:24114039

  11. After epidemiological research: what next? Community action for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Cwikel, J G

    1994-01-01

    The underlying purpose of all epidemiological research is ultimately to use inferences in order to prevent disease and promote health and well-being. Effective skills in translating results into appropriate policy, programs, and interventions are inherently tricky, and often politically controversial. Generally they are not taught to epidemiologists formally, even though they are a traditionally part of public health practice. To move from findings to policy change requires that the informed and committed epidemiologist should known how to: (1) organize affected parties to negotiate successfully with government and industry; (2) activate populations at risk to protect their health (3) communicate responsibly with lay persons about their health risks so as to encourage effective activism; (4) collaborate with other professionals to achieve disease prevention and health promotion goals. The paper presents and discusses four case studies to illustrate these strategies: (1) the grass-roots social action that was the response of the community to the environmental contamination at Love Canal, New York; (2) mobilization of recognized leaders within the gay community to disseminate HIV risk reduction techniques; (3) collaboration with an existing voluntary organization interested in community empowerment through health promotion in a Chicago slum by using existing hospital, emergency room admissions, and local motor vehicle accident data; (4) a self-help group, MADD (mothers against drunk driving) which fought to change public policy to limit and decrease drunk driving. In addition, the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration and responsible communication with the public is emphasized. Factors that limit the ability of the epidemiologist to move into public health action are discussed, including who owns the research findings, what is the degree of scientific uncertainty, and the cost-benefit balance of taking affirmative public action. Putting epidemiological

  12. Environmental Health Research Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1977-01-01

    Describes recommendations of a task force formed under the auspices of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, including more standardized procedures for collecting and evaluating environmental data. (MLH)

  13. Environmental Education Research News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disinger, John F.

    1982-01-01

    Studies focusing on educational techniques of causing behavioral changes, as well as those related to general effectiveness of the educational enterprise in this area are summarized. Studies focus on local environments, public environmental concern, environmental concerns/behaviors of young people, outdoor activity and environmental concerns, and…

  14. [The role of epidemiology in mental disorder research].

    PubMed

    Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, María Elena; López-Moreno, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    which are germane to public health, for example, violence. The epidemiology of mental disorders faces great challenges in the new millennium, including a complex, changing epidemiologic scenario. Several important issues will influence the future development of mental disorder epidemiology: measurement of mental disorders and risk factors, more efficient sampling design and methods, the relationships among biological research, genetics, social studies, and epidemiology, and the interface between epidemiology and the evaluation of therapies and health services.

  15. How to design a (good) epidemiological observational study: epidemiological research protocol at a glance.

    PubMed

    Fronteira, Ines

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we propose a general structure for designing a research protocol of an observational epidemiological study. We start by highlighting the importance of the research protocol, namely in accounting for some bias and guaranteeing methodologic rigor and study reproductability. Next, we reflect on some of the essential elements of a research protocol no matter its objective. We further present some specific issues to be included according to the type of study: cross-sectional, case-control and cohort.

  16. Basic research for environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. The Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument for Assessing Study Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental epidemiology studies can be an effective means to assess impacts on human health from exposure to environmental stressors. Exposure scenarios are often extremely complex and proper assessment is critical for interpreting epidemiological study results. Biomarkers are...

  18. LUNG CANCER IN NEVER SMOKERS: CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Samet, Jonathan M.; Avila-Tang, Erika; Boffetta, Paolo; Hannan, Lindsay M.; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Thun, Michael J.; Rudin, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    More than 161,000 lung cancer deaths are projected to occur in the U.S. in 2008. Of these, an estimated 10–15% will be caused by factors other than active smoking, corresponding to 16,000–24,000 deaths annually. Thus lung cancer in never smokers would rank among the most common causes of cancer mortality in the U.S. if considered to be a separate category. Slightly more than half of the lung cancers caused by factors other than active smoking occur in never smokers. As summarized in the accompanying article, lung cancers that occur in never smokers differ from those that occur in smokers in their molecular profile and response to targeted therapy. These recent laboratory and clinical observations highlight the importance of defining the genetic and environmental factors responsible for the development of lung cancer in never-smokers. This article summarizes available data on the clinical epidemiology of lung cancer in never smokers, and the several environmental risk factors that population-based research has implicated in the etiology of these cancers. Primary factors closely tied to lung cancer in never smokers include exposure to known and suspected carcinogens including radon, second-hand tobacco smoke, and other indoor air pollutants. Several other exposures have been implicated. However, a large fraction of lung cancers occurring in never-smokers cannot be definitively associated with established environmental risk factors, highlighting the need for additional epidemiologic research in this area. PMID:19755391

  19. Divorce Workshops: An Opportunity for Preventive Education & Epidemiological Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafat, John; And Others

    This paper describes the program and research related to the "Making It" series of 18 multi-media divorce workshops co-sponsored by a community mental health center (CMHC) and a chapter of Parents without Partners (PWP). An introductory section discusses the rationale for larger scale community intervention and epidemiological research. The…

  20. Environmental research on actinide elements

    SciTech Connect

    Pinder, J.E. III; Alberts, J.J.; McLeod, K.W.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1987-08-01

    The papers synthesize the results of research sponsored by DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research on the behavior of transuranic and actinide elements in the environment. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 21 individual papers. (ACR)

  1. Molecular Epidemiology for Vector Research on Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Cáceres, Abraham G; Uezato, Hiroshi; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease caused by the genus Leishmania transmitted by female phlebotomine sand flies. Surveillance of the prevalence of Leishmania and responsive vector species in endemic and surrounding areas is important for predicting the risk and expansion of the disease. Molecular biological methods are now widely applied to epidemiological studies of infectious diseases including leishmaniasis. These techniques are used to detect natural infections of sand fly vectors with Leishmania protozoa and are becoming powerful tools due to their sensitivity and specificity. Recently, genetic analyses have been performed on sand fly species and genotyping using PCR-RFLP has been applied to the sand fly taxonomy. In addition, a molecular mass screening method has been established that enables both sand fly species and natural leishmanial infections to be identified simultaneously in hundreds of sand flies with limited effort. This paper reviews recent advances in the study of sand flies, vectors of leishmaniasis, using molecular biological approaches. PMID:20617005

  2. GENOMICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of recently developed and emerging genomics technologies on environmental sciences has significant implications for human and ecological risk assessment issues. The linkage of data generated from genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabalomics, and ecology can be ...

  3. Integrating epidemiology, education, and organizing for environmental justice: community health effects of industrial hog operations.

    PubMed

    Wing, Steve; Horton, Rachel Avery; Muhammad, Naeema; Grant, Gary R; Tajik, Mansoureh; Thu, Kendall

    2008-08-01

    The environmental justice movement has stimulated community-driven research about the living and working conditions of people of color and low-income communities. We describe an epidemiological study designed to link research with community education and organizing for social justice. In eastern North Carolina, high-density industrial swine production occurs in communities of low-income people and people of color. We investigated relationships between the resulting pollution and the health and quality of life of the hog operations' neighbors. A repeat-measures longitudinal design, community involvement in data collection, and integration of qualitative and quantitative research methods helped promote data quality while providing opportunities for community education and organizing. Research could affect policy through its findings and its mobilization of communities.

  4. Epidemiology and statistics at the Nordic School of Public Health: Teaching and research 1979-2014.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Bo

    2015-08-01

    The Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) was jointly founded in 1953 by the Nordic countries. Until 1979, the school provided ad hoc courses on public health topics, using external teachers drawn mainly from the Nordic countries. At the time, the permanent staff of the school was small. In 1979, it began a Master's degree programme and a few academic positions were established and filled, to support these courses. The programme included four main areas: Epidemiology, Social Medicine, Environmental Health and Health Services Administration. Epidemiology was compulsory in all Master of Public Health (MPH) exams, but there were a handful of optional courses that could be substituted for the other subjects.This paper tells the story of Epidemiology at NHV from about 1980, up until closure of the school in 2014. The original MPH model ran until 1995. Nursing Science entered NHV from about 1985 and worked mainly with qualitative research that often focused on individual patients. The new methods attracted nurses, midwives, psychologists and other groups that previously had been less represented in NHV. Being quantitative and population oriented, Epidemiology lost its unique position as a mandatory subject for the MPH examination. In addition the 'New Public Health' proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) that advocated health promotion and the philosophy of salutogenesis became a challenge for the programme in epidemiology: pathogenesis no longer was of primary interest. From 1995, the MPH format changed repeatedly and a DrPH programme was begun. For the last 8 years of its existence, NHV offered a reasonably comprehensive, basic course in Epidemiology.Throughout the years, epidemiology training and research at NHV were very traditional. In being a relatively free institution in terms of academic choices, NHV should have contributed to the development and innovation of epidemiology in public health. For several reasons, this did not happen.

  5. Environmental Education Research News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disinger, John F.; Howe, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses how environmental education (EE) can provide opportunities for development of higher order thinking skills such as learning critically and creatively, and learning to think in an integrated manner--in terms of identifying alternatives, using multiple sources, designing novel approaches, and identifying real and potential solutions.…

  6. Designing environmental research for impact.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C A; Lefroy, E C; Caddy-Retalic, S; Bax, N; Doherty, P J; Douglas, M M; Johnson, D; Possingham, H P; Specht, A; Tarte, D; West, J

    2015-11-15

    Transdisciplinary research, involving close collaboration between researchers and the users of research, has been a feature of environmental problem solving for several decades, often spurred by the need to find negotiated outcomes to intractable problems. In 2005, the Australian government allocated funding to its environment portfolio for public good research, which resulted in consecutive four-year programmes (Commonwealth Environmental Research Facilities, National Environmental Research Program). In April 2014, representatives of the funders, researchers and research users associated with these programmes met to reflect on eight years of experience with these collaborative research models. This structured reflection concluded that successful multi-institutional transdisciplinary research is necessarily a joint enterprise between funding agencies, researchers and the end users of research. The design and governance of research programmes need to explicitly recognise shared accountabilities among the participants, while respecting the different perspectives of each group. Experience shows that traditional incentive systems for academic researchers, current trends in public sector management, and loose organisation of many end users, work against sustained transdisciplinary research on intractable problems, which require continuity and adaptive learning by all three parties. The likelihood of research influencing and improving environmental policy and management is maximised when researchers, funders and research users have shared goals; there is sufficient continuity of personnel to build trust and sustain dialogue throughout the research process from issue scoping to application of findings; and there is sufficient flexibility in the funding, structure and operation of transdisciplinary research initiatives to enable the enterprise to assimilate and respond to new knowledge and situations.

  7. Advancing the Selection of Neurodevelopmental Measures in Epidemiological Studies of Environmental Chemical Exposure and Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Youngstrom, Eric; LaKind, Judy S.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Lipkin, Paul H.; Goodman, Michael; Squibb, Katherine; Mattison, Donald R.; Anthony, Bruno J.; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth

    2010-01-01

    With research suggesting increasing incidence of pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders, questions regarding etiology continue to be raised. Neurodevelopmental function tests have been used in epidemiology studies to evaluate relationships between environmental chemical exposures and neurodevelopmental deficits. Limitations of currently used tests and difficulties with their interpretation have been described, but a comprehensive critical examination of tests commonly used in studies of environmental chemicals and pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders has not been conducted. We provide here a listing and critical evaluation of commonly used neurodevelopmental tests in studies exploring effects from chemical exposures and recommend measures that are not often used, but should be considered. We also discuss important considerations in selecting appropriate tests and provide a case study by reviewing the literature on polychlorinated biphenyls. PMID:20195443

  8. Research as a tool for the teaching of epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Soudarssanane, M B; Rotti, S B; Roy, G; Srinivasa, D K

    1994-01-01

    At a medical school in India, undergraduates have been given the opportunity to volunteer to conduct research as a means of improving their knowledge and understanding of epidemiology. First-year clinical students have conducted case-control studies with emphasis on methodological detail. Second-year students have been involved in community-based epidemiological studies. At the intern level, projects related to social factors in health and disease and to health administration have been encouraged. This initiative has been largely welcomed by the students and has yielded highly encouraging results.

  9. Spot Sampling and Exposure Surrogate Selection as Sources of Bias in Environmental Epidemiology Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spot measurements of chemical biomarkers are often used as quantitative exposure surrogates in environmental epidemiology studies. These measures can be expressed a number of different ways – for example, urinary biomarkers can be expressed in units of concentration (&micr...

  10. Animals in Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spannring, Reingard

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the increase in public and scholarly attention to human-animal relations has inspired an animal turn in a number of academic disciplines including environmental education research. This paper reviews the literature on animals in environmental education with respect to its theoretical foundations in critical pedagogy,…

  11. Alzheimer’s Disease and Environmental Exposure to Lead: The Epidemiologic Evidence and Potential Role of Epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Bakulski, Kelly M.; Rozek, Laura S.; Dolinoy, Dana C.; Paulson, Henry L.; Hu, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that the etiology of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) is complex, with significant contributions from both genes and environmental factors. Recent research suggests the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in defining the relationship between environmental exposures and LOAD. In epidemiologic studies of adults, cumulative lifetime lead (Pb) exposure has been associated with accelerated declines in cognition. In addition, research in animal models suggests a causal association between Pb exposure during early life, epigenetics, and LOAD. There are multiple challenges to human epidemiologic research evaluating the relationship between epigenetics, LOAD, and Pb exposure. Epidemiologic studies are not well-suited to accommodate the long latency period between exposures during early life and onset of Alzheimer’s disease. There is also a lack of validated circulating epigenetics biomarkers and retrospective biomarkers of Pb exposure. Members of our research group have shown bone Pb is an accurate measurement of historical Pb exposure in adults, offering an avenue for future epidemiologic studies. However, this would not address the risk of LOAD attributable to early-life Pb exposures. Future studies that use a cohort design to measure both Pb exposure and validated epigenetic biomarkers of LOAD will be useful to clarify this important relationship. PMID:22272628

  12. Transfusion recipient epidemiology and outcomes research: possibilities for the future.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, Christopher D; Blumberg, Neil; Glynn, Simone A; Ness, Paul M

    2008-08-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) supports major research programs related to the field of transfusion medicine, which encompass blood banking, the practice of transfusion medicine itself, and cellular therapies. Specific programmatic elements have included 1) the Transfusion Medicine/Hemostasis Clinical Trials Network (TMH CTN) charged with conducting clinical trials in transfusion medicine and hemostasis; 2) the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II), which includes domestic and international efforts dedicated to blood donor safety and blood availability issues; 3) the Specialized Centers of Clinically Oriented Research (SCCOR) in Transfusion Biology and Medicine that include two major projects, the Biologic and Immunologic Aspects of Transfusion Medicine Program and the Transfusion and Lung Injury Program, and 4) the Transfusion Therapy Trial for Functional Outcomes in Cardiovascular Patients Undergoing Surgical Hip Fracture Repair (FOCUS), a Phase III clinical trial that has as its major goal to determine whether a more aggressive transfusion strategy in surgery patients with cardiovascular disease (or risk factors) is associated with improved functional recovery and decreased risk of adverse postoperative outcomes. Notably, none of these programs supports epidemiologic and clinical outcomes research focused on transfusion recipients. Thus, on October 31, 2007, a Working Group on Transfusion Recipient Epidemiology and Outcomes Research was convened by the NHLBI. This group was asked to discuss the current status of the field, identify critical research needs, and make recommendations to the NHLBI program staff.

  13. Assessing salivary cortisol in large-scale, epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Adam, Emma K; Kumari, Meena

    2009-11-01

    Salivary cortisol measures are increasingly being incorporated into large-scale, population-based, or epidemiological research, in which participants are selected to be representative of particular communities or populations of interest, and sample sizes are in the order of hundreds to tens of thousands of participants. These approaches to studying salivary cortisol provide important advantages but pose a set of challenges. The representative nature of sampling, and large samples sizes associated with population-based research offer high generalizability and power, and the ability to examine cortisol functioning in relation to: (a) a wide range of social environments; (b) a diverse array individuals and groups; and (c) a broad set of pre-disease and disease outcomes. The greater importance of high response rates (to maintain generalizability) and higher costs associated with this type of large-scale research, however, requires special adaptations of existing ambulatory cortisol protocols. These include: using the most efficient sample collection protocol possible that still adequately address the specific cortisol-related questions at hand, and ensuring the highest possible response and compliance rates among those individuals invited to participate. Examples of choices made, response rates obtained, and examples of results obtained from existing epidemiological cortisol studies are offered, as are suggestions for the modeling and interpretation of salivary cortisol data obtained in large-scale epidemiological research.

  14. Human tissue monitoring and specimen banking: opportunities for exposure assessment, risk assessment, and epidemiologic research.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, L W; Griffith, J; Zenick, H; Hulka, B S

    1995-01-01

    A symposium on Human Tissue Monitoring and Specimen Banking: Opportunities for Exposure Assessment, Risk Assessment, and Epidemiologic Research was held from 30 March to 1 April 1993 in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. There were 117 registered participants from 18 states and 5 foreign countries. The first 2 days featured 21 invited speakers from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, various other government agencies, and universities in the United States, Canada, Germany, and Norway. The speakers provided a state-of-the-art overview of human exposure assessment techniques (especially applications of biological markers) and their relevance to human tissue specimen banking. Issues relevant to large-scale specimen banking were discussed, including program design, sample design, data collection, tissue collection, and ethical ramifications. The final group of presentations concerned practical experiences of major specimen banking and human tissue monitoring programs in the United States and Europe. The symposium addressed the utility and research opportunities afforded by specimen banking programs for future research needs in the areas of human exposure assessment, risk assessment, and environmental epidemiology. The third day of the symposium consisted of a small workshop convened to discuss and develop recommendations to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regarding applications and utility of large-scale specimen banking, biological monitoring, and biological markers for risk assessment activities. PMID:7635108

  15. Mental health epidemiological research in South America: recent findings

    PubMed Central

    Silva de Lima, Maurício; Garcia de Oliveira Soares, Bernardo; de Jesus Mari, Jair

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to review the recent mental health epidemiological research conducted in South America. The Latin American and the Caribbean (LILACS) database was searched from 1999 to 2003 using a specific strategy for identification of cohort, case-control and cross-sectional population-based studies in South America. The authors screened references and identified relevant studies. Further studies were obtained contacting local experts in epidemiology. 140 references were identified, and 12 studies were selected. Most selected studies explored the prevalence and risk factors for common mental disorders, and several of them used sophisticated methods of sample selection and analysis. There is a need for improving the quality of psychiatric journals in Latin America, and for increasing the distribution and access to research data. Regionally relevant problems such as violence and substance abuse should be considered in designing future investigations in this area. PMID:16633474

  16. Cancer and the environment: Ten topics in environmental cancer epidemiology in Canada.

    PubMed

    Huchcroft, Shirley A; Mao, Yang; Semenciw, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This Chronic Diseases in Canada supplement is a compilation of literature reviews by scientific experts. It was initiated as follow-up to the Green Plan, the federal government's environmental agenda in the 1990s. In recognizing that Canadians are concerned about the environment and its relationship to their health, this document attempts to address some of these concerns in relation to cancer by reviewing and summarizing the epidemiological literature for ten environmental exposures, and highlighting future research needs. The topics include three types of radiation exposure (ultraviolet, radon and electromagnetic (powerfrequency electromagnetic fields)), three classes of chemical exposure (organochlorines, disinfection by-products, and pesticides), two types of air pollution (environmental tobacco smoke and outdoor air pollution), and two industrial sources (pulp and paper milling, and metal mining and processing). This publication is intended to provide a base of information for researchers interested in environmental cancer epidemiology and to assist with the formulation of research priorities. The ten topics reviewed here were selected because concern about them has been expressed or because they involve known animal carcinogens. Complete elimination of exposures to carcinogens in the environment, synthetic or natural, is not technically feasible if cancer can potentially occur at any level of exposure (i.e., the linear non-threshold theory). Consequently, it is important to have an operational concept of safety which is more practical than that of zero risk. Such an approach uses the concept of acceptable or essentially negligible risk to determine the exposure levels at which carcinogens are regulated. Acceptable risk has been defined as one that is "so small, whose consequences are so slight, or whose associated benefits (perceived or real) are so great that persons or groups in society are willing to take or be subjected to that risk". The level of risk

  17. Using Geographic Information Systems for Exposure Assessment in Environmental Epidemiology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nuckols, John R.; Ward, Mary H.; Jarup, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are being used with increasing frequency in environmental epidemiology studies. Reported applications include locating the study population by geocoding addresses (assigning mapping coordinates), using proximity analysis of contaminant source as a surrogate for exposure, and integrating environmental monitoring data into the analysis of the health outcomes. Although most of these studies have been ecologic in design, some have used GIS in estimating environmental levels of a contaminant at the individual level and to design exposure metrics for use in epidemiologic studies. In this article we discuss fundamentals of three scientific disciplines instrumental to using GIS in exposure assessment for epidemiologic studies: geospatial science, environmental science, and epidemiology. We also explore how a GIS can be used to accomplish several steps in the exposure assessment process. These steps include defining the study population, identifying source and potential routes of exposure, estimating environmental levels of target contaminants, and estimating personal exposures. We present and discuss examples for the first three steps. We discuss potential use of GIS and global positioning systems (GPS) in the last step. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that the use of GIS in exposure assessment for environmental epidemiology studies is not only feasible but can enhance the understanding of the association between contaminants in our environment and disease. PMID:15198921

  18. Nutrition and neurodegeneration: epidemiological evidence and challenges for future research.

    PubMed

    Gillette-Guyonnet, Sophie; Secher, Marion; Vellas, Bruno

    2013-03-01

    The prevention of dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a growing public health concern, due to a lack of effective curative treatment options and a rising global prevalence. Various potential risk or preventive factors have been suggested by epidemiological research, including modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet. Current epidemiological data are in favour of a protective role of certain micronutrients (B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti-oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish) in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Some factors have been targeted by interventions tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but many of the results are conflicting with observational evidence. Epidemiological analysis of the relations between nutrient consumption and cognitive decline is complex and it is highly unlikely that a single component plays a major role. In addition, since multiple factors across the life course influence brain function in late life, multidomain interventions might be more promising in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Designing such trials remains very challenging for researchers. The main objective of this paper is to review the epidemiologic data linking potential protective factors to cognitive decline or dementia/AD, focusing particularly on the roles of adiposity, caloric restriction, micro (group B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti-oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish). Limitations of the current data, divergence with results of interventional prevention studies and challenges for future research are discussed.

  19. The role of epidemiology in MS research: Past successes, current challenges and future potential.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Steve; Taylor, Bruce V; van der Mei, Ingrid

    2015-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifaceted condition, with a range of environmental, behavioural and genetic factors implicated in its aetiology and clinical course. Successes in advancing our appreciation of the roles of Epstein-Barr virus, vitamin D/UV and the HLA-DRB1 locus; and our greater understanding of these and related factors' modes of action in MS and other conditions, can be attributed in no small part to the work of generations of epidemiologists. Hardly content to rest on our laurels, however, there are yet a range of unsolved conundrums in MS, including some changes in epidemiological characteristics (e.g. increasing incidence and sex ratio), to say nothing of the unresolved parts regarding what underlies MS risk and its clinical course. There is evidence that epidemiology will continue to play a crucial role in unravelling the architecture of MS causation and clinical course. While classic epidemiological methods are ongoing, novel avenues for research include gene-environment interaction studies, the world of '-omic' research, and the utilisation of mobile and social media tools to both access and track study populations, which means that the epidemiological discoveries of the past century may be but a glimpse of our understanding in the next few decades.

  20. Epidemiologic evidence of relationships between reproductive and child health outcomes and environmental chemical contaminants.

    PubMed

    Wigle, Donald T; Arbuckle, Tye E; Turner, Michelle C; Bérubé, Annie; Yang, Qiuying; Liu, Shiliang; Krewski, Daniel

    2008-05-01

    asthma severity, lung and middle ear infections, and adult breast and lung cancer), childhood exposure to biomass smoke (lung infections), and childhood exposure to outdoor air pollutants (increased asthma severity). Evidence for some proven relationships came from investigation of relatively small numbers of children with high-dose prenatal or early childhood exposures, e.g., CH(3)Hg poisoning episodes in Japan and Iraq. In contrast, consensus on a causal relationship between incident asthma and ETS exposure came only recently after many studies and prolonged debate. There were many relationships supported by limited epidemiologic evidence, ranging from several studies with fairly consistent findings and evidence of dose-response relationships to those where 20 or more studies provided inconsistent or otherwise less than convincing evidence of an association. The latter included childhood cancer and parental or childhood exposures to pesticides. In most cases, relationships supported by inadequate epidemiologic evidence reflect scarcity of evidence as opposed to strong evidence of no effect. This summary points to three main needs: (1) Where relationships between child health and environmental exposures are supported by sufficient evidence of causal relationships, there is a need for (a) policies and programs to minimize population exposures and (b) population-based biomonitoring to track exposure levels, i.e., through ongoing or periodic surveys with measurements of contaminant levels in blood, urine and other samples. (2) For relationships supported by limited evidence, there is a need for targeted research and policy options ranging from ongoing evaluation of evidence to proactive actions. (3) There is a great need for population-based, multidisciplinary and collaborative research on the many relationships supported by inadequate evidence, as these represent major knowledge gaps. Expert groups faced with evaluating epidemiologic evidence of potential causal

  1. SESAME/Environmental Research Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Environmental Research Laboratories (ERL) have been designated as the basic research group of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). ERL performs an integrated program of research and research services directed toward understanding the geophysical environment, protecting the environment, and improving the forecasting ability of NOAA. Twenty-four laboratories located throughout the United States comprise ERL. The Project SESAME (Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment) Planning Office is a project office within ERL. SESAME is conceived as a joint effort involving NOAA, NASA, NSF, and the atmospheric science community to lay the foundation for improved prediction of severe convective storms. The scientific plan for SESAME includes a phased buildup of analysis, modeling, instrumentation development and procurement, and limited-scale observational activities.

  2. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report summarizes epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at INEEL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  3. Integrating Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Into Breast Cancer Epidemiologic Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    Integrating Geographic Information Systems (GIS) into Breast Cancer Epidemiologic Research 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1-0475 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...replicated in other settings. Acknowledgements This work was supported in part by NIH Grants 1R01 ES09816-01, 1R21 CA87138-01, and U.S. ArmyMedical...Research Grants DAMD17-03-1-0475, DAMD17-00-1- 0417. References 1. Sturgeon SR, Schairer CG, McAdams M, Brinton LA, Hoover RN (1995) Geographic variation

  4. Environmental Research, A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC. Committee for Air and Water Conservation.

    Summarized in this report are all environmental research projects sponsored by the American Petroleum Institute (API). Included are: (1) status reports on all current projects, (2) published reports on completed projects, together with abstracts of findings, and (3) an organization chart of the Committee for Air and Water Conservation and its…

  5. Environmental Chemical Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of the Epidemiological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Kalkbrenner, Amy E.; Schmidt, Rebecca J.; Penlesky, Annie C.

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, the number of epidemiological publications addressing environmental chemical exposures and autism has grown tremendously. These studies are important because it is now understood that environmental factors play a larger role in causing autism than previously thought and because they address modifiable risk factors that may open up avenues for the primary prevention of the disability associated with autism. In this review, we covered studies of autism and estimates of exposure to tobacco, air pollutants, volatile organic compounds and solvents, metals (from air, occupation, diet, dental amalgams, and thimerosal-containing vaccines), pesticides, and organic endocrine-disrupting compounds such as flame retardants, non-stick chemicals, phthalates, and bisphenol A. We included studies that had individual-level data on autism, exposure measures pertaining to pregnancy or the 1st year of life, valid comparison groups, control for confounders, and adequate sample sizes. Despite the inherent error in the measurement of many of these environmental exposures, which is likely to attenuate observed associations, some environmental exposures showed associations with autism, especially traffic-related air pollutants, some metals, and several pesticides, with suggestive trends for some volatile organic compounds (e.g., methylene chloride, trichloroethylene, and styrene) and phthalates. Whether any of these play a causal role requires further study. Given the limited scope of these publications, other environmental chemicals cannot be ruled out, but have not yet been adequately studied. Future research that addresses these and additional environmental chemicals, including their most common routes of exposures, with accurate exposure measurement pertaining to several developmental windows, is essential to guide efforts for the prevention of the neurodevelopmental damage that manifests in autism symptoms. PMID:25199954

  6. Environmental chemical exposures and autism spectrum disorders: a review of the epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Kalkbrenner, Amy E; Schmidt, Rebecca J; Penlesky, Annie C

    2014-11-01

    In the past decade, the number of epidemiological publications addressing environmental chemical exposures and autism has grown tremendously. These studies are important because it is now understood that environmental factors play a larger role in causing autism than previously thought and because they address modifiable risk factors that may open up avenues for the primary prevention of the disability associated with autism. In this review, we covered studies of autism and estimates of exposure to tobacco, air pollutants, volatile organic compounds and solvents, metals (from air, occupation, diet, dental amalgams, and thimerosal-containing vaccines), pesticides, and organic endocrine-disrupting compounds such as flame retardants, non-stick chemicals, phthalates, and bisphenol A. We included studies that had individual-level data on autism, exposure measures pertaining to pregnancy or the 1st year of life, valid comparison groups, control for confounders, and adequate sample sizes. Despite the inherent error in the measurement of many of these environmental exposures, which is likely to attenuate observed associations, some environmental exposures showed associations with autism, especially traffic-related air pollutants, some metals, and several pesticides, with suggestive trends for some volatile organic compounds (e.g., methylene chloride, trichloroethylene, and styrene) and phthalates. Whether any of these play a causal role requires further study. Given the limited scope of these publications, other environmental chemicals cannot be ruled out, but have not yet been adequately studied. Future research that addresses these and additional environmental chemicals, including their most common routes of exposures, with accurate exposure measurement pertaining to several developmental windows, is essential to guide efforts for the prevention of the neurodevelopmental damage that manifests in autism symptoms.

  7. The role of epidemiology in the era of molecular epidemiology and genomics: Summary of the 2013 AJE-sponsored Society of Epidemiologic Research Symposium.

    PubMed

    Kuller, Lewis H; Bracken, Michael B; Ogino, Shuji; Prentice, Ross L; Tracy, Russell P

    2013-11-01

    On June 20, 2013, the American Journal of Epidemiology sponsored a symposium at the Society for Epidemiologic Research's 46th Annual Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts, entitled, "What Is the Role of Epidemiology in the Era of Molecular Biology and Genomics?" The future of epidemiology depends on innovation in generating interesting and important testable hypotheses that are relevant to population health. These new strategies will depend on new technology, both in measurement of agents and environment and in the fields of pathophysiology and outcomes, such as cellular epidemiology and molecular pathology. The populations to be studied, sample sizes, and study designs should be selected based on the hypotheses to be tested and include case-control, cohort, and clinical trials. Developing large mega cohorts without attention to specific hypotheses is inefficient, will fail to address many associations with high-quality data, and may well produce spurious results.

  8. Feminism meets the "new" epidemiologies: toward an appraisal of antifeminist biases in epidemiological research on women's health.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, M C; Whittle, K L

    2001-09-01

    This essay explores an alternative paradigm for epidemiology, one which is explicitly informed by a feminist perspective. We intend to expand upon recent critiques and debates within the emergent fields of "critical", "popular", and "alternative" epidemiology to examine how epidemiology's conceptual models--which are meant to contribute to the prevention of social inequalities in health, but may instead reinforce social hierarchies based on gender, race, and class--constrain our understanding of health and disease. Specifically, we examine persistent antifeminist biases in contemporary epidemiological research on women's health. Issues highlighted include: problem definition and knowledge production in women's health: biological essentialization of women as reproducers; and decontextualization and depoliticization of women's health risks. As part of this critique, we include suggestions for an emancipatory epidemiology that incorporates an alternative feminist framework.

  9. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993]. Summer undergraduate research program: Environmental studies

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. Ten students from throughout the midwestern and eastern areas of the country were accepted into the program. These students selected projects in the areas of marine sciences, biostatistics and epidemiology, and toxicology. The research experience for all these students and their mentors was very positive. The seminars were well attended and the students showed their interest in the presentations and environmental sciences as a whole by presenting the speakers with thoughtful and intuitive questions. This report contains the research project written presentations prepared by the student interns.

  10. A proposal for assessing study quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-lived Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument.

    PubMed

    LaKind, Judy S; Sobus, Jon R; Goodman, Michael; Barr, Dana Boyd; Fürst, Peter; Albertini, Richard J; Arbuckle, Tye E; Schoeters, Greet; Tan, Yu-Mei; Teeguarden, Justin; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Weisel, Clifford P

    2014-12-01

    The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals present several challenges, including their presence in analytical laboratories and sampling equipment, difficulty in establishing temporal order in cross-sectional studies, short- and long-term variability in exposures and biomarker concentrations, and a paucity of information on the number of measurements required for proper exposure classification. To date, the scientific community has not developed a set of systematic guidelines for designing, implementing and interpreting studies of short-lived chemicals that use biomonitoring as the exposure metric or for evaluating the quality of this type of research for WOE assessments or for peer review of grants or publications. We describe key issues that affect epidemiology studies using biomonitoring data on short-lived chemicals and propose a systematic instrument--the Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-lived Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument--for evaluating the quality of research proposals and studies that incorporate biomonitoring data on short-lived chemicals. Quality criteria for three areas considered fundamental to the evaluation of epidemiology studies that include biological measurements of short-lived chemicals are described: 1) biomarker selection and measurement, 2) study design and execution, and 3) general epidemiological study design considerations. We recognize that the development of an evaluative tool such as BEES-C is neither simple nor non-controversial. We hope and anticipate that the instrument will initiate further discussion/debate on this topic.

  11. A proposal for assessing study quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-lived Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument

    PubMed Central

    LaKind, Judy S.; Sobus, Jon R.; Goodman, Michael; Barr, Dana Boyd; Fürst, Peter; Albertini, Richard J.; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Schoeters, Greet; Tan, Yu-Mei; Teeguarden, Justin; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2015-01-01

    The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals present several challenges, including their presence in analytical laboratories and sampling equipment, difficulty in establishing temporal order in cross-sectional studies, short- and long-term variability in exposures and biomarker concentrations, and a paucity of information on the number of measurements required for proper exposure classification. To date, the scientific community has not developed a set of systematic guidelines for designing, implementing and interpreting studies of short-lived chemicals that use biomonitoring as the exposure metric or for evaluating the quality of this type of research for WOE assessments or for peer review of grants or publications. We describe key issues that affect epidemiology studies using biomonitoring data on short-lived chemicals and propose a systematic instrument – the Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-lived Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument – for evaluating the quality of research proposals and studies that incorporate biomonitoring data on short-lived chemicals. Quality criteria for three areas considered fundamental to the evaluation of epidemiology studies that include biological measurements of short-lived chemicals are described: 1) biomarker selection and measurement, 2) study design and execution, and 3) general epidemiological study design considerations. We recognize that the development of an evaluative tool such as BEES-C is neither simple nor non-controversial. We hope and anticipate that the instrument will initiate further discussion/debate on this topic. PMID:25137624

  12. Epidemiology of Environmental Exposures and Human Autoimmune Diseases: Findings from a National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Expert Panel Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Alfredsson, Lars; Costenbader, Karen H.; Kamen, Diane L.; Nelson, Lorene; Norris, Jill M.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AID) are a collection of many complex disorders of unknown etiology resulting in immune responses to self-antigens and are thought to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Here we review the epidemiologic evidence for the role of environmental factors in the development of human AID, the conclusions that can be drawn from the existing data, critical knowledge gaps, and research needed to fill these gaps and to resolve uncertainties. We specifically summarize the state of knowledge and our levels of confidence in the role of specific agents in the development of autoimmune diseases, and we define the areas of greatest impact for future investigations. Among our consensus findings we are confident that: 1) crystalline silica exposure can contribute to the development of several AID; 2) solvent exposure can contribute to the development of systemic sclerosis; 3) smoking can contribute to the development of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis; and 4) an inverse association exists between ultraviolet radiation exposure and the risk of development of multiple sclerosis. We suggest that more studies of phenotypes, genotypes, and multiple exposures are needed. Additional knowledge gaps needing investigation include: defining important windows in the timing of exposures and latencies relating to age, developmental state, and hormonal changes; understanding dose-response relationships; and elucidating mechanisms for disease development. Addressing these essential issues will require more resources to support research, particularly of rare AID, but knowledge of the risks conferred by environmental factors in specific genetic contexts could pave the way for prevention of AID in the future. PMID:22739348

  13. Epidemiology of environmental exposures and human autoimmune diseases: findings from a National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Expert Panel Workshop.

    PubMed

    Miller, Frederick W; Alfredsson, Lars; Costenbader, Karen H; Kamen, Diane L; Nelson, Lorene M; Norris, Jill M; De Roos, Anneclaire J

    2012-12-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AID) are a collection of many complex disorders of unknown etiology resulting in immune responses to self-antigens and are thought to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Here we review the epidemiologic evidence for the role of environmental factors in the development of human AID, the conclusions that can be drawn from the existing data, critical knowledge gaps, and research needed to fill these gaps and to resolve uncertainties. We specifically summarize the state of knowledge and our levels of confidence in the role of specific agents in the development of autoimmune diseases, and we define the areas of greatest impact for future investigations. Among our consensus findings we are confident that: 1) crystalline silica exposure can contribute to the development of several AID; 2) solvent exposure can contribute to the development of systemic sclerosis; 3) smoking can contribute to the development of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis; and 4) an inverse association exists between ultraviolet radiation exposure and the risk of development of multiple sclerosis. We suggest that more studies of phenotypes, genotypes, and multiple exposures are needed. Additional knowledge gaps needing investigation include: defining important windows in the timing of exposures and latencies relating to age, developmental state, and hormonal changes; understanding dose-response relationships; and elucidating mechanisms for disease development. Addressing these essential issues will require more resources to support research, particularly of rare AID, but knowledge of the risks conferred by environmental factors in specific genetic contexts could pave the way for prevention of AID in the future.

  14. Lessons Learned From Methodological Validation Research in E-Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Assmann, Karen; Andreeva, Valentina; Castetbon, Katia; Méjean, Caroline; Touvier, Mathilde; Salanave, Benoît; Deschamps, Valérie; Péneau, Sandrine; Fezeu, Léopold; Julia, Chantal; Allès, Benjamin; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background Traditional epidemiological research methods exhibit limitations leading to high logistics, human, and financial burden. The continued development of innovative digital tools has the potential to overcome many of the existing methodological issues. Nonetheless, Web-based studies remain relatively uncommon, partly due to persistent concerns about validity and generalizability. Objective The objective of this viewpoint is to summarize findings from methodological studies carried out in the NutriNet-Santé study, a French Web-based cohort study. Methods On the basis of the previous findings from the NutriNet-Santé e-cohort (>150,000 participants are currently included), we synthesized e-epidemiological knowledge on sample representativeness, advantageous recruitment strategies, and data quality. Results Overall, the reported findings support the usefulness of Web-based studies in overcoming common methodological deficiencies in epidemiological research, in particular with regard to data quality (eg, the concordance for body mass index [BMI] classification was 93%), reduced social desirability bias, and access to a wide range of participant profiles, including the hard-to-reach subgroups such as young (12.30% [15,118/122,912], <25 years) and old people (6.60% [8112/122,912], ≥65 years), unemployed or homemaker (12.60% [15,487/122,912]), and low educated (38.50% [47,312/122,912]) people. However, some selection bias remained (78.00% (95,871/122,912) of the participants were women, and 61.50% (75,590/122,912) had postsecondary education), which is an inherent aspect of cohort study inclusion; other specific types of bias may also have occurred. Conclusions Given the rapidly growing access to the Internet across social strata, the recruitment of participants with diverse socioeconomic profiles and health risk exposures was highly feasible. Continued efforts concerning the identification of specific biases in e-cohorts and the collection of comprehensive and

  15. Epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria, an emerging environmental pathogen

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is an environmentally transmitted pathogen primarily associated with water and soil exposure. It is increasingly recognized in the developed world and may manifest as infection or colonization of multiple anatomic sites. Nontuberculous mycobacter...

  16. Missing data and multiple imputation in clinical epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Alma B; Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Kristensen, Nickolaj R; Pham, Tra My; Pedersen, Lars; Petersen, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Missing data are ubiquitous in clinical epidemiological research. Individuals with missing data may differ from those with no missing data in terms of the outcome of interest and prognosis in general. Missing data are often categorized into the following three types: missing completely at random (MCAR), missing at random (MAR), and missing not at random (MNAR). In clinical epidemiological research, missing data are seldom MCAR. Missing data can constitute considerable challenges in the analyses and interpretation of results and can potentially weaken the validity of results and conclusions. A number of methods have been developed for dealing with missing data. These include complete-case analyses, missing indicator method, single value imputation, and sensitivity analyses incorporating worst-case and best-case scenarios. If applied under the MCAR assumption, some of these methods can provide unbiased but often less precise estimates. Multiple imputation is an alternative method to deal with missing data, which accounts for the uncertainty associated with missing data. Multiple imputation is implemented in most statistical software under the MAR assumption and provides unbiased and valid estimates of associations based on information from the available data. The method affects not only the coefficient estimates for variables with missing data but also the estimates for other variables with no missing data.

  17. [Ethnicity and race as variables in epidemiological research about inequity].

    PubMed

    Vanegas L, Jairo; Villalón C, Marcelo; Valenzuela Y, Carlos

    2008-05-01

    Epidemiology analyzes differences in states of health and disease of populations. Public Policies are established considering inequities associated with ethnicity and race. In this context, the identification of vulnerable groups for concentration of resources is relevant. Nevertheless, the lack of a clear definition of these variables might lead to biased results and interpretations. Two problems about the use of these variables are discussed. First, lack of a measurable and objective characteristic, even considering self reference (gold standard), considering that the opinion of a person can change in time. The second problem is a consequence of the former, basing research on a poorly defined variable. Uses of ethnicity and race variables between 1920-1999 in the American Journal of Epidemiology, Health Services Research and American Journal of Public Health were reviewed. In 919 articles, 27 different names identified to describe these variables and more than half did not describe the reason to use these variables. Almost half did not describe analytical methods. Although some articles found statistically significant relationships, less than half discussed those results. It has been suggested that there is enough evidence to exclude these variables in biomedical investigations. However, others propose that they cannot be excluded, given their multidimensional condition that includes social, cultural and genetic features. Therefore, provided the lack of clear definition, the assessment of ethnicity and race effects must be done as rigorously as possible.

  18. Missing data and multiple imputation in clinical epidemiological research

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Alma B; Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Kristensen, Nickolaj R; Pham, Tra My; Pedersen, Lars; Petersen, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Missing data are ubiquitous in clinical epidemiological research. Individuals with missing data may differ from those with no missing data in terms of the outcome of interest and prognosis in general. Missing data are often categorized into the following three types: missing completely at random (MCAR), missing at random (MAR), and missing not at random (MNAR). In clinical epidemiological research, missing data are seldom MCAR. Missing data can constitute considerable challenges in the analyses and interpretation of results and can potentially weaken the validity of results and conclusions. A number of methods have been developed for dealing with missing data. These include complete-case analyses, missing indicator method, single value imputation, and sensitivity analyses incorporating worst-case and best-case scenarios. If applied under the MCAR assumption, some of these methods can provide unbiased but often less precise estimates. Multiple imputation is an alternative method to deal with missing data, which accounts for the uncertainty associated with missing data. Multiple imputation is implemented in most statistical software under the MAR assumption and provides unbiased and valid estimates of associations based on information from the available data. The method affects not only the coefficient estimates for variables with missing data but also the estimates for other variables with no missing data. PMID:28352203

  19. Difficult to Control Asthma: Epidemiology and its Link with Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, William J.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review The aim of the present review is to discuss the epidemiology of inadequate asthma control with an examination of contributing environmental factors. Recent findings Despite advances in asthma therapies, a proportion of patients with asthma continue to have difficulty gaining adequate asthma control. Asthma severity and control in childhood is of particular importance as it translates to asthma morbidity in adulthood. Children with comorbid severe allergic rhinitis were more likely to have uncontrolled asthma. Recent data suggest that mouse allergen, more so than cockroach allergen, may be the most relevant urban allergen exposure. Tobacco smoke exposure, even passive exposure, leads to increased asthma symptoms and decreased response to inhaled corticosteroids. Efforts to ban smoking in public places have resulted in promising asthma results for entire populations. Energy saving efforts to tighten a home’s air leaks can lead to increased indoor pollutant levels and, therefore, must be accompanied by efforts to reduce, filter, or exchange indoor pollutants. Obesity is independently associated with decreased asthma control. Furthermore, the detrimental effects of pollutant exposure are enhanced in an overweight individual with asthma. Summary Lack of asthma control can be due to a complex web of factors including adherence, intrinsic factors, and environmental exposures. Further research on intervention strategies is needed to achieve improved rates of asthma control. PMID:26226354

  20. Status of human monkeypox: clinical disease, epidemiology and research.

    PubMed

    Damon, Inger K

    2011-12-30

    Monkeypox, a vesiculo-pustular rash illness, was initially discovered to cause human infection in 1970 through the World Health Organization (WHO)-sponsored efforts of the Commission to Certify Smallpox Eradication in Western Africa and the Congo Basin. The virus had been discovered to cause a nonhuman primate rash illness in 1958, and was thus named monkeypox. The causative agents of monkeypox and smallpox diseases both are species of Orthopoxvirus. Orthopoxvirus monkeypox, when it infects humans as an epizootic, produces a similar clinical picture to that of ordinary human smallpox. Since 1970, extensive epidemiology, virology, ecology and public health research has enabled better characterization of monkeypox virus and the associated human disease. This work reviews the progress in this body of research, and reviews studies of this "newly" emerging zoonotic disease.

