Science.gov

Sample records for environmental epidemiologic research

  1. Environmental epidemiology

    SciTech Connect

    Kopfler, F.C.; Craun, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    This volume is a compendium of peer-reviewed papers presented at the Symposium on Exposure Measurement and Evaluation Methods for Epidemiology, cosponsored in 1985 by the Health Effects Research Laboratory, USEPA, and the Division of Environmental Chemistry of the American Chemical Society. The book is divided into four sections: Use of Biological Monitoring to Assess Exposure, Epidemiologic Considerations for Assessing Exposure, Health and Exposure Data Bases, and Assessment of Exposure to Environmental Contaminants for Epidemiologic Studies. Both background papers and detailed reports of human studies are presented. The Biological Monitoring section contains reports of efforts to quantify adducts in blood and urine samples. In the section on Epidemiologic Considerations the feasibility of conducting epidemiologic studies of persons residing near hazardous waste sites and those exposed to arsenic in drinking water is described. The review of Data Bases includes government and industry water quality monitoring systems, the FDA Market Basket Study, major EPA air monitoring data, the National Database on Body Burden of Toxic chemicals, and the National Human Adipose Tissue Survey. Methods of assessing current exposure and estimating past exposure are detailed in the final section. Exposure to trichloroethylene in shower water, the relationship between water quality and cardiovascular disease, the contribution of environmental lead exposures to pediatric blood lead levels, and data from the TEAM study in which researchers compare indoor, outdoor, and breath analysis of air pollutant exposures are also discussed.

  2. [Epidemiological research on environmental health risks and their economic consequences].

    PubMed

    Haucke, F; Holle, R; Wichmann, H E

    2009-12-01

    In environmental health research, methods for quantitative analysis of human population studies data are gaining importance. In recent years, it has been realized that they can also provide an important link to the economic view on environmental health effects. In this review, fundamental concepts and methods from environmental epidemiology and health economics are presented and it is shown how they can be linked in order to support environmental policy decisions. In addition, the characteristics of environmental epidemiology and the role of epidemiologic studies in risk assessment are discussed. From the economic point of view, cost-of-illness studies and cost effectiveness studies are the main approaches, and we have placed special focus on methods of monetary valuation of health effects that are generally proposed in the environmental context. Two conceptually differing strategies to combine epidemiologic and economic evidence are presented: the environmental attributable fraction model as a top-down approach and the impact pathway approach which follows a bottom-up analysis strategy. Finally, two examples are used to illustrate the application of these concepts and methods: health risks caused by fine particle air pollution and their costs, and the cost-effectiveness of radon exposure reduction policies.

  3. Toward a global agenda for research in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Soskolne, Colin L; Butler, Colin D; Ijsselmuiden, Carel; London, Leslie; von Schirnding, Yasmin

    2007-01-01

    The global environment is in critical decline. Whether one's concern about environmental epidemiology stems from the perspectives of environmental health, climate change, ecological collapse, or growing inequity, clear problems exist. Natural capital resources are being depleted; disregard for the integrity of ecosystems is entrenched in current business practices. Indeed, despite increasing rhetoric to the contrary, the disregard displayed by those who hold power globally toward long-term sustainability and, thus, the health and well-being of future generations, could be described as wanton. Six years ago, the Millennium Development Goals were announced by the United Nations as a rallying point for action to achieve a sustainable future, particularly by reducing the gap between the "have mores" and "have nots." The attainment of these Goals is now endangered, as is, apparently, the spirit of optimism and idealism that inspired them at the Millennium Summit. We call for a reinvigoration of both concern about-and action on-sustainability. In particular, we appeal to those engaged in the field of environmental epidemiology (and other specialties with whom they engage) to consider how they might help by incorporating sustainability issues (including global ecological integrity and global environmental justice) into their own research programs. This incorporation would make a vital contribution to protect both present and future generations and to reduce resource and health gaps between North and South. Simply put, we propose that sustainability becomes integral to advancing the science of environmental epidemiology and related environmental disciplines.

  4. Methodologic research needs in environmental epidemiology: data analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, R L; Thomas, D

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is given of data analysis methods for the identification and quantification of associations between environmental exposures and health events of interest. Data analysis methods are outlined for each of the study designs mentioned, with an emphasis on topics in need of further research. Particularly noted are the need for improved methods for accommodating exposure assessment measurement errors in analytic epidemiologic studies and for improved methods for the conduct and analysis of aggregate data (ecologic) studies. PMID:8206041

  5. Challenges for environmental epidemiology research: are biomarker concentrations altered by kidney function or urine concentration adjustment?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological monitoring has become a standard approach to exposure assessment in occupational and environmental epidemiology. The use of biological effect markers to identify early adverse changes in target organs has also become widely adopted. Recently, nephrotoxicant research us...

  6. Challenges for environmental epidemiology research: are biomarker concentrations altered by kidney function or urine concentration adjustment?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological monitoring has become a standard approach to exposure assessment in occupational and environmental epidemiology. The use of biological effect markers to identify early adverse changes in target organs has also become widely adopted. Recently, nephrotoxicant research us...

  7. Ongoing research in occupational health and environmental epidemiology in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Levy, B S; Kjellstrom, T; Forget, G; Jones, M R; Pollier, L

    1992-01-01

    Research in occupational health and environmental epidemiology can play an important role in furthering our understanding of occupational and environmental health problems. Research guides us in the recognition, management, and prevention of health problems. However, in developing countries, where rates of occupational and environmental illnesses and injuries are higher and where these problems are often more severe than in developed countries, research capabilities are less developed. In mid-1990, a project was undertaken to (a) document ongoing research in occupational health and environmental epidemiology in developing countries, (b) facilitate the exchange of information among researchers in this field, (c) stimulate research, and (d) avoid unnecessary duplication among researchers in this field. A questionnaire was mailed, the purpose of which was to learn the current status of research in developing countries and to develop a directory of such ongoing research. The questionnaire was sent to 1,528 individuals. Of the 500 research projects identified, 77% were investigating chemical hazards; 26%, physical hazards; 10%, biological hazards; and 10%, psychosocial hazards (some projects addressed multiple hazards). The chemical hazards studied most frequently were dusts, pesticides, and lead. The greatest number of research projects were identified in China, India, Brazil, Korea, and Thailand. Most projects were descriptive or cross-sectional epidemiologic studies or industrial hygiene or exposure-assessment studies. The World Health Organization has published a directory of the specific research projects that were identified in this survey.

  8. Reporting of occupational and environmental research: use and misuse of statistical and epidemiological methods

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, L.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To report some of the most serious omissions and errors which may occur in papers submitted to Occupational and Environmental Medicine, and to give guidelines on the essential components that should be included in papers reporting results from studies of occupational and environmental health.
METHODS—Since 1994 Occupational and Environmental Medicine has used a panel of medical statisticians to review submitted papers which have a substantial statistical content. Although some studies may have genuine errors in their design, execution, and analysis, many of the problems identified during the reviewing process are due to inadequate and incomplete reporting of essential aspects of a study. This paper outlines some of the most important errors and omissions that may occur. Observational studies are often the preferred choice of design in occupational and environmental medicine. Some of the issues relating to design, execution, and analysis which should be considered when reporting three of the most common observational study designs, cross sectional, case-control, and cohort are described. An illustration of good reporting practice is given for each. Various mathematical modelling techniques are often used in the analysis of these studies, the reporting of which causes a major problem to some authors. Suggestions for the presentation of results from modelling are made.
CONCLUSIONS—There is increasing interest in the development and application of formal "good epidemiology practices". These not only consider issues of data quality, study design, and study conduct, but through their structured approach to the documentation of the study procedures, provide the potential for more rigorous reporting of the results in the scientific literature.


Keywords: research reporting; statistical methods; epidemiological methods PMID:10711263

  9. Challenges for environmental epidemiology research: are biomarker concentrations altered by kidney function or urine concentration adjustment?

    PubMed

    Weaver, Virginia M; Kotchmar, Dennis J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2016-01-01

    Biomonitoring has become a standard approach for exposure assessment in occupational and environmental epidemiology. The use of biological effect markers to identify early adverse changes in target organs has also become widely adopted. However, the potential for kidney function to affect biomarker levels in the body and the optimal approach to adjustment of biomarker concentrations in spot urine samples for hydration status are two important but underappreciated challenges associated with biomarker use. Several unexpected findings, such as positive associations between urine nephrotoxicant levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), have been reported recently in research using biomarkers. These and other findings, discussed herein, suggest an impact of kidney glomerular filtration or tubule processing on biomarker levels. This is more commonly raised in the context of decreased kidney filtration, traditionally referred to as reverse causality; however, recent data suggest that populations with normal kidney filtration may be affected as well. Misclassification bias would result if biomarkers reflect kidney function as well as either exposures or early biological effect outcomes. Furthermore, urine biomarker associations with eGFR that differ markedly by approach used to adjust for urine concentration have been reported. Associations between urine measures commonly used for this adjustment, such as urine creatinine, and specific research outcomes could alter observed biomarker associations with outcomes. Research recommendations to address the potential impact of kidney function and hydration status adjustment on biomarkers are provided, including a range of approaches to study design, exposure and outcome assessment, and adjustment for urine concentration.

  10. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rajan R.; Chetlapally, Satish Kumar; Bagvandas, M.

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution. PMID:26023265

  11. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajan R; Chetlapally, Satish Kumar; Bagvandas, M

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution.

  12. Molecular epidemiologic research on the effects of environmental pollutants on the fetus.

    PubMed Central

    Perera, F P; Jedrychowski, W; Rauh, V; Whyatt, R M

    1999-01-01

    Evidence shows that fetuses and infants are more affected than adults by a variety of environmental toxicants because of differential exposure, physiologic immaturity, and a longer lifetime over which disease initiated in early life can develop. In this article we review data on the effects of in utero exposure to common environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), particulate matter and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). We then summarize results from our molecular epidemiologic study to assess risks from in utero exposures to ambient air pollution and ETS. This research study, conducted in Poland, used biomarkers to measure the internal and bioeffective dose of toxicants and individual susceptibility factors. The study included 160 mothers and 160 newborns. Ambient air pollution was significantly associated (p= 0.05) with the amount of PAH bound to DNA (PAH-DNA adducts) in both maternal and infant cord white blood cells (WBC). Newborns with elevated PAH-DNA adducts (greater than the median) had significantly decreased birth weight (p= 0.05), birth length (p= 0.02), and head circumference (p= 0.0005) compared to the newborns with lower adducts (n= 135). Maternal and infant cotinine levels were increased by active and passive cigarette smoke exposure of the mother (p= 0.01). An inverse correlation was seen between newborn plasma cotinine (nanograms per milliliter) and birth weight (p= 0.0001) and length (p= 0.003). Adducts were elevated in placental tissue and WBC of newborns who were heterozygous or homozygous for the cytochrome P4501A1 MspI restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) compared to newborns without the RFLP. Levels of PAH-DNA and cotinine were higher in newborns than mothers. These results document that there is significant transplacental transfer of PAH and ETS constituents from mother to fetus; that PAH-DNA adduct levels in maternal and newborn WBC were increased with environmental exposure to PAH from ambient

  13. Evidence-based selection of environmental factors and datasets for measuring multiple environmental deprivation in epidemiological research

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This Environment and Human Health project aims to develop a health-based summary measure of multiple physical environmental deprivation for the UK, akin to the measures of multiple socioeconomic deprivation that are widely used in epidemiology. Here we describe the first stage of the project, in which we aimed to identify health-relevant dimensions of physical environmental deprivation and acquire suitable environmental datasets to represent population exposure to these dimensions at the small-area level. We present the results of this process: an evidence-based list of environmental dimensions with population health relevance for the UK, and the spatial datasets we obtained and processed to represent these dimensions. This stage laid the foundations for the rest of the project, which will be reported elsewhere. PMID:20102585

  14. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  15. Gene-Environment Research and Cancer Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program supports extramural research that investigates both genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to the etiology of cancer and/or impact cancer outcomes.

  16. Advances in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Caroline M

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is likely due to the combined effects of environment and genes in most cases. Environmental factors inversely associated with PD (or, putative protective factors) include cigarette smoking, use of coffee/caffeine, higher uric acid levels, and anti-inflammatory drug use. Less well-established inverse associations with PD include higher cholesterol levels, statin use, higher dietary vitamin B6, and night shift work. Putative risk factors are pesticide exposure, head trauma, certain occupations, and milk consumption. The pathogenesis of PD may begin decades before motor symptoms. PD may have shared determinants with other neurodegenerative disorders involving abnormal protein aggregation.

  17. The intersection of sound principles of environmental epidemiologic research and ethical guidelines and review: an example from Canada of an environmental case-control study.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Mark S

    2010-01-01

    The present article challenges the ways in which ethical guidelines are implemented in reviewing the design and conduct of research involving human participants in observational studies in Canada. Fieldwork procedures should be designed in such a way as to be valid scientifically but also acceptable in terms of local ethical considerations, such as confidentiality of participant's identity and information, and other social norms. To set the stage, I present briefly essential information regarding the valid design and conduct of observational epidemiologic studies. As an example of the difficulties encountered in implementing these procedures, I present my experience in gaining ethical approval for a population-based, case-control study of environmental causes of postmenopausal breast cancer.

  18. Epigenetic Epidemiology: Promises for Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Bakulski, Kelly M.; Fallin, M. Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic changes underlie developmental and age related biology. Promising epidemiologic research implicates epigenetics in disease risk and progression, and suggests epigenetic status depends on environmental risks as well as genetic predisposition. Epigenetics may represent a mechanistic link between environmental exposures, or genetics, and many common diseases, or may simply provide a quantitative biomarker for exposure or disease for areas of epidemiology currently lacking such measures. This great promise is balanced by issues related to study design, measurement tools, statistical methods, and biological interpretation that must be given careful consideration in an epidemiologic setting. This article describes the promises and challenges for epigenetic epidemiology, and suggests directions to advance this emerging area of molecular epidemiology. PMID:24449392

  19. Epigenetic epidemiology: promises for public health research.

    PubMed

    Bakulski, Kelly M; Fallin, M Daniele

    2014-04-01

    Epigenetic changes underlie developmental and age related biology. Promising epidemiologic research implicates epigenetics in disease risk and progression, and suggests epigenetic status depends on environmental risks as well as genetic predisposition. Epigenetics may represent a mechanistic link between environmental exposures, or genetics, and many common diseases, or may simply provide a quantitative biomarker for exposure or disease for areas of epidemiology currently lacking such measures. This great promise is balanced by issues related to study design, measurement tools, statistical methods, and biological interpretation that must be given careful consideration in an epidemiologic setting. This article describes the promises and challenges for epigenetic epidemiology, and suggests directions to advance this emerging area of molecular epidemiology. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Courses in environmental and occupational epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Philipp, R; Kjellström, T

    1994-01-01

    The results of a survey are reported in which members of WHO's Global Environmental Epidemiology Network were asked for details of free-standing environmental and occupational epidemiology courses that were offered or planned for 1991-93 with tuition in English, French or Spanish and with places for persons living outside the countries concerned. Of the 126 courses on which information was received, 72 were open to health professionals from more than one discipline.

  1. Epidemiologic research in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A study of epidemiology of respiratory viruses that was begun in the early 1960's is described. Locations selected for the study included a Wisconsin University housing village, a second grade school population, individual volunteers who associated socially, married couples, and the winter-over population at McMurdo Bay and at Scott Base in the Antarctic. It was concluded that most rhinovirus transmission is through aerosolized particles. Air filtration and careful nasal sanitation with virucidal tissues are determined to be effective in blocking rhinovirus transmission and should be useful in both isolated space colonies and in ordinary earth-bound populations.

  2. Improving Concordance in Environmental Epidemiology: A Three-Part Proposal

    PubMed Central

    LaKind, Judy S.; Goodman, Michael; Makris, Susan L.; Mattison, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    In observational research, evidence is usually derived from multiple studies, and any single result is rarely considered sufficient for public health decision making. Despite more than five decades of research and thousands of studies published, the ability to draw robust conclusions regarding the presence or absence of causal links between specific environmental exposures and human health remains limited. To develop policies that are protective of public health and can withstand scrutiny, agencies need to rely on investigations of satisfactory quality that follow sufficiently concordant protocols in terms of exposure assessment, outcome ascertainment, data analysis, and reporting of results. Absent such concordance, the ability of environmental epidemiology studies to inform decision making is greatly diminished. Systems and tools are proposed here to improve concordance among environmental epidemiology studies. Specifically, working systems in place in other fields of research are critically examined and used as guidelines to develop analogous policies and procedures for environmental epidemiology. A three-part path forward toward more concordant, transparent, and readily accessible environmental epidemiology evidence that parallels ongoing efforts in medical research is proposed. The three parts address methods for improving quality and accessibility of systematic reviews, access to information on ongoing and completed studies, and principles for reporting. The goals are to increase the value of epidemiological research in public health decision making and to stimulate discussions around solutions proposed herein. PMID:26158301

  3. Environmental exposure measurement in cancer epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Environmental exposures, used in the broadest sense of lifestyle, infections, radiation, natural and man-made chemicals and occupation, are a major cause of human cancer. However, the precise contribution of specific risk factors and their interaction, both with each other and with genotype, continues to be difficult to elucidate. This is partially due to limitations in accurately measuring exposure with the subsequent risk of misclassification. One of the primary challenges of molecular cancer epidemiology therefore is to improve exposure assessment. Progress has been made with biomarkers such as carcinogens and their metabolites, DNA and protein adducts and mutations measured in various tissues and body fluids. Nevertheless, much remains to be accomplished in order to establish aetiology and provide the evidence base for public health decisions. This review considers some of the principles behind the application of exposure biomarkers in cancer epidemiology. It also demonstrates how the same biomarkers can contribute both to establishing the biological plausibility of associations between exposure and disease and be valuable endpoints in intervention studies. The potential of new technologies such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabonomics to provide a step change in environmental exposure assessment is discussed. An increasing recognition of the role of epigenetic changes in carcinogenesis presents a fresh challenge as alterations in DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA in response to environmental exposures demand a new generation of exposure biomarker. The overall importance of this area of research is brought into sharp relief by the large prospective cohort studies (e.g. UK Biobank) which need accurate exposure measurement in order to shed light on the complex gene:environment interactions underlying common chronic disorders including cancer. It is suggested that a concerted effort is now required, with appropriate funding, to develop and

  4. Prevention, communication and equity in environmental epidemiology: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Pagliarani, Giovanna; Botti, Caterina

    2011-01-01

    In environmental epidemiology research, decisions about when and how to intervene requires adequate ethical reflection. In fact, different kinds of issues may arise about: research methods and knowledge production; management of the results in terms of their overall assessments or for the implementation of preventive actions; reclamation intervention. In this contribution we propose to consider three topics we regard as crucial to this ethical debate: the reporting of conclusive research data; the correct application of the precautionary principle; and the environmental equity issues.

  5. About the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    Epidemiology is the scientific study of the causes and distribution of disease in populations. NCI-funded epidemiology research is conducted through research at institutions in the United States and internationally.

  6. Evolution of environmental epidemiologic risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, H.A.

    1985-10-01

    Epidemiology has historically played an important role in the recognition of causes for diseases affecting the health of the public. Initially, epidemiology was concerned with infectious diseases. Later it became involved in metabolic and dietary deficiency diseases. Most recently, epidemiology has addressed the question of the public health effects of chemicals from production facilities, accidental spills, and chemical waste disposal sites. Concurrent improvements in the sensitivity of chemical analyses have enabled the identification of chemicals arising from waste disposal sites in the soil, air, drinking water, and food supplies of neighboring residential areas, albeit usually at very low concentrations. This knowledge has created great concerns among the affected populations and their public health agencies. The responsibility for interpreting the potential severity of the health effects of these environmental contaminants has fallen to those scientists experienced in epidemiology. This has led to a subdiscipline, reactive epidemiology, which describes investigations focused on specific events, usually under emotion-laden circumstances, rather than scientific merit. The reactive epidemiologist is rigidly constrained as to the size, timing, and location of the study. There is a strong requirement for public communication skills. New data bases are needed including ''sentinel'' diseases that are linked to exposure to chemicals, records of land use, and residency data for the population at risk.

  7. Environmental Risk Score as a New Tool to Examine Multi-Pollutants in Epidemiologic Research: An Example from the NHANES Study Using Serum Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Kyun; Tao, Yebin; Meeker, John D.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2014-01-01

    Objective A growing body of evidence suggests that environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants and plasticizers play an important role in the development of chronic diseases. Most epidemiologic studies have examined environmental pollutants individually, but in real life, we are exposed to multi-pollutants and pollution mixtures, not single pollutants. Although multi-pollutant approaches have been recognized recently, challenges exist such as how to estimate the risk of adverse health responses from multi-pollutants. We propose an “Environmental Risk Score (ERS)” as a new simple tool to examine the risk of exposure to multi-pollutants in epidemiologic research. Methods and Results We examined 134 environmental pollutants in relation to serum lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and triglycerides) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1999 and 2006. Using a two-stage approach, stage-1 for discovery (n = 10818) and stage-2 for validation (n = 4615), we identified 13 associated pollutants for total cholesterol, 9 for HDL, 5 for LDL and 27 for triglycerides with adjustment for sociodemographic factors, body mass index and serum nutrient levels. Using the regression coefficients (weights) from joint analyses of the combined data and exposure concentrations, ERS were computed as a weighted sum of the pollutant levels. We computed ERS for multiple lipid outcomes examined individually (single-phenotype approach) or together (multi-phenotype approach). Although the contributions of ERS to overall risk predictions for lipid outcomes were modest, we found relatively stronger associations between ERS and lipid outcomes than with individual pollutants. The magnitudes of the observed associations for ERS were comparable to or stronger than those for socio-demographic factors or BMI. Conclusions This study suggests ERS is

  8. Defending legitimate epidemiologic research: combating Lysenko pseudoscience

    PubMed Central

    Enstrom, James E

    2007-01-01

    This analysis presents a detailed defense of my epidemiologic research in the May 17, 2003 British Medical Journal that found no significant relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and tobacco-related mortality. In order to defend the honesty and scientific integrity of my research, I have identified and addressed in a detailed manner several unethical and erroneous attacks on this research. Specifically, I have demonstrated that this research is not "fatally flawed," that I have not made "inappropriate use" of the underlying database, and that my findings agree with other United States results on this relationship. My research suggests, contrary to popular claims, that there is not a causal relationship between ETS and mortality in the U.S. responsible for 50,000 excess annual deaths, but rather there is a weak and inconsistent relationship. The popular claims tend to damage the credibility of epidemiology. In addition, I address the omission of my research from the 2006 Surgeon General's Report on Involuntary Smoking and the inclusion of it in a massive U.S. Department of Justice racketeering lawsuit. I refute erroneous statements made by powerful U.S. epidemiologists and activists about me and my research and I defend the funding used to conduct this research. Finally, I compare many aspect of ETS epidemiology in the U.S. with pseudoscience in the Soviet Union during the period of Trofim Denisovich Lysenko. Overall, this paper is intended to defend legitimate research against illegitimate criticism by those who have attempted to suppress and discredit it because it does not support their ideological and political agendas. Hopefully, this defense will help other scientists defend their legitimate research and combat "Lysenko pseudoscience." PMID:17927827

  9. Defending legitimate epidemiologic research: combating Lysenko pseudoscience.

    PubMed

    Enstrom, James E

    2007-10-10

    This analysis presents a detailed defense of my epidemiologic research in the May 17, 2003 British Medical Journal that found no significant relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and tobacco-related mortality. In order to defend the honesty and scientific integrity of my research, I have identified and addressed in a detailed manner several unethical and erroneous attacks on this research. Specifically, I have demonstrated that this research is not "fatally flawed," that I have not made "inappropriate use" of the underlying database, and that my findings agree with other United States results on this relationship. My research suggests, contrary to popular claims, that there is not a causal relationship between ETS and mortality in the U.S. responsible for 50,000 excess annual deaths, but rather there is a weak and inconsistent relationship. The popular claims tend to damage the credibility of epidemiology. In addition, I address the omission of my research from the 2006 Surgeon General's Report on Involuntary Smoking and the inclusion of it in a massive U.S. Department of Justice racketeering lawsuit. I refute erroneous statements made by powerful U.S. epidemiologists and activists about me and my research and I defend the funding used to conduct this research. Finally, I compare many aspect of ETS epidemiology in the U.S. with pseudoscience in the Soviet Union during the period of Trofim Denisovich Lysenko. Overall, this paper is intended to defend legitimate research against illegitimate criticism by those who have attempted to suppress and discredit it because it does not support their ideological and political agendas. Hopefully, this defense will help other scientists defend their legitimate research and combat "Lysenko pseudoscience."

  10. [DOHaD: epidemiological researches].

    PubMed

    Delpierre, Cyrille; Lepeule, Johanna; Cordier, Sylvaine; Slama, Remy; Heude, Barbara; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological researches in the field of DOHaD are in favor of a role of early environment, including chemical (pesticides), physical (air pollution), nutritional or psychosocial environment, on child and adult health. Disentangling the different factors of environment that may affect health, especially over time, and identifying critical periods of exposure remains a major challenge. The biological mechanisms involved remain elusive in human beings. Nevertheless, it seems that whatever the nature of the exposure, epigenetic mechanisms are currently discussed to explain how the environment may alter biological systems over time.

  11. Clinical Epidemiology Unit - overview of research areas

    Cancer.gov

    Clinical Epidemiology Unit (CEU) conducts etiologic research with potential clinical and public health applications, and leads studies evaluating population-based early detection and cancer prevention strategies

  12. National Environmental Research Parks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The National Environmental Research Parks are outdoor laboratories that provide opportunities for environmental studies on protected lands that act as buffers around Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The research parks are used to evaluate the environmental consequences of energy use and development as well as the strategies to mitigate these effects. They are also used to demonstrate possible environmental and land-use options. The seven parks are: Fermilab National Environmental Research Park; Hanford National Environmental Research Park; Idaho National Environmental Research Park; Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park; Nevada National Environmental Research Park; Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park; and Savannah River National Environmental Research Park. This document gives an overview of the events that led to the creation of the research parks. Its main purpose is to summarize key points about each park, including ecological research, geological characteristics, facilities, and available databases.

  13. New frontiers for environmental epidemiology in a changing world.

    PubMed

    Tonne, Cathryn; Basagaña, Xavier; Chaix, Basile; Huynen, Maud; Hystad, Perry; Nawrot, Tim S; Slama, Remy; Vermeulen, Roel; Weuve, Jennifer; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2017-07-01

    In the next 25years, transformative changes, in particular the rapid pace of technological development and data availability, will require environmental epidemiologists to prioritize what should (rather than could) be done to most effectively improve population health. In this essay, we map out key driving forces that will shape environmental epidemiology in the next 25years. We also identify how the field should adapt to best take advantage of coming opportunities and prepare for challenges. Future environmental epidemiologists will face a world shaped by longer lifespans but also larger burdens of chronic health conditions; shifting populations by region and into urban areas; and global environmental change. Rapidly evolving technologies, particularly in sensors and OMICs, will present opportunities for the field. How should it respond? We argue, the field best adapts to a changing world by focusing on healthy aging; evidence gaps, especially in susceptible populations and low-income countries; and by developing approaches to better handle complexity and more formalized analysis. Environmental epidemiology informing disease prevention will continue to be valuable. However, the field must adapt to remain relevant. In particular, the field must ensure that public health importance drives research questions, while seizing the opportunities presented by new technologies. Environmental epidemiologists of the future will require different, refined skills to work effectively across disciplines, ask the right questions, and implement appropriate study designs in a data-rich world. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical research: up from 'clinical epidemiology'.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Olli S; Bachmann, Lucas M; Steurer, Johann

    2009-12-01

    Clinical research must be understood to be the foundation of scientific medicine of the clinical type. But the essence of scientific clinical medicine remains a matter of profound confusion, even in clinical academia, and so does the essence of clinical research. The confusion now revolves, principally, around 'clinical epidemiology'. We address clinical research in the meaning of quintessentially 'applied' clinical research, which we take to be the foundation of the scientific knowledge base of clinical medicine, of gnosis (dia-, etio-, pro-) in it. More specifically, we address the essence, priorities, and status quo of this research - and argue that the requisite theory of this is not a matter of 'clinical epidemiology' but of theory of clinical research endogenous to clinical (rather than epidemiological) academia.

  15. Time series regression studies in environmental epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Gasparrini, Antonio; Hajat, Shakoor; Smeeth, Liam; Armstrong, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Time series regression studies have been widely used in environmental epidemiology, notably in investigating the short-term associations between exposures such as air pollution, weather variables or pollen, and health outcomes such as mortality, myocardial infarction or disease-specific hospital admissions. Typically, for both exposure and outcome, data are available at regular time intervals (e.g. daily pollution levels and daily mortality counts) and the aim is to explore short-term associations between them. In this article, we describe the general features of time series data, and we outline the analysis process, beginning with descriptive analysis, then focusing on issues in time series regression that differ from other regression methods: modelling short-term fluctuations in the presence of seasonal and long-term patterns, dealing with time varying confounding factors and modelling delayed (‘lagged’) associations between exposure and outcome. We finish with advice on model checking and sensitivity analysis, and some common extensions to the basic model. PMID:23760528

  16. Summer Undergraduate Research Program: Environmental studies

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. The students are offered research topics at the Medical University in the scientific areas of pharmacology and toxicology, epidemiology and risk assessment, environmental microbiology, and marine sciences. Students are also afforded the opportunity to work with faculty at the University of Charleston, SC, on projects with an environmental theme. Ten well-qualified students from colleges and universities throughout the eastern United States were accepted into the program.

  17. Children's Environmental Health Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Conducted in-house, with our federal partners like NIH’s National Institute of Environmental Health Services (NIEHS), and by external researchers through a research grants program administered through the agency’s Office of Research & Development.

  18. Sensing Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Alan

    2003-01-01

    The field of environmental education research has been moving away from scientistic and positivistic discourses for some time now ("Environmental Education Research," 2000; Hart & Nolan, 1999). However, it has been noted that the meta-discourse about this research continues to draw on their framings, registers, and lexicons (Hart, 2000;…

  19. Epidemiology of Environmental Exposure and Malignant Mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bian; van Gerwen, Maaike; Bonassi, Stefano; Taioli, Emanuela

    2017-07-01

    Although the association between exposure to asbestos and malignant mesothelioma (particularly malignant pleural mesothelioma) has been well established, the health impact of environmental exposure (EE) to asbestos has been less studied. This review summarizes the most recent studies on the association between malignant mesothelioma and EE with asbestos to identify features associated with EE and quantify the association with malignant mesothelioma. There were 44 studies from 18 countries that met our selection criteria, with a considerable amount of heterogeneity in their study design, measures of exposure, and health outcomes. The male-to-female ratio was close to or less than 1 and generally lower than the ratio reported when both occupational and environmental exposures were considered. Although recent studies have continued to improve our understanding of environmental exposure to asbestos, challenges remain. We have highlighted a few new research directions, such as a need for reliable matrices to identify common and less recognized types of EE, asbestos biomarker studies specifically focusing on EE, and research on populations and geographic areas that have not been previously studied. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of epigenetics in genetic and environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Ladd-Acosta, Christine; Fallin, M Daniele

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiology is the branch of science that investigates the causes and distribution of disease in populations in order to provide preventative measures and promote human health. The fields of genetic and environmental epidemiology primarily seek to identify genetic and environmental risk factors for disease, respectively. Epigenetics is emerging as an important piece of molecular data to include in these studies because it can provide mechanistic insights into genetic and environmental risk factors for disease, identify potential intervention targets, provide biomarkers of exposure, illuminate gene-environment interactions and help localize disease-relevant genomic regions. Here, we describe the importance of including epigenetics in genetic and environmental epidemiology studies, provide a conceptual framework when considering epigenetic data in population-based studies and touch upon the many challenges that lie ahead.

  1. Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series

    Cancer.gov

    Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series highlights emerging and cutting-edge research related to infection-associated cancers, shares scientific knowledge about technologies and methods, and fosters cross-disciplinary discussions on infectious agents and cancer epidemiology.

  2. Bourdieu does environmental justice? Probing the linkages between population health and air pollution epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Buzzelli, Michael

    2007-03-01

    The environmental justice literature faces a number of conceptual and methodological shortcomings. The purpose of this paper is to probe ways in which these shortcomings can be remedied via recent developments in related literatures: population health and air pollution epidemiology. More sophisticated treatment of social structure, particularly if based on Pierre Bourdieu's relational approach to forms of capital, can be combined with the methodological rigour and established biological pathways of air pollution epidemiology. The aim is to reformulate environmental justice research in order to make further meaningful contributions to the wider movement concerned with issues of social justice and equity in health research.

  3. Impact of environmental inequity on health outcome: where is the epidemiological evidence?

    PubMed Central

    René, A. A.; Daniels, D. E.; Martin, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    A significant amount of evidence reveals a presence of environmental inequity. Although there is a disproportionate distribution of waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities, and chemical and manufacturing plants in minority and low-income communities in the United States, little research has been devoted to show any associations based on analytic epidemiological methods. To date, attempts to quantify health disparities have included demographic data, race, sex, income, other socioeconomic factors, and broad symptomatic survey instruments. To study this, we examined the latest epidemiological evidence documenting the existence of adverse health impacts resulting from environmental inequity. We observed that the overwhelming majority of studies were descriptive in nature and lacked comparison populations. As a result, we believe that further research based on analytic epidemiological methods would further contribute to the determination of the cause-effect relationship between environmental exposure and health outcome. PMID:10918762

  4. Aldrin and dieldrin: a review of research on their production, environmental deposition and fate, bioaccumulation, toxicology, and epidemiology in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Jorgenson, J L

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade four international agreements have focused on a group of chemical substances known as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Global agreement on the reduction and eventual elimination of these substances by banning their production and trade is a long-term goal. Negotiations for these agreements have focused on the need to correlate data from scientists working on soil and water sampling and air pollution monitoring. Toxicologists and epidemiologists have focused on wildlife and human health effects and understanding patterns of disease requires better access to these data. In the last 20 years, substantial databases have been created and now are becoming available on the Internet. This review is a detailed examination of 2 of the 12 POPs, aldrin and dieldrin, and how scientific groups identify and measure their effects. It draws on research findings from a variety of environmental monitoring networks in the United States. An overview of the ecologic and health effects of aldrin and dieldrin provides examples of how to streamline some of the programs and improve access to mutually useful scientific data. The research groups are located in many government departments, universities, and private organizations. Identifying databases can provide an "information accelerator" useful to a larger audience and can help build better plant and animal research models across scientific fields. PMID:11250811

  5. Research Strategies for Nutritional and Physical Activity Epidemiology and Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    In response to a series of controversial articles about nutritional epidemiology and cancer published in 2014, staff from the Environmental Epidemiology Branch initiated a series of meetings to refine programmatic priorities for human nutrition/physical activity and cancer etiology research in the near term.