  1. Integration of epidemiology, immunobiology, and translational research for brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hideho; Scheurer, Michael E; Sarkar, Saumendra N; Bondy, Melissa L

    2013-05-01

    We recently identified a pivotal role for the host type I interferon (IFN) pathway in immunosurveillance against de novo mouse glioma development, especially through the regulation of immature myeloid cells (IMCs) in the glioma microenvironment. The present paper summarizes our published work in a number of areas. We have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human IFN genes that dictate altered prognosis of patients with glioma. One of these SNPs (rs12553612) is located in the promoter of IFNA8 and influences its activity. Conversely, recent epidemiologic data show that chronic use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs lowers the risk of glioma. We translated these findings back to our de novo glioma model and found that cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition enhances antiglioma immunosurveillance by reducing glioma-associated IMCs. Taken together, these findings suggest that alterations in myeloid cell function condition the brain for glioma development. Finally, in preliminary work, we have begun applying novel immunotherapeutic approaches to patients with low-grade glioma with the aim of preventing malignant transformation. Future research will hopefully better integrate epidemiological, immunobiological, and translational techniques to develop novel, preventive approaches for malignant gliomas.

  2. Environmental Education Researchers as Environmental Activists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This article is a reflective account of a researcher's journey whilst embarking on a study which was political in its intentions and participatory in its orientation. Learning from feminist writings, where researchers have shared stories and explored notions of insider/outside, academic/activist, the central argument of the article is the…

  3. Epidemiological Evaluation of Notifications of Environmental Events in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Telma de Cassia dos Santos; Christensen, Rogerio Araujo; Pereira, Farida; Leite, Andre Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Increasing urbanization across the globe, combined with an increased use of chemicals in various regions, contributes to several environmental events that influence environmental health. Measures that identify environmental factors and events should be introduced to facilitate epidemiological investigations by health services. The Brazilian Ministry of Health published a new list of notifiable diseases on 25 January 2011 and introduced environmental events as a new category of notifiable occurrences. The Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance in State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, created an online notification system that highlights “environmental events”, such as exposure to chemical contaminants, drinking water with contaminants outside of the recommended range, contaminated air, and natural or anthropogenic disasters. This paper analyzed 300 notifications received between May 2011 and May 2012. It reports the number of notifications with event classifications and analyzes the events relating to accidents with chemical substances. This paper describes the characteristics of the accidents that involved chemical substances, methods used, types of substances, exposed population, and measures adopted. The online notification of environmental events increases the analysis of the main events associated with diseases related to environmental chemicals; thus, it facilitates the adoption of public policies to prevent environmental health problems. PMID:25050657

  4. Environmental Viral Metagenomics Analyses in Aquaculture: Applications in Epidemiology and Disease Control

    PubMed Central

    Munang’andu, Hetron M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the epidemiology of viral diseases in aquaculture have for a long time depended on isolation of viruses from infected aquatic organisms. The role of aquatic environments in the epidemiology of viral diseases in aquaculture has not been extensively expounded mainly because of the lack of appropriate tools for environmental studies on aquatic viruses. However, the upcoming of metagenomics analyses opens great avenues in which environmental samples can be used to study the epidemiology of viral diseases outside their host species. Hence, in this review I have shown that epidemiological factors that influence the composition of viruses in different aquatic environments include ecological factors, anthropogenic activities and stocking densities of cultured organisms based on environmental metagenomics studies carried out this far. Ballast water transportation and global trade of aquatic organisms are the most common virus dispersal process identified this far. In terms of disease control for outdoor aquaculture systems, baseline data on viruses found in different environments intended for aquaculture use can be obtained to enable the design of effective disease control strategies. And as such, high-risk areas having a high specter of pathogenic viruses can be identified as an early warning system. As for the control of viral diseases for indoor recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS), the most effective disinfection methods able to eliminate pathogenic viruses from water used in RAS can be identified. Overall, the synopsis I have put forth in this review shows that environmental samples can be used to study the epidemiology of viral diseases in aquaculture using viral metagenomics analysis as an overture for the design of rational disease control strategies. PMID:28018317

  5. Environmental Viral Metagenomics Analyses in Aquaculture: Applications in Epidemiology and Disease Control.

    PubMed

    Munang'andu, Hetron M

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the epidemiology of viral diseases in aquaculture have for a long time depended on isolation of viruses from infected aquatic organisms. The role of aquatic environments in the epidemiology of viral diseases in aquaculture has not been extensively expounded mainly because of the lack of appropriate tools for environmental studies on aquatic viruses. However, the upcoming of metagenomics analyses opens great avenues in which environmental samples can be used to study the epidemiology of viral diseases outside their host species. Hence, in this review I have shown that epidemiological factors that influence the composition of viruses in different aquatic environments include ecological factors, anthropogenic activities and stocking densities of cultured organisms based on environmental metagenomics studies carried out this far. Ballast water transportation and global trade of aquatic organisms are the most common virus dispersal process identified this far. In terms of disease control for outdoor aquaculture systems, baseline data on viruses found in different environments intended for aquaculture use can be obtained to enable the design of effective disease control strategies. And as such, high-risk areas having a high specter of pathogenic viruses can be identified as an early warning system. As for the control of viral diseases for indoor recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS), the most effective disinfection methods able to eliminate pathogenic viruses from water used in RAS can be identified. Overall, the synopsis I have put forth in this review shows that environmental samples can be used to study the epidemiology of viral diseases in aquaculture using viral metagenomics analysis as an overture for the design of rational disease control strategies.

  6. Malaria Epidemiology and Control Within the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research.

    PubMed

    Moss, William J; Dorsey, Grant; Mueller, Ivo; Laufer, Miriam K; Krogstad, Donald J; Vinetz, Joseph M; Guzman, Mitchel; Rosas-Aguirre, Angel M; Herrera, Socrates; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Chery, Laura; Kumar, Ashwani; Mohapatra, Pradyumna K; Ramanathapuram, Lalitha; Srivastava, H C; Cui, Liwang; Zhou, Guofa; Parker, Daniel M; Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Kazura, James W

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the epidemiological features and metrics of malaria in endemic populations is a key component to monitoring and quantifying the impact of current and past control efforts to inform future ones. The International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) has the opportunity to evaluate the impact of malaria control interventions across endemic regions that differ in the dominant Plasmodium species, mosquito vector species, resistance to antimalarial drugs and human genetic variants thought to confer protection from infection and clinical manifestations of plasmodia infection. ICEMR programs are conducting field studies at multiple sites with the aim of generating standardized surveillance data to improve the understanding of malaria transmission and to monitor and evaluate the impact of interventions to inform malaria control and elimination programs. In addition, these epidemiological studies provide a vast source of biological samples linked to clinical and environmental "meta-data" to support translational studies of interactions between the parasite, human host, and mosquito vector. Importantly, epidemiological studies at the ICEMR field sites are integrated with entomological studies, including the measurement of the entomological inoculation rate, human biting index, and insecticide resistance, as well as studies of parasite genetic diversity and antimalarial drug resistance.

  7. DOE (Department of Energy) Epidemiologic Research Program: Selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Epidemiologic Research Program is to determine the human health effects resulting from the generation and use of energy, and from the operation of DOE facilities. The program has been divided into seven general areas of activity: the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) which supports studies of survivors of the atomic weapons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, mortality and morbidity studies of DOE workers, studies on internally deposited alpha emitters, medical/histologic studies, studies on the genetic aspects of radiation damage, community health surveillance studies, and the development of computational techniques and of databases to make the results as widely useful as possible. Excluding the extensive literature from the RERF, the program has produced 380 publications in scientific journals, contributing significantly to improving the understanding of the health effects of ionizing radiation exposure. In addition, a large number of public presentations were made and are documented elsewhere in published proceedings or in books. The purpose of this bibliograhpy is to present a guide to the research results obtained by scientists supported by the program. The bibliography, which includes doctoral theses, is classified by national laboratory and by year. Multi-authored studies are indicated only once, according to the main supporting laboratory.

  8. Organophosphorous pesticides research in Mexico: epidemiological and experimental approaches.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Guerra, M; Pérez-Herrera, N; Quintanilla-Vega, B

    2011-11-01

    Non-persistent pesticides, such as organophosphorous (OP) insecticides have been extensively used in Mexico, and becoming a public health problem. This review presents data of OP use and related toxicity from epidemiological and experimental studies conducted in Mexico. Studies in agricultural workers from several regions of the country reported moderate to severe cholinergic symptoms, including decreased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity (the main acute OP toxic effect that causes an over accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine), revealing the potential risk of intoxication of Mexican farmers. OP exposure in occupational settings has been associated with decreased semen quality, sperm DNA damage and as endocrine disrupter, particularly in agricultural workers. Alterations in female reproductive function have also been observed, as well as adverse effects on embryo development by prenatal exposure in agricultural communities. This illustrates that OP exposure represents a risk for reproduction and offspring well-being in Mexico. The genotoxic effects of this group of pesticides in somatic and sperm cells are also documented. Lastly, we present data about gene-environmental interactions regarding OP metabolizing enzymes, such as paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and its role in modulating their toxicity, particularly on semen quality and sperm DNA integrity. In summary, readers will see the important health problems associated with OP exposure in Mexican populations, thereby the need of capacitation programs to communicate farmers the proper handling of agrochemicals to prevent their toxic effects and of more well designed human studies to support data of the current situation of workers and communities dedicated to agriculture activities.

  9. Integrated Bioinformatics, Environmental Epidemiologic and Genomic Approaches to Identify Environmental and Molecular Links between Endometriosis and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Deodutta; Morgan, Marisa; Yoo, Changwon; Deoraj, Alok; Roy, Sandhya; Yadav, Vijay Kumar; Garoub, Mohannad; Assaggaf, Hamza; Doke, Mayur

    2015-01-01

    We present a combined environmental epidemiologic, genomic, and bioinformatics approach to identify: exposure of environmental chemicals with estrogenic activity; epidemiologic association between endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) and health effects, such as, breast cancer or endometriosis; and gene-EDC interactions and disease associations. Human exposure measurement and modeling confirmed estrogenic activity of three selected class of environmental chemicals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), bisphenols (BPs), and phthalates. Meta-analysis showed that PCBs exposure, not Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, increased the summary odds ratio for breast cancer and endometriosis. Bioinformatics analysis of gene-EDC interactions and disease associations identified several hundred genes that were altered by exposure to PCBs, phthalate or BPA. EDCs-modified genes in breast neoplasms and endometriosis are part of steroid hormone signaling and inflammation pathways. All three EDCs–PCB 153, phthalates, and BPA influenced five common genes—CYP19A1, EGFR, ESR2, FOS, and IGF1—in breast cancer as well as in endometriosis. These genes are environmentally and estrogen responsive, altered in human breast and uterine tumors and endometriosis lesions, and part of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in cancer. Our findings suggest that breast cancer and endometriosis share some common environmental and molecular risk factors. PMID:26512648

  10. Epidemiologic studies of environmental agents and systemic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Mayes, M D

    1999-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic scleroderma are autoimmune diseases thought to have an exogenous trigger. This review summarizes relevant case-control and cohort studies that investigated exogenous sex hormones, silica, silicone, solvents, pesticides, mercuric chloride, and hair dyes as putative risk factors for the development of these diseases. These studies indicate that estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women increases the risk of developing lupus, scleroderma, and Raynaud disease, although the increase in risk is relatively modest. Oral contraceptives may also play a role in disease susceptibility in lupus but not apparently in scleroderma. Environmental endocrine modulators, in the form of pesticides, may represent another opportunity for estrogenlike effects to occur, but there is scant evidence that these agents play a role in human systemic autoimmune disease. Although exposure to silica dust increases the risk of scleroderma in men occupied in the industry, this does not explain most male scleroderma cases. When this exposure was investigated among women, no significant risk was found. Additionally, silicone in implanted devices as well as occupational exposure to silicone-containing compounds did not pose an increased risk among women for scleroderma. The role of solvent exposure has been investigated as a risk factor for scleroderma with mixed findings. One study suggested a potential role in male patients or in those individuals with Scl-70 antibody positivity either male or female. Two other studies were unable to corroborate this finding. Mercuric chloride causes antifibrillarin antibodies and immune complex glomerulonephritis in susceptible mouse strains. Antifibrillarin antibodies, but not glomerulonephritis, occur in a subset of scleroderma patients and preliminary evidence suggests that mercury levels may be higher in this group of individuals. Hair products have been studied as possibly raising the risk of developing lupus

  11. Behaviorist EE Research: Environmentalism as Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robottom, Ian; Hart, Paul

    1995-01-01

    This article continues a dialogue about the nature of environmental education research by establishing the behaviorist nature of the dominant approach to environmental education research and exploring implications for environmentalism of one aspect of the politics of methods of this dominant behaviorist approach--the tendency to individualize the…

  12. Geographic exposure modeling: a valuable extension of geographic information systems for use in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Beyea, J

    1999-01-01

    Geographic modeling of individual exposures using air pollution modeling techniques can help in both the design of environmental epidemiologic studies and in the assignment of measures that delineate regions that receive the highest exposure in space and time. Geographic modeling can help in the interpretation of environmental sampling data associated with airborne concentration or deposition, and can act as a sophisticated interpolator for such data, allowing values to be assigned to locations between points where the data have actually been collected. Recent advances allow for quantification of the uncertainty in a geographic model and the resulting impact on estimates of association, variability, and study power. In this paper we present the terminology and methodology of geographic modeling, describe applications to date in the field of epidemiology, and evaluate the potential of this relatively new tool. PMID:10229717

  13. COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT IN CHILDREN’S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Barbara L.; Manice, Melissa P.

    2010-01-01

    Community engagement strategies and skills can build trust and reduce historical mistrust between researchers, communities and populations being studied, as well as contribute to the quality of study designs, methods and dissemination of findings. This review paper discusses why community engagement is of increasing importance in children’s environmental health research, describes models and the continuum of methods that are used and discusses their challenges and benefits. Two case studies, representing different study designs and using different community engagement models and methods, and lessons learned from these cases are described. Community engagement methods are best understood on a continuum based on the degree to which community members or representatives of community populations are involved in research planning, decision making and dissemination. Methods along this continuum include community consultation, community based participatory research(CBPR) and community consent to research. Community engagement knowledge and skills are especially important in the conduct of children’s environmental health research with its emphasis on reducing environmental risks at the community level; the increasing focus on genetics and gene-environment interactions; and the importance placed on translation of scientific results into behaviors and policies that protect the community. Across study designs, whether qualitative survey research, an observational epidemiology study, or a randomized intervention trial, understanding community interests, norms and values is necessary to describe attitudes and behaviors of specific population groups, build evidence of cause and effect between environmental exposures and health and/or that demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions to reduce risks. PMID:21259265

  14. Popular epidemiology and "fracking": citizens' concerns regarding the economic, environmental, health and social impacts of unconventional natural gas drilling operations.

    PubMed

    Powers, Martha; Saberi, Poune; Pepino, Richard; Strupp, Emily; Bugos, Eva; Cannuscio, Carolyn C

    2015-06-01

    Pennsylvania sits atop the Marcellus Shale, a reservoir of natural gas that was untapped until the 2004 introduction of unconventional natural gas drilling operations (UNGDO) in the state. Colloquially known as fracking, UNGDO is a controversial process that employs large volumes of water to fracture the shale and capture gas; it has become a multi-billion dollar industry in Pennsylvania. We analyzed letters to the editor of the most widely circulated local newspaper in the most heavily drilled county in Pennsylvania (Bradford County) in order to characterize residents' concerns and their involvement in popular epidemiology--the process by which citizens investigate risks associated with a perceived environmental threat. We reviewed 215 letters to the editor that referenced natural gas operations and were published by The Daily Review between January 1, 2008 and June 8, 2013. We used NVivo 10 to code and analyze letters and identify major themes. Nvivo is qualitative data analysis software (http://www.qsrinternational.com/products_nvivo.aspx) that allows researchers to code and analyze "unstructured" data, including text files of any type (e.g., interview transcripts, news articles, letters, archival materials) as well as photographs and videos. Nvivo can be used to classify, sort, query, comment on, and share data across a research group. Letters demonstrated citizen engagement in beginning and intermediate stages of lay epidemiology, as well as discord and stress regarding four main issues: socio-economic impacts, perceived threats to water, population growth and implications, and changes to the rural landscape. Residents called for stronger scientific evidence and a balance of economic development and health and environmental protections. Citizens' distress regarding UNGDO appeared to be exacerbated by a dearth of information to guide economic growth and health, environmental, and social concerns. This analysis proposes locally informed questions to guide future

  15. A Data Integration Effort for Environmental and Epidemiological Risk Management: an Example from Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad-Mota, S.; Guenni, L.; Salcedo, A.; Cardinale, Y.

    2006-05-01

    Climate variability, environmental degradation and poor livelihood conditions of an important proportion of the population are all key factors determining the high vulnerability of the population to natural disasters and vector-borne diseases as malaria and dengue in most tropical Latin American countries. It is not uncommon that basic bio-geophysical and hydro-meteorological data required for understanding vulnerability and risk of the population to these environmental hazards at present and on retrospective are disperse, have limited quality and are not easily accessible. In Venezuela for example, hydrometeorological data from ground based networks, are collected by different agencies for specific purposes and applications going from aviation, agriculture, hydropower generation and general public needs. In order to improve accessibility, visibility and output products, two public universities in Venezuela: Universidad Simón Bolívar (USB) and Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV) have designed a data management project to integrate all these historical point data holdings together with the metadata relating to their origin, in a single data repository with facilities for storage, manipulation, extraction and dissemination. Several statistical analyses of the data will be presented as client tailored made products, for specific applications oriented to environmental and epidemiological risk assessments. The project has two main phases: modeling of the hidroclimatic data and its metadata and development of the web site through which services will be provided. We have collected historical data from different sources in the country. These sources use different formats and have their data at different levels of granularity. Our data model should be general enough to accomodate all these differences annotated with the appropriate metadata. The quality of these data will be evaluated, statistically and semantically. The modeled data will be stored in a database, so

  16. Epigenetics applied to epidemiology: investigating environmental factors and lifestyle influence on human health.

    PubMed

    Motta, Valeria; Bonzini, Matteo; Grevendonk, Lotte; Iodice, Simona; Bollati, Valentina

    2017-02-15

    Epigenetics modifications, that include variations in DNA methylation, histone acetylation and micro RNA (miRNA) expression, co-operate together, influencing genome expression and function, in response to exogenous stimuli or exposures. Thus, epigenetic tools applied to epidemiology are useful in investigating, at the population level, the relationships between exposures to environmental, lifestyle, genetic, socioeconomic risk factors, and the epigenome, and/or specific health outcomes. But the choice of an appropriate study design and of valid epidemiological methods has a key role in determining the achievement of the study. This review summarises available evidence about the role of the most investigated epigenetic mechanisms in mediating lifestyle or environmental exposure effects on human health, considering the entire life-course, from in-utero to adulthood. Moreover, we illustrate the most important variables that should be properly considered when designing an epigenetic epidemiology study: the choice of an appropriate study design, a proper estimation of the required sample size, a correct biological sample selection, a validation strategy for epigenetics data, and an integrated exposure assessment methodology.

  17. Global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 2 - epidemiology, wildlife and economics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014, the Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research ings in the fields of (i) epidemiology, (ii) wildlife and (iii) Alliance (GFRA) conducted a gap analysis of foot-and- economics. Although the three sections, epidemiology, wildlife and economics are presented as separate entities, the fields are ...

  18. Conducting Environmental Health Research in the Arabian Middle East: Lessons Learned and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    El-Sadig, Mohamed; Ali, Habiba I.; Al-Maskari, Fatma; Campbell, Alan; Ng, Shu Wen; Reeves, Lisa; Chan, Ronna L.; Davidson, Christopher A.; Funk, William E.; Boundy, Maryanne G.; Leith, David; Popkin, Barry; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald; Rusyn, Ivan; Olshan, Andrew F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Arabian Gulf nations are undergoing rapid economic development, leading to major shifts in both the traditional lifestyle and the environment. Although the pace of change is brisk, there is a dearth of environmental health research in this region. Objective: We describe challenges and successes of conducting an environmental epidemiologic study in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), a Gulf nation in the Middle East, with an inter-disciplinary team that includes in-country academic and government collaborators as well as U.S. academic collaborators. Discussion: We present several issues, including study and data collection design, exposure assessment, scheduling and time coordination, quality assurance and quality control, and institutional review board protocols. These topics are considered in a cultural context. Benefits of this research included building linkages among multinational, interdisciplinary team members, generating data for local environmental decision making, and developing local epidemiologic research capacity. The Middle Eastern culture of hospitality greatly benefited the project team. Conclusion: Cultural differences impact multiple aspects of epidemiologic research and should be respectfully addressed. Conducting international population-based environmental research poses many challenges; these challenges can be met successfully with careful planning, cultural knowledge, and flexibility. Lessons learned are applicable to interdisciplinary research all over the world. The research conducted will benefit the environmental and public health agencies of the UAE and provide the nation’s leadership with country-specific environmental health data that can be used to protect the public’s health in a rapidly changing environment. PMID:22356946

  19. Statistical Approaches for Assessing Health Effects of Environmental Chemical Mixtures in Epidemiology: Lessons from an Innovative Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Kyla W.; Joubert, Bonnie R.; Braun, Joe M.; Dilworth, Caroline; Gennings, Chris; Hauser, Russ; Heindel, Jerry J.; Rider, Cynthia V.; Webster, Thomas F.; Carlin, Danielle J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Quantifying the impact of exposure to environmental chemical mixtures is important for identifying risk factors for diseases and developing more targeted public health interventions. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) held a workshop in July 2015 to address the need to develop novel statistical approaches for multi-pollutant epidemiology studies. The primary objective of the workshop was to identify and compare different statistical approaches and methods for analyzing complex chemical mixtures data in both simulated and real-world data sets. At the workshop, participants compared approaches and results and speculated as to why they may have differed. Several themes emerged: a) no one statistical approach appeared to outperform the others, b) many methods included some form of variable reduction or summation of the data before statistical analysis, c) the statistical approach should be selected based upon a specific hypothesis or scientific question, and d) related mixtures data should be shared among researchers to more comprehensively and accurately address methodological questions and statistical approaches. Future efforts should continue to design and optimize statistical approaches to address questions about chemical mixtures in epidemiological studies. PMID:27905274

  20. Being Brave: Writing Environmental Education Research Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila; Burt, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Explores some of the headwork that goes into textwork in environmental education research. Reflects upon some of the institutional and epistemological issues associated with writing social science research texts. (Contains 26 references.) (Author/YDS)

  1. Environmental Justice and Health Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is working to ensure that all people, regardless of race, color, national origin or income, are treated fairly and involved in development, implementation and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations and policies.

  2. Environmental Education Research: To What Ends?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jickling, Bob

    2009-01-01

    This paper engages questions about ends in environmental education research. In doing so, I argue that such questions are essentially normative, and that normative questions are underrepresented in this field. After cautioning about perils of prescribing research agendas, I gently suggest that in environmental education key normative questions…

  3. Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part V: Epidemiological Disaster Research.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Marvin L; Daily, Elaine K; O'Rourke, Ann P

    2015-12-01

    Studies of the health aspect of disasters focus either on the epidemiology of disasters to define the causes and the progression from a hazard to a disaster, or the evaluations of interventions provided during any phase of a disaster. Epidemiological disaster research studies are undertaken for the purposes of: (1) understanding the mechanisms by which hazards evolve into a disaster; (2) determining ways to mitigate the risk(s) that a specific hazard will progress into a disaster; (3) predicting the likely damages and needs of the population-at-risk for an event; and (4) identifying potential measures to increase the resilience of a community to future events. Epidemiological disaster research utilizes the Conceptual, Temporal, and Societal Frameworks to define what occurs when a hazard manifests as an event that causes a disaster. The findings from such studies should suggest interventions that could augment the absorbing, buffering, or/and response capacities to lessen the probability of similar damages occurring from the next event. Ultimately, the use of these Frameworks in studying the health aspects of a disaster will help define what to expect in a specific setting and the standards and best practices upon which education, training, competencies, performance, and professionalization will be built.

  4. Environmental research to improve food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate in a popular form how the EMFSL experimental environmental research looks and what results are expected. The research leader Dan Shelton explains the history and purpose of the research site creation. The information about the current field research group...

  5. Computer-administered neurobehavioral evaluation system for occupational and environmental epidemiology. Rationale, methodology, and pilot study results

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.L.; Letz, R.; Fidler, A.

    1985-03-01

    To facilitate the conduct of epidemiologic studies of populations at risk for or suffering from central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction due to environmental agents, a computer-administered neurobehavioral evaluation system has been developed. The system includes a set of testing programs designed to run on a microcomputer and questionnaires to facilitate interpretation of results. Standard tasks evaluating memory, psychomotor function, verbal ability, visuospatial ability, and mood were selected and adapted for computer presentation following the recommendation of an expert committee of the World Health Organization and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. In two pilot surveys, test performance was found to be influenced by age, education level, and socioeconomic status in ways consistent with prior research findings. Performance on tests of short-term memory and reaction time was negatively correlated with intensity of organic solvent exposure among industrial painters. In view of the ease of administration and data handling, high subject acceptability, and sensitivity to the effects of known neurotoxic agents, computer-based assessment of CNS function holds promise for future epidemiologic research.

  6. An epidemiological approach to welfare research in zoos: the Elephant Welfare Project.

    PubMed

    Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A; Meehan, Cheryl; Brown, Janine L

    2013-01-01

    Multi-institutional studies of welfare have proven to be valuable in zoos but are hampered by limited sample sizes and difficulty in evaluating more than just a few welfare indicators. To more clearly understand how interactions of husbandry factors influence the interrelationships among welfare outcomes, epidemiological approaches are needed as well as multifactorial assessments of welfare. Many questions have been raised about the housing and care of elephants in zoos and whether their environmental and social needs are being met in a manner that promotes good welfare. This article describes the background and rationale for a large-scale study of elephant welfare in North American zoos funded by the (U.S.) Institute of Museum and Library Services. The goals of this project are to document the prevalence of positive and negative welfare states in 291 elephants exhibited in 72 Association of Zoos and Aquariums zoos and then determine the environmental, management, and husbandry factors that impact elephant welfare. This research is the largest scale nonhuman animal welfare project ever undertaken by the zoo community, and the scope of environmental variables and welfare outcomes measured is unprecedented.

  7. Epidemiological investigation of a case of nosocomial Legionnaires' disease in Taiwan: implications for routine environmental surveillance.

    PubMed

    Chien, S T; Hsueh, J C; Lin, H-H; Shih, H-Y; Lee, T-M; Ben, R-J; Chou, S-T; Fong, C-M; Lin, Y E; Tseng, L-R; Chiang, C-S

    2010-06-01

    An epidemiological investigation with Legionella and molecular subtyping was conducted to determine the source of a case of nosocomial Legionnaires' disease (LD) who was hospitalized in three hospitals within a month. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 3, an uncommon serogroup for infection, was isolated from the patient's sputum. Environmental surveillance revealed Legionella colonization in all three hospitals; the patient isolate matched the isolate from the first hospital by molecular typing. Culturing the hospital water supply for Legionella is a pro-active strategy for detection of nosocomial LD even in hospitals experiencing no previous cases.

  8. Epidemiologic research topics in Germany: a keyword network analysis of 2014 DGEpi conference presentations.

    PubMed

    Peter, Raphael Simon; Brehme, Torben; Völzke, Henry; Muche, Rainer; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Büchele, Gisela

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of epidemiologic research topics as well as trends is useful for scientific societies, researchers and funding agencies. In recent years researchers recognized the usefulness of keyword network analysis for visualizing and analyzing scientific research topics. Therefore, we applied keyword network analysis to present an overview of current epidemiologic research topics in Germany. Accepted submissions to the 9th annual congress of the German Society for Epidemiology (DGEpi) in 2014 were used as data source. Submitters had to choose one of 19 subject areas, and were ask to provide a title, structured abstract, names of authors along with their affiliations, and a list of freely selectable keywords. Keywords had been provided for 262 (82 %) submissions, 1030 keywords in total. Overall the most common keywords were: "migration" (18 times), "prevention" (15 times), followed by "children", "cohort study", "physical activity", and "secondary data analysis" (11 times each). Some keywords showed a certain concentration under one specific subject area, e.g. "migration" with 8 of 18 in social epidemiology or "breast cancer" with 4 of 7 in cancer epidemiology. While others like "physical activity" were equally distributed over multiple subject areas (cardiovascular & metabolic diseases, ageing, methods, paediatrics, prevention & health service research). This keyword network analysis demonstrated the high diversity of epidemiologic research topics with a large number of distinct keywords as presented at the annual conference of the DGEpi.

  9. Environmental Factors Affecting Growth and Occurrence of Testicular Cancer in Childhood: An Overview of the Current Epidemiological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Giannandrea, Fabrizio; Fargnoli, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most frequently occurring malignancy among adolescents and young men aged 15–34 years. Although incidence of TC has been growing over the past 40 years in several western countries, the explanations for this increase still remain uncertain. It has been postulated that early life exposure to numerous occupational and environmental estrogenic chemicals, such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), may play a contributing role in the etiology of TC, but the subject is still open to additional investigation. Recently, it has also been suggested that prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures associated with child growth and development might also be involved in TC progression. This review of current epidemiological studies (2000–2015) aims to identify environmental factors associated with TC, with a particular focus on infancy and childhood factors that could constitute a risk for disease development. It may also contribute towards recognizing gaps in knowledge and recent research requirements for TC, and to point out possible interactions between child growth and development in relation to prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures. PMID:28067779

  10. Use of epidemiology and clinical toxicology to assess environmental health problems

    SciTech Connect

    Cordle, F.

    1984-09-01

    Historically, epidemiology has played an important role in the changes that have taken place over time as epidemics of important infectious diseases have been replaced with modern epidemics of chronic, degenerative diseases such as elevated blood pressure, various types of cancers, diabetes, and stroke, among others. Two illustrations of the early uses of epidemiologic methods in investigations of disease outbreaks are described in the work of John Snow, who described outbreaks of cholera in the 1800s and J. Goldberger, who investigated the incidence of pellagra in the early 1900s. The more contemporary use of epidemiology and clinical toxicology to assess the outcome of human exposure to environmental contaminants in the food supply are described for exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to the polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). Exposure to the PCBs has occurred in a variety of locations worldwide, with the greatest exposure taking place in individuals of many countries who consume fish and in Japan and Taiwan through contaminated cooking oil. Exposure to PBBs has essentially been limited to the State of Michigan where widespread contamination of cattle, dairy products, and poultry has taken place.

  11. [Research progress on environmental carrying capacity].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Sun, Tieheng; Li, Peijun; Li, Fayun

    2005-04-01

    To study the theories and quantification methods of environmental carrying capacity is of significance in reality for directing human beings economic behaviors and harmonizing the relationships between social development and environment. In this paper, the definition of environmental carrying capacity was introduced from the aspects of "capacity", "threshold" and "capability", with the main characteristics of objective and subjective, regional and temporal, and dynamic and adjustable, and its research progress was reviewed. On the basis of these, the quantification methods of environmental carrying capacity, including exponential assessment, carrying rate assessment, system dynamics, and multi-objective optimization, were analyzed, and the research perspectives of environmental carrying capacity were discussed.

  12. THE NATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF RECREATIONAL WATERS: RESULTS FROM THE FIRST SUMMER FULL-SCALE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction

    The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Waters (NEEAR) is a multi-year study of recreational water conducted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), design...

  13. Epidemiological Study on the Involvements of Environmental Factors and Allergy in Child Mental Health Using the Autism Screening Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Aki; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Hibino, Yuri; Yamazaki, Masami; Mitoma, Junko; Asakura, Hiroki; Hayashi, Koichi; Otaki, Naoto; Sagara, Takiko; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Although autism is now recognized as being very common (Buie et al., 2010) and as developing due to not only genetic but also environmental factors, there is insufficient epidemiological evidence on the relationship between autism and allergy. In this study, therefore, we attempted to clarify the association of environmental factors with autism…

  14. THE NATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF RECREATIONAL WATERS: RESULTS FROM THE FIRST SUMMER OF FULL-SCALE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction

    The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Waters (NEEAR) is a multi-year study of recreational water conducted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), design...

  15. Qualitative methods in environmental health research.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Public health researchers increasingly turn to qualitative methods either on their own or in combination with quantitative methods. Qualitative methods are especially important to community environmental health research, as they provide a way to produce community narratives that give voice to individuals and characterize the community in a full and complex fashion. This article first traces the legacy of qualitative research in environmental health, then uses a case study of the author's experiences studying the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster to provide personal and scholarly insights on qualitative approaches. That material then informs a discussion of important components of qualitative methods in environmental health research, including flexible study design, access, trust, empathy, and personal shifts in the researcher's worldview, bias, and the nature of the researcher's roles. A concluding discussion addresses issues in funding policy and research practices. PMID:14594634

  16. A strategic environmental research program

    SciTech Connect

    Nunn, S. )

    1990-08-01

    The author outlines a program to confront the massive environmental problems facing our nation and the world today. These are problems that will pose an increasing threat to our national security in the years ahead. Population growth is already pressing supplies of clean water and food in many areas. Deforestation on a vast scale is resulting in the loss of thousands of species of living things-including many species that contain genetic resouces of enormous potential value to agriculture and medicine. Rapidly increasing atmospheric concentrations of gases such as chlorofluorocarbons and halons, if unchecked, will lead to ozone depletion, increasing exposure to cancer-causing ultra-violet radiation. Although there is still a good deal of uncertainty associated with global warming, some reputable scientists have predicted that increasing production of greenhouse gases may ultimately lead to major global environmental changes and massive crop failures, floods and drought-events that could rival a nuclear war in their destructive impact. America must lead the way in marshalling a global response to the problems of environmental degradation, and the defense establishment should play an important role in this effort.

  17. Epidemiological transition of colorectal cancer in developing countries: Environmental factors, molecular pathways, and opportunities for prevention

    PubMed Central

    Bishehsari, Faraz; Mahdavinia, Mahboobeh; Vacca, Michele; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mariani-Costantini, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer and cancer-related mortality worldwide. The disease has been traditionally a major health problem in industrial countries, however the CRC rates are increasing in the developing countries that are undergoing economic growth. Several environmental risk factors, mainly changes in diet and life style, have been suggested to underlie the rise of CRC in these populations. Diet and lifestyle impinge on nuclear receptors, on the intestinal microbiota and on crucial molecular pathways that are implicated in intestinal carcinogenesis. In this respect, the epidemiological transition in several regions of the world offers a unique opportunity to better understand CRC carcinogenesis by studying the disease phenotypes and their environmental and molecular associations in different populations. The data from these studies may have important implications for the global prevention and treatment of CRC. PMID:24876728

  18. Epidemiological transition of colorectal cancer in developing countries: environmental factors, molecular pathways, and opportunities for prevention.

    PubMed

    Bishehsari, Faraz; Mahdavinia, Mahboobeh; Vacca, Michele; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mariani-Costantini, Renato

    2014-05-28

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer and cancer-related mortality worldwide. The disease has been traditionally a major health problem in industrial countries, however the CRC rates are increasing in the developing countries that are undergoing economic growth. Several environmental risk factors, mainly changes in diet and life style, have been suggested to underlie the rise of CRC in these populations. Diet and lifestyle impinge on nuclear receptors, on the intestinal microbiota and on crucial molecular pathways that are implicated in intestinal carcinogenesis. In this respect, the epidemiological transition in several regions of the world offers a unique opportunity to better understand CRC carcinogenesis by studying the disease phenotypes and their environmental and molecular associations in different populations. The data from these studies may have important implications for the global prevention and treatment of CRC.

  19. Grant-Funded Research in Environmental Economics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This database contains summaries of these awards, as well as project reports and publications, developed under environmental economics-related grants made by EPA's Office of Research and Development, NCEE and their partners since 1990.

  20. International Research: Its Role in Environmental Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginson, John

    1970-01-01

    Proposes an international research laboratory to investigate environmental factors in human health. By international cooperation unnecessary duplication and waste of resources can be avoided and long-term studies can examine various world-wide environments. (JM)

  1. Molecular epidemiology studies on occupational and environmental exposure to mutagens and carcinogens, 1997-1999.

    PubMed Central

    Srám, R J; Binková, B

    2000-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology is a new and evolving area of research, combining laboratory measurement of internal dose, biologically effective dose, biologic effects, and influence of individual susceptibility with epidemiologic methodologies. Biomarkers evaluated were selected according to basic scheme: biomarkers of exposure--metabolites in urine, DNA adducts, protein adducts, and Comet assay parameters; biomarkers of effect--chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene, and the activation of oncogenes coding for p53 or p21 proteins as measured on protein levels; biomarkers of susceptibility--genetic polymorphisms of genes CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2. DNA adducts measured by 32P-postlabeling are the biomarker of choice for the evaluation of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Protein adducts are useful as a biomarker for exposure to tobacco smoke (4-aminobiphenyl) or to smaller molecules such as acrylonitrile or 1,3-butadiene. Of the biomarkers of effect, the most common are cytogenetic end points. Epidemiologic studies support the use of chromosomal breakage as a relevant biomarker of cancer risk. The use of the Comet assay and methods analyzing oxidative DNA damage needs reliable validation for human biomonitoring. Until now there have not been sufficient data to interpret the relationship between genotypes, biomarkers of exposure, and biomarkers of effect for assessing the risk of human exposure to mutagens and carcinogens. PMID:10698723

  2. The role of environmental variables on Aedes albopictus biology and chikungunya epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Waldock, Joanna; Chandra, Nastassya L; Lelieveld, Jos; Proestos, Yiannis; Michael, Edwin; Christophides, George; Parham, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is a vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses in the field, along with around 24 additional arboviruses under laboratory conditions. As an invasive mosquito species, Ae. albopictus has been expanding in geographical range over the past 20 years, although the poleward extent of mosquito populations is limited by winter temperatures. Nonetheless, population densities depend on environmental conditions and since global climate change projections indicate increasing temperatures and altered patterns of rainfall, geographic distributions of previously tropical mosquito species may change. Although mathematical models can provide explanatory insight into observed patterns of disease prevalence in terms of epidemiological and entomological processes, understanding how environmental variables affect transmission is possible only with reliable model parameterisation, which, in turn, is obtained only through a thorough understanding of the relationship between mosquito biology and environmental variables. Thus, in order to assess the impact of climate change on mosquito population distribution and regions threatened by vector-borne disease, a detailed understanding (through a synthesis of current knowledge) of the relationship between climate, mosquito biology, and disease transmission is required, but this process has not yet been undertaken for Ae. albopictus. In this review, the impact of temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity on Ae. albopictus development and survival are considered. Existing Ae. albopictus populations across Europe are mapped with current climatic conditions, considering whether estimates of climatic cutoffs for Ae. albopictus are accurate, and suggesting that environmental thresholds must be calibrated according to the scale and resolution of climate model outputs and mosquito presence data. PMID:23916332

  3. Atmospheric, climatic and environmental research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broecker, Wallace S.; Gornitz, Vivien M.

    1992-01-01

    Work performed on the three tasks during the report period is summarized. The climate and atmospheric modeling studies included work on climate model development and applications, paleoclimate studies, climate change applications, and SAGE II. Climate applications of Earth and planetary observations included studies on cloud climatology and planetary studies. Studies on the chemistry of the Earth and the environment are briefly described. Publications based on the above research are listed; two of these papers are included in the appendices.

  4. Environmental Systems Research, FY-99 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David Lynn

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Systems Research (ESR) Program, a part of the Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) Program, was implemented to enhance and augment the technical capabilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose for strengthening technical capabilities of the INEEL is to provide the technical base to serve effectively as the Environmental Management Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM). The original portfolio of research activities was assembled after an analysis of the EM technology development and science needs as gathered by the Site Technology Coordination Groups (STCGs) complex-wide. Current EM investments in science and technology throughout the research community were also included in this analysis to avoid duplication of efforts. This is a progress report for the second year of the ESR Program (Fiscal Year 99). A report of activities is presented for the five ESR research investment areas: (a) Transport Aspects of Selective Mass Transport Agents, (b) Chemistry of Environmental Surfaces, (c) Materials Dynamics, (d) Characterization Science, and (e) Computational Simulation of Mechanical and Chemical Systems. In addition to the five technical areas, activities in the Science and Technology Foundations element of the program, e.g., interfaces between ESR and the EM Science Program (EMSP) and the EM Focus Areas, are described.

  5. Environmental Systems Research FY-99 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Systems Research (ESR) Program, a part of the Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) Program, was implemented to enhance and augment the technical capabilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose for strengthening technical capabilities of the INEEL is to provide the technical base to serve effectively as the Environmental Management Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM). The original portfolio of research activities was assembled after an analysis of the EM technology development and science needs as gathered by the Site Technology Coordination Groups (STCGs) complex-wide. Current EM investments in science and technology throughout the research community were also included in this analysis to avoid duplication of efforts. This is a progress report for the second year of the ESR Program (Fiscal Year 99). A report of activities is presented for the five ESR research investment areas: (a) Transport Aspects of Selective Mass Transport Agents, (b) Chemistry of Environmental Surfaces, (c) Materials Dynamics, (d) Characterization Science, and (e) Computational Simulation of Mechanical and Chemical Systems. In addition to the five technical areas, activities in the Science and Technology Foundations element of the program, e.g., interfaces between ESR and the EM Science Program (EMSP) and the EM Focus Areas, are described.

  6. Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, J R

    1980-01-01

    A total of 75 papers were presented on nuclear methods for analysis of environmental and biological samples. Sessions were devoted to software and mathematical methods; nuclear methods in atmospheric and water research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in biology and medicine; and nuclear methods in energy research.

  7. Environmental Pollution, A Guide to Current Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Science Information Exchange.

    Compiled from data gathered in fiscal years 1969 and 1970 by the Science Information Exchange, Smithsonian Institution, this inventory of more than 4200 federally and non-federally supported environmental research projects represents an attempt to provide a meaningful look at the shape, complexity, and direction of current and recent research.…

  8. Environmental research program. 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the Environmental Research Program is to contribute to the understanding of the formation, mitigation, transport, transformation, and ecological effects of energy-related pollutants on the environment. The program is multidisciplinary and includes fundamental and applied research in chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, and ecology. The program undertakes research and development in efficient and environmentally benign combustion, pollution abatement and destruction, and novel methods of detection and analysis of criteria and non-criteria pollutants. This diverse group investigates combustion, atmospheric processes, flue-gas chemistry, and ecological systems.

  9. Environmental biotechnology research: an overview.

    PubMed

    Spain, J C

    1994-05-01

    Cleanup and treatment of hazardous wastes incur major operational costs for the U.S. Air Force. Bioremediation can provide a cost-effective alternative to traditional technologies for a wide range of natural organic compounds such as jet fuel. Bioventing and natural attenuation are emerging as treatments of choice in many instances. Synthetic organic chemicals are much more resistant to biodegradation. However, recent advances in biotechnology allow the development of strains able to use nitro- and chloro-substituted organic compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy. Current basic research is focused on expanding the range of synthetic chemicals amenable to biodegradation. At the same time, development of appropriate bioreactors and models for scale up are essential for practical application of the technology.

  10. 77 FR 55201 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science... and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92... Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building, 1000...

  11. 76 FR 78908 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of renewal of the Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee. SUMMARY... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee will be renewed for a two- year period...

  12. 76 FR 31319 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy... the Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC). The Federal Advisory Committee..., Office of Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building, 1000 Independence Avenue,...

  13. 78 FR 77111 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy... to the Director, Office of Science on the biological and environmental research programs..., notice is hereby given that the Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee will be...

  14. 75 FR 53685 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Doc No: 2010-21673] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee... announces a meeting of the Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC). The Federal.... Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research,...

  15. [EpiInfo as a research and teaching tool in epidemiology and statistics: strengths and weaknesses].

    PubMed

    Mannocci, Alice; Bontempi, Claudio; Giraldi, Guglielmo; Chiaradia, Giacomina; de Waure, Chiara; Sferrazza, Antonella; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    EpiInfo is a free software developed in 1988 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta to facilitate field epidemiological investigations and statistical analysis. The aim of this study was to assess whether the software represents, in the Italian biomedical field, an effective analytical research tool and a practical and simple epidemiology and biostatistics teaching tool. A questionnaire consisting of 20 multiple-choice and open questions was administered to 300 healthcare workers, including doctors, biologists, nurses, medical students and interns, at the end of a CME course in epidemiology and biostatistics. Sixty-four percent of participants were aged between 26 and 45 years, 52% were women and 73% were unmarried. Results show that women are more likely to utilize EpiInfo in their research activities with respect to men (p = 0.023), as are individuals aged 26-45 years with respect to the older and younger age groups (p = 0.023) and unmarried participants with respect to those married (p = 0.010). Thirty-one percent of respondents consider EpiInfo to be more than adequate for analysis of their research data and 52% consider it to be sufficiently so. The inclusion of an EpiInfo course in statistics and epidemiology modules facilitates the understanding of theoretical concepts and allows researchers to more easily perform some of the clinical/epidemiological research activities.

  16. Recent Progress in Alzheimer’s Disease Research, Part 2: Genetics and Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Morgan; Lee, Brenda Y.; Hane, Francis T.

    2017-01-01

    This is the second part of a three-part review series reviewing the most important advances in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) research since 2010. This review covers the latest research on genetics and epidemiology. Epidemiological and genetic studies are revealing important insights into the etiology of, and factors that contribute to AD, as well as areas of priority for research into mechanisms and interventions. The widespread adoption of genome wide association studies has provided compelling evidence of the genetic complexity of AD with genes associated with such diverse physiological function as immunity and lipid metabolism being implicated in AD pathogenesis. PMID:28211812

  17. Biomarkers for Uranium Risk Assessment for the Development of the CURE (Concerted Uranium Research in Europe) Molecular Epidemiological Protocol.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Yann; Roy, Laurence; Hornhardt, Sabine; Badie, Christophe; Hall, Janet; Baatout, Sarah; Pernot, Eileen; Tomasek, Ladislav; Laurent, Olivier; Ebrahimian, Teni; Ibanez, Chrystelle; Grison, Stephane; Kabacik, Sylwia; Laurier, Dominique; Gomolka, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Despite substantial experimental and epidemiological research, there is limited knowledge of the uranium-induce health effects after chronic low-dose exposures in humans. Biological markers can objectively characterize pathological processes or environmental responses to uranium and confounding agents. The integration of such biological markers into a molecular epidemiological study would be a useful approach to improve and refine estimations of uranium-induced health risks. To initiate such a study, Concerted Uranium Research in Europe (CURE) was established, and involves biologists, epidemiologists and dosimetrists. The aims of the biological work package of CURE were: 1. To identify biomarkers and biological specimens relevant to uranium exposure; 2. To define standard operating procedures (SOPs); and 3. To set up a common protocol (logistic, questionnaire, ethical aspects) to perform a large-scale molecular epidemiologic study in uranium-exposed cohorts. An intensive literature review was performed and led to the identification of biomarkers related to: 1. retention organs (lungs, kidneys and bone); 2. other systems/organs with suspected effects (cardiovascular system, central nervous system and lympho-hematopoietic system); 3. target molecules (DNA damage, genomic instability); and 4. high-throughput methods for the identification of new biomarkers. To obtain high-quality biological materials, SOPs were established for the sampling and storage of different biospecimens. A questionnaire was developed to assess potential confounding factors. The proposed strategy can be adapted to other internal exposures and should improve the characterization of the biological and health effects that are relevant for risk assessment.

  18. Atmospheric, climatic and environmental research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broecker, W. S.; Fung, I.

    1986-01-01

    Research conducted during the past year in the climate and atmospheric modeling programs was focused on the development of appropriate atmospheric and upper ocean models, and preliminary applications of these models. Prinicpal models are a one-dimensional radiative-convection model, a three-dimensional global climate model, and an upper ocean model. Principal application is the study of the impact of CO2, aerosols and the solar constant on climate. Also the performance of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project cloud detection algorithm was evaluated, concentrating initially on its application to geosynchronous data, with an eventual switch of the developed methodologies to data from polar orbiting satellites. In the process, a number of improvements were made, in particular: an improved technique for tracking small scale day to day variability in clear sky continental temperatures; a number of techniques for the statistical assessment of cloud detection uncertainties due to cloud types which are spatially and temporally invariant; and a method used to detect those cloudy regions which have long term spatial and temporal stability.

  19. Improving exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology: Application of spatio-temporal visualization tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meliker, Jaymie R.; Slotnick, Melissa J.; Avruskin, Gillian A.; Kaufmann, Andrew; Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Nriagu, Jerome O.

    2005-05-01

    A thorough assessment of human exposure to environmental agents should incorporate mobility patterns and temporal changes in human behaviors and concentrations of contaminants; yet the temporal dimension is often under-emphasized in exposure assessment endeavors, due in part to insufficient tools for visualizing and examining temporal datasets. Spatio-temporal visualization tools are valuable for integrating a temporal component, thus allowing for examination of continuous exposure histories in environmental epidemiologic investigations. An application of these tools to a bladder cancer case-control study in Michigan illustrates continuous exposure life-lines and maps that display smooth, continuous changes over time. Preliminary results suggest increased risk of bladder cancer from combined exposure to arsenic in drinking water (>25 μg/day) and heavy smoking (>30 cigarettes/day) in the 1970s and 1980s, and a possible cancer cluster around automotive, paint, and organic chemical industries in the early 1970s. These tools have broad application for examining spatially- and temporally-specific relationships between exposures to environmental risk factors and disease.

  20. Epidemiological approaches in the investigation of environmental causes of cancer: the case of dioxins and water disinfection by-products.

    PubMed

    Kogevinas, Manolis

    2011-04-05

    I will refer in this paper to difficulties in research in environmental causes of cancer using as examples research on dioxins and on drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) that have created considerable controversy in the scientific and wider community. Dioxins are highly toxic chemicals that are animal carcinogens. For many years, evaluation of the carcinogenicity of dioxins in humans was based on case-control or registry based studies. The development of methods to measure dioxins in blood indicated that these studies suffered from extreme exposure misclassification. The conduct of large cohort studies of workers with widely contrasted exposures together with the use of biomarkers and models for exposure assessment, led to convincing evidence on the carcinogenicity of dioxins in humans. The high toxicity of a few dioxin congeners, the availability of a scheme to characterize the toxicity of a mixture of dioxins and related compounds and the long half-life of these compounds facilitated epidemiological research. Contrary to dioxins, trihalomethanes (THMs) and most of the hundreds of DBPs in drinking water are chemicals of low toxicity. For more than 15 years, the main evidence on the carcinogenicity of DBPs was through ecological or death certificate studies. More recent studies based on individual assessment confirmed increases in bladder cancer risk. However even those studies ignored the toxicological evidence on the importance of routes of exposure to DBPs other than ingestion and, probably, underestimated the risk. Persistence of weak study designs together with delays in advanced exposure assessment models led to delays in confirming early evidence on the carcinogenicity of DBPs. The evaluation of only a few chemicals when exposure is to a complex mixture remains a major problem in exposure assessment for DBPs. The success of epidemiological studies in identifying increased risks lies primarily on the wide contrast of exposure to DBPs in the general

  1. Epidemiological approaches in the investigation of environmental causes of cancer: the case of dioxins and water disinfection by-products

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    I will refer in this paper to difficulties in research in environmental causes of cancer using as examples research on dioxins and on drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) that have created considerable controversy in the scientific and wider community. Dioxins are highly toxic chemicals that are animal carcinogens. For many years, evaluation of the carcinogenicity of dioxins in humans was based on case-control or registry based studies. The development of methods to measure dioxins in blood indicated that these studies suffered from extreme exposure misclassification. The conduct of large cohort studies of workers with widely contrasted exposures together with the use of biomarkers and models for exposure assessment, led to convincing evidence on the carcinogenicity of dioxins in humans. The high toxicity of a few dioxin congeners, the availability of a scheme to characterize the toxicity of a mixture of dioxins and related compounds and the long half-life of these compounds facilitated epidemiological research. Contrary to dioxins, trihalomethanes (THMs) and most of the hundreds of DBPs in drinking water are chemicals of low toxicity. For more than 15 years, the main evidence on the carcinogenicity of DBPs was through ecological or death certificate studies. More recent studies based on individual assessment confirmed increases in bladder cancer risk. However even those studies ignored the toxicological evidence on the importance of routes of exposure to DBPs other than ingestion and, probably, underestimated the risk. Persistence of weak study designs together with delays in advanced exposure assessment models led to delays in confirming early evidence on the carcinogenicity of DBPs. The evaluation of only a few chemicals when exposure is to a complex mixture remains a major problem in exposure assessment for DBPs. The success of epidemiological studies in identifying increased risks lies primarily on the wide contrast of exposure to DBPs in the general

  2. Locating the Environmental in Environmental Education Research: "What" Research--And Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of "locating the environmental in environmental education research" and does so with particular reference to previously published work by St Maurice (1996), Stables (2001) and Kaufman et al. (2001). At one level these three extracts are about the same thing: that is, they are about environmental education…

  3. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Danielle J; Larson, Theodore C; Pfau, Jean C; Gavett, Stephen H; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-08-01

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials).

  4. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Theodore C.; Pfau, Jean C.; Gavett, Stephen H.; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Summary Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials). PMID:26230287

  5. [Cumulative radiation dosage and epidemiological research in the Chernobyl region].

    PubMed

    Vorob'ev, A I; Domracheva, E V; Klevezal', G A; Meshcheriakova, L M; Moiseeva, T N; Osechinskiĭ, I V; Serezhenkov, V A; Shklovskiĭ-Kordi, N E

    1994-01-01

    Individual biological dosimetry covering chromosomal analysis and electronic paramagnetic resonance spectrometry has been performed in 1300 subjects exposed to ionizing radiation after the Chernobyl accident. Cumulative radiation doses above 40 ImC were registered in 5%, about 100 ImC in 1% of the examinees. In 1% of cytogenetic investigations there appeared multiaberrant cells indicative of hot particle incorporation. Regional epidemiologists do not record changes in the incidence of hematological diseases. This may be explained by a small percent of the dose carriers, rare occurrence of hematological disorders and the time of radiation-induced oncogenic effects. The above representative group exposed to definite radiation doses may serve the subject of epidemiological surveys on the role of low-dose and low-rate radiation in pathogenesis of human diseases.

  6. Native Americans: Where in Environmental Justice Research?

    PubMed Central

    Vickery, Jamie; Hunter, Lori M.

    2016-01-01

    While the last two decades have seen important theoretical, empirical, and policy advancements in environmental justice generally, much remains to be done regarding Native Americans. Unique political and cultural dynamics shape the study and pursuit of environmental justice (EJ) in Native American communities. This review summarizes Native American EJ issues based on a cross-disciplinary search of over 60 publications. In so doing, we discuss the unique nature of Native American EJ in terms of conducting research and working toward reducing the continuation of historical trauma associated with environmental ills, the types of strategies used in Native American EJ research, and issues of Native American climate justice. We conclude with discussion of remaining knowledge gaps and future research needs. PMID:27103758

  7. Native Americans: Where in Environmental Justice Research?

    PubMed

    Vickery, Jamie; Hunter, Lori M

    While the last two decades have seen important theoretical, empirical, and policy advancements in environmental justice generally, much remains to be done regarding Native Americans. Unique political and cultural dynamics shape the study and pursuit of environmental justice (EJ) in Native American communities. This review summarizes Native American EJ issues based on a cross-disciplinary search of over 60 publications. In so doing, we discuss the unique nature of Native American EJ in terms of conducting research and working toward reducing the continuation of historical trauma associated with environmental ills, the types of strategies used in Native American EJ research, and issues of Native American climate justice. We conclude with discussion of remaining knowledge gaps and future research needs.

  8. A pilot study: research poster presentations as an educational tool for undergraduate epidemiology students

    PubMed Central

    Deonandan, Raywat; Gomes, James; Lavigne, Eric; Dinh, Thy; Blanchard, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Students in a fourth year epidemiology course were surveyed after participating in a formal Science Research Day in which they presented original research, in poster form, to be judged by scientists from the community. Of 276 participating students, 80 (29%) responded to the study survey. As a result, 19% of respondents were more likely to pursue a career in science, and 27.5% were more likely to pursue a career in epidemiology. Only one respondent reported being less likely to pursue a science career, while seven were less likely to pursue epidemiology. A majority of respondents felt that the poster experience was on par with, or superior to, a comparable research paper, in terms of both educational appeal and enjoyment. Mandatory, formal poster presentations are an innovative format for teaching advanced health sciences, and may more accurately reflect the realities of a science career than do more traditional educational formats. PMID:24101888

  9. Health and Environmental Research. Summary of Accomplishments

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1984-04-01

    This is a short account of a 40-year-old health and environmental research program performed in national laboratories, universities, and research institutes. Under the sponsorship of the federal agencies that were consecutively responsible for the national energy mission, this research program has contributed to the understanding of the human health and environmental effects of emergining energy technologies. In so doing, it has also evolved several nuclear techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of human ills. The form of this presentation is through examples of significant, tangible accomplishments in each of these areas at certain times to illustrate the role and impact of the research program. The narrative of this research program concludes with a perspective of its past and a prospectus on its future.

  10. Health and environmental research. Summary of accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    This is a short account of a 40-year-old health and environmental research program performed in national laboratories, universities, and research institutes. Under the sponsorship of the federal agencies that were consecutively responsible for the national energy mission, this research program has contributed to the understanding of the human health and environmental effects of emergining energy technologies. In so doing, it has also evolved several nuclear techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of human ills. The form of this presentation is through examples of significant, tangible accomplishments in each of these areas at certain times to illustrate the role and impact of the research program. The narrative of this research program concludes with a perspective of its past and a prospectus on its future.

  11. Environmental Research Program. 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of the Environmental Research Program is to enhance the understanding of, and mitigate the effects of pollutants on health, ecological systems, global and regional climate, and air quality. The program is multi-disciplinary and includes fundamental research and development in efficient and environmentally-benign combustion, pollutant abatement and destruction, and novel methods of detection and analysis of criteria and non-criteria pollutants. This diverse group conducts investigations in combustion, atmospheric and marine processes, flue-gas chemistry, and ecological systems.

  12. A Proposal for Assessing Study Quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals...

  13. THE NATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF RECREATIONAL WATERS: RESULTS FROM THE FIRST SUMMER OF FULL-SCALE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Waters: Results from the first summer of full-scale studies. Timothy J. Wade, Rebecca L. Calderon, Elizabeth Sams, Kristen Brenner, Michael Beach, Ann H. Williams, Al Dufour.

    Abstract

    Introduc...

  14. Cultural psychiatry and epidemiology: researching the means, methods and meanings.

    PubMed

    Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2011-04-01

    This article describes my developing interest in cultural psychiatry. This is both a challenging and yet a privileged opportunity to reflect on my research and clinical work over the last 25 years. I describe cultural and interpersonal influences on my thinking and interests, and the development of my research career moving from health services research of specialist services, to primary care research to public mental health research. Specifically, social and cultural influences on risks and responses to mental illness are discussed, as are pathways to care, the recognition of mental illness, and public health and cultural psychiatry research.

  15. How to Build a Standardized Country-Specific Environmental Food Database for Nutritional Epidemiology Studies.

    PubMed

    Bertoluci, Gwenola; Masset, Gabriel; Gomy, Catherine; Mottet, Julien; Darmon, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of standardized country-specific environmental data to combine with nutritional and dietary data for assessing the environmental impact of individual diets in epidemiology surveys, which are consequently reliant on environmental food datasets based on values retrieved from a heterogeneous literature. The aim of this study was to compare and assess the relative strengths and limits of a database of food greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) values estimated with a hybrid method combining input/output and LCA approaches, with a dataset of GHGE values retrieved from the literature. France is the geographical perimeter considered in this study, but the methodology could be applied to other countries. The GHGE of 402 foodstuffs, representative of French diet, were estimated using the hybrid method. In parallel, the GHGE of individual foods were collected from existing literature. Median per-food-category GHGE values from the hybrid method and the reviewed literature were found to correlate strongly (Spearman correlation was 0.83), showing similar rankings of food categories. Median values were significantly different for only 5 (out of 29) food categories, including the ruminant meats category for which the hybrid method gave lower estimates than those from existing literature. Analysis also revealed that literature values came from heterogeneous studies that were not always sourced and that were conducted under different LCA modeling hypotheses. In contrast, the hybrid method helps build reliably-sourced, representative national standards for product-based datasets. We anticipate this hybrid method to be a starting point for better environmental impact assessments of diets.

  16. How to Build a Standardized Country-Specific Environmental Food Database for Nutritional Epidemiology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bertoluci, Gwenola; Masset, Gabriel; Gomy, Catherine; Mottet, Julien; Darmon, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of standardized country-specific environmental data to combine with nutritional and dietary data for assessing the environmental impact of individual diets in epidemiology surveys, which are consequently reliant on environmental food datasets based on values retrieved from a heterogeneous literature. The aim of this study was to compare and assess the relative strengths and limits of a database of food greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) values estimated with a hybrid method combining input/output and LCA approaches, with a dataset of GHGE values retrieved from the literature. France is the geographical perimeter considered in this study, but the methodology could be applied to other countries. The GHGE of 402 foodstuffs, representative of French diet, were estimated using the hybrid method. In parallel, the GHGE of individual foods were collected from existing literature. Median per-food-category GHGE values from the hybrid method and the reviewed literature were found to correlate strongly (Spearman correlation was 0.83), showing similar rankings of food categories. Median values were significantly different for only 5 (out of 29) food categories, including the ruminant meats category for which the hybrid method gave lower estimates than those from existing literature. Analysis also revealed that literature values came from heterogeneous studies that were not always sourced and that were conducted under different LCA modeling hypotheses. In contrast, the hybrid method helps build reliably-sourced, representative national standards for product-based datasets. We anticipate this hybrid method to be a starting point for better environmental impact assessments of diets. PMID:27054565

  17. Environmental practices for biomedical research facilities.

    PubMed Central

    Medlin, E L; Grupenhoff, J T

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment, the Facilities Committee focused its work on the development of best environmental practices at biomedical research facilities at the university and independent research facility level as well as consideration of potential involvement of for-profit companies and government agencies. The designation "facilities" includes all related buildings and grounds, "green auditing" of buildings and programs, purchasing of furnishings and sources, energy efficiency, and engineering services (lighting, heating, air conditioning), among other activities. The committee made a number of recommendations, including development of a national council for environmental stewardship in biomedical research, development of a system of green auditing of such research facilities, and creation of programs for sustainable building and use. In addition, the committee recommended extension of education and training programs for environmental stewardship, in cooperation with facilities managers, for all research administrators and researchers. These programs would focus especially on graduate fellows and other students, as well as on science labs at levels K--12. PMID:11121360

  18. SURVEY OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE AND HEALTH OUTCOMES AT BEACHES FOR THE NATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL A ND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF RECREATIONAL (NEEAR) WATER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Objective
    In the of summer 2004, the US EPA and the CDC conducted the National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study at Silver Beach and Washington Park Beach. This full-scale study is collecting the data necessary fo...

  19. Environmental research for facilitating OTEC commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    In August, 1980, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) was given the responsibility, per the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-320), to establish a legal regime that would foster the commercialization of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) in a manner that protects the marine environment. NOAA developed both an EIS and an environmental effects research plan in accord with the requirements of the Act. These efforts, coupled with an assessment of past OTEC environmental research, highlight the following topics as being of high research priority: direct licensing requirements, and effects on fisheries. Cost-effective and timely research on these topics will be supportive of OTEC commercialization.

  20. COOPEUS - connecting research infrastructures in environmental sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koop-Jakobsen, Ketil; Waldmann, Christoph; Huber, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The COOPEUS project was initiated in 2012 bringing together 10 research infrastructures (RIs) in environmental sciences from the EU and US in order to improve the discovery, access, and use of environmental information and data across scientific disciplines and across geographical borders. The COOPEUS mission is to facilitate readily accessible research infrastructure data to advance our understanding of Earth systems through an international community-driven effort, by: Bringing together both user communities and top-down directives to address evolving societal and scientific needs; Removing technical, scientific, cultural and geopolitical barriers for data use; and Coordinating the flow, integrity and preservation of information. A survey of data availability was conducted among the COOPEUS research infrastructures for the purpose of discovering impediments for open international and cross-disciplinary sharing of environmental data. The survey showed that the majority of data offered by the COOPEUS research infrastructures is available via the internet (>90%), but the accessibility to these data differ significantly among research infrastructures; only 45% offer open access on their data, whereas the remaining infrastructures offer restricted access e.g. do not release raw data or sensible data, demand user registration or require permission prior to release of data. These rules and regulations are often installed as a form of standard practice, whereas formal data policies are lacking in 40% of the infrastructures, primarily in the EU. In order to improve this situation COOPEUS has installed a common data-sharing policy, which is agreed upon by all the COOPEUS research infrastructures. To investigate the existing opportunities for improving interoperability among environmental research infrastructures, COOPEUS explored the opportunities with the GEOSS common infrastructure (GCI) by holding a hands-on workshop. Through exercises directly registering resources

  1. Landscape-epidemiological study design to investigate an environmentally based disease.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Joseph A; O'rourke, Mary Kay; Lebowitz, Michael D; Harris, Robin B

    2011-01-01

    Cost-effective approaches for identifying and enrolling subjects in community-based epidemiological studies face many challenges. Additional challenges arise when a neighborhood scale of analysis is required to distinguish between individual- and group-level risk factors with strong environmental determinants. A stratified, two-stage, cross-sectional, address-based telephone survey of Greater Tucson, Arizona, was conducted in 2002-2003. Subjects were recruited from direct marketing data at neighborhood resolution using a geographic information system (GIS). Three geomorphic strata were divided into two demographic units. Households were randomly selected within census block groups, selected using the probability proportional to size technique. Purchased direct marketing lists represented 45.2% of Census 2000 households in the surveyed block groups. Survey design effect (1.6) on coccidioidomycosis prevalence (88 per 100,000 per year) was substantially reduced in four of the six strata (0.3-0.9). Race-ethnicity was more robust than age and gender to compensate for significant selection bias using poststratification. Clustered, address-based telephone surveys provide a cost-effective, valid method for recruiting populations from address-based lists using a GIS to design surveys and population survey statistical methods for analysis. Landscape ecology provides effective methods for identifying scales of analysis and units for stratification that will improve sampling efficiency when environmental variables of interest are strong predictors.

  2. Banking of human tissue for biomonitoring and exposure assessment: utility for environmental epidemiology and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Goldman, L R; Anton-Culver, H; Kharrazi, M; Blake, E

    1995-04-01

    Human tissue banking could provide a tool to address a number of public health concerns. We can potentially use it to monitor trends in human exposures, serve as an early warning system for new environmental exposures, assess low-level exposures around hazardous waste and other point sources of pollutants, evaluate the effectiveness of regulatory programs, and study etiologies of diseases (e.g., childhood cancer and birth defects) that are likely to be related to the environment. This article discusses opportunities to establish human tissue banks in connection with pre-existing public health surveillance programs for cancer and adverse reproductive outcomes. This is a cost-effective way to conduct surveillance and enhances the ability to carry out epidemiologic studies. The article also discusses ethical issues that are particularly important for public health practice. One is the issue of risk communication and the need to explain risks in a way that provides people with the information they need to determine appropriate action on the individual and community levels. Second is the issue of environmental justice. We recommend early involvement of communities that are likely to be involved in tissue-banking projects and full explanation of individual and group social risks from their participation.

  3. Epidemiology of sudden cardiac death: clinical and research implications.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Sumeet S; Reinier, Kyndaron; Teodorescu, Carmen; Evanado, Audrey; Kehr, Elizabeth; Al Samara, Mershed; Mariani, Ronald; Gunson, Karen; Jui, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The current annual incidence of sudden cardiac death in the United States is likely to be in the range of 180,000 to 250,000 per year. Coinciding with the decreased mortality from coronary artery disease, there is evidence pointing toward a significant decrease in rates of sudden cardiac death in the United States during the second half of the 20th century. However, the alarming rise in prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the first decade of the new millennium both in the United States and worldwide, would indicate that this favorable trend is unlikely to persist. We are likely to witness a resurgence of coronary artery disease and heart failure, as a result of which sudden cardiac death will have to be confronted as a shared and indiscriminate, worldwide public health problem. There is also increasing recognition of the fact that discovery of meaningful and relevant risk stratification and prevention methodologies will require careful prospective community-wide analyses, with access to large archives of DNA, serum, and tissue that link with well-phenotyped databases. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge of sudden cardiac death epidemiology. We will discuss the significance and strengths of community-wide evaluations of sudden cardiac death, summarize recent observations from such studies, and finally highlight specific potential predictors that warrant further evaluation as determinants of sudden cardiac death in the general population.

  4. Obesity. An analysis of epidemiological and prognostic research

    PubMed Central

    Wierzejska, Ewelina; Zielińska, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Apart from its medical dimension, the current problem with obesity has acquired social urgency. This serious lifestyle disease has a negative impact on a number of life processes in the body, causing distortions and damaging different structures. It also contributes to clinical complications, lowers the quality of life and reduces life expectancy. Apart from health-related consequences, it can bring such unfavourable results as social, mental and emotional disorders. Material and methods A systematic review of relevant epidemiological studies on obesity in Poland relative to selected countries in Europe and the world over the past 15 years was conducted. Also an attempt was made at forecasting the development of the obesity problem. Results The analysed results demonstrated that the percentage of obese people among the adult population of Poland was on the rise in the period under investigation. Taking into account the estimated growth rate, we can assume that the percentage of obese people in Poland right now might total 23.7% for men and 23.3% for women. If no changes are introduced in this respect, in 2020 we can expect a rise to, respectively, 30.3% and 27.3%, and in 2030 to 37% for men and 31.4% for women. Conclusions The increase in the percentage of obese people among the adult population in Poland is most likely connected with a positive energy balance. In comparison to other European countries Poland has the highest percentage of obese men and women. PMID:25861287

  5. NEESPI focus issues in Environmental Research Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Julian; Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2010-05-01

    In 2007 and 2009 Environmental Research Letters published focus issues (edited by Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja) made up of work carried out by NEESPI participants. Here, we present the content of those focus issues as an invaluable resource for researchers working in the NEESPI study area. The first of the two issues, published in 2007 with title 'Northern Hemisphere High Latitude Climate and Environmental Change', presents a diverse collection of articles that are assembled into five groups devoted to studies of climate and hydrology, land cover and land use, the biogeochemical cycle and its feedbacks, the cryosphere, and human dimensions. The second issue, published in 2009, with title 'Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia' presents diverse, assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia.

  6. Hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-29

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently evaluating hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation technologies in existence and under development to determine applicability to remediation needs of the DOE facilities under the Albuquerque Operations Office and to determine areas of research need. To assist LANL is this effort, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) conducted an assessment of technologies and monitoring methods that have been demonstrated or are under development. The focus of this assessment is to: (1) identify existing technologies for hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation of old waste sites; (2) identify technologies under development and the status of the technology; (3) assess new technologies that need development to provide adequate hazardous waste treatment and remedial action technologies for DOD and DOE sites; and (4) identify hazardous waste and remediation problems for environmental research and development. There are currently numerous research and development activities underway nationwide relating to environmental contaminants and the remediation of waste sites. To perform this effort, SAIC evaluated current technologies and monitoring methods development programs in EPA, DOD, and DOE, as these are the primary agencies through which developmental methods are being demonstrated. This report presents this evaluation and provides recommendations as to pertinent research needs or activities to address waste site contamination problems. The review and assessment have been conducted at a programmatic level; site-specific and contaminant-specific evaluations are being performed by LANL staff as a separate, related activity.

  7. Jupiter Environmental Research & Field Studies Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttemeyer, Bob

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development and workings of the Jupiter Environmental Research and Field Studies Academy that focuses on enabling both teachers and students to participate in real-life learning experiences. Discusses qualifications for admittance, curriculum, location, ongoing projects, students, academics, preparation for life, problem solving, and…

  8. [Social inequality and health: Status and prospects of socio-epidemiological research in Germany].

    PubMed

    Lampert, Thomas; Richter, Matthias; Schneider, Sven; Spallek, Jacob; Dragano, Nico

    2016-02-01

    Social differences in morbidity and mortality have always been a central topic in public health research. In recent years, there has been a growing research interest that has clearly resonated with the general public and the political arena as well. This article describes the development and establishment of social epidemiology in Germany and presents the current status of research. In addition, it describes different models for explaining health inequalities. On this basis, selected challenges and prospects of socio-epidemiological research are demonstrated. The reason why the analysis of social differences in morbidity and mortality will continue to be a key task of public health research in the national and international context in the future is also explained.

  9. About the Environmental Public Health Division (EPHD) of EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPHD performs integrated epidemiological, clinical, animal and cellular biological research and statistical modeling to provide the scientific foundation in support of hazard identification, risk assessment, and standard setting.

  10. Workshop on environmental research for actinide elements

    SciTech Connect

    Watters, R.L.

    1981-09-01

    The discussions in this fifth workshop were directed to the advances which have been made in the environmental chemistry of plutonium and to the feasibility and worth of developing environmental transport models which might serve as predictive tools for long term behavior and as guides for future research needs. Two plutonium models of the soil/plant pathway were presented for critique and as examples of possible approaches. Reports of the following four panels are presented in this proceedings: model development; marine; terrestrial and freshwater/groundwater.

  11. A framework to analyse gender bias in epidemiological research

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz‐Cantero, María Teresa; Vives‐Cases, Carmen; Artazcoz, Lucía; Delgado, Ana; del Mar García Calvente, Maria; Miqueo, Consuelo; Montero, Isabel; Ortiz, Rocío; Ronda, Elena; Ruiz, Isabel; Valls, Carme

    2007-01-01

    The design and analysis of research may cause systematic gender dependent errors to be produced in results because of gender insensitivity or androcentrism. Gender bias in research could be defined as a systematically erroneous gender dependent approach related to social construct, which incorrectly regards women and men as similar/different. Most gender bias can be found in the context of discovery (development of hypotheses), but it has also been found in the context of justification (methodological process), which must be improved. In fact, one of the main effects of gender bias in research is partial or incorrect knowledge in the results, which are systematically different from the real values. This paper discusses some forms of conceptual and methodological bias that may affect women's health. It proposes a framework to analyse gender bias in the design and analysis of research carried out on women's and men's health problems, and on specific women's health issues. Using examples, the framework aims to show the different theoretical perspectives in a social or clinical research context where forms of selection, measurement and confounding bias are produced as a result of gender insensitivity. Finally, this paper underlines the importance of re‐examining results so that they may be reinterpreted to produce new gender based knowledge. PMID:18000118

  12. A framework to analyse gender bias in epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Cantero, María Teresa; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Artazcoz, Lucía; Delgado, Ana; García Calvente, Maria Mar; Miqueo, Consuelo; Montero, Isabel; Ortiz, Rocío; Ronda, Elena; Ruiz, Isabel; Valls, Carme

    2007-12-01

    The design and analysis of research may cause systematic gender dependent errors to be produced in results because of gender insensitivity or androcentrism. Gender bias in research could be defined as a systematically erroneous gender dependent approach related to social construct, which incorrectly regards women and men as similar/different. Most gender bias can be found in the context of discovery (development of hypotheses), but it has also been found in the context of justification (methodological process), which must be improved. In fact, one of the main effects of gender bias in research is partial or incorrect knowledge in the results, which are systematically different from the real values. This paper discusses some forms of conceptual and methodological bias that may affect women's health. It proposes a framework to analyse gender bias in the design and analysis of research carried out on women's and men's health problems, and on specific women's health issues. Using examples, the framework aims to show the different theoretical perspectives in a social or clinical research context where forms of selection, measurement and confounding bias are produced as a result of gender insensitivity. Finally, this paper underlines the importance of re-examining results so that they may be reinterpreted to produce new gender based knowledge.

  13. Illicit drug use research in Latin America: epidemiology service use, and HIV.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Magaña, Cristina G; Vega, William A; Alejo-Garcia, Christina; Quintanar, Tania Real; Vazquez, Lucía; Ballesteros, Patricia D; Ibarra, Juan; Rosales, Heidi

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the research status of illicit drug use and its data sources in Latin America, with particular attention to the research that has been produced in the past 15 years in epidemiology of illicit drug use services utilization, and relationship between HIV and drug use. This article complements the series of articles that are published in this same volume which examine drug abuse research (epidemiology, prevention, and treatment) and HIV prevention in Latinos residing in the United States. This review resulted from extensive international and national searches using the following databases: Current Contents Connect, Social and Behavioral Sciences; EBSCO; EMBASE(R) Psychiatry; Evidence Based Medicine (through OVID); Medline, Neurosciences, PsychINFO, Pubmed, BIREME/PAHO/WHO--Virtual Health Library, and SciELO. Papers selected for further review included those published in Spanish, English, and Portuguese in peer-reviewed journals. From the evidence reviewed, it was found that the published research literature is heavily concentrated on descriptive epidemiologic surveys, providing primarily prevalence rates and general information on associated factors. Evidence on patterns of service delivery and HIV prevention and treatment is limited. The cumulative scope of this research clearly indicates variability in quantity and quality of research across Latin American nations and the need for greater uniformity in data collection elements, methodologies, and the creation of international collaborative research networks.

  14. 78 FR 34088 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Office of Biological and Environmental Research News from the Biological Systems Science and Climate and... Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Science talk New Business Public Comment Public... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of...

  15. Toward Rigorous Data Harmonization in Cancer Epidemiology Research: One Approach.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Betsy; Reid, Suzanna; Stelling, Deanna; Warnick, Greg; Thornquist, Mark; Feng, Ziding; Potter, John D

    2015-12-15

    Cancer epidemiologists have a long history of combining data sets in pooled analyses, often harmonizing heterogeneous data from multiple studies into 1 large data set. Although there are useful websites on data harmonization with recommendations and support, there is little research on best practices in data harmonization; each project conducts harmonization according to its own internal standards. The field would be greatly served by charting the process of data harmonization to enhance the quality of the harmonized data. Here, we describe the data harmonization process utilized at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (Seattle, Washington) by the coordinating centers of several research projects. We describe a 6-step harmonization process, including: 1) identification of questions the harmonized data set is required to answer; 2) identification of high-level data concepts to answer those questions; 3) assessment of data availability for data concepts; 4) development of common data elements for each data concept; 5) mapping and transformation of individual data points to common data elements; and 6) quality-control procedures. Our aim here is not to claim a "correct" way of doing data harmonization but to encourage others to describe their processes in order that we can begin to create rigorous approaches. We also propose a research agenda around this issue.

  16. Clinical, epidemiologic, and environmental surveillance for ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in an endemic area of northern California.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Curtis L; Bronson, Lawrence R; Smith, Charles R; Crawford-Miksza, Leta; Yeh, Elaine; Schnurr, David

    2005-06-01

    Two forms of tick-borne leukocytotropic rickettsioses have been recognized in California since the mid-1990s: human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Between 1997 and 1999, two cases of HME and four cases of HGA were diagnosed in residents of southern Humboldt County, California. Environmental followup at case-patients' residences revealed dense populations of Ixodes pacificus ticks, particularly in grassy roadside areas. PCR evidence of A. phagocytophilum was detected in approximately 2.0% of I. pacificus; E. chaffeensis was not detected in any of 625 ticks tested. Serologic antibody to A. phagocytophilum was detected in two of 54 participants in a community epidemiologic study; one of these also had antibody to E. chaffeensis. Over 85% of study participants reported finding a tick on themselves in the preceding 12 mo. Residents of southern Humboldt County are at significant risk of tick bites and should take appropriate prevention measures to avoid infection with rickettsia and other tick-transmitted pathogens.

  17. Mortality patterns of rock and slag mineral wool production workers: an epidemiological and environmental study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, C F; Dement, J M; Ness, G O; Waxweiler, R J

    1982-02-01

    An epidemiological and environmental study of rock and slag mineral wool production workers was undertaken at a plant that has been in operation since the early 1900s. Size characteristics of fibres produced by each process at the plant and data from industrial hygiene surveys were used to evaluate current and past exposures. These data suggest that the average historical airborne fibre concentration probably did not exceed 2.5 fibres/cc before 1935 and 1.0 fibre/cc after 1935. A retrospective cohort mortality study was designed to assess mortality patterns. Detailed occupational histories were compiled on all plant employees. All jobs in the plant were assigned to one of eight potential exposure categories to assess the extent and severity of mineral wool exposure and the effect of other significant exposures on employee mortality. Findings included an increase in the number of deaths due to cancer of the digestive system and non-malignant respiratory disease among workers who had over 20 years' exposure to mineral wool or who had survived 20 years since their first exposure to mineral wool. These findings are not inconsistent with those of Enterline's (Symposium on Biological Effects of Mineral Fibres, Lyon, France, September 1979) in the Thermal Insulation Manufacturers' Association's mortality study of men employed in four mineral wool plants.

  18. An Updated Review of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Clinical, Epidemiological, Environmental, and Public Health Management

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Melissa A.; Fernandez, Mercedes; Backer, Lorraine C.; Dickey, Robert W.; Bernstein, Jeffrey; Schrank, Kathleen; Kibler, Steven; Stephan, Wendy; Gribble, Matthew O.; Bienfang, Paul; Bowen, Robert E.; Degrasse, Stacey; Flores Quintana, Harold A.; Loeffler, Christopher R.; Weisman, Richard; Blythe, Donna; Berdalet, Elisa; Ayyar, Ram; Clarkson-Townsend, Danielle; Swajian, Karen; Benner, Ronald; Brewer, Tom; Fleming, Lora E.

    2017-01-01

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world. It causes substantial human health, social, and economic impacts. The illness produces a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms, which may last days, weeks, or months. This paper is a general review of CFP including the human health effects of exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs), diagnosis, human pathophysiology of CFP, treatment, detection of CTXs in fish, epidemiology of the illness, global dimensions, prevention, future directions, and recommendations for clinicians and patients. It updates and expands upon the previous review of CFP published by Friedman et al. (2008) and addresses new insights and relevant emerging global themes such as climate and environmental change, international market issues, and socioeconomic impacts of CFP. It also provides a proposed universal case definition for CFP designed to account for the variability in symptom presentation across different geographic regions. Information that is important but unchanged since the previous review has been reiterated. This article is intended for a broad audience, including resource and fishery managers, commercial and recreational fishers, public health officials, medical professionals, and other interested parties. PMID:28335428

  19. Environmental drivers of West Nile fever epidemiology in Europe and Western Asia--a review.

    PubMed

    Paz, Shlomit; Semenza, Jan C

    2013-08-09

    Abiotic and biotic conditions are both important determinants of West Nile Fever (WNF) epidemiology. Ambient temperature plays an important role in the growth rates of vector populations, the interval between blood meals, viral replication rates and transmission of West Nile Virus (WNV). The contribution of precipitation is more complex and less well understood. In this paper we discuss impacts of climatic parameters (temperature, relative humidity, precipitation) and other environmental drivers (such as bird migration, land use) on WNV transmission in Europe. WNV recently became established in southeastern Europe, with a large outbreak in the summer of 2010 and recurrent outbreaks in 2011 and 2012. Abundant competent mosquito vectors, bridge vectors, infected (viremic) migrating and local (amplifying) birds are all important characteristics of WNV transmission. In addition, certain key climatic factors, such as increased ambient temperatures, and by extension climate change, may also favor WNF transmission, and they should be taken into account when evaluating the risk of disease spread in the coming years. Monitoring epidemic precursors of WNF, such as significant temperature deviations in high risk areas, could be used to trigger vector control programs and public education campaigns.

  20. Mortality patterns of rock and slag mineral wool production workers: an epidemiological and environmental study.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, C F; Dement, J M; Ness, G O; Waxweiler, R J

    1982-01-01

    An epidemiological and environmental study of rock and slag mineral wool production workers was undertaken at a plant that has been in operation since the early 1900s. Size characteristics of fibres produced by each process at the plant and data from industrial hygiene surveys were used to evaluate current and past exposures. These data suggest that the average historical airborne fibre concentration probably did not exceed 2.5 fibres/cc before 1935 and 1.0 fibre/cc after 1935. A retrospective cohort mortality study was designed to assess mortality patterns. Detailed occupational histories were compiled on all plant employees. All jobs in the plant were assigned to one of eight potential exposure categories to assess the extent and severity of mineral wool exposure and the effect of other significant exposures on employee mortality. Findings included an increase in the number of deaths due to cancer of the digestive system and non-malignant respiratory disease among workers who had over 20 years' exposure to mineral wool or who had survived 20 years since their first exposure to mineral wool. These findings are not inconsistent with those of Enterline's (Symposium on Biological Effects of Mineral Fibres, Lyon, France, September 1979) in the Thermal Insulation Manufacturers' Association's mortality study of men employed in four mineral wool plants. PMID:6279138

  1. An Updated Review of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Clinical, Epidemiological, Environmental, and Public Health Management.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Melissa A; Fernandez, Mercedes; Backer, Lorraine C; Dickey, Robert W; Bernstein, Jeffrey; Schrank, Kathleen; Kibler, Steven; Stephan, Wendy; Gribble, Matthew O; Bienfang, Paul; Bowen, Robert E; Degrasse, Stacey; Flores Quintana, Harold A; Loeffler, Christopher R; Weisman, Richard; Blythe, Donna; Berdalet, Elisa; Ayyar, Ram; Clarkson-Townsend, Danielle; Swajian, Karen; Benner, Ronald; Brewer, Tom; Fleming, Lora E

    2017-03-14

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world. It causes substantial human health, social, and economic impacts. The illness produces a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms, which may last days, weeks, or months. This paper is a general review of CFP including the human health effects of exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs), diagnosis, human pathophysiology of CFP, treatment, detection of CTXs in fish, epidemiology of the illness, global dimensions, prevention, future directions, and recommendations for clinicians and patients. It updates and expands upon the previous review of CFP published by Friedman et al. (2008) and addresses new insights and relevant emerging global themes such as climate and environmental change, international market issues, and socioeconomic impacts of CFP. It also provides a proposed universal case definition for CFP designed to account for the variability in symptom presentation across different geographic regions. Information that is important but unchanged since the previous review has been reiterated. This article is intended for a broad audience, including resource and fishery managers, commercial and recreational fishers, public health officials, medical professionals, and other interested parties.

  2. Geometrical assessment of ocular exposure to environmental UV radiation--implications for ophthalmic epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Sliney, D H

    1999-12-01

    Epidemiological studies of the influence of environmental ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in the development of cataract, pterygium, droplet keratopathies and age-related macular degeneration have produced inconsistent findings. The lack of consistent results may be due largely to either incomplete or erroneous estimates of outdoor UV exposure dose. Geometrical factors dominate the determination of UVR exposure of the eye. The degree of lid opening limits ocular exposure to only those rays entering at angles near the horizon. Clouds redistribute overhead UVR to the horizon sky. Mountains, trees and building shield the eye from direct sky exposure. Most ground surfaces reflect little UVR. The result is that the highest UVR exposure occurs during light overcast where the horizon is visible and ground surface reflection is high. By contrast, exposure in a high mountain valley with green foliage results in a much lower ocular dose. Other findings of these studies show that retinal exposure to light and UVR in daylight occurs largely in the superior retina.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of environmental MRSA at an equine teaching hospital: introduction, circulation and maintenance.

    PubMed

    van Balen, Joany; Mowery, Jade; Piraino-Sandoval, Micha; Nava-Hoet, Rocio C; Kohn, Catherine; Hoet, Armando E

    2014-03-19

    The role that environmental contamination might play as a reservoir and a possible source of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for patients and personnel at equine veterinary hospitals remains undefined, as the environment has only been monitored during outbreaks or for short periods. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the monthly presence, distribution, and characteristics of environmental MRSA at an equine hospital, and to establish patterns of contamination over time using molecular epidemiological analyses. For this purpose, a yearlong active MRSA surveillance was performed targeting the environment and incoming patients. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, SCCmec typing, PFGE typing, and dendrographic analysis were used to characterize and analyze these isolates. Overall, 8.6% of the surfaces and 5.8% of the horses sampled were positive for MRSA. The most common contaminated surfaces were: computers, feed-water buckets, and surgery tables-mats. Ninety percent of the isolates carried SCCmec type IV, and 62.0% were classified as USA500. Molecular analysis showed that new pulsotypes were constantly introduced into the hospital throughout the year. However, maintenance of strains in the environment was also observed when unique clones were detected for 2 consecutive months on the same surfaces. Additionally, pulsotypes were circulating throughout several areas and different contact surfaces of the hospital. Based on these results, it is evident that MRSA is constantly introduced and frequently found in the equine hospital environment, and that some contact surfaces could act as "hot-spots". These contaminated surfaces should be actively targeted for strict cleaning and disinfection as well as regular monitoring.

  4. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: research in Austria.

    PubMed

    Lercher, Peter; Botteldooren, Dick; Widmann, Ulrich; Uhrner, Ulrich; Kammeringer, Ewald

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular effects of noise rank second in terms of disability-adjusted life year (DALYs) after annoyance. Although research during the past decade has consolidated the available data base, the most recent meta-analysis still shows wide confidence intervals - indicating imprecise information for public health risk assessment. The alpine area of Tyrol in the Austrian part of the Alps has experienced a massive increase in car and heavy goods traffic (road and rail) during the last 35 years. Over the past 25 years small-, middle-, and large-sized epidemiological health surveys have been conducted - mostly within the framework of environmental health impact assessments. By design, these studies have emphasized a contextually driven environmental stress perspective, where the adverse health effects on account of noise are studied in a broader framework of environmental health, susceptibility, and coping. Furthermore, innovative exposure assessment strategies have been implemented. This article reviews the existing knowledge from these studies over time, and presents the exposure-response curves, with and without interaction assessment, based on standardized re-analyses and discusses it in the light of past and current cardiovascular noise effects research. The findings support relevant moderation by age, gender, and family history in nearly all studies and suggest a strong need for consideration of non-linearity in the exposure-response analyses. On the other hand, air pollution has not played a relevant role as a moderator in the noise-hypertension or the noise-angina pectoris relationship. Finally, different noise modeling procedures can introduce variations in the exposure response curves, with substantive consequences for public health risk assessment of noise exposure.