  6. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. During the past several years, a number of DOE sites have participated in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at FEMP and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  7. Why do people participate in epidemiological research?

    PubMed

    Slegers, Claudia; Zion, Deborah; Glass, Deborah; Kelsall, Helen; Fritschi, Lin; Brown, Ngiare; Loff, Bebe

    2015-06-01

    Many assumptions are made about public willingness to participate in epidemiological research, yet few empirical studies have been conducted to ascertain whether such assumptions are correct. Our qualitative study of the public and of expert stakeholders leads us to suggest that people are generally prepared to participate in epidemiological research, particularly if it is conducted by a trusted public institution such as a government health department, charity, or university. However, there is widespread community distrust of research conducted or sponsored by pharmaceutical companies. Individuals are prompted to take part if the study concerns an illness they or a family member or friend have personally experienced or if they believe the research will confer a widespread public benefit. Preferences vary about the mode of contact for the research to be conducted. Willingness to participate in telephone surveys has decreased in recent years, and this may be a consequence of an increase in calls to homes by telemarketers and market researchers. Participants also stressed the importance of knowing where their names and contact details were sourced and suggested that this information be available to prospective study participants as a matter of course in the first approach or letter. We provide valuable information to epidemiologists in designing studies.

  8. An introduction to epidemiologic and statistical methods useful in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Shin; Omori, Takashi; Sato, Tosiya

    2010-01-01

    Many developments in the design and analysis of environmental epidemiology have been made in air pollution studies. In the analysis of the short-term effects of particulate matter on daily mortality, Poisson regression models with flexible smoothing methods have been developed for the analysis of time-series data. Another option for such studies is the use of case-crossover designs, and there have been extensive discussions on the selection of control periods. In the Study on Respiratory Disease and Automobile Exhaust project conducted by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment, we adopted a new 2-stage case-control design that is efficient when both exposure and disease are rare. Based on our experience in conducting air pollution epidemiologic studies, we review 2-stage case-control designs, case-crossover designs, generalized linear models, generalized additive models, and generalized estimating equations, all of which are useful approaches in environmental epidemiology.

  9. The epidemiology of eating disorders: genetic, environmental, and societal factors

    PubMed Central

    Mitchison, Deborah; Hay, Phillipa J

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this review was to summarize the literature to date regarding the sociodemographic, environmental, and genetic correlates of eating disorders (EDs) in adults. Method A keyword search was entered into Scopus (SciVerse, Elsevier) to identify relevant articles published in English up until June 2013. Articles were assessed against a range of a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results A total of 149 full-text articles were found to be eligible for the review and included 86 articles with data on sociodemographic correlates, 57 on environmental correlates, and 13 on genetic correlates. Female sex, younger age, sexual and physical abuse, participation in esthetic or weight-oriented sports, and heritability were found to be most consistently associated with higher ED prevalence and incidence. Conversely, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, and urbanicity did not appear to have strong associations with ED epidemiology. Conclusion More community-based research, with an equal representation of males, needs to be conducted to confirm the current findings and provide evidence for emerging factors that may be related to EDs. PMID:24728136

  10. The epidemiology of eating disorders: genetic, environmental, and societal factors.

    PubMed

    Mitchison, Deborah; Hay, Phillipa J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize the literature to date regarding the sociodemographic, environmental, and genetic correlates of eating disorders (EDs) in adults. A keyword search was entered into Scopus (SciVerse, Elsevier) to identify relevant articles published in English up until June 2013. Articles were assessed against a range of a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 149 full-text articles were found to be eligible for the review and included 86 articles with data on sociodemographic correlates, 57 on environmental correlates, and 13 on genetic correlates. Female sex, younger age, sexual and physical abuse, participation in esthetic or weight-oriented sports, and heritability were found to be most consistently associated with higher ED prevalence and incidence. Conversely, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, and urbanicity did not appear to have strong associations with ED epidemiology. More community-based research, with an equal representation of males, needs to be conducted to confirm the current findings and provide evidence for emerging factors that may be related to EDs.

  11. [Ecological studies in environmental health: Beyond epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Becerra, Luis C; Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos E; Idrovo, Álvaro J

    2015-08-01

    Ecological studies provide important and frequent sources of evidence of environmental health, since their unit of analysis is populations. This review summarizes the foundations of ecological studies with the premise that they can be performed using quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods. It presents the logic behind their design, their role in exploring causality, the variables and categories of analysis and the design principles and techniques used to collect data. Examples of ecological studies performed in Latin America are then presented, as well as some common methodological problems and options to address them. Lastly, the relevance of quantitative and qualitative ecological studies to environmental health as a way to overcome the dominance of conceptual and methodological individualism is highlighted, though ecological studies alone do not suffice for studying population health.

  12. Archeological/Environmental Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Landsat/Seasat remote sensing was used by Ames Research Center to evaluate environmental influence on ancient Mayan civilization. Over 35 archeological sites were imaged and valuable information concerning Maya settlement patterns, environment, and resource usage resulted. The imagery was also used by Mexican authorities to develop coastal management plans, establish Biosphere Reserves and assess damage from the 1988 Hurricane Gilbert. Imagery showed evidence of ancient coastlines, changes in sea level, an ancient river plain and Mayan canal systems. Previously unknown Mayan reservoirs were discovered. The project is considered a pioneering effort combining remote sensing, environmental studies and archeology.

  13. Scandinavian epidemiological research in gastroenterology and hepatology.

    PubMed

    Björnsson, Einar S; Ekbom, Anders

    2015-06-01

    In the last decades, a large number of epidemiological studies in gastroenterology and hepatology have originated from the Scandinavian countries. With the help of large health databases, with good validity and other registries related to patient outcomes, researchers from the Scandinavian countries have been able to make some very important contributions to the field. These countries, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark and Iceland, have all universal access to health care and have shown to be ideal for epidemiological research. Population-based studies have been frequent and follow-up studies have been able to describe the temporal trends and changes in phenotypes. Our ability in Scandinavia to follow up defined groups of patients over time has been crucial to learn the natural history of many gastrointestinal and liver diseases and often in a population-based setting. Patient-related outcomes measures will probably gain increasing importance in the future, but Scandinavian gastroenterologists and surgeons are likely to have a better infrastructure for such endeavors compared to most other populations. Thus, there is a bright future for international competitive research within the field of gastrointestinal and liver diseases in Scandinavia.

  14. Functions of environmental epidemiology and surveillance in state health departments.

    PubMed

    Stanbury, Martha; Anderson, Henry; Blackmore, Carina; Fagliano, Jerald; Heumann, Michael; Kass, Daniel; McGeehin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Public health surveillance and epidemiology are the foundations for disease prevention because they provide the factual basis from which agencies can set priorities, plan programs, and take actions to protect the public's health. Surveillance for noninfectious diseases associated with exposure to agents in the environment like lead and pesticides has been a function of state health departments for more than 3 decades, but many state programs do not have adequate funding or staff for this function. Following the efforts to identify core public health epidemiology functions in chronic diseases, injury, and occupational health and safety, a workgroup of public health environmental epidemiologists operating within the organizational structure of the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists has defined the essential core functions of noninfectious disease environmental epidemiology that should be present in every state health department and additional functions of a comprehensive program. These functions are described in terms of the "10 Essential Environmental Public Health Services" and their associated performance standards. Application of these consensus core and expanded functions should help state and large metropolitan health departments allocate resources and prioritize activities of their environmental epidemiologists, thus improving the delivery of environmental health services to the public.

  15. Poverty, environment, and health: the role of environmental epidemiology and environmental epidemiologists.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Marie S; McMichael, Anthony J; Schwartz, Joel; Wartenberg, Daniel

    2007-11-01

    International attention is focusing increasingly on environmental concerns, from global warming and extreme weather to persistent chemical pollutants that affect our food supplies, health and well-being. These environmental exposures disproportionately affect the poor and those residing in developing countries, and may partly explain the persistent social gradients in health that exist within and between nations. We support recent calls for environmental epidemiologists to play a more active role in furthering the global agenda for sustainability, environmental health and equity. We further suggest that the discipline of environmental epidemiology, as well as relevant funding agencies, broaden their focus to include rigorous research on the upstream, larger-scale societal factors that contribute to inequitable patterns of exposure and health outcomes. By widening the scope of our vision and increasing the strength and breadth of the evidence base about how poverty and environment together affect health, we can better participate in efforts to promote social justice and responsible use and protection of the environment, and thus reduce health inequities. That is both a primary mode and rationale for achieving sustainability.

  16. Review of developmental origins of health and disease publications in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Heindel, Jerrold J; Skalla, Lesley A; Joubert, Bonnie R; Dilworth, Caroline H; Gray, Kimberly A

    2017-03-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) scientific field investigates the influence of early life environmental stressors on later life health outcomes. Environmental chemical exposures are a particular focus area within this field. Although the DOHaD hypothesis originated in the 1990s, the data evaluating this hypothesis in environmental epidemiology has not been comprehensively summarized. We conducted a scoping literature review to describe the human evidence for the DOHaD hypothesis and to identify, 1) where there may be reasonable data to draw conclusions, and 2) areas warranting further research. Using PubMed and Web of Science we identified 425 publications through 2014 that met our criteria for evaluating the DOHaD hypothesis in environmental epidemiology. These publications covered 60 different chemicals. The majority of publications focused on neurological/cognitive outcomes, followed by cancer, and respiratory outcomes. We note areas ready for more detailed review, those requiring more data and ideas for future directions.

  17. DOE (Department of Energy) Epidemiologic Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Epidemiologic Research Program is to determine the human health effects resulting from the generation and use of energy, and of the operation of DOE facilities. The program is divided into seven general areas of activity; the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) which supports studies of survivors of the atomic weapons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, mortality and morbidity studies of DOE workers, studies on internally deposited alpha emitters, medical/histologic studies, studies on the aspects of radiation damage, community health surveillance studies, and the development of computational techniques and of databases to make the results as widely useful as possible. Excluding the extensive literature from the RERF, the program has produced 340 publications in scientific journals, contributing significantly to improving the understanding of the health effects of ionizing radiation exposure. In addition, a large number of public presentations were made and are documented elsewhere in published proceedings or in books. The purpose of this bibliography is to present a guide to the research results obtained by scientists supported by the program. The bibliography, which includes doctoral theses, is classified by laboratory and by year and also summarizes the results from individual authors by journal.

  18. Environmental Health Research Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1977-01-01

    Describes recommendations of a task force formed under the auspices of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, including more standardized procedures for collecting and evaluating environmental data. (MLH)

  19. Epidemiologic analysis of an environmental disaster: The Schweizerhalle Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann-Liebrich, U.A.; Braun, C.; Rapp, R.C. )

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes the results of a fire in a Sandoz Chemical Company storehouse near Basel, Switzerland. In particular, an attempt is made to describe the impact the fire might have had on the health of the local population. When water came in contact with the fire, a foul-smelling cloud developed that was carried into the city of Basel. The psychological strain on the population was considerable and may have led to an increase in symptoms, either felt or reported. The authors emphasize the need to plan for environmental disasters; to promote legislation that promotes accident prevention as well as pollution containment; and to initiate epidemiological studies once an event occurs.

  20. [Epidemiological research in autism: an integrative view].

    PubMed

    Posada-De la Paz, M; Ferrari-Arroyo, M J; Touriño, E; Boada, L

    2005-01-15

    Sixty years after the first descriptions of Autism, the same diagnostic criteria based on clinical observation used then are still valid today. Two years ago, the Instituto de Salud Carlos III set up the Grupo de Estudio en los Trastornos del Espectro Autista (Autism Spectrum Disorders Study Group) with the aim of evaluating the current state of research in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in Spain. This group established collaborative links with different associations and set up a way of working that was more coordinated and closer to the real day-to-day situation experienced by the families involved. The aim of this review is to update certain areas of knowledge concerning the distribution of the factors that determine ASD, that is to say, about the epidemiology of these disorders. At the same time, it intends to arouse a greater degree of interest among professionals who are more directly involved in the study of pervasive developmental disorders. The latest diagnostic tools offer a higher degree of certainty in the complicated process of evaluating a case with symptoms of autism. Nevertheless, given the effectiveness of early attention and how it affects the prognosis, population-based ASD screening programmes must be implemented. These would have to include the use of Modified Check List for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT)-type questionnaires, followed by several levels of diagnosis, in order to reduce the number of false positives while at the same time increasing the true positives.

  1. Basic research for environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. A role for systems epidemiology in tuberculosis research

    PubMed Central

    Comas, Iñaki; Gagneux, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    Despite being a curable disease, tuberculosis (TB) killed more people in 2009 than during any previous year in history. Progress in TB research has been slow, and remains burdened by important gaps in our knowledge of the basic biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of TB, and its interaction with the human host. Fortunately, major systems biology initiatives have recently been launched that will help fill some of these gaps. However, to fully comprehend TB, and control this disease globally, current systems biological approaches will not suffice. The influence of host and pathogen diversity, changes in human demography, and socioeconomic and environmental factors will also need to be considered. Such a multidisciplinary approach might be best described as ‘systems epidemiology’ in an effort to overcome the traditional boundaries between basic biology and classical epidemiology. PMID:21831640

  3. Research priorities in environmental education

    Treesearch

    George H. Moeller

    1977-01-01

    Although natural processes operate in urban areas, they are difficult to observe. Much discussion during the symposium-fair was devoted to finding ways to improve urban children's environmental understanding through environmental education programs. But before effective environmental education programs can be developed, research is needed to: test the...

  4. GENOMICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of recently developed and emerging genomics technologies on environmental sciences has significant implications for human and ecological risk assessment issues. The linkage of data generated from genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabalomics, and ecology can be ...

  5. GENOMICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of recently developed and emerging genomics technologies on environmental sciences has significant implications for human and ecological risk assessment issues. The linkage of data generated from genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabalomics, and ecology can be ...

  6. Environmental research on actinide elements

    SciTech Connect

    Pinder, J.E. III; Alberts, J.J.; McLeod, K.W.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1987-08-01

    The papers synthesize the results of research sponsored by DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research on the behavior of transuranic and actinide elements in the environment. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 21 individual papers. (ACR)

  7. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

  8. The Exposure Dimension of Environmental Epidemiology: A Critical but Under-ExploredStudy Quality Issue in Environmental Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological research plays a critical role in assessing the effects of various chemical, physical, oiological, and social exposures on human health both in the general population and the workplace. However, even epidemiological studies that are specifically designed to test c...

  9. The Exposure Dimension of Environmental Epidemiology: A Critical but Under-ExploredStudy Quality Issue in Environmental Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological research plays a critical role in assessing the effects of various chemical, physical, oiological, and social exposures on human health both in the general population and the workplace. However, even epidemiological studies that are specifically designed to test c...

  10. Environmental tobacco smoke: Exposure-response relationships in epidemiologic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wu-Williams, A.H. ); Samet, J.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Demonstration of a dose-response relationship for environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is an important indication of causality. Central to the analysis and interpretation of dose-response relations as described in epidemiological studies is the relationship between dose and exposure. It must be recognized that in studies of ETS the authors have only surrogate measures of dose, and these surrogate measures (based on exposure) are imperfect. The question-based measures of ETS exposure generally have not been standardized, may have limited validity and reliability, and cannot comprehensively describe total ETS exposure, exposure to individual ETS components, nor doses of biologically relevant agents at target sites. Nevertheless, useful data have been yielded in epidemiologic studies linking ETS exposure to increased respiratory infection and symptoms, reduced lung growth in children, and increased lung cancer in nonsmoking adults. The more consistent exposure-response data for studies on acute health in children may reflect the greater difficulty in measuring exposure in studies of chronic health in adults.

  11. Epidemiology and the Tobacco Epidemic: How Research on Tobacco and Health Shaped Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Samet, Jonathan M

    2016-03-01

    In this article, I provide a perspective on the tobacco epidemic and epidemiology, describing the impact of the tobacco-caused disease epidemic on the field of epidemiology. Although there is an enormous body of epidemiologic evidence on the associations of smoking with health, little systematic attention has been given to how decades of research have affected epidemiology and its practice. I address the many advances that resulted from epidemiologic research on smoking and health, such as demonstration of the utility of observational designs and important parameters (the odds ratio and the population attributable risk), guidelines for causal inference, and systematic review approaches. I also cover unintended and adverse consequences for the field, including the strategy of doubt creation and the recruitment of epidemiologists by the tobacco industry to serve its mission. The paradigm of evidence-based action for addressing noncommunicable diseases began with the need to address the epidemic of tobacco-caused disease, an imperative for action documented by epidemiologic research.

  12. Environmental Education Research News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disinger, John F.; Howe, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses how environmental education (EE) can provide opportunities for development of higher order thinking skills such as learning critically and creatively, and learning to think in an integrated manner--in terms of identifying alternatives, using multiple sources, designing novel approaches, and identifying real and potential solutions.…

  13. Environmental Chemicals and Type 2 Diabetes: An Updated Systematic Review of the Epidemiologic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chin-Chi; Moon, Katherine; Thayer, Kristina A.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The burden of diabetes is increasing globally. Identifying novel preventable risk factors is an urgent need. In 2011, the U.S. National Toxicological Program (NTP) conducted a workshop to evaluate the epidemiologic and experimental evidence on the relationship of environmental chemicals with obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Although the evidence was insufficient to establish causality, the NTP workshop review identified an overall positive association between some environmental chemicals and diabetes. In this systematic review, our objective was to summarize the epidemiological research published since the NTP workshop. We identified a total of 29 articles (7 on arsenic, 3 on cadmium, 2 on mercury, 11 on persistent organic pollutants, 3 on phthalates and 4 on bisphenol A) including 7 prospective studies. Considering consistency, temporality, strength, dose-response, and biological plausibility (confounding), we concluded that the evidence is suggestive but not sufficient for a relationship between arsenic and persistent organic pollutants, and insufficient for mercury, phthalates and bisphenol A. For cadmium the epidemiologic evidence does not seem to suggest an association with diabetes. Important research questions include the need of additional prospective studies and the evaluation of the dose-response relationship, the role of joint exposures, and effect modification with other comorbidities and genetic variants. PMID:24114039

  14. After epidemiological research: what next? Community action for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Cwikel, J G

    1994-01-01

    The underlying purpose of all epidemiological research is ultimately to use inferences in order to prevent disease and promote health and well-being. Effective skills in translating results into appropriate policy, programs, and interventions are inherently tricky, and often politically controversial. Generally they are not taught to epidemiologists formally, even though they are a traditionally part of public health practice. To move from findings to policy change requires that the informed and committed epidemiologist should known how to: (1) organize affected parties to negotiate successfully with government and industry; (2) activate populations at risk to protect their health (3) communicate responsibly with lay persons about their health risks so as to encourage effective activism; (4) collaborate with other professionals to achieve disease prevention and health promotion goals. The paper presents and discusses four case studies to illustrate these strategies: (1) the grass-roots social action that was the response of the community to the environmental contamination at Love Canal, New York; (2) mobilization of recognized leaders within the gay community to disseminate HIV risk reduction techniques; (3) collaboration with an existing voluntary organization interested in community empowerment through health promotion in a Chicago slum by using existing hospital, emergency room admissions, and local motor vehicle accident data; (4) a self-help group, MADD (mothers against drunk driving) which fought to change public policy to limit and decrease drunk driving. In addition, the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration and responsible communication with the public is emphasized. Factors that limit the ability of the epidemiologist to move into public health action are discussed, including who owns the research findings, what is the degree of scientific uncertainty, and the cost-benefit balance of taking affirmative public action. Putting epidemiological

  15. Research priorities in environmental health.

    PubMed

    Pershagen, G

    1999-06-19

    Environmental issues tend to greater political attention than do environmental health aspects. Therefore, when conflicts of interest occur with other environmental concerns, negative consequences for public health may result. For example, a strategy to substantially reduce indoor ventilation in many dwellings in Scandinavia in order to save energy has led to increased humidity levels and higher prevalences of house dust mites. Wood burning for local heating is promoted because it is a renewable source of energy, and diesel vehicles are promoted because they emit lower levels of carbon dioxide per kilometer compared to conventional gas engines, but both practices lead to increased emissions of fine particulates, which have been associated with adverse health effects. Increasing the level of resources available for research into environmental health is one way to help environmental health issues receive greater attention. Environmental health research initiatives taken by the European Commission, the European Science Foundation, and the World Health Organization's regional office for Europe are noted. Environmental health research is multidisciplinary and should encompass basic science as well as applied research. International collaboration is often very useful in environmental health research.

  16. Designing environmental research for impact.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C A; Lefroy, E C; Caddy-Retalic, S; Bax, N; Doherty, P J; Douglas, M M; Johnson, D; Possingham, H P; Specht, A; Tarte, D; West, J

    2015-11-15

    Transdisciplinary research, involving close collaboration between researchers and the users of research, has been a feature of environmental problem solving for several decades, often spurred by the need to find negotiated outcomes to intractable problems. In 2005, the Australian government allocated funding to its environment portfolio for public good research, which resulted in consecutive four-year programmes (Commonwealth Environmental Research Facilities, National Environmental Research Program). In April 2014, representatives of the funders, researchers and research users associated with these programmes met to reflect on eight years of experience with these collaborative research models. This structured reflection concluded that successful multi-institutional transdisciplinary research is necessarily a joint enterprise between funding agencies, researchers and the end users of research. The design and governance of research programmes need to explicitly recognise shared accountabilities among the participants, while respecting the different perspectives of each group. Experience shows that traditional incentive systems for academic researchers, current trends in public sector management, and loose organisation of many end users, work against sustained transdisciplinary research on intractable problems, which require continuity and adaptive learning by all three parties. The likelihood of research influencing and improving environmental policy and management is maximised when researchers, funders and research users have shared goals; there is sufficient continuity of personnel to build trust and sustain dialogue throughout the research process from issue scoping to application of findings; and there is sufficient flexibility in the funding, structure and operation of transdisciplinary research initiatives to enable the enterprise to assimilate and respond to new knowledge and situations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Animals in Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spannring, Reingard

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the increase in public and scholarly attention to human-animal relations has inspired an animal turn in a number of academic disciplines including environmental education research. This paper reviews the literature on animals in environmental education with respect to its theoretical foundations in critical pedagogy,…

  18. Animals in Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spannring, Reingard

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the increase in public and scholarly attention to human-animal relations has inspired an animal turn in a number of academic disciplines including environmental education research. This paper reviews the literature on animals in environmental education with respect to its theoretical foundations in critical pedagogy,…

  19. Geographic information systems. A new tool in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Ward; Nuckols; Weigel; Maxwell; Cantor; Miller

    2000-10-01

    PURPOSE: Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are useful tools for identifying populations with potential exposure to environmental contaminants. Using a GIS, features of the local environment around an individual's home, work, or school can be described. We present two examples illustrating methods and issues in identifying populations potentially exposed to agricultural pesticides and to toxic releases from the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI).METHODS: We used USDA Farm Service Agency records as ground reference data to classify a late summer 1984 satellite image into crop species in 3 counties in Nebraska. We located residences from a case-control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) on the crop maps and calculated the distance to crop fields. Residences from a 4-center study of NHL were mapped and the distance to TRI sites was determined.RESULTS: Twenty-two percent of residences had crop fields within 500 meters of the home, an intermediate distance for the range of drift effects from pesticide applications. After accounting for the extent of primary drift from ground applications of pesticides, we estimated that 30 percent of residences were potentially exposed to crop pesticides. In the 4-center study, residence locations determined by address-matching methods and by a global positioning system were compared; the population 1 mile from specific TRI sites is described.CONCLUSIONS: These examples demonstrate the utility of a GIS in environmental epidemiology studies. A GIS can be a useful addition to questionnaire and other methods of exposure assessment in health studies.

  20. Epidemiology and environmental risk in hairy cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tadmor, Tamar; Polliack, Aaron

    2015-12-01

    Hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) is an orphan subtype of leukaemia which constitutes less than 2% of all leukaemia's, with an incidence of less than 1 per 100,000 persons per annum. Median age at presentation is 55 years and it is 3-4 times more frequent in males. It is also more frequently encountered in whites and less in Asians, Africans and Arabs. The epidemiologic data are multi-factorial and influenced by ethnicity and geographical factors. Other reported associations relate to some environmental exposures and possible occupational factors. Smoking appears to have an inverse correlation with the development of hairy cell leukaemia, while farming and exposure to pesticides, petroleum products, diesel and ionizing radiation have also been reported to be associated with an increased risk. National and international collaborative efforts are needed in order to undertake more extensive studies involving larger patient cohorts, aiming to determine the role of occupational and environmental risk factors in the development of this rare form of chronic leukaemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [The role of epidemiology in mental disorder research].

    PubMed

    Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, María Elena; López-Moreno, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    which are germane to public health, for example, violence. The epidemiology of mental disorders faces great challenges in the new millennium, including a complex, changing epidemiologic scenario. Several important issues will influence the future development of mental disorder epidemiology: measurement of mental disorders and risk factors, more efficient sampling design and methods, the relationships among biological research, genetics, social studies, and epidemiology, and the interface between epidemiology and the evaluation of therapies and health services.

  2. How to design a (good) epidemiological observational study: epidemiological research protocol at a glance.

    PubMed

    Fronteira, Ines

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we propose a general structure for designing a research protocol of an observational epidemiological study. We start by highlighting the importance of the research protocol, namely in accounting for some bias and guaranteeing methodologic rigor and study reproductability. Next, we reflect on some of the essential elements of a research protocol no matter its objective. We further present some specific issues to be included according to the type of study: cross-sectional, case-control and cohort.

  3. LUNG CANCER IN NEVER SMOKERS: CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Samet, Jonathan M.; Avila-Tang, Erika; Boffetta, Paolo; Hannan, Lindsay M.; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Thun, Michael J.; Rudin, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    More than 161,000 lung cancer deaths are projected to occur in the U.S. in 2008. Of these, an estimated 10–15% will be caused by factors other than active smoking, corresponding to 16,000–24,000 deaths annually. Thus lung cancer in never smokers would rank among the most common causes of cancer mortality in the U.S. if considered to be a separate category. Slightly more than half of the lung cancers caused by factors other than active smoking occur in never smokers. As summarized in the accompanying article, lung cancers that occur in never smokers differ from those that occur in smokers in their molecular profile and response to targeted therapy. These recent laboratory and clinical observations highlight the importance of defining the genetic and environmental factors responsible for the development of lung cancer in never-smokers. This article summarizes available data on the clinical epidemiology of lung cancer in never smokers, and the several environmental risk factors that population-based research has implicated in the etiology of these cancers. Primary factors closely tied to lung cancer in never smokers include exposure to known and suspected carcinogens including radon, second-hand tobacco smoke, and other indoor air pollutants. Several other exposures have been implicated. However, a large fraction of lung cancers occurring in never-smokers cannot be definitively associated with established environmental risk factors, highlighting the need for additional epidemiologic research in this area. PMID:19755391

  4. Molecular Epidemiology for Vector Research on Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Cáceres, Abraham G; Uezato, Hiroshi; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease caused by the genus Leishmania transmitted by female phlebotomine sand flies. Surveillance of the prevalence of Leishmania and responsive vector species in endemic and surrounding areas is important for predicting the risk and expansion of the disease. Molecular biological methods are now widely applied to epidemiological studies of infectious diseases including leishmaniasis. These techniques are used to detect natural infections of sand fly vectors with Leishmania protozoa and are becoming powerful tools due to their sensitivity and specificity. Recently, genetic analyses have been performed on sand fly species and genotyping using PCR-RFLP has been applied to the sand fly taxonomy. In addition, a molecular mass screening method has been established that enables both sand fly species and natural leishmanial infections to be identified simultaneously in hundreds of sand flies with limited effort. This paper reviews recent advances in the study of sand flies, vectors of leishmaniasis, using molecular biological approaches. PMID:20617005

  5. The Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument for Assessing Study Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental epidemiology studies can be an effective means to assess impacts on human health from exposure to environmental stressors. Exposure scenarios are often extremely complex and proper assessment is critical for interpreting epidemiological study results. Biomarkers are...

  6. The Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument for Assessing Study Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental epidemiology studies can be an effective means to assess impacts on human health from exposure to environmental stressors. Exposure scenarios are often extremely complex and proper assessment is critical for interpreting epidemiological study results. Biomarkers are...

  7. Epidemiology and Clinical Research Design, Part 2: Principles.

    PubMed

    Manja, Veena; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    This is the third article covering core knowledge in scholarly activities for neonatal physicians. In this article, we discuss various principles of epidemiology and clinical research design. A basic knowledge of these principles is necessary for conducting clinical research and for proper interpretation of studies. This article reviews bias and confounding, causation, incidence and prevalence, decision analysis, cost-effectiveness, sensitivity analysis, and measurement.

  8. Divorce Workshops: An Opportunity for Preventive Education & Epidemiological Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafat, John; And Others

    This paper describes the program and research related to the "Making It" series of 18 multi-media divorce workshops co-sponsored by a community mental health center (CMHC) and a chapter of Parents without Partners (PWP). An introductory section discusses the rationale for larger scale community intervention and epidemiological research. The…

  9. Divorce Workshops: An Opportunity for Preventive Education & Epidemiological Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafat, John; And Others

    This paper describes the program and research related to the "Making It" series of 18 multi-media divorce workshops co-sponsored by a community mental health center (CMHC) and a chapter of Parents without Partners (PWP). An introductory section discusses the rationale for larger scale community intervention and epidemiological research. The…

  10. Spatial epidemiology and GIS in marine mammal conservation medicine and disease research.

    PubMed

    Norman, Stephanie A

    2008-09-01

    The use of spatial epidemiology and geographical information systems (GIS) facilitates the incorporation of spatial relationships into epidemiological investigations of marine mammal diseases and conservation medicine. Spatial epidemiology is the study of the spatial variation in disease risk or incidence and explicitly addresses spatial structures and functions that factor into disease. The GIS consists of input, management, analysis, and presentation of spatial disease data and can act as an integrative tool so that a range of varied data sources can be combined to describe different environmental aspects of wild animals and their diseases. The use of modern spatial analyses and GIS is becoming well developed in the field of marine mammal ecology and biology, but has just recently started to gain more use in disease research. The use of GIS methodology and spatial analysis in nondisease marine mammal studies is briefly discussed, while examples of the specific uses of these tools in mapping, surveillance and monitoring, disease cluster detection, identification of environmental predictors of disease in wildlife populations, risk assessment, and modeling of diseases, is presented. Marine mammal disease investigations present challenges, such as less consistent access to animals for sampling, fewer baseline data on diseases in wild populations, and less robust epidemiologic study designs, but several recommendations for future research are suggested. Since location is an integral part of investigating disease, spatial epidemiology and GIS should be incorporated as a data management and analysis tool in the study of marine mammal diseases and conservation medicine.

  11. Design and analysis of metabolomics studies in epidemiologic research: a primer on -omic technologies.

    PubMed

    Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Ebbels, Timothy M D; Valdes, Ana; Elliott, Paul; Ioannidis, John P A

    2014-07-15

    Metabolomics is the field of "-omics" research concerned with the comprehensive characterization of the small low-molecular-weight metabolites in biological samples. In epidemiology, it represents an emerging technology and an unprecedented opportunity to measure environmental and other exposures with improved precision and far less measurement error than with standard epidemiologic methods. Advances in the application of metabolomics in large-scale epidemiologic research are now being realized through a combination of improved sample preparation and handling, automated laboratory and processing methods, and reduction in costs. The number of epidemiologic studies that use metabolic profiling is still limited, but it is fast gaining popularity in this area. In the present article, we present a roadmap for metabolomic analyses in epidemiologic studies and discuss the various challenges these data pose to large-scale studies. We discuss the steps of data preprocessing, univariate and multivariate data analysis, correction for multiplicity of comparisons with correlated data, and finally the steps of cross-validation and external validation. As data from metabolomic studies accumulate in epidemiology, there is a need for large-scale replication and synthesis of findings, increased availability of raw data, and a focus on good study design, all of which will highlight the potential clinical impact of metabolomics in this field. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Measurement error caused by spatial misalignment in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Gryparis, Alexandros; Paciorek, Christopher J; Zeka, Ariana; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent A

    2009-04-01

    In many environmental epidemiology studies, the locations and/or times of exposure measurements and health assessments do not match. In such settings, health effects analyses often use the predictions from an exposure model as a covariate in a regression model. Such exposure predictions contain some measurement error as the predicted values do not equal the true exposures. We provide a framework for spatial measurement error modeling, showing that smoothing induces a Berkson-type measurement error with nondiagonal error structure. From this viewpoint, we review the existing approaches to estimation in a linear regression health model, including direct use of the spatial predictions and exposure simulation, and explore some modified approaches, including Bayesian models and out-of-sample regression calibration, motivated by measurement error principles. We then extend this work to the generalized linear model framework for health outcomes. Based on analytical considerations and simulation results, we compare the performance of all these approaches under several spatial models for exposure. Our comparisons underscore several important points. First, exposure simulation can perform very poorly under certain realistic scenarios. Second, the relative performance of the different methods depends on the nature of the underlying exposure surface. Third, traditional measurement error concepts can help to explain the relative practical performance of the different methods. We apply the methods to data on the association between levels of particulate matter and birth weight in the greater Boston area.

  13. Integrating epidemiology, education, and organizing for environmental justice: community health effects of industrial hog operations.