  5. Attitudes of pregnant women towards participation in perinatal epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Nechuta, Sarah; Mudd, Lanay M; Biery, Lynette; Elliott, Michael R; Lepkowski, James M; Paneth, Nigel

    2009-09-01

    We assessed attitudes of a multi-ethnic sample of pregnant women in regard to participation in five data collection procedures planned for use in the National Children's Study. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in nine prenatal clinics in Kent County, Michigan between April and October 2006. Women were approached in clinic waiting rooms at the time of their first prenatal visit and 311 (91.0%) participated. Women were asked about their willingness to participate, and the smallest amount of compensation required for participation in a 45-min in-person interview, a 15-min telephone interview, maternal and infant medical record abstraction, and an infant physical examination. Percentages for willingness to participate were highest for telephone interview (83%), followed by in-person interview (60%), infant examination (57%), and maternal (56%) and infant medical records (54%). About 34-48% of women reported that no compensation would be required for participation by data procedure. Some women reported unwillingness to participate in telephone (9%) or personal (17%) interview, record abstraction (34%) or infant examination (26%), even with compensation. Education greater than high school was associated with increased odds of refusal for infant physical examination, adjusted odds ratio 2.44 [95% confidence interval 1.41, 4.23]. In conclusion, 9-34% of pregnant women, depending on procedure, stated they would not participate in non-invasive research procedures such as medical record abstraction and infant examination, even with compensation. Resistance to these research procedures was especially noted among more highly educated women. Planning for the National Children's Study will have to address potential resistance to research among pregnant women.

  6. Integrating Geographic Information System (GIS) into Breast Cancer Epidemiologic Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Research 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1-0475 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Daikwon Han, Ph.D. 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...Interactive Spatial Data Analysis. Harlow: Longman. This work was supported in part by NIH Grants IROI 20. Timander LM, McLafferty S (1998) Breast cancer in... Grants DAMD17-03-1-0475, DAMD17-00-1- 21. Rogerson PA, Han D (2002) The effects of migration on the 0417. detection of geographic differences in disease

  7. “White Box” Epidemiology and the Social Neuroscience of Health Behaviors: The Environmental Affordances Model

    PubMed Central

    Mezuk, Briana; Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Hudson, Darrell; Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Rafferty, Jane A.; Lee, Hedwig; Jackson, James S.

    2013-01-01

    Crucial advances have been made in our knowledge of the social determinants of health and health behaviors. Existing research on health disparities, however, generally fails to address a known paradox in the literature: While blacks have higher risk of medical morbidity relative to non-Hispanic whites, blacks have lower rates of common stress-related forms of psychopathology such as major depression and anxiety disorders. In this article we propose a new theoretical approach, the Environmental Affordances Model, as an integrative framework for the origins of both physical and mental health disparities. We highlight early empirical support and a growing body of experimental animal and human research on self-regulatory health behaviors and stress coping that is consistent with the proposed framework. We conclude that transdisciplinary approaches, such as the Environmental Affordances Model, are needed to understand the origins of group-based disparities to implement effective solutions to racial and ethnic group inequalities in physical and mental health. PMID:24224131

  8. 76 FR 8357 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy; Office of Science... News from the Biological Systems Science and Climate and Environmental Sciences Divisions Discussions on the Climate and Environmental Sciences Division Committee of Visitors Response and the...

  9. Epidemiologic Features and Environmental Risk Factors of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome, Xinyang, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kun; Cui, Ning; Fang, Li-Qun; Wang, Bing-Jun; Lu, Qing-Bin; Peng, Wei; Li, Hao; Wang, Li-Yuan; Liang, Song; Wang, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Yao-Yun; Zhuang, Lu; Yang, Hong; Gray, Gregory C.; de Vlas, Sake J.; Liu, Wei; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease discovered in rural areas of Central China in 2009, caused by a novel bunyavirus, SFTS virus (SFTSV). The disease usually presents as fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytopenia, with case-fatality rates ranging from 2.5% to 30%. Haemaphysalis longicornis was suspected to be the most likely vector of SFTSV. By the end of 2012, the disease had expanded to 13 provinces of China. SFTS patients have been reported in Japan and South Korea, and a disease similar to SFTS has been reported in the United States. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized the epidemiologic features of 504 confirmed SFTS cases in Xinyang Region, the most severely SFTS-afflicted region in China from 2011 to 2012, and assessed the environmental risk factors. All cases occurred during March to November, with the epidemic peaking from May to July. The patients' ages ranged from 7 to 87 years (median 61 years), and the annual incidence increased with age (χ2 test for trend, P<0.001). The female-to-male ratio of cases was 1.58, and 97.0% of the cases were farmers who resided in the southern and western parts of the region. The Poisson regression analysis revealed that the spatial variations of SFTS incidence were significantly associated with the shrub, forest, and rain-fed cropland areas. Conclusions The distribution of SFTS showed highly significant temporal and spatial heterogeneity in Xinyang Region, with the majority of SFTS cases being elderly farmers who resided in the southern and western parts of the region, mostly acquiring infection between May and July when H. longicornis is highly active. The shrub, rain-fed, and rain-fed cropland areas were associated with high risk for this disease. PMID:24810269

  10. Environmental research program. 1995 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of the Environmental Research Program is to enhance the understanding of, and mitigate the effects of pollutants on health, ecological systems, global and regional climate, and air quality. The program is multidisciplinary and includes fundamental research and development in efficient and environmentally benign combustion, pollutant abatement and destruction, and novel methods of detection and analysis of criteria and noncriteria pollutants. This diverse group conducts investigations in combustion, atmospheric and marine processes, flue-gas chemistry, and ecological systems. Combustion chemistry research emphasizes modeling at microscopic and macroscopic scales. At the microscopic scale, functional sensitivity analysis is used to explore the nature of the potential-to-dynamics relationships for reacting systems. Rate coefficients are estimated using quantum dynamics and path integral approaches. At the macroscopic level, combustion processes are modelled using chemical mechanisms at the appropriate level of detail dictated by the requirements of predicting particular aspects of combustion behavior. Parallel computing has facilitated the efforts to use detailed chemistry in models of turbulent reacting flow to predict minor species concentrations.

  11. Perineal talc use and ovarian cancer risk: a case study of scientific standards in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Huncharek, Michael; Muscat, Joshua

    2011-11-01

    A number of observational studies (largely case-control) conducted over the last two decades suggest an association between use of talc powders on the female perineum and increased risk of ovarian cancer. A subset of these reports shows a roughly 30-60% increased risk of ovarian cancer associated with perineal talc exposure. A number of researchers partly base their conclusions of an association on the '…chemical relationship between talc and asbestos', the latter substance being a known human carcinogen. Although separating causal from noncausal explanations for an observed statistical association is a difficult process, there currently exist commonly accepted guidelines by which such inferences can be made. These scientific approaches include consideration of the strength of the association, the consistency of the finding across studies, and existence of a biological explanation of the observed phenomenon, among others. When applied to the context of a proposed talc/ovarian cancer association, we conclude that the weak statistical associations observed in a number of epidemiological studies do not support a causal association.

  12. Conceptualization and measurement of environmental exposure in epidemiology: accounting for activity space related to daily mobility.

    PubMed

    Perchoux, Camille; Chaix, Basile; Cummins, Steven; Kestens, Yan

    2013-05-01

    A considerable body of literature has investigated how environmental exposures affect health through various pathways. These studies have generally adopted a common approach to define environmental exposures, focusing on the local residential environment, using census tracts or postcodes to delimit exposures. However, use of such administrative units may not be appropriate to evaluate contextual effets on health because they are generally not a 'true' representation of the environments to which individuals are exposed. Recent work has suggested that advances may be made if an activity-space approach is adopted. The present paper investigates how various disciplines may contribute to the refinement of the concept of activity space for use in health research. In particular we draw on seminal work in time geography, which provides a framework to describe individual behavior in space and time, and can help the conceptualization of activity space. In addition we review work in environmental psychology and social networks research, which provides insights on how people and places interact and offers new theories for improving the spatial definition of contextual exposures.

  13. Mental illness and reduction of gun violence and suicide: bringing epidemiologic research to policy

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jeffrey W.; McGinty, E. Elizabeth; Fazel, Seena; Mays, Vickie M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This article describes epidemiologic evidence concerning risk of gun violence and suicide linked to psychiatric disorders, in contrast to media-fueled public perceptions of the dangerousness of mentally ill individuals, and evaluates effectiveness of policies and laws designed to prevent firearms injury and mortality associated with serious mental illnesses and substance use disorders. Methods Research concerning public attitudes toward persons with mental illness is reviewed and juxtaposed with evidence from benchmark epidemiologic and clinical studies of violence and mental illness and of the accuracy of psychiatrists' risk assessments. Selected policies and laws designed to reduce gun violence in relation to mental illness are critically evaluated; evidence-based policy recommendations are presented. Results Media accounts of mass shootings by disturbed individuals galvanize public attention and reinforce popular belief that mental illness often results in violence. Epidemiologic studies show that the large majority of people with serious mental illnesses are never violent. However, mental illness is strongly associated with increased risk of suicide, which accounts for over half of US firearms–related fatalities. Conclusions Policymaking at the interface of gun violence prevention and mental illness should be based on epidemiologic data concerning risk to improve the effectiveness, feasibility, and fairness of policy initiatives. PMID:24861430

  14. A novel framework for assessing metadata quality in epidemiological and public health research settings.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Christiana; Denaxas, Spiros

    2016-01-01

    Metadata are critical in epidemiological and public health research. However, a lack of biomedical metadata quality frameworks and limited awareness of the implications of poor quality metadata renders data analyses problematic. In this study, we created and evaluated a novel framework to assess metadata quality of epidemiological and public health research datasets. We performed a literature review and surveyed stakeholders to enhance our understanding of biomedical metadata quality assessment. The review identified 11 studies and nine quality dimensions; none of which were specifically aimed at biomedical metadata. 96 individuals completed the survey; of those who submitted data, most only assessed metadata quality sometimes, and eight did not at all. Our framework has four sections: a) general information; b) tools and technologies; c) usability; and d) management and curation. We evaluated the framework using three test cases and sought expert feedback. The framework can assess biomedical metadata quality systematically and robustly.

  15. A novel framework for assessing metadata quality in epidemiological and public health research settings

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Christiana; Denaxas, Spiros

    2016-01-01

    Metadata are critical in epidemiological and public health research. However, a lack of biomedical metadata quality frameworks and limited awareness of the implications of poor quality metadata renders data analyses problematic. In this study, we created and evaluated a novel framework to assess metadata quality of epidemiological and public health research datasets. We performed a literature review and surveyed stakeholders to enhance our understanding of biomedical metadata quality assessment. The review identified 11 studies and nine quality dimensions; none of which were specifically aimed at biomedical metadata. 96 individuals completed the survey; of those who submitted data, most only assessed metadata quality sometimes, and eight did not at all. Our framework has four sections: a) general information; b) tools and technologies; c) usability; and d) management and curation. We evaluated the framework using three test cases and sought expert feedback. The framework can assess biomedical metadata quality systematically and robustly. PMID:27570670

  16. Environmental forensic research for emerging contaminants in complex environmental matrices

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has established criteria to address many of the significant traditional pollutants demonstrated to have adverse affects on environmental quality. However, new chemicals are being created almost daily, and these new chemicals, as ...

  17. Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-positive patients in Spain: epidemiology and environmental risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Alvaro-Meca, Alejandro; Palomares-Sancho, Ines; Diaz, Asuncion; Resino, Rosa; De Miguel, Angel Gil; Resino, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Specific environmental factors may play a role in the development of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in HIV-positive patients. The aim of this study was to estimate the PCP incidence and mortality in hospitalized HIV-positive patients in Spain during the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era (1997 to 2011), as well as to analyze the climatological factors and air pollution levels in relation to hospital admissions and deaths. Methods We carried out a retrospective study. Data were collected from the National Hospital Discharge Database and the State Meteorological Agency of Spain. A case-crossover analysis was applied to identify environmental risk factors related to hospitalizations and deaths. For each patient, climatic factors and pollution levels were assigned based on readings from the nearest meteorological station to his or her postal code. Results There were 13,139 new PCP diagnoses and 1754 deaths in hospitalized HIV-positive patients from 1997 to 2011. The PCP incidence (events per 1000 person-years) dropped from 11.6 in 1997 to 2000, to 5.4 in 2004 to 2011 (p<0.001). The mortality (events per 10,000 person-years) also decreased from 14.3 in 1997 to 2000, to 7.5 in 2004 to 2011 (p<0.001). Most hospital admissions and deaths occurred in the winter season and the fewest occurred in the summer, overlapping respectively with the lowest and highest temperatures of the year in Spain. Moreover, lower temperatures prior to PCP admission, as well as higher concentrations of NO2 and particulate matter up to 10 m in size (PM10) at the time of admission were associated with higher likelihoods of hospital admission due to PCP when two weeks, one month, 1.5 months or two months were used as controls (p<0.01). Furthermore, higher concentrations of ozone at one month (p=0.007), 1.5 months (p<0.001) and two months (p=0.006) prior to admission were associated with higher likelihoods of hospital admission with PCP. For PCP-related deaths, lower

  18. Environmental and occupational health research and training needs in Colombia: A Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura A.; González, Beatriz Elena; Vera, Lina María; Patz, Jonathan; Bautista, Leonelo E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Environmental factors contribute with 16% of the burden of disease in Colombia. A main obstacle in implementing national and regional environmental and occupational health policies is the limited knowledge on the local ability to study and control the impact of harmful exposures on health. Objective To identify needs for research and training in environmental and occupational health in Colombia. Materials and methods We conducted a three-round hybrid Delphi study. A group of environmental and occupational health Colombian experts (n=16) from government agencies, universities, and research centers was recruited to participate in the study. Expert’s opinions on research and training needs were gathered through online questionnaires, followed by an in-person meeting. The percentage of agreement and the coefficient of variation were used to measure consensus. Results Air pollution and chemical products were considered the most important environmental and occupational exposures, due to their significant impact on chronic non-communicable diseases, such as respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Research on the effects of outdoor air pollution on cardiovascular and respiratory diseases was considered of the greatest importance. Priority training areas included environmental and occupational health risk assessment, exposure modeling, advanced statistical methods, urban planning, occupational safety and hygiene, and epidemiology and toxicology. Conclusions These findings provide a valuable input for the definition and implementation of national environmental and occupational health policies and for the development of a regional hub aimed at strengthening the capacity for research and training in Colombia. PMID:26535742

  19. 78 FR 6087 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... (KBase) and Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Workshop updates Science talk New Business... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy.... Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research,...

  20. Massachusetts Students Receive EPA Money to Conduct Environmental Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency gave STAR Awards to two doctoral students in Massachusetts for environmental research. Each doctoral student will receive up to $132,000 to support their graduate research and studies.

  1. Connecticut Students Receive EPA Money to Conduct Environmental Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently gave STAR Awards to four doctoral students in Connecticut for environmental research. Each doctoral student will receive up to $132,000 to support their graduate research and studies.

  2. Siderophores in environmental research: roles and applications

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, E; Holmström, S J M

    2014-01-01

    Siderophores are organic compounds with low molecular masses that are produced by microorganisms and plants growing under low iron conditions. The primary function of these compounds is to chelate the ferric iron [Fe(III)] from different terrestrial and aquatic habitats and thereby make it available for microbial and plant cells. Siderophores have received much attention in recent years because of their potential roles and applications in various areas of environmental research. Their significance in these applications is because siderophores have the ability to bind a variety of metals in addition to iron, and they have a wide range of chemical structures and specific properties. For instance, siderophores function as biocontrols, biosensors, and bioremediation and chelation agents, in addition to their important role in weathering soil minerals and enhancing plant growth. The aim of this literature review is to outline and discuss the important roles and functions of siderophores in different environmental habitats and emphasize the significant roles that these small organic molecules could play in applied environmental processes. PMID:24576157

  3. Environmental training research project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    Santa Fe Community College serves an area including the city and county of Santa Fe. The population has a high percentage of Hispanics and a Native American population of about 3%. The student body at the college generally reflects that of the service district. The college strives to recruit students from all segments of the population so there is representation among all ethnic and economic groups. The college strives to serve students and the community by offering educational opportunities that meet the needs of both elements and which will lead to gainful employment. Instruction is also offered to meets needs for retraining, upgrades, and personal enlightenment. The college started a hazardous materials management program in the fall of 1991 which has since been renamed environmental management. The purpose of this program is to prepare students for environmental careers, to provide required training such as OSHA HAZWOPER and refresher courses, and to provide educational opportunities that would make the public more environmentally aware. The program content needs to be studied to ensure we`re meeting the needs of the students and the business community. There had not been a significant opportunity to conduct this research.

  4. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology. PMID:27547751

  5. Environmental epidemiology: What's at stake: open issues and methodologies -- report from the 26th Annual Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE).

    PubMed

    Carugno, Michele

    2015-01-09

    At the end of last August, the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle welcomed over 1,100 attendees at the 26th Annual ISEE Conference - "From Local to Global: Advancing Science for Policy in Environmental Health"...

  6. Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and exposure to air toxics: linkages between occupational, indoor, and community air pollution research.

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, Ralph J

    2002-01-01

    Outdoor ambient air pollutant exposures in communities are relevant to the acute exacerbation and possibly the onset of asthma. However, the complexity of pollutant mixtures and etiologic heterogeneity of asthma has made it difficult to identify causal components in those mixtures. Occupational exposures associated with asthma may yield clues to causal components in ambient air pollution because such exposures are often identifiable as single-chemical agents (e.g., metal compounds). However, translating occupational to community exposure-response relationships is limited. Of the air toxics found to cause occupational asthma, only formaldehyde has been frequently investigated in epidemiologic studies of allergic respiratory responses to indoor air, where general consistency can be shown despite lower ambient exposures. The specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified in association with occupational asthma are generally not the same as those in studies showing respiratory effects of VOC mixtures on nonoccupational adult and pediatric asthma. In addition, experimental evidence indicates that airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures linked to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have proinflammatory effects on airways, but there is insufficient supporting evidence from the occupational literature of effects of DEPs on asthma or lung function. In contrast, nonoccupational epidemiologic studies have frequently shown associations between allergic responses or asthma with exposures to ambient air pollutant mixtures with PAH components, including black smoke, high home or school traffic density (particularly truck traffic), and environmental tobacco smoke. Other particle-phase and gaseous co-pollutants are likely causal in these associations as well. Epidemiologic research on the relationship of both asthma onset and exacerbation to air pollution is needed to disentangle effects of air toxics from monitored criteria air pollutants such as particle mass

  7. An Environmental Ethical Conceptual Framework for Research on Sustainability and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronlid, David O.; Ohman, Johan

    2013-01-01

    This article suggests that environmental ethics can have great relevance for environmental ethical content analyses in environmental education and education for sustainable development research. It is based on a critique that existing educational research does not reflect the variety of environmental ethical theories. Accordingly, we suggest an…

  8. 77 FR 4028 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy; Office of Science... Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat... of Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building, 1000 Independence Avenue...

  9. 77 FR 55200 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy... Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat... of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building,...

  10. 76 FR 57028 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy; Office of Science... Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat....S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research,...

  11. Asbestos related diseases from environmental exposure to crocidolite in Da-yao, China. I. Review of exposure and epidemiological data

    PubMed Central

    Luo, S; Liu, X; Mu, S; Tsai, S; Wen, C; Wong, O.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Scattered patches of crocidolite, one form of asbestos, were found in the surface soil in the rural county of Da-yao in southwestern China. In 1983, researchers from the West China University of Medical Sciences (WCUMS) discovered that residents of two villages in Da-yao had hyperendemic pleural plaques and excessive numbers of pleural mesotheliomas. Aims: To review and summarise epidemiological studies, along with other relevant data, and to discuss the potential contribution to environmental risk assessment. Methods: This report is based on a review of several clinical/epidemiological studies conducted by WCUMS researchers since 1984, which included one cross sectional medical examination survey, one clinical/pathological analysis of 46 cases of mesothelioma, and three retrospective cohort mortality studies. Additional information acquired from reviewing original data first hand during a personal visit along with an interview of medical specialists from Da-yao County Hospital was also incorporated. Results: The prevalence of pleural plaque was 20% among peasants in Da-yao over 40 years of age in the cross sectional survey. The average number of mesothelioma cases was 6.6 per year in the 1984–95 period and 22 per year in the 1996–99 period, in a population of 68 000. For those mesothelioma cases that were histology confirmed, there were 3.8 cases/year in the first period and 9 cases/year in the second. Of the 2175 peasants in this survey, 16 had asbestosis. Lung cancer deaths were significantly increased in all three cohort studies. The annual mortality rate for mesothelioma was 85 per million, 178 per million, and 365 per million for the three cohort studies, respectively. The higher exposed peasants had a fivefold increased mesothelioma mortality compared to their lower exposed counterparts. There were no cases of mesothelioma in the comparison groups where no crocidolite was known to exist in the environment. In the third cohort study, almost

  12. At the crossroads of anthropology and epidemiology: current research in cultural psychiatry in the UK.

    PubMed

    Dein, Simon; Bhui, Kamaldeep Singh

    2013-12-01

    Cultural psychiatry research in the UK comprises a broad range of diverse methodologies, academic disciplines, and subject areas. Methodologies range from epidemiological to anthropological/ethnographic to health services research; mixed methods research is becoming increasingly popular, as are public health and health promotional topics. After briefly outlining the history of cultural psychiatry in the UK we will discuss contemporary research. Prominent themes include: the epidemiology of schizophrenia among Africans/Afro-Caribbeans, migration and mental health, racism and mental health, cultural identity, pathways to care, explanatory models of mental illness, cultural competence, and the subjective experiences of healthcare provision among specific ethnic groups such as Bangladeshis and Pakistanis. Another strand of research that is attracting increasing academic attention focuses upon the relationship between religion, spirituality, and mental health, in particular, the phenomenology of religious experience and its mental health ramifications, as well as recent work examining the complex links between theology and psychiatry. The paper ends by appraising the contributions of British cultural psychiatrists to the discipline of cultural psychiatry and suggesting promising areas for future research.

  13. At the crossroads of anthropology and epidemiology: Current research in cultural psychiatry in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Bhui, Kamaldeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Cultural psychiatry research in the UK comprises a broad range of diverse methodologies, academic disciplines, and subject areas. Methodologies range from epidemiological to anthropological/ethnographic to health services research; mixed methods research is becoming increasingly popular, as are public health and health promotional topics. After briefly outlining the history of cultural psychiatry in the UK we will discuss contemporary research. Prominent themes include: the epidemiology of schizophrenia among Africans/Afro-Caribbeans, migration and mental health, racism and mental health, cultural identity, pathways to care, explanatory models of mental illness, cultural competence, and the subjective experiences of healthcare provision among specific ethnic groups such as Bangladeshis and Pakistanis. Another strand of research that is attracting increasing academic attention focuses upon the relationship between religion, spirituality, and mental health, in particular, the phenomenology of religious experience and its mental health ramifications, as well as recent work examining the complex links between theology and psychiatry. The paper ends by appraising the contributions of British cultural psychiatrists to the discipline of cultural psychiatry and suggesting promising areas for future research. PMID:24114263

  14. Social epidemiology and complex system dynamic modelling as applied to health behaviour and drug use research.

    PubMed

    Galea, Sandro; Hall, Chris; Kaplan, George A

    2009-05-01

    A social epidemiologic perspective considers factors at multiple levels of influence (e.g., social networks, neighbourhoods, states) that may individually or jointly affect health and health behaviour. This provides a useful lens through which to understand the production of health behaviours in general, and drug use in particular. However, the analytic models that are commonly applied in population health sciences limit the inference we are able to draw about the determination of health behaviour by factors, likely interrelated, across levels of influence. Complex system dynamic modelling techniques may be useful in enabling the adoption of a social epidemiologic approach in health behaviour and drug use research. We provide an example of a model that aims to incorporate factors at multiple levels of influence in understanding drug dependence. We conclude with suggestions about future directions in the field and how such models may serve as virtual laboratories for policy experiments aimed at improving health behaviour.

  15. Epidemiology, determinants and dynamics of cholera in Pakistan: gaps and prospects for future research.

    PubMed

    Naseer, Maliha; Jamali, Tanzil

    2014-11-01

    Cholera is one of the notifiable endemic diseases in Pakistan, but the reporting of cholera cases is still unsatisfactory. Most of the diagnosed cases are never reported to the relevant authorities. In the year 1993 - 2005, the country did not report any single case of cholera to the WHO. The objectives of this review were to understand the epidemiology and to identify the possible determinants of cholera infection in Pakistan. Medscape, Medline, PakMedinet and PubMed, was searched, using key words, epidemiology and determinants of cholera infection in Pakistan during 1995 - 2010. Morbidity and mortality due to cholera infection during 1995 - 2010, without any language restriction. Out of 27 articles published between 1995 - 2010, 17 articles were included in the review. Vibrio cholerae O139 identified as a major cause of infection in older age group, while O1 biotype of cholera as a predominant cause of cholera among young individuals. Mainly reported determinants of cholera in Pakistan include poor sanitation and hygiene practices, increased population density in urban areas, leading to rapid and unplanned urbanization of the major cities and climate change due to increased environmental pollution in Pakistan are plausible factors for endemicity of cholera in Pakistan. Cholera reporting as a notifiable disease to the relevant departments and timely action can prevent the risk of outbreaks. There is a need to identify specific behavioral and environmental determinants responsible for outbreaks and epidemics of cholera in Pakistan which can help to design appropriate preventive and control interventions.

  16. Discovering environmental cancer: Wilhelm Hueper, post-World War II epidemiology, and the vanishing clinician's eye.

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, C

    1997-01-01

    Today, our understanding of and approach to the exogenous causes of cancer are dominated by epidemiological practices that came into widespread use after World War II. This paper examines the forces, considerations, and controversies that shaped postwar risk factor epidemiology in the United States. It is argued that, for all of the new capabilities it brought, this risk factor epidemiology has left us with less of a clinical eye for unrecognized cancer hazards, especially from limited and localized exposures in the work-place. The focus here is on Wilhelm Hueper, author of the first textbook on occupational cancer (1942). Hueper became the foremost spokesman for earlier identification practices centering on occupational exposures. The new epidemiological methods and associated institutions that arose in the 1940s and 1950s bore an unsettled relation to earlier claims and methods that some, Hueper among them, interpreted as a challenge. Hueper's critique of the new epidemiology identified some of its limitations and potentially debilitating consequences that remain with us today. Images p1825-a p1827-a p1829-a PMID:9366640

  17. Epidemiologic Methods Lessons Learned from Environmental Public Health Disasters: Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville, South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, Erik R.; Runkle, Jennifer R.; Dhara, Venkata Ramana; Lin, Shao; Naboka, Marina; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Bennett, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Background: Environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants may have devastating effects. While much is known about their immediate devastation, far less is known about long-term impacts of these disasters. Extensive latent and chronic long-term public health effects may occur. Careful evaluation of contaminant exposures and long-term health outcomes within the constraints imposed by limited financial resources is essential. Methods: Here, we review epidemiologic methods lessons learned from conducting long-term evaluations of four environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants at Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville (South Carolina, USA). Findings: We found several lessons learned which have direct implications for the on-going disaster recovery work following the Fukushima radiation disaster or for future disasters. Interpretation: These lessons should prove useful in understanding and mitigating latent health effects that may result from the nuclear reactor accident in Japan or future environmental public health disasters. PMID:23066404

  18. European Birth Cohorts for Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Maribel; Bergström, Anna; Carmichael, Amanda; Cordier, Sylvaine; Eggesbø, Merete; Eller, Esben; Fantini, Maria P.; Fernández, Mariana F.; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Hohmann, Cynthia; Karvonen, Anne M.; Keil, Thomas; Kogevinas, Manolis; Koppen, Gudrun; Krämer, Ursula; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Magnus, Per; Majewska, Renata; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Patelarou, Evridiki; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Pierik, Frank H.; Polanska, Kinga; Porta, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Santos, Ana Cristina; Slama, Rémy; Sram, Radim J.; Thijs, Carel; Tischer, Christina; Toft, Gunnar; Trnovec, Tomáš; Vandentorren, Stephanie; Vrijkotte, Tanja G.M.; Wilhelm, Michael; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning. Objectives: Our goal was to create a comprehensive overview of European birth cohorts with environmental exposure data. Methods: Birth cohort studies were included if they a) collected data on at least one environmental exposure, b) started enrollment during pregnancy or at birth, c) included at least one follow-up point after birth, d) included at least 200 mother–child pairs, and e) were based in a European country. A questionnaire collected information on basic protocol details and exposure and health outcome assessments, including specific contaminants, methods and samples, timing, and number of subjects. A full inventory can be searched on www.birthcohortsenrieco.net. Results: Questionnaires were completed by 37 cohort studies of > 350,000 mother–child pairs in 19 European countries. Only three cohorts did not participate. All cohorts collected biological specimens of children or parents. Many cohorts collected information on passive smoking (n = 36), maternal occupation (n = 33), outdoor air pollution (n = 27), and allergens/biological organisms (n = 27). Fewer cohorts (n = 12–19) collected information on water contamination, ionizing or nonionizing radiation exposures, noise, metals, persistent organic pollutants, or other pollutants. All cohorts have information on birth outcomes; nearly all on asthma, allergies, childhood growth and obesity; and 26 collected information on child neurodevelopment. Conclusion: Combining forces in this field will yield more efficient and conclusive studies and ultimately improve causal inference. This impressive resource of existing birth cohort data could form the basis for longer-term and worldwide coordination of research on environment and child health. PMID

  19. 40 CFR 18.3 - Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.3 Section 18.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.3 Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Environmental Protection...

  20. 40 CFR 18.3 - Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.3 Section 18.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.3 Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Environmental Protection...

  1. 40 CFR 18.3 - Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.3 Section 18.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.3 Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Environmental Protection...

  2. 40 CFR 18.3 - Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.3 Section 18.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.3 Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Environmental Protection...

  3. 40 CFR 18.3 - Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.3 Section 18.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.3 Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Environmental Protection...

  4. Conjoined Twins: A Worldwide Collaborative Epidemiological Study of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    PubMed Central

    MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; LUNA-MUÑOZ, LEONORA; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; DUTRA, MARIA DA GRAÇA; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA K.; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MÉTNEKI, JULIA; MORGAN, MARGERY; PIERINI, ANNA; RISSMAN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SIFFEL, CSABA; SZABOVA, ELENA; ARTEAGA-VÁZQUEZ, JAZMÍN

    2015-01-01

    Conjoined twins (CT) are a very rare developmental accident of uncertain etiology. Prevalence has been previously estimated to be 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 100,000 births. The process by which monozygotic twins do not fully separate but form CT is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to analyze diverse epidemiological aspects of CT, including the different variables listed in the Introduction Section of this issue of the Journal. The study was made possible using the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR) structure. This multicenter worldwide research includes the largest sample of CT ever studied. A total of 383 carefully reviewed sets of CT obtained from 26,138,837 births reported by 21 Clearinghouse Surveillance Programs (SP) were included in the analysis. Total prevalence was 1.47 per 100,000 births (95% CI: 1.32–1.62). Salient findings including an evident variation in prevalence among SPs: a marked variation in the type of pregnancy outcome, a similarity in the proportion of CT types among programs: a significant female predominance in CT: particularly of the thoracopagus type and a significant male predominance in parapagus and parasitic types: significant differences in prevalence by ethnicity and an apparent increasing prevalence trend in South American countries. No genetic, environmental or demographic significant associated factors were identified. Further work in epidemiology and molecular research is necessary to understand the etiology and pathogenesis involved in the development of this fascinating phenomenon of nature. PMID:22002822

  5. [The NINFEA project and the emerging forms of engagement of citizens in epidemiological research].

    PubMed

    Richiardi, Lorenzo; Pizzi, Costanza; Rusconi, Franca; Merletti, Franco

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade a new form of participation of the citizens in research activities and in the production of knowledge has emerged.This development has started to reach epidemiological research, as illustrated in the recent section "EpiChange" of the journal Epidemiologia e Prevenzione. The conduction of epidemiological research through the engagement of citizens and new forms of production of knowledge - including peer-production - is still in its infancy. In 2005,we started in Italy a birth cohort, the NINFEA project, which uses the Internet to recruit pregnant women and to follow-up their children. Participants are volunteers who decide to take part in the research project. In this paper, we consider the aspects of the NINFEA project that are consistent with the concept of collaborative production of knowledge. In particular,we discuss issues related to the motivation of the participants, the selection of the research hypotheses to be evaluated and the definition of the population of interest of the study.

  6. Novel Phenotype Issues Raised in Cross-National Epidemiological Research on Drug Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Stage-transition models based on the American Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) generally are applied in epidemiology and genetics research on drug dependence syndromes associated with cannabis, cocaine, and other internationally regulated drugs (IRD). Difficulties with DSM stage-transition models have surfaced during cross-national research intended to provide a truly global perspective, such as the work of the World Mental Health Surveys (WMHS) Consortium. Alternative simpler dependence-related phenotypes are possible, including population-level count process models for steps early and before coalescence of clinical features into a coherent syndrome (e.g., zero-inflated Poisson regression). Selected findings are reviewed, based on ZIP modeling of alcohol, tobacco, and IRD count processes, with an illustration that may stimulate new research on genetic susceptibility traits. The annual National Surveys on Drug Use and Health can be readily modified for this purpose, along the lines of a truly anonymous research approach that can help make NSDUH-type cross-national epidemiological surveys more useful in the context of subsequent genome wide association (GWAS) research and post-GWAS investigations with a truly global health perspective. PMID:20201862

  7. Current Understanding of Lifestyle and Environmental Factors and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: An Epidemiological Update

    PubMed Central

    Bassig, Bryan A.; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zhang, Yawei; Zheng, Tongzhang

    2012-01-01

    The incidence rates of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have steadily increased over the last several decades in the United States, and the temporal trends in incidence can only be partially explained by the HIV epidemic. In 1992, an international workshop sponsored by the United States National Cancer Institute concluded that there was an “emerging epidemic” of NHL and emphasized the need to investigate the factors responsible for the increasing incidence of this disease. Over the past two decades, numerous epidemiological studies have examined the risk factors for NHL, particularly for putative environmental and lifestyle risk factors, and international consortia have been established in order to investigate rare exposures and NHL subtype-specific associations. While few consistent risk factors for NHL aside from immunosuppression and certain infectious agents have emerged, suggestive associations with several lifestyle and environmental factors have been reported in epidemiologic studies. Further, increasing evidence has suggested that the effects of these and other exposures may be limited to or stronger for particular NHL subtypes. This paper examines the progress that has been made over the last twenty years in elucidating the etiology of NHL, with a primary emphasis on lifestyle factors and environmental exposures. PMID:23008714

  8. Use of land surface remotely sensed satellite and airborne data for environmental exposure assessment in cancer research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, S.K.; Meliker, J.R.; Goovaerts, P.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, geographic information systems (GIS) have increasingly been used for reconstructing individual-level exposures to environmental contaminants in epidemiological research. Remotely sensed data can be useful in creating space-time models of environmental measures. The primary advantage of using remotely sensed data is that it allows for study at the local scale (e.g., residential level) without requiring expensive, time-consuming monitoring campaigns. The purpose of our study was to identify how land surface remotely sensed data are currently being used to study the relationship between cancer and environmental contaminants, focusing primarily on agricultural chemical exposure assessment applications. We present the results of a comprehensive literature review of epidemiological research where remotely sensed imagery or land cover maps derived from remotely sensed imagery were applied. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of the most commonly used imagery data (aerial photographs and Landsat satellite imagery) and land cover maps.

  9. Use of land surface remotely sensed satellite and airborne data for environmental exposure assessment in cancer research

    PubMed Central

    MAXWELL, SUSAN K.; MELIKER, JAYMIE R.; GOOVAERTS, PIERRE

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, geographic information systems (GIS) have increasingly been used for reconstructing individual-level exposures to environmental contaminants in epidemiological research. Remotely sensed data can be useful in creating space-time models of environmental measures. The primary advantage of using remotely sensed data is that it allows for study at the local scale (e.g., residential level) without requiring expensive, time-consuming monitoring campaigns. The purpose of our study was to identify how land surface remotely sensed data are currently being used to study the relationship between cancer and environmental contaminants, focusing primarily on agricultural chemical exposure assessment applications. We present the results of a comprehensive literature review of epidemiological research where remotely sensed imagery or land cover maps derived from remotely sensed imagery were applied. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of the most commonly used imagery data (aerial photographs and Landsat satellite imagery) and land cover maps. PMID:19240763

  10. CONSTANCES: a general prospective population-based cohort for occupational and environmental epidemiology: cohort profile

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Marcel; Carton, Matthieu; Descatha, Alexis; Leclerc, Annette; Roquelaure, Yves; Santin, Gaëlle; Zins, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Why the cohort was set up? CONSTANCES is a general-purpose cohort with a focus on occupational and environmental factors. Cohort participants CONSTANCES was designed as a randomly selected sample of French adults aged 18–69 years at inception; 200 000 participants will be included. Data collection phases At enrolment, the participants are invited to complete questionnaires and to attend a health screening centre (HSC) for a health examination. A biobank will be set up. The follow-up includes an yearly self-administered questionnaire, a periodic visit to an HSC and linkage to social and national health administrative databases. Main types of data collected Data collected for participants include social and demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, life events and behaviours. Regarding occupational and environmental factors, a wealth of data on organisational, chemical, biological, biomechanical and psychosocial lifelong exposure, as well as residential characteristics, are collected at enrolment and during follow-up. The health data cover a wide spectrum: self-reported health scales, reported prevalent and incident diseases, long-term chronic diseases and hospitalisations, sick-leaves, handicaps, limitations, disabilities and injuries, healthcare usage and services provided, and causes of death. Control of selection effects To take into account non-participation and attrition, a random cohort of non-participants was set up and will be followed through the same national databases as participants. Data access Inclusions begun at the end of 2012 and more than 110 000 participants were already included by September 2016. Several projects on occupational and environmental risks already applied to a public call for nested research projects. PMID:27884936

  11. Why Ontology Matters to Reviewing Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila

    2009-01-01

    This paper responds to a keynote paper presented by William Scott at the 2007 World Environmental Education Congress held in Durban, South Africa. The keynote address reviewed 30 years of environmental education research. In this response to William Scott's paper I contemplate the way in which environmental education research may enable…

  12. Environmental Education Research: 30 Years on from Tbilisi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, William

    2009-01-01

    This article is a transcript of the author's Keynote Address to the Fourth World Environmental Education Congress, Durban, July 2007. He has been asked to speak about environmental education research since Tbilisi, to explore what environmental education researchers might learn from this work, and look ahead to the challenges that now face them as…

  13. HUMAN HEALTH RESEARCH IMPLEMENTATION PLAN, NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), as part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Office of Research and Development (ORD), is responsible for conducting research to improve the risk assessment of chemicals for potential effects ...

  14. Postinfectious Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Focus on Epidemiology and Research Agendas

    PubMed Central

    Deising, Adam; Gutierrez, Ramiro L.; Porter, Chad K.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic research is fundamental and complementary to our understanding of disease and development of primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions. To put the current evidence into context and identify gaps and research priorities in the areas of disease attribution, burden of disease, clinical characterization, and management of postinfectious functional gastrointestinal disorders (PI-FGDs), we took a multidisciplinary approach from the domains of infectious disease, gastroenterology, epidemiology, and public health. Our review of data from these disciplines found that, despite a complete understanding of pathoetiology, studies continue to accumulate and point toward evidence of a causal association for FGD. For some FGDs, Bradford Hill’s criteria for causality yield more certainty than other criteria. In addition, the growing recognition of the impact of acute foodborne illness on economics and society is leading to exploration of the potential long-term health effects and disease burden of PI-FGDs, although a paucity of data exist in terms of pathogen-specific risk, disability duration, and relevant disability weights. Lastly, the understanding of PI-FGDs is changing the way research is approached and suggests a need for a more expansive exploration of biologic mechanisms and how FGDs are categorized. Areas of research priorities are catalogued in this paper and will hopefully provide inspiration for future studies and contributions to the field of gastroenterology. PMID:23961264

  15. Medical surveillance, exposure registries, and epidemiologic research for workers exposed to nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Trout, Douglas B; Schulte, Paul A

    2010-03-10

    While there is a growing body of information about hazards of nanomaterials, little is known about the risks to workers exposed to them. However, workers are the first people in society that are being exposed to the growing inventory of "nano-enabled" products in commerce. The number of workers involved in the investigation, manufacture, production, and disposal of these types of products is growing. Although toxicologic research is still the highest priority, it is time to actively anticipate the health needs of workers. To date, precautionary risk management approaches have been widely advocated. Now there is a need to initiate an evolving process to identify the issues in medical surveillance, utilization of exposure registries, and the conduct of epidemiologic research. Each of these are related complex endeavors that build on the toxicologic evidence and extent of exposure. There is a need to assess the scientific basis and research needs for determining early functional changes, organ system and disease responses for use in targeted medical surveillance. There is also need for development of criteria for extrapolating toxicological data in biological systems to predict the risk of adverse outcomes in humans. In the meantime, exposure registries may be pivotal in helping societies act in the face of uncertainty in a precautionary manner, but legal, ethical, and logistical issues need resolution. Epidemiologic research will build on these efforts and may ultimately contribute critical definitive rationale for medical screening, risk assessment and management.

  16. Persisting problems related to race and ethnicity in public health and epidemiology research.

    PubMed

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude

    2013-02-01

    A recent and comprehensive review of the use of race and ethnicity in research that address health disparities in epidemiology and public health is provided. First it is described the theoretical basis upon which race and ethnicity differ drawing from previous work in anthropology, social science and public health. Second, it is presented a review of 280 articles published in high impacts factor journals in regards to public health and epidemiology from 2009-2011. An analytical grid enabled the examination of conceptual, theoretical and methodological questions related to the use of both concepts. The majority of articles reviewed were grounded in a theoretical framework and provided interpretations from various models. However, key problems identified include a) a failure from researchers to differentiate between the concepts of race and ethnicity; b) an inappropriate use of racial categories to ascribe ethnicity; c) a lack of transparency in the methods used to assess both concepts; and d) failure to address limits associated with the construction of racial or ethnic taxonomies and their use. In conclusion, future studies examining health disparities should clearly establish the distinction between race and ethnicity, develop theoretically driven research and address specific questions about the relationships between race, ethnicity and health. One argue that one way to think about ethnicity, race and health is to dichotomize research into two sets of questions about the relationship between human diversity and health.

  17. Assessment of cold-climate environmental research priorities

    SciTech Connect

    States, J.B.

    1983-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has consistently recognized that cold regions pose unique environmental problems. This report sets forth the conceptual framework and research plans for several high priority research areas. It provides the fundamental basis for implementation of the EPA Cold-Climate Environmental Research Program. This three- to five-year program encompasses both short- and long-term research of high relevance to the EPA and to the cold regions that it serves.

  18. Biological and Environmental Research Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Balaji, V.; Boden, Tom; Cowley, Dave; Dart, Eli; Dattoria, Vince; Desai, Narayan; Egan, Rob; Foster, Ian; Goldstone, Robin; Gregurick, Susan; Houghton, John; Izaurralde, Cesar; Johnston, Bill; Joseph, Renu; Kleese-van Dam, Kerstin; Lipton, Mary; Monga, Inder; Pritchard, Matt; Rotman, Lauren; Strand, Gary; Stuart, Cory; Tatusova, Tatiana; Tierney, Brian; Thomas, Brian; Williams, Dean N.; Zurawski, Jason

    2013-09-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In November 2012, ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the BER program office. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1) The scale of data sets available to science collaborations continues to increase exponentially. This has broad impact, both on the network and on the computational and storage systems connected to the network. 2) Many science collaborations require assistance to cope with the systems and network engineering challenges inherent in managing the rapid growth in data scale. 3) Several science domains operate distributed facilities that rely on high-performance networking for success. Key examples illustrated in this report include the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and the Systems Biology Knowledgebase (KBase). This report expands on these points, and addresses others as well. The report contains a findings section as well as the text of the case studies discussed at the review.

  19. Epidemiological Characteristics and Environmental Risk Factors of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome in Hubei Province, China, from 2011 to 2016

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tang; Li, Xin-Lou; Liu, Man; Song, Xiao-Jia; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Yu-Bin; Tian, Bao-Pin; Xing, Xue-Sen; Li, Shi-Yue

    2017-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a tick-borne viral disease affecting hundreds of people in China each year. To better understand the epidemiological characteristics and environmental risk factors associated with the incidence of SFTS in Hubei Province, China, we conducted a retrospective epidemiological study and risk assessment of SFTS from 2011 to 2016. Although, the incidence and epidemic areas of SFTS are increasing, the fatality rate has decreased. Elderly farmers are the population most commonly infected with SFTS virus between May and July in the northeast Hubei Province, which seems to be consistent with local agricultural activities and the seasonal abundance of ticks. Spatial scanning showed that regions bordering with Xinyang City, Henan Province accounted for most of the SFTS cases in Hubei Province, and there was a significant association of SFTS incidence with temporal changes in the climate within these clusters. Multivariate modeling analysis identified density of cattle, rain-fed cropland, built-up land, temperature, and relative humidity as independent risk factors for the distribution of SFTS. Future epidemiological and serological studies are warranted to elucidate the dynamics and immunity patterns of local SFTS disease and to optimize interventions. PMID:28337190

  20. USE OF FOCUS GROUPS FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCHER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Qualitative research techniques are often under-utilized by the environmental health researcher. Focus groups, one such qualitative method, can provide rich data sets for study planning and implementation, risk perception, program and policy research, and exploration into future...