    PubMed

    Wing, Steve; Horton, Rachel Avery; Muhammad, Naeema; Grant, Gary R; Tajik, Mansoureh; Thu, Kendall

    2008-08-01

    The environmental justice movement has stimulated community-driven research about the living and working conditions of people of color and low-income communities. We describe an epidemiological study designed to link research with community education and organizing for social justice. In eastern North Carolina, high-density industrial swine production occurs in communities of low-income people and people of color. We investigated relationships between the resulting pollution and the health and quality of life of the hog operations' neighbors. A repeat-measures longitudinal design, community involvement in data collection, and integration of qualitative and quantitative research methods helped promote data quality while providing opportunities for community education and organizing. Research could affect policy through its findings and its mobilization of communities.

  14. Integrating Epidemiology, Education, and Organizing for Environmental Justice: Community Health Effects of Industrial Hog Operations

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Steve; Horton, Rachel Avery; Muhammad, Naeema; Grant, Gary R.; Tajik, Mansoureh; Thu, Kendall

    2008-01-01

    The environmental justice movement has stimulated community-driven research about the living and working conditions of people of color and low-income communities. We describe an epidemiological study designed to link research with community education and organizing for social justice. In eastern North Carolina, high-density industrial swine production occurs in communities of low-income people and people of color. We investigated relationships between the resulting pollution and the health and quality of life of the hog operations’ neighbors. A repeat-measures longitudinal design, community involvement in data collection, and integration of qualitative and quantitative research methods helped promote data quality while providing opportunities for community education and organizing. Research could affect policy through its findings and its mobilization of communities. PMID:18556620

  15. Epigenetic Research in Cancer Epidemiology: Trends, Opportunities, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Mukesh; Rogers, Scott; Divi, Rao L.; Schully, Sheri D.; Nelson, Stefanie; Su, L. Joseph; Ross, Sharon; Pilch, Susan; Winn, Deborah M.; Khoury, Muin J.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics is emerging as an important field in cancer epidemiology that promises to provide insights into gene regulation and facilitate cancer control throughout the cancer care continuum. Increasingly, investigators are incorporating epigenetic analysis into the studies of etiology and outcomes. To understand current progress and trends in the inclusion of epigenetics in cancer epidemiology, we evaluated the published literature and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) supported research grant awards in this field to identify trends in epigenetics research. We present a summary of the epidemiological studies in NCI’s grant portfolio (from January 2005 through December 2012) and in the scientific literature published during the same period, irrespective of support from NCI. Blood cells and tumor tissue were the most commonly used biospecimens in these studies, although buccal cells, cervical cells, sputum, and stool samples also were used. DNA methylation profiling was the focus of the majority of studies, but several studies also measured microRNA profiles. We illustrate here the current status of epidemiologic studies that are evaluating epigenetic changes in large populations. The incorporation of epigenomic assessments in cancer epidemiology studies has and is likely to continue to provide important insights into the field of cancer research. PMID:24326628

  16. Epigenetic research in cancer epidemiology: trends, opportunities, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mukesh; Rogers, Scott; Divi, Rao L; Schully, Sheri D; Nelson, Stefanie; Joseph Su, L; Ross, Sharon A; Pilch, Susan; Winn, Deborah M; Khoury, Muin J

    2014-02-01

    Epigenetics is emerging as an important field in cancer epidemiology that promises to provide insights into gene regulation and facilitate cancer control throughout the cancer care continuum. Increasingly, investigators are incorporating epigenetic analysis into the studies of etiology and outcomes. To understand current progress and trends in the inclusion of epigenetics in cancer epidemiology, we evaluated the published literature and the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported research grant awards in this field to identify trends in epigenetics research. We present a summary of the epidemiologic studies in NCI's grant portfolio (from January 2005 through December 2012) and in the scientific literature published during the same period, irrespective of support from the NCI. Blood cells and tumor tissue were the most commonly used biospecimens in these studies, although buccal cells, cervical cells, sputum, and stool samples were also used. DNA methylation profiling was the focus of the majority of studies, but several studies also measured microRNA profiles. We illustrate here the current status of epidemiologic studies that are evaluating epigenetic changes in large populations. The incorporation of epigenomic assessments in cancer epidemiology studies has and is likely to continue to provide important insights into the field of cancer research.

  17. Epidemiology and statistics at the Nordic School of Public Health: Teaching and research 1979-2014.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Bo

    2015-08-01

    The Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) was jointly founded in 1953 by the Nordic countries. Until 1979, the school provided ad hoc courses on public health topics, using external teachers drawn mainly from the Nordic countries. At the time, the permanent staff of the school was small. In 1979, it began a Master's degree programme and a few academic positions were established and filled, to support these courses. The programme included four main areas: Epidemiology, Social Medicine, Environmental Health and Health Services Administration. Epidemiology was compulsory in all Master of Public Health (MPH) exams, but there were a handful of optional courses that could be substituted for the other subjects.This paper tells the story of Epidemiology at NHV from about 1980, up until closure of the school in 2014. The original MPH model ran until 1995. Nursing Science entered NHV from about 1985 and worked mainly with qualitative research that often focused on individual patients. The new methods attracted nurses, midwives, psychologists and other groups that previously had been less represented in NHV. Being quantitative and population oriented, Epidemiology lost its unique position as a mandatory subject for the MPH examination. In addition the 'New Public Health' proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) that advocated health promotion and the philosophy of salutogenesis became a challenge for the programme in epidemiology: pathogenesis no longer was of primary interest. From 1995, the MPH format changed repeatedly and a DrPH programme was begun. For the last 8 years of its existence, NHV offered a reasonably comprehensive, basic course in Epidemiology.Throughout the years, epidemiology training and research at NHV were very traditional. In being a relatively free institution in terms of academic choices, NHV should have contributed to the development and innovation of epidemiology in public health. For several reasons, this did not happen.

  18. Defining the Environment in Gene–Environment Research: Lessons From Social Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Daw, Jonathan; Freese, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we make the case that social epidemiology provides a useful framework to define the environment within gene–environment (G×E) research. We describe the environment in a multilevel, multidomain, longitudinal framework that accounts for upstream processes influencing health outcomes. We then illustrate the utility of this approach by describing how intermediate levels of social organization, such as neighborhoods or schools, are key environmental components of G×E research. We discuss different models of G×E research and encourage public health researchers to consider the value of including genetic information from their study participants. We also encourage researchers interested in G×E interplay to consider the merits of the social epidemiology model when defining the environment. PMID:23927514

  19. SESAME/Environmental Research Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Environmental Research Laboratories (ERL) have been designated as the basic research group of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). ERL performs an integrated program of research and research services directed toward understanding the geophysical environment, protecting the environment, and improving the forecasting ability of NOAA. Twenty-four laboratories located throughout the United States comprise ERL. The Project SESAME (Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment) Planning Office is a project office within ERL. SESAME is conceived as a joint effort involving NOAA, NASA, NSF, and the atmospheric science community to lay the foundation for improved prediction of severe convective storms. The scientific plan for SESAME includes a phased buildup of analysis, modeling, instrumentation development and procurement, and limited-scale observational activities.

  20. New insights into handling missing values in environmental epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Roda, Célina; Nicolis, Ioannis; Momas, Isabelle; Guihenneuc, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Missing data are unavoidable in environmental epidemiologic surveys. The aim of this study was to compare methods for handling large amounts of missing values: omission of missing values, single and multiple imputations (through linear regression or partial least squares regression), and a fully Bayesian approach. These methods were applied to the PARIS birth cohort, where indoor domestic pollutant measurements were performed in a random sample of babies' dwellings. A simulation study was conducted to assess performances of different approaches with a high proportion of missing values (from 50% to 95%). Different simulation scenarios were carried out, controlling the true value of the association (odds ratio of 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4), and varying the health outcome prevalence. When a large amount of data is missing, omitting these missing data reduced statistical power and inflated standard errors, which affected the significance of the association. Single imputation underestimated the variability, and considerably increased risk of type I error. All approaches were conservative, except the Bayesian joint model. In the case of a common health outcome, the fully Bayesian approach is the most efficient approach (low root mean square error, reasonable type I error, and high statistical power). Nevertheless for a less prevalent event, the type I error is increased and the statistical power is reduced. The estimated posterior distribution of the OR is useful to refine the conclusion. Among the methods handling missing values, no approach is absolutely the best but when usual approaches (e.g. single imputation) are not sufficient, joint modelling approach of missing process and health association is more efficient when large amounts of data are missing.

  1. New Insights into Handling Missing Values in Environmental Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Roda, Célina; Nicolis, Ioannis; Momas, Isabelle; Guihenneuc, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Missing data are unavoidable in environmental epidemiologic surveys. The aim of this study was to compare methods for handling large amounts of missing values: omission of missing values, single and multiple imputations (through linear regression or partial least squares regression), and a fully Bayesian approach. These methods were applied to the PARIS birth cohort, where indoor domestic pollutant measurements were performed in a random sample of babies' dwellings. A simulation study was conducted to assess performances of different approaches with a high proportion of missing values (from 50% to 95%). Different simulation scenarios were carried out, controlling the true value of the association (odds ratio of 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4), and varying the health outcome prevalence. When a large amount of data is missing, omitting these missing data reduced statistical power and inflated standard errors, which affected the significance of the association. Single imputation underestimated the variability, and considerably increased risk of type I error. All approaches were conservative, except the Bayesian joint model. In the case of a common health outcome, the fully Bayesian approach is the most efficient approach (low root mean square error, reasonable type I error, and high statistical power). Nevertheless for a less prevalent event, the type I error is increased and the statistical power is reduced. The estimated posterior distribution of the OR is useful to refine the conclusion. Among the methods handling missing values, no approach is absolutely the best but when usual approaches (e.g. single imputation) are not sufficient, joint modelling approach of missing process and health association is more efficient when large amounts of data are missing. PMID:25226278

  2. Advancing the Selection of Neurodevelopmental Measures in Epidemiological Studies of Environmental Chemical Exposure and Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Youngstrom, Eric; LaKind, Judy S.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Lipkin, Paul H.; Goodman, Michael; Squibb, Katherine; Mattison, Donald R.; Anthony, Bruno J.; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth

    2010-01-01

    With research suggesting increasing incidence of pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders, questions regarding etiology continue to be raised. Neurodevelopmental function tests have been used in epidemiology studies to evaluate relationships between environmental chemical exposures and neurodevelopmental deficits. Limitations of currently used tests and difficulties with their interpretation have been described, but a comprehensive critical examination of tests commonly used in studies of environmental chemicals and pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders has not been conducted. We provide here a listing and critical evaluation of commonly used neurodevelopmental tests in studies exploring effects from chemical exposures and recommend measures that are not often used, but should be considered. We also discuss important considerations in selecting appropriate tests and provide a case study by reviewing the literature on polychlorinated biphenyls. PMID:20195443

  3. Environmental Research, A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC. Committee for Air and Water Conservation.

    Summarized in this report are all environmental research projects sponsored by the American Petroleum Institute (API). Included are: (1) status reports on all current projects, (2) published reports on completed projects, together with abstracts of findings, and (3) an organization chart of the Committee for Air and Water Conservation and its…

  4. Spot Sampling and Exposure Surrogate Selection as Sources of Bias in Environmental Epidemiology Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spot measurements of chemical biomarkers are often used as quantitative exposure surrogates in environmental epidemiology studies. These measures can be expressed a number of different ways – for example, urinary biomarkers can be expressed in units of concentration (&micr...

  5. Spot Sampling and Exposure Surrogate Selection as Sources of Bias in Environmental Epidemiology Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spot measurements of chemical biomarkers are often used as quantitative exposure surrogates in environmental epidemiology studies. These measures can be expressed a number of different ways – for example, urinary biomarkers can be expressed in units of concentration (&micr...

  6. Research as a tool for the teaching of epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Soudarssanane, M B; Rotti, S B; Roy, G; Srinivasa, D K

    1994-01-01

    At a medical school in India, undergraduates have been given the opportunity to volunteer to conduct research as a means of improving their knowledge and understanding of epidemiology. First-year clinical students have conducted case-control studies with emphasis on methodological detail. Second-year students have been involved in community-based epidemiological studies. At the intern level, projects related to social factors in health and disease and to health administration have been encouraged. This initiative has been largely welcomed by the students and has yielded highly encouraging results.

  7. Alzheimer’s Disease and Environmental Exposure to Lead: The Epidemiologic Evidence and Potential Role of Epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Bakulski, Kelly M.; Rozek, Laura S.; Dolinoy, Dana C.; Paulson, Henry L.; Hu, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that the etiology of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) is complex, with significant contributions from both genes and environmental factors. Recent research suggests the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in defining the relationship between environmental exposures and LOAD. In epidemiologic studies of adults, cumulative lifetime lead (Pb) exposure has been associated with accelerated declines in cognition. In addition, research in animal models suggests a causal association between Pb exposure during early life, epigenetics, and LOAD. There are multiple challenges to human epidemiologic research evaluating the relationship between epigenetics, LOAD, and Pb exposure. Epidemiologic studies are not well-suited to accommodate the long latency period between exposures during early life and onset of Alzheimer’s disease. There is also a lack of validated circulating epigenetics biomarkers and retrospective biomarkers of Pb exposure. Members of our research group have shown bone Pb is an accurate measurement of historical Pb exposure in adults, offering an avenue for future epidemiologic studies. However, this would not address the risk of LOAD attributable to early-life Pb exposures. Future studies that use a cohort design to measure both Pb exposure and validated epigenetic biomarkers of LOAD will be useful to clarify this important relationship. PMID:22272628

  8. A bibliometric analysis in the fields of preventive medicine, occupational and environmental medicine, epidemiology, and public health

    PubMed Central

    Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Falagas, Matthew E

    2006-01-01

    Background Research in the fields of Preventive Medicine, Occupational/Environmental Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health play an important role in the advancement of knowledge. In order to map the research production around the world we performed a bibliometric analysis in the above fields. Methods All articles published by different world regions in the above mentioned scientific fields and cited in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) during the period 1995 and 2003, were evaluated. The research production of different world regions was adjusted for: a) the gross domestic product in 1995 US dollars, and b) the population size of each region. Results A total of 48,861 articles were retrieved and categorized. The USA led the research production in all three subcategories. The percentage of articles published by USA researchers was 43%, 44% and 61% in the Preventive Medicine, Epidemiology, and Public Health subcategories, respectively. Canada and Western Europe shared the second position in the first two subcategories, while Oceania researchers ranked second in the field of Public Health. Conclusion USA researchers maintain a leadership position in the production of scientific articles in the fields of Preventive Medicine, Occupational/Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, at a level similar to other scientific disciplines, while USA contribution to science in the field of Public Health is by all means outstanding. Less developed regions would need to support their researchers in the above fields in order to improve scientific production and advancement of knowledge in their countries. PMID:17173665

  9. Epidemiology and Clinical Research Design, Part 2: Principles

    PubMed Central

    Manja, Veena; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    2015-01-01

    This is the third article covering core knowledge in scholarly activities for neonatal physicians. In this article, we discuss various principles of epidemiology and clinical research design. A basic knowledge of these principles is necessary for conducting clinical research and for proper interpretation of studies. This article reviews bias and confounding, causation, incidence and prevalence, decision analysis, cost-effectiveness, sensitivity analysis, and measurement. PMID:26236171

  10. [Short-term effects of air pollution on human health: from epidemiological research to epidemiological surveillance].

    PubMed

    Forastiere, Francesco; Faustini, Annunziata

    2009-01-01

    the present introductory paper illustrates the general framework of the Project EpiAir Epidemiological Surveillance and Primary Prevention>, of the Italian Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Italian Ministry of Health. The project was designed to provide methods and criteria for epidemiological surveillance of the health effects of air pollution in large Italian cities. we considered the relevant information available on the health effects of air pollution in Europe and in Italy, and the aspects critical to running a surveillance program. the project made available a system of data and information to evaluate the health effects of air pollution. Health outcomes of interest are daily mortality (non accidental causes, cardiovascular, and respiratory causes) and cardiorespiratory hospital admissions. The project collected standardized data for the years 2001-2005 in ten Italian cities (Turin, Milan, Mestre, Bologna, Florence, Pisa, Rome, Taranto, Palermo, Cagliari). A network of public institutions in the field of environmental control and public health participated in the project. The surveillance system was set up for the period 2001- 2005 in order to evaluate future trends in the environmental and health circumstances (2006-2010) using reliable and standardized methods. we set up a long-term surveillance program of the health effects of air pollution.

  11. Transfusion recipient epidemiology and outcomes research: possibilities for the future.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, Christopher D; Blumberg, Neil; Glynn, Simone A; Ness, Paul M

    2008-08-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) supports major research programs related to the field of transfusion medicine, which encompass blood banking, the practice of transfusion medicine itself, and cellular therapies. Specific programmatic elements have included 1) the Transfusion Medicine/Hemostasis Clinical Trials Network (TMH CTN) charged with conducting clinical trials in transfusion medicine and hemostasis; 2) the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II), which includes domestic and international efforts dedicated to blood donor safety and blood availability issues; 3) the Specialized Centers of Clinically Oriented Research (SCCOR) in Transfusion Biology and Medicine that include two major projects, the Biologic and Immunologic Aspects of Transfusion Medicine Program and the Transfusion and Lung Injury Program, and 4) the Transfusion Therapy Trial for Functional Outcomes in Cardiovascular Patients Undergoing Surgical Hip Fracture Repair (FOCUS), a Phase III clinical trial that has as its major goal to determine whether a more aggressive transfusion strategy in surgery patients with cardiovascular disease (or risk factors) is associated with improved functional recovery and decreased risk of adverse postoperative outcomes. Notably, none of these programs supports epidemiologic and clinical outcomes research focused on transfusion recipients. Thus, on October 31, 2007, a Working Group on Transfusion Recipient Epidemiology and Outcomes Research was convened by the NHLBI. This group was asked to discuss the current status of the field, identify critical research needs, and make recommendations to the NHLBI program staff.

  12. Human tissue monitoring and specimen banking: opportunities for exposure assessment, risk assessment, and epidemiologic research.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, L W; Griffith, J; Zenick, H; Hulka, B S

    1995-01-01

    A symposium on Human Tissue Monitoring and Specimen Banking: Opportunities for Exposure Assessment, Risk Assessment, and Epidemiologic Research was held from 30 March to 1 April 1993 in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. There were 117 registered participants from 18 states and 5 foreign countries. The first 2 days featured 21 invited speakers from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, various other government agencies, and universities in the United States, Canada, Germany, and Norway. The speakers provided a state-of-the-art overview of human exposure assessment techniques (especially applications of biological markers) and their relevance to human tissue specimen banking. Issues relevant to large-scale specimen banking were discussed, including program design, sample design, data collection, tissue collection, and ethical ramifications. The final group of presentations concerned practical experiences of major specimen banking and human tissue monitoring programs in the United States and Europe. The symposium addressed the utility and research opportunities afforded by specimen banking programs for future research needs in the areas of human exposure assessment, risk assessment, and environmental epidemiology. The third day of the symposium consisted of a small workshop convened to discuss and develop recommendations to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regarding applications and utility of large-scale specimen banking, biological monitoring, and biological markers for risk assessment activities. PMID:7635108

  13. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993]. Summer undergraduate research program: Environmental studies

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. Ten students from throughout the midwestern and eastern areas of the country were accepted into the program. These students selected projects in the areas of marine sciences, biostatistics and epidemiology, and toxicology. The research experience for all these students and their mentors was very positive. The seminars were well attended and the students showed their interest in the presentations and environmental sciences as a whole by presenting the speakers with thoughtful and intuitive questions. This report contains the research project written presentations prepared by the student interns.

  14. Cancer and the environment: Ten topics in environmental cancer epidemiology in Canada.

    PubMed

    Huchcroft, Shirley A; Mao, Yang; Semenciw, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This Chronic Diseases in Canada supplement is a compilation of literature reviews by scientific experts. It was initiated as follow-up to the Green Plan, the federal government's environmental agenda in the 1990s. In recognizing that Canadians are concerned about the environment and its relationship to their health, this document attempts to address some of these concerns in relation to cancer by reviewing and summarizing the epidemiological literature for ten environmental exposures, and highlighting future research needs. The topics include three types of radiation exposure (ultraviolet, radon and electromagnetic (powerfrequency electromagnetic fields)), three classes of chemical exposure (organochlorines, disinfection by-products, and pesticides), two types of air pollution (environmental tobacco smoke and outdoor air pollution), and two industrial sources (pulp and paper milling, and metal mining and processing). This publication is intended to provide a base of information for researchers interested in environmental cancer epidemiology and to assist with the formulation of research priorities. The ten topics reviewed here were selected because concern about them has been expressed or because they involve known animal carcinogens. Complete elimination of exposures to carcinogens in the environment, synthetic or natural, is not technically feasible if cancer can potentially occur at any level of exposure (i.e., the linear non-threshold theory). Consequently, it is important to have an operational concept of safety which is more practical than that of zero risk. Such an approach uses the concept of acceptable or essentially negligible risk to determine the exposure levels at which carcinogens are regulated. Acceptable risk has been defined as one that is "so small, whose consequences are so slight, or whose associated benefits (perceived or real) are so great that persons or groups in society are willing to take or be subjected to that risk". The level of risk

  15. Mental health epidemiological research in South America: recent findings

    PubMed Central

    Silva de Lima, Maurício; Garcia de Oliveira Soares, Bernardo; de Jesus Mari, Jair

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to review the recent mental health epidemiological research conducted in South America. The Latin American and the Caribbean (LILACS) database was searched from 1999 to 2003 using a specific strategy for identification of cohort, case-control and cross-sectional population-based studies in South America. The authors screened references and identified relevant studies. Further studies were obtained contacting local experts in epidemiology. 140 references were identified, and 12 studies were selected. Most selected studies explored the prevalence and risk factors for common mental disorders, and several of them used sophisticated methods of sample selection and analysis. There is a need for improving the quality of psychiatric journals in Latin America, and for increasing the distribution and access to research data. Regionally relevant problems such as violence and substance abuse should be considered in designing future investigations in this area. PMID:16633474

  16. Frontiers in cancer epidemiology: a challenge to the research community from the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program at the National Cancer Institute.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Muin J; Freedman, Andrew N; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Harvey, Chinonye E; Kaefer, Christie; Reid, Britt C; Rogers, Scott; Schully, Sheri D; Seminara, Daniela; Verma, Mukesh

    2012-07-01

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is developing scientific priorities for cancer epidemiology research in the next decade. We would like to engage the research community and other stakeholders in a planning effort that will include a workshop in December 2012 to help shape new foci for cancer epidemiology research. To facilitate the process of defining the future of cancer epidemiology, we invite the research community to join in an ongoing web-based conversation at http://blog-epi.grants.cancer.gov/ to develop priorities and the next generation of high-impact studies. ©2012 AACR

  17. Using Geographic Information Systems for Exposure Assessment in Environmental Epidemiology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nuckols, John R.; Ward, Mary H.; Jarup, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are being used with increasing frequency in environmental epidemiology studies. Reported applications include locating the study population by geocoding addresses (assigning mapping coordinates), using proximity analysis of contaminant source as a surrogate for exposure, and integrating environmental monitoring data into the analysis of the health outcomes. Although most of these studies have been ecologic in design, some have used GIS in estimating environmental levels of a contaminant at the individual level and to design exposure metrics for use in epidemiologic studies. In this article we discuss fundamentals of three scientific disciplines instrumental to using GIS in exposure assessment for epidemiologic studies: geospatial science, environmental science, and epidemiology. We also explore how a GIS can be used to accomplish several steps in the exposure assessment process. These steps include defining the study population, identifying source and potential routes of exposure, estimating environmental levels of target contaminants, and estimating personal exposures. We present and discuss examples for the first three steps. We discuss potential use of GIS and global positioning systems (GPS) in the last step. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that the use of GIS in exposure assessment for environmental epidemiology studies is not only feasible but can enhance the understanding of the association between contaminants in our environment and disease. PMID:15198921

  18. [Food industry funding and epidemiologic research in public health nutrition].

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Tardón, Adonina; Romaguera, Dora; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Vioque, Jesús

    2017-06-05

    The interests of the food industry to fund nutrition and health research are not limited to promoting scientific advances. Recently, several systematic reviews conducted about the effect of sugar-sweetened beverages and health outcomes have shown some biased conclusions in studies that acknowledge industry sponsorship. In this context, the Nutrition Working Group of the Spanish Epidemiology Society presented a scientific session entitled Food industry and epidemiologic research at its annual meeting. In a round table, four experts in nutrition research presented their points of view about whether the food industry should fund nutrition-related research and the related potential conflicts of interest of the food industry. All the experts agreed not only on defending independence in nutritional epidemiology regarding the design, interpretation and conclusion of their studies but also on the crucial need for guaranteed scientific rigor, scientific quality of the results and measures to protect studies against potential biases related to the conflicts of interest of funding by the food industry. Drs Pérez-Farinós and Romaguera believe that the most effective way to prevent conflicts of interest would be not to allow the food industry to fund nutrition research; Drs Marcos and Martínez-González suggested the need to establish mechanisms and strategies to prevent the potential influences of the food industry in selecting researchers or institutional sponsorship and in the analysis and results of the studies, to ensure maximum independence for researchers, as well as their professional ethics. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutrition and neurodegeneration: epidemiological evidence and challenges for future research.

    PubMed

    Gillette-Guyonnet, Sophie; Secher, Marion; Vellas, Bruno

    2013-03-01

    The prevention of dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a growing public health concern, due to a lack of effective curative treatment options and a rising global prevalence. Various potential risk or preventive factors have been suggested by epidemiological research, including modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet. Current epidemiological data are in favour of a protective role of certain micronutrients (B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti-oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish) in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Some factors have been targeted by interventions tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but many of the results are conflicting with observational evidence. Epidemiological analysis of the relations between nutrient consumption and cognitive decline is complex and it is highly unlikely that a single component plays a major role. In addition, since multiple factors across the life course influence brain function in late life, multidomain interventions might be more promising in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Designing such trials remains very challenging for researchers. The main objective of this paper is to review the epidemiologic data linking potential protective factors to cognitive decline or dementia/AD, focusing particularly on the roles of adiposity, caloric restriction, micro (group B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti-oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish). Limitations of the current data, divergence with results of interventional prevention studies and challenges for future research are discussed.

  20. Nutrition and neurodegeneration: epidemiological evidence and challenges for future research

    PubMed Central

    Gillette‐Guyonnet, Sophie; Secher, Marion; Vellas, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a growing public health concern, due to a lack of effective curative treatment options and a rising global prevalence. Various potential risk or preventive factors have been suggested by epidemiological research, including modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet. Current epidemiological data are in favour of a protective role of certain micronutrients (B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti‐oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega‐3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish) in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Some factors have been targeted by interventions tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but many of the results are conflicting with observational evidence. Epidemiological analysis of the relations between nutrient consumption and cognitive decline is complex and it is highly unlikely that a single component plays a major role. In addition, since multiple factors across the life course influence brain function in late life, multidomain interventions might be more promising in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Designing such trials remains very challenging for researchers. The main objective of this paper is to review the epidemiologic data linking potential protective factors to cognitive decline or dementia/AD, focusing particularly on the roles of adiposity, caloric restriction, micro (group B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti‐oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega‐3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish). Limitations of the current data, divergence with results of interventional prevention studies and challenges for future research are discussed. PMID:23384081

  1. Epidemiologic evidence of relationships between reproductive and child health outcomes and environmental chemical contaminants.

    PubMed

    Wigle, Donald T; Arbuckle, Tye E; Turner, Michelle C; Bérubé, Annie; Yang, Qiuying; Liu, Shiliang; Krewski, Daniel

    2008-05-01

    asthma severity, lung and middle ear infections, and adult breast and lung cancer), childhood exposure to biomass smoke (lung infections), and childhood exposure to outdoor air pollutants (increased asthma severity). Evidence for some proven relationships came from investigation of relatively small numbers of children with high-dose prenatal or early childhood exposures, e.g., CH(3)Hg poisoning episodes in Japan and Iraq. In contrast, consensus on a causal relationship between incident asthma and ETS exposure came only recently after many studies and prolonged debate. There were many relationships supported by limited epidemiologic evidence, ranging from several studies with fairly consistent findings and evidence of dose-response relationships to those where 20 or more studies provided inconsistent or otherwise less than convincing evidence of an association. The latter included childhood cancer and parental or childhood exposures to pesticides. In most cases, relationships supported by inadequate epidemiologic evidence reflect scarcity of evidence as opposed to strong evidence of no effect. This summary points to three main needs: (1) Where relationships between child health and environmental exposures are supported by sufficient evidence of causal relationships, there is a need for (a) policies and programs to minimize population exposures and (b) population-based biomonitoring to track exposure levels, i.e., through ongoing or periodic surveys with measurements of contaminant levels in blood, urine and other samples. (2) For relationships supported by limited evidence, there is a need for targeted research and policy options ranging from ongoing evaluation of evidence to proactive actions. (3) There is a great need for population-based, multidisciplinary and collaborative research on the many relationships supported by inadequate evidence, as these represent major knowledge gaps. Expert groups faced with evaluating epidemiologic evidence of potential causal

  2. Lessons learned from epidemiologic studies of environmental exposure and genetic disease.

    PubMed

    Olshan, A F

    1995-01-01

    The induction of germ cell mutations with ionizing radiation and chemicals has been clearly demonstrated in experimental animal test systems. Less is known about the effects of environmental and other exposures on human germ cells. Epidemiologic studies of atomic bomb and childhood cancer survivors and their offspring have generally not indicated an excess risk for a variety of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood diseases, including those due to germ cell mutations. Other epidemiologic studies, including the investigation of cancer among the offspring of fathers employed at the Sellafield nuclear facility in Great Britain and studies of paternal occupation and birth defects, have found associations. This paper reviews these studies and the methodologic problems inherent in the epidemiologic approach to evaluating environmentally induced germ cell mutagenesis in humans. Epidemiologic studies incorporating newly developed techniques for the detection of mutations and abnormalities in sperm may provide the sensitivity needed to determine precisely the magnitude of risk.

  3. Environmental Chemical Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of the Epidemiological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Kalkbrenner, Amy E.; Schmidt, Rebecca J.; Penlesky, Annie C.

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, the number of epidemiological publications addressing environmental chemical exposures and autism has grown tremendously. These studies are important because it is now understood that environmental factors play a larger role in causing autism than previously thought and because they address modifiable risk factors that may open up avenues for the primary prevention of the disability associated with autism. In this review, we covered studies of autism and estimates of exposure to tobacco, air pollutants, volatile organic compounds and solvents, metals (from air, occupation, diet, dental amalgams, and thimerosal-containing vaccines), pesticides, and organic endocrine-disrupting compounds such as flame retardants, non-stick chemicals, phthalates, and bisphenol A. We included studies that had individual-level data on autism, exposure measures pertaining to pregnancy or the 1st year of life, valid comparison groups, control for confounders, and adequate sample sizes. Despite the inherent error in the measurement of many of these environmental exposures, which is likely to attenuate observed associations, some environmental exposures showed associations with autism, especially traffic-related air pollutants, some metals, and several pesticides, with suggestive trends for some volatile organic compounds (e.g., methylene chloride, trichloroethylene, and styrene) and phthalates. Whether any of these play a causal role requires further study. Given the limited scope of these publications, other environmental chemicals cannot be ruled out, but have not yet been adequately studied. Future research that addresses these and additional environmental chemicals, including their most common routes of exposures, with accurate exposure measurement pertaining to several developmental windows, is essential to guide efforts for the prevention of the neurodevelopmental damage that manifests in autism symptoms. PMID:25199954

  4. Environmental chemical exposures and autism spectrum disorders: a review of the epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Kalkbrenner, Amy E; Schmidt, Rebecca J; Penlesky, Annie C

    2014-11-01

    In the past decade, the number of epidemiological publications addressing environmental chemical exposures and autism has grown tremendously. These studies are important because it is now understood that environmental factors play a larger role in causing autism than previously thought and because they address modifiable risk factors that may open up avenues for the primary prevention of the disability associated with autism. In this review, we covered studies of autism and estimates of exposure to tobacco, air pollutants, volatile organic compounds and solvents, metals (from air, occupation, diet, dental amalgams, and thimerosal-containing vaccines), pesticides, and organic endocrine-disrupting compounds such as flame retardants, non-stick chemicals, phthalates, and bisphenol A. We included studies that had individual-level data on autism, exposure measures pertaining to pregnancy or the 1st year of life, valid comparison groups, control for confounders, and adequate sample sizes. Despite the inherent error in the measurement of many of these environmental exposures, which is likely to attenuate observed associations, some environmental exposures showed associations with autism, especially traffic-related air pollutants, some metals, and several pesticides, with suggestive trends for some volatile organic compounds (e.g., methylene chloride, trichloroethylene, and styrene) and phthalates. Whether any of these play a causal role requires further study. Given the limited scope of these publications, other environmental chemicals cannot be ruled out, but have not yet been adequately studied. Future research that addresses these and additional environmental chemicals, including their most common routes of exposures, with accurate exposure measurement pertaining to several developmental windows, is essential to guide efforts for the prevention of the neurodevelopmental damage that manifests in autism symptoms.

  5. The role of epidemiology in MS research: Past successes, current challenges and future potential.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Steve; Taylor, Bruce V; van der Mei, Ingrid

    2015-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifaceted condition, with a range of environmental, behavioural and genetic factors implicated in its aetiology and clinical course. Successes in advancing our appreciation of the roles of Epstein-Barr virus, vitamin D/UV and the HLA-DRB1 locus; and our greater understanding of these and related factors' modes of action in MS and other conditions, can be attributed in no small part to the work of generations of epidemiologists. Hardly content to rest on our laurels, however, there are yet a range of unsolved conundrums in MS, including some changes in epidemiological characteristics (e.g. increasing incidence and sex ratio), to say nothing of the unresolved parts regarding what underlies MS risk and its clinical course. There is evidence that epidemiology will continue to play a crucial role in unravelling the architecture of MS causation and clinical course. While classic epidemiological methods are ongoing, novel avenues for research include gene-environment interaction studies, the world of '-omic' research, and the utilisation of mobile and social media tools to both access and track study populations, which means that the epidemiological discoveries of the past century may be but a glimpse of our understanding in the next few decades.