  1. Involving lay community researchers in epidemiological research: experiences from a seroprevalence study among sub-Saharan African migrants.

    PubMed

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities.

  2. Involving lay community researchers in epidemiological research: experiences from a seroprevalence study among sub-Saharan African migrants

    PubMed Central

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities. PMID:26885938

  3. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 2 - Epidemiology, Wildlife and Economics.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Robinson, L; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    We assessed knowledge gaps in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) research, and in this study, we consider (i) epidemiology, (ii) wildlife and (iii) economics. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-2015) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD research. During 2011-2015, modelling studies were dominant in the broad field of epidemiology; however, continued efforts are required to develop robust models for use during outbreaks in FMD-free countries, linking epidemiologic and economics models. More guidance is needed for both the evaluation and the setting of targets for vaccine coverage, population immunity and vaccine field efficacy. Similarly, methods for seroprevalence studies need to be improved to obtain more meaningful outputs that allow comparison across studies. To inform control programmes in endemic countries, field trials assessing the effectiveness of vaccination in extensive smallholder systems should be performed to determine whether FMD can be controlled with quality vaccines in settings where implementing effective biosecurity is challenging. Studies need to go beyond measuring only vaccine effects and should extend our knowledge of the impact of FMD and increase our understanding of how to maximize farmer participation in disease control. Where wildlife reservoirs of virus exist, particularly African Buffalo, we need to better understand when and under what circumstances transmission to domestic animals occurs in order to manage this risk appropriately, considering the impact of control measures on livelihoods and wildlife. For settings where FMD eradication is unfeasible, further ground testing of commodity-based trade is recommended. A thorough review of global FMD control programmes, covering successes and failures, would be extremely valuable and could be used to guide other control programmes.

  4. WHO Child Growth Standards Are Often Incorrectly Applied to Children Born Preterm in Epidemiologic Research.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Nandita; Gaffey, Michelle F; Bassani, Diego G; Roth, Daniel E

    2015-11-01

    In epidemiologic research, there is no standard approach for accounting for gestational age (GA) at birth when interpreting postnatal anthropometric data in analyses of cohorts that include children born preterm (CBP). A scoping review was conducted to describe analytical approaches to account for GA at birth when applying the WHO Growth Standards (WHO-GS) to anthropometric data in epidemiologic studies. We searched PubMed, Scopus, MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science for studies that applied WHO-GS, included CBP in the study population, had access to data within 1 mo of age, and were published between 2006 and 2015 in English. Of the 80 included studies that used the WHO-GS, 80% (64 of 80) included all children regardless of GA, whereas 20% (16 of 80) restricted analyses that used WHO-GS to term-born children. Among the 64 studies that included all children, 53 (83%) used chronological age and 11 (17%) used corrected age for CBP. Of the 53 studies that used chronological age, 12 (23%) excluded data that were likely contributed by CBP (e.g., very low birth weight or extremely low outlying z scores) and 19 (36%) adjusted for or stratified by GA at birth in regression analyses. In summary, researchers commonly apply WHO-GS to CBP, usually based on chronological age. Methodologic challenges of analyzing data from CBP in the application of WHO-GS were rarely explicitly addressed. Further efforts are required to establish acceptable approaches to account for heterogeneity in GA at birth in the analysis of post-term anthropometric data in epidemiologic research.

  5. USEPA RESEARCH ACTIVITIES TO CHARACTERIZE CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Given the vulnerability of children to effects from environmental exposures, understanding links between children's health and environmental exposures is critical. In recent years, significant research has been initiated at USEPA to characterize children's exposures.

  6. Current research on transcultural psychiatry in the Anglophone Caribbean: epistemological, public policy, and epidemiological challenges.

    PubMed

    Hickling, Frederick W; Gibson, Roger C; Hutchinson, Gerard

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we review recent research on mental health in the Caribbean. Three major themes emerge: (a) the effects of colonialism on the Caribbean psyche; (b) decolonization of psychiatric public policy, including innovative treatment approaches, deinstitutionalization, and community and policy responses to mental health issues; and (c) the nature and epidemiology of psychiatric pathology among contemporary Caribbean people, with particular focus on migration, genetic versus social causation of psychosis and personality disorders, and mechanisms of resilience and social capital. Caribbean transcultural psychiatry illustrates the principles of equipoise unique to developing countries that protect the wellness and continued survival of postcolonial Caribbean people.

  7. The leukemias: Epidemiologic aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Linet, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Particularly geared to physicians and cancer researchers, this study of the epidemiology and etiology of leukemia analyzes the four major leukemia subtypes in terms of genetic and familial determinant factors and examines the incidence, distribution and frequency of reported leukemia clusters. Linet discusses the connection between other types of malignancies, their treatments, and the subsequent development of leukemia and evaluates the impact on leukemia onset of such environmental factors as radiation therapy, drugs, and occupational hazards.

  8. A review of the application of inflammatory biomarkers in epidemiologic cancer research.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Darren R; Scherer, Dominique; Muir, Kenneth; Schildkraut, Joellen; Boffetta, Paolo; Spitz, Margaret R; Le Marchand, Loic; Chan, Andrew T; Goode, Ellen L; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Hung, Rayjean J

    2014-09-01

    Inflammation is a facilitating process for multiple cancer types. It is believed to affect cancer development and progression through several etiologic pathways, including increased levels of DNA adduct formation, increased angiogenesis, and altered antiapoptotic signaling. This review highlights the application of inflammatory biomarkers in epidemiologic studies and discusses the various cellular mediators of inflammation characterizing the innate immune system response to infection and chronic insult from environmental factors. Included is a review of six classes of inflammation-related biomarkers: cytokines/chemokines, immune-related effectors, acute-phase proteins, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, prostaglandins and cyclooxygenase-related factors, and mediators such as transcription factors and growth factors. For each of these biomarkers, we provide a brief overview of the etiologic role in the inflammation response and how they have been related to cancer etiology and progression within the literature. We provide a discussion of the common techniques available for quantification of each marker, including strengths, weaknesses, and potential pitfalls. Subsequently, we highlight a few under-studied measures to characterize the inflammatory response and their potential utility in epidemiologic studies of cancer. Finally, we suggest integrative methods for future studies to apply multifaceted approaches to examine the relationship between inflammatory markers and their roles in cancer development.

  9. Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2008-07-14

    This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.

  10. Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality. PMID:20401332

  11. Working across and with Methodological Difference in Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Constance L.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the implications of articles by Louise Chawla (1998) and Karen Malone (1999a) for "doing research." One of the most interesting implications of these two papers for environmental education research is the issues they raise about the challenges for environmental education researchers and education researchers…

  12. Critical Environmental Education Research: Re-Engaging the Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robottom, Ian

    2005-01-01

    The field of research in environmental education has experienced several changes in orientation in its first 25 or so years. In the period of the 70s and 80s, the most visible approach to environmental education research was clearly applied science in nature. From the late 80s/early 90s there has been a period of intense debate about research in…

  13. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Judy D.

    2003-11-19

    The main objective of the Gordon Research Conference on Applied and Environmental Microbiology was to present and discuss new, fundamental research findings on microorganisms, their activities in the environment, their ecosystem-level effects, and their environmental or commercial applications. To accomplish this goal, knowledge of microbial diversity, interactions and population dynamics was required. The genomic basis of microbial processes, the cycling of naturally occurring and hazardous substances, and methodologies to assess the functional relationships of microorganisms in their habitats were essential for understanding the ecological consequences of microbial activities and the formulation of generalizing principles. In the last decade, molecular technology has revealed that microbial diversity is far more extensive than the limited view obtained from culturing procedures. Great advances in environmental microbiology have resulted from the development and application of molecular approaches to ecology and molecular evolution. A further surprise resulting from the application of these new tools is the blurring of the distinction between pathogenic traits versus those considered non-pathogenic. This year's conference addressed the issues of biodiversity, its development, and the impact of stress on gene selection and expression. In addition microbial metabolic versatility with toxins such as heavy metals, antibiotics, and organic pollutants were discussed. The nine session topics were (1) biodiversity and the bacterial species, (2) mechanisms of biodiversification, (3) biofilms in health and environment, (4) a genomic view of microbial response to stress, (5) microbial use of toxic metals, (6) microbial mineral formation and dissolution, (7) power and limitations of antimicrobials, (8) biodegradation of organic pollutants, and (9) astrobiology. The Conference had an international profile: the Conference Vice-Chair, Dr. Gerard Muyzer, was from The Nether lands

  14. Exposure Assessment for Atmospheric Ultrafine Particles (UFPs) and Implications in Epidemiologic Research

    PubMed Central

    Sioutas, Constantinos; Delfino, Ralph J.; Singh, Manisha

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiologic research has shown increases in adverse cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes in relation to mass concentrations of particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5 or ≤10 μm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, respectively). In a companion article [Delfino RJ, Sioutas C, Malik S. 2005. Environ Health Perspect 113(8):934–946]), we discuss epidemiologic evidence pointing to underlying components linked to fossil fuel combustion. The causal components driving the PM associations remain to be identified, but emerging evidence on particle size and chemistry has led to some clues. There is sufficient reason to believe that ultrafine particles < 0.1 μm (UFPs) are important because when compared with larger particles, they have order of magnitudes higher particle number concentration and surface area, and larger concentrations of adsorbed or condensed toxic air pollutants (oxidant gases, organic compounds, transition metals) per unit mass. This is supported by evidence of significantly higher in vitro redox activity by UFPs than by larger PM. Although epidemiologic research is needed, exposure assessment issues for UFPs are complex and need to be considered before undertaking investigations of UFP health effects. These issues include high spatial variability, indoor sources, variable infiltration of UFPs from a variety of outside sources, and meteorologic factors leading to high seasonal variability in concentration and composition, including volatility. To address these issues, investigators need to develop as well as validate the analytic technologies required to characterize the physical/chemical nature of UFPs in various environments. In the present review, we provide a detailed discussion of key characteristics of UFPs, their sources and formation mechanisms, and methodologic approaches to assessing population exposures. PMID:16079062

  15. Nanomaterials driven energy, environmental and biomedical research

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Prakash C.; Srinivasan, Sesha S.; Wilson, Jeremiah F.

    2014-03-31

    We have developed state-of-the-art nanomaterials such as nanofibers, nanotubes, nanoparticles, nanocatalysts and nanostructures for clean energy, environmental and biomedical research. Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed, but it can be converted from one form to another. Based on this principle, chemical energy such as hydrogen has been produced from water electrolysis at a much lower voltage using RuO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the Si wafer substrate. Once the hydrogen is produced from the clean sources such as solar energy and water, it has to be stored by physisorption or chemisorption processes on to the solid state systems. For the successful physical adsorption of hydrogen molecule, we have developed novel polyaniline nanostructures via chemical templating and electrospinning routes. Chemical or complex hydrides involving nano MgH{sub 2} and transition metal nanocatalysts have been synthesized to tailor both the thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrogen (chemi) sorption respectively. Utilization of solar energy (UV-Vis) and a coupling of novel semiconductor oxide nanoparticles have been recently demonstrated with enhancement in photo-oxidation and/or photo-reduction processes for the water/air detoxification and sustainable liquid fuel production respectively. Magnetic nanoparticles such as ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} have been synthesized and optimized for biomedical applications such as targeted drug delivery and tumor diagnostic sensing (MRI)

  16. Nanomaterials driven energy, environmental and biomedical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prakash C.; Srinivasan, Sesha S.; Wilson, Jeremiah F.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed state-of-the-art nanomaterials such as nanofibers, nanotubes, nanoparticles, nanocatalysts and nanostructures for clean energy, environmental and biomedical research. Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed, but it can be converted from one form to another. Based on this principle, chemical energy such as hydrogen has been produced from water electrolysis at a much lower voltage using RuO2 nanoparticles on the Si wafer substrate. Once the hydrogen is produced from the clean sources such as solar energy and water, it has to be stored by physisorption or chemisorption processes on to the solid state systems. For the successful physical adsorption of hydrogen molecule, we have developed novel polyaniline nanostructures via chemical templating and electrospinning routes. Chemical or complex hydrides involving nano MgH2 and transition metal nanocatalysts have been synthesized to tailor both the thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrogen (chemi) sorption respectively. Utilization of solar energy (UV-Vis) and a coupling of novel semiconductor oxide nanoparticles have been recently demonstrated with enhancement in photo-oxidation and/or photo-reduction processes for the water/air detoxification and sustainable liquid fuel production respectively. Magnetic nanoparticles such as ZnFe2O4 have been synthesized and optimized for biomedical applications such as targeted drug delivery and tumor diagnostic sensing (MRI).

  17. Nanometrology and its perspectives in environmental research

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-A; Seo, Jung-Kwan; Kim, Taksoo; Lee, Byung-Tae

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Rapid increase in engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in many goods has raised significant concern about their environmental safety. Proper methodologies are therefore needed to conduct toxicity and exposure assessment of nanoparticles in the environment. This study reviews several analytical techniques for nanoparticles and summarizes their principles, advantages and disadvantages, reviews the state of the art, and offers the perspectives of nanometrology in relation to ENP studies. Methods Nanometrology is divided into five techniques with regard to the instrumental principle: microscopy, light scattering, spectroscopy, separation, and single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Results Each analytical method has its own drawbacks, such as detection limit, ability to quantify or qualify ENPs, and matrix effects. More than two different analytical methods should be used to better characterize ENPs. Conclusions In characterizing ENPs, the researchers should understand the nanometrology and its demerits, as well as its merits, to properly interpret their experimental results. Challenges lie in the nanometrology and pretreatment of ENPs from various matrices; in the extraction without dissolution or aggregation, and concentration of ENPs to satisfy the instrumental detection limit. PMID:25384386

  18. Environmental Systems Research Candidates FY-01 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David Lynn; Piet, Steven James

    2001-03-01

    The Environmental Systems Research Candidates (ESRC) Program ran from April 2000 through September 2001 as part of the Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). ESRA provides key science and technology to meet the cleanup mission of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM), and performs research and development that will help solve current legacy problems and enhance the INEEL’s scientific and technical capability for solving longer-term challenges. This report documents the accomplishments of the ESRC Program. The ESRC Program consisted of 25 tasks subdivided within four research areas.

  19. Spatial epidemiology of blastomycosis hospitalizations: detecting clusters and identifying environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Amy E; Adjemian, Jennifer; Steiner, Claudia A; Prevots, D Rebecca

    2015-06-01

    Blastomycosis is a disease caused by endemic fungi that ranges from severe pulmonary or disseminated to mild or asymptomatic. Environmental factors associated with it are not well described throughout the endemic area. We used the intramural State Inpatient Database from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and ArcMap GIS to identify geographic high-risk clusters of blastomycosis hospitalizations in 13 states in the US endemic regions (AR, IA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO, MS, OH, TN, and WI). We then used logistic regression to identify risk factors associated with these high-risk clusters. We describe six clusters of counties in which there was an elevated incidence of blastomycosis hospitalizations. We identified maximum mean annual temperature, percentage of persons aged ≥65 years, and mercury and copper soil content as being associated with high-risk clusters. Specifically, the odds of a county being part of a high-risk cluster was associated with increasing percentage of population over age 65, decreasing maximum temperature, increasing mercury, and decreasing copper soil content. Healthcare providers should be aware of these high-risk areas so that blastomycosis can be included, as appropriate, in a differential diagnosis for patients currently or previously residing in these areas.

  20. 40 CFR 18.9 - Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.9 Section 18.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.9 Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Initial appointments to...

  1. 40 CFR 18.4 - Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.4 Section 18.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.4 Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. All...

  2. 40 CFR 18.9 - Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.9 Section 18.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.9 Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Initial appointments to...

  3. 40 CFR 18.5 - Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.5 Section 18.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.5 Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Scholastic and...

  4. 40 CFR 18.9 - Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.9 Section 18.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.9 Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Initial appointments to...

  5. 40 CFR 18.5 - Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.5 Section 18.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.5 Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Scholastic and...

  6. 40 CFR 18.4 - Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.4 Section 18.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.4 Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. All...

  7. 40 CFR 18.9 - Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.9 Section 18.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.9 Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Initial appointments to...

  8. 40 CFR 18.9 - Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.9 Section 18.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.9 Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Initial appointments to...

  9. 40 CFR 18.4 - Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.4 Section 18.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.4 Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. All...

  10. 40 CFR 18.4 - Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.4 Section 18.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.4 Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. All...

  11. 40 CFR 18.5 - Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.5 Section 18.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.5 Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Scholastic and...

  12. 40 CFR 18.5 - Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.5 Section 18.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.5 Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Scholastic and...

  13. 40 CFR 18.5 - Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.5 Section 18.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.5 Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Scholastic and...

  14. 40 CFR 18.4 - Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.4 Section 18.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.4 Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. All...

  15. Environmental Research and Education in US Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarz, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    This article evaluates geography as an appropriate home for environmental education. First, it argues that many geographers have defined geography as a discipline with a major, if not primary, interest in human-environment interactions. Next, it reviews the recent statements by non-geographer, environmental scholars that, directly or indirectly,…

  16. Environmental Research At The Advanced Photon Source

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the importance of probing molecular-scale chemical and physical structure of environmental samples in their natural and often hydrated state, synchrotron radiation has been a powerful tool for environmental scientists for decades. Thus, the crucial role that a highly ...

  17. Complexity and interdisciplinary approaches to environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2013-03-01

    The launch of volume 8 of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) comes at a critical time in terms of innovations and exciting areas of science, but particularly in the areas linking environmental research and action. The most recent climate change Conference of the Parties meeting (COP), in Doha in December 2012, has now come and gone. As has been dissected in the press, very little was accomplished. Some will see this as a failure, as I do, and others will reasonably enough note that this meeting, the 18th such COP was1 never intended to be a milestone moment. The current plan, in fact, is for a 'post-Kyoto' international climate agreement to be adopted only at the COP20 summit in December 2015. As we lead up to COP20, and potentially other regional or national approaches to climate protection, innovations in science, innovations in policy tools, and political commitment must come together. The science of climate change only continues to get clearer and clearer, and bleaker [1]. Later this year the IPCC will release its Fifth Assessment Report, AR5. The draft versions are out for review now. ERL has published a number of papers on climate change science, mitigation and adaptation, but one area where the world needs a particular focus is on the nexus of science and action. A summary of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's findings from the first assessment report (FAR; 1990) to the latest report is presented in figure 1. This graphic is specifically not about the scientific record alone. What is most important about this figure is the juxtaposition of the language of science and the language of ... language. Figure 1. Figure 1. A superposition of the state of climate science in three key data sets, and the dates of the first, second, third and fourth assessment reports (FAR, SAR, TAR, and AR4, respectively) plotted as vertical lines. On the right are the key statements from each of these reports, along with the conclusion of the Special Report on

  18. Studying Environmental Moves and Relocations: A Research Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Robert J.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research on man-environment relations and initiates the process of formulating a research paradigm for studying environmental moves and readjustments. Uses a renovated academic center as a specimen case. (JR)

  19. Prevalence and Epidemiologic Characteristics of FASD From Various Research Methods with an Emphasis on Recent In-School Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Philip A.; Gossage, J. Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Robinson, Luther K.; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Hoyme, H. Eugene

    2009-01-01

    Researching the epidemiology and estimating the prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) for mainstream populations anywhere in the world has presented a challenge to researchers. Three major approaches have been used in the past: surveillance and record review systems, clinic-based studies, and…

  20. Leveraging epidemiology and clinical studies of cancer outcomes: recommendations and opportunities for translational research.

    PubMed

    Elena, Joanne W; Travis, Lois B; Simonds, Naoko I; Ambrosone, Christine B; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Bhatia, Smita; Cerhan, James R; Hartge, Patricia; Heist, Rebecca S; Kushi, Lawrence H; Lash, Timothy L; Morton, Lindsay M; Onel, Kenan; Pierce, John P; Robison, Leslie L; Rowland, Julia H; Schrag, Deborah; Sellers, Thomas A; Seminara, Daniela; Shu, Xiao Ou; Thomas, Nancy E; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Freedman, Andrew N

    2013-01-16

    As the number of cancer survivors continues to grow, research investigating the factors that affect cancer outcomes, such as disease recurrence, risk of second malignant neoplasms, and the late effects of cancer treatments, becomes ever more important. Numerous epidemiologic studies have investigated factors that affect cancer risk, but far fewer have addressed the extent to which demographic, lifestyle, genomic, clinical, and psychosocial factors influence cancer outcomes. To identify research priorities as well as resources and infrastructure needed to advance the field of cancer outcomes and survivorship research, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a workshop titled "Utilizing Data from Cancer Survivor Cohorts: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities" on November 3, 2011, in Washington, DC. This commentary highlights recent findings presented at the workshop, opportunities to leverage existing data, and recommendations for future research, data, and infrastructure needed to address high priority clinical and research questions. Multidisciplinary teams that include epidemiologists, clinicians, biostatisticians, and bioinformaticists will be essential to facilitate future cancer outcome studies focused on improving clinical care of cancer patients, identifying those at high risk of poor outcomes, and implementing effective interventions to ultimately improve the quality and duration of survival.

  1. Age-Adjustment and Related Epidemiology Rates in Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John D.; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence,…

  2. Epidemiological research drives a paradigm shift in complementary feeding - the celiac disease story and lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Nordyke, Katrina; Olsson, Cecilia; Hernell, Olle; Ivarsson, Anneli

    2010-01-01

    Breast milk is the initial natural food for infants, but already during the second half year complementary feeding is essential. Epidemiological research, first on celiac disease and later on atopic diseases, has driven a paradigm shift with respect to most favorable age to introduce complementary feeding. Simplified, this implies a shift from later to earlier introduction, which is now taken into account in recommendations on infant feeding. Complementary feeding, including all foods, should not be initiated for any infant before 4 months of age, and not later than around 6 months, including infants with elevated disease risk (e.g. for celiac disease or atopic diseases). Motivating reasons could be that ongoing breastfeeding provides an 'immunological umbrella' and/ or a different age interval gives a 'window of opportunity' for developing oral tolerance towards gluten and other food antigens. This will for some infants be in conflict with recent WHO recommendations on exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. Epidemiology has evolved over time and could, if increasingly used, contribute even more to innovations in pediatric nutrition and other phenomena related to population health.

  3. Construction and validation of a list of common Middle Eastern surnames for epidemiological research

    PubMed Central

    Nasseri, Kiumarss

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Middle Eastern (ME) population is rapidly growing in the US but cannot be easily identified in cancer registry or other databases for epidemiological research. The purpose of this study was to develop a list of common Middle Eastern surnames and validate it by linking with a cancer registry incidence files. Methods Surnames and place of birth in the Middle East were obtained from various sources. After exclusion of the non-specific entries, the final combined list included 49,610 surnames and was matched with the California Cancer Registry incidence file for 1988-2003. Results Overall, 1.4% of all registered cases were positively identified as ME that is similar to the proportion of ME population in California. Two third of the identified cases had known place of birth in the Middle East and of those, 70% were non-Arabs. The sensitivity of the list in detecting ME birth in men and women are 91% and 86%, respectively. The positive predictive values for men and women are 72% and 65%. The specificity and negative predictive values are universally over 99 percent. Conclusion The high accuracy reported for this Middle Eastern surname list (MESL) makes it a valuable tool for epidemiological studies of this ethnic population. PMID:18023539

  4. 77 FR 28368 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Biological and... Environmental Research Update/highlights from the Biological Systems Science and Climate and...

  5. Environmentally Mediated Risks for Psychopathology: Research Strategies and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To consider the research design requirements needed to provide a rigorous test of environmental mediation hypotheses and to summarize the main findings from research using such designs. Method: Selective review of empirical evidence dealing with psychopathology. Results: There is robust evidence of environmentally mediated risks for…

  6. Endodontic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials. PMID:24688577

  7. PRELIMINARY HEALTH BURDEN ANALYSIS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC RECREATIONAL WATER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study (NEEAR) offers a rare opportunity for researchers. The study's design involves the collection of health data before and after visiting the beach in conjunction with water quality...

  8. Environmental Behavior and Gender: An Emerging Area of Concern for Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakellari, Maria; Skanavis, Constantina

    2013-01-01

    Ecofeminism suggests that women are more active than men regarding environmental issues for a variety of social, cultural, and biological reasons. In support to these arguments, women predominate within the overall grassroots of the Environmental Justice movement. However, claims have been made that environmental education theory and research are…

  9. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), conducted December 14 through 18, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by private contractors. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with SERI. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SERI, and interviews with site personnel. 33 refs., 22 figs., 21 tabs.

  10. An IARC Manual series aimed at assisting cancer epidemiology and prevention. "Environmental carcinogens: selected methods of analysis".

    PubMed

    O'Neill, I K; Fishbein, L

    1986-01-01

    Since 1975, the IARC has been preparing a series of volumes entitled "Environmental Carcinogens: Selected Methods of Analysis" (IARC Manual series) of which the purposes are to assist analysts, epidemiologists and regulatory authorities in planning or performing exposure measurements that are truly comparable between different studies. The Manual series provides expert information within each volume on multi-media sampling, methods of analyses and some background of epidemiology, metabolism, use/occurrence for a group of known or suspect carcinogens. So far, eleven volumes have been published or are in preparation on the following subjects: N-nitrosamines, vinyl chloride, PAH, aromatic amines, mycotoxins, N-nitroso compounds, volatile halogenated hydrocarbons, metals, passive smoking, benzene and alkylated benzenes, dioxins, PCDFs and PCBs. The presentation will discuss needs and priorities for use of analytical chemistry in estimating exposures of apparently greatest relevance to cancer causation, i.e. the approach to developing this series. Indications from epidemiology, evaluations of carcinogenic risk to humans, and recent developments in total exposure assessment are that new methods and matrices need more emphasis, e.g. as with biochemical dosimetry, exhaled breath, and in indoor air.

  11. Amoebae as Potential Environmental Hosts for Mycobacterium ulcerans and Other Mycobacteria, but Doubtful Actors in Buruli Ulcer Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Gryseels, Sophie; Amissah, Diana; Durnez, Lies; Vandelannoote, Koen; Leirs, Herwig; De Jonckheere, Johan; Portaels, Françoise; Ablordey, Anthony; Eddyani, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    Background The reservoir and mode of transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, remain unknown. Ecological, genetic and epidemiological information nonetheless suggests that M. ulcerans may reside in aquatic protozoa. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally infected Acanthamoeba polyphaga with M. ulcerans and found that the bacilli were phagocytised, not digested and remained viable for the duration of the experiment. Furthermore, we collected 13 water, 90 biofilm and 45 detritus samples in both Buruli ulcer endemic and non-endemic communities in Ghana, from which we cultivated amoeboid protozoa and mycobacteria. M. ulcerans was not isolated, but other mycobacteria were as frequently isolated from intracellular as from extracellular sources, suggesting that they commonly infect amoebae in nature. We screened the samples as well as the amoeba cultures for the M. ulcerans markers IS2404, IS2606 and KR-B. IS2404 was detected in 2% of the environmental samples and in 4% of the amoeba cultures. The IS2404 positive amoeba cultures included up to 5 different protozoan species, and originated both from Buruli ulcer endemic and non-endemic communities. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of experimental infection of amoebae with M. ulcerans and of the detection of the marker IS2404 in amoeba cultures isolated from the environment. We conclude that amoeba are potential natural hosts for M. ulcerans, yet remain sceptical about their implication in the transmission of M. ulcerans to humans and their importance in the epidemiology of Buruli ulcer. PMID:22880141

  12. Environmental-performance research priorities: Wood products. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-15

    This report describes a research plan to establish environmental, energy, and economic performance measures for renewable building materials, and to identify management and technology alternatives to improve environmental performance in a cost-effective manner. The research plan is designed to: (1) collect environmental and economic data on all life-cycle stages of the materials, (2) ensure that the data follows consistent definitions and collection procedures, and (3) develop analytical procedures for life-cycle analysis to address environmental performance questions. The research will be subdivided into a number of individual project modules. The five processing stages of wood used to organize the research plan are: (1) resource management and harvesting; (2) processing; (3) design and construction of structures; (4) use, maintenance, and disposal; and (5) waste recycling. Individual research module descriptions are provided in the report, as well as assessment techniques, research standards and protocol, and research management. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Challenges and opportunities in international molecular cancer prevention research: An ASPO Molecular Epidemiology and the Environment and International Cancer Prevention Interest Groups Report.

    PubMed

    Epplein, Meira; Bostick, Roberd M; Mu, Lina; Ogino, Shuji; Braithwaite, Dejana; Kanetsky, Peter A

    2014-11-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer estimates that over half of the new cancer cases and almost two-thirds of the cancer deaths in 2012 occurred in low and middle income countries. To discuss the challenges and opportunities to reducing the burden of cancer worldwide, the Molecular Epidemiology and the Environment and the International Issues in Cancer Special Interest Groups joined forces to hold a session during the 38th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Preventive Oncology (March 2014, Arlington, Virginia). The session highlighted three topics of particular interest to molecular cancer prevention researchers working internationally, specifically: 1) biomarkers in cancer research; 2) environmental exposures and cancer; and 3) molecular pathological epidemiology. A major factor for successful collaboration illuminated during the discussion was the need for strong, committed, and reliable international partners. A key element of establishing such relationships is to thoroughly involve individual international collaborators in the development of the research question; engaged international collaborators are particularly motivated to champion and shepherd the project through all necessary steps, including issues relating to institutional review boards, political sensitivity, laboratory-based assays, and tumor subtyping. Also essential is allotting time for the building, maintaining, and investing in such relationships so that successful international collaborations may take root and bloom. While there are many challenges inherent to international molecular cancer research, the opportunities for furthering the science and prevention of cancer worldwide are great, particularly at this time of increasing cancer incidence and prevalence in low and middle income countries.

  14. About the Western Ecology Division (WED) of EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Western Ecology Division (WED) conducts innovative research on watershed ecological epidemiology and the development of tools to achieve sustainable and resilient watersheds for application by stakeholders.

  15. Environmental research program: FY 1987, annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    This multidisciplinary research program includes fundamental and applied research in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology, as well as research on the development of advanced methods of measurement and analysis. The Program's Annual Report contains summaries of research performed during FY 1987 in the areas of atmospheric aerosols, flue gas chemistry, combustion, membrane bioenergetics, and analytical chemistry. The main research interests of the Atmospheric Aerosol Research group concern the chemical and physical processes that occur in haze, clouds, and fogs. For their studies, the group is developing novel analytical and research methods for characterizing aerosol species. Aerosol research is performed in the laboratory and in the field. Studies of smoke emissions from fires and their possible effects on climatic change, especially as related to nuclear winter, are an example of the collaboration between the Atmospheric Aerosol Research and Combustion Research Groups.

  16. Current Research in Environmental Education. ERIC/SMEAC Environmental Education Digest No. 1, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disinger, John F.

    This digest describes a selection of environmental education research studies that were included in the ERIC system in 1985. It is noted that much of the reported research in environmental education continues to deal with the affective domain, but that there are stronger efforts toward relating affective components with knowledge gain,…

  17. Recent Advances in Our Understanding of the Environmental, Epidemiological, Immunological, and Clinical Dimensions of Coccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Chinh; Barker, Bridget Marie; Hoover, Susan; Nix, David E.; Ampel, Neil M.; Frelinger, Jeffrey A.; Orbach, Marc J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Coccidioidomycosis is the endemic mycosis caused by the fungal pathogens Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii. This review is a summary of the recent advances that have been made in the understanding of this pathogen, including its mycology, genetics, and niche in the environment. Updates on the epidemiology of the organism emphasize that it is a continuing, significant problem in areas of endemicity. For a variety of reasons, the number of reported coccidioidal infections has increased dramatically over the past decade. While continual improvements in the fields of organ transplantation and management of autoimmune disorders and patients with HIV have led to dilemmas with concurrent infection with coccidioidomycosis, they have also led to advances in the understanding of the human immune response to infection. There have been some advances in therapeutics with the increased use of newer azoles. Lastly, there is an overview of the ongoing search for a preventative vaccine. PMID:23824371

  18. [PARI-ETLD (Therapeutic Approach and Nursing Research -- Epidemiology and Treatment of Decubitus Lesions].

    PubMed

    Di Giulio, P; Saiani, L; Laquintana, D; Palese, A; Bellingeri, A

    2001-01-01

    Pressure sores are one of the preferred nursing research topics but, in spite of the large number of studies, most questions related to the prevention and treatment of pressure sores remain unanswered. Well designed clinical trials and on sufficiently large samples are very rare and most treatments are routinely used even without a reliable evidence of their efficacy. The PARI-ETLD trial is the occasion for: a. evaluating the efficacy of the Fitostimoline, in the ri-epitelization of superficial pressure sores; b. starting a clinical trial conducted by nurses; c. building a multicentre nursing network for collecting data on the epidemiology of pressure sores and for evaluating the effectiveness of caring strategies and treatments. The protocol presented, with the data collection forms, is an example of feasibility of clinical trials in the nursing practice and offers examples of ways for overcoming common problems related to the implementation of clinical trials in everyday practice.

  19. [Drinking water hardness and chronic degenerative diseases. I. Analysis of epidemiological research].

    PubMed

    Nardi, G; Donato, F; Monarca, S; Gelatti, U

    2003-01-01

    For many years a causal relation between drinking water hardness and cardiovascular or other chronic degenerative diseases in humans has been hypothesized. In order to evaluate the association between the concentration of minerals (calcium and magnesium) responsible for the hardness of drinking water and human health, a review of all the articles published on the subject from 1980 up to today has been carried out. The retrieved articles have been divided into 4 categories: geographic correlation studies, cross-sectional studies, case-control and cohort studies, and clinical trials. The methods for the selection of the articles and the extraction and analysis of the data are detailed in this paper. Epidemiological studies have been reviewed critically, and some conclusions have been drawn taking into account the research in basic sciences and experimental studies. However, a formal meta-analysis has not been performed, due to the heterogeneity of measures of effect among the different studies.

  20. The Epidemiology of Traumatic Brain Injury in Children and Youths: A Review of Research Since 1990.

    PubMed

    Thurman, David J

    2016-01-01

    This report reviews recent research on the epidemiology of traumatic brain injuries among children and youth aged 0 to 20 years. Studies representing populations in North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand yield these median estimates of the annual incidence of childhood brain injuries: 691 per 100 000 population treated in emergency departments, 74 per 100 000 treated in hospital, and 9 per 100 000 resulting in death. Males have a higher risk of injury than females: 1.4 times higher among those aged less than 10 years and 2.2 times among those older than 10 years. The leading cause of injury among children aged less than 5 years is falls, whereas the leading cause of injury among youths aged 15 years and older is motor vehicle crashes. The prevalence of disability among all persons who have sustained traumatic brain injury in childhood is unknown, but among those who were hospitalized could approximate 20%.

  1. Randomized controlled trials in environmental health research: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2008-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are becoming increasingly common in environmental health research. Like all studies involving human subjects, environmental health RCTs raise many ethical challenges, ranging from obtaining informed consent to minimizing risks to protecting privacy and confidentiality. One of the most important issues raised by these studies is whether it is ethical to withhold effective environmental health interventions from research subjects in order to satisfy scientific objectives. Although environmental health investigators usually do not have professional obligations to provide medical care to research subjects, they have ethical obligations to avoid exploiting them. Withholding interventions from research subjects can be ethical, provided that it does not lead to exploitation of individuals or groups. To avoid exploiting individuals or groups, investigators should ensure that research subjects and study populations receive a fair share of the benefits of research.

  2. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marley, Andrew R; Nan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is currently the third deadliest cancer in the United States and will claim an estimated 49,190 U.S. lives in 2016. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of this disease, based on nationally published statistics and information presented in peer-reviewed journal articles. Specifically, this review will cover the following topics: descriptive epidemiology (including time and disease trends both in the United States and abroad), risk factors (environmental, genetic, and gene-environment interactions), screening, prevention and control, and treatment. Landmark discoveries in colorectal cancer risk factor research will also be presented. Based on the information reviewed for this report, we suggest that future U.S. public health efforts aim to increase colorectal cancer screening among African American communities, and that future worldwide colorectal cancer epidemiology studies should focus on researching nutrient-gene interactions towards the goal of improving personalized treatment and prevention strategies. PMID:27766137

  3. [A review of thirty years of activity of the Research Program in Psychiatric Epidemiology (PEPSI) of the CONICET].

    PubMed

    Pavlovsky, Federico

    2003-01-01

    This article summarizes the activity of the Programa de Investigaciones en Epidemiología Psiquiátrica (PEPSI) (Research Program in Psychiatric Epidemiology) of the CONICET, directed for more than thirty years by Fernando Pages Larraya. After an anthropologic psychiatric experience done in the Gran Chaco Gualamba, by the end of the 60s, Pages Larraya and his team developed the theory of Cultural Isoidias, zones into which the country could be divided for epidemiologic studies. This article summarizes some of the principal lines of investigation of this program which departures from an initial study of the prevalence of mental diseases in Argentina. Other lines of research (such as a study about marginality, about Alzheimer's disease, about alcoholism and about AIDS) are summarized very briefly so as to give the reader an idea about the enormous field of study embraced by the PEPSI.

  4. Faith Moves Mountains-Mountains Move Faith: Two Opposite Epidemiological Forces in Research on Religion and Health.

    PubMed

    Hvidt, N C; Hvidtjørn, D; Christensen, K; Nielsen, J B; Søndergaard, J

    2017-02-01

    Research suggests opposite epidemiological forces in religion and health: (1). Faith seems to move mountains in the sense that religion is associated with positive health outcomes. (2). Mountains of bad health seem to move faith. We reflected on these forces in a population of 3000 young Danish twins in which all religiosity measures were associated with severe disease. We believe the reason for this novel finding is that the sample presents as a particularly secular population-based study and that the second epidemiological force has gained the upper hand in this sample. We suggest that all cross-sectional research on religion and health should be interpreted in light of such opposite epidemiological forces potentially diluting each other.

  5. What Research Says: Environmental Education's Definitional Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disinger, John F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses problems related to defining environmental education (EE), examining historical attempts to define EE and EE's forerunners and/or concurrent companions (including resource-use, progressive resource management, and population education). Indicates that although unanimity of agreement results from problems of communication and "turf…

  6. Review of Research on Environmental Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunig, James E.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews existing knowledge on the behavior of public relations practitioners in environmental problems, public concern and media coverage of pollution and deterioation of the natural environment. Available from: Public Relations Review, Ray Hiebert, Dean, College of Journalism, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. (MH)

  7. NASA Airspace Systems Environmentally Focused Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavolowsky, John

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation focuses on how the Next Generation Air Space System can assist in reducing environmental pollution and reduced fuel consumption. By modifying some of the current aviation practices such as the dive and drive descent and making more efficient air traffic flow, the new system can assist in noise reduction, emissions reductions and reduce delays in routing and improve operational efficiency

  8. Invasive aspergillosis: epidemiology and environmental study in haematology patients (Sfax, Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Hadrich, I; Makni, F; Sellami, H; Cheikhrouhou, F; Sellami, A; Bouaziz, H; Hdiji, S; Elloumi, M; Ayadi, A

    2010-09-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a major opportunistic infection in haematology patients. Preventive measures are important to control IA because diagnosis is difficult and the outcome of treatment is poor. We prospectively examined the environmental contamination by Aspergillus and other fungal species and evaluated the prevalence of invasive aspergillosis in the protect unit of haematology. A three-year prospective study (December 2004-September 2007) was carried out in the department of haematology of Hedi Chaker Hospital. Suspected invasive aspergillosis cases were reviewed and classified as proven, probable and possible invasive aspergillosis using the EORTC criteria. During the study period, we collected weekly environmental samples (patient's rooms, tables and acclimatisers) and clinical samples from each patient (nasal, expectoration and auricular). Among 105 neutropenic patients, 16 had probable and 13 had possible IA. A total of 1680 clinical samples were collected and A. flavus was most frequently isolated (79.2%). Analysis of 690 environmental samples revealed that Penicillium (44%) was the most frequent followed by Cladosporium (20%), Aspergillus spp. (18%) and Alternaria (13%). The PCR-sequencing of 30 A. flavus isolates detected from clinical and environmental samples confirmed the mycological identification. Our findings underline the importance of environmental surveillance and strict application of preventive measures.

  9. Status of epidemiology in the WHO South-East Asia region: burden of disease, determinants of health and epidemiological research, workforce and training capacity

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Preet K; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Arora, Narendra K; Mathur, Prashant; Maskey, Mahesh; Sukirna, Ratna Djuwita; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2012-01-01

    Background The South-East Asia region (SEAR) accounts for one-quarter of the world's population, 40% of the global poor and ∼30% of the global disease burden, with a disproportionately large share of tuberculosis (35%), injuries (30%), maternal (33%) and <5-year-old mortality (30%). In this article, we describe the disease burden and status of epidemiological research and capacity in the SEAR to understand, analyse and develop capacity in response to the diverse burdens of diseases in the region. Methods Data on morbidity, mortality, risk factors, social determinants, research capacity, health education, workforce and systems in the SEAR were obtained using global data on burden of disease, peer-reviewed journals, World Health Organization (WHO) technical and advisory reports, and where available, validated country reports and key informants from the region. Results SEAR countries are afflicted with a triple burden of disease—infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases and injuries. Of the seven WHO regions, SEAR countries account for the highest proportion of global mortality (26%) and due to relatively younger ages at death, the second highest percentage of total years of life lost (30%). The SEAR exceeds the global average annual mortality rate for all three broad cause groupings—communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions (334 vs 230 per 100 000); non-communicable diseases (676 vs 573 per 100 000); and injuries (101 vs 78 per 100 000). Poverty, education and other social determinants of health are strongly linked to inequities in health among SEAR countries and within socio-economic subgroups. India, Thailand and Bangladesh produce two-thirds of epidemiology publications in the region. Significant efforts to increase health workforce capacity, research and training have been undertaken in the region, yet considerable heterogeneity in resources and capacity remains. Conclusions Health systems, statistics and surveillance

  10. Empirical research on international environmental migration: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Obokata, Reiko; Veronis, Luisa; McLeman, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a systematic review of scholarly publications that report empirical findings from studies of environmentally-related international migration. There exists a small, but growing accumulation of empirical studies that consider environmentally-linked migration that spans international borders. These studies provide useful evidence for scholars and policymakers in understanding how environmental factors interact with political, economic and social factors to influence migration behavior and outcomes that are specific to international movements of people, in highlighting promising future research directions, and in raising important considerations for international policymaking. Our review identifies countries of migrant origin and destination that have so far been the subject of empirical research, the environmental factors believed to have influenced these migrations, the interactions of environmental and non-environmental factors as well as the role of context in influencing migration behavior, and the types of methods used by researchers. In reporting our findings, we identify the strengths and challenges associated with the main empirical approaches, highlight significant gaps and future opportunities for empirical work, and contribute to advancing understanding of environmental influences on international migration more generally. Specifically, we propose an exploratory framework to take into account the role of context in shaping environmental migration across borders, including the dynamic and complex interactions between environmental and non-environmental factors at a range of scales.

  11. Applied Science Division annual report, Environmental Research Program FY 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, E.J.; Novakov, T.

    1984-05-01

    The primary concern of the Environmental Research Program is the understanding of pollutant formation, transport, and transformation and the impacts of pollutants on the environment. These impacts include global, regional, and local effects on the atmosphere and hydrosphere, and on certain aspects of human health. This multidisciplinary research program includes fundamental and applied research in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology, as well as research on the development of advanced methods of measurement and analysis. During FY 1983, research concentrated on atmospheric physics and chemistry, applied physics and laser spectroscopy, combustion theory and phenomena, environmental effects of oil shale processing, freshwater ecology and acid precipitation, trace element analysis for the investigation of present and historical environmental impacts, and a continuing survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring.

  12. Environmental Research Division technical progress report: January 1986--October 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    Technical process in the various research activities of Argonne National Laboratory's Environmental Research Division is reported for the period 1986-1987. Textual, graphic, and tabular information is used to briefly summarize (in separate chapters) the work of the Division's Atmospheric Physics, Environmental Effects Research, Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, and Organic Geochemistry and Environmental Instrumentation Programs. Information on professional qualifications, awards, and outstanding professional activities of staff members, as well as lists of publications, oral presentations, special events organized, and participants in educational programs, are provided in appendices at the end of each chapter. Individual projects under each division are processed separately for the data bases.

  13. Environmental Research Division technical progress report, January 1984-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    Technical progress in the various research and assessment activities of Argonne National Laboratory's Environmental Research Division is reported for the period 1984 to 1985. Textual, graphic, and tabular information is used to briefly summarize (in separate chapters) the work of the Division's Atmospheric Physics, Environmental Effects Research, Environmental Impacts, Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, and Waste Management Programs. Information on professional qualifications, awards, and outstanding professional activities of staff members, as well as lists of publications, oral presentations, special events organized, and participants in educational programs, are provided in appendices at the end of each chapter.

  14. Environmental Sciences Division: Summaries of research in FY 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This document describes the Fiscal Year 1996 activities and products of the Environmental Sciences Division, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research. The report is organized into four main sections. The introduction identifies the basic program structure, describes the programs of the Environmental Sciences Division, and provides the level of effort for each program area. The research areas and project descriptions section gives program contact information, and provides descriptions of individual research projects including: three-year funding history, research objective and approach used in each project, and results to date. Appendixes provide postal and e-mail addresses for principal investigators and define acronyms used in the text. The indexes provide indexes of principal investigators, research institutions, and keywords for easy reference. Research projects are related to climatic change and remedial action.

  15. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  16. Epidemiologic and environmental risk factors of rift valley fever in southern Africa from 2008 to 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever outbreaks have been associated with periods of widespread and above average rainfall over several months which allows for the virus infected mosquito vector populations to emerge and propagate. This has provided basis to develop complex models based on environmental fa...

  17. Epidemiologic tools to study the influence of environmental factors on fecundity and pregnancy-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Slama, Rémy; Ballester, Ferran; Casas, Maribel; Cordier, Sylvaine; Eggesbø, Merete; Iniguez, Carmen; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Philippat, Claire; Rey, Sylvie; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Vrijheid, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Adverse pregnancy outcomes entail a large health burden for the mother and offspring; a part of it might be avoided by better understanding the role of environmental factors in their etiology. Our aims were to review the assessment tools to characterize fecundity troubles and pregnancy-related outcomes in human populations and their sensitivity to environmental factors. For each outcome, we reviewed the possible study designs, main sources of bias, and their suggested cures. In terms of study design, for most pregnancy outcomes, cohorts with recruitment early during or even before pregnancy allow efficient characterization of pregnancy-related events, time-varying confounders, and in utero exposures that may impact birth outcomes and child health. Studies on congenital anomalies require specific designs, assessment of anomalies in medical pregnancy terminations, and, for congenital anomalies diagnosed postnatally, follow-up during several months after birth. Statistical analyses should take into account environmental exposures during the relevant time windows; survival models are an appropriate approach for fecundity, fetal loss, and gestational duration/preterm delivery. Analysis of gestational duration could distinguish pregnancies according to delivery induction (and possibly pregnancy-related conditions). In conclusion, careful design and analysis are required to better characterize environmental effects on human reproduction.

  18. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report.

  19. Environmental Research Puts Science into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaikowski, Lori; Lichtman, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The new paradigm for student research should be articulations and collaborations with local governmental, academic, and civic entities. This will enable students to make lasting contributions to bettering their communities through scientific research, and to better understand the practical relevance of science. This article presents two such…

  20. TBE--awareness and protection: the impact of epidemiology, changing lifestyle, and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Kunze, Ursula

    2010-05-01

    The International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE) held its 12th Annual Meeting in January 2010. The international awareness among the issue of TBE is on the rise, as the European Center for Disease Control considers TBE of high relevance and has launched a series of activities aimed at improving awareness of this tick-transmissible infection and also the World Health Organization has taken up the cause of TBE. The epidemiology of TBE in Europe is characterized by two distinct trends, i.e., a consistent expansion of risk areas on the one hand and major fluctuations in case numbers on the other. TBE risk areas have spread both northward and to higher altitudes - a development thought to be attributable to climate changes having created more favorable living conditions for ticks. Social, political, ecological, economic, and demographic factors also have a role in this development. Preliminary data from 12 European countries show that TBE case numbers in 2009 amounted to 95.8% of those reported in 2006 when Russia is included and to 88% of 2006 data when Russia is excluded. Overall, the level of knowledge of TBE in endemic countries is quite high, but actual vaccination coverage has not kept pace.

  1. A reconsideration of the role of self-identified races in epidemiology and biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Ludovica; Bacchini, Fabio

    2015-08-01

    A considerable number of studies in epidemiology and biomedicine investigate the etiology of complex diseases by considering (self-identified) race as a relevant variable and focusing on the differences in risk among racial groups in the United States; they extensively draw on a genetic hypothesis--viz. the hypothesis that differences in the risk of complex diseases among racial groups are largely due to genetic differences covarying with genetic ancestry--that appears highly problematic in the light of both current biological evidence and the theory of human genome evolution. Is this reason for dismissing self-identified races? No. An alternative promising use of self-identified races exists, and ironically is suggested by those studies that investigate the etiology of complex diseases without focusing on racial differences. These studies provide a large amount of empirical evidence supporting the primacy of the contribution of non-genetic as opposed to genetic factors to the risk of complex diseases. We show that differences in race--or, better, in racial self-identification--may be critically used as proxies for differences in risk-related exposomes and epigenomes in the context of the United States. Self-identified race is what we need to capture the complexity of the effects of present and past racism on people's health and investigate risk-related external and internal exposures, gene-environment interactions, and epigenetic events. In fact patterns of racial self-identifications on one side, and patterns of risk-related exposomes and epigenomes on the other side, constantly coevolve and tend to match each other. However, there is no guarantee that using self-identified races in epidemiology and biomedical research will be beneficial all things considered: special attention must be paid at balancing positive and negative consequences.

  2. The School Psychologist's Primer on Childhood Depression: A Review of Research Regarding Epidemiology, Etiology, Assessment, and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruderman, Matthew A.; Stifel, Skye W. F.; O'Malley, Meagan; Jimerson, Shane R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide school psychologists with a synthesis of important information regarding the epidemiology, etiology, assessment, and treatment of childhood depression. A review of the recent research and relevant literature is summarized reflecting the contemporary knowledge regarding depression during childhood and…

  3. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  4. Engaging Children: Research Issues around Participation and Environmental Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacking, Elisabeth Barratt; Barratt, Robert; Scott, William

    2007-01-01

    In this article we explore a number of issues arising from the papers in this special issue of "Environmental Education Research." The papers focus on current examples of childhood environment research in the UK together with research reviews from the UK, the US and Australia. In order to provide a framework for considering and…

  5. Genome wide association for substance dependence: convergent results from epidemiologic and research volunteer samples

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Catherine; Drgon, Tomas; Liu, Qing-Rong; Zhang, Ping-Wu; Walther, Donna; Li, Chuan-Yun; Anthony, James C; Ding, Yulan; Eaton, William W; Uhl, George R

    2008-01-01

    Background Dependences on addictive substances are substantially-heritable complex disorders whose molecular genetic bases have been partially elucidated by studies that have largely focused on research volunteers, including those recruited in Baltimore. Maryland. Subjects recruited from the Baltimore site of the Epidemiological Catchment Area (ECA) study provide a potentially-useful comparison group for possible confounding features that might arise from selecting research volunteer samples of substance dependent and control individuals. We now report novel SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) genome wide association (GWA) results for vulnerability to substance dependence in ECA participants, who were initially ascertained as members of a probability sample from Baltimore, and compare the results to those from ethnically-matched Baltimore research volunteers. Results We identify substantial overlap between the home address zip codes reported by members of these two samples. We find overlapping clusters of SNPs whose allele frequencies differ with nominal significance between substance dependent vs control individuals in both samples. These overlapping clusters of nominally-positive SNPs identify 172 genes in ways that are never found by chance in Monte Carlo simulation studies. Comparison with data from human expressed sequence tags suggests that these genes are expressed in brain, especially in hippocampus and amygdala, to extents that are greater than chance. Conclusion The convergent results from these probability sample and research volunteer sample datasets support prior genome wide association results. They fail to support the idea that large portions of the molecular genetic results for vulnerability to substance dependence derive from factors that are limited to research volunteers. PMID:19094236

  6. Environmental Justice Research: Contemporary Issues and Emerging Topics.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E

    2016-11-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research seeks to document and redress the disproportionate environmental burdens and benefits associated with social inequalities. Although its initial focus was on disparities in exposure to anthropogenic pollution, the scope of EJ research has expanded. In the context of intensifying social inequalities and environmental problems, there is a need to further strengthen the EJ research framework and diversify its application. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) incorporates 19 articles that broaden EJ research by considering emerging topics such as energy, food, drinking water, flooding, sustainability, and gender dynamics, including issues in Canada, the UK, and Eastern Europe. Additionally, the articles contribute to three research themes: (1) documenting connections between unjust environmental exposures and health impacts by examining unsafe infrastructure, substance use, and children's obesity and academic performance; (2) promoting and achieving EJ by implementing interventions to improve environmental knowledge and health, identifying avenues for sustainable community change, and incorporating EJ metrics in government programs; and (3) clarifying stakeholder perceptions of EJ issues to extend research beyond the documentation of unjust conditions and processes. Collectively, the articles highlight potentially compounding injustices and an array of approaches being employed to achieve EJ.

  7. Environmental Justice Research: Contemporary Issues and Emerging Topics

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Collins, Timothy W.; Grineski, Sara E.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research seeks to document and redress the disproportionate environmental burdens and benefits associated with social inequalities. Although its initial focus was on disparities in exposure to anthropogenic pollution, the scope of EJ research has expanded. In the context of intensifying social inequalities and environmental problems, there is a need to further strengthen the EJ research framework and diversify its application. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) incorporates 19 articles that broaden EJ research by considering emerging topics such as energy, food, drinking water, flooding, sustainability, and gender dynamics, including issues in Canada, the UK, and Eastern Europe. Additionally, the articles contribute to three research themes: (1) documenting connections between unjust environmental exposures and health impacts by examining unsafe infrastructure, substance use, and children’s obesity and academic performance; (2) promoting and achieving EJ by implementing interventions to improve environmental knowledge and health, identifying avenues for sustainable community change, and incorporating EJ metrics in government programs; and (3) clarifying stakeholder perceptions of EJ issues to extend research beyond the documentation of unjust conditions and processes. Collectively, the articles highlight potentially compounding injustices and an array of approaches being employed to achieve EJ. PMID:27809294

  8. Investigating the Benefits of Participatory Action Research for Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bywater, Krista

    2014-01-01

    Environmental education (EE) continues to focus on enhancing people's ecological knowledge to encourage sustainable actions. This deficit approach presumes that once informed about environmental harms, people will work towards sustainable solutions for healthy societies. Yet research overwhelmingly demonstrates that knowledge of environmental…

  9. Asthma in Urban Children: Epidemiology, Environmental Risk Factors, and the Public Health Domain.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Ki Lee; Matsui, Elizabeth; Sharma, Hemant

    2016-04-01

    Asthma is the most commonly reported chronic condition of childhood in developed countries, with 6.5 million children affected in the USA. A disparate burden of childhood asthma is seen among socioeconomically disadvantaged youth, often concentrated in urban areas with high poverty rates. Host factors that predispose a child to asthma include atopy, male gender, parental history of asthma, and also race, ethnicity, and genetic and epigenetic susceptibilities. Environmental factors, such as improved hygiene, ambient air pollution, and early life exposures to microbes and aeroallergens, also influence the development of asthma. With greater than 90% of time spent indoors, home exposures (such as cockroach, rodent, and indoor air pollution) are highly relevant for urban asthma. Morbidity reduction may require focused public health initiatives for environmental intervention in high priority risk groups and the addition of immune modulatory agents in children with poorly controlled disease.

  10. Epidemiology of Chronic Wasting Disease: PrPres Detection, Shedding, and Environmental Contamination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    environmental contamination that may be associated with CWD transmission. Protease resistant prion protein from brains of CWD affected deer and elk...vivo. We have now identified several protein biomarkers as indicators of prion infection in urine from deer and elk. As the grant ends we have...to develop an extremely sensitive assay for the infective prion protein. We have made substantial progress since the start of the grant period but

  11. Epidemiologic and Environmental Risk Factors of Rift Valley Fever in Southern Africa from 2008 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Glancey, Margaret M.; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have been associated with periods of widespread and above-normal rainfall over several months. Knowledge on the environmental factors influencing disease transmission dynamics has provided the basis for developing models to predict RVF outbreaks in Africa. From 2008 to 2011, South Africa experienced the worst wave of RVF outbreaks in almost 40 years. We investigated rainfall-associated environmental factors in southern Africa preceding these outbreaks. Methods: RVF epizootic records obtained from the World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID), documenting livestock species affected, location, and time, were analyzed. Environmental variables including rainfall and satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data were collected and assessed in outbreak regions to understand the underlying drivers of the outbreaks. Results: The predominant domestic vertebrate species affected in 2008 and 2009 were cattle, when outbreaks were concentrated in the eastern provinces of South Africa. In 2010 and 2011, outbreaks occurred in the interior and southern provinces affecting over 16,000 sheep. The highest number of cases occurred between January and April but epidemics occurred in different regions every year, moving from the northeast of South Africa toward the southwest with each progressing year. The outbreaks showed a pattern of increased rainfall preceding epizootics ranging from 9 to 152 days; however, NDVI and rainfall were less correlated with the start of the outbreaks than has been observed in eastern Africa. Conclusions: Analyses of the multiyear RVF outbreaks of 2008 to 2011 in South Africa indicated that rainfall, NDVI, and other environmental and geographical factors, such as land use, drainage, and topography, play a role in disease emergence. Current and future investigations into these factors will be able to contribute to improving spatial accuracy of models to map risk areas

  12. An Overview Of Current Research At The Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of the current research at the Environmental Protection Agency. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT ROGER B. YEARDLEY, JR., LAND REMEDIATION AND POLLUTION CONTROL DIVISION, 513-569-7548.

  13. Green Infrastructure Research and Demonstration at the Edison Environmental Center

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will review the need for storm water control practices and will present a portion of the green infrastructure research and demonstration being performed at the Edison Environmental Center.

  14. Molecular epidemiology in cancer risk assessment and prevention: recent progress and avenues for future research.

    PubMed Central

    Wogan, G N

    1992-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology is increasingly being applied in studies of cancer risks derived from exposure to environmental carcinogens of both endogenous and exogenous origins. Analytical methods have been developed that are capable of detecting and quantifying levels of covalent adducts of several important classes of carcinogens with cellular DNA and blood proteins. Methods of sufficient sensitivity and specificity to detect ambient levels of exposure are in current use. These are being used in studies related to tobacco use (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, tobacco-specific nitrosamines); dietary exposures (aflatoxins, N-nitrosamines, heterocyclic amines); medicinal exposures (cisplatin, alkylating agents, 8-methoxypsoralen, ultraviolet photoproducts); occupational exposures (aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, oxides of ethylene and styrene, and vinyl chloride); and oxidative damage (8-hydroxyguanine, thymine glycol). Methodologic improvements together with their expanded use in feasibility studies continue to produce results that support the validity of this approach for detecting and quantifying exposure to carcinogens. Genetic markers are also being used to detect early biological responses in efforts to link carcinogen exposure to initiating events in the carcinogenesis process. These include, in addition to traditional cytogenetic markers (e.g., chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchange, micronuclei), other alterations in chromosomal structure such as restriction fragment length polymorphisms, loss of heterozygosity, and translocation markers. Specific genetic changes have recently been identified as critical molecular events in the initiation and development of many cancers. Important among these are activation of oncogenes, especially those of the ras family, and inactivation of tumor-suppressor genes (e.g., p53 and Rb) by point mutations and/or chromosomal deletions and other structural changes. Although some of

  15. Directions for environmentally biodegradable polymer research

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G. )

    1993-03-01

    A major factor promoting interest in biodegradable polymers is the growing concern raised by the recalcitrance and unknown environmental fate of many of the currently used synthetic polymers. These polymers include both water-soluble and water-insoluble types. The former are generally specialty polymers with functional groups that effect water solubility such as carboxyl, hydroxyl, amido, etc.; the latter are usually nonfunctional polymers commonly referred to as commodity plastics. Both types of polymers are widely used in many applications. Water-soluble polymers are used, for example, in cosmetics, water treatment, dispersants, thickeners, detergents, and superabsorbents, and they include poly(acrylic acid), polyacrylamide, poly(vinyl alcohol), and poly(ethylene glycol). Plastics are used in packaging, disposable diaper backing, fishing nets, and agricultural film; they include polymers such as polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(ethylene terephthalate), and Nylon 6.6. In this Account, the author presents a personal perspective on definitions and test protocols for biodegradable polymers as well as how they will influence the future direction and developments in the field. However, before doing so he digresses briefly to present a commentary on the role of biodegradable polymers in environmental waste management. This should be useful for those readers unfamiliar with the subject, and it will set the stage for the rest of the discussion. 36 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Extending Lkn Climate Regionalization with Spatial Regularization: AN Application to Epidemiological Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liss, Alexander; Gel, Yulia R.; Kulinkina, Alexandra; Naumova, Elena N.

    2016-06-01

    Regional climate is a critical factor in public health research, adaptation studies, climate change burden analysis, and decision support frameworks. Existing climate regionalization schemes are not well suited for these tasks as they rarely take population density into account. In this work, we are extending our recently developed method for automated climate regionalization (LKN-method) to incorporate the spatial features of target population. The LKN method consists of the data limiting step (L-step) to reduce dimensionality by applying principal component analysis, a classification step (K-step) to produce hierarchical candidate regions using k-means unsupervised classification algorithm, and a nomination step (N-step) to determine the number of candidate climate regions using cluster validity indexes. LKN method uses a comprehensive set of multiple satellite data streams, arranged as time series, and allows us to define homogeneous climate regions. The proposed approach extends the LKN method to include regularization terms reflecting the spatial distribution of target population. Such tailoring allows us to determine the optimal number and spatial distribution of climate regions and thus, to ensure more uniform population coverage across selected climate categories. We demonstrate how the extended LKN method produces climate regionalization can be better tailored to epidemiological research in the context of decision support framework.

  17. NASA Integrated Systems Research with an Environmental Focus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Jean; Collier, Fay

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) with a focus on the work being done on reduction of environmental impact from aeronautics. The focus of the ISRP is to Conduct research at an integrated system-level on promising concepts and technologies and explore, assess, or demonstrate the benefits in a relevant environment. The presentation reviews the criteria for an ISRP project, and discusses the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project, and the technical challenges.

  18. Environmental Sciences Division: Summaries of research in FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This report focuses on research in global change, as well as environmental remediation. Global change research investigates the following: distribution and balance of radiative heat energy; identification of the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases; and prediction of changes in the climate and concomitant ecological effects. Environmental remediation develops the basic understanding needed to remediate soils, sediments, and ground water that have undergone radioactive and chemical contamination.

  19. Applying environmental product design to biomedical products research.

    PubMed Central

    Messelbeck, J; Sutherland, L

    2000-01-01

    The principal themes for the Biomedical Research and the Environment Conference Committee on Environmental Economics in Biomedical Research include the following: healthcare delivery companies and biomedical research organizations, both nonprofit and for-profit, need to improve their environmental performance; suppliers of healthcare products will be called upon to support this need; and improving the environmental profile of healthcare products begins in research and development (R&D). The committee report begins with requirements from regulatory authorities (e.g., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], the U.S. Food and Drug Administration), and the healthcare delivery sector). The 1998 American Hospital Association and EPA Memorandum of Understanding to reduce solid waste and mercury from healthcare facilities is emblematic of these requirements. The dominant message from the requirements discussion is to ensure that R&D organizations do not ignore customer, environmental, and regulatory requirements in the early stages of product development. Several representatives from healthcare products manufacturers presented their companies' approaches to meeting these requirements. They reported on efforts to ensure that their R&D processes are sensitive to the environmental consequences from manufacturing, distributing, using, and disposing of healthcare products. These reports describe representatives' awareness of requirements and the unique approaches their R&D organizations have taken to meet these requirements. All representatives reported that their R&D organizations have embraced environmental product design because it avoids the potential of returning products to R&D to improve the environmental profile. Additionally, several reports detailed cost savings, sustainability benefits, and improvements in environmental manufacturing or redesign, and increased customer satisfaction. Many companies in healthcare delivery are working to improve environmental

  20. Applying environmental product design to biomedical products research.

    PubMed

    Messelbeck, J; Sutherland, L

    2000-12-01

    The principal themes for the Biomedical Research and the Environment Conference Committee on Environmental Economics in Biomedical Research include the following: healthcare delivery companies and biomedical research organizations, both nonprofit and for-profit, need to improve their environmental performance; suppliers of healthcare products will be called upon to support this need; and improving the environmental profile of healthcare products begins in research and development (R&D). The committee report begins with requirements from regulatory authorities (e.g., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], the U.S. Food and Drug Administration), and the healthcare delivery sector). The 1998 American Hospital Association and EPA Memorandum of Understanding to reduce solid waste and mercury from healthcare facilities is emblematic of these requirements. The dominant message from the requirements discussion is to ensure that R&D organizations do not ignore customer, environmental, and regulatory requirements in the early stages of product development. Several representatives from healthcare products manufacturers presented their companies' approaches to meeting these requirements. They reported on efforts to ensure that their R&D processes are sensitive to the environmental consequences from manufacturing, distributing, using, and disposing of healthcare products. These reports describe representatives' awareness of requirements and the unique approaches their R&D organizations have taken to meet these requirements. All representatives reported that their R&D organizations have embraced environmental product design because it avoids the potential of returning products to R&D to improve the environmental profile. Additionally, several reports detailed cost savings, sustainability benefits, and improvements in environmental manufacturing or redesign, and increased customer satisfaction. Many companies in healthcare delivery are working to improve environmental

  1. Data sharing and intellectual property in a genomic epidemiology network: policies for large-scale research collaboration.

    PubMed Central

    Chokshi, Dave A.; Parker, Michael; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.

    2006-01-01

    Genomic epidemiology is a field of research that seeks to improve the prevention and management of common diseases through an understanding of their molecular origins. It involves studying thousands of individuals, often from different populations, with exacting techniques. The scale and complexity of such research has required the formation of research consortia. Members of these consortia need to agree on policies for managing shared resources and handling genetic data. Here we consider data-sharing and intellectual property policies for an international research consortium working on the genomic epidemiology of malaria. We outline specific guidelines governing how samples and data are transferred among its members; how results are released into the public domain; when to seek protection for intellectual property; and how intellectual property should be managed. We outline some pragmatic solutions founded on the basic principles of promoting innovation and access. PMID:16710548

  2. Application of PCR-SSCP for molecular epidemiological studies on the exposure of farm children to bacteria in environmental dust.

    PubMed

    Korthals, Melanie; Ege, Markus J; Tebbe, Christoph C; von Mutius, Erika; Bauer, Johann

    2008-04-01

    epidemiological studies characterizing the exposure of farmers using environmental dust.

  3. [An analysis to the focus of (American Journal of Epidemiology) research with bibliometrics methods].

    PubMed

    Cui, L

    1996-06-01

    Using bibliometric method, the author counted the citation of papers published in American Journal of Epidemiology in the last 3 years. The highly cited papers and books were presented and the focus of recent years on American Journal of Epidemiology outlined.

  4. US EPA Environmental Justice Research Roadmap: Cross Agency Research Priority

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consideration of how to assess the health risk of mixtures and to characterize cumulative risk have long been challenges in toxicology and public health. The 1994 White House Executive Order (EO) 12898 Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice (EJ) in Minority Populations...

  5. Enhancing Student Understanding of Environmental Sciences Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurwick, Noel P.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an authentic semi-guided student research project. Studies the impact of a regional invasion of non-indigenous worm species on decomposition in forest soils. Describes the experimental design, data analysis, and interpretation of the data. (Contains 16 references.) (YDS)

  6. Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Kerr Center, situated on 16 acres three miles south of Ada, Oklahoma, houses the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) of the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL). The division develops strategies and technologies to protect and restore grou...

  7. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center, Ada, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar-Nagy, S.; Voss, P.; Van Geet, O.

    2006-10-01

    U.S. EPA's Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center, Ada, Oklahoma, has reduced its annual energy consumption by 45% by upgrading its building mechanical system and incorporating renewable energy.

  8. Focus on environmental justice: new directions in international research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2017-03-01

    More than three decades since the emergence of the environmental justice (EJ) movement in the U.S., environmental injustices continue to unfold across the world to include new narratives of air and water pollution, as well as new forms of injustices associated with climate change, energy use, natural disasters, urban greenspaces, and public policies that adversely affect socially disadvantaged communities and future generations. This focus issue of Environmental Research Letters provides an interdisciplinary forum for conceptual, methodological, and empirical scholarship on EJ activism, research, and policy that highlights the continuing salience of an EJ perspective to understanding nature-society linkages. The 16 letters published in this focus issue address a variety of environmental issues and social injustices in multiple countries across the world, and advance EJ research by: (1) demonstrating how environmental injustice emerges through particular policies and political processes; (2) exploring environmental injustices associated with industrialization and industrial pollution; and (3) documenting unjust exposure to various environmental hazards in specific urban landscapes. As the discourse of EJ continues to evolve both topically and geographically, we hope that this focus issue will help establish research agendas for the next generation of EJ scholarship on distributive, procedural, participatory, and other forms of injustices, as well as their interrelationships.

  9. Applied Science Division annual report, Environmental Research Program FY 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, E.J.; Novakov, T.

    1985-03-01

    The objective of the Environmental Research Program is to understand the formation, transformation, transport, and effects of energy-related pollutants on the environment. The effects studied include those on global, regional, and local scales and involve the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. This multidisciplinary research program includes fundamental and applied research in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology, as well as research on the development of advanced methods of measurement and analysis. During FY 1984, research concentrated on atmospheric physics and chemistry, applied physics and laser spectroscopy, combustion theory and phenomena, environmental effects of oil shale processing, toxicology studies of biological systems, and trace element analysis for the investigation of present and historical environmental impacts.

  10. The epidemiology of hepatitis A in Rio de Janeiro: environmental and domestic risk factors.

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, L. M.; Werneck, G. L.; Cairncross, S.; Coeli, C. M.; Costa, M. C.; Coletty, P. E.

    2001-01-01

    A serological study of hepatitis A was carried out in low-income areas scheduled for a major sanitation programme in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Blood spots were collected by finger puncture and transported on filter paper, and total antibodies to hepatitis A virus were detected by ELISA. Households were also interviewed to collect information on their environmental conditions and socio-economic status. A generalized linear model using a complementary log-log function was fitted to the data, using the logarithm of age as an explanatory variable to derive adjusted rate ratios (RR). The risk of infection was greater among households with 2-3 members per room (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.04-1.8) or more than three per room (RR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.2-2.0). People living on hilltops (RR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.02-2.2), near to open sewers (RR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.03-1.5) or lacking a kitchen (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.08-1.9) were also at greater risk than others. The number of taps and water-using fittings in the house was associated with a protective effect (RR = 0.9 for each tap; 95% CI = 0.9-0.98). A significant protective association was found with maternal education but not with gender or household income. The results do not suggest a strong association with water quality. Ownership of a ceramic water filter was associated with a protective effect on the margin of significance, but the practice of boiling drinking-water was not, nor was the type of water source used. The results suggest that that the risk of infection with hepatitis A is determined by environmental variables in the domestic and public domains. PMID:11693510

  11. The epidemiology of hepatitis A in Rio de Janeiro: environmental and domestic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Almeida, L M; Werneck, G L; Cairncross, S; Coeli, C M; Costa, M C; Coletty, P E

    2001-10-01

    A serological study of hepatitis A was carried out in low-income areas scheduled for a major sanitation programme in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Blood spots were collected by finger puncture and transported on filter paper, and total antibodies to hepatitis A virus were detected by ELISA. Households were also interviewed to collect information on their environmental conditions and socio-economic status. A generalized linear model using a complementary log-log function was fitted to the data, using the logarithm of age as an explanatory variable to derive adjusted rate ratios (RR). The risk of infection was greater among households with 2-3 members per room (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.04-1.8) or more than three per room (RR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.2-2.0). People living on hilltops (RR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.02-2.2), near to open sewers (RR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.03-1.5) or lacking a kitchen (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.08-1.9) were also at greater risk than others. The number of taps and water-using fittings in the house was associated with a protective effect (RR = 0.9 for each tap; 95% CI = 0.9-0.98). A significant protective association was found with maternal education but not with gender or household income. The results do not suggest a strong association with water quality. Ownership of a ceramic water filter was associated with a protective effect on the margin of significance, but the practice of boiling drinking-water was not, nor was the type of water source used. The results suggest that that the risk of infection with hepatitis A is determined by environmental variables in the domestic and public domains.

  12. Traumatic brain injury in the US military: epidemiology and key clinical and research programs.

    PubMed

    Helmick, Katherine M; Spells, Cynthia A; Malik, Saafan Z; Davies, Cathleen A; Marion, Donald W; Hinds, Sidney R

    2015-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI), and particularly concussion, is a major concern for the U.S. Military because of the associated short term disability, long term cognitive and pain symptoms suffered by some, and risk of prolonged or permanent neurologic injury if the Service member incurs a second TBI before full recovery from the first. Concussions were seen more often during the recent conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq than in prior conflicts, such as the Vietnam War, because of the use of improvised explosive devices that typically caused non-penetrating closed head injury. Since 2000 more than 300,000 Service members were diagnosed with TBI, of which more than 80 % were concussions. Improved TBI screening tools also have identified a higher than expected incidence of concussions occurring in garrison. In this review we summarize current epidemiologic data for TBI in the Military, and describe contemporary Military procedures and strategies for TBI prevention, identification, evaluation, and acute and chronic care. Key TBI clinical research priorities and programs are described, and innovative organizational plans to address future TBI needs are summarized.

  13. Efficient data management in a large-scale epidemiology research project.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jens; Ostrzinski, Stefan; Fredrich, Daniel; Havemann, Christoph; Krafczyk, Janina; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2012-09-01

    This article describes the concept of a "Central Data Management" (CDM) and its implementation within the large-scale population-based medical research project "Personalized Medicine". The CDM can be summarized as a conjunction of data capturing, data integration, data storage, data refinement, and data transfer. A wide spectrum of reliable "Extract Transform Load" (ETL) software for automatic integration of data as well as "electronic Case Report Forms" (eCRFs) was developed, in order to integrate decentralized and heterogeneously captured data. Due to the high sensitivity of the captured data, high system resource availability, data privacy, data security and quality assurance are of utmost importance. A complex data model was developed and implemented using an Oracle database in high availability cluster mode in order to integrate different types of participant-related data. Intelligent data capturing and storage mechanisms are improving the quality of data. Data privacy is ensured by a multi-layered role/right system for access control and de-identification of identifying data. A well defined backup process prevents data loss. Over the period of one and a half year, the CDM has captured a wide variety of data in the magnitude of approximately 5terabytes without experiencing any critical incidents of system breakdown or loss of data. The aim of this article is to demonstrate one possible way of establishing a Central Data Management in large-scale medical and epidemiological studies.

  14. 75 FR 6651 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... and the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment Reports on the Atmospheric System Research Science Plan... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy; Office of Science.... David Thomassen, Designated Federal Officer, BERAC, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science,...

  15. Environmental Education Research in Southern Africa: Dilemmas of Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Annette; Gough, Noel

    2004-01-01

    These multiple framings of our reflections on environmental education research in southern Africa are written as dilemmas of interpretation that aim to disrupt any temptation to generalise or essentialise its qualities and characteristics. Recognising that research is a textual practice, we use J. M. Coetzee's portrayal of the dilemmas faced by…

  16. Using Phenomenology to Conduct Environmental Education Research: Experience and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazir, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Recently, I applied a phenomenological methodology to study environmental education at an outdoor education center. In this article, I reflect on my experience of doing phenomenological research to highlight issues researchers may want to consider in using this type of methodology. The main premise of the article is that phenomenology, with its…

  17. An Exploration of Future Trends in Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Nicole M.; Clark, Charlotte; Kelsey, Elin

    2013-01-01

    This article describes future trends in environmental education (EE) research based on a mixed-methods study where data were collected through a content analysis of peer-reviewed articles published in EE journals between 2005 and 2010; interviews with experts engaged in EE research and sustainability-related fields; surveys with current EE…

  18. Environmental Design Research. Volume One: Selected Papers. Community Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preiser, Wolfgang F. E., Ed.

    The items contained in this volume are summaries and critiques of 43 research papers grouped within a framework of nine general topics which represents an attempt to delineate the basic concepts and structure of environmental design research. The papers are grouped under the following headings: (1) Theoretical issues in man-environment relations,…

  19. Epidemiology and Reporting Characteristics of Systematic Reviews of Biomedical Research: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Page, Matthew J.; Shamseer, Larissa; Altman, Douglas G.; Tetzlaff, Jennifer; Tricco, Andrea C.; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Li, Lun; Reid, Emma K.; Sarkis-Onofre, Rafael; Moher, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews (SRs) can help decision makers interpret the deluge of published biomedical literature. However, a SR may be of limited use if the methods used to conduct the SR are flawed, and reporting of the SR is incomplete. To our knowledge, since 2004 there has been no cross-sectional study of the prevalence, focus, and completeness of reporting of SRs across different specialties. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a more recent cross-section of SRs. Methods and Findings We searched MEDLINE to identify potentially eligible SRs indexed during the month of February 2014. Citations were screened using prespecified eligibility criteria. Epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a random sample of 300 SRs were extracted by one reviewer, with a 10% sample extracted in duplicate. We compared characteristics of Cochrane versus non-Cochrane reviews, and the 2014 sample of SRs versus a 2004 sample of SRs. We identified 682 SRs, suggesting that more than 8,000 SRs are being indexed in MEDLINE annually, corresponding to a 3-fold increase over the last decade. The majority of SRs addressed a therapeutic question and were conducted by authors based in China, the UK, or the US; they included a median of 15 studies involving 2,072 participants. Meta-analysis was performed in 63% of SRs, mostly using standard pairwise methods. Study risk of bias/quality assessment was performed in 70% of SRs but was rarely incorporated into the analysis (16%). Few SRs (7%) searched sources of unpublished data, and the risk of publication bias was considered in less than half of SRs. Reporting quality was highly variable; at least a third of SRs did not report use of a SR protocol, eligibility criteria relating to publication status, years of coverage of the search, a full Boolean search logic for at least one database, methods for data extraction, methods for study risk of bias assessment, a primary

  20. Epidemiological surveys of, and research on, soil-transmitted helminths in Southeast Asia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Julia C; Turner, Hugo C; Tun, Aung; Anderson, Roy M

    2016-01-27

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections of humans fall within the World Health Organization's (WHO) grouping termed the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). It is estimated that they affect approximately 1.4 billion people worldwide. A significant proportion of these infections are in the population of Southeast Asia. This review analyses published data on STH prevalence and intensity in Southeast Asia over the time period of 1900 to the present to describe age related patterns in these epidemiological measures. This is with a focus on the four major parasite species affecting humans; namely Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms; Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Data were also collected on the diagnostic methods used in the published surveys and how the studies were designed to facilitate comparative analyses of recorded patterns and changes therein over time. PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infections search engines were used to identify studies on STH in Southeast Asia with the search based on the major key words, and variants on, "soil-transmitted helminth" "Ascaris" "Trichuris" "hookworm" and the country name. A total of 280 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria from 11 Southeast Asian countries; Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Vietnam. It was concluded that the epidemiological patterns of STH infection by age and species mix in Southeast Asia are similar to those reported in other parts of the world. In the published studies there were a large number of different diagnostic methods used with differing sensitivities and specificities, which makes comparison of the results both within and between countries difficult. There is a clear requirement to standardise the methods of both STH diagnosis in faecal material and how the

  1. Legionella spp. and legionellosis in southeastern Italy: disease epidemiology and environmental surveillance in community and health care facilities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Following the publication of the Italian Guidelines for the control and prevention of legionellosis an environmental and clinical surveillance has been carried out in Southeastern Italy. The aim of the study is to identify the risk factors for the disease, so allowing better programming of the necessary prevention measures. Methods During the period January 2000 - December 2009 the environmental surveillance was carried out by water sampling of 129 health care facilities (73 public and 56 private hospitals) and 533 buildings within the community (63 private apartments, 305 hotels, 19 offices, 4 churches, 116 gyms, 3 swimming pools and 23 schools). Water sampling and microbiological analysis were carried out following the Italian Guidelines. From January 2005, all facilities were subject to risk analysis through the use of a standardized report; the results were classified as good (G), medium (M) and bad (B). As well, all the clinical surveillance forms for legionellosis, which must be compiled by physicians and sent to the Regional Centre for Epidemiology (OER), were analyzed. Results Legionella spp. was found in 102 (79.1%) health care facilities and in 238 (44.7%) community buildings. The percentages for the contamination levels < 1,000, 1,000-10,000, > 10,000 cfu/L were respectively 33.1%, 53.4% and 13.5% for samples from health care facilities and 33.5%, 43.3% and 23.2% for samples from the community. Both in hospital and community environments, Legionella pneumophila serogroup (L. pn sg) 2-14 was the most frequently isolate (respectively 54.8% and 40.8% of positive samples), followed by L. pn sg 1 (respectively 31.3% and 33%). The study showed a significant association between M or B score at the risk analysis and Legionella spp. positive microbiological test results (p < 0.001). From clinical surveillance, during the period January 2001 - August 2009, 97 cases of legionellosis were reported to the OER: 88 of community origin and 9 nosocomial. The

  2. Arsenic and Environmental Health: State of the Science and Future Research Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Carlin, Danielle J.; Naujokas, Marisa F.; Bradham, Karen D.; Cowden, John; Heacock, Michelle; Henry, Heather F.; Lee, Janice S.; Thomas, David J.; Thompson, Claudia; Tokar, Erik J.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Suk, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exposure to inorganic and organic arsenic compounds is a major public health problem that affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Exposure to arsenic is associated with cancer and noncancer effects in nearly every organ in the body, and evidence is mounting for health effects at lower levels of arsenic exposure than previously thought. Building from a tremendous knowledge base with > 1,000 scientific papers published annually with “arsenic” in the title, the question becomes, what questions would best drive future research directions? Objectives: The objective is to discuss emerging issues in arsenic research and identify data gaps across disciplines. Methods: The National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program convened a workshop to identify emerging issues and research needs to address the multi-faceted challenges related to arsenic and environmental health. This review summarizes information captured during the workshop. Discussion: More information about aggregate exposure to arsenic is needed, including the amount and forms of arsenic found in foods. New strategies for mitigating arsenic exposures and related health effects range from engineered filtering systems to phytogenetics and nutritional interventions. Furthermore, integration of omics data with mechanistic and epidemiological data is a key step toward the goal of linking biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility to disease mechanisms and outcomes. Conclusions: Promising research strategies and technologies for arsenic exposure and adverse health effect mitigation are being pursued, and future research is moving toward deeper collaborations and integration of information across disciplines to address data gaps. Citation: Carlin DJ, Naujokas MF, Bradham KD, Cowden J, Heacock M, Henry HF, Lee JS, Thomas DJ, Thompson C, Tokar EJ, Waalkes MP, Birnbaum LS, Suk WA. 2016. Arsenic and environmental health: state of the

  3. Alcohol intake and cigarette smoking and risk of a contralateral breast cancer: The Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology Study.

    PubMed

    Knight, Julia A; Bernstein, Leslie; Largent, Joan; Capanu, Marinela; Begg, Colin B; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Lynch, Charles F; Malone, Kathleen E; Reiner, Anne S; Liang, Xiaolin; Haile, Robert W; Boice, John D; Bernstein, Jonine L

    2009-04-15

    Women with primary breast cancer are at increased risk of developing second primary breast cancer. Few studies have evaluated risk factors for the development of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer in women with breast cancer. In the Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology Study (1985-2001), the roles of alcohol and smoking were examined in 708 women with asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (cases) compared with 1,399 women with unilateral breast cancer (controls). Cases and controls aged less than 55 years at first breast cancer diagnosis were identified from 5 population-based cancer registries in the United States and Denmark. Controls were matched to cases on birth year, diagnosis year, registry region, and race and countermatched on radiation treatment. Risk factor information was collected by telephone interview. Rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using conditional logistic regression. Ever regular drinking was associated with an increased risk of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (rate ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.0, 1.6), and the risk increased with increasing duration (P = 0.03). Smoking was not related to asynchronous contralateral breast cancer. In this, the largest study of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer to date, alcohol is a risk factor for the disease, as it is for a first primary breast cancer.

  4. Lessons learned from the Children's Environmental Exposure Research Study.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Wing, Steven

    2007-03-01

    We examined 5 different ethical concerns about the Children's Environmental Exposure Research Study and make some recommendations for future studies of exposure to hazardous environmental agents in the home. Researchers should seek community consultation and participation; make participants aware of all the risks associated with the research, including hazards discovered in the home and uncertainties about the risks of agents under investigation; and take steps to ensure that their studies will not have unfair representation of the poor or people of color. Researchers should also avoid even the appearance of a financial conflict of interest in studies that are likely to be controversial and make it clear to all parties that studies will not intentionally expose subjects to hazardous environmental agents.

  5. 77 FR 6826 - Advisory Committee for Environmental Research and Education; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... Advisory Committee for Environmental Research and Education; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the... the following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Environmental Research and Education (9487). Dates... and education. Agenda: Wednesday, March 14, 2012 Update on NSF environmental research and...

  6. How environmental conditions impact mosquito ecology and Japanese encephalitis: an eco-epidemiological approach.

    PubMed

    Tian, Huai-Yu; Bi, Peng; Cazelles, Bernard; Zhou, Sen; Huang, Shan-Qian; Yang, Jing; Pei, Yao; Wu, Xiao-Xu; Fu, Shi-Hong; Tong, Shi-Lu; Wang, Huan-Yu; Xu, Bing

    2015-06-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the major vector-borne diseases in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific region, posing a threat to human health. In rural and suburban areas, traditional rice farming and intensive pig breeding provide an ideal environment for both mosquito development and the transmission of JEV among human beings. Combining surveillance data for mosquito vectors, human JE cases, and environmental conditions in Changsha, China, 2004-2009, generalized threshold models were constructed to project the mosquito and JE dynamics. Temperature and rainfall were found to be closely associated with mosquito density at 1, and 4month lag, respectively. The two thresholds, maximum temperature of 22-23°C for mosquito development and minimum temperature of 25-26°C for JEV transmission, play key roles in the ecology of JEV. The model predicts that, in the upper regime, a 1g/m(3) increase in absolute humidity would on average increase human cases by 68-84%. A shift in mosquito species composition in 2007 was observed, and possibly caused by a drought. Effective predictive models could be used in risk management to provide early warnings for potential JE transmission.

  7. An Environmental Data Set for Vector-Borne Disease Modeling and Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Chabot-Couture, Guillaume; Nigmatulina, Karima; Eckhoff, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the environmental conditions of disease transmission is important in the study of vector-borne diseases. Low- and middle-income countries bear a significant portion of the disease burden; but data about weather conditions in those countries can be sparse and difficult to reconstruct. Here, we describe methods to assemble high-resolution gridded time series data sets of air temperature, relative humidity, land temperature, and rainfall for such areas; and we test these methods on the island of Madagascar. Air temperature and relative humidity were constructed using statistical interpolation of weather station measurements; the resulting median 95th percentile absolute errors were 2.75°C and 16.6%. Missing pixels from the MODIS11 remote sensing land temperature product were estimated using Fourier decomposition and time-series analysis; thus providing an alternative to the 8-day and 30-day aggregated products. The RFE 2.0 remote sensing rainfall estimator was characterized by comparing it with multiple interpolated rainfall products, and we observed significant differences in temporal and spatial heterogeneity relevant to vector-borne disease modeling. PMID:24755954

  8. Public Health and Epidemiology Informatics: Recent Research and Trends in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, B. E.; Kharrazi, H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To survey advances in public health and epidemiology informatics over the past three years. Methods We conducted a review of English-language research works conducted in the domain of public health informatics (PHI), and published in MEDLINE between January 2012 and December 2014, where information and communication technology (ICT) was a primary subject, or a main component of the study methodology. Selected articles were synthesized using a thematic analysis using the Essential Services of Public Health as a typology. Results Based on themes that emerged, we organized the advances into a model where applications that support the Essential Services are, in turn, supported by a socio-technical infrastructure that relies on government policies and ethical principles. That infrastructure, in turn, depends upon education and training of the public health workforce, development that creates novel or adapts existing infrastructure, and research that evaluates the success of the infrastructure. Finally, the persistence and growth of infrastructure depends on financial sustainability. Conclusions Public health informatics is a field that is growing in breadth, depth, and complexity. Several Essential Services have benefited from informatics, notably, “Monitor Health,” “Diagnose & Investigate,” and “Evaluate.” Yet many Essential Services still have not yet benefited from advances such as maturing electronic health record systems, interoperability amongst health information systems, analytics for population health management, use of social media among consumers, and educational certification in clinical informatics. There is much work to be done to further advance the science of PHI as well as its impact on public health practice. PMID:26293869

  9. Overview of epidemiologic research on electric and magnetic fields and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A. )

    1993-04-01

    This overview of epidemiologic research addresses the potential role of 60 Hertz electric and magnetic fields (EMF) in the etiology of cancer. The key findings are summarized with notation of the methodological challenges with which investigators must content. Although exposure is ubiquitous, long-term average EMF is influenced primarily by the background levels in homes, use of selected electric appliances such as electric blankets, and workplace exposures to energized equipment. Studies of residential exposure have focused on childhood cancer, starting with the report of an excess of wire configurations associated with elevated magnetic fields near the homes of children who developed cancer compared to healthy children. Several subsequent studies have tended to confirm that association, although the evidence falls short of demonstrating a causal association between magnetic fields and cancer. Exposures from electric appliances have been less extensively pursued, with some suggestions of an association with childhood cancer. A more extensive literature has evaluated the association between workplace exposure to EMF, based on job titles of electrical workers and cancer. Across many different study designs and settings, certain groups of electrical workers show elevated occurrence of leukemia and brain cancer. The consistency of findings is notable, but the key question is whether the association with job title is due to EMF or some other agent in the workplace. Future research would benefit from specification of testable challenges to a causal association between EMF exposure in the home or workplace and cancer, along with continued efforts to improve our understanding and measurement of EMF exposure. 64 refs.

  10. 40 CFR 18.7 - Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Research Fellows. 18.7 Section 18.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.7 Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.......