  6. Ethical issues in epidemiologic research and public health practice

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S

    2006-01-01

    A rich and growing body of literature has emerged on ethics in epidemiologic research and public health practice. Recent articles have included conceptual frameworks of public health ethics and overviews of historical developments in the field. Several important topics in public health ethics have also been highlighted. Attention to ethical issues can facilitate the effective planning, implementation, and growth of a variety of public health programs and research activities. Public health ethics is consistent with the prevention orientation of public health. Ethical concerns can be anticipated or identified early and effectively addressed through careful analysis and consultation. PMID:17018147

  7. Sampling in epidemiological research: issues, hazards and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Tyrer, Stephen; Heyman, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Surveys of people's opinions are fraught with difficulties. It is easier to obtain information from those who respond to text messages or to emails than to attempt to obtain a representative sample. Samples of the population that are selected non-randomly in this way are termed convenience samples as they are easy to recruit. This introduces a sampling bias. Such non-probability samples have merit in many situations, but an epidemiological enquiry is of little value unless a random sample is obtained. If a sufficient number of those selected actually complete a survey, the results are likely to be representative of the population. This editorial describes probability and non-probability sampling methods and illustrates the difficulties and suggested solutions in performing accurate epidemiological research. PMID:27087985

  8. Sampling in epidemiological research: issues, hazards and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Tyrer, Stephen; Heyman, Bob

    2016-04-01

    Surveys of people's opinions are fraught with difficulties. It is easier to obtain information from those who respond to text messages or to emails than to attempt to obtain a representative sample. Samples of the population that are selected non-randomly in this way are termed convenience samples as they are easy to recruit. This introduces a sampling bias. Such non-probability samples have merit in many situations, but an epidemiological enquiry is of little value unless a random sample is obtained. If a sufficient number of those selected actually complete a survey, the results are likely to be representative of the population. This editorial describes probability and non-probability sampling methods and illustrates the difficulties and suggested solutions in performing accurate epidemiological research.

  9. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report summarizes epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at INEEL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  10. Environmental Education Researchers as Environmental Activists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This article is a reflective account of a researcher's journey whilst embarking on a study which was political in its intentions and participatory in its orientation. Learning from feminist writings, where researchers have shared stories and explored notions of insider/outside, academic/activist, the central argument of the article is the…

  11. Environmental Education Researchers as Environmental Activists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This article is a reflective account of a researcher's journey whilst embarking on a study which was political in its intentions and participatory in its orientation. Learning from feminist writings, where researchers have shared stories and explored notions of insider/outside, academic/activist, the central argument of the article is the…

  12. Epidemiology of Environmental Exposures and Human Autoimmune Diseases: Findings from a National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Expert Panel Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Alfredsson, Lars; Costenbader, Karen H.; Kamen, Diane L.; Nelson, Lorene; Norris, Jill M.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AID) are a collection of many complex disorders of unknown etiology resulting in immune responses to self-antigens and are thought to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Here we review the epidemiologic evidence for the role of environmental factors in the development of human AID, the conclusions that can be drawn from the existing data, critical knowledge gaps, and research needed to fill these gaps and to resolve uncertainties. We specifically summarize the state of knowledge and our levels of confidence in the role of specific agents in the development of autoimmune diseases, and we define the areas of greatest impact for future investigations. Among our consensus findings we are confident that: 1) crystalline silica exposure can contribute to the development of several AID; 2) solvent exposure can contribute to the development of systemic sclerosis; 3) smoking can contribute to the development of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis; and 4) an inverse association exists between ultraviolet radiation exposure and the risk of development of multiple sclerosis. We suggest that more studies of phenotypes, genotypes, and multiple exposures are needed. Additional knowledge gaps needing investigation include: defining important windows in the timing of exposures and latencies relating to age, developmental state, and hormonal changes; understanding dose-response relationships; and elucidating mechanisms for disease development. Addressing these essential issues will require more resources to support research, particularly of rare AID, but knowledge of the risks conferred by environmental factors in specific genetic contexts could pave the way for prevention of AID in the future. PMID:22739348

  13. Epidemiology of environmental exposures and human autoimmune diseases: findings from a National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Expert Panel Workshop.

    PubMed

    Miller, Frederick W; Alfredsson, Lars; Costenbader, Karen H; Kamen, Diane L; Nelson, Lorene M; Norris, Jill M; De Roos, Anneclaire J

    2012-12-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AID) are a collection of many complex disorders of unknown etiology resulting in immune responses to self-antigens and are thought to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Here we review the epidemiologic evidence for the role of environmental factors in the development of human AID, the conclusions that can be drawn from the existing data, critical knowledge gaps, and research needed to fill these gaps and to resolve uncertainties. We specifically summarize the state of knowledge and our levels of confidence in the role of specific agents in the development of autoimmune diseases, and we define the areas of greatest impact for future investigations. Among our consensus findings we are confident that: 1) crystalline silica exposure can contribute to the development of several AID; 2) solvent exposure can contribute to the development of systemic sclerosis; 3) smoking can contribute to the development of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis; and 4) an inverse association exists between ultraviolet radiation exposure and the risk of development of multiple sclerosis. We suggest that more studies of phenotypes, genotypes, and multiple exposures are needed. Additional knowledge gaps needing investigation include: defining important windows in the timing of exposures and latencies relating to age, developmental state, and hormonal changes; understanding dose-response relationships; and elucidating mechanisms for disease development. Addressing these essential issues will require more resources to support research, particularly of rare AID, but knowledge of the risks conferred by environmental factors in specific genetic contexts could pave the way for prevention of AID in the future.

  14. A proposal for assessing study quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-lived Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument.

    PubMed

    LaKind, Judy S; Sobus, Jon R; Goodman, Michael; Barr, Dana Boyd; Fürst, Peter; Albertini, Richard J; Arbuckle, Tye E; Schoeters, Greet; Tan, Yu-Mei; Teeguarden, Justin; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Weisel, Clifford P

    2014-12-01

    The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals present several challenges, including their presence in analytical laboratories and sampling equipment, difficulty in establishing temporal order in cross-sectional studies, short- and long-term variability in exposures and biomarker concentrations, and a paucity of information on the number of measurements required for proper exposure classification. To date, the scientific community has not developed a set of systematic guidelines for designing, implementing and interpreting studies of short-lived chemicals that use biomonitoring as the exposure metric or for evaluating the quality of this type of research for WOE assessments or for peer review of grants or publications. We describe key issues that affect epidemiology studies using biomonitoring data on short-lived chemicals and propose a systematic instrument--the Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-lived Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument--for evaluating the quality of research proposals and studies that incorporate biomonitoring data on short-lived chemicals. Quality criteria for three areas considered fundamental to the evaluation of epidemiology studies that include biological measurements of short-lived chemicals are described: 1) biomarker selection and measurement, 2) study design and execution, and 3) general epidemiological study design considerations. We recognize that the development of an evaluative tool such as BEES-C is neither simple nor non-controversial. We hope and anticipate that the instrument will initiate further discussion/debate on this topic.

  15. A proposal for assessing study quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-lived Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument

    PubMed Central

    LaKind, Judy S.; Sobus, Jon R.; Goodman, Michael; Barr, Dana Boyd; Fürst, Peter; Albertini, Richard J.; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Schoeters, Greet; Tan, Yu-Mei; Teeguarden, Justin; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2015-01-01

    The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals present several challenges, including their presence in analytical laboratories and sampling equipment, difficulty in establishing temporal order in cross-sectional studies, short- and long-term variability in exposures and biomarker concentrations, and a paucity of information on the number of measurements required for proper exposure classification. To date, the scientific community has not developed a set of systematic guidelines for designing, implementing and interpreting studies of short-lived chemicals that use biomonitoring as the exposure metric or for evaluating the quality of this type of research for WOE assessments or for peer review of grants or publications. We describe key issues that affect epidemiology studies using biomonitoring data on short-lived chemicals and propose a systematic instrument – the Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-lived Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument – for evaluating the quality of research proposals and studies that incorporate biomonitoring data on short-lived chemicals. Quality criteria for three areas considered fundamental to the evaluation of epidemiology studies that include biological measurements of short-lived chemicals are described: 1) biomarker selection and measurement, 2) study design and execution, and 3) general epidemiological study design considerations. We recognize that the development of an evaluative tool such as BEES-C is neither simple nor non-controversial. We hope and anticipate that the instrument will initiate further discussion/debate on this topic. PMID:25137624

  16. The role of epidemiology in the era of molecular epidemiology and genomics: Summary of the 2013 AJE-sponsored Society of Epidemiologic Research Symposium.

    PubMed

    Kuller, Lewis H; Bracken, Michael B; Ogino, Shuji; Prentice, Ross L; Tracy, Russell P

    2013-11-01

    On June 20, 2013, the American Journal of Epidemiology sponsored a symposium at the Society for Epidemiologic Research's 46th Annual Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts, entitled, "What Is the Role of Epidemiology in the Era of Molecular Biology and Genomics?" The future of epidemiology depends on innovation in generating interesting and important testable hypotheses that are relevant to population health. These new strategies will depend on new technology, both in measurement of agents and environment and in the fields of pathophysiology and outcomes, such as cellular epidemiology and molecular pathology. The populations to be studied, sample sizes, and study designs should be selected based on the hypotheses to be tested and include case-control, cohort, and clinical trials. Developing large mega cohorts without attention to specific hypotheses is inefficient, will fail to address many associations with high-quality data, and may well produce spurious results.

  17. Feminism meets the "new" epidemiologies: toward an appraisal of antifeminist biases in epidemiological research on women's health.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, M C; Whittle, K L

    2001-09-01

    This essay explores an alternative paradigm for epidemiology, one which is explicitly informed by a feminist perspective. We intend to expand upon recent critiques and debates within the emergent fields of "critical", "popular", and "alternative" epidemiology to examine how epidemiology's conceptual models--which are meant to contribute to the prevention of social inequalities in health, but may instead reinforce social hierarchies based on gender, race, and class--constrain our understanding of health and disease. Specifically, we examine persistent antifeminist biases in contemporary epidemiological research on women's health. Issues highlighted include: problem definition and knowledge production in women's health: biological essentialization of women as reproducers; and decontextualization and depoliticization of women's health risks. As part of this critique, we include suggestions for an emancipatory epidemiology that incorporates an alternative feminist framework.

  18. Epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria, an emerging environmental pathogen

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is an environmentally transmitted pathogen primarily associated with water and soil exposure. It is increasingly recognized in the developed world and may manifest as infection or colonization of multiple anatomic sites. Nontuberculous mycobacter...

  19. Epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria, an emerging environmental pathogen

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is an environmentally transmitted pathogen primarily associated with water and soil exposure. It is increasingly recognized in the developed world and may manifest as infection or colonization of multiple anatomic sites. Nontuberculous mycobacter...

  20. Basic epidemiologic and statistical methods in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, M; Anderson, G; Lepor, H

    1992-11-01

    Various study designs and approaches to statistical analysis in clinical research have their own underlying rationales and limitations for interpretation. This information is presented in an intuitive and accessible manner, relying minimally on basic algebra. Epidemiologic concepts of study design and interpretation, bias and confounding, hypothesis testing, and sample size and power are explained. Statistical tests and their appropriate applications are discussed for mean comparisons (t tests and ANOVA), percentages (chi-square), survival analysis, and correlation and regression. Applicable nonparametric tests are also introduced.

  1. Lessons Learned From Methodological Validation Research in E-Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Assmann, Karen; Andreeva, Valentina; Castetbon, Katia; Méjean, Caroline; Touvier, Mathilde; Salanave, Benoît; Deschamps, Valérie; Péneau, Sandrine; Fezeu, Léopold; Julia, Chantal; Allès, Benjamin; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background Traditional epidemiological research methods exhibit limitations leading to high logistics, human, and financial burden. The continued development of innovative digital tools has the potential to overcome many of the existing methodological issues. Nonetheless, Web-based studies remain relatively uncommon, partly due to persistent concerns about validity and generalizability. Objective The objective of this viewpoint is to summarize findings from methodological studies carried out in the NutriNet-Santé study, a French Web-based cohort study. Methods On the basis of the previous findings from the NutriNet-Santé e-cohort (>150,000 participants are currently included), we synthesized e-epidemiological knowledge on sample representativeness, advantageous recruitment strategies, and data quality. Results Overall, the reported findings support the usefulness of Web-based studies in overcoming common methodological deficiencies in epidemiological research, in particular with regard to data quality (eg, the concordance for body mass index [BMI] classification was 93%), reduced social desirability bias, and access to a wide range of participant profiles, including the hard-to-reach subgroups such as young (12.30% [15,118/122,912], <25 years) and old people (6.60% [8112/122,912], ≥65 years), unemployed or homemaker (12.60% [15,487/122,912]), and low educated (38.50% [47,312/122,912]) people. However, some selection bias remained (78.00% (95,871/122,912) of the participants were women, and 61.50% (75,590/122,912) had postsecondary education), which is an inherent aspect of cohort study inclusion; other specific types of bias may also have occurred. Conclusions Given the rapidly growing access to the Internet across social strata, the recruitment of participants with diverse socioeconomic profiles and health risk exposures was highly feasible. Continued efforts concerning the identification of specific biases in e-cohorts and the collection of comprehensive and

  2. Behaviorist EE Research: Environmentalism as Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robottom, Ian; Hart, Paul

    1995-01-01

    This article continues a dialogue about the nature of environmental education research by establishing the behaviorist nature of the dominant approach to environmental education research and exploring implications for environmentalism of one aspect of the politics of methods of this dominant behaviorist approach--the tendency to individualize the…

  3. Behaviorist EE Research: Environmentalism as Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robottom, Ian; Hart, Paul

    1995-01-01

    This article continues a dialogue about the nature of environmental education research by establishing the behaviorist nature of the dominant approach to environmental education research and exploring implications for environmentalism of one aspect of the politics of methods of this dominant behaviorist approach--the tendency to individualize the…

  4. Difficult to Control Asthma: Epidemiology and its Link with Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, William J.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review The aim of the present review is to discuss the epidemiology of inadequate asthma control with an examination of contributing environmental factors. Recent findings Despite advances in asthma therapies, a proportion of patients with asthma continue to have difficulty gaining adequate asthma control. Asthma severity and control in childhood is of particular importance as it translates to asthma morbidity in adulthood. Children with comorbid severe allergic rhinitis were more likely to have uncontrolled asthma. Recent data suggest that mouse allergen, more so than cockroach allergen, may be the most relevant urban allergen exposure. Tobacco smoke exposure, even passive exposure, leads to increased asthma symptoms and decreased response to inhaled corticosteroids. Efforts to ban smoking in public places have resulted in promising asthma results for entire populations. Energy saving efforts to tighten a home’s air leaks can lead to increased indoor pollutant levels and, therefore, must be accompanied by efforts to reduce, filter, or exchange indoor pollutants. Obesity is independently associated with decreased asthma control. Furthermore, the detrimental effects of pollutant exposure are enhanced in an overweight individual with asthma. Summary Lack of asthma control can be due to a complex web of factors including adherence, intrinsic factors, and environmental exposures. Further research on intervention strategies is needed to achieve improved rates of asthma control. PMID:26226354

  5. Missing data and multiple imputation in clinical epidemiological research

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Alma B; Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Kristensen, Nickolaj R; Pham, Tra My; Pedersen, Lars; Petersen, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Missing data are ubiquitous in clinical epidemiological research. Individuals with missing data may differ from those with no missing data in terms of the outcome of interest and prognosis in general. Missing data are often categorized into the following three types: missing completely at random (MCAR), missing at random (MAR), and missing not at random (MNAR). In clinical epidemiological research, missing data are seldom MCAR. Missing data can constitute considerable challenges in the analyses and interpretation of results and can potentially weaken the validity of results and conclusions. A number of methods have been developed for dealing with missing data. These include complete-case analyses, missing indicator method, single value imputation, and sensitivity analyses incorporating worst-case and best-case scenarios. If applied under the MCAR assumption, some of these methods can provide unbiased but often less precise estimates. Multiple imputation is an alternative method to deal with missing data, which accounts for the uncertainty associated with missing data. Multiple imputation is implemented in most statistical software under the MAR assumption and provides unbiased and valid estimates of associations based on information from the available data. The method affects not only the coefficient estimates for variables with missing data but also the estimates for other variables with no missing data. PMID:28352203

  6. [Ethnicity and race as variables in epidemiological research about inequity].

    PubMed

    Vanegas L, Jairo; Villalón C, Marcelo; Valenzuela Y, Carlos

    2008-05-01

    Epidemiology analyzes differences in states of health and disease of populations. Public Policies are established considering inequities associated with ethnicity and race. In this context, the identification of vulnerable groups for concentration of resources is relevant. Nevertheless, the lack of a clear definition of these variables might lead to biased results and interpretations. Two problems about the use of these variables are discussed. First, lack of a measurable and objective characteristic, even considering self reference (gold standard), considering that the opinion of a person can change in time. The second problem is a consequence of the former, basing research on a poorly defined variable. Uses of ethnicity and race variables between 1920-1999 in the American Journal of Epidemiology, Health Services Research and American Journal of Public Health were reviewed. In 919 articles, 27 different names identified to describe these variables and more than half did not describe the reason to use these variables. Almost half did not describe analytical methods. Although some articles found statistically significant relationships, less than half discussed those results. It has been suggested that there is enough evidence to exclude these variables in biomedical investigations. However, others propose that they cannot be excluded, given their multidimensional condition that includes social, cultural and genetic features. Therefore, provided the lack of clear definition, the assessment of ethnicity and race effects must be done as rigorously as possible.

  7. Missing data and multiple imputation in clinical epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Alma B; Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Kristensen, Nickolaj R; Pham, Tra My; Pedersen, Lars; Petersen, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Missing data are ubiquitous in clinical epidemiological research. Individuals with missing data may differ from those with no missing data in terms of the outcome of interest and prognosis in general. Missing data are often categorized into the following three types: missing completely at random (MCAR), missing at random (MAR), and missing not at random (MNAR). In clinical epidemiological research, missing data are seldom MCAR. Missing data can constitute considerable challenges in the analyses and interpretation of results and can potentially weaken the validity of results and conclusions. A number of methods have been developed for dealing with missing data. These include complete-case analyses, missing indicator method, single value imputation, and sensitivity analyses incorporating worst-case and best-case scenarios. If applied under the MCAR assumption, some of these methods can provide unbiased but often less precise estimates. Multiple imputation is an alternative method to deal with missing data, which accounts for the uncertainty associated with missing data. Multiple imputation is implemented in most statistical software under the MAR assumption and provides unbiased and valid estimates of associations based on information from the available data. The method affects not only the coefficient estimates for variables with missing data but also the estimates for other variables with no missing data.

  8. Status of human monkeypox: clinical disease, epidemiology and research.

    PubMed

    Damon, Inger K

    2011-12-30

    Monkeypox, a vesiculo-pustular rash illness, was initially discovered to cause human infection in 1970 through the World Health Organization (WHO)-sponsored efforts of the Commission to Certify Smallpox Eradication in Western Africa and the Congo Basin. The virus had been discovered to cause a nonhuman primate rash illness in 1958, and was thus named monkeypox. The causative agents of monkeypox and smallpox diseases both are species of Orthopoxvirus. Orthopoxvirus monkeypox, when it infects humans as an epizootic, produces a similar clinical picture to that of ordinary human smallpox. Since 1970, extensive epidemiology, virology, ecology and public health research has enabled better characterization of monkeypox virus and the associated human disease. This work reviews the progress in this body of research, and reviews studies of this "newly" emerging zoonotic disease.

  9. COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT IN CHILDREN’S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Barbara L.; Manice, Melissa P.

    2010-01-01

    Community engagement strategies and skills can build trust and reduce historical mistrust between researchers, communities and populations being studied, as well as contribute to the quality of study designs, methods and dissemination of findings. This review paper discusses why community engagement is of increasing importance in children’s environmental health research, describes models and the continuum of methods that are used and discusses their challenges and benefits. Two case studies, representing different study designs and using different community engagement models and methods, and lessons learned from these cases are described. Community engagement methods are best understood on a continuum based on the degree to which community members or representatives of community populations are involved in research planning, decision making and dissemination. Methods along this continuum include community consultation, community based participatory research(CBPR) and community consent to research. Community engagement knowledge and skills are especially important in the conduct of children’s environmental health research with its emphasis on reducing environmental risks at the community level; the increasing focus on genetics and gene-environment interactions; and the importance placed on translation of scientific results into behaviors and policies that protect the community. Across study designs, whether qualitative survey research, an observational epidemiology study, or a randomized intervention trial, understanding community interests, norms and values is necessary to describe attitudes and behaviors of specific population groups, build evidence of cause and effect between environmental exposures and health and/or that demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions to reduce risks. PMID:21259265

  10. Integration of epidemiology, immunobiology, and translational research for brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hideho; Scheurer, Michael E; Sarkar, Saumendra N; Bondy, Melissa L

    2013-05-01

    We recently identified a pivotal role for the host type I interferon (IFN) pathway in immunosurveillance against de novo mouse glioma development, especially through the regulation of immature myeloid cells (IMCs) in the glioma microenvironment. The present paper summarizes our published work in a number of areas. We have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human IFN genes that dictate altered prognosis of patients with glioma. One of these SNPs (rs12553612) is located in the promoter of IFNA8 and influences its activity. Conversely, recent epidemiologic data show that chronic use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs lowers the risk of glioma. We translated these findings back to our de novo glioma model and found that cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition enhances antiglioma immunosurveillance by reducing glioma-associated IMCs. Taken together, these findings suggest that alterations in myeloid cell function condition the brain for glioma development. Finally, in preliminary work, we have begun applying novel immunotherapeutic approaches to patients with low-grade glioma with the aim of preventing malignant transformation. Future research will hopefully better integrate epidemiological, immunobiological, and translational techniques to develop novel, preventive approaches for malignant gliomas. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Sarcoma epidemiology and etiology: potential environmental and genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Lahat, Guy; Lazar, Alexander; Lev, Dina

    2008-06-01

    Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors that may have many etiologies. The incidence of histologic subtypes differs significantly between children and adults. The increase in incidence may be due to improved registry systems, diagnostic tools, and pathologic definitions. Environmental causes may contribute to increased incidence. Genetic alternations may play a role in sarcoma development. As a result of rapidly evolving genomic and proteomic technologies, increased knowledge of the oncogenic mechanisms underlying sarcomagenesis is being generated. Understanding the mechanisms involved in sarcomagenesis is rudimentary. Insight into the molecular basis of sarcoma inception, proliferation, and dissemination hopefully will lead to more effective therapies.

  12. Epidemiological Evaluation of Notifications of Environmental Events in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Telma de Cassia dos Santos; Christensen, Rogerio Araujo; Pereira, Farida; Leite, Andre Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Increasing urbanization across the globe, combined with an increased use of chemicals in various regions, contributes to several environmental events that influence environmental health. Measures that identify environmental factors and events should be introduced to facilitate epidemiological investigations by health services. The Brazilian Ministry of Health published a new list of notifiable diseases on 25 January 2011 and introduced environmental events as a new category of notifiable occurrences. The Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance in State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, created an online notification system that highlights “environmental events”, such as exposure to chemical contaminants, drinking water with contaminants outside of the recommended range, contaminated air, and natural or anthropogenic disasters. This paper analyzed 300 notifications received between May 2011 and May 2012. It reports the number of notifications with event classifications and analyzes the events relating to accidents with chemical substances. This paper describes the characteristics of the accidents that involved chemical substances, methods used, types of substances, exposed population, and measures adopted. The online notification of environmental events increases the analysis of the main events associated with diseases related to environmental chemicals; thus, it facilitates the adoption of public policies to prevent environmental health problems. PMID:25050657

  13. Environmental contaminants and the reproductive success of lake trout in the Great Lakes: An epidemiological approach

    SciTech Connect

    Mac, M.J.; Edsall, C.C. )

    1991-08-01

    Epidemiological criteria were used to examine the influence of environmental contamination on reproductive success of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Most of the information was obtained from lake trout eggs collected in southeastern Lake Michigan and reared in the laboratory. Two separate end points that measure reproductive success--egg hatchability and fry survival--were used in the evaluation. Strong evidence for maternally derived polychlorinated biphenyls causing reduced egg hatchability were observed for the time order, strength of association, and coherence criteria. Equally strong evidence for organic environmental contaminants, also of maternal origin, causing a swim-up fry mortality syndrome were presented for the strength of association, specificity, replication, and coherence criteria. The epidemiological approach for demonstrating cause-and-effect relations was useful because of the difficulty in demonstrating definite proof of causality between specific environmental contaminants and reproductive dysfunction in feral fish.

  14. Environmental contaminants and the reproductive success of lake trout in the Great Lakes: an epidemiological approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Edsall, Carol C.

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiological criteria were used to examine the influence of environmental contamination on reproductive success of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Most of the information was obtained from lake trout eggs collected in southeastern Lake Michigan and reared in the laboratory. Two separate end points that measure reproductive success - egg hatchability and fry survival - were used in the evaluation. Strong evidence for maternally derived polychlorinated biphenyls causing reduced egg hatchability were observed for the time order, strength of association, and coherence criteria. Equally strong evidence for organic environmental contaminants, also of maternal origin, causing a swim-up fry mortality syndrome were presented for the strength of association, specificity, replication, and coherence criteria. The epidemiological approach for demonstrating cause-and-effect relations was useful because of the difficulty in demonstrating definite proof of causality between specific environmental contaminants and reproductive dysfunction in feral fish.

  15. Environmental Viral Metagenomics Analyses in Aquaculture: Applications in Epidemiology and Disease Control.

    PubMed

    Munang'andu, Hetron M

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the epidemiology of viral diseases in aquaculture have for a long time depended on isolation of viruses from infected aquatic organisms. The role of aquatic environments in the epidemiology of viral diseases in aquaculture has not been extensively expounded mainly because of the lack of appropriate tools for environmental studies on aquatic viruses. However, the upcoming of metagenomics analyses opens great avenues in which environmental samples can be used to study the epidemiology of viral diseases outside their host species. Hence, in this review I have shown that epidemiological factors that influence the composition of viruses in different aquatic environments include ecological factors, anthropogenic activities and stocking densities of cultured organisms based on environmental metagenomics studies carried out this far. Ballast water transportation and global trade of aquatic organisms are the most common virus dispersal process identified this far. In terms of disease control for outdoor aquaculture systems, baseline data on viruses found in different environments intended for aquaculture use can be obtained to enable the design of effective disease control strategies. And as such, high-risk areas having a high specter of pathogenic viruses can be identified as an early warning system. As for the control of viral diseases for indoor recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS), the most effective disinfection methods able to eliminate pathogenic viruses from water used in RAS can be identified. Overall, the synopsis I have put forth in this review shows that environmental samples can be used to study the epidemiology of viral diseases in aquaculture using viral metagenomics analysis as an overture for the design of rational disease control strategies.

  16. Environmental Viral Metagenomics Analyses in Aquaculture: Applications in Epidemiology and Disease Control

    PubMed Central

    Munang’andu, Hetron M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the epidemiology of viral diseases in aquaculture have for a long time depended on isolation of viruses from infected aquatic organisms. The role of aquatic environments in the epidemiology of viral diseases in aquaculture has not been extensively expounded mainly because of the lack of appropriate tools for environmental studies on aquatic viruses. However, the upcoming of metagenomics analyses opens great avenues in which environmental samples can be used to study the epidemiology of viral diseases outside their host species. Hence, in this review I have shown that epidemiological factors that influence the composition of viruses in different aquatic environments include ecological factors, anthropogenic activities and stocking densities of cultured organisms based on environmental metagenomics studies carried out this far. Ballast water transportation and global trade of aquatic organisms are the most common virus dispersal process identified this far. In terms of disease control for outdoor aquaculture systems, baseline data on viruses found in different environments intended for aquaculture use can be obtained to enable the design of effective disease control strategies. And as such, high-risk areas having a high specter of pathogenic viruses can be identified as an early warning system. As for the control of viral diseases for indoor recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS), the most effective disinfection methods able to eliminate pathogenic viruses from water used in RAS can be identified. Overall, the synopsis I have put forth in this review shows that environmental samples can be used to study the epidemiology of viral diseases in aquaculture using viral metagenomics analysis as an overture for the design of rational disease control strategies. PMID:28018317

  17. Epidemiologic research on lung damage caused by humidifier disinfectants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In April 2011 a tertiary hospital located in Seoul, Korea reported several cases of severe respiratory distress of unknown origin in young adults. To find the route of transmission, causative agent and patient risk factors of the outbreak, an investigation of the epidemic was initiated. A hospital based case-control study was conducted to indicate that humidifier detergent use was the cause of the outbreak. This information led the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Korea issued an order that humidifier detergents should be withdrawn from the market. Here, we describe the major events of planning, execution, and interpretation of the study, and discussions between researchers and public authorities following the decision to perform an epidemiologic study, chronologically. PMID:27457061

  18. Epidemiologic research on lung damage caused by humidifier disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moo-Song; Kim, Hwa Jung

    2016-01-01

    In April 2011 a tertiary hospital located in Seoul, Korea reported several cases of severe respiratory distress of unknown origin in young adults. To find the route of transmission, causative agent and patient risk factors of the outbreak, an investigation of the epidemic was initiated. A hospital based case-control study was conducted to indicate that humidifier detergent use was the cause of the outbreak. This information led the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Korea issued an order that humidifier detergents should be withdrawn from the market. Here, we describe the major events of planning, execution, and interpretation of the study, and discussions between researchers and public authorities following the decision to perform an epidemiologic study, chronologically.

  19. Use of time to pregnancy in environmental epidemiology and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Mike; Paranjothy, Shantini; Fielder, Hilary; Lyons, Ronan; Palmer, Stephen

    2008-06-01

    Potential sources of environmental pollution, such as incinerators or landfill sites, can adversely affect reproduction and/or development. Time to pregnancy (TTP) is a validated measure of biological fertility that can be studied with relatively small populations. Pregnant local residents living within 3 km of a landfill site ('exposed' group, n = 200) or elsewhere in the Rhondda valleys ('unexposed' group, n = 400) were interviewed by health visitors or midwives. The response rate was 83%. No difference was found in the TTP distributions between the exposed and unexposed groups. Relationships of TTP with covariates were consistent with the literature. In a context of public and scientific concern about possible reproductive toxicity, an interview study of TTP was highly acceptable to local women. A large enough sample to generate stable TTP distributions was readily achieved.

  20. Environmental Justice and Health Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is working to ensure that all people, regardless of race, color, national origin or income, are treated fairly and involved in development, implementation and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations and policies.

  1. Being Brave: Writing Environmental Education Research Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila; Burt, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Explores some of the headwork that goes into textwork in environmental education research. Reflects upon some of the institutional and epistemological issues associated with writing social science research texts. (Contains 26 references.) (Author/YDS)

  2. Malaria Epidemiology and Control Within the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research.

    PubMed

    Moss, William J; Dorsey, Grant; Mueller, Ivo; Laufer, Miriam K; Krogstad, Donald J; Vinetz, Joseph M; Guzman, Mitchel; Rosas-Aguirre, Angel M; Herrera, Socrates; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Chery, Laura; Kumar, Ashwani; Mohapatra, Pradyumna K; Ramanathapuram, Lalitha; Srivastava, H C; Cui, Liwang; Zhou, Guofa; Parker, Daniel M; Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Kazura, James W

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the epidemiological features and metrics of malaria in endemic populations is a key component to monitoring and quantifying the impact of current and past control efforts to inform future ones. The International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) has the opportunity to evaluate the impact of malaria control interventions across endemic regions that differ in the dominant Plasmodium species, mosquito vector species, resistance to antimalarial drugs and human genetic variants thought to confer protection from infection and clinical manifestations of plasmodia infection. ICEMR programs are conducting field studies at multiple sites with the aim of generating standardized surveillance data to improve the understanding of malaria transmission and to monitor and evaluate the impact of interventions to inform malaria control and elimination programs. In addition, these epidemiological studies provide a vast source of biological samples linked to clinical and environmental "meta-data" to support translational studies of interactions between the parasite, human host, and mosquito vector. Importantly, epidemiological studies at the ICEMR field sites are integrated with entomological studies, including the measurement of the entomological inoculation rate, human biting index, and insecticide resistance, as well as studies of parasite genetic diversity and antimalarial drug resistance.

  3. Integrated Bioinformatics, Environmental Epidemiologic and Genomic Approaches to Identify Environmental and Molecular Links between Endometriosis and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Deodutta; Morgan, Marisa; Yoo, Changwon; Deoraj, Alok; Roy, Sandhya; Yadav, Vijay Kumar; Garoub, Mohannad; Assaggaf, Hamza; Doke, Mayur

    2015-01-01

    We present a combined environmental epidemiologic, genomic, and bioinformatics approach to identify: exposure of environmental chemicals with estrogenic activity; epidemiologic association between endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) and health effects, such as, breast cancer or endometriosis; and gene-EDC interactions and disease associations. Human exposure measurement and modeling confirmed estrogenic activity of three selected class of environmental chemicals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), bisphenols (BPs), and phthalates. Meta-analysis showed that PCBs exposure, not Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, increased the summary odds ratio for breast cancer and endometriosis. Bioinformatics analysis of gene-EDC interactions and disease associations identified several hundred genes that were altered by exposure to PCBs, phthalate or BPA. EDCs-modified genes in breast neoplasms and endometriosis are part of steroid hormone signaling and inflammation pathways. All three EDCs–PCB 153, phthalates, and BPA influenced five common genes—CYP19A1, EGFR, ESR2, FOS, and IGF1—in breast cancer as well as in endometriosis. These genes are environmentally and estrogen responsive, altered in human breast and uterine tumors and endometriosis lesions, and part of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in cancer. Our findings suggest that breast cancer and endometriosis share some common environmental and molecular risk factors. PMID:26512648

  4. Environmental Education Research: To What Ends?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jickling, Bob

    2009-01-01

    This paper engages questions about ends in environmental education research. In doing so, I argue that such questions are essentially normative, and that normative questions are underrepresented in this field. After cautioning about perils of prescribing research agendas, I gently suggest that in environmental education key normative questions…

  5. Environmental Education Research: To What Ends?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jickling, Bob

    2009-01-01

    This paper engages questions about ends in environmental education research. In doing so, I argue that such questions are essentially normative, and that normative questions are underrepresented in this field. After cautioning about perils of prescribing research agendas, I gently suggest that in environmental education key normative questions…

  6. DOE (Department of Energy) Epidemiologic Research Program: Selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Epidemiologic Research Program is to determine the human health effects resulting from the generation and use of energy, and from the operation of DOE facilities. The program has been divided into seven general areas of activity: the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) which supports studies of survivors of the atomic weapons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, mortality and morbidity studies of DOE workers, studies on internally deposited alpha emitters, medical/histologic studies, studies on the genetic aspects of radiation damage, community health surveillance studies, and the development of computational techniques and of databases to make the results as widely useful as possible. Excluding the extensive literature from the RERF, the program has produced 380 publications in scientific journals, contributing significantly to improving the understanding of the health effects of ionizing radiation exposure. In addition, a large number of public presentations were made and are documented elsewhere in published proceedings or in books. The purpose of this bibliograhpy is to present a guide to the research results obtained by scientists supported by the program. The bibliography, which includes doctoral theses, is classified by national laboratory and by year. Multi-authored studies are indicated only once, according to the main supporting laboratory.

  7. Organophosphorous pesticides research in Mexico: epidemiological and experimental approaches.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Guerra, M; Pérez-Herrera, N; Quintanilla-Vega, B

    2011-11-01

    Non-persistent pesticides, such as organophosphorous (OP) insecticides have been extensively used in Mexico, and becoming a public health problem. This review presents data of OP use and related toxicity from epidemiological and experimental studies conducted in Mexico. Studies in agricultural workers from several regions of the country reported moderate to severe cholinergic symptoms, including decreased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity (the main acute OP toxic effect that causes an over accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine), revealing the potential risk of intoxication of Mexican farmers. OP exposure in occupational settings has been associated with decreased semen quality, sperm DNA damage and as endocrine disrupter, particularly in agricultural workers. Alterations in female reproductive function have also been observed, as well as adverse effects on embryo development by prenatal exposure in agricultural communities. This illustrates that OP exposure represents a risk for reproduction and offspring well-being in Mexico. The genotoxic effects of this group of pesticides in somatic and sperm cells are also documented. Lastly, we present data about gene-environmental interactions regarding OP metabolizing enzymes, such as paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and its role in modulating their toxicity, particularly on semen quality and sperm DNA integrity. In summary, readers will see the important health problems associated with OP exposure in Mexican populations, thereby the need of capacitation programs to communicate farmers the proper handling of agrochemicals to prevent their toxic effects and of more well designed human studies to support data of the current situation of workers and communities dedicated to agriculture activities.

  8. Epidemiologic studies of environmental agents and systemic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Mayes, M D

    1999-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic scleroderma are autoimmune diseases thought to have an exogenous trigger. This review summarizes relevant case-control and cohort studies that investigated exogenous sex hormones, silica, silicone, solvents, pesticides, mercuric chloride, and hair dyes as putative risk factors for the development of these diseases. These studies indicate that estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women increases the risk of developing lupus, scleroderma, and Raynaud disease, although the increase in risk is relatively modest. Oral contraceptives may also play a role in disease susceptibility in lupus but not apparently in scleroderma. Environmental endocrine modulators, in the form of pesticides, may represent another opportunity for estrogenlike effects to occur, but there is scant evidence that these agents play a role in human systemic autoimmune disease. Although exposure to silica dust increases the risk of scleroderma in men occupied in the industry, this does not explain most male scleroderma cases. When this exposure was investigated among women, no significant risk was found. Additionally, silicone in implanted devices as well as occupational exposure to silicone-containing compounds did not pose an increased risk among women for scleroderma. The role of solvent exposure has been investigated as a risk factor for scleroderma with mixed findings. One study suggested a potential role in male patients or in those individuals with Scl-70 antibody positivity either male or female. Two other studies were unable to corroborate this finding. Mercuric chloride causes antifibrillarin antibodies and immune complex glomerulonephritis in susceptible mouse strains. Antifibrillarin antibodies, but not glomerulonephritis, occur in a subset of scleroderma patients and preliminary evidence suggests that mercury levels may be higher in this group of individuals. Hair products have been studied as possibly raising the risk of developing lupus

  9. The positive effects of population-based preferential sampling in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Joseph; Cefalu, Matthew; Bornn, Luke

    2016-10-01

    SummaryIn environmental epidemiology, exposures are not always available at subject locations and must be predicted using monitoring data. The monitor locations are often outside the control of researchers, and previous studies have shown that "preferential sampling" of monitoring locations can adversely affect exposure prediction and subsequent health effect estimation. We adopt a slightly different definition of preferential sampling than is typically seen in the literature, which we call population-based preferential sampling. Population-based preferential sampling occurs when the location of the monitors is dependent on the subject locations. We show the impact that population-based preferential sampling has on exposure prediction and health effect estimation using analytic results and a simulation study. A simple, one-parameter model is proposed to measure the degree to which monitors are preferentially sampled with respect to population density. We then discuss these concepts in the context of PM2.5 and the EPA Air Quality System monitoring sites, which are generally placed in areas of higher population density to capture the population's exposure. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Environmental research to improve food safety

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate in a popular form how the EMFSL experimental environmental research looks and what results are expected. The research leader Dan Shelton explains the history and purpose of the research site creation. The information about the current field research group...

  11. Environmental Pollution Effects on Reproductive Health – Clinical-Epidemiological Study in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Marra, M.L.; Zullo, F.; De Felice, B.; Nappi, L.; Guida, M.; Trifuoggi, M.; Nappi, C.; Di Spiezio Sardo, A.; Zizolfi, B.; Capece, G.; Visconti, F.; Troisi, J.; Ciccone, C.; Guida, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to address the clinical, statistical and Epidemiological Relationship Between Birth Defects and Environmental Pollution, in the Campania Region and in Salerno. Objectives: We examined four groups of subjects as follows: a sample of pregnant women living in Salerno, a sample of pregnant women living in highly polluted areas, a sample of controls, pregnant women and residents out of the Campania Region, considered in unpolluted areas (Foggia) and in the Salerno area. Methodologies: a toxicological and genetic analysis was conducted on patients examined. Conclusions: there is an epidemiological link between environmental pollution and reproductive health in the Salerno area. Experimentally there are the first evidences of endocrine disruptors by the PCB. It has been inferred an overexpression of the mir-191 as a marker of pollution by dioxin-like compounds. Socially, correct information of populations at risk is necessary and a possible preventive and ongoing medical care must be ensured. PMID:23905062

  12. Geographic exposure modeling: a valuable extension of geographic information systems for use in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Beyea, J

    1999-01-01

    Geographic modeling of individual exposures using air pollution modeling techniques can help in both the design of environmental epidemiologic studies and in the assignment of measures that delineate regions that receive the highest exposure in space and time. Geographic modeling can help in the interpretation of environmental sampling data associated with airborne concentration or deposition, and can act as a sophisticated interpolator for such data, allowing values to be assigned to locations between points where the data have actually been collected. Recent advances allow for quantification of the uncertainty in a geographic model and the resulting impact on estimates of association, variability, and study power. In this paper we present the terminology and methodology of geographic modeling, describe applications to date in the field of epidemiology, and evaluate the potential of this relatively new tool. PMID:10229717

  13. [Research progress on environmental carrying capacity].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Sun, Tieheng; Li, Peijun; Li, Fayun

    2005-04-01

    To study the theories and quantification methods of environmental carrying capacity is of significance in reality for directing human beings economic behaviors and harmonizing the relationships between social development and environment. In this paper, the definition of environmental carrying capacity was introduced from the aspects of "capacity", "threshold" and "capability", with the main characteristics of objective and subjective, regional and temporal, and dynamic and adjustable, and its research progress was reviewed. On the basis of these, the quantification methods of environmental carrying capacity, including exponential assessment, carrying rate assessment, system dynamics, and multi-objective optimization, were analyzed, and the research perspectives of environmental carrying capacity were discussed.

  14. Conducting Environmental Health Research in the Arabian Middle East: Lessons Learned and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    El-Sadig, Mohamed; Ali, Habiba I.; Al-Maskari, Fatma; Campbell, Alan; Ng, Shu Wen; Reeves, Lisa; Chan, Ronna L.; Davidson, Christopher A.; Funk, William E.; Boundy, Maryanne G.; Leith, David; Popkin, Barry; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald; Rusyn, Ivan; Olshan, Andrew F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Arabian Gulf nations are undergoing rapid economic development, leading to major shifts in both the traditional lifestyle and the environment. Although the pace of change is brisk, there is a dearth of environmental health research in this region. Objective: We describe challenges and successes of conducting an environmental epidemiologic study in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), a Gulf nation in the Middle East, with an inter-disciplinary team that includes in-country academic and government collaborators as well as U.S. academic collaborators. Discussion: We present several issues, including study and data collection design, exposure assessment, scheduling and time coordination, quality assurance and quality control, and institutional review board protocols. These topics are considered in a cultural context. Benefits of this research included building linkages among multinational, interdisciplinary team members, generating data for local environmental decision making, and developing local epidemiologic research capacity. The Middle Eastern culture of hospitality greatly benefited the project team. Conclusion: Cultural differences impact multiple aspects of epidemiologic research and should be respectfully addressed. Conducting international population-based environmental research poses many challenges; these challenges can be met successfully with careful planning, cultural knowledge, and flexibility. Lessons learned are applicable to interdisciplinary research all over the world. The research conducted will benefit the environmental and public health agencies of the UAE and provide the nation’s leadership with country-specific environmental health data that can be used to protect the public’s health in a rapidly changing environment. PMID:22356946

  15. A strategic environmental research program

    SciTech Connect

    Nunn, S. )

    1990-08-01

    The author outlines a program to confront the massive environmental problems facing our nation and the world today. These are problems that will pose an increasing threat to our national security in the years ahead. Population growth is already pressing supplies of clean water and food in many areas. Deforestation on a vast scale is resulting in the loss of thousands of species of living things-including many species that contain genetic resouces of enormous potential value to agriculture and medicine. Rapidly increasing atmospheric concentrations of gases such as chlorofluorocarbons and halons, if unchecked, will lead to ozone depletion, increasing exposure to cancer-causing ultra-violet radiation. Although there is still a good deal of uncertainty associated with global warming, some reputable scientists have predicted that increasing production of greenhouse gases may ultimately lead to major global environmental changes and massive crop failures, floods and drought-events that could rival a nuclear war in their destructive impact. America must lead the way in marshalling a global response to the problems of environmental degradation, and the defense establishment should play an important role in this effort.

  16. Encouraging primary care research: evaluation of a one-year, doctoral clinical epidemiology research course.

    PubMed

    Liira, Helena; Koskela, Tuomas; Thulesius, Hans; Pitkälä, Kaisu

    2016-01-01

    Research and PhDs are relatively rare in family medicine and primary care. To promote research, regular one-year research courses for primary care professionals with a focus on clinical epidemiology were started. This study explores the academic outcomes of the first four cohorts of research courses and surveys the participants' perspectives on the research course. An electronic survey was sent to the research course participants. All peer-reviewed scientific papers published by these students were retrieved by literature searches in PubMed. Primary care in Finland. A total of 46 research course participants who had finished the research courses between 2007 and 2012. Of the 46 participants 29 were physicians, eight nurses, three dentists, four physiotherapists, and two nutritionists. By the end of 2014, 28 of the 46 participants (61%) had published 79 papers indexed in PubMed and seven students (15%) had completed a PhD. The participants stated that the course taught them critical thinking, and provided basic research knowledge, inspiration, and fruitful networks for research. A one-year, multi-professional, clinical epidemiology based research course appeared to be successful in encouraging primary care research as measured by research publications and networking. Activating teaching methods, encouraging focus on own research planning, and support from peers and tutors helped the participants to embark on research projects that resulted in PhDs for 15% of the participants. Clinical research and PhDs are rare in primary care in Finland, which has consequences for the development of the discipline and for the availability of clinical lecturers at the universities. A clinical epidemiology oriented, one-year research course increased the activity in primary care research. Focus on own research planning and learning the challenges of research with peers appeared to enhance the success of a doctoral research course. A doctoral research course encouraged networking, and

  17. Encouraging primary care research: evaluation of a one-year, doctoral clinical epidemiology research course

    PubMed Central

    Liira, Helena; Koskela, Tuomas; Thulesius, Hans; Pitkälä, Kaisu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Research and PhDs are relatively rare in family medicine and primary care. To promote research, regular one-year research courses for primary care professionals with a focus on clinical epidemiology were started. This study explores the academic outcomes of the first four cohorts of research courses and surveys the participants’ perspectives on the research course. Design An electronic survey was sent to the research course participants. All peer-reviewed scientific papers published by these students were retrieved by literature searches in PubMed. Setting Primary care in Finland. Subjects A total of 46 research course participants who had finished the research courses between 2007 and 2012. Results Of the 46 participants 29 were physicians, eight nurses, three dentists, four physiotherapists, and two nutritionists. By the end of 2014, 28 of the 46 participants (61%) had published 79 papers indexed in PubMed and seven students (15%) had completed a PhD. The participants stated that the course taught them critical thinking, and provided basic research knowledge, inspiration, and fruitful networks for research. Conclusion A one-year, multi-professional, clinical epidemiology based research course appeared to be successful in encouraging primary care research as measured by research publications and networking. Activating teaching methods, encouraging focus on own research planning, and support from peers and tutors helped the participants to embark on research projects that resulted in PhDs for 15% of the participants. Key PointsClinical research and PhDs are rare in primary care in Finland, which has consequences for the development of the discipline and for the availability of clinical lecturers at the universities.A clinical epidemiology oriented, one-year research course increased the activity in primary care research. Focus on own research planning and learning the challenges of research with peers appeared to enhance the success of a doctoral

  18. Qualitative methods in environmental health research.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Public health researchers increasingly turn to qualitative methods either on their own or in combination with quantitative methods. Qualitative methods are especially important to community environmental health research, as they provide a way to produce community narratives that give voice to individuals and characterize the community in a full and complex fashion. This article first traces the legacy of qualitative research in environmental health, then uses a case study of the author's experiences studying the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster to provide personal and scholarly insights on qualitative approaches. That material then informs a discussion of important components of qualitative methods in environmental health research, including flexible study design, access, trust, empathy, and personal shifts in the researcher's worldview, bias, and the nature of the researcher's roles. A concluding discussion addresses issues in funding policy and research practices. PMID:14594634

  19. Environmental futures research: experiences, approaches, and opportunities

    Treesearch

    David N., comp. Bengston

    2012-01-01

    These papers, presented in a special session at the International Symposium on Society and Resource Management in June 2011, explore the transdisciplinary field of futures research and its application to long-range environmental analysis, planning, and policy. Futures research began in the post-World War II era and has emerged as a mature research field. Although the...

  20. Grant-Funded Research in Environmental Economics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This database contains summaries of these awards, as well as project reports and publications, developed under environmental economics-related grants made by EPA's Office of Research and Development, NCEE and their partners since 1990.

  1. International Research: Its Role in Environmental Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginson, John

    1970-01-01

    Proposes an international research laboratory to investigate environmental factors in human health. By international cooperation unnecessary duplication and waste of resources can be avoided and long-term studies can examine various world-wide environments. (JM)

  2. A Data Integration Effort for Environmental and Epidemiological Risk Management: an Example from Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad-Mota, S.; Guenni, L.; Salcedo, A.; Cardinale, Y.

    2006-05-01

    Climate variability, environmental degradation and poor livelihood conditions of an important proportion of the population are all key factors determining the high vulnerability of the population to natural disasters and vector-borne diseases as malaria and dengue in most tropical Latin American countries. It is not uncommon that basic bio-geophysical and hydro-meteorological data required for understanding vulnerability and risk of the population to these environmental hazards at present and on retrospective are disperse, have limited quality and are not easily accessible. In Venezuela for example, hydrometeorological data from ground based networks, are collected by different agencies for specific purposes and applications going from aviation, agriculture, hydropower generation and general public needs. In order to improve accessibility, visibility and output products, two public universities in Venezuela: Universidad Simón Bolívar (USB) and Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV) have designed a data management project to integrate all these historical point data holdings together with the metadata relating to their origin, in a single data repository with facilities for storage, manipulation, extraction and dissemination. Several statistical analyses of the data will be presented as client tailored made products, for specific applications oriented to environmental and epidemiological risk assessments. The project has two main phases: modeling of the hidroclimatic data and its metadata and development of the web site through which services will be provided. We have collected historical data from different sources in the country. These sources use different formats and have their data at different levels of granularity. Our data model should be general enough to accomodate all these differences annotated with the appropriate metadata. The quality of these data will be evaluated, statistically and semantically. The modeled data will be stored in a database, so

  3. Popular epidemiology and "fracking": citizens' concerns regarding the economic, environmental, health and social impacts of unconventional natural gas drilling operations.

    PubMed

    Powers, Martha; Saberi, Poune; Pepino, Richard; Strupp, Emily; Bugos, Eva; Cannuscio, Carolyn C

    2015-06-01

    Pennsylvania sits atop the Marcellus Shale, a reservoir of natural gas that was untapped until the 2004 introduction of unconventional natural gas drilling operations (UNGDO) in the state. Colloquially known as fracking, UNGDO is a controversial process that employs large volumes of water to fracture the shale and capture gas; it has become a multi-billion dollar industry in Pennsylvania. We analyzed letters to the editor of the most widely circulated local newspaper in the most heavily drilled county in Pennsylvania (Bradford County) in order to characterize residents' concerns and their involvement in popular epidemiology--the process by which citizens investigate risks associated with a perceived environmental threat. We reviewed 215 letters to the editor that referenced natural gas operations and were published by The Daily Review between January 1, 2008 and June 8, 2013. We used NVivo 10 to code and analyze letters and identify major themes. Nvivo is qualitative data analysis software (http://www.qsrinternational.com/products_nvivo.aspx) that allows researchers to code and analyze "unstructured" data, including text files of any type (e.g., interview transcripts, news articles, letters, archival materials) as well as photographs and videos. Nvivo can be used to classify, sort, query, comment on, and share data across a research group. Letters demonstrated citizen engagement in beginning and intermediate stages of lay epidemiology, as well as discord and stress regarding four main issues: socio-economic impacts, perceived threats to water, population growth and implications, and changes to the rural landscape. Residents called for stronger scientific evidence and a balance of economic development and health and environmental protections. Citizens' distress regarding UNGDO appeared to be exacerbated by a dearth of information to guide economic growth and health, environmental, and social concerns. This analysis proposes locally informed questions to guide future

  4. Epigenetics applied to epidemiology: investigating environmental factors and lifestyle influence on human health.

    PubMed

    Motta, Valeria; Bonzini, Matteo; Grevendonk, Lotte; Iodice, Simona; Bollati, Valentina

    2017-02-15

    Epigenetics modifications, that include variations in DNA methylation, histone acetylation and micro RNA (miRNA) expression, co-operate together, influencing genome expression and function, in response to exogenous stimuli or exposures. Thus, epigenetic tools applied to epidemiology are useful in investigating, at the population level, the relationships between exposures to environmental, lifestyle, genetic, socioeconomic risk factors, and the epigenome, and/or specific health outcomes. But the choice of an appropriate study design and of valid epidemiological methods has a key role in determining the achievement of the study. This review summarises available evidence about the role of the most investigated epigenetic mechanisms in mediating lifestyle or environmental exposure effects on human health, considering the entire life-course, from in-utero to adulthood. Moreover, we illustrate the most important variables that should be properly considered when designing an epigenetic epidemiology study: the choice of an appropriate study design, a proper estimation of the required sample size, a correct biological sample selection, a validation strategy for epigenetics data, and an integrated exposure assessment methodology.

  5. Statistical Approaches for Assessing Health Effects of Environmental Chemical Mixtures in Epidemiology: Lessons from an Innovative Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Kyla W.; Joubert, Bonnie R.; Braun, Joe M.; Dilworth, Caroline; Gennings, Chris; Hauser, Russ; Heindel, Jerry J.; Rider, Cynthia V.; Webster, Thomas F.; Carlin, Danielle J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Quantifying the impact of exposure to environmental chemical mixtures is important for identifying risk factors for diseases and developing more targeted public health interventions. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) held a workshop in July 2015 to address the need to develop novel statistical approaches for multi-pollutant epidemiology studies. The primary objective of the workshop was to identify and compare different statistical approaches and methods for analyzing complex chemical mixtures data in both simulated and real-world data sets. At the workshop, participants compared approaches and results and speculated as to why they may have differed. Several themes emerged: a) no one statistical approach appeared to outperform the others, b) many methods included some form of variable reduction or summation of the data before statistical analysis, c) the statistical approach should be selected based upon a specific hypothesis or scientific question, and d) related mixtures data should be shared among researchers to more comprehensively and accurately address methodological questions and statistical approaches. Future efforts should continue to design and optimize statistical approaches to address questions about chemical mixtures in epidemiological studies. PMID:27905274

  6. Atmospheric, climatic and environmental research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broecker, Wallace S.; Gornitz, Vivien M.

    1992-01-01

    Work performed on the three tasks during the report period is summarized. The climate and atmospheric modeling studies included work on climate model development and applications, paleoclimate studies, climate change applications, and SAGE II. Climate applications of Earth and planetary observations included studies on cloud climatology and planetary studies. Studies on the chemistry of the Earth and the environment are briefly described. Publications based on the above research are listed; two of these papers are included in the appendices.

  7. Malaria Molecular Epidemiology: Lessons from the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Escalante, Ananias A.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Volkman, Sarah K.; Cui, Liwang; Gamboa, Dionicia; Krogstad, Donald J.; Barry, Alyssa E.; Carlton, Jane M.; van Eijk, Anna Maria; Pradhan, Khageswar; Mueller, Ivo; Greenhouse, Bryan; Andreina Pacheco, M.; Vallejo, Andres F.; Herrera, Socrates; Felger, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology leverages genetic information to study the risk factors that affect the frequency and distribution of malaria cases. This article describes molecular epidemiologic investigations currently being carried out by the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) network in a variety of malaria-endemic settings. First, we discuss various novel approaches to understand malaria incidence and gametocytemia, focusing on Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Second, we describe and compare different parasite genotyping methods commonly used in malaria epidemiology and population genetics. Finally, we discuss potential applications of molecular epidemiological tools and methods toward malaria control and elimination efforts. PMID:26259945

  8. Malaria Molecular Epidemiology: Lessons from the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research Network.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Ananias A; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Vinetz, Joseph M; Volkman, Sarah K; Cui, Liwang; Gamboa, Dionicia; Krogstad, Donald J; Barry, Alyssa E; Carlton, Jane M; van Eijk, Anna Maria; Pradhan, Khageswar; Mueller, Ivo; Greenhouse, Bryan; Pacheco, M Andreina; Vallejo, Andres F; Herrera, Socrates; Felger, Ingrid

    2015-09-01

    Molecular epidemiology leverages genetic information to study the risk factors that affect the frequency and distribution of malaria cases. This article describes molecular epidemiologic investigations currently being carried out by the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) network in a variety of malaria-endemic settings. First, we discuss various novel approaches to understand malaria incidence and gametocytemia, focusing on Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Second, we describe and compare different parasite genotyping methods commonly used in malaria epidemiology and population genetics. Finally, we discuss potential applications of molecular epidemiological tools and methods toward malaria control and elimination efforts. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Environmental Systems Research FY-99 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Systems Research (ESR) Program, a part of the Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) Program, was implemented to enhance and augment the technical capabilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose for strengthening technical capabilities of the INEEL is to provide the technical base to serve effectively as the Environmental Management Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM). The original portfolio of research activities was assembled after an analysis of the EM technology development and science needs as gathered by the Site Technology Coordination Groups (STCGs) complex-wide. Current EM investments in science and technology throughout the research community were also included in this analysis to avoid duplication of efforts. This is a progress report for the second year of the ESR Program (Fiscal Year 99). A report of activities is presented for the five ESR research investment areas: (a) Transport Aspects of Selective Mass Transport Agents, (b) Chemistry of Environmental Surfaces, (c) Materials Dynamics, (d) Characterization Science, and (e) Computational Simulation of Mechanical and Chemical Systems. In addition to the five technical areas, activities in the Science and Technology Foundations element of the program, e.g., interfaces between ESR and the EM Science Program (EMSP) and the EM Focus Areas, are described.

  10. Environmental Systems Research, FY-99 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David Lynn

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Systems Research (ESR) Program, a part of the Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) Program, was implemented to enhance and augment the technical capabilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose for strengthening technical capabilities of the INEEL is to provide the technical base to serve effectively as the Environmental Management Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM). The original portfolio of research activities was assembled after an analysis of the EM technology development and science needs as gathered by the Site Technology Coordination Groups (STCGs) complex-wide. Current EM investments in science and technology throughout the research community were also included in this analysis to avoid duplication of efforts. This is a progress report for the second year of the ESR Program (Fiscal Year 99). A report of activities is presented for the five ESR research investment areas: (a) Transport Aspects of Selective Mass Transport Agents, (b) Chemistry of Environmental Surfaces, (c) Materials Dynamics, (d) Characterization Science, and (e) Computational Simulation of Mechanical and Chemical Systems. In addition to the five technical areas, activities in the Science and Technology Foundations element of the program, e.g., interfaces between ESR and the EM Science Program (EMSP) and the EM Focus Areas, are described.

  11. Global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 2 - epidemiology, wildlife and economics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2014, the Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research ings in the fields of (i) epidemiology, (ii) wildlife and (iii) Alliance (GFRA) conducted a gap analysis of foot-and- economics. Although the three sections, epidemiology, wildlife and economics are presented as separate entities, the fields are ...

  12. Portable Functional Neuroimaging as an Environmental Epidemiology Tool: A How-To Guide for the Use of fNIRS in Field Studies.

    PubMed

    Baker, Joseph M; Rojas-Valverde, Daniel; Gutiérrez, Randall; Winkler, Mirko; Fuhrimann, Samuel; Eskenazi, Brenda; Reiss, Allan L; Mora, Ana M

    2017-09-21

    The widespread application of functional neuroimaging within the field of environmental epidemiology has the potential to greatly enhance our understanding of how environmental toxicants affect brain function. Because many epidemiological studies take place in remote and frequently changing environments, it is necessary that the primary neuroimaging approach adopted by the epidemiology community be robust to many environments, easy to use, and, preferably, mobile. Here, we outline our use of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to collect functional brain imaging data from Costa Rican farm workers enrolled in an epidemiological study on the health effects of chronic pesticide exposure. While couched in this perspective, we focus on the methodological considerations that are necessary to conduct a mobile fNIRS study in a diverse range of environments. Thus, this guide is intended to be generalizable to all research scenarios and projects in which fNIRS may be used to collect functional brain imaging data in epidemiological field surveys. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2049.

  13. Molecular epidemiology and environmental contamination during an outbreak of parainfluenza virus 3 in a hematology ward.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeeun; Jin, Choong Eun; Sung, Heungsup; Koo, Bonhan; Park, Joungha; Kim, Sun-Mi; Kim, Ji Yeun; Chong, Yong Pil; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee; Lee, Jung-Hee; Lee, Je-Hwan; Lee, Kyoo-Hyung; Shin, Yong; Kim, Sung-Han

    2017-09-08

    Although fomites or contaminated surfaces have been considered as transmission routes, the role of environmental contamination by human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hPIV-3) in healthcare settings is not established. To describe an hPIV-3 nosocomial outbreak and the results of environmental sampling to elucidate the source of nosocomial transmission and the role of environmental contamination. During an hPIV-3 outbreak between May and June 2016, we swabbed environmental surfaces in contact with clustered patients and used respiratory specimens from infected patients and epidemiologically unlinked controls. We investigated the epidemiologic relatedness of hPIV-3 strains by sequencing of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion protein genes. Of 19 hPIV-3 infected patients, 8 were hematopoietic stem cell recipients and 1 was health care worker (HCW). In addition, 4 had upper and 12 had lower respiratory tract infections. Of the 19 patients, 6 (32%) were community-onset (symptom onset within <7 days of hospitalization) and 13 (68%) were hospital-onset infections (≥7 days of hospitalization). Phylogenetic analysis identified two major clusters: 5 patients, and 3 patients plus one HCW. Therefore, 7 (37%) were classified as nosocomial transmissions. hPIV-3 was detected in 21 (43%) of 49 environmental swabs up to 12 days after negative respiratory PCR conversion. Our data demonstrated that at least one-third of a peak season nosocomial hPIV-3 outbreak originated from nosocomial transmission, with multiple importations of hPIV-3 from the community, providing experimental evidence for extensive environmental hPIV-3 contamination. Direct contact with the contaminated surfaces and fomites or indirect transmission from infected HCWs could be responsible for nosocomial transmission. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part V: Epidemiological Disaster Research.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Marvin L; Daily, Elaine K; O'Rourke, Ann P

    2015-12-01

    Studies of the health aspect of disasters focus either on the epidemiology of disasters to define the causes and the progression from a hazard to a disaster, or the evaluations of interventions provided during any phase of a disaster. Epidemiological disaster research studies are undertaken for the purposes of: (1) understanding the mechanisms by which hazards evolve into a disaster; (2) determining ways to mitigate the risk(s) that a specific hazard will progress into a disaster; (3) predicting the likely damages and needs of the population-at-risk for an event; and (4) identifying potential measures to increase the resilience of a community to future events. Epidemiological disaster research utilizes the Conceptual, Temporal, and Societal Frameworks to define what occurs when a hazard manifests as an event that causes a disaster. The findings from such studies should suggest interventions that could augment the absorbing, buffering, or/and response capacities to lessen the probability of similar damages occurring from the next event. Ultimately, the use of these Frameworks in studying the health aspects of a disaster will help define what to expect in a specific setting and the standards and best practices upon which education, training, competencies, performance, and professionalization will be built.

  15. Environmental biotechnology research: an overview.

    PubMed

    Spain, J C

    1994-05-01

    Cleanup and treatment of hazardous wastes incur major operational costs for the U.S. Air Force. Bioremediation can provide a cost-effective alternative to traditional technologies for a wide range of natural organic compounds such as jet fuel. Bioventing and natural attenuation are emerging as treatments of choice in many instances. Synthetic organic chemicals are much more resistant to biodegradation. However, recent advances in biotechnology allow the development of strains able to use nitro- and chloro-substituted organic compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy. Current basic research is focused on expanding the range of synthetic chemicals amenable to biodegradation. At the same time, development of appropriate bioreactors and models for scale up are essential for practical application of the technology.

  16. Environmental health research in Europe: bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Tarkowski, S M

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a bibliometric review of the environmental health research literature in Europe for a period of 10 years. The work, within the study SPHERE (Strengthening Public Health Research in Europe) aimed to provide an overview of the extent of published environmental health research in Europe and to assess recent output in this research field and future research direction. Medline was used via the PubMed online service of the US National Library of Medicine. Only original, peer-reviewed research journal articles were retrieved, which were published from mid-1995 to mid-2005 and by authors from the 28 (then) countries in Europe of the European Economic Area plus Switzerland. In the PubMed database, 6329 references were located and were allocated to 11 pre-defined topic areas and 31 subtopic areas. The largest number of articles was in the topic area of work environment and health (2339) followed by environmental exposures (1314) and environmental illnesses (952) and these were the primary foci of 73% of the published articles. There were marked differences between countries in the number of published articles. Ten countries contributed 81% of all publications. It is apparent that economic factors have a major role for research outputs of countries in environmental health. Major advances have been made during recent years in the understanding of associations between health and environment, and of biological, environmental and social mechanisms involved in this association. More emphasis should be placed on investigations of complex environmental health problems such as complex exposures to different pollutants at different levels and their combined health impact in different populations.

  17. Environmental Pollution, A Guide to Current Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Science Information Exchange.

    Compiled from data gathered in fiscal years 1969 and 1970 by the Science Information Exchange, Smithsonian Institution, this inventory of more than 4200 federally and non-federally supported environmental research projects represents an attempt to provide a meaningful look at the shape, complexity, and direction of current and recent research.…

  18. Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, J R

    1980-01-01

    A total of 75 papers were presented on nuclear methods for analysis of environmental and biological samples. Sessions were devoted to software and mathematical methods; nuclear methods in atmospheric and water research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in biology and medicine; and nuclear methods in energy research.

  19. Environmental Pollution, A Guide to Current Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Science Information Exchange.

    Compiled from data gathered in fiscal years 1969 and 1970 by the Science Information Exchange, Smithsonian Institution, this inventory of more than 4200 federally and non-federally supported environmental research projects represents an attempt to provide a meaningful look at the shape, complexity, and direction of current and recent research.…

  20. Managing the environmental impact of research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The environmental impact of research increasingly needs to be taken into account in design and execution. This makes good financial sense. However, it is especially in the research world as one of the key reasons for doing health research is to improve our knowledge to improve health. Specifically, doing research in a more sustainable way allows us to generate more knowledge with the same resource. Research not only needs to be done increasingly sustainably, but the content of the research needs to direct how we promote health and deliver healthcare in more sustainable ways. PMID:21410978

  1. Managing the environmental impact of research.

    PubMed

    Pencheon, David C

    2011-03-16

    The environmental impact of research increasingly needs to be taken into account in design and execution. This makes good financial sense. However, it is especially in the research world as one of the key reasons for doing health research is to improve our knowledge to improve health. Specifically, doing research in a more sustainable way allows us to generate more knowledge with the same resource. Research not only needs to be done increasingly sustainably, but the content of the research needs to direct how we promote health and deliver healthcare in more sustainable ways.

  2. Environmental research program. 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the Environmental Research Program is to contribute to the understanding of the formation, mitigation, transport, transformation, and ecological effects of energy-related pollutants on the environment. The program is multidisciplinary and includes fundamental and applied research in chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, and ecology. The program undertakes research and development in efficient and environmentally benign combustion, pollution abatement and destruction, and novel methods of detection and analysis of criteria and non-criteria pollutants. This diverse group investigates combustion, atmospheric processes, flue-gas chemistry, and ecological systems.

  3. Atmospheric, climatic and environmental research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broecker, W. S.; Fung, I.