  11. 40 CFR 18.7 - Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Research Fellows. 18.7 Section 18.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.7 Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.......

  12. 40 CFR 18.7 - Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Research Fellows. 18.7 Section 18.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.7 Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.......

  13. 40 CFR 18.7 - Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Research Fellows. 18.7 Section 18.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.7 Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.......

  14. 40 CFR 18.7 - Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Research Fellows. 18.7 Section 18.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.7 Selection and appointment of Environmental Protection Research Fellows.......

  15. Stress and Childhood Asthma Risk: Overlapping Evidence from Animal Studies and Epidemiologic Research

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Rapidly expanding evidence increasingly strengthens the evidence linking psychological factors to asthma and allergy expression. Parallel studies in animals and humans demonstrating the influence of prenatal maternal stress and early caregiving experiences on the disrupted regulation of defensive biological systems [eg, sympathetic and adrenomedullary (SAM) system and the hypothalamicpituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis] provide strong proof of concept for this line of research. The consequent altered neuroimmune responses may influence the expression of immune-mediated disorders such as asthma as well as enhance an individual's susceptibility to other environmental factors that may also contribute to asthma risk. PMID:20525123

  16. Towards a joint approach for access to environmental research infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Ingrid; Tjulin, Anders; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Gagliardi, Simone; Philippin, Sabine; Sellegri, Karine; Chabbi, Abad

    2016-04-01

    Geoscience is a multi-disciplinary field and in many cases its research benefits from considering different kinds of observational results. Geoscience observations are in some cases of direct interest also to the public. For these reasons effective knowledge transfer and access also across disciplines are especially important for research infrastructures (RIs) in the environmental domain. More generally, the ultimate success of a RI is measured by its scientific outcome and this is best achieved based on efficient access for a broad scientific community. In this presentation the authors report activities to develop governance tools so that the access to environmental RIs and to the data that they provide is common, fair and based on scientific rationale, regarding at the same time economically and technically reasonable use of limited resources. Implementing such governance tools will indeed foster and widen the access to RIs across environmental science domains while addressing societal challenges. The strategies also need to be flexible and sustainable over the expected lifetimes of the RIs. The reported activities involve researchers from different projects and environmental subdomains that come together in the project ENVRI_plus. ENVRI_plus is a Cluster project of RIs that brings together the current ESFRI roadmap RIs in the environmental domain and other relevant existing and developing RIs and projects. ENVRI_plus also offers opportunities for free-of-charge transnational access to four multi-disciplinary research platforms. These calls for access target research groups and companies wishing to conduct research or to test instruments for cross-disciplinary topics within the environmental domains atmosphere, biosphere, marine, and solid earth. They are initiated specifically to gain experience with access across different disciplines (further information is given at www.envriplus.eu). ENVRI_plus receives funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research

  17. Oklahoma State University proposed Advanced Technology Research Center. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the construction and equipping of the proposed Advanced Technology Research Center (ATRC) at Oklahoma State University (OSU) in Stillwater, Oklahoma. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  18. Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research.

    PubMed

    Tchounwou, Paul B

    2016-05-04

    During the past century, environmental hazards have become a major concern, not only to public health professionals, but also to the society at large because of their tremendous health, socio-cultural and economic impacts. Various anthropogenic or natural factors have been implicated in the alteration of ecosystem integrity, as well as in the development of a wide variety of acute and/or chronic diseases in humans. It has also been demonstrated that many environmental agents, acting either independently or in combination with other toxins, may induce a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the role played by the environment in the etiology of human diseases is critical to designing cost-effective control/prevention measures. This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health includes the proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium provided an excellent opportunity to discuss the scientific advances in biomedical, environmental, and public health research that addresses global environmental health issues.

  19. Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    During the past century, environmental hazards have become a major concern, not only to public health professionals, but also to the society at large because of their tremendous health, socio-cultural and economic impacts. Various anthropogenic or natural factors have been implicated in the alteration of ecosystem integrity, as well as in the development of a wide variety of acute and/or chronic diseases in humans. It has also been demonstrated that many environmental agents, acting either independently or in combination with other toxins, may induce a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the role played by the environment in the etiology of human diseases is critical to designing cost-effective control/prevention measures. This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health includes the proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium provided an excellent opportunity to discuss the scientific advances in biomedical, environmental, and public health research that addresses global environmental health issues. PMID:27153079

  20. Reintroducing Environmental Change Drivers in Biodiversity-Ecosystem Functioning Research.

    PubMed

    De Laender, Frederik; Rohr, Jason R; Ashauer, Roman; Baird, Donald J; Berger, Uta; Eisenhauer, Nico; Grimm, Volker; Hommen, Udo; Maltby, Lorraine; Meliàn, Carlos J; Pomati, Francesco; Roessink, Ivo; Radchuk, Viktoriia; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2016-12-01

    For the past 20 years, research on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (B-EF) has only implicitly considered the underlying role of environmental change. We illustrate that explicitly reintroducing environmental change drivers in B-EF research is needed to predict the functioning of ecosystems facing changes in biodiversity. Next we show how this reintroduction improves experimental control over community composition and structure, which helps to provide mechanistic insight on how multiple aspects of biodiversity relate to function and how biodiversity and function relate in food webs. We also highlight challenges for the proposed reintroduction and suggest analyses and experiments to better understand how random biodiversity changes, as studied by classic approaches in B-EF research, contribute to the shifts in function that follow environmental change.

  1. Applying EMSL Capabilities to Biogeochemistry and Environmental Research

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, Andy

    2007-04-19

    The Environmental Molecular Sciences laboratory (EMSL) is a national scientific user facility operated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Located in Richland, Washington, EMSL offers researchers a comprehensive array of cutting-edge capabilities unmatched anywhere else in the world and access to the expertise of over 300 resident users--all at one location. EMSL's resources are available on a peer-reviewed proposal basis and are offered at no cost if research results are shared in the open literature. Researchers are encouraged to submit a proposal centered around one of EMSL's four Science Themes, which represent growing areas of research: (1) Geochemistry/Biogeochemistry and Subsurface Science; (2) Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry; (3) Biological Interactions and Dynamics; and (4) Science of Interfacial Phenomena. To learn more about EMSL, visit www.emsl.pnl.gov.

  2. Research initiatives in ionizing radiation research United States Department of Energy, Office of Epidemiology and Health Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Ginevan, M.E.

    1992-06-01

    This outline reports covers the following points: US DOE/US DHHS memo of understanding and the future of major epidemiologic studies; dose reconstruction at DOE sites; RERF: current status; internal emitters studies; development of the CEDR database; Biostatistical studies.

  3. Human breast biomonitoring and environmental chemicals: use of breast tissues and fluids in breast cancer etiologic research.

    PubMed

    LaKind, Judy S; Wilkins, Amy A; Bates, Michael N

    2007-09-01

    Extensive research indicates that the etiology of breast cancer is complex and multifactorial and may include environmental risk factors. Breast cancer etiology and exposure to xenobiotic compounds, diet, electromagnetic fields, and lifestyle have been the subject of numerous scientific inquiries, but research has yielded inconsistent results. Biomonitoring has been used to explore associations between breast cancer and levels of environmental chemicals in the breast. Research using breast tissues and fluids to cast light on the etiology of breast cancer is, for the most part, predicated on the assumption that the tissue or fluid samples either contain measurable traces of the environmental agent(s) associated with the cancer or that they retain biological changes that are biomarkers of such exposure or precursors of carcinogenic effect. In this paper, we review breast cancer etiology research utilizing breast biomonitoring. We first provide a brief synopsis of the current state of understanding of associations between exposure to environmental chemicals and breast cancer etiology. We then describe the published breast cancer research on tissues and fluids, which have been used for biomonitoring, specifically human milk and its components, malignant and benign breast tissue, nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) and breast cyst fluid. We conclude with a discussion on recommendations for biomonitoring of breast tissues and fluids in future breast cancer etiology research. Both human milk and NAF fluids, and the cells contained therein, hold promise for future biomonitoring research into breast cancer etiology, but must be conducted with carefully delineated hypotheses and a scientifically supportable epidemiological approach.

  4. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Methods Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Results Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process or disposal of components, including batteries. Four studies evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impacts on indoor air quality. A 2010 survey of six e-cigarette models found that none of the products provided disposal instructions for spent cartridges containing nicotine. Notably, some e-cigarette manufacturers claim their e-cigarettes are ‘eco-friendly’ or ‘green’, despite the lack of any supporting data or environmental impact studies. Some authors argue that such advertising may boost sales and increase e-cigarette appeal, especially among adolescents. Conclusions Little is known about the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes, and a number of topics could be further elucidated by additional investigation. These topics include potential environmental impacts related to manufacturing, use and disposal. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing will depend upon factory size and the nicotine extracting method used. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette use will include chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. The environmental impacts of disposal of e-cigarette cartridges (which contain residual nicotine) and disposal of e-cigarettes (which contain batteries) represent yet another environmental concern. PMID:24732165

  5. Interdisciplinary communication of infectious disease research - translating complex epidemiological findings into understandable messages for village chicken farmers in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Henning, Joerg; Hla, Than; Meers, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in animal disease control and prevention is dependent on several factors including farmers' uptake of new technologies and skills, particularly in developing countries. Extension is the means by which information about these technologies and skills is delivered to farmers, in order that they can use this knowledge to improve farming practices and their quality of life. This implies a shift from traditional methods to new science-based methods of production. However, in many developing countries farmers are illiterate and unable to understand written outcomes of scientific research. This paper summarizes approaches to communicate epidemiological findings and reports on experiences obtained from a research project in Myanmar, where results from epidemiological field investigations and intervention studies were 'translated' in an understandable manner to village communities. Rural chicken farmers were the central focus of this extension work and simple and sustainable methods to improve the health and production of scavenging chicken flocks were promoted. Unique extension materials transformed scientific outputs published in international journals into clear pictographic messages comprehendible by villagers, while maintaining country-specific, traditional, religious and public perspectives. Benefits, difficulties and pitfalls in using extension methods to communicate advice on preventive veterinary medicine measures in different cross-cultural settings are discussed and guidelines on how to distribute epidemiological research results to illiterate farmers are provided.

  6. Internet addiction: a systematic review of epidemiological research for the last decade.

    PubMed

    Kuss, D J; Griffiths, M D; Karila, L; Billieux, J

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, Internet usage has grown tremendously on a global scale. The increasing popularity and frequency of Internet use has led to an increasing number of reports highlighting the potential negative consequences of overuse. Over the last decade, research into Internet addiction has proliferated. This paper reviews the existing 68 epidemiological studies of Internet addiction that (i) contain quantitative empirical data, (ii) have been published after 2000, (iii) include an analysis relating to Internet addiction, (iv) include a minimum of 1000 participants, and (v) provide a full-text article published in English using the database Web of Science. Assessment tools and conceptualisations, prevalence, and associated factors in adolescents and adults are scrutinised. The results reveal the following. First, no gold standard of Internet addiction classification exists as 21 different assessment instruments have been identified. They adopt official criteria for substance use disorders or pathological gambling, no or few criteria relevant for an addiction diagnosis, time spent online, or resulting problems. Second, reported prevalence rates differ as a consequence of different assessment tools and cut-offs, ranging from 0.8% in Italy to 26.7% in Hong Kong. Third, Internet addiction is associated with a number of sociodemographic, Internet use, and psychosocial factors, as well as comorbid symptoms and disorder in adolescents and adults. The results indicate that a number of core symptoms (i.e., compulsive use, negative outcomes and salience) appear relevant for diagnosis, which assimilates Internet addiction and other addictive disorders and also differentiates them, implying a conceptualisation as syndrome with similar etiology and components, but different expressions of addictions. Limitations include the exclusion of studies with smaller sample sizes and studies focusing on specific online behaviours. Conclusively, there is a need for nosological

  7. Material research for environmental sustainability in Thailand: current trends

    PubMed Central

    Niranatlumpong, Panadda; Ramangul, Nudjarin; Dulyaprapan, Pongsak; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck; Udomkitdecha, Werasak

    2015-01-01

    This article covers recent developments of material research in Thailand with a focus on environmental sustainability. Data on Thailand’s consumption and economic growth are briefly discussed to present a relevant snapshot of its economy. A selection of research work is classified into three topics, namely, (a) resource utilization, (b) material engineering and manufacturing, and (c) life cycle efficiency. Material technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce the consumption of materials, energy, and other valuable resources, thus reducing the burden we place on our ecological system. At the same time, product life cycle study allows us to understand the extent of the environmental impact we impart to our planet. PMID:27877788

  8. Material research for environmental sustainability in Thailand: current trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niranatlumpong, Panadda; Ramangul, Nudjarin; Dulyaprapan, Pongsak; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck; Udomkitdecha, Werasak

    2015-06-01

    This article covers recent developments of material research in Thailand with a focus on environmental sustainability. Data on Thailand’s consumption and economic growth are briefly discussed to present a relevant snapshot of its economy. A selection of research work is classified into three topics, namely, (a) resource utilization, (b) material engineering and manufacturing, and (c) life cycle efficiency. Material technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce the consumption of materials, energy, and other valuable resources, thus reducing the burden we place on our ecological system. At the same time, product life cycle study allows us to understand the extent of the environmental impact we impart to our planet.

  9. Protecting Privacy and Confidentiality in Environmental Health Research.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2010-01-01

    Environmental health researchers often need to make difficult decisions on how to protect privacy and confidentiality when they conduct research in the home or workplace. These dilemmas are different from those normally encountered in clinical research. Although protecting privacy and confidentiality is one of the most important principles of research involving human subjects, it can be overridden to prevent imminent harm to individuals or if required by law. Investigators should carefully consider the facts and circumstances and use good judgment when deciding whether to breach privacy or confidentiality.

  10. 40 CFR 18.10 - Appointment of Special Research Consultants for Environmental Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Consultants for Environmental Protection. 18.10 Section 18.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.10 Appointment of Special Research Consultants for Environmental Protection.......

  11. 40 CFR 18.10 - Appointment of Special Research Consultants for Environmental Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Consultants for Environmental Protection. 18.10 Section 18.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.10 Appointment of Special Research Consultants for Environmental Protection.......

  12. 40 CFR 18.10 - Appointment of Special Research Consultants for Environmental Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Consultants for Environmental Protection. 18.10 Section 18.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.10 Appointment of Special Research Consultants for Environmental Protection.......

  13. Environmental Systems Research Candidates Program--FY2000 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, Steven James

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Systems Research Candidates (ESRC) Program, which is scheduled to end September 2001, was established in April 2000 as part of the Environmental Systems Research and Analysis Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to provide key science and technology to meet the clean-up mission of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management, and perform research and development that will help solve current legacy problems and enhance the INEEL’s scientific and technical capability for solving longer-term challenges. This report documents the progress and accomplishments of the ESRC Program from April through September 2000. The ESRC Program consists of 24 tasks subdivided within four research areas: A. Environmental Characterization Science and Technology. This research explores new data acquisition, processing, and interpretation methods that support cleanup and long-term stewardship decisions. B. Subsurface Understanding. This research expands understanding of the biology, chemistry, physics, hydrology, and geology needed to improve models of contamination problems in the earth’s subsurface. C. Environmental Computational Modeling. This research develops INEEL computing capability for modeling subsurface contaminants and contaminated facilities. D. Environmental Systems Science and Technology. This research explores novel processes to treat waste and decontaminate facilities. Our accomplishments during FY 2000 include the following: • We determined, through analysis of samples taken in and around the INEEL site, that mercury emissions from the INEEL calciner have not raised regional off-INEEL mercury contamination levels above normal background. • We have initially demonstrated the use of x-ray fluorescence to image uranium and heavy metal concentrations in soil samples. • We increased our understanding of the subsurface environment; applying mathematical complexity theory to the problem of

  14. 75 FR 38100 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Hazardous Substance Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), a research institute of the National Institutes of... National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Hazardous Substance Research and Training... investigator-initiated research translation. Research translation fosters the movement of fundamental...

  15. Performance Evaluation Tests for Environmental Research (PETER): Collected Papers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    RESEARCH (PETER): COLLECTED PAPERS ,Robert S. Kennedy, Alvah C. Bittner, Jr., Robert C. Carter, Michele Krause, (Mary M. Harbeson, Denise B. McCafferty...EVALUATION TESTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH (PETER): COLLECTED PAPERS Robert S. Kennedy, Alvah C. Bittner, Jr., Robert C. Carter, Michele Krause, Mary M...characteristics (defined in 1. Alvares, K. M., & Hulin , C. L. Two explana Table 1) for each score. The remaining columns of tions of temporal changes

  16. Independent Environmental Modeling Research in the Undergraduate Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittinghill, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Models allow scientists and others to represent features and behaviors of environmental systems in order to promote inquiry, develop insights, test hypotheses, and consider solutions to problems. Environmental modeling also offers a way to include independent research on environmental issues in undergraduate classes, especially during winter when outdoor labs are more difficult. I will present on an Environmental Studies Topics course on Environmental Modeling taught at St. Olaf College during interim, including student feedback. The class used primary literature and hands on experiences with computer models to introduce environmentally relevant modeling tools. Topics covered in readings, lectures, or student presentations included process based models of disease, climate, ice, ecosystems, ecosystem services, hydrology, predator-prey systems, and competition among species for resources. Students conducted student-designed original research projects either by developing their own environmental model or by using existing models. Students participating in the class were environmental studies, economics, biology, math, or physics majors, although the class was open to all students who were "comfortable thinking quantitatively". No prior programming experience was required as a prerequisite, although students who had previous experience with R or Matlab were able to design more complex models. The students were graded on their class participation in discussions, several modeling "checkpoint" assignments designed to monitor progress, and on 4 in-class presentations designed to foster a collaborative atmosphere and improve communication skills. While the course was taught over a month-long interim "semester", students were evenly divided in their feedback about whether they would prefer the course in that format or in a semester-long format.

  17. MEASURING RISKS IN HUMANS: THE PROMISE AND PRACTICE OF EPIDEMIOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory


    Epidemiology has been considered the fundamental science of public health policy. The use of epidemiologic data in environmental health policy has been limited particularly in the environmental regulatory arena. Epidemiologic risk assessment (ERA) is different from risk ass...

  18. Health and Environmental Research: Summary of Accomplishments. Volume 2

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1986-08-01

    This is an account of some of the accomplishments of the health and environmental research program performed in national laboratories, universities, and research institutes. Both direct and indirect societal benefits emerged from the new knowledge provided by the health and environmental research program. In many cases, the private sector took this knowledge and applied it well beyond the mission of supporting the defense and energy needs of the Nation. Industrial and medical applications, for example, have in several instances provided annual savings to society of $100 million or more. The form of this presentation is, in fact, through "snapshots" - examples of significant, tangible accomplishments in each of the areas at certain times to illustrate the role and impact of the research program. The program's worth is not necessarily confined to such accomplishments; it extends, rather, to its ability to identify and help solve potential health and environmental problems before they become critical. This anticipatory mission has been pursued with an approach that combines applied problem solving with a commitment to fundamental research that is long-term and high-risk. The narrative of this research program concludes with a perspective of its past and a prospectus on its future.

  19. Health and Environmental Research: summary of accomplishments. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    This is an account of some of the accomplishments of the health and environmental research program performed in national laboratories, universities, and research institutes. Both direct and indirect societal benefits emerged from the new knowledge provided by the health and environmental research program. In many cases, the private sector took this knowledge and applied it well beyond the mission of supporting the defense and energy needs of the Nation. Industrial and medical applications, for example, have in several instances provided annual savings to society of $100 million or more. The form of this presentation is, in fact, through ''snapshots'' - examples of significant, tangible accomplishments in each of the areas at certain times to illustrate the role and impact of the research program. The program's worth is not necessarily confined to such accomplishments; it extends, rather, to its ability to identify and help solve potential health and environmental problems before they become critical. This anticipatory mission has been pursued with an approach that combines applied problem solving with a commitment to fundamental research that is long-term and high-risk. The narrative of this research program concludes with a perspective of its past and a prospectus on its future.

  20. World Directory of Environmental Research Centers. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, William K., Ed.; And Others

    Since the late 1960's many countries have been attempting to resolve environmental problems not only by preventing pollution, but through research and educational programs and by managing the environment. This directory focuses on these programs and includes over 4,800 organizations located throughout the world: educational institutions; field…

  1. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

  2. Environmental Horticulture. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachler, Mike; Sappe', Hoyt

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of environmental horticulture, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to address the needs of the horticulture field. Section 1 contains general information:…

  3. ISERV Pathfinder. The ISS SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Burgess

    2011-01-01

    SERVIR integrates Earth observations (e.g., space imagery), predictive models, and in situ data to provide timely information products to support environmental decision makers. ISERV propoesed development -- ISERV-W: Internal Visible/Near-Infrared (VNIR), attached to ISS via Window Observational Research Facility (WORF), ISERV-E: External Visible/Broad-Infrared (V/IR) and ISERV-PM: External Passive Microwave.

  4. THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATERSHED MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAM: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has directed much attention to watersheds and water quality during its tenure as the United States Federal Agency charged with protection of human health and the environment. Watershed research as a vehicle to understand the interaction ...

  5. Future research and collaboration: the “SINERGIE” project on HCV (South Italian Network for Rational Guidelines and International Epidemiology)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The SINERGIE (South Italian Network for Rational Guidelines and International Epidemiology) project is intended to set up a collaborative network comprising virologists, clinicians and public health officials dealing with patients affected by HCV disease in the Calabria Region. A prospective observational data-base of HCV infection will be developed and used for studies on HCV natural history, response to treatment, pharmaco-economics, disease complications, and HCV epidemiology (including phylogenetic analysis). With this approach, we aim at improving the identification and care of patients, focusing on upcoming research questions. The final objective is to assist in improving care delivery and inform Public Health Authorities on how to optimize resource allocation in this area. PMID:23173812

  6. The United States Army Special Forces--Walter Reed Army Institute of Research Field Epidemiologic Survey Team (Airborne).

    PubMed

    Dorogi, Louis Theodore

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Army Special Forces--Walter Reed Army Institute of Research Field Epidemiological Survey Team (Airborne) was formed in late 1965 and later deployed to Vietnam in 1966. Funded by Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and staffed by highly trained Special Forces qualified medical personnel from Fort Bragg, North Carolina, the team was attached to the 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne) while in Vietnam. During its short existence, the team conducted extensive and important field studies on diseases of military medical importance, often under combat conditions.

  7. Environmental Systems Research and Analysis FY 2000 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Miller; Castle, Peter Myer; Steven J. Piet

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Systems Research (ESR) Program, a part of the Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) Program, was implemented to enhance and augment the technical capabilities of the INEEL. Strengthening the Technical capabilities of the INEEL will provide the technical base to serve effectively as the Environmental Management Laboratory for the Office of Environmental Management (EM). This is a progress report for the third year of the ESR Program (FY 2000). A report of activities is presented for the five ESR research investment areas: (1) Transport Aspects of Selective Mass Transport Agents, (2) Chemistry of Environmental Surfaces, (3) Materials Dynamics, (4) Characterization Science, and (5) Computational Simulation of Mechanical and Chemical Systems. In addition to the five technical areas, the report describes activities in the Science and Technology Foundations element of the program, e.g., interfaces between ESR and the EM Science Program (EMSP) and the EM Focus Areas. The five research areas are subdivided into 18 research projects. FY 2000 research in these 18 projects has resulted in more than 50 technical papers that are in print, in press, in review, or in preparation. Additionally, more than 100 presentations were made at professional society meetings nationally and internationally. Work supported by this program was in part responsible for one of our researchers, Dr. Mason Harrup, receiving the Department of Energy’s “Bright Light” and “Energy at 23” awards. Significant accomplishments were achieved. Non-Destructive Assay hardware and software was deployed at the INEEL, enhancing the quality and efficiency of TRU waste characterization for shipment. The advanced tensiometer has been employed at numerous sites around the complex to determine hydrologic gradients in variably saturated vadose zones. An ion trap, secondary ion mass spectrometer (IT-SIMS) was designed and fabricated to deploy at the INEEL site to measure the

  8. Environmental Education Policy Research--Challenges and Ways Research Might Cope with Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laessoe, Jeppe; Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Blum, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the relationship between research and policy and, more specifically, how researchers might relate to policy work. Given the current international policy focus on climate change, green growth and sustainability in general, it argues for strengthening and widening policy research in the areas of Environmental Education (EE),…

  9. The concept of externality: Implications for TVA Environmental Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, T.H.

    1994-06-01

    Pollution of the environment is a result of the economic activities of production and consumption. And although the market system is touted as the superior method of organizing and operating an economic system, society frequently is dissatisfied with some of the side effects. In these cases of market failure, a cry for intervention often is raised to obtain more socially-desirable solutions. Environmental pollution is one symptom of market failure. If the TVA Environmental Research Center is to focus on defining solutions to environmental problems and designing policy options for implementing such solutions, its efforts should benefit from an understanding of why the market fails and how it may be adjusted to produce more socially-desirable results. The purposes of this report are to: (1) promote an appreciation for and understanding of the concept of externality; (2) demonstrate the utility of the concept in the design and packaging of policy and technology for improved environmental performance; (3) provide a brief summary of the externality valuation issue currently being debated by the electric power industry; and (4) identify environmental research and development agenda opportunities or strategic considerations suggested for the Center by this review.

  10. RESEARCH ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INTERVENTIONS: ETHICAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    PubMed Central

    RESNIK, DAVID B.; ZELDIN, DARRYL C.; SHARP, RICHARD R.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews a variety of ethical issues one must consider when conducting research on environmental health interventions on human subjects. The paper uses the Kennedy Krieger Institute lead abatement study as well as a hypothetical asthma study to discuss questions concerning benefits and risks, risk minimization, safety monitoring, the duty to warn, the duty to report, the use of control groups, informed consent, equitable subject selection, privacy, conflicts of interest, and community consultation. Research on environmental health interventions can make an important contribution to our understanding of human health and disease prevention, provided it is conducted in a manner that meets prevailing scientific, ethical, and legal standards for research on human subjects. PMID:16220621

  11. International Research Workshop on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling: Problems, Prospects, and Research Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, Bradley

    2001-01-01

    The 4th International Conference on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling (GIS/EM4) was convened in Banff, Canada, September 2-8, 2000 at The Banff Centre for Conferences. The meeting's purpose, like it's predecessors was to reformulate, each three to four years, the collaborative research agenda for integrating spatio-temporal analysis with environmental simulation modeling.

  12. EDITORIAL: The need and challenge for Environmental Research Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2006-11-01

    Why another journal? This is the inevitable question that every effort to launch a new journal must, and should, address. A common statistic in the business world is that nine out of ten new restaurants fail. In the academic world something similar, but less definitive, can happen: a potentially interesting, but practically flawed, effort can be launched, never truly build an intellectual community, but then continue as a sub-critical, little-known journal for far too long. The challenge any new publication, academic or professional, faces is thus extreme. A new journal must find a way to usefully compete, and bring new value, in the face of multiple existing outlets for significant results, tremendous barriers to establishing a 'track record' or 'name recognition' against existing publications, and a print and a cyberspace increasingly desperate in the search for 'content', scientific or otherwise. In the case of Environmental Research Letters (ERL), however, these questions answered themselves and, as a result, I cannot imagine a more critically needed new publication. Indeed, the goal of ERL is to be more than simply one more good new journal. It is to be a place—both physical and online—that those engaged in environmental issues—from researchers within the physical and natural sciences, to those concerned with applied systems studies, modeling and simulation techniques, practical engagement in environmental activism, and developing, conducting or critiquing policy, legal, or business efforts—will all want to go to read, and to engage with colleagues. The environmental field has witnessed an incredible intellectual and professional proliferation. The areas of ecological resilience, global change science, policy, law and economics, industrial ecology, green buildings, environmental genomics, environmental archaeology, and the sociology of environmental movements have become increasingly regarded and, to varying degrees, recognized themselves as major

  13. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brusseau, Mark L.; Artiola, Janick F.; Maier, Raina M.; Gandolfi, A. Jay

    2014-01-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation, and decision-making and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with environmental contamination sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites. PMID:25173762

  14. Environmental Media Systems: Innovations at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costelloe-Kuehn, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    This multi-sited ethnography analyzes challenges and opportunities in the design and development of digital media systems in the Office of Research and Development (ORD) at the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Drawing heavily from interviews conducted over the course of three years, primarily with scientists at the ORD's…

  15. Scientific integrity: critical issues in environmental health research

    PubMed Central

    Merlo, Domenico Franco; Vahakangas, Kirsi; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2008-01-01

    Environmental health research is a relatively new scientific area with much interdisciplinary collaboration. Regardless of which human population is included in field studies (e.g., general population, working population, children, elderly, vulnerable sub-groups, etc.) their conduct must guarantee well acknowledged ethical principles. These principles, along with codes of conduct, are aimed at protecting study participants from research-related undesired effects and guarantee research integrity. A central role is attributed to the need for informing potential participants (i.e., recruited subjects who may be enrolled in a study), obtaining their written informed consent to participate, and making them aware of their right to refuse to participate at any time and for any reason. Data protection is also required and communication of study findings must respect participant's willingness to know or not know. This is specifically relevant for studies including biological markers and/or storing biological samples that might be analysed years later to tackle research objectives that were specified and communicated to participants at the time of recruitment or that may be formulated after consent was obtained. Integrity is central to environmental health research searching for causal relations. It requires open communication and trust and any violation (i.e., research misconduct, including fabrication or falsification of data, plagiarism, conflicting interests, etc.) may endanger the societal trust in the research community as well as jeopardize participation rates in field projects. PMID:18541075

  16. SUstaiNability: a science communication website on environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravina, Teresita; Rutigliano, Flora Angela

    2015-04-01

    Environmental news mainly reach not specialist people by mass media, which generally focuses on fascinating or catastrophic events without reporting scientific data. Otherwise, scientific data on environment are published in peer-reviewed journals with specific language, so they could be not understandable to common people. In the last decade, Internet spread made easier to divulge environmental information. This allows everyone (scientist or not) to publish information without revision. In fact, World Wide Web includes many scientific sites with different levels of confidence. Within Italian scientific websites, there are those of University and Research Centre, but they mainly contain didactic and bureaucratic information, generally lacking in research news, or reporting them in peer-reviewed format. University and Research Centre should have an important role to divulge certified information, but news should be adapted to a general audience without scientific skills, in order to help population to gain knowledge on environmental issues and to develop responsible behavior. Therefore, an attractive website (www.sunability.unina2.it) has been created in order to divulge research products of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies Department (DiSTABiF) of Second University of Naples-SUN (Campania, Southern Italy). This website contains divulgation articles derived from peer-reviewed publications of DiSTABiF researchers and concerning studies on environmental, nutrition, and health issues, closely related topics. Environmental studies mainly referred to Caserta district (Southern Italy), where DiSTABiF is located. Divulgation articles have been shared by main social networks (Facebook: sunability, Twitter: @SUNability) and accesses have been monitored for 28 days in order to obtain demographic and geographic information about users and visualization number of both DiSTABiF website and social network pages. Demographic and geographic

  17. Community Engagement and Data Disclosure in Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Erin N.; Elam, Sarah; Burns, Roxanne; Spencer, Alonzo; Yancey, Elissa; Kuhnell, Pierce; Alden, Jody; Walton, Mike; Reynolds, Virgil; Newman, Nicholas; Wright, Robert O.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Praamsma, Meredith L.; Palmer, Christopher D.; Dietrich, Kim N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Federal funding agencies increasingly support stakeholder participation in environmental health studies, and yet there is very little published research on engagement of community members in the development of data disclosure (DD) strategies. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency reported airborne manganese (Mn) concentrations in East Liverpool, Ohio, 30 times higher than the reference concentration, which led to an academic–community research partnership to address community concern about Mn exposure, particularly among children. Children and their families were recruited to participate in a pilot study. Samples of blood and hair were collected from the children and analyzed for metals. DD mechanisms were developed using an iterative approach between community and academic partners. Individual DD letters were mailed to each participating family, and a community meeting was held. A post-meeting survey was administered to gauge community perception of the DD strategies. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the effectiveness of engaging community partners in the conduct of environmental health research and in the development of DD strategies for individuals and the community at large. Scientists should include community partners in the development of DD strategies to enhance translation of the research findings and support the right of study participants to know their individual results. PMID:26829152

  18. Community Engagement and Data Disclosure in Environmental Health Research.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Erin N; Elam, Sarah; Burns, Roxanne; Spencer, Alonzo; Yancey, Elissa; Kuhnell, Pierce; Alden, Jody; Walton, Mike; Reynolds, Virgil; Newman, Nicholas; Wright, Robert O; Parsons, Patrick J; Praamsma, Meredith L; Palmer, Christopher D; Dietrich, Kim N

    2016-02-01

    Federal funding agencies increasingly support stakeholder participation in environmental health studies, and yet there is very little published research on engagement of community members in the development of data disclosure (DD) strategies. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency reported airborne manganese (Mn) concentrations in East Liverpool, Ohio, 30 times higher than the reference concentration, which led to an academic–community research partnership to address community concern about Mn exposure, particularly among children. Children and their families were recruited to participate in a pilot study. Samples of blood and hair were collected from the children and analyzed for metals. DD mechanisms were developed using an iterative approach between community and academic partners. Individual DD letters were mailed to each participating family, and a community meeting was held. A post-meeting survey was administered to gauge community perception of the DD strategies. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the effectiveness of engaging community partners in the conduct of environmental health research and in the development of DD strategies for individuals and the community at large. Scientists should include community partners in the development of DD strategies to enhance translation of the research findings and support the right of study participants to know their individual results.

  19. Research Experience for Undergraduates Program in Multidisciplinary Environmental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    During summers 2011 and 12 Montclair State University hosted a Research Experience for Undergraduates Program (REU) in transdisciplinary, hands-on, field-oriented research in environmental sciences. Participants were housed at the Montclair State University's field station situated in the middle of 30,000 acres of mature forest, mountain ridges and freshwater streams and lakes within the Kittatinny Mountains of Northwest New Jersey, Program emphases were placed on development of project planning skills, analytical skills, creativity, critical thinking and scientific report preparation. Ten students were recruited in spring with special focus on recruiting students from underrepresented groups and community colleges. Students were matched with their individual research interests including hydrology, erosion and sedimentation, environmental chemistry, and ecology. In addition to research activities, lectures, educational and recreational field trips, and discussion on environmental ethics and social justice played an important part of the program. The ultimate goal of the program is to facilitate participants' professional growth and to stimulate the participants' interests in pursuing Earth Science as the future career of the participants.

  20. GIS, geostatistics, metadata banking, and tree-based models for data analysis and mapping in environmental monitoring and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Winfried

    2006-05-01

    By the example of environmental monitoring, some applications of geographic information systems (GIS), geostatistics, metadata banking, and Classification and Regression Trees (CART) are presented. These tools are recommended for mapping statistically estimated hot spots of vectors and pathogens. GIS were introduced as tools for spatially modelling the real world. The modelling can be done by mapping objects according to the spatial information content of data. Additionally, this can be supported by geostatistical and multivariate statistical modelling. This is demonstrated by the example of modelling marine habitats of benthic communities and of terrestrial ecoregions. Such ecoregionalisations may be used to predict phenomena based on the statistical relation between measurements of an interesting phenomenon such as, e.g., the incidence of medically relevant species and correlated characteristics of the ecoregions. The combination of meteorological data and data on plant phenology can enhance the spatial resolution of the information on climate change. To this end, meteorological and phenological data have to be correlated. To enable this, both data sets which are from disparate monitoring networks have to be spatially connected by means of geostatistical estimation. This is demonstrated by the example of transformation of site-specific data on plant phenology into surface data. The analysis allows for spatial comparison of the phenology during the two periods 1961-1990 and 1991-2002 covering whole Germany. The changes in both plant phenology and air temperature were proved to be statistically significant. Thus, they can be combined by GIS overlay technique to enhance the spatial resolution of the information on the climate change and use them for the prediction of vector incidences at the regional scale. The localisation of such risk hot spots can be done by geometrically merging surface data on promoting factors. This is demonstrated by the example of the

  1. Human Leptospirosis Infection in Fiji: An Eco-epidemiological Approach to Identifying Risk Factors and Environmental Drivers for Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Colleen L.; Watson, Conall H.; Lowry, John H.; David, Michael C.; Craig, Scott B.; Wynwood, Sarah J.; Kama, Mike; Nilles, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease in the Pacific Islands. In Fiji, two successive cyclones and severe flooding in 2012 resulted in outbreaks with 576 reported cases and 7% case-fatality. We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study and used an eco-epidemiological approach to characterize risk factors and drivers for human leptospirosis infection in Fiji, and aimed to provide an evidence base for improving the effectiveness of public health mitigation and intervention strategies. Antibodies indicative of previous or recent infection were found in 19.4% of 2152 participants (81 communities on the 3 main islands). Questionnaires and geographic information systems data were used to assess variables related to demographics, individual behaviour, contact with animals, socioeconomics, living conditions, land use, and the natural environment. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, variables associated with the presence of Leptospira antibodies included male gender (OR 1.55), iTaukei ethnicity (OR 3.51), living in villages (OR 1.64), lack of treated water at home (OR 1.52), working outdoors (1.64), living in rural areas (OR 1.43), high poverty rate (OR 1.74), living <100m from a major river (OR 1.41), pigs in the community (OR 1.54), high cattle density in the district (OR 1.04 per head/sqkm), and high maximum rainfall in the wettest month (OR 1.003 per mm). Risk factors and drivers for human leptospirosis infection in Fiji are complex and multifactorial, with environmental factors playing crucial roles. With global climate change, severe weather events and flooding are expected to intensify in the South Pacific. Population growth could also lead to more intensive livestock farming; and urbanization in developing countries is often associated with urban and peri-urban slums where diseases of poverty proliferate. Climate change, flooding, population growth, urbanization, poverty and agricultural intensification are important drivers of zoonotic

  2. Human Leptospirosis Infection in Fiji: An Eco-epidemiological Approach to Identifying Risk Factors and Environmental Drivers for Transmission.

    PubMed

    Lau, Colleen L; Watson, Conall H; Lowry, John H; David, Michael C; Craig, Scott B; Wynwood, Sarah J; Kama, Mike; Nilles, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease in the Pacific Islands. In Fiji, two successive cyclones and severe flooding in 2012 resulted in outbreaks with 576 reported cases and 7% case-fatality. We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study and used an eco-epidemiological approach to characterize risk factors and drivers for human leptospirosis infection in Fiji, and aimed to provide an evidence base for improving the effectiveness of public health mitigation and intervention strategies. Antibodies indicative of previous or recent infection were found in 19.4% of 2152 participants (81 communities on the 3 main islands). Questionnaires and geographic information systems data were used to assess variables related to demographics, individual behaviour, contact with animals, socioeconomics, living conditions, land use, and the natural environment. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, variables associated with the presence of Leptospira antibodies included male gender (OR 1.55), iTaukei ethnicity (OR 3.51), living in villages (OR 1.64), lack of treated water at home (OR 1.52), working outdoors (1.64), living in rural areas (OR 1.43), high poverty rate (OR 1.74), living <100m from a major river (OR 1.41), pigs in the community (OR 1.54), high cattle density in the district (OR 1.04 per head/sqkm), and high maximum rainfall in the wettest month (OR 1.003 per mm). Risk factors and drivers for human leptospirosis infection in Fiji are complex and multifactorial, with environmental factors playing crucial roles. With global climate change, severe weather events and flooding are expected to intensify in the South Pacific. Population growth could also lead to more intensive livestock farming; and urbanization in developing countries is often associated with urban and peri-urban slums where diseases of poverty proliferate. Climate change, flooding, population growth, urbanization, poverty and agricultural intensification are important drivers of zoonotic

  3. The age of citizen science: Stimulating future environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, S. N.

    2010-12-01

    Public awareness of the state of the ocean is growing with issues such as climate change, over-harvesting, marine pollution, coral bleaching, ocean acidification and sea level rise appearing regularly in popular media outlets. Society is also placing greater value on the range of ecosystem services the ocean provides. This increased consciousness of environmental change due to a combination of anthropogenic activities and impacts from climate change offers scientists the opportunity of engaging citizens in environmental research. The term citizen science refers to scientific research carried out by citizens and led by professionals, which involves large scale data collection whilst simultaneously engaging and educating those who participate. Most projects that engage citizen scientists have been specifically designed to provide an educational benefit to the volunteer and benefit the scientific inquiry by collecting extensive data sets over large geographical areas. Engaging the public in environmental science is not a new concept and successful projects (such as the Audobon Christmas Bird Count and Earthwatch) have been running for several decades resulting in hundreds of thousands of people conducting long-term field research in partnership with scientists based at universities worldwide. The realm of citizen science projects is continually expanding, with public engagement options ranging from science online; to backyard afternoon studies; to fully immersive experiential learning projects running for weeks at a time. Some organisations, such as Earthwatch also work in partnership with private industry; giving scientists access to more funding opportunities than those avenues traditionally available. These scientist -industry partnerships provide mutual benefits as the results of research projects in environments such as coastal ecosystems feed directly back into business risk strategies; for example mitigating shoreline erosion, storm surges, over fishing and

  4. 75 FR 9001 - Advisory Committee for Environmental Research and Education; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Climate Research Solicitations. Dated: February 23, 2010. Susanne Bolton, Committee Management Officer... Advisory Committee for Environmental Research and Education; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the... the following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Environmental Research and Education (9487)....

  5. NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY - AN ANNUAL REPORT OF ACCOMPLISHMENTS FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Annual Report showcases some of the research activities of the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) in various health and environmental effects research areas. The report is an indicator of the examples of progress and accomplishments that ...

  6. NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY - ACCOMPLISHMENTS FOR FY 2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Annual Report showcases some of the scientific activities of the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) in various health and environmental effects research areas. Where appropriate, the contributions of other collaborating research organizat...

  7. Energy and Environmental Systems Division 1981 research review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    To effectively manage the nation's energy and natural resources, government and industry leaders need accurate information regarding the performance and economics of advanced energy systems and the costs and benefits of public-sector initiatives. The Energy and Environmental Systems Division (EES) of Argonne National Laboratory conducts applied research and development programs that provide such information through systems analysis, geophysical field research, and engineering studies. During 1981, the division: analyzed the production economics of specific energy resources, such as biomass and tight sands gas; developed and transferred to industry economically efficient techniques for addressing energy-related resource management and environmental protection problems, such as the reclamation of strip-mined land; determined the engineering performance and cost of advanced energy-supply and pollution-control systems; analyzed future markets for district heating systems and other emerging energy technologies; determined, in strategic planning studies, the availability of resources needed for new energy technologies, such as the imported metals used in advanced electric-vehicle batteries; evaluated the effectiveness of strategies for reducing scarce-fuel consumption in the transportation sector; identified the costs and benefits of measures designed to stabilize the financial condition of US electric utilities; estimated the costs of nuclear reactor shutdowns and evaluated geologic conditions at potential sites for permanent underground storage of nuclear waste; evaluated the cost-effectiveness of environmental regulations, particularly those affecting coal combustion; and identified the environmental effects of energy technologies and transportation systems.

  8. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, M.; Brusseau, M. L. L.; Artiola, J. F.; Maier, R. M.; Gandolfi, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation and decision-making, and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with contaminated sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites.

  9. Adverse Effects of Methylmercury: Environmental Health Research Implications

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, Philippe; Satoh, Hiroshi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Eto, Komyo

    2010-01-01

    Background The scientific discoveries of health risks resulting from methylmercury exposure began in 1865 describing ataxia, dysarthria, constriction of visual fields, impaired hearing, and sensory disturbance as symptoms of fatal methylmercury poisoning. Objective Our aim was to examine how knowledge and consensus on methylmercury toxicity have developed in order to identify problems of wider concern in research. Data sources and extraction We tracked key publications that reflected new insights into human methylmercury toxicity. From this evidence, we identified possible caveats of potential significance for environmental health research in general. Synthesis At first, methylmercury research was impaired by inappropriate attention to narrow case definitions and uncertain chemical speciation. It also ignored the link between ecotoxicity and human toxicity. As a result, serious delays affected the recognition of methylmercury as a cause of serious human poisonings in Minamata, Japan. Developmental neurotoxicity was first reported in 1952, but despite accumulating evidence, the vulnerability of the developing nervous system was not taken into account in risk assessment internationally until approximately 50 years later. Imprecision in exposure assessment and other forms of uncertainty tended to cause an underestimation of methylmercury toxicity and repeatedly led to calls for more research rather than prevention. Conclusions Coupled with legal and political rigidity that demanded convincing documentation before considering prevention and compensation, types of uncertainty that are common in environmental research delayed the scientific consensus and were used as an excuse for deferring corrective action. Symptoms of methylmercury toxicity, such as tunnel vision, forgetfulness, and lack of coordination, also seemed to affect environmental health research and its interpretation. PMID:20529764

  10. Environmental Research Laboratories annual report for 1979 and 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Laboratory (ATDL) research program is organized around the following subject areas: transport and diffusion over complex terrain, atmospheric turbulence and plume diffusion, and forest meteorology and climatological studies. Current research efforts involve experimental and numerical modeling studies of flow over rugged terrain, studies of transport of airborne material in and above a forest canopy, basic studies of atmospheric diffusion parameters for applications to environmental impact evaluation, plume rise studies, and scientific collaboration with personnel in DOE-funded installations, universities, and government agencies on meteorological studies in our area of expertise. Abstracts of fifty-two papers that have been published or are awaiting publication are included.