    1986-01-01

    Research conducted during the past year in the climate and atmospheric modeling programs was focused on the development of appropriate atmospheric and upper ocean models, and preliminary applications of these models. Prinicpal models are a one-dimensional radiative-convection model, a three-dimensional global climate model, and an upper ocean model. Principal application is the study of the impact of CO2, aerosols and the solar constant on climate. Also the performance of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project cloud detection algorithm was evaluated, concentrating initially on its application to geosynchronous data, with an eventual switch of the developed methodologies to data from polar orbiting satellites. In the process, a number of improvements were made, in particular: an improved technique for tracking small scale day to day variability in clear sky continental temperatures; a number of techniques for the statistical assessment of cloud detection uncertainties due to cloud types which are spatially and temporally invariant; and a method used to detect those cloudy regions which have long term spatial and temporal stability.

  4. Chaos, population biology, and epidemiology: some research implications.

    PubMed

    Philippe, P

    1993-08-01

    In this article I aim to provide some feeling of the new paradigm of disease causation (chaos) as it applies to the field of population biology and epidemiology. A secondary objective is to show, with the aid of qualitative methods, how one can approach chaos in time-series data. The multifactorial stochastic paradigm of causation is contrasted with the new deterministic approach. This approach is embedded in the theory of nonlinear system dynamics. Chaos implies that randomness is intrinsic to a nonlinear deterministic system; this is true despite the extent of knowledge of the intervening causes and, ultimately, despite determinism. Three research avenues are discussed in depth from the standpoint of chaos theory. First, the topic of sporadic epidemics is dealt with. I argue that the space-time clustering of cases from a starting epidemic is due to a sudden and high increase of the contact rate beyond a threshold. Interaction rather than main effects and nonlinear rather than linear dynamics are involved. Second, the incubation period of disease is studied. I advocate that an individual-level deterministic process underlies Sartwell's model of the incubation period. This accounts for the robustness of the model vis-à-vis confounding variables. Third, monozygotic twinning is analyzed. Assumed by some to be a random process, monozygotic twinning proves to be dynamically different from dizygotic or single-maternity processes; its dynamics can actually be chaotic. Throughout the provided examples, the point is made that chancelike phenomena are primarily concerned with chaos theory. For biological problems showing recurrent inconsistencies by stochastic modeling, dynamic modeling should be envisaged. Inconsistencies can suggest that the relevant factors are out of the model and that they are related deterministically. Finally, spectral analysis and attractors in the phase space are presented; these tools can aid the population biologist in tracing out chaos from

  5. An epidemiological approach to welfare research in zoos: the Elephant Welfare Project.

    PubMed

    Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A; Meehan, Cheryl; Brown, Janine L

    2013-01-01

    Multi-institutional studies of welfare have proven to be valuable in zoos but are hampered by limited sample sizes and difficulty in evaluating more than just a few welfare indicators. To more clearly understand how interactions of husbandry factors influence the interrelationships among welfare outcomes, epidemiological approaches are needed as well as multifactorial assessments of welfare. Many questions have been raised about the housing and care of elephants in zoos and whether their environmental and social needs are being met in a manner that promotes good welfare. This article describes the background and rationale for a large-scale study of elephant welfare in North American zoos funded by the (U.S.) Institute of Museum and Library Services. The goals of this project are to document the prevalence of positive and negative welfare states in 291 elephants exhibited in 72 Association of Zoos and Aquariums zoos and then determine the environmental, management, and husbandry factors that impact elephant welfare. This research is the largest scale nonhuman animal welfare project ever undertaken by the zoo community, and the scope of environmental variables and welfare outcomes measured is unprecedented.

  6. Computer-administered neurobehavioral evaluation system for occupational and environmental epidemiology. Rationale, methodology, and pilot study results

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.L.; Letz, R.; Fidler, A.

    1985-03-01

    To facilitate the conduct of epidemiologic studies of populations at risk for or suffering from central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction due to environmental agents, a computer-administered neurobehavioral evaluation system has been developed. The system includes a set of testing programs designed to run on a microcomputer and questionnaires to facilitate interpretation of results. Standard tasks evaluating memory, psychomotor function, verbal ability, visuospatial ability, and mood were selected and adapted for computer presentation following the recommendation of an expert committee of the World Health Organization and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. In two pilot surveys, test performance was found to be influenced by age, education level, and socioeconomic status in ways consistent with prior research findings. Performance on tests of short-term memory and reaction time was negatively correlated with intensity of organic solvent exposure among industrial painters. In view of the ease of administration and data handling, high subject acceptability, and sensitivity to the effects of known neurotoxic agents, computer-based assessment of CNS function holds promise for future epidemiologic research.

  7. Epidemiological investigation of a case of nosocomial Legionnaires' disease in Taiwan: implications for routine environmental surveillance.

    PubMed

    Chien, S T; Hsueh, J C; Lin, H-H; Shih, H-Y; Lee, T-M; Ben, R-J; Chou, S-T; Fong, C-M; Lin, Y E; Tseng, L-R; Chiang, C-S

    2010-06-01

    An epidemiological investigation with Legionella and molecular subtyping was conducted to determine the source of a case of nosocomial Legionnaires' disease (LD) who was hospitalized in three hospitals within a month. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 3, an uncommon serogroup for infection, was isolated from the patient's sputum. Environmental surveillance revealed Legionella colonization in all three hospitals; the patient isolate matched the isolate from the first hospital by molecular typing. Culturing the hospital water supply for Legionella is a pro-active strategy for detection of nosocomial LD even in hospitals experiencing no previous cases.

  8. 77 FR 55201 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science... and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92... Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building, 1000 Independence...

  9. 78 FR 12043 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy... and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. No... Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building, 1000 Independence...

  10. 76 FR 31319 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy... the Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC). The Federal Advisory Committee..., Office of Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW...

  11. Environmental Factors Affecting Growth and Occurrence of Testicular Cancer in Childhood: An Overview of the Current Epidemiological Evidence.

    PubMed

    Giannandrea, Fabrizio; Fargnoli, Stefania

    2017-01-05

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most frequently occurring malignancy among adolescents and young men aged 15-34 years. Although incidence of TC has been growing over the past 40 years in several western countries, the explanations for this increase still remain uncertain. It has been postulated that early life exposure to numerous occupational and environmental estrogenic chemicals, such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), may play a contributing role in the etiology of TC, but the subject is still open to additional investigation. Recently, it has also been suggested that prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures associated with child growth and development might also be involved in TC progression. This review of current epidemiological studies (2000-2015) aims to identify environmental factors associated with TC, with a particular focus on infancy and childhood factors that could constitute a risk for disease development. It may also contribute towards recognizing gaps in knowledge and recent research requirements for TC, and to point out possible interactions between child growth and development in relation to prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures.

  12. Environmental Factors Affecting Growth and Occurrence of Testicular Cancer in Childhood: An Overview of the Current Epidemiological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Giannandrea, Fabrizio; Fargnoli, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most frequently occurring malignancy among adolescents and young men aged 15–34 years. Although incidence of TC has been growing over the past 40 years in several western countries, the explanations for this increase still remain uncertain. It has been postulated that early life exposure to numerous occupational and environmental estrogenic chemicals, such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), may play a contributing role in the etiology of TC, but the subject is still open to additional investigation. Recently, it has also been suggested that prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures associated with child growth and development might also be involved in TC progression. This review of current epidemiological studies (2000–2015) aims to identify environmental factors associated with TC, with a particular focus on infancy and childhood factors that could constitute a risk for disease development. It may also contribute towards recognizing gaps in knowledge and recent research requirements for TC, and to point out possible interactions between child growth and development in relation to prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures. PMID:28067779

  13. Locating the Environmental in Environmental Education Research: "What" Research--And Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of "locating the environmental in environmental education research" and does so with particular reference to previously published work by St Maurice (1996), Stables (2001) and Kaufman et al. (2001). At one level these three extracts are about the same thing: that is, they are about environmental education…

  14. Use of epidemiology and clinical toxicology to assess environmental health problems

    SciTech Connect

    Cordle, F.

    1984-09-01

    Historically, epidemiology has played an important role in the changes that have taken place over time as epidemics of important infectious diseases have been replaced with modern epidemics of chronic, degenerative diseases such as elevated blood pressure, various types of cancers, diabetes, and stroke, among others. Two illustrations of the early uses of epidemiologic methods in investigations of disease outbreaks are described in the work of John Snow, who described outbreaks of cholera in the 1800s and J. Goldberger, who investigated the incidence of pellagra in the early 1900s. The more contemporary use of epidemiology and clinical toxicology to assess the outcome of human exposure to environmental contaminants in the food supply are described for exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to the polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). Exposure to the PCBs has occurred in a variety of locations worldwide, with the greatest exposure taking place in individuals of many countries who consume fish and in Japan and Taiwan through contaminated cooking oil. Exposure to PBBs has essentially been limited to the State of Michigan where widespread contamination of cattle, dairy products, and poultry has taken place.

  15. Integrating Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Into Breast Cancer Epidemiologic Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications. Oxford, Oxford University Press; 2000. 9. Kelsall JE, Diggle PJ: Non-parametric estimation of spatial...1990, 9:691-701. 30. Bailey TC, Gatrell AC: Interactive Spatial Data Analysis. Harlow, England, Longman Scientific & Technical; 1995. 31. Kelsall JE

  16. Integrating Geographic Information System (GIS) into Breast Cancer Epidemiologic Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    1998:63-80. 31. Kelsall JE, Diggle PJ: Spatial variation in risk of disease: a non- 8. Elliott P, Wakefield JC, Best NG, Briggs DJ: Spatial Epidemiology...Bowman AW, Azzalini A: Applied Smoothing Techniques for 9. Kelsall JE, Diggle PJ: Non-parametric estimation of spatial vari- Data Analysis. Oxford

  17. Epidemiological Study on the Involvements of Environmental Factors and Allergy in Child Mental Health Using the Autism Screening Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Aki; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Hibino, Yuri; Yamazaki, Masami; Mitoma, Junko; Asakura, Hiroki; Hayashi, Koichi; Otaki, Naoto; Sagara, Takiko; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Although autism is now recognized as being very common (Buie et al., 2010) and as developing due to not only genetic but also environmental factors, there is insufficient epidemiological evidence on the relationship between autism and allergy. In this study, therefore, we attempted to clarify the association of environmental factors with autism…

  18. Epidemiological Study on the Involvements of Environmental Factors and Allergy in Child Mental Health Using the Autism Screening Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Aki; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Hibino, Yuri; Yamazaki, Masami; Mitoma, Junko; Asakura, Hiroki; Hayashi, Koichi; Otaki, Naoto; Sagara, Takiko; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Although autism is now recognized as being very common (Buie et al., 2010) and as developing due to not only genetic but also environmental factors, there is insufficient epidemiological evidence on the relationship between autism and allergy. In this study, therefore, we attempted to clarify the association of environmental factors with autism…

  19. THE NATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF RECREATIONAL WATERS: RESULTS FROM THE FIRST SUMMER FULL-SCALE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction

    The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Waters (NEEAR) is a multi-year study of recreational water conducted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), design...

  20. THE NATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF RECREATIONAL WATERS: RESULTS FROM THE FIRST SUMMER OF FULL-SCALE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction

    The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Waters (NEEAR) is a multi-year study of recreational water conducted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), design...

  1. THE NATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF RECREATIONAL WATERS: RESULTS FROM THE FIRST SUMMER FULL-SCALE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction

    The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Waters (NEEAR) is a multi-year study of recreational water conducted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), design...

  2. THE NATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF RECREATIONAL WATERS: RESULTS FROM THE FIRST SUMMER OF FULL-SCALE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction

    The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Waters (NEEAR) is a multi-year study of recreational water conducted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), design...

  3. Native Americans: Where in Environmental Justice Research?

    PubMed

    Vickery, Jamie; Hunter, Lori M

    While the last two decades have seen important theoretical, empirical, and policy advancements in environmental justice generally, much remains to be done regarding Native Americans. Unique political and cultural dynamics shape the study and pursuit of environmental justice (EJ) in Native American communities. This review summarizes Native American EJ issues based on a cross-disciplinary search of over 60 publications. In so doing, we discuss the unique nature of Native American EJ in terms of conducting research and working toward reducing the continuation of historical trauma associated with environmental ills, the types of strategies used in Native American EJ research, and issues of Native American climate justice. We conclude with discussion of remaining knowledge gaps and future research needs.

  4. Native Americans: Where in Environmental Justice Research?

    PubMed Central

    Vickery, Jamie; Hunter, Lori M.

    2016-01-01

    While the last two decades have seen important theoretical, empirical, and policy advancements in environmental justice generally, much remains to be done regarding Native Americans. Unique political and cultural dynamics shape the study and pursuit of environmental justice (EJ) in Native American communities. This review summarizes Native American EJ issues based on a cross-disciplinary search of over 60 publications. In so doing, we discuss the unique nature of Native American EJ in terms of conducting research and working toward reducing the continuation of historical trauma associated with environmental ills, the types of strategies used in Native American EJ research, and issues of Native American climate justice. We conclude with discussion of remaining knowledge gaps and future research needs. PMID:27103758

  5. Epidemiologic research topics in Germany: a keyword network analysis of 2014 DGEpi conference presentations.

    PubMed

    Peter, Raphael Simon; Brehme, Torben; Völzke, Henry; Muche, Rainer; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Büchele, Gisela

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of epidemiologic research topics as well as trends is useful for scientific societies, researchers and funding agencies. In recent years researchers recognized the usefulness of keyword network analysis for visualizing and analyzing scientific research topics. Therefore, we applied keyword network analysis to present an overview of current epidemiologic research topics in Germany. Accepted submissions to the 9th annual congress of the German Society for Epidemiology (DGEpi) in 2014 were used as data source. Submitters had to choose one of 19 subject areas, and were ask to provide a title, structured abstract, names of authors along with their affiliations, and a list of freely selectable keywords. Keywords had been provided for 262 (82 %) submissions, 1030 keywords in total. Overall the most common keywords were: "migration" (18 times), "prevention" (15 times), followed by "children", "cohort study", "physical activity", and "secondary data analysis" (11 times each). Some keywords showed a certain concentration under one specific subject area, e.g. "migration" with 8 of 18 in social epidemiology or "breast cancer" with 4 of 7 in cancer epidemiology. While others like "physical activity" were equally distributed over multiple subject areas (cardiovascular & metabolic diseases, ageing, methods, paediatrics, prevention & health service research). This keyword network analysis demonstrated the high diversity of epidemiologic research topics with a large number of distinct keywords as presented at the annual conference of the DGEpi.

  6. Health and Environmental Research. Summary of Accomplishments

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1984-04-01

    This is a short account of a 40-year-old health and environmental research program performed in national laboratories, universities, and research institutes. Under the sponsorship of the federal agencies that were consecutively responsible for the national energy mission, this research program has contributed to the understanding of the human health and environmental effects of emergining energy technologies. In so doing, it has also evolved several nuclear techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of human ills. The form of this presentation is through examples of significant, tangible accomplishments in each of these areas at certain times to illustrate the role and impact of the research program. The narrative of this research program concludes with a perspective of its past and a prospectus on its future.

  7. Health and environmental research. Summary of accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    This is a short account of a 40-year-old health and environmental research program performed in national laboratories, universities, and research institutes. Under the sponsorship of the federal agencies that were consecutively responsible for the national energy mission, this research program has contributed to the understanding of the human health and environmental effects of emergining energy technologies. In so doing, it has also evolved several nuclear techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of human ills. The form of this presentation is through examples of significant, tangible accomplishments in each of these areas at certain times to illustrate the role and impact of the research program. The narrative of this research program concludes with a perspective of its past and a prospectus on its future.

  8. Environmental Research Program. 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of the Environmental Research Program is to enhance the understanding of, and mitigate the effects of pollutants on health, ecological systems, global and regional climate, and air quality. The program is multi-disciplinary and includes fundamental research and development in efficient and environmentally-benign combustion, pollutant abatement and destruction, and novel methods of detection and analysis of criteria and non-criteria pollutants. This diverse group conducts investigations in combustion, atmospheric and marine processes, flue-gas chemistry, and ecological systems.

  9. Epidemiological transition of colorectal cancer in developing countries: Environmental factors, molecular pathways, and opportunities for prevention

    PubMed Central

    Bishehsari, Faraz; Mahdavinia, Mahboobeh; Vacca, Michele; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mariani-Costantini, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer and cancer-related mortality worldwide. The disease has been traditionally a major health problem in industrial countries, however the CRC rates are increasing in the developing countries that are undergoing economic growth. Several environmental risk factors, mainly changes in diet and life style, have been suggested to underlie the rise of CRC in these populations. Diet and lifestyle impinge on nuclear receptors, on the intestinal microbiota and on crucial molecular pathways that are implicated in intestinal carcinogenesis. In this respect, the epidemiological transition in several regions of the world offers a unique opportunity to better understand CRC carcinogenesis by studying the disease phenotypes and their environmental and molecular associations in different populations. The data from these studies may have important implications for the global prevention and treatment of CRC. PMID:24876728

  10. Epidemiological transition of colorectal cancer in developing countries: environmental factors, molecular pathways, and opportunities for prevention.

    PubMed

    Bishehsari, Faraz; Mahdavinia, Mahboobeh; Vacca, Michele; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mariani-Costantini, Renato

    2014-05-28

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer and cancer-related mortality worldwide. The disease has been traditionally a major health problem in industrial countries, however the CRC rates are increasing in the developing countries that are undergoing economic growth. Several environmental risk factors, mainly changes in diet and life style, have been suggested to underlie the rise of CRC in these populations. Diet and lifestyle impinge on nuclear receptors, on the intestinal microbiota and on crucial molecular pathways that are implicated in intestinal carcinogenesis. In this respect, the epidemiological transition in several regions of the world offers a unique opportunity to better understand CRC carcinogenesis by studying the disease phenotypes and their environmental and molecular associations in different populations. The data from these studies may have important implications for the global prevention and treatment of CRC.

  11. Protecting the privacy of individual general practice patient electronic records for geospatial epidemiology research.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, Soumya; Konings, Paul; Hewett, Michael; Bagheri, Nasser; McRae, Ian; Del Fante, Peter

    2014-12-01

    General practitioner (GP) practices in Australia are increasingly storing patient information in electronic databases. These practice databases can be accessed by clinical audit software to generate reports that inform clinical or population health decision making and public health surveillance. Many audit software applications also have the capacity to generate de-identified patient unit record data. However, the de-identified nature of the extracted data means that these records often lack geographic information. Without spatial references, it is impossible to build maps reflecting the spatial distribution of patients with particular conditions and needs. Links to socioeconomic, demographic, environmental or other geographically based information are also not possible. In some cases, relatively coarse geographies such as postcode are available, but these are of limited use and researchers cannot undertake precision spatial analyses such as calculating travel times. We describe a method that allows researchers to implement meaningful mapping and spatial epidemiological analyses of practice level patient data while preserving privacy. This solution has been piloted in a diabetes risk research project in the patient population of a practice in Adelaide. The method offers researchers a powerful means of analysing geographic clinic data in a privacy-protected manner. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  12. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Theodore C.; Pfau, Jean C.; Gavett, Stephen H.; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Summary Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials). PMID:26230287

  13. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Danielle J; Larson, Theodore C; Pfau, Jean C; Gavett, Stephen H; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-08-01

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials).

  14. Environmental practices for biomedical research facilities.

    PubMed

    Medlin, E L; Grupenhoff, J T

    2000-12-01

    As a result of the Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment, the Facilities Committee focused its work on the development of best environmental practices at biomedical research facilities at the university and independent research facility level as well as consideration of potential involvement of for-profit companies and government agencies. The designation "facilities" includes all related buildings and grounds, "green auditing" of buildings and programs, purchasing of furnishings and sources, energy efficiency, and engineering services (lighting, heating, air conditioning), among other activities. The committee made a number of recommendations, including development of a national council for environmental stewardship in biomedical research, development of a system of green auditing of such research facilities, and creation of programs for sustainable building and use. In addition, the committee recommended extension of education and training programs for environmental stewardship, in cooperation with facilities managers, for all research administrators and researchers. These programs would focus especially on graduate fellows and other students, as well as on science labs at levels K--12.

  15. Environmental practices for biomedical research facilities.

    PubMed Central

    Medlin, E L; Grupenhoff, J T

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment, the Facilities Committee focused its work on the development of best environmental practices at biomedical research facilities at the university and independent research facility level as well as consideration of potential involvement of for-profit companies and government agencies. The designation "facilities" includes all related buildings and grounds, "green auditing" of buildings and programs, purchasing of furnishings and sources, energy efficiency, and engineering services (lighting, heating, air conditioning), among other activities. The committee made a number of recommendations, including development of a national council for environmental stewardship in biomedical research, development of a system of green auditing of such research facilities, and creation of programs for sustainable building and use. In addition, the committee recommended extension of education and training programs for environmental stewardship, in cooperation with facilities managers, for all research administrators and researchers. These programs would focus especially on graduate fellows and other students, as well as on science labs at levels K--12. PMID:11121360

  16. Environmental research for facilitating OTEC commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    In August, 1980, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) was given the responsibility, per the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-320), to establish a legal regime that would foster the commercialization of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) in a manner that protects the marine environment. NOAA developed both an EIS and an environmental effects research plan in accord with the requirements of the Act. These efforts, coupled with an assessment of past OTEC environmental research, highlight the following topics as being of high research priority: direct licensing requirements, and effects on fisheries. Cost-effective and timely research on these topics will be supportive of OTEC commercialization.

  17. COOPEUS - connecting research infrastructures in environmental sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koop-Jakobsen, Ketil; Waldmann, Christoph; Huber, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The COOPEUS project was initiated in 2012 bringing together 10 research infrastructures (RIs) in environmental sciences from the EU and US in order to improve the discovery, access, and use of environmental information and data across scientific disciplines and across geographical borders. The COOPEUS mission is to facilitate readily accessible research infrastructure data to advance our understanding of Earth systems through an international community-driven effort, by: Bringing together both user communities and top-down directives to address evolving societal and scientific needs; Removing technical, scientific, cultural and geopolitical barriers for data use; and Coordinating the flow, integrity and preservation of information. A survey of data availability was conducted among the COOPEUS research infrastructures for the purpose of discovering impediments for open international and cross-disciplinary sharing of environmental data. The survey showed that the majority of data offered by the COOPEUS research infrastructures is available via the internet (>90%), but the accessibility to these data differ significantly among research infrastructures; only 45% offer open access on their data, whereas the remaining infrastructures offer restricted access e.g. do not release raw data or sensible data, demand user registration or require permission prior to release of data. These rules and regulations are often installed as a form of standard practice, whereas formal data policies are lacking in 40% of the infrastructures, primarily in the EU. In order to improve this situation COOPEUS has installed a common data-sharing policy, which is agreed upon by all the COOPEUS research infrastructures. To investigate the existing opportunities for improving interoperability among environmental research infrastructures, COOPEUS explored the opportunities with the GEOSS common infrastructure (GCI) by holding a hands-on workshop. Through exercises directly registering resources

  18. NEESPI focus issues in Environmental Research Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Julian; Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2010-05-01

    In 2007 and 2009 Environmental Research Letters published focus issues (edited by Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja) made up of work carried out by NEESPI participants. Here, we present the content of those focus issues as an invaluable resource for researchers working in the NEESPI study area. The first of the two issues, published in 2007 with title 'Northern Hemisphere High Latitude Climate and Environmental Change', presents a diverse collection of articles that are assembled into five groups devoted to studies of climate and hydrology, land cover and land use, the biogeochemical cycle and its feedbacks, the cryosphere, and human dimensions. The second issue, published in 2009, with title 'Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia' presents diverse, assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia.

  19. [The need, supply and demand for epidemiological research personnel in the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    PubMed

    Escandón-Romero, C; Vázquez-Martínez, J L; Fernández-Gárate, I H; Ruiz-Maya, L

    1993-01-01

    In 1991 the Directorate of Public Health was created at the Mexican Institute for Social Security, with its epidemiologic activities oriented towards surveillance and research. This new vision, as well as the epidemiologic transition in Mexico, have raised the need for researchers training. In 1988 the Specialization Course in Public Health was developed as a response to the detected needs. This course was reformed three years later in duration, depth and name (Epidemiology instead of Public Health). The requirement of a thesis has led to the development of epidemiologic and health services research. Two diplomates in epidemiology and immunology and microbiology were also developed as a response to the need of actualization due to the advances in epidemiologic methodology in the past decades. A demand for actualization and continuous education has been expressed by the epidemiologists through a survey. The Directorate has also proposed priority themes for research in order to guide the requirements of research raised by the epidemiologist already trained at the Institute.

  20. Jupiter Environmental Research & Field Studies Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttemeyer, Bob

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development and workings of the Jupiter Environmental Research and Field Studies Academy that focuses on enabling both teachers and students to participate in real-life learning experiences. Discusses qualifications for admittance, curriculum, location, ongoing projects, students, academics, preparation for life, problem solving, and…

  1. Jupiter Environmental Research & Field Studies Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttemeyer, Bob

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development and workings of the Jupiter Environmental Research and Field Studies Academy that focuses on enabling both teachers and students to participate in real-life learning experiences. Discusses qualifications for admittance, curriculum, location, ongoing projects, students, academics, preparation for life, problem solving, and…

  2. Hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-29

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently evaluating hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation technologies in existence and under development to determine applicability to remediation needs of the DOE facilities under the Albuquerque Operations Office and to determine areas of research need. To assist LANL is this effort, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) conducted an assessment of technologies and monitoring methods that have been demonstrated or are under development. The focus of this assessment is to: (1) identify existing technologies for hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation of old waste sites; (2) identify technologies under development and the status of the technology; (3) assess new technologies that need development to provide adequate hazardous waste treatment and remedial action technologies for DOD and DOE sites; and (4) identify hazardous waste and remediation problems for environmental research and development. There are currently numerous research and development activities underway nationwide relating to environmental contaminants and the remediation of waste sites. To perform this effort, SAIC evaluated current technologies and monitoring methods development programs in EPA, DOD, and DOE, as these are the primary agencies through which developmental methods are being demonstrated. This report presents this evaluation and provides recommendations as to pertinent research needs or activities to address waste site contamination problems. The review and assessment have been conducted at a programmatic level; site-specific and contaminant-specific evaluations are being performed by LANL staff as a separate, related activity.

  3. The role of environmental variables on Aedes albopictus biology and chikungunya epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Waldock, Joanna; Chandra, Nastassya L; Lelieveld, Jos; Proestos, Yiannis; Michael, Edwin; Christophides, George; Parham, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is a vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses in the field, along with around 24 additional arboviruses under laboratory conditions. As an invasive mosquito species, Ae. albopictus has been expanding in geographical range over the past 20 years, although the poleward extent of mosquito populations is limited by winter temperatures. Nonetheless, population densities depend on environmental conditions and since global climate change projections indicate increasing temperatures and altered patterns of rainfall, geographic distributions of previously tropical mosquito species may change. Although mathematical models can provide explanatory insight into observed patterns of disease prevalence in terms of epidemiological and entomological processes, understanding how environmental variables affect transmission is possible only with reliable model parameterisation, which, in turn, is obtained only through a thorough understanding of the relationship between mosquito biology and environmental variables. Thus, in order to assess the impact of climate change on mosquito population distribution and regions threatened by vector-borne disease, a detailed understanding (through a synthesis of current knowledge) of the relationship between climate, mosquito biology, and disease transmission is required, but this process has not yet been undertaken for Ae. albopictus. In this review, the impact of temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity on Ae. albopictus development and survival are considered. Existing Ae. albopictus populations across Europe are mapped with current climatic conditions, considering whether estimates of climatic cutoffs for Ae. albopictus are accurate, and suggesting that environmental thresholds must be calibrated according to the scale and resolution of climate model outputs and mosquito presence data. PMID:23916332

  4. Molecular epidemiology studies on occupational and environmental exposure to mutagens and carcinogens, 1997-1999.

    PubMed Central

    Srám, R J; Binková, B

    2000-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology is a new and evolving area of research, combining laboratory measurement of internal dose, biologically effective dose, biologic effects, and influence of individual susceptibility with epidemiologic methodologies. Biomarkers evaluated were selected according to basic scheme: biomarkers of exposure--metabolites in urine, DNA adducts, protein adducts, and Comet assay parameters; biomarkers of effect--chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene, and the activation of oncogenes coding for p53 or p21 proteins as measured on protein levels; biomarkers of susceptibility--genetic polymorphisms of genes CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2. DNA adducts measured by 32P-postlabeling are the biomarker of choice for the evaluation of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Protein adducts are useful as a biomarker for exposure to tobacco smoke (4-aminobiphenyl) or to smaller molecules such as acrylonitrile or 1,3-butadiene. Of the biomarkers of effect, the most common are cytogenetic end points. Epidemiologic studies support the use of chromosomal breakage as a relevant biomarker of cancer risk. The use of the Comet assay and methods analyzing oxidative DNA damage needs reliable validation for human biomonitoring. Until now there have not been sufficient data to interpret the relationship between genotypes, biomarkers of exposure, and biomarkers of effect for assessing the risk of human exposure to mutagens and carcinogens. PMID:10698723

  5. Workshop on environmental research for actinide elements

    SciTech Connect

    Watters, R.L.

    1981-09-01

    The discussions in this fifth workshop were directed to the advances which have been made in the environmental chemistry of plutonium and to the feasibility and worth of developing environmental transport models which might serve as predictive tools for long term behavior and as guides for future research needs. Two plutonium models of the soil/plant pathway were presented for critique and as examples of possible approaches. Reports of the following four panels are presented in this proceedings: model development; marine; terrestrial and freshwater/groundwater.

  6. Obesity and Urinary Incontinence: Epidemiology and Clinical Research Update

    PubMed Central

    Subak, Leslee L.; Richter, Holly E.; Hunskaar, Steinar

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We reviewed the epidemiological literature on the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and summarized clinical trial data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence. Materials and Methods We systematically searched for published community based prevalence studies with bivariate or multivariate analysis of the association of urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women. Case series and randomized controlled trials of the effect of surgical, behavioral and pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized. Results Epidemiological studies showed that obesity is a strong independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There was a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with about a 20% to 70% increase in the urinary incontinence risk, and the maximum effect of weight rarely exceeded an OR of greater than 4 to 5 on well controlled analyses. The odds of incident urinary incontinence during 5 to 10 years increased by approximately 30% to 60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There may be a stronger association of increasing weight with prevalent and incident stress incontinence, including mixed incontinence, than with urge incontinence and overactive bladder syndrome. Weight loss studies indicated that surgical and nonsurgical weight loss led to significant improvements in urinary incontinence symptoms. Conclusions Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by surgical and more conservative approaches is effective to decrease urinary incontinence symptoms and should be strongly considered a first line treatment in this patient population. PMID:19846133

  7. Recent trends in published occupational cancer epidemiology research: results from a comprehensive review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Raj, Priyanka; Hohenadel, Karin; Demers, Paul A; Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Blair, Aaron

    2014-03-01

    To assess trends in occupational cancer epidemiology research through a literature review of occupational health and epidemiology journals. Fifteen journals were reviewed from 1991 to 2009, and characteristics of articles that assessed the risk of cancer associated with an occupation, industry, or occupational exposure, were incorporated into a database. The number of occupational cancer epidemiology articles published annually declined in recent years (2003 onwards) in the journals reviewed. The number of articles presenting dose-response analyses increased over the review period, from 29% in the first 4 years of review to 49% in the last 4 years. There has been a decrease in the number of occupational cancer epidemiology articles published annually during the review period. The results of these articles help determine the carcinogenicity of workplace exposures and permissible exposure limits, both of which may be hindered with a decline in research. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The use of epidemiology to enhance production animal research.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Catherine

    2008-09-15

    The approach to understanding the impact of management and disease in production animal systems has evolved with the advent of both routine on-farm data collection and new analytic epidemiology techniques. Epidemiology provides a tool to describe the host-agent-environment triad and the impact of multiple variables on productivity and health recognized by production animal veterinarians in their day-to-day work. Field trials enable veterinarians to systematically test whether or not a new treatment improves the health of the animal populations in their geographic region and under their production systems. Hypothesis-specific coding techniques, such as hierarchical variables, are used in a systematic manner to understand well-defined biological phenomenon. Clustering at multiple levels has provided the challenges of measuring management changes in each level. Using random effects models allow us to determine the relative importance of each level on the dependent variable. As epidemiologists, we have taken advantage of analytic techniques used in other fields of science. Geo-spatial statistics has been used to understand the clustering and spread of diseases and more recently, to interpret the laboratory findings related to the introduction of an exotic strain of the influenza virus. Dr. Martin, through his work as a veterinary epidemiologist and that of people he has influenced, has been an international leader in promoting the optimal health and productivity of animal populations and of ensuring the safety of foods of animal origin and preventing animal-related disease in humans.

  9. Improving exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology: Application of spatio-temporal visualization tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meliker, Jaymie R.; Slotnick, Melissa J.; Avruskin, Gillian A.; Kaufmann, Andrew; Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Nriagu, Jerome O.

    2005-05-01

    A thorough assessment of human exposure to environmental agents should incorporate mobility patterns and temporal changes in human behaviors and concentrations of contaminants; yet the temporal dimension is often under-emphasized in exposure assessment endeavors, due in part to insufficient tools for visualizing and examining temporal datasets. Spatio-temporal visualization tools are valuable for integrating a temporal component, thus allowing for examination of continuous exposure histories in environmental epidemiologic investigations. An application of these tools to a bladder cancer case-control study in Michigan illustrates continuous exposure life-lines and maps that display smooth, continuous changes over time. Preliminary results suggest increased risk of bladder cancer from combined exposure to arsenic in drinking water (>25 μg/day) and heavy smoking (>30 cigarettes/day) in the 1970s and 1980s, and a possible cancer cluster around automotive, paint, and organic chemical industries in the early 1970s. These tools have broad application for examining spatially- and temporally-specific relationships between exposures to environmental risk factors and disease.

  10. Socio-demographic, Epidemiological and Environmental Determinants of Acute Gastroenteritis in Western India.

    PubMed

    Rupani, M P; Tridevi, A V; Singh, M P; Tundia, M N; Patel, K N; Parikh, K D; Parmar, V B

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis had occurred in Rajpara village of Bhavnagar district. The objective of this study was to find out the socio-demographic, epidemiological and environmental determinants of this outbreak. A case-control study was conducted in Rajpara village among 238 cases of acute gastroenteritis and an equal number of controls in January 2015. Multiple logistic regression was used for identifying the variables independently predicting acute gastroenteritis. Upper socio-economic status, occupation requiring travel outside village, source of drinking water from well of 'new' Rajpara village, change in taste of water, use of chlorine tablets, travel outside village in last week, another family member affected with acute gastroenteritis, using common utensil for hand washing, hand washing before eating, ate food from outside in last week, having sanitary latrine at house, waste disposal in a common dump (instead of at house), waste accumulation around house and flies inside house were significantly associated with occurrence of acute gastroenteritis. On multiple logistic regression, change in taste of water (P<0.001), waste disposal in a common dump (P=0.012), another family member been affected (P<0.001), waste accumulation around house (P<0.001), higher socio-economic status (P=0.002) and eating outside food (P=0.011) made a significant contribution to prediction. Socio-demographic factors (higher socio-economic status), epidemiological correlates (change in taste of water, another family member been affected with acute gastroenteritis and eating outside food) and environmental determinants (waste disposal in a common dump and waste accumulation around house) significantly determines the occurrence of cases of acute gastroenteritis.

  11. Text mining describes the use of statistical and epidemiological methods in published medical research.

    PubMed

    Meaney, Christopher; Moineddin, Rahim; Voruganti, Teja; O'Brien, Mary Ann; Krueger, Paul; Sullivan, Frank

    2016-06-01

    To describe trends in the use of statistical and epidemiological methods in the medical literature over the past 2 decades. We obtained all 1,028,786 articles from the PubMed Central Open-Access archive (retrieved May 9, 2015). We focused on 113,450 medical research articles. A Delphi panel identified 177 statistical/epidemiological methods pertinent to clinical researchers. We used a text-mining approach to determine if a specific statistical/epidemiological method was encountered in a given article. We report the proportion of articles using a specific method for the entire cross-sectional sample and also stratified into three blocks of time (1995-2005; 2006-2010; 2011-2015). Numeric descriptive statistics were commonplace (96.4% articles). Other frequently encountered methods groups included statistical inferential concepts (52.9% articles), epidemiological measures of association (53.5% articles) methods for diagnostic/classification accuracy (40.1% articles), hypothesis testing (28.8% articles), ANOVA (23.2% articles), and regression (22.6% articles). We observed relative percent increases in the use of: regression (103.0%), missing data methods (217.9%), survival analysis (147.6%), and correlated data analysis (192.2%). This study identified commonly encountered and emergent methods used to investigate medical research problems. Clinical researchers must be aware of the methodological landscape in their field, as statistical/epidemiological methods underpin research claims. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [EpiInfo as a research and teaching tool in epidemiology and statistics: strengths and weaknesses].

    PubMed

    Mannocci, Alice; Bontempi, Claudio; Giraldi, Guglielmo; Chiaradia, Giacomina; de Waure, Chiara; Sferrazza, Antonella; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    EpiInfo is a free software developed in 1988 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta to facilitate field epidemiological investigations and statistical analysis. The aim of this study was to assess whether the software represents, in the Italian biomedical field, an effective analytical research tool and a practical and simple epidemiology and biostatistics teaching tool. A questionnaire consisting of 20 multiple-choice and open questions was administered to 300 healthcare workers, including doctors, biologists, nurses, medical students and interns, at the end of a CME course in epidemiology and biostatistics. Sixty-four percent of participants were aged between 26 and 45 years, 52% were women and 73% were unmarried. Results show that women are more likely to utilize EpiInfo in their research activities with respect to men (p = 0.023), as are individuals aged 26-45 years with respect to the older and younger age groups (p = 0.023) and unmarried participants with respect to those married (p = 0.010). Thirty-one percent of respondents consider EpiInfo to be more than adequate for analysis of their research data and 52% consider it to be sufficiently so. The inclusion of an EpiInfo course in statistics and epidemiology modules facilitates the understanding of theoretical concepts and allows researchers to more easily perform some of the clinical/epidemiological research activities.

  13. Recent Progress in Alzheimer’s Disease Research, Part 2: Genetics and Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Morgan; Lee, Brenda Y.; Hane, Francis T.

    2017-01-01

    This is the second part of a three-part review series reviewing the most important advances in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) research since 2010. This review covers the latest research on genetics and epidemiology. Epidemiological and genetic studies are revealing important insights into the etiology of, and factors that contribute to AD, as well as areas of priority for research into mechanisms and interventions. The widespread adoption of genome wide association studies has provided compelling evidence of the genetic complexity of AD with genes associated with such diverse physiological function as immunity and lipid metabolism being implicated in AD pathogenesis. PMID:28211812

  14. Epidemiological approaches in the investigation of environmental causes of cancer: the case of dioxins and water disinfection by-products

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    I will refer in this paper to difficulties in research in environmental causes of cancer using as examples research on dioxins and on drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) that have created considerable controversy in the scientific and wider community. Dioxins are highly toxic chemicals that are animal carcinogens. For many years, evaluation of the carcinogenicity of dioxins in humans was based on case-control or registry based studies. The development of methods to measure dioxins in blood indicated that these studies suffered from extreme exposure misclassification. The conduct of large cohort studies of workers with widely contrasted exposures together with the use of biomarkers and models for exposure assessment, led to convincing evidence on the carcinogenicity of dioxins in humans. The high toxicity of a few dioxin congeners, the availability of a scheme to characterize the toxicity of a mixture of dioxins and related compounds and the long half-life of these compounds facilitated epidemiological research. Contrary to dioxins, trihalomethanes (THMs) and most of the hundreds of DBPs in drinking water are chemicals of low toxicity. For more than 15 years, the main evidence on the carcinogenicity of DBPs was through ecological or death certificate studies. More recent studies based on individual assessment confirmed increases in bladder cancer risk. However even those studies ignored the toxicological evidence on the importance of routes of exposure to DBPs other than ingestion and, probably, underestimated the risk. Persistence of weak study designs together with delays in advanced exposure assessment models led to delays in confirming early evidence on the carcinogenicity of DBPs. The evaluation of only a few chemicals when exposure is to a complex mixture remains a major problem in exposure assessment for DBPs. The success of epidemiological studies in identifying increased risks lies primarily on the wide contrast of exposure to DBPs in the general

  15. Epidemiological approaches in the investigation of environmental causes of cancer: the case of dioxins and water disinfection by-products.

    PubMed

    Kogevinas, Manolis

    2011-04-05

    I will refer in this paper to difficulties in research in environmental causes of cancer using as examples research on dioxins and on drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) that have created considerable controversy in the scientific and wider community. Dioxins are highly toxic chemicals that are animal carcinogens. For many years, evaluation of the carcinogenicity of dioxins in humans was based on case-control or registry based studies. The development of methods to measure dioxins in blood indicated that these studies suffered from extreme exposure misclassification. The conduct of large cohort studies of workers with widely contrasted exposures together with the use of biomarkers and models for exposure assessment, led to convincing evidence on the carcinogenicity of dioxins in humans. The high toxicity of a few dioxin congeners, the availability of a scheme to characterize the toxicity of a mixture of dioxins and related compounds and the long half-life of these compounds facilitated epidemiological research. Contrary to dioxins, trihalomethanes (THMs) and most of the hundreds of DBPs in drinking water are chemicals of low toxicity. For more than 15 years, the main evidence on the carcinogenicity of DBPs was through ecological or death certificate studies. More recent studies based on individual assessment confirmed increases in bladder cancer risk. However even those studies ignored the toxicological evidence on the importance of routes of exposure to DBPs other than ingestion and, probably, underestimated the risk. Persistence of weak study designs together with delays in advanced exposure assessment models led to delays in confirming early evidence on the carcinogenicity of DBPs. The evaluation of only a few chemicals when exposure is to a complex mixture remains a major problem in exposure assessment for DBPs. The success of epidemiological studies in identifying increased risks lies primarily on the wide contrast of exposure to DBPs in the general

  16. Biomarkers for Uranium Risk Assessment for the Development of the CURE (Concerted Uranium Research in Europe) Molecular Epidemiological Protocol.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Yann; Roy, Laurence; Hornhardt, Sabine; Badie, Christophe; Hall, Janet; Baatout, Sarah; Pernot, Eileen; Tomasek, Ladislav; Laurent, Olivier; Ebrahimian, Teni; Ibanez, Chrystelle; Grison, Stephane; Kabacik, Sylwia; Laurier, Dominique; Gomolka, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Despite substantial experimental and epidemiological research, there is limited knowledge of the uranium-induce health effects after chronic low-dose exposures in humans. Biological markers can objectively characterize pathological processes or environmental responses to uranium and confounding agents. The integration of such biological markers into a molecular epidemiological study would be a useful approach to improve and refine estimations of uranium-induced health risks. To initiate such a study, Concerted Uranium Research in Europe (CURE) was established, and involves biologists, epidemiologists and dosimetrists. The aims of the biological work package of CURE were: 1. To identify biomarkers and biological specimens relevant to uranium exposure; 2. To define standard operating procedures (SOPs); and 3. To set up a common protocol (logistic, questionnaire, ethical aspects) to perform a large-scale molecular epidemiologic study in uranium-exposed cohorts. An intensive literature review was performed and led to the identification of biomarkers related to: 1. retention organs (lungs, kidneys and bone); 2. other systems/organs with suspected effects (cardiovascular system, central nervous system and lympho-hematopoietic system); 3. target molecules (DNA damage, genomic instability); and 4. high-throughput methods for the identification of new biomarkers. To obtain high-quality biological materials, SOPs were established for the sampling and storage of different biospecimens. A questionnaire was developed to assess potential confounding factors. The proposed strategy can be adapted to other internal exposures and should improve the characterization of the biological and health effects that are relevant for risk assessment.

  17. [Cumulative radiation dosage and epidemiological research in the Chernobyl region].

    PubMed

    Vorob'ev, A I; Domracheva, E V; Klevezal', G A; Meshcheriakova, L M; Moiseeva, T N; Osechinskiĭ, I V; Serezhenkov, V A; Shklovskiĭ-Kordi, N E

    1994-01-01

    Individual biological dosimetry covering chromosomal analysis and electronic paramagnetic resonance spectrometry has been performed in 1300 subjects exposed to ionizing radiation after the Chernobyl accident. Cumulative radiation doses above 40 ImC were registered in 5%, about 100 ImC in 1% of the examinees. In 1% of cytogenetic investigations there appeared multiaberrant cells indicative of hot particle incorporation. Regional epidemiologists do not record changes in the incidence of hematological diseases. This may be explained by a small percent of the dose carriers, rare occurrence of hematological disorders and the time of radiation-induced oncogenic effects. The above representative group exposed to definite radiation doses may serve the subject of epidemiological surveys on the role of low-dose and low-rate radiation in pathogenesis of human diseases.

  18. Environmental health research and the observer's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2009-08-01

    Environmental health researchers frequently study people in occupational, educational, recreational, or domestic settings who are exposed to hazardous agents. Deciding whether-and how-to inform research subjects about risks they face in their environment can be a challenging task for investigators. Because legal rules and professional guidelines do not cover this topic, investigators must carefully consider their ethical obligations in light of the facts and circumstances. To navigate through this dilemma, investigators should consider the evidence for the risks, the nature of the risks, the usefulness of risk information to the subjects, and the effects on the study and community of informing subjects about risks.

  19. 77 FR 4028 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... and Environmental Research News from the Biological Systems Science and Climate and Environmental... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy; Office of Science... Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat...

  20. About the Environmental Public Health Division (EPHD) of EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPHD performs integrated epidemiological, clinical, animal and cellular biological research and statistical modeling to provide the scientific foundation in support of hazard identification, risk assessment, and standard setting.

  1. Environmental scan of cystic fibrosis research worldwide.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Janice

    2017-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a rare fatal genetic disease, affecting 70,000 to 100,000 people worldwide [1]. Numerous countries have specific charitable organizations dedicated to CF, with many funding research to find a cure or effective control for the disease. Cystic Fibrosis Canada, the largest charity in Canada dedicated to funding research and care in CF, conducted an environmental scan of these organizations to learn and better understand their research goals and funding process. A set of questions was sent to 25 CF charitable organizations around the world by email. Responses were consolidated to identify common practices and innovative approaches. Among respondents, there were variations in the amount of funds invested in research annually and the number of studies supported. Common themes identified included practicing an open call for research applications, evaluating applications using a peer review process, and placing an increased emphasis on patient engagement. Innovative approaches included funding one larger project; funding a series of sub-projects on a common theme; partially funding a research project; and, indefinitely funding part of a researcher's salary. Among CF charitable organizations, there are numerous approaches to research funding. Both similarities and differences were noted between these organizations, all of which share the common goal of working towards improving quality of life and survival for people with CF. Copyright © 2016 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cultural psychiatry and epidemiology: researching the means, methods and meanings.

    PubMed

    Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2011-04-01

    This article describes my developing interest in cultural psychiatry. This is both a challenging and yet a privileged opportunity to reflect on my research and clinical work over the last 25 years. I describe cultural and interpersonal influences on my thinking and interests, and the development of my research career moving from health services research of specialist services, to primary care research to public mental health research. Specifically, social and cultural influences on risks and responses to mental illness are discussed, as are pathways to care, the recognition of mental illness, and public health and cultural psychiatry research.

  3. How to Build a Standardized Country-Specific Environmental Food Database for Nutritional Epidemiology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bertoluci, Gwenola; Masset, Gabriel; Gomy, Catherine; Mottet, Julien; Darmon, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of standardized country-specific environmental data to combine with nutritional and dietary data for assessing the environmental impact of individual diets in epidemiology surveys, which are consequently reliant on environmental food datasets based on values retrieved from a heterogeneous literature. The aim of this study was to compare and assess the relative strengths and limits of a database of food greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) values estimated with a hybrid method combining input/output and LCA approaches, with a dataset of GHGE values retrieved from the literature. France is the geographical perimeter considered in this study, but the methodology could be applied to other countries. The GHGE of 402 foodstuffs, representative of French diet, were estimated using the hybrid method. In parallel, the GHGE of individual foods were collected from existing literature. Median per-food-category GHGE values from the hybrid method and the reviewed literature were found to correlate strongly (Spearman correlation was 0.83), showing similar rankings of food categories. Median values were significantly different for only 5 (out of 29) food categories, including the ruminant meats category for which the hybrid method gave lower estimates than those from existing literature. Analysis also revealed that literature values came from heterogeneous studies that were not always sourced and that were conducted under different LCA modeling hypotheses. In contrast, the hybrid method helps build reliably-sourced, representative national standards for product-based datasets. We anticipate this hybrid method to be a starting point for better environmental impact assessments of diets. PMID:27054565

  4. [Environmental indicators in ten Italian cities (2001-2005): the air quality data for epidemiological surveillance].

    PubMed

    Berti, Giovanna; Chiusolo, Monica; Grechi, Daniele; Grosa, Mauro; Rognoni, Magda; Tessari, Roberta; Pacelli, Barbara; Scarnato, Corrado; Mallone, Sandra; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Stafoggia, Massimo; Primerano, Roberto; Accetta, Gabriele; Dessì, Maria Patrizia; Cernigliaro, Achille; De'Donato, Francesca; Zanini, Gabriele; Forastiere, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    to produce environmental indicators suitable for an epidemiological surveillance in 10 Italian cities part of the EpiAir Project (2001-2005). the environmental parameters that correlate to relevant health effects are the particles with diameters less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM10), the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and the ozone (O3). The necessary meteorological data are: temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure and apparent temperature.We have identified some criteria to select monitoring stations and have taken standard methods of calculation to produce environmental indicators starting from the daily data available after closely evaluating the completeness of the existing data. Furthermore, we have checked the homogeneity of the selected data to ensure that it represents the population's exposure. close examination of descriptive statistics shows a critical situation of the considered pollutants. The analysis of the yearly state underlines for PM10 values higher than 40 microg/m3 in the area of Mestre-Venice and in Milan, Turin, Bologna e Taranto. For NO2, values are consistently above 40 microg/m3 in Milan, Turin, Bologna, Florence, Rome and Palermo. For ozone, the concentrations were stable, with the exception of Summer 2003 when we recorded, on average, an increase of 13% compared to the mean value estimated for the ten cities during the study period, especially in Mestre-Venice, Turin and Palermo. it is important to ensure the consistency of the methods and instruments in environmental monitoring. To evaluate health effects and perform interventions over the longterm, it is therefore fundamental that the data be homogenous, especially during the periodic reorganizations and rationalizations of air quality management. It is also necessary to include daily meteorological data that influence pollutant dispersion and population health status.

  5. How to Build a Standardized Country-Specific Environmental Food Database for Nutritional Epidemiology Studies.

    PubMed

    Bertoluci, Gwenola; Masset, Gabriel; Gomy, Catherine; Mottet, Julien; Darmon, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of standardized country-specific environmental data to combine with nutritional and dietary data for assessing the environmental impact of individual diets in epidemiology surveys, which are consequently reliant on environmental food datasets based on values retrieved from a heterogeneous literature. The aim of this study was to compare and assess the relative strengths and limits of a database of food greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) values estimated with a hybrid method combining input/output and LCA approaches, with a dataset of GHGE values retrieved from the literature. France is the geographical perimeter considered in this study, but the methodology could be applied to other countries. The GHGE of 402 foodstuffs, representative of French diet, were estimated using the hybrid method. In parallel, the GHGE of individual foods were collected from existing literature. Median per-food-category GHGE values from the hybrid method and the reviewed literature were found to correlate strongly (Spearman correlation was 0.83), showing similar rankings of food categories. Median values were significantly different for only 5 (out of 29) food categories, including the ruminant meats category for which the hybrid method gave lower estimates than those from existing literature. Analysis also revealed that literature values came from heterogeneous studies that were not always sourced and that were conducted under different LCA modeling hypotheses. In contrast, the hybrid method helps build reliably-sourced, representative national standards for product-based datasets. We anticipate this hybrid method to be a starting point for better environmental impact assessments of diets.

  6. A Proposal for Assessing Study Quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals...

  7. A Proposal for Assessing Study Quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals...

  8. THE NATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF RECREATIONAL WATERS: RESULTS FROM THE FIRST SUMMER OF FULL-SCALE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Waters: Results from the first summer of full-scale studies. Timothy J. Wade, Rebecca L. Calderon, Elizabeth Sams, Kristen Brenner, Michael Beach, Ann H. Williams, Al Dufour.

    Abstract

    Introduc...

  9. THE NATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF RECREATIONAL WATERS: RESULTS FROM THE FIRST SUMMER OF FULL-SCALE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Waters: Results from the first summer of full-scale studies. Timothy J. Wade, Rebecca L. Calderon, Elizabeth Sams, Kristen Brenner, Michael Beach, Ann H. Williams, Al Dufour.

    Abstract

    Introduc...

  10. A pilot study: research poster presentations as an educational tool for undergraduate epidemiology students

    PubMed Central

    Deonandan, Raywat; Gomes, James; Lavigne, Eric; Dinh, Thy; Blanchard, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Students in a fourth year epidemiology course were surveyed after participating in a formal Science Research Day in which they presented original research, in poster form, to be judged by scientists from the community. Of 276 participating students, 80 (29%) responded to the study survey. As a result, 19% of respondents were more likely to pursue a career in science, and 27.5% were more likely to pursue a career in epidemiology. Only one respondent reported being less likely to pursue a science career, while seven were less likely to pursue epidemiology. A majority of respondents felt that the poster experience was on par with, or superior to, a comparable research paper, in terms of both educational appeal and enjoyment. Mandatory, formal poster presentations are an innovative format for teaching advanced health sciences, and may more accurately reflect the realities of a science career than do more traditional educational formats. PMID:24101888

  11. SURVEY OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE AND HEALTH OUTCOMES AT BEACHES FOR THE NATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL A ND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF RECREATIONAL (NEEAR) WATER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Objective
    In the of summer 2004, the US EPA and the CDC conducted the National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study at Silver Beach and Washington Park Beach. This full-scale study is collecting the data necessary fo...

  12. Banking of human tissue for biomonitoring and exposure assessment: utility for environmental epidemiology and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Goldman, L R; Anton-Culver, H; Kharrazi, M; Blake, E

    1995-04-01

    Human tissue banking could provide a tool to address a number of public health concerns. We can potentially use it to monitor trends in human exposures, serve as an early warning system for new environmental exposures, assess low-level exposures around hazardous waste and other point sources of pollutants, evaluate the effectiveness of regulatory programs, and study etiologies of diseases (e.g., childhood cancer and birth defects) that are likely to be related to the environment. This article discusses opportunities to establish human tissue banks in connection with pre-existing public health surveillance programs for cancer and adverse reproductive outcomes. This is a cost-effective way to conduct surveillance and enhances the ability to carry out epidemiologic studies. The article also discusses ethical issues that are particularly important for public health practice. One is the issue of risk communication and the need to explain risks in a way that provides people with the information they need to determine appropriate action on the individual and community levels. Second is the issue of environmental justice. We recommend early involvement of communities that are likely to be involved in tissue-banking projects and full explanation of individual and group social risks from their participation.

  13. Landscape-epidemiological study design to investigate an environmentally based disease.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Joseph A; O'rourke, Mary Kay; Lebowitz, Michael D; Harris, Robin B

    2011-01-01

    Cost-effective approaches for identifying and enrolling subjects in community-based epidemiological studies face many challenges. Additional challenges arise when a neighborhood scale of analysis is required to distinguish between individual- and group-level risk factors with strong environmental determinants. A stratified, two-stage, cross-sectional, address-based telephone survey of Greater Tucson, Arizona, was conducted in 2002-2003. Subjects were recruited from direct marketing data at neighborhood resolution using a geographic information system (GIS). Three geomorphic strata were divided into two demographic units. Households were randomly selected within census block groups, selected using the probability proportional to size technique. Purchased direct marketing lists represented 45.2% of Census 2000 households in the surveyed block groups. Survey design effect (1.6) on coccidioidomycosis prevalence (88 per 100,000 per year) was substantially reduced in four of the six strata (0.3-0.9). Race-ethnicity was more robust than age and gender to compensate for significant selection bias using poststratification. Clustered, address-based telephone surveys provide a cost-effective, valid method for recruiting populations from address-based lists using a GIS to design surveys and population survey statistical methods for analysis. Landscape ecology provides effective methods for identifying scales of analysis and units for stratification that will improve sampling efficiency when environmental variables of interest are strong predictors.

  14. Epidemiology of sudden cardiac death: clinical and research implications.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Sumeet S; Reinier, Kyndaron; Teodorescu, Carmen; Evanado, Audrey; Kehr, Elizabeth; Al Samara, Mershed; Mariani, Ronald; Gunson, Karen; Jui, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The current annual incidence of sudden cardiac death in the United States is likely to be in the range of 180,000 to 250,000 per year. Coinciding with the decreased mortality from coronary artery disease, there is evidence pointing toward a significant decrease in rates of sudden cardiac death in the United States during the second half of the 20th century. However, the alarming rise in prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the first decade of the new millennium both in the United States and worldwide, would indicate that this favorable trend is unlikely to persist. We are likely to witness a resurgence of coronary artery disease and heart failure, as a result of which sudden cardiac death will have to be confronted as a shared and indiscriminate, worldwide public health problem. There is also increasing recognition of the fact that discovery of meaningful and relevant risk stratification and prevention methodologies will require careful prospective community-wide analyses, with access to large archives of DNA, serum, and tissue that link with well-phenotyped databases. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge of sudden cardiac death epidemiology. We will discuss the significance and strengths of community-wide evaluations of sudden cardiac death, summarize recent observations from such studies, and finally highlight specific potential predictors that warrant further evaluation as determinants of sudden cardiac death in the general population.

  15. Obesity. An analysis of epidemiological and prognostic research

    PubMed Central

    Wierzejska, Ewelina; Zielińska, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Apart from its medical dimension, the current problem with obesity has acquired social urgency. This serious lifestyle disease has a negative impact on a number of life processes in the body, causing distortions and damaging different structures. It also contributes to clinical complications, lowers the quality of life and reduces life expectancy. Apart from health-related consequences, it can bring such unfavourable results as social, mental and emotional disorders. Material and methods A systematic review of relevant epidemiological studies on obesity in Poland relative to selected countries in Europe and the world over the past 15 years was conducted. Also an attempt was made at forecasting the development of the obesity problem. Results The analysed results demonstrated that the percentage of obese people among the adult population of Poland was on the rise in the period under investigation. Taking into account the estimated growth rate, we can assume that the percentage of obese people in Poland right now might total 23.7% for men and 23.3% for women. If no changes are introduced in this respect, in 2020 we can expect a rise to, respectively, 30.3% and 27.3%, and in 2030 to 37% for men and 31.4% for women. Conclusions The increase in the percentage of obese people among the adult population in Poland is most likely connected with a positive energy balance. In comparison to other European countries Poland has the highest percentage of obese men and women. PMID:25861287

  16. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: research in Austria.

    PubMed

    Lercher, Peter; Botteldooren, Dick; Widmann, Ulrich; Uhrner, Ulrich; Kammeringer, Ewald

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular effects of noise rank second in terms of disability-adjusted life year (DALYs) after annoyance. Although research during the past decade has consolidated the available data base, the most recent meta-analysis still shows wide confidence intervals - indicating imprecise information for public health risk assessment. The alpine area of Tyrol in the Austrian part of the Alps has experienced a massive increase in car and heavy goods traffic (road and rail) during the last 35 years. Over the past 25 years small-, middle-, and large-sized epidemiological health surveys have been conducted - mostly within the framework of environmental health impact assessments. By design, these studies have emphasized a contextually driven environmental stress perspective, where the adverse health effects on account of noise are studied in a broader framework of environmental health, susceptibility, and coping. Furthermore, innovative exposure assessment strategies have been implemented. This article reviews the existing knowledge from these studies over time, and presents the exposure-response curves, with and without interaction assessment, based on standardized re-analyses and discusses it in the light of past and current cardiovascular noise effects research. The findings support relevant moderation by age, gender, and family history in nearly all studies and suggest a strong need for consideration of non-linearity in the exposure-response analyses. On the other hand, air pollution has not played a relevant role as a moderator in the noise-hypertension or the noise-angina pectoris relationship. Finally, different noise modeling procedures can introduce variations in the exposure response curves, with substantive consequences for public health risk assessment of noise exposure.

  17. Global environmental change research: empowering developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Carlos A; Lahsen, Myanna; Ometto, Jean P H B

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses ways to reconcile the United Nations Millennium Development Goals with environmental sustainability at the national and international levels. The authors argue that development and better use of sustainability relevant knowledge is key, and that this requires capacity building globally, and especially in the less developed regions of the world. Also essential is stronger integration of high-quality knowledge creation and technology--and policy--development, including, importantly, the creation of centers of excellence in developing regions which effectively use and produce applications-directed high quality research and bring it to bear on decision making and practices related to environmental change and sustainable management of natural resources. The authors argue that Southern centers of excellence are a necessary first step for bottom-up societal transformation towards sustainability, and that such centers must help design innovative ways to assess and place value on ecosystem services.

  18. 76 FR 8357 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy; Office of Science... News from the Biological Systems Science and Climate and Environmental Sciences Divisions Discussions on the Climate and Environmental Sciences Division Committee of Visitors Response and the...

  19. Environmental research program. 1995 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of the Environmental Research Program is to enhance the understanding of, and mitigate the effects of pollutants on health, ecological systems, global and regional climate, and air quality. The program is multidisciplinary and includes fundamental research and development in efficient and environmentally benign combustion, pollutant abatement and destruction, and novel methods of detection and analysis of criteria and noncriteria pollutants. This diverse group conducts investigations in combustion, atmospheric and marine processes, flue-gas chemistry, and ecological systems. Combustion chemistry research emphasizes modeling at microscopic and macroscopic scales. At the microscopic scale, functional sensitivity analysis is used to explore the nature of the potential-to-dynamics relationships for reacting systems. Rate coefficients are estimated using quantum dynamics and path integral approaches. At the macroscopic level, combustion processes are modelled using chemical mechanisms at the appropriate level of detail dictated by the requirements of predicting particular aspects of combustion behavior. Parallel computing has facilitated the efforts to use detailed chemistry in models of turbulent reacting flow to predict minor species concentrations.

  20. Environmental forensic research for emerging contaminants in complex environmental matrices

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has established criteria to address many of the significant traditional pollutants demonstrated to have adverse affects on environmental quality. However, new chemicals are being created almost daily, and these new chemicals, as ...

  1. Environmental forensic research for emerging contaminants in complex environmental matrices

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has established criteria to address many of the significant traditional pollutants demonstrated to have adverse affects on environmental quality. However, new chemicals are being created almost daily, and these new chemicals, as ...

  2. [Impacts of geocoding quality in environmental epidemiology studies: two case-studies in Tuscany Region (Central Italy)].

    PubMed

    Nuvolone, Daniela; Santini, Marco; Pepe, Pasquale; Cipriani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are widely used in environmental epidemiology studies to locate study population by geocoding addresses and to evaluate exposures and relationship with health outcomes. Despite this, Italian environmental epidemiologists poorly discuss quality of address geocoding results. two case-studies have been carried out in Tuscany Region (Central Italy): one in the mountain area in the Municipality of Piancastagnaio (Siena Province) and one in the urban area around the airport of Florence. Three geocoding systems have been compared: the geographical database produced by Tuscany Region and two commercial systems (Google and Bing-Microsoft); 1,549 addresses in Piancastagnaio and 2,946 addresses in Florence have been tested. Tuscan geographical database showed better performance than the two commercial systems, with bigger differences in Piancastagnaio. In this area, mean difference between regional system and Google service is more than 300 mt, with peaks of 7-8 km. Bing- Microsoft system does not provide any information on addresses in Piancastagnaio: all input addresses were geocoded in the centroid of the municipality or in the centre of a few principal streets. Lowest differences among the three methods were observed in the urban area of Florence: mean difference between Tuscany and Goggle systems was 150 mt, with less than 2 km peaks; between Tuscany and Bing-Microsoft mean difference was 100 mt with 3 km peaks. In both case-studies, but especially in Piancastagnaio area, these differences gave rise to great misclassification in the evaluation of individual exposure and health outcome. the study highlighted the impacts of address geocoding process in exposure assessment in environmental health research and pointed out the need of specifically evaluate the quality of cartographic data.

  3. Siderophores in environmental research: roles and applications

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, E; Holmström, S J M

    2014-01-01

    Siderophores are organic compounds with low molecular masses that are produced by microorganisms and plants growing under low iron conditions. The primary function of these compounds is to chelate the ferric iron [Fe(III)] from different terrestrial and aquatic habitats and thereby make it available for microbial and plant cells. Siderophores have received much attention in recent years because of their potential roles and applications in various areas of environmental research. Their significance in these applications is because siderophores have the ability to bind a variety of metals in addition to iron, and they have a wide range of chemical structures and specific properties. For instance, siderophores function as biocontrols, biosensors, and bioremediation and chelation agents, in addition to their important role in weathering soil minerals and enhancing plant growth. The aim of this literature review is to outline and discuss the important roles and functions of siderophores in different environmental habitats and emphasize the significant roles that these small organic molecules could play in applied environmental processes. PMID:24576157

  4. Environmental training research project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    Santa Fe Community College serves an area including the city and county of Santa Fe. The population has a high percentage of Hispanics and a Native American population of about 3%. The student body at the college generally reflects that of the service district. The college strives to recruit students from all segments of the population so there is representation among all ethnic and economic groups. The college strives to serve students and the community by offering educational opportunities that meet the needs of both elements and which will lead to gainful employment. Instruction is also offered to meets needs for retraining, upgrades, and personal enlightenment. The college started a hazardous materials management program in the fall of 1991 which has since been renamed environmental management. The purpose of this program is to prepare students for environmental careers, to provide required training such as OSHA HAZWOPER and refresher courses, and to provide educational opportunities that would make the public more environmentally aware. The program content needs to be studied to ensure we`re meeting the needs of the students and the business community. There had not been a significant opportunity to conduct this research.

  5. Massachusetts Students Receive EPA Money to Conduct Environmental Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency gave STAR Awards to two doctoral students in Massachusetts for environmental research. Each doctoral student will receive up to $132,000 to support their graduate research and studies.

  6. Connecticut Students Receive EPA Money to Conduct Environmental Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently gave STAR Awards to four doctoral students in Connecticut for environmental research. Each doctoral student will receive up to $132,000 to support their graduate research and studies.

  7. Webinar Presentation: Children’s Environmental Health Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Children’s Environmental Health Research, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: The Significance of Children’s Environmental Health Research Through Collaboration held on July 8, 2015.

  8. Ethylene oxide: an overview of toxicologic and epidemiologic research.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, P J; Meinhardt, T J; Gordon, J; Lipscomb, J A; Burg, J R; Mazzuckelli, L F; Lewis, T R; Lemen, R A

    1984-01-01

    Ethylene oxide (EtO) is a reactive epoxide and potent biocide. It is used widely in gas sterilization of hospital equipment. An estimated 75,000 health care workers in the United States have potential exposure. EtO binds covalently to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and has been shown in 13 species to cause point mutations. Apparently, as a consequence of its alkylating ability, EtO exposure can result in chromosomal damage. In monkeys EtO exposure produces increased frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosomal aberrations. In man, five cytogenetic studies have shown dose-related increased frequencies of either SCE or chromosomal aberrations; in one study SCEs developed after regular exposures lasting less than five minutes per day. EtO is a reproductive toxin. In adult male rats, exposure produces decreased fertility, increased fetal deaths, and heritable chromosomal translocations. In pregnant female rats and rabbits, exposure causes increased fetal losses, and in one study in pregnant mice exposure was associated with increased numbers of malformed fetuses. In male monkeys EtO causes dose-related reductions in sperm count and sperm motility. In pregnant women, one study suggests that brief occupational exposure twice daily in concentrations of 20 ppm or above was associated with increased spontaneous abortions. EtO is carcinogenic to animals. In rats it causes dose-related increases in mononuclear cell leukemias, peritoneal mesotheliomas, and cerebral gliomas. In man, exposure has been associated in two epidemiologic studies with increased leukemias: 3 leukemias observed versus 0.2 expected in one study, and 2 observed versus 0.14 expected in the other; two additional small studies of limited power found no excess leukemias. Quantitative risk assessment indicates that from 634 to 1,093 excess deaths from cancer will occur per 10,000 workers exposed to EtO at 50 ppm over a working lifetime, and that 12 to 23 excess cancer deaths will occur per 10

  9. 40 CFR 18.3 - Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.3 Section 18.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.3 Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Environmental Protection Research...