  11. Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Environmental Impact Statement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is an institutional environmental impact statement relating to the overall operation of the NASA, Flight Research Center. The Center is located in Kern County, California, approximately 100 miles northeast of Los Angeles. Flight activities relate primarily to areas in the vicinity of Los Angeles, Kern, Inyo and San Bernardino counties in Southern California; and to areas in Southern Nevada (principally Nye and Clark counties. Operations of the Flight Research Center have a very neglibible impact on the environment; and they are planned and controlled to eliminate or minimize effects on water, air and noise.

  12. CNR LARA project, Italy: Airborne laboratory for environmental research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianchi, R.; Cavalli, R. M.; Fiumi, L.; Marino, C. M.; Pignatti, S.

    1995-01-01

    The increasing interest for the environmental problems and the study of the impact on the environment due to antropic activity produced an enhancement of remote sensing applications. The Italian National Research Council (CNR) established a new laboratory for airborne hyperspectral imaging, the LARA Project (Laboratorio Aero per Ricerche Ambientali - Airborne Laboratory for Environmental Research), equipping its airborne laboratory, a CASA-212, mainly with the Daedalus AA5000 MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) instrument. MIVIS's channels, spectral bandwidths, and locations are chosen to meet the needs of scientific research for advanced applications of remote sensing data. MIVIS can make significant contributions to solving problems in many diverse areas such as geologic exploration, land use studies, mineralogy, agricultural crop studies, energy loss analysis, pollution assessment, volcanology, forest fire management and others. The broad spectral range and the many discrete narrow channels of MIVIS provide a fine quantization of spectral information that permits accurate definition of absorption features from a variety of materials, allowing the extraction of chemical and physical information of our environment. The availability of such a hyperspectral imager, that will operate mainly in the Mediterranean area, at the present represents a unique opportunity for those who are involved in environmental studies and land-management to collect systematically large-scale and high spectral-spatial resolution data of this part of the world. Nevertheless, MIVIS deployments will touch other parts of the world, where a major interest from the international scientific community is present.

  13. The Role of Professional Journals and Societies in the Future of a Field: A Reflection on the Partnership Between the American Journal of Epidemiology and the Society for Epidemiologic Research.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Kristen A; Galea, Sandro

    2016-03-01

    On this, the 100th anniversary of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, we take the opportunity to reflect on the ties between the School, the American Journal of Epidemiology, and the Society for Epidemiologic Research. We discuss briefly the intersection of the School, the Journal, and the Society throughout their histories, with the aim of providing some insight into how the Journal and the Society have contributed to the evolution of the field. In so doing, we articulate the challenges that the Journal and the Society jointly face today, with an eye to finding opportunities in these challenges that can be helpful in coming decades.

  14. Multispecies Epidemiologic Surveillance Study after an Outbreak of Yersiniosis at an African Green Monkey Research Facility

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Esteban; Loftis, Amanda; Boruta, Daniel; Rostad, Sara; Beierschmitt, Amy; McCoy, Matthew; Francis, Stewart; Berezowski, John; Illanes, Oscar; Recinos, Diego; Arauz, Maziel; Spencer, Dustine; Fraites, Trellor; Palmour, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    After an outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica at a NHP research facility, we performed a multispecies investigation of the prevalence of Yersinia spp. in various mammals that resided or foraged on the grounds of the facility, to better understand the epizootiology of yersiniosis. Blood samples and fecal and rectal swabs were obtained from 105 captive African green monkeys (AGM), 12 feral cats, 2 dogs, 20 mice, 12 rats, and 3 mongooses. Total DNA extracted from swab suspensions served as template for the detection of Y. enterocolitica DNA by real-time PCR. Neither Y. enterocolitica organisms nor their DNA were detected from any of these samples. However, Western blotting revealed the presence of Yersinia antibodies in plasma. The AGM samples revealed a seroprevalence of 91% for Yersinia spp. and of 61% for Y. enterocolitica specifically. The AGM that were housed in cages where at least one fatality occurred during the outbreak (clinical group) had similar seroprevalence to that of AGM housed in unaffected cages (nonclinical group). However, the nonclinical group was older than the clinical group. In addition, 25%, 100%, 33%, 10%, and 10% of the sampled local cats, dogs, mongooses, rats, and mice, respectively, were seropositive. The high seroprevalence after this outbreak suggests that Y. enterocolitica was transmitted effectively through the captive AGM population and that age was an important risk factor for disease. Knowledge regarding local environmental sources of Y. enterocolitica and the possible role of wildlife in the maintenance of yersiniosis is necessary to prevent and manage this disease. PMID:26678370

  15. REU Site: Yosemite Research Training in Environmental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, M. H.; Dayrat, B.

    2009-12-01

    The Yosemite Research Training in Environmental Science offers undergraduate students a unique opportunity to actively experience field research in Environmental Science in a premier National Park, over a nine-week period in the summer. The Yosemite REU is a collaboration between three institutions: the University of California at Merced, Yosemite National Park, and the USGS Western Ecological Research Center. Student activities mainly consist of individual research projects, spanning a broad range of disciplines such as Ecology, Geosciences, Biodiversity, Conservation, Restoration, and Hydrology. All projects include a strong field component. Students are exposed to the benefits of multi-disciplinary research in weekly meetings in which all students talk about their most recent work. Students present their research in Yosemite Valley at the end of the program before a public audience (including visitors). Research training is provided by mentors from UC Merced (Schools of Natural Sciences, Engineering, and Social Sciences) and the USGS Western Ecological Research Center. In addition to their interactions with their mentors and other faculty, students have opportunities to meet with NPS professionals engaged in park-related activities, to learn more about the integration of science with resources management and about potential careers in research and science outside academia. Students also participate in field trips led by UCM, USGS, and NPS scientists, focusing on Yosemite and the Sierra Nevada. Students attend a weekly seminar in Environmental Science with a broad diversity of speakers, including researchers as well as other science-related professionals, such as freelance science writers and illustrators, as well as NPS scientists and staff. Finally, student participants engage in several other activities, including outreach (e.g., a day-long meeting with high-school Central Valley students from underrepresented minorities). The Yosemite REU has already run for

  16. RESEARCH PROGRAMS AT THE ECOSYSTEMS RESEARCH DIVISION, U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents information on the research programs at the Ecosystems Research Division (ERD) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency located in Athens, Georgia. The presentation gives an overview of the Agency, laws and regulations that the Agency operates under,...

  17. United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine: Warfighter Research Focusing on the Past 25 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandolf, Kent B.; Francesconi, Ralph; Sawka, Michael N.; Cymerman, Allen; Hoyt, Reed W.; Young, Andrew J.; Zambraski, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    The United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) celebrated its 50th anniversary on July 1, 2011. This article reviews its history, evolution, and transition of its research programs as well as its scientific and military accomplishments, emphasizing the past 25 yr. During the 1990s, USARIEM published a series of…

  18. Environmental assessment of the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center Facility

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This Environmental Assessment has been prepared to determine if the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center (the Center), or its alternatives would have significant environmental impacts that must be analyzed in an Environmental Impact Statement. DOE`s proposed action is to continue funding the Center. While DOE is not funding construction of the planned Center facility, operation of that facility is dependent upon continued funding. To implement the proposed action, the Center would initially construct a facility of approximately 2,300 square meters (25,000 square feet). The Phase 1 laboratory facilities and parking lot will occupy approximately 1.2 hectares (3 acres) of approximately 8.9 hectares (22 acres) of land which were donated to New Mexico State University (NMSU) for this purpose. The facility would contain laboratories to analyze chemical and radioactive materials typical of potential contaminants that could occur in the environment in the vicinity of the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site or other locations. The facility also would have bioassay facilities to measure radionuclide levels in the general population and in employees of the WIPP. Operation of the Center would meet the DOE requirement for independent monitoring and assessment of environmental impacts associated with the planned disposal of transuranic waste at the WIPP.

  19. Health effects and water quality at marine sites: Results from the National Epidemiologic and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 2003, we have conducted a series of epidemiological studies at beach sites impacted by treated sewage discharge. The goal was to evaluate the association between swimming-associated illness and novel and faster methods of measuring water quality. In 2005 and 2007, we expand...

  20. Environmental effects research. Environmental Research Division annual report, January-December 1983. Part 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    The Terrestrial Ecology group continued its involvement in the National Crop Loss Assessment Network, and studies of O/sub 3/ effects on winter wheat and soybeans were completed. Experiments on O/sub 3/ x SO/sub 2/ interactions on soybeans were also performed. The Microcosms for Acid Rain Studies (MARS) project had its first full year of research and much information concerning acid rain impacts on soil-plant systems was collected. A study of the influence of temporal variations in rain acidity on soybean productivity was also initiated. The aquatic radiochemistry group continued measurements of the mobility of plutonium and americium at a disposal site at Los Alamos and initiated similar work at Hanford. Laboratory tracer experiments were carried out to study the adsorptive behavior of neptunium, the solubility limits of plutonium, and the influence of rare earth concentration on the sorption and redox behavior of plutonium. The soil-plant process group initiated several studies on the influence of mycorrhizae to host plants in disturbed and natural environments. Much of the past research has been concerned with understanding mycorrhizal fungi propagule dynamics as related to disturbances associated with energy extraction. Future research will be directed at understanding how below-ground symbiotic associations may increase the fitness of host plants. Emphasis is being placed on resource acquisition and compartmental strategies. Separate analytics have been indexed for EDB.

  1. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Cancer.gov

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  2. Epidemiology, epigenetics and the 'Gloomy Prospect': embracing randomness in population health research and practice.

    PubMed

    Smith, George Davey

    2011-06-01

    Epidemiologists aim to identify modifiable causes of disease, this often being a prerequisite for the application of epidemiological findings in public health programmes, health service planning and clinical medicine. Despite successes in identifying causes, it is often claimed that there are missing additional causes for even reasonably well-understood conditions such as lung cancer and coronary heart disease. Several lines of evidence suggest that largely chance events, from the biographical down to the sub-cellular, contribute an important stochastic element to disease risk that is not epidemiologically tractable at the individual level. Epigenetic influences provide a fashionable contemporary explanation for such seemingly random processes. Chance events-such as a particular lifelong smoker living unharmed to 100 years-are averaged out at the group level. As a consequence population-level differences (for example, secular trends or differences between administrative areas) can be entirely explicable by causal factors that appear to account for only a small proportion of individual-level risk. In public health terms, a modifiable cause of the large majority of cases of a disease may have been identified, with a wild goose chase continuing in an attempt to discipline the random nature of the world with respect to which particular individuals will succumb. The quest for personalized medicine is a contemporary manifestation of this dream. An evolutionary explanation of why randomness exists in the development of organisms has long been articulated, in terms of offering a survival advantage in changing environments. Further, the basic notion that what is near-random at one level may be almost entirely predictable at a higher level is an emergent property of many systems, from particle physics to the social sciences. These considerations suggest that epidemiological approaches will remain fruitful as we enter the decade of the epigenome.

  3. Childhood cancer: etiologic clues from epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Safyer, A W; Miller, R W

    1977-03-01

    Epidemiologic reseach has revealed a wide spectrum of etiologic information concerning childhood cancer. Often, important clues have come from observations made by alert practitioners. The school health professional can help further progress in cancer research by observing peculiarities of environmental exposures as well as the family's medical history when cancer affects a child. Any unusual findings should be referred to an appropriate research center for evaluation.

  4. Research understanding, attitude and awareness towards biobanking: a survey among Italian twin participants to a genetic epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Toccaceli, Virgilia; Fagnani, Corrado; Nisticò, Lorenza; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Giannantonio, Lorenzo; Brescianini, Sonia; Stazi, Maria Antonietta

    2009-01-01

    Background The Italian Twin Registry (ITR) has been carrying out several genetic-epidemiological studies. Collection and storage of biological material from study participants has recently increased in the light of biobanking development. Within this scenario, we aimed at investigating understanding, awareness and attitude towards blood/DNA donation of research participants. About these quite unknown dimensions more knowledge is needed from ethical and social perspectives. Methods Cross-sectional mail survey to explore three dimensions: (i) understanding of aims and method of a specific study, (ii) attitude (three ideas for donation: "moral duty", "pragmatism", "spontaneity") and (iii) awareness (i.e. the recall of having been asked to donate) towards blood/DNA donation for research, among all the Italian twins who had participated in Euroclot (n = 181), a large international genetic-epidemiological study. Multivariate models were applied to investigate the association of sex, age, education and modality of Euroclot recruitment (twins enrolled in the ITR and volunteers) with the targeted dimensions. Pair-wise twin concordance for the "pragmatic" attitude was estimated in monozygotic and dizygotic pairs. Results Response rate was 56% (99 subjects); 75.8% understood the Euroclot method, only 33.3% correctly answered about the study aim. A significantly better understanding of aim and method was detected in "volunteers". Graduated subjects were more likely to understand study aim. In the overall sample, the "pragmatic" attitude to blood donation reached 76.8%, and biobanking awareness 89.9%. The latter was significantly higher among women. Monozygotic twins were more concordant than dizygotic twins for the "pragmatic" attitude towards blood/DNA donation for research. Conclusion Level of understanding of aims and methods of a specific research project seems to vary in relation to modalities of approaching research; most of the twins are well aware of having been asked

  5. 40 CFR 18.10 - Appointment of Special Research Consultants for Environmental Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appointment of Special Research... PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.10 Appointment of Special Research Consultants for Environmental Protection....

  6. 40 CFR 18.10 - Appointment of Special Research Consultants for Environmental Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appointment of Special Research... PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.10 Appointment of Special Research Consultants for Environmental Protection....

  7. Initial robotics research for environmental restoration and waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, W.R.; Mann, R.C. )

    1990-06-01

    This paper describes the initial research and development activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that will support the technology development component of the overall National Robotics Technology Development Program (NRTDP). The NRTDP is a subelement of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER and WM) 5-Year Applied Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation Plan and of overall efforts at DOE operational sites around the country. ORNL research will focus on fundamental improvement of remote manipulation through enhancements of the human man/machine interface, integration of automated functions, and the incorporation of machine intelligence to increase productivity. Background and goals for these activities are presented in this paper.

  8. Assessing bias associated with geocoding of historical residence in epidemiology research.

    PubMed

    Han, Daikwon; Bonner, Matthew R; Nie, Jing; Freudenheim, Jo L

    2013-05-01

    The use of geocoded historical residence as proxy for retrospective assessment of exposure in early life is increasing in epidemiological studies of chronic health outcomes. Dealing with historical residence poses challenges, primarily due to higher uncertainties associated with data collection and processing. A possible source of bias is connected with the exclusion of subjects, who cannot, for various reasons, be geocoded. We evaluated the potential bias that may arise due to incomplete geocoding, using birth residence data collected as part of a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in western New York state. We found that geocoded and non-geocoded populations did not differ in the distribution of most risk factors compared, and that the geocoding status did not modify the spatial patterns of the study populations. However, the results emphasize the need for epidemiological studies to consider the potential biases that may be introduced by geocoding of historical residence when investigating retrospectively chronic disease and early-life exposure.

  9. Epidemiological research on radiation-induced cancer in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Kotaro

    2016-08-01

    The late effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation on cancer occurrence have been evaluated by epidemiological studies on three cohorts: a cohort of atomic bomb survivors (Life Span Study; LSS), survivors exposed IN UTERO : , and children of atomic bomb survivors (F1). The risk of leukemia among the survivors increased remarkably in the early period after the bombings, especially among children. Increased risks of solid cancers have been evident since around 10 years after the bombings and are still present today. The LSS has clarified the dose-response relationships of radiation exposure and risk of various cancers, taking into account important risk modifiers such as sex, age at exposure, and attained age. Confounding by conventional risk factors including lifestyle differences is not considered substantial because people were non-selectively exposed to the atomic bomb radiation. Uncertainty in risk estimates at low-dose levels is thought to be derived from various sources, including different estimates of risk at background levels, uncertainty in dose estimates, residual confounding and interaction, strong risk factors, and exposure to residual radiation and/or medical radiation. The risk of cancer in subjects exposed IN UTERO : is similar to that in LSS subjects who were exposed in childhood. Regarding hereditary effects of radiation exposure, no increased risk of cancers associated with parental exposure to radiation have been observed in the F1 cohort to date. In addition to biological and pathogenetic interpretations of the present results, epidemiological investigations using advanced technology should be used to further analyze these cohorts.

  10. Hepatitis B virus in the Maghreb region: from epidemiology to prospective research.

    PubMed

    Ezzikouri, Sayeh; Pineau, Pascal; Benjelloun, Soumaya

    2013-07-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) represents an important health problem in the Maghreb countries, Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia, but no detailed synthesis of its epidemiology is available. In this review, we systematically searched for data about HBV in the Maghreb in peer-reviewed databases and included in our analysis works written in English and French, as well as institutional reports and regional conference meeting abstracts. We estimated national and regional prevalence of chronic HBV infection. In addition, we discuss molecular features of the viral strains circulating in the region. Data analysis suggests that in the Maghreb region HBs antigen carriage concerns 1.8-4.9% of the population for an estimated number of 2.7 million persons. Genotype D, subtype D7, is predominant and mutations in the precore region of HBV genome are highly prevalent. This epidemiological situation requires obviously widespread active interventions for prevention and control. In addition, anti-hepatitis B vaccination programme should be applied with the utmost discipline in the five countries considered in this present review. This systematic review will, hopefully, increase knowledge at disposal of Public Health authorities, enabling better resource allocation and healthcare delivery. The present synthesis intends to stimulate policies aiming at preventing the spread of HBV, keeping in mind that eradication of the virus from Maghrebi populations should be the ultimate objective of Public Health authorities.

  11. [Epidemiologic aspects of dental fluorosis in Brazil: research in the period 1993-2006].

    PubMed

    Barros, Bruno Salles de Almeida; Tomita, Nilce Emy

    2010-01-01

    The epidemiology of dental fluorosis derives from surveys carried out in recent years, as a result of a better comprehension of metabolic aspects of fluoride in the human organism and oral health concerns. This reflection aims at presenting studies carried out on fluorosis between 1993 and 2006. The period of 1993-2004 delimits the interval between the 2nd and the 3rd National Conferences on Oral Health, and, in the period of 2005-2006, the search of primary data presented in scientific meetings confirmed the findings in the literature, showing that the Brazilian scientific agenda was not substantially influenced by the discussions engaged during the 3rd National Conference on Oral Health. Most studies concentrate on urban areas and the predominance, in Brazil, of 'very mild' and 'mild' levels of fluorosis shows that there is no compromising in terms of functional order. The low perception of fluorosis by the population, along with its low prevalence, evokes the necessary debate on public health issues, in the country. Since the national scientific production constitutes an important source of knowledge to subsidize the elaboration of public policies for the health sector, the successive and punctual studies analyzed show that, as far as fluorosis is concerned, the epidemiological diagnosis reaffirms the need, importance and safety of the fluoridation of public water supplies, as a public health measure.

  12. Space environmental effects on polymer composites: Research needs and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Bor Z.; Bianchi, J.; Liu, Y. M.; Chang, C. P.

    1993-01-01

    The long-term performance of polymer-based composites in the space environment is discussed. Both thermoset and thermoplastic matrix composites are included in this discussion. Previous efforts on the space environmental effects on composites are briefly reviewed. Focus of this review is placed on the effects of hygrothermal stresses, atomic oxygen, ultraviolet (UV), and space debris/micrometeoroid impacts along with the potential synergism. Potential approaches to estimating the residual strength of polymer composites after exposure to atomic oxygen erosion or space debris/micrometeoroid impact are evaluated. New ground-based data are then utilized to illustrate the effects of atomic oxygen and thermal cycling on the failure behavior of polymer composites. Finally, research needs, challenges, and opportunities in the field of space environmental effects on composite materials are highlighted.

  13. Centers of Excellence on Environmental Health Disparities Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    collaborative effort that encourages basic, biological, clinical, epidemiological, behavioral, and/or social scientific investigations of disease conditions that are known to be a significant burden in low socioeconomic and health disparate populations

  14. Assessing the benefits of OHER (Office of Health and Environmental Research) research: Three case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Nesse, R.J.; Callaway, J.M.; Englin, J.E.; Klan, M.S.; Nicholls, A.K.; Serot, D.E.

    1987-09-01

    This research was undertaken to estimate the societal benefits and costs of selected past research performed for the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Three case studies of representative OHER and DOE research were performed. One of these, the acid rain case study, includes research conducted elsewhere in DOE. The other two cases were the OHER marine research program and the development of high-purity germanium that is used in radiation detectors. The acid rain case study looked at the research benefits and costs of furnace sorbent injection and duct injection, technologies that might reduce acid deposition precursors. Both appear to show benefits in excess of costs. We examined in detail one of the OHER marine research program's accomplishments - the increase in environmental information used by the Outer Continental Shelf leasing program to manage bidding for off-shore oil drilling. The results of an econometric model show that environmental information of the type supported by OHER is unequivocally linked to government and industry leasing decisions. The germanium case study indicated that the benefits of germanium radiation detectors were significant.

  15. Translational Environmental Research: Improving the Usefulness and Usability of Research Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfin, G.

    2008-12-01

    In recent years, requests for proposals more frequently emphasize outreach to stakeholder communities, decision support, and science that serves societal needs. Reports from the National Academy of Sciences and Western States Water Council emphasize the need for science translation and outreach, in order to address societal concerns with climate extremes, such as drought, the use of climate predictions, and the growing challenges of climate change. In the 1990s, the NOAA Climate Program Office developed its Regional Integrated Sciences and Asssessments program to help bridge the gap between climate science (notably, seasonal predictions) and society, to improve the flow of information to stakeholders, and to increase the relevance of climate science to inform decisions. During the same time period, the National Science Foundation initiated multi-year Science and Technology Centers and Decision Making Under Uncertainty Centers, with similar goals, but different metrics of success. Moreover, the combination of population growth, climate change, and environmental degradation has prompted numerous research initiatives on linking knowledge and action for sustainable development. This presentation reviews various models and methodologies for translating science results from field, lab, or modeling work to use by society. Lessons and approaches from cooperative extension, boundary organizations, co-production of science and policy, and medical translational research are examined. In particular, multi-step translation as practiced within the health care community is examined. For example, so- called "T1" (translation 1) research moves insights from basic science to clinical research; T2 research evaluates the effectiveness of clinical practice, who benefits from promising care regimens, and develops tools for clinicians, patients, and policy makers. T3 activities test the implementation, delivery, and spread of research results and clinical practices in order to foster

  16. Applications of SAR Interferometry in Earth and Environmental Science Research

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Chang, Ni-Bin; Li, Shusun

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the progress in regard to the InSAR remote sensing technique and its applications in earth and environmental sciences, especially in the past decade. Basic principles, factors, limits, InSAR sensors, available software packages for the generation of InSAR interferograms were summarized to support future applications. Emphasis was placed on the applications of InSAR in seismology, volcanology, land subsidence/uplift, landslide, glaciology, hydrology, and forestry sciences. It ends with a discussion of future research directions. PMID:22573992

  17. Final environmental impact statement for Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The NASA-Ames Research Center is described. together with the nature of its activities, from which it can be seen that the center is basically not a major pollution source. Geographical, and climatic characteristics of the site are described. inasmuch as they influence both the choice of disposal methods and the environmental effects of the pollutants. The known or probable pollution sources at the center are described. Where the intensities of these sources might exceed the recommended guidelines, the corrective actions that have been taken are described.

  18. 78 FR 58526 - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... of the Secretary Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board... Environmental Research and Development Program, Scientific Advisory Board (SAB). DATES: Tuesday, October 15... a Goucher College, Microbial Inoculum Delivery System in Baltimore, MD. Weathered PCB...

  19. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOR APPLICATION OF CFD TO ESTIMATING HUMAN EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), Fluent, Inc. and the US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) propose to improve the ability of environmental scientists to use computer modeling for environmental exposure to air pollutants in human exp...

  20. Integrating Social Epidemiology Into Public Health Research and Practice for Maternal Depression

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Alisa K.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of maternal depression on women and their families has been well documented. Given the prevalence and impact of this problem, one important strategy is to strengthen and expand our public health approaches. Although principles of social epidemiology are increasingly used in the field of maternal and child health, few public health efforts to address maternal mental health have incorporated ecosocial frameworks such as community connectedness, quality of social relationships, and social capital. One method to augment current public health approaches to maternal depression is through the incorporation of a perspective focusing on community, cohesion, group membership, and connectedness—a concept often described as social capital. We describe the relevance of this ecosocial perspective for mental health promotion programs for mothers. PMID:21493925

  1. The rising impact of mathematical modelling in epidemiology: antibiotic resistance research as a case study

    PubMed Central

    TEMIME, L.; HEJBLUM, G.; SETBON, M.; VALLERON, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Mathematical modelling of infectious diseases has gradually become part of public health decision-making in recent years. However, the developing status of modelling in epidemiology and its relationship with other relevant scientific approaches have never been assessed quantitatively. Herein, using antibiotic resistance as a case study, 60 published models were analysed. Their interactions with other scientific fields are reported and their citation impact evaluated, as well as temporal trends. The yearly number of antibiotic resistance modelling publications increased significantly between 1990 and 2006. This rise cannot be explained by the surge of interest in resistance phenomena alone. Moreover, modelling articles are, on average, among the most frequently cited third of articles from the journal in which they were published. The results of this analysis, which might be applicable to other emerging public health problems, demonstrate the growing interest in mathematical modelling approaches to evaluate antibiotic resistance. PMID:17767792

  2. Epidemiological research on radiation-induced cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    PubMed Central

    Ozasa, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    The late effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation on cancer occurrence have been evaluated by epidemiological studies on three cohorts: a cohort of atomic bomb survivors (Life Span Study; LSS), survivors exposed in utero, and children of atomic bomb survivors (F1). The risk of leukemia among the survivors increased remarkably in the early period after the bombings, especially among children. Increased risks of solid cancers have been evident since around 10 years after the bombings and are still present today. The LSS has clarified the dose–response relationships of radiation exposure and risk of various cancers, taking into account important risk modifiers such as sex, age at exposure, and attained age. Confounding by conventional risk factors including lifestyle differences is not considered substantial because people were non-selectively exposed to the atomic bomb radiation. Uncertainty in risk estimates at low-dose levels is thought to be derived from various sources, including different estimates of risk at background levels, uncertainty in dose estimates, residual confounding and interaction, strong risk factors, and exposure to residual radiation and/or medical radiation. The risk of cancer in subjects exposed in utero is similar to that in LSS subjects who were exposed in childhood. Regarding hereditary effects of radiation exposure, no increased risk of cancers associated with parental exposure to radiation have been observed in the F1 cohort to date. In addition to biological and pathogenetic interpretations of the present results, epidemiological investigations using advanced technology should be used to further analyze these cohorts. PMID:26976124

  3. Partnership of Environmental Education and Research-A compilation of student research, 1999-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    : Bradley, Michael W.; Armstrong, Patrice; Byl, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Tennessee Water Science Center and the College of Engineering and Technology at Tennessee State University developed a Partnership in Environmental Education and Research (PEER) to support environmental research at TSU and to expand the environmental research capabilities of the USGS in Tennessee. The PEER program is driven by the research needs to better define the occurrence, fate, and transport of contaminants in groundwater and surface water. Research in the PEER program has primarily focused on the transport and remediation of organic contamination in karst settings. Research conducted through the program has also expanded to a variety of media and settings. Research areas include contaminant occurrence and transport, natural and enhanced bioremediation, geochemical conditions in karst aquifers, mathematical modeling for contaminant transport and degradation, new methods to evaluate groundwater contamination, the resuspension of bacteria from sediment in streams, the use of bioluminescence and chemiluminescence to identify the presence of contaminants, and contaminant remediation in wetlands. The PEER program has increased research and education opportunities for students in the College of Engineering, Technology, and Computer Science and has provided students with experience in presenting the results of their research. Students in the program have participated in state, regional, national and international conferences with more than 140 presentations since 1998 and more than 40 student awards. The PEER program also supports TSU outreach activities and efforts to increase minority participation in environmental and earth science programs at the undergraduate and graduate levels. TSU students and USGS staff participate in the TSU summer programs for elementary and high school students to promote earth sciences. The 2007 summer camps included more than 130 students from 20 different States and Washington DC.

  4. Environmental Remediation Technologies Derived from Space Industry Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Sauser, Brian; Helminger, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Beginning in the 1950s and 1960s, an abundance of effort and initiative was focused on propelling the space industry outward for planetary exploration and habitation. During these early years, the push to take space science to new levels indirectly contributed to the evolution of another science field that would not fully surface until the early 1980s, environmental remediation. This field is associated with the remediation or cleanup of environmental resources such as groundwater, soil, and sediment. Because the space-exploration initiative began prior to the establishment of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in December of 1970, many NASA Centers as well as space-related support contractors allowed for the release of spent chemicals into the environment. Subsequently, these land owners have been directed by the EPA to responsibly initiate cleanup of their impacted sites. This paper will focus on the processes and lessons learned with the development, testing, and commercialization initiatives associated with four remediation technologies. The technologies include installation techniques for permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), the use of ultrasound to improve long-term performance of PRBs, emulsified zero-valent iron for product-level solvent degradation, and emulsion technologies for application to metal and polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated media. Details of the paper cover technology research, evaluation, and testing; contracts and grants; and technology transfer strategies including patenting, marketing, and licensing.

  5. Common Technologies for Environmental Research Infrastructures in ENVRIplus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Jean-Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Environmental and geoscientific research infrastructures (RIs) are dedicated to distinct aspects of the ocean, atmosphere, ecosystems, or solid Earth research, yet there is significant commonality in the way they conceive, develop, operate and upgrade their observation systems and platforms. Many environmental Ris are distributed network of observatories (be it drifting buoys, geophysical observatories, ocean-bottom stations, atmospheric measurements sites) with needs for remote operations. Most RIs have to deal with calibration and standardization issues. RIs use a variety of measurements technologies, but this variety is based on a small, common set of physical principles. All RIs have set their own research and development priorities, and developed their solution to their problems - however many problems are common across RIs. Finally, RIs may overlap in terms of scientific perimeter. In ENVRIplus we aim, for the first time, to identify common opportunities for innovation, to support common research and development across RIs on promising issues, and more generally to create a forum to spread state of the art techniques among participants. ENVRIplus activities include 1) measurement technologies: where are the common types of measurement for which we can share expertise or common development? 2) Metrology : how do we tackle together the diversified challenge of quality assurance and standardization? 3) Remote operations: can we address collectively the need for autonomy, robustness and distributed data handling? And 4) joint operations for research: are we able to demonstrate that together, RIs are able to provide relevant information to support excellent research. In this process we need to nurture an ecosystem of key players. Can we involve all the key technologists of the European RIs for a greater mutual benefit? Can we pave the way to a growing common market for innovative European SMEs, with a common programmatic approach conducive to targeted R&D? Can we

  6. Environmental Health Research and the Observer’s Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Environmental health researchers frequently study people in occupational, educational, recreational, or domestic settings who are exposed to hazardous agents. Objective/discussion Deciding whether—and how—to inform research subjects about risks they face in their environment can be a challenging task for investigators. Because legal rules and professional guidelines do not cover this topic, investigators must carefully consider their ethical obligations in light of the facts and circumstances. Conclusion To navigate through this dilemma, investigators should consider the evidence for the risks, the nature of the risks, the usefulness of risk information to the subjects, and the effects on the study and community of informing subjects about risks. PMID:19672396

  7. Obama address touches on research, energy, and environmental issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    President Barack Obama's State of the Union message, delivered on 24 January, touched on the need for basic research, energy production, support for clean energy, and environmental protection, but it included just one passing reference to climate change. In addition, the speech made no note of the Administration's recent denial of a controversial application for the Keystone XL pipeline to transport crude oil from Canada to the United States and made just an elliptical reference regarding the bankrupt Solyndra Corporation, which the administration had touted as a clean energy company. Innovation "demands basic research," Obama said, adding that Congress should not "gut these investments in our budget." Noting that one promise for innovation is American-made energy, Obama said he is directing the administration to "open more than 75% of our potential offshore oil and gas resources."

  8. Environmental equity research: review with focus on outdoor air pollution research methods and analytic tools.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qun; Chen, Dongmei; Buzzelli, Michael; Aronson, Kristan J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review environmental equity research on outdoor air pollution and, specifically, methods and tools used in research, published in English, with the aim of recommending the best methods and analytic tools. English language publications from 2000 to 2012 were identified in Google Scholar, Ovid MEDLINE, and PubMed. Research methodologies and results were reviewed and potential deficiencies and knowledge gaps identified. The publications show that exposure to outdoor air pollution differs by social factors, but findings are inconsistent in Canada. In terms of study designs, most were small and ecological and therefore prone to the ecological fallacy. Newer tools such as geographic information systems, modeling, and biomarkers offer improved precision in exposure measurement. Higher-quality research using large, individual-based samples and more precise analytic tools are needed to provide better evidence for policy-making to reduce environmental inequities.

  9. Legacy of Environmental Research During the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program provided many opportunities to study the role of spaceflight on human life for over the last 30 years and represents the longest and largest U.S. human spaceflight program. Risks to crewmembers were included in the research areas of nutrition, microbiology, toxicology, radiation, and sleep quality. To better understand the Shuttle environment, Crew Health Care System was developed. As part of this system, the Environmental Health Subsystem was developed to monitor the atmosphere for gaseous contaminants and microbial contamination levels and to monitor water quality and radiation. This program expended a great deal of effort in studying and mitigating risks related to contaminations due to food, water, air, surfaces, crewmembers, and payloads including those with animals. As the Shuttle had limited stowage space and food selection, the development of nutritional requirements for crewmembers was imperative. As the Shuttle was a reusable vehicle, microbial contamination was of great concern. The development of monitoring instruments that could withstand the space environment took several years and many variations to come up with a suitable instrument. Research with space radiation provided an improved understanding of the various sources of ionizing radiation and the development of monitoring instrumentation for space weather and the human exposure within the orbiter's cabin. Space toxicology matured to include the management of offgassing products that could pollute the crewmembers air quality. The Shuttle Program implemented a 5-level toxicity rating system and developed new monitoring instrumentation to detect toxic compounds. The environment of space caused circadian desynchrony, sleep deficiency, and fatigue leading to much research and major emphasis on countermeasures. Outcomes of the research in these areas were countermeasures, operational protocols, and hardware. Learning Objectives: This symposium will provide an overview of the

  10. The epidemiology of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Winters, Brian R; Walsh, Thomas J

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to integrate understanding of epidemiology and infertility. A primer on epidemiologic science and an example disease for which the design of epidemiologic investigations is readily apparent are provided. Key features of infertility that limit epidemiologic investigation are described and a survey of available data on the epidemiology of infertility provided. Finally, the work that must be completed to move this area of research forward is proposed, and, with this new perspective of "infertility as a disease," improvements envisioned in public health that may be gained through improved understanding of the epidemiology of male infertility.

  11. Addressing Global Environmental Challenges through Interdisciplinary Biogeochemical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Our planet is dynamic; energy and matter constantly move between the hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere on time scales from seconds to millenia. These tight interactions - including those between organisms and their physical environment - are what make Earth habitable. However, as Rachel Carson wrote, 'Only within the moment of time represented by the present century has one species - man - acquired significant power to alter the nature of this world'. Globalization and explosive population growth have generated far-reaching environmental problems on a scale that humanity has never faced before. Fortunately, our species has also developed an unprecedented ability to provide science-based solutions. Since processes impacting the environment involve complex biological, physical, chemical and geological interactions and feedbacks, they require the integration of expertise from all these scientific disciplines as well as input from policy makers, social scientists, and economists. This talk presents four examples of current interdisciplinary research projects conducted in my lab, each one related to a theme from one of Carson's books (Under the Sea-wind, The Sea Around Us, The Edge of the Sea, and Silent Spring). These projects, and others like them, provide hope that we can move toward a sustainable relationship with the natural world by encouraging the best scientists to conduct interdisciplinary research with direct applications for environmental management and stewardship.

  12. Schools In Board - Bridging Arctic Research And Environmental Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, D. G.; Barber, L.

    2008-12-01

    Schools on Board (www.arcticnet.ulaval.ca) was created in 2002 to address the outreach objectives of a network of Canadian scientists conducting research in the High Arctic. The program was piloted with great success with the 2004 research program called the Canadian Arctic Shelf Study (CASES). Since then, the S/B program continues as an integral outreach program of the Canadian Network of Centres of Excellence (NCE) known as ArcticNet. The primary objective of the program is to bridge Arctic climate change research with science and environmental education in the public school system. It is a vehicle for scientists and graduate students to share their research program with high schools and the general public. The program encourages schools to include Arctic Sciences into their science programs by linking Arctic research to existing curriculum, providing resources and opportunities to send high school students and teachers into the Arctic to participate in a science expedition on board the Canadian research icebreaker CCGS Amundsen. The field program is an adventure into Arctic research that exposes students and teachers to the objectives and methods of numerous science teams representing a number of research disciplines and institutions from across Canada and beyond. Face-to-face interactions with scientists of all levels (masters, PhD's, researchers, CRC chairs), hands-on experiences in the field and in the labs, and access to state-of-the-art scientific instrumentation, combine to create a powerful learning environment. In addition to hands-on research activities the program introduces participants to many aspects of Canada's North, including local knowledge related to climate change, culture, history, and politics - within the educational program on the ship and the planned visits to Northern communities. During International Polar Year (IPY) Schools on Board collaborated with international researchers and northern agencies from 11 countries to offer one

  13. Molecular Epidemiology of Foodborne Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Brown, Eric; Knabel, Stephen J.

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the basic principles and advancements in the molecular epidemiology of foodborne pathogens. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of infectious diseases and/or the dynamics of disease transmission. The goals of epidemiology include the identification of physical sources, routes of transmission of infectious agents, and distribution and relationships of different subgroups. Molecular epidemiology is the study of epidemiology at the molecular level. It has been defined as "a science that focuses on the contribution of potential genetic and environmental risk factors, identified at the molecular level, to the etiology, distribution and prevention of diseases within families and across populations".

  14. Reflections on Reviewing Educational Research: (Re)searching for Value in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Reflects upon the work of reviewing environmental education research as an instance of interpretation and representation of educational knowledge. Suggests that it is useful to rethink the review process as a means of constructing social meaning within politicized areas that are subject to conflicting ideological and epistemological commitments…

  15. Combining epidemiology and biomechanics in sports injury prevention research: a new approach for selecting suitable controls.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caroline F; Ullah, Shahid; McIntosh, Andrew S

    2011-01-01

    Several important methodological issues need to be considered when designing sports injury case-control studies. Major design goals for case-control studies include the accounting for prior injury risk exposure, and optimal definitions of both cases and suitable controls are needed to ensure this. This article reviews methodological aspects of published sports injury case-control studies, particularly with regard to the selection of controls. It argues for a new approach towards selecting controls for case-control studies that draws on an interface between epidemiological and biomechanical concepts. A review was conducted to identify sport injury case-control studies published in the peer-review literature during 1985-2008. Overall, 32 articles were identified, of which the majority related to upper or lower extremity injuries. Matching considerations were used for control selection in 16 studies. Specific mention of application of biomechanical principles in the selection of appropriate controls was absent from all studies, including those purporting to evaluate the benefits of personal protective equipment to protect against impact injury. This is a problem because it could lead to biased conclusions, as cases and controls are not fully comparable in terms of similar biomechanical impact profiles relating to the injury incident, such as site of the impact on the body. The strength of the conclusions drawn from case-control studies, and the extent to which results can be generalized, is directly influenced by the definition and recruitment of cases and appropriate controls. Future studies should consider the interface between epidemiological and biomechanical concepts when choosing appropriate controls to ensure that proper adjustment of prior exposure to injury risk is made. To provide necessary guidance for the optimal selection of controls in case-control studies of interventions to prevent sports-related impact injury, this review outlines a new case

  16. Global epidemiology of sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Mochizuki, Takashi; Li, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an endemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato. It has gained importance in recent years due to its worldwide prevalence, recognition of multiple cryptic species within the originally described species, and its distinctive ecology, distribution, and epidemiology across the globe. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of the taxonomy, ecology, prevalence, molecular epidemiology, and outbreaks due to S. schenckii sensu lato. Despite its omnipresence in the environment, this fungus has remarkably diverse modes of infection and distribution patterns across the world. We have delved into the nuances of how sporotrichosis is intimately linked to different forms of human activities, habitats, lifestyles, and environmental and zoonotic interactions. The purpose of this review is to stimulate discussion about the peculiarities of this unique fungal pathogen and increase the awareness of clinicians and microbiologists, especially in regions of high endemicity, to its emergence and evolving presentations and to kindle further research into understanding the unorthodox mechanisms by which this fungus afflicts different human populations.

  17. [Mental health of the world population: epidemiological aspects (the analysis of foreign research results for 2000-2010)].

    PubMed

    Mitikhina, I A; Mitikhin, V G; Iasterbov, V S; Limankin, O V

    2011-01-01

    Modern approaches to studying prevalence of a mental pathology and the results received during 2000-2010 are analyzed according to a condition of mental health of the population of separate regions and countries of the world. Information sources were databases of the WHO, a database of the United States National Library of Medicine "PubMed", archives of publications of leading foreign medical magazines in the field of mental health. The growth of prevalence and incidence of mental illnesses, especially depressive and anxiety disorders, with the corresponding increasing burden of mental disorders worldwide is observed. To obtain reliable results, modern schemes of epidemiological studies should be realized with the account of social-cultural level of the population, adaptation of diagnostic tools, qualitative preparation and training of the personnel and with the precise use of statistical criteria and requirements to the selection and analysis of research information.

  18. A Vision for the Future of Environmental Research: Creating Environmental Intelligence Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, E. J.

    2002-12-01

    The nature of the environmental issues facing our nation demands a capability that allows us to enhance economic vitality, maintain environmental quality, and limit threats to life and property through more fundamental understanding of the Earth. It is "advanced" knowledge of how the system may respond that gives environmental information most of its power and utility. This fact is evident in the demand for new forecasting products, involving air quality, energy demand, water quality and quantity, ultraviolet radiation, and human health indexes. As we demonstrate feasibility and benefit, society is likely to demand a growing number of new operational forecast products on prediction time scales of days to decades into the future. The driving forces that govern our environment are widely recognized, involving primarily weather and climate, patterns of land use and land cover, and resource use with its associated waste products. The importance of these driving forces has been demonstrated by a decade of research on greenhouse gas emissions, ozone depletion and deforestation, and through the birth of Earth System Science. But, there are also major challenges. We find the strongest intersection between human activity, environmental stresses, system interactions and human decision-making in regional analysis coupled to larger spatial scales. In addition, most regions are influenced by multiple-stresses. Multiple, cumulative, and interactive stresses are clearly the most difficult to understand and hence the most difficult to assess and to manage. Currently, we are incapable of addressing these issues in a truly integrated fashion at global scales. The lack of an ability to combine global and regional forcing and to assess the response of the system to multiple stresses at the spatial and temporal scales of interest to humans limits our ability to assess the impacts of specific human perturbations, to assess advantages and risks, and to enhance economic and societal well

  19. Systems Epidemiology: A New Direction in Nutrition and Metabolic Disease Research

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Hu, Frank B.

    2013-01-01

    Systems epidemiology applied to the field of nutrition has potential to provide new insight into underlying mechanisms and ways to study the health effects of specific foods more comprehensively. Human intervention and population-based studies have identified i) common genetic factors associated with several nutrition-related traits and ii) dietary factors altering the expression of genes and levels of proteins and metabolites related to inflammation, lipid metabolism and/or gut microbial metabolism, results of high relevance to metabolic disease. System-level tools applied type 2 diabetes and related conditions have revealed new pathways that are potentially modified by diet and thus offer additional opportunities for nutritional investigations. Moving forward, harnessing the resources of existing large prospective studies within which biological samples have been archived and diet and lifestyle have been measured repeatedly within individual will enable systems-level data to be integrated, the outcome of which will be improved personalized optimal nutrition for prevention and treatment of disease. PMID:24278790

  20. Development of an RF-EMF Exposure Surrogate for Epidemiologic Research.

    PubMed

    Roser, Katharina; Schoeni, Anna; Bürgi, Alfred; Röösli, Martin

    2015-05-22

    Exposure assessment is a crucial part in studying potential effects of RF-EMF. Using data from the HERMES study on adolescents, we developed an integrative exposure surrogate combining near-field and far-field RF-EMF exposure in a single brain and whole-body exposure measure. Contributions from far-field sources were modelled by propagation modelling and multivariable regression modelling using personal measurements. Contributions from near-field sources were assessed from both, questionnaires and mobile phone operator records. Mean cumulative brain and whole-body doses were 1559.7 mJ/kg and 339.9 mJ/kg per day, respectively. 98.4% of the brain dose originated from near-field sources, mainly from GSM mobile phone calls (93.1%) and from DECT phone calls (4.8%). Main contributors to the whole-body dose were GSM mobile phone calls (69.0%), use of computer, laptop and tablet connected to WLAN (12.2%) and data traffic on the mobile phone via WLAN (6.5%). The exposure from mobile phone base stations contributed 1.8% to the whole-body dose, while uplink exposure from other people's mobile phones contributed 3.6%. In conclusion, the proposed approach is considered useful to combine near-field and far-field exposure to an integrative exposure surrogate for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies. However, substantial uncertainties remain about exposure contributions from various near-field and far-field sources.