  10. A framework to analyse gender bias in epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Cantero, María Teresa; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Artazcoz, Lucía; Delgado, Ana; García Calvente, Maria Mar; Miqueo, Consuelo; Montero, Isabel; Ortiz, Rocío; Ronda, Elena; Ruiz, Isabel; Valls, Carme

    2007-12-01

    The design and analysis of research may cause systematic gender dependent errors to be produced in results because of gender insensitivity or androcentrism. Gender bias in research could be defined as a systematically erroneous gender dependent approach related to social construct, which incorrectly regards women and men as similar/different. Most gender bias can be found in the context of discovery (development of hypotheses), but it has also been found in the context of justification (methodological process), which must be improved. In fact, one of the main effects of gender bias in research is partial or incorrect knowledge in the results, which are systematically different from the real values. This paper discusses some forms of conceptual and methodological bias that may affect women's health. It proposes a framework to analyse gender bias in the design and analysis of research carried out on women's and men's health problems, and on specific women's health issues. Using examples, the framework aims to show the different theoretical perspectives in a social or clinical research context where forms of selection, measurement and confounding bias are produced as a result of gender insensitivity. Finally, this paper underlines the importance of re-examining results so that they may be reinterpreted to produce new gender based knowledge.

  11. A framework to analyse gender bias in epidemiological research

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz‐Cantero, María Teresa; Vives‐Cases, Carmen; Artazcoz, Lucía; Delgado, Ana; del Mar García Calvente, Maria; Miqueo, Consuelo; Montero, Isabel; Ortiz, Rocío; Ronda, Elena; Ruiz, Isabel; Valls, Carme

    2007-01-01

    The design and analysis of research may cause systematic gender dependent errors to be produced in results because of gender insensitivity or androcentrism. Gender bias in research could be defined as a systematically erroneous gender dependent approach related to social construct, which incorrectly regards women and men as similar/different. Most gender bias can be found in the context of discovery (development of hypotheses), but it has also been found in the context of justification (methodological process), which must be improved. In fact, one of the main effects of gender bias in research is partial or incorrect knowledge in the results, which are systematically different from the real values. This paper discusses some forms of conceptual and methodological bias that may affect women's health. It proposes a framework to analyse gender bias in the design and analysis of research carried out on women's and men's health problems, and on specific women's health issues. Using examples, the framework aims to show the different theoretical perspectives in a social or clinical research context where forms of selection, measurement and confounding bias are produced as a result of gender insensitivity. Finally, this paper underlines the importance of re‐examining results so that they may be reinterpreted to produce new gender based knowledge. PMID:18000118

  12. [Social inequality and health: Status and prospects of socio-epidemiological research in Germany].

    PubMed

    Lampert, Thomas; Richter, Matthias; Schneider, Sven; Spallek, Jacob; Dragano, Nico

    2016-02-01

    Social differences in morbidity and mortality have always been a central topic in public health research. In recent years, there has been a growing research interest that has clearly resonated with the general public and the political arena as well. This article describes the development and establishment of social epidemiology in Germany and presents the current status of research. In addition, it describes different models for explaining health inequalities. On this basis, selected challenges and prospects of socio-epidemiological research are demonstrated. The reason why the analysis of social differences in morbidity and mortality will continue to be a key task of public health research in the national and international context in the future is also explained.

  13. Research and teaching of dairy cattle well being: finding synergy between ethology and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Duffield, Todd F; Leslie, Ken E; Lissemore, Kerry D; Millman, Suzanne T

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiology is a tool used to identify and quantify risk factors that contribute to the state of health or disease. In addition, the maintenance of health and recognition of nonhuman animal welfare are both key principles of health management. Animal welfare and ethology provide important contributions to our ability to understand and improve health. As such, there can be a strong connection between the disciplines of ethology and epidemiology. This connection becomes a synergy through collaborative research. At the University of Guelph, and at other institutions, dairy health management research efforts involving collaborations between faculty trained in ethology and epidemiology have led to refined and improved research programs, improved access to funding, and a broader extension audience. Furthermore, these collaborations have enhanced teaching programs and facilitated the integration of ethology and welfare topics throughout the veterinary medical curriculum. The paper provides the basis and context for the synergy between ethology and epidemiology and describes examples of teaching and research programs built upon this synergy for the enhancement of dairy cattle well being.

  14. An Environmental Ethical Conceptual Framework for Research on Sustainability and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronlid, David O.; Ohman, Johan

    2013-01-01

    This article suggests that environmental ethics can have great relevance for environmental ethical content analyses in environmental education and education for sustainable development research. It is based on a critique that existing educational research does not reflect the variety of environmental ethical theories. Accordingly, we suggest an…

  15. An Environmental Ethical Conceptual Framework for Research on Sustainability and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronlid, David O.; Ohman, Johan

    2013-01-01

    This article suggests that environmental ethics can have great relevance for environmental ethical content analyses in environmental education and education for sustainable development research. It is based on a critique that existing educational research does not reflect the variety of environmental ethical theories. Accordingly, we suggest an…

  16. Public, environmental, and occupational health research activity in Arab countries: bibliometric, citation, and collaboration analysis.

    PubMed

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sawalha, Ansam F

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze quantity, assess quality, and investigate international collaboration in research from Arab countries in the field of public, environmental and occupational health. Original scientific articles and reviews published from the 22 Arab countries in the category "public, environmental & occupational health" during the study period (1900 - 2012) were screened using the ISI Web of Science database. The total number of original and review research articles published in the category of "public, environmental & occupational health" from Arab countries was 4673. Main area of research was tropical medicine (1862; 39.85%). Egypt with 1200 documents (25.86%) ranked first in quantity and ranked first in quality of publications (h-index = 51). The study identified 2036 (43.57%) documents with international collaboration. Arab countries actively collaborated with authors in Western Europe (22.91%) and North America (21.04%). Most of the documents (79.9%) were published in public health related journals while 21% of the documents were published in journals pertaining to prevention medicine, environmental, occupational health and epidemiology. Research in public, environmental and occupational health in Arab countries is in the rise. Public health research was dominant while environmental and occupation health research was relatively low. International collaboration was a good tool for increasing research quantity and quality.

  17. 77 FR 55200 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Office of Biological and Environmental Research News from the Biological Systems Science and Climate and... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy... Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat...

  18. 76 FR 78908 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of renewal of the Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee. SUMMARY... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee will be renewed for a two- year period beginning...

  19. 78 FR 6087 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy... Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat.... Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown...

  20. 78 FR 77111 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy... to the Director, Office of Science on the biological and environmental research programs..., notice is hereby given that the Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee will be renewed...

  1. 78 FR 34088 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Office of Biological and Environmental Research News from the Biological Systems Science and Climate and... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy..., Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown Building, 1000...

  2. 75 FR 53685 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Doc No: 2010-21673] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee... announces a meeting of the Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC). The Federal.... Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23/Germantown...

  3. 76 FR 57028 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy; Office of Science... Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat....S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, SC-23...

  4. Epidemiology of Inhalant Abuse: An Update. NIDA Research Monograph 85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crider, Raquel A., Ed.; Rouse, Beatrice A., Ed.

    This publication consists of papers and discussion from a comprehensive RAUS (Research Analysis and Utilization System) review focusing on factors relating to a multi-year increase in inhalant abuse among high school seniors. The document contains the following articles: (1) "Inhalant Overview" (Raquel A. Crider and Beatrice A. Rouse);…

  5. Toward Rigorous Data Harmonization in Cancer Epidemiology Research: One Approach.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Betsy; Reid, Suzanna; Stelling, Deanna; Warnick, Greg; Thornquist, Mark; Feng, Ziding; Potter, John D

    2015-12-15

    Cancer epidemiologists have a long history of combining data sets in pooled analyses, often harmonizing heterogeneous data from multiple studies into 1 large data set. Although there are useful websites on data harmonization with recommendations and support, there is little research on best practices in data harmonization; each project conducts harmonization according to its own internal standards. The field would be greatly served by charting the process of data harmonization to enhance the quality of the harmonized data. Here, we describe the data harmonization process utilized at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (Seattle, Washington) by the coordinating centers of several research projects. We describe a 6-step harmonization process, including: 1) identification of questions the harmonized data set is required to answer; 2) identification of high-level data concepts to answer those questions; 3) assessment of data availability for data concepts; 4) development of common data elements for each data concept; 5) mapping and transformation of individual data points to common data elements; and 6) quality-control procedures. Our aim here is not to claim a "correct" way of doing data harmonization but to encourage others to describe their processes in order that we can begin to create rigorous approaches. We also propose a research agenda around this issue. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Environmental and occupational health research and training needs in Colombia: A Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura A.; González, Beatriz Elena; Vera, Lina María; Patz, Jonathan; Bautista, Leonelo E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Environmental factors contribute with 16% of the burden of disease in Colombia. A main obstacle in implementing national and regional environmental and occupational health policies is the limited knowledge on the local ability to study and control the impact of harmful exposures on health. Objective To identify needs for research and training in environmental and occupational health in Colombia. Materials and methods We conducted a three-round hybrid Delphi study. A group of environmental and occupational health Colombian experts (n=16) from government agencies, universities, and research centers was recruited to participate in the study. Expert’s opinions on research and training needs were gathered through online questionnaires, followed by an in-person meeting. The percentage of agreement and the coefficient of variation were used to measure consensus. Results Air pollution and chemical products were considered the most important environmental and occupational exposures, due to their significant impact on chronic non-communicable diseases, such as respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Research on the effects of outdoor air pollution on cardiovascular and respiratory diseases was considered of the greatest importance. Priority training areas included environmental and occupational health risk assessment, exposure modeling, advanced statistical methods, urban planning, occupational safety and hygiene, and epidemiology and toxicology. Conclusions These findings provide a valuable input for the definition and implementation of national environmental and occupational health policies and for the development of a regional hub aimed at strengthening the capacity for research and training in Colombia. PMID:26535742

  7. Environmental and occupational health research and training needs in Colombia: A Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura A; González, Beatriz Elena; Vera, Lina María; Patz, Jonathan; Bautista, Leonelo E

    2015-08-01

    Environmental factors contribute with 16% of the burden of disease in Colombia. A main obstacle in implementing national and regional environmental and occupational health policies is the limited knowledge on the local ability to study and control the impact of harmful exposures on health. To identify needs for research and training in environmental and occupational health in Colombia. We conducted a three-round hybrid Delphi study. A group of environmental and occupational health Colombian experts (n=16) from government agencies, universities, and research centers was recruited to participate in the study. Expert´s opinions on research and training needs were gathered through online questionnaires, followed by an in-person meeting. The percentage of agreement and the coefficient of variation were used to measure consensus. Air pollution and chemical products were considered the most important environmental and occupational exposures, due to their significant impact on chronic non-communicable diseases, such as respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Research on the effects of outdoor air pollution on cardiovascular and respiratory diseases was considered of the greatest importance. Priority training areas included environmental and occupational health risk assessment, exposure modeling, advanced statistical methods, urban planning, occupational safety and hygiene, and epidemiology and toxicology. These findings provide a valuable input for the definition and implementation of national environmental and occupational health policies and for the development of a regional hub aimed at strengthening the capacity for research and training in Colombia.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of environmental MRSA at an equine teaching hospital: introduction, circulation and maintenance.

    PubMed

    van Balen, Joany; Mowery, Jade; Piraino-Sandoval, Micha; Nava-Hoet, Rocio C; Kohn, Catherine; Hoet, Armando E

    2014-03-19

    The role that environmental contamination might play as a reservoir and a possible source of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for patients and personnel at equine veterinary hospitals remains undefined, as the environment has only been monitored during outbreaks or for short periods. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the monthly presence, distribution, and characteristics of environmental MRSA at an equine hospital, and to establish patterns of contamination over time using molecular epidemiological analyses. For this purpose, a yearlong active MRSA surveillance was performed targeting the environment and incoming patients. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, SCCmec typing, PFGE typing, and dendrographic analysis were used to characterize and analyze these isolates. Overall, 8.6% of the surfaces and 5.8% of the horses sampled were positive for MRSA. The most common contaminated surfaces were: computers, feed-water buckets, and surgery tables-mats. Ninety percent of the isolates carried SCCmec type IV, and 62.0% were classified as USA500. Molecular analysis showed that new pulsotypes were constantly introduced into the hospital throughout the year. However, maintenance of strains in the environment was also observed when unique clones were detected for 2 consecutive months on the same surfaces. Additionally, pulsotypes were circulating throughout several areas and different contact surfaces of the hospital. Based on these results, it is evident that MRSA is constantly introduced and frequently found in the equine hospital environment, and that some contact surfaces could act as "hot-spots". These contaminated surfaces should be actively targeted for strict cleaning and disinfection as well as regular monitoring.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of environmental MRSA at an equine teaching hospital: introduction, circulation and maintenance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The role that environmental contamination might play as a reservoir and a possible source of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for patients and personnel at equine veterinary hospitals remains undefined, as the environment has only been monitored during outbreaks or for short periods. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the monthly presence, distribution, and characteristics of environmental MRSA at an equine hospital, and to establish patterns of contamination over time using molecular epidemiological analyses. For this purpose, a yearlong active MRSA surveillance was performed targeting the environment and incoming patients. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, SCCmec typing, PFGE typing, and dendrographic analysis were used to characterize and analyze these isolates. Overall, 8.6% of the surfaces and 5.8% of the horses sampled were positive for MRSA. The most common contaminated surfaces were: computers, feed-water buckets, and surgery tables-mats. Ninety percent of the isolates carried SCCmec type IV, and 62.0% were classified as USA500. Molecular analysis showed that new pulsotypes were constantly introduced into the hospital throughout the year. However, maintenance of strains in the environment was also observed when unique clones were detected for 2 consecutive months on the same surfaces. Additionally, pulsotypes were circulating throughout several areas and different contact surfaces of the hospital. Based on these results, it is evident that MRSA is constantly introduced and frequently found in the equine hospital environment, and that some contact surfaces could act as “hot-spots”. These contaminated surfaces should be actively targeted for strict cleaning and disinfection as well as regular monitoring. PMID:24641543

  10. An Updated Review of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Clinical, Epidemiological, Environmental, and Public Health Management.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Melissa A; Fernandez, Mercedes; Backer, Lorraine C; Dickey, Robert W; Bernstein, Jeffrey; Schrank, Kathleen; Kibler, Steven; Stephan, Wendy; Gribble, Matthew O; Bienfang, Paul; Bowen, Robert E; Degrasse, Stacey; Flores Quintana, Harold A; Loeffler, Christopher R; Weisman, Richard; Blythe, Donna; Berdalet, Elisa; Ayyar, Ram; Clarkson-Townsend, Danielle; Swajian, Karen; Benner, Ronald; Brewer, Tom; Fleming, Lora E

    2017-03-14

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world. It causes substantial human health, social, and economic impacts. The illness produces a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms, which may last days, weeks, or months. This paper is a general review of CFP including the human health effects of exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs), diagnosis, human pathophysiology of CFP, treatment, detection of CTXs in fish, epidemiology of the illness, global dimensions, prevention, future directions, and recommendations for clinicians and patients. It updates and expands upon the previous review of CFP published by Friedman et al. (2008) and addresses new insights and relevant emerging global themes such as climate and environmental change, international market issues, and socioeconomic impacts of CFP. It also provides a proposed universal case definition for CFP designed to account for the variability in symptom presentation across different geographic regions. Information that is important but unchanged since the previous review has been reiterated. This article is intended for a broad audience, including resource and fishery managers, commercial and recreational fishers, public health officials, medical professionals, and other interested parties.

  11. Mortality patterns of rock and slag mineral wool production workers: an epidemiological and environmental study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, C F; Dement, J M; Ness, G O; Waxweiler, R J

    1982-02-01

    An epidemiological and environmental study of rock and slag mineral wool production workers was undertaken at a plant that has been in operation since the early 1900s. Size characteristics of fibres produced by each process at the plant and data from industrial hygiene surveys were used to evaluate current and past exposures. These data suggest that the average historical airborne fibre concentration probably did not exceed 2.5 fibres/cc before 1935 and 1.0 fibre/cc after 1935. A retrospective cohort mortality study was designed to assess mortality patterns. Detailed occupational histories were compiled on all plant employees. All jobs in the plant were assigned to one of eight potential exposure categories to assess the extent and severity of mineral wool exposure and the effect of other significant exposures on employee mortality. Findings included an increase in the number of deaths due to cancer of the digestive system and non-malignant respiratory disease among workers who had over 20 years' exposure to mineral wool or who had survived 20 years since their first exposure to mineral wool. These findings are not inconsistent with those of Enterline's (Symposium on Biological Effects of Mineral Fibres, Lyon, France, September 1979) in the Thermal Insulation Manufacturers' Association's mortality study of men employed in four mineral wool plants.

  12. Environmental drivers of West Nile fever epidemiology in Europe and Western Asia--a review.

    PubMed

    Paz, Shlomit; Semenza, Jan C

    2013-08-09

    Abiotic and biotic conditions are both important determinants of West Nile Fever (WNF) epidemiology. Ambient temperature plays an important role in the growth rates of vector populations, the interval between blood meals, viral replication rates and transmission of West Nile Virus (WNV). The contribution of precipitation is more complex and less well understood. In this paper we discuss impacts of climatic parameters (temperature, relative humidity, precipitation) and other environmental drivers (such as bird migration, land use) on WNV transmission in Europe. WNV recently became established in southeastern Europe, with a large outbreak in the summer of 2010 and recurrent outbreaks in 2011 and 2012. Abundant competent mosquito vectors, bridge vectors, infected (viremic) migrating and local (amplifying) birds are all important characteristics of WNV transmission. In addition, certain key climatic factors, such as increased ambient temperatures, and by extension climate change, may also favor WNF transmission, and they should be taken into account when evaluating the risk of disease spread in the coming years. Monitoring epidemic precursors of WNF, such as significant temperature deviations in high risk areas, could be used to trigger vector control programs and public education campaigns.

  13. Mortality patterns of rock and slag mineral wool production workers: an epidemiological and environmental study.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, C F; Dement, J M; Ness, G O; Waxweiler, R J

    1982-01-01

    An epidemiological and environmental study of rock and slag mineral wool production workers was undertaken at a plant that has been in operation since the early 1900s. Size characteristics of fibres produced by each process at the plant and data from industrial hygiene surveys were used to evaluate current and past exposures. These data suggest that the average historical airborne fibre concentration probably did not exceed 2.5 fibres/cc before 1935 and 1.0 fibre/cc after 1935. A retrospective cohort mortality study was designed to assess mortality patterns. Detailed occupational histories were compiled on all plant employees. All jobs in the plant were assigned to one of eight potential exposure categories to assess the extent and severity of mineral wool exposure and the effect of other significant exposures on employee mortality. Findings included an increase in the number of deaths due to cancer of the digestive system and non-malignant respiratory disease among workers who had over 20 years' exposure to mineral wool or who had survived 20 years since their first exposure to mineral wool. These findings are not inconsistent with those of Enterline's (Symposium on Biological Effects of Mineral Fibres, Lyon, France, September 1979) in the Thermal Insulation Manufacturers' Association's mortality study of men employed in four mineral wool plants. PMID:6279138

  14. Clinical, epidemiologic, and environmental surveillance for ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in an endemic area of northern California.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Curtis L; Bronson, Lawrence R; Smith, Charles R; Crawford-Miksza, Leta; Yeh, Elaine; Schnurr, David

    2005-06-01

    Two forms of tick-borne leukocytotropic rickettsioses have been recognized in California since the mid-1990s: human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Between 1997 and 1999, two cases of HME and four cases of HGA were diagnosed in residents of southern Humboldt County, California. Environmental followup at case-patients' residences revealed dense populations of Ixodes pacificus ticks, particularly in grassy roadside areas. PCR evidence of A. phagocytophilum was detected in approximately 2.0% of I. pacificus; E. chaffeensis was not detected in any of 625 ticks tested. Serologic antibody to A. phagocytophilum was detected in two of 54 participants in a community epidemiologic study; one of these also had antibody to E. chaffeensis. Over 85% of study participants reported finding a tick on themselves in the preceding 12 mo. Residents of southern Humboldt County are at significant risk of tick bites and should take appropriate prevention measures to avoid infection with rickettsia and other tick-transmitted pathogens.

  15. Geometrical assessment of ocular exposure to environmental UV radiation--implications for ophthalmic epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Sliney, D H

    1999-12-01

    Epidemiological studies of the influence of environmental ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in the development of cataract, pterygium, droplet keratopathies and age-related macular degeneration have produced inconsistent findings. The lack of consistent results may be due largely to either incomplete or erroneous estimates of outdoor UV exposure dose. Geometrical factors dominate the determination of UVR exposure of the eye. The degree of lid opening limits ocular exposure to only those rays entering at angles near the horizon. Clouds redistribute overhead UVR to the horizon sky. Mountains, trees and building shield the eye from direct sky exposure. Most ground surfaces reflect little UVR. The result is that the highest UVR exposure occurs during light overcast where the horizon is visible and ground surface reflection is high. By contrast, exposure in a high mountain valley with green foliage results in a much lower ocular dose. Other findings of these studies show that retinal exposure to light and UVR in daylight occurs largely in the superior retina.

  16. An Updated Review of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Clinical, Epidemiological, Environmental, and Public Health Management

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Melissa A.; Fernandez, Mercedes; Backer, Lorraine C.; Dickey, Robert W.; Bernstein, Jeffrey; Schrank, Kathleen; Kibler, Steven; Stephan, Wendy; Gribble, Matthew O.; Bienfang, Paul; Bowen, Robert E.; Degrasse, Stacey; Flores Quintana, Harold A.; Loeffler, Christopher R.; Weisman, Richard; Blythe, Donna; Berdalet, Elisa; Ayyar, Ram; Clarkson-Townsend, Danielle; Swajian, Karen; Benner, Ronald; Brewer, Tom; Fleming, Lora E.

    2017-01-01

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world. It causes substantial human health, social, and economic impacts. The illness produces a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms, which may last days, weeks, or months. This paper is a general review of CFP including the human health effects of exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs), diagnosis, human pathophysiology of CFP, treatment, detection of CTXs in fish, epidemiology of the illness, global dimensions, prevention, future directions, and recommendations for clinicians and patients. It updates and expands upon the previous review of CFP published by Friedman et al. (2008) and addresses new insights and relevant emerging global themes such as climate and environmental change, international market issues, and socioeconomic impacts of CFP. It also provides a proposed universal case definition for CFP designed to account for the variability in symptom presentation across different geographic regions. Information that is important but unchanged since the previous review has been reiterated. This article is intended for a broad audience, including resource and fishery managers, commercial and recreational fishers, public health officials, medical professionals, and other interested parties. PMID:28335428

  17. Illicit drug use research in Latin America: epidemiology service use, and HIV.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Magaña, Cristina G; Vega, William A; Alejo-Garcia, Christina; Quintanar, Tania Real; Vazquez, Lucía; Ballesteros, Patricia D; Ibarra, Juan; Rosales, Heidi

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the research status of illicit drug use and its data sources in Latin America, with particular attention to the research that has been produced in the past 15 years in epidemiology of illicit drug use services utilization, and relationship between HIV and drug use. This article complements the series of articles that are published in this same volume which examine drug abuse research (epidemiology, prevention, and treatment) and HIV prevention in Latinos residing in the United States. This review resulted from extensive international and national searches using the following databases: Current Contents Connect, Social and Behavioral Sciences; EBSCO; EMBASE(R) Psychiatry; Evidence Based Medicine (through OVID); Medline, Neurosciences, PsychINFO, Pubmed, BIREME/PAHO/WHO--Virtual Health Library, and SciELO. Papers selected for further review included those published in Spanish, English, and Portuguese in peer-reviewed journals. From the evidence reviewed, it was found that the published research literature is heavily concentrated on descriptive epidemiologic surveys, providing primarily prevalence rates and general information on associated factors. Evidence on patterns of service delivery and HIV prevention and treatment is limited. The cumulative scope of this research clearly indicates variability in quantity and quality of research across Latin American nations and the need for greater uniformity in data collection elements, methodologies, and the creation of international collaborative research networks.

  18. [Contribution of epidemiology to etiological research in psychiatry: from risk factors to risk mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Fombonne, E

    1993-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, the burgeoning of psychiatric epidemiology has generated a considerable knowledge base on the prevalence and incidence of psychiatric disorders. For most disorders, risk factor research has also led to the identification of vulnerability factors in the genetic, biological, psychological and social arenas. However, the delineation of psychopathological mechanisms requires a better understanding of the developmental connexions and sequences of intervention of the postulated risk factors. Similarly, psychopathological models should benefit from the study of protective influences and processes. The importance of longitudinal approaches to the study of causation in psychopathology is emphasized. While future research endeavors need to be theory-driven and to rely on more sophisticated measurement strategies, etiological research in psychiatry will continue to benefit from the range of research methods provided by epidemiology.

  19. “White Box” Epidemiology and the Social Neuroscience of Health Behaviors: The Environmental Affordances Model

    PubMed Central

    Mezuk, Briana; Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Hudson, Darrell; Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Rafferty, Jane A.; Lee, Hedwig; Jackson, James S.

    2013-01-01

    Crucial advances have been made in our knowledge of the social determinants of health and health behaviors. Existing research on health disparities, however, generally fails to address a known paradox in the literature: While blacks have higher risk of medical morbidity relative to non-Hispanic whites, blacks have lower rates of common stress-related forms of psychopathology such as major depression and anxiety disorders. In this article we propose a new theoretical approach, the Environmental Affordances Model, as an integrative framework for the origins of both physical and mental health disparities. We highlight early empirical support and a growing body of experimental animal and human research on self-regulatory health behaviors and stress coping that is consistent with the proposed framework. We conclude that transdisciplinary approaches, such as the Environmental Affordances Model, are needed to understand the origins of group-based disparities to implement effective solutions to racial and ethnic group inequalities in physical and mental health. PMID:24224131

  20. European Birth Cohorts for Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Maribel; Bergström, Anna; Carmichael, Amanda; Cordier, Sylvaine; Eggesbø, Merete; Eller, Esben; Fantini, Maria P.; Fernández, Mariana F.; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Hohmann, Cynthia; Karvonen, Anne M.; Keil, Thomas; Kogevinas, Manolis; Koppen, Gudrun; Krämer, Ursula; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Magnus, Per; Majewska, Renata; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Patelarou, Evridiki; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Pierik, Frank H.; Polanska, Kinga; Porta, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Santos, Ana Cristina; Slama, Rémy; Sram, Radim J.; Thijs, Carel; Tischer, Christina; Toft, Gunnar; Trnovec, Tomáš; Vandentorren, Stephanie; Vrijkotte, Tanja G.M.; Wilhelm, Michael; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning. Objectives: Our goal was to create a comprehensive overview of European birth cohorts with environmental exposure data. Methods: Birth cohort studies were included if they a) collected data on at least one environmental exposure, b) started enrollment during pregnancy or at birth, c) included at least one follow-up point after birth, d) included at least 200 mother–child pairs, and e) were based in a European country. A questionnaire collected information on basic protocol details and exposure and health outcome assessments, including specific contaminants, methods and samples, timing, and number of subjects. A full inventory can be searched on www.birthcohortsenrieco.net. Results: Questionnaires were completed by 37 cohort studies of > 350,000 mother–child pairs in 19 European countries. Only three cohorts did not participate. All cohorts collected biological specimens of children or parents. Many cohorts collected information on passive smoking (n = 36), maternal occupation (n = 33), outdoor air pollution (n = 27), and allergens/biological organisms (n = 27). Fewer cohorts (n = 12–19) collected information on water contamination, ionizing or nonionizing radiation exposures, noise, metals, persistent organic pollutants, or other pollutants. All cohorts have information on birth outcomes; nearly all on asthma, allergies, childhood growth and obesity; and 26 collected information on child neurodevelopment. Conclusion: Combining forces in this field will yield more efficient and conclusive studies and ultimately improve causal inference. This impressive resource of existing birth cohort data could form the basis for longer-term and worldwide coordination of research on environment and child health. PMID

  1. Attitudes of pregnant women towards participation in perinatal epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Nechuta, Sarah; Mudd, Lanay M; Biery, Lynette; Elliott, Michael R; Lepkowski, James M; Paneth, Nigel

    2009-09-01

    We assessed attitudes of a multi-ethnic sample of pregnant women in regard to participation in five data collection procedures planned for use in the National Children's Study. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in nine prenatal clinics in Kent County, Michigan between April and October 2006. Women were approached in clinic waiting rooms at the time of their first prenatal visit and 311 (91.0%) participated. Women were asked about their willingness to participate, and the smallest amount of compensation required for participation in a 45-min in-person interview, a 15-min telephone interview, maternal and infant medical record abstraction, and an infant physical examination. Percentages for willingness to participate were highest for telephone interview (83%), followed by in-person interview (60%), infant examination (57%), and maternal (56%) and infant medical records (54%). About 34-48% of women reported that no compensation would be required for participation by data procedure. Some women reported unwillingness to participate in telephone (9%) or personal (17%) interview, record abstraction (34%) or infant examination (26%), even with compensation. Education greater than high school was associated with increased odds of refusal for infant physical examination, adjusted odds ratio 2.44 [95% confidence interval 1.41, 4.23]. In conclusion, 9-34% of pregnant women, depending on procedure, stated they would not participate in non-invasive research procedures such as medical record abstraction and infant examination, even with compensation. Resistance to these research procedures was especially noted among more highly educated women. Planning for the National Children's Study will have to address potential resistance to research among pregnant women.

  2. Malaria epidemiological research in the Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Koukouikila-Koussounda, Felix; Ntoumi, Francine

    2016-12-23

    Reliable and comprehensive information on the burden of malaria is critical for guiding national and international efforts in malaria control. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of published data and available information on malaria resulting from field studies/investigations conducted in the Republic of Congo (RoC) from 1992 to 2015, as baseline for assisting public health authorities and researchers to define future research priorities as well as interventions. This review considers data from peer-reviewed articles and information from the National Malaria Control Programme reports, based on field investigations or samples collected from 1992 to 2015. Peer-reviewed papers were searched throughout online bibliographic databases PubMed, HINARI and Google Scholar using the following terms: "malaria", "Congo", "Brazzaville", "prevalence", "antimalarial", "efficacy", "falciparum", "genetic", "diversity". Original articles and reviews were included and selection of relevant papers was made. Twenty-eight published articles were included in this review and two additional records from the National Malaria Control Programme were also considered. The majority of studies were conducted in Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire. The present systematic review reveals that number of studies have been conducted in the RoC with regard to malaria. However, their results cannot formally be generalized at the country level. This suggests a need for implementing regular multisite investigations and surveys that may be representative of the country, calling for the support and lead of the Ministry of Health.

  3. Meteorological, environmental remote sensing and neural network analysis of the epidemiology of malaria transmission in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Soika, Valerii; Nigro, Joseph; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Leemingsawat, Somjai; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn; Looareesuwan, Sornchai

    2006-11-01

    In many malarious regions malaria transmission roughly coincides with rainy seasons, which provide for more abundant larval habitats. In addition to precipitation, other meteorological and environmental factors may also influence malaria transmission. These factors can be remotely sensed using earth observing environmental satellites and estimated with seasonal climate forecasts. The use of remote sensing usage as an early warning tool for malaria epidemics have been broadly studied in recent years, especially for Africa, where the majority of the world's malaria occurs. Although the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), which includes Thailand and the surrounding countries, is an epicenter of multidrug resistant falciparum malaria, the meteorological and environmental factors affecting malaria transmissions in the GMS have not been examined in detail. In this study, the parasitological data used consisted of the monthly malaria epidemiology data at the provincial level compiled by the Thai Ministry of Public Health. Precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and vegetation index obtained from both climate time series and satellite measurements were used as independent variables to model malaria. We used neural network methods, an artificial-intelligence technique, to model the dependency of malaria transmission on these variables. The average training accuracy of the neural network analysis for three provinces (Kanchanaburi, Mae Hong Son, and Tak) which are among the provinces most endemic for malaria, is 72.8% and the average testing accuracy is 62.9% based on the 1994-1999 data. A more complex neural network architecture resulted in higher training accuracy but also lower testing accuracy. Taking into account of the uncertainty regarding reported malaria cases, we divided the malaria cases into bands (classes) to compute training accuracy. Using the same neural network architecture on the 19 most endemic provinces for years 1994 to 2000, the mean training accuracy

  4. Canadian Association for Immunization Research and Evaluation (CAIRE) guidelines for industry-sponsored clinical trial and epidemiology contract research.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Scott A; Scheifele, David; Duval, Bernard; Law, Barbara; Ward, Brian; Bjornson, Gordean; Halperin, Beth; Skowronski, Danuta; King, Arlene; Hammond, Greg; Dobson, Simon; Tamblyn, Susan; Wang, Elaine; Lavigne, Pierre; Danzig, Lisa; Elrick, Donald; Carnan, Elspeth; Mansi, James; Bertrand, Francoise; Palkonyay, Laszlo; Clements, Gail; Maresky, Neil; Wortzman, David

    2005-01-01

    In response to concerns about interactions of academic and public health investigators with industry, the Canadian Association for Immunization Research and Evaluation (CAIRE), in collaboration with six major vaccine manufacturers, developed guidelines for participation in industry-sponsored clinical trial and epidemiology contract research within Canada. Topics addressed include definition of investigators, data ownership, protocol development, data management, data analysis, producing a study report and publication of the results of the study.

  5. 40 CFR 18.3 - Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.3 Section 18.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.3 Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Environmental Protection...

  6. 40 CFR 18.3 - Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.3 Section 18.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.3 Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Environmental Protection...

  7. 40 CFR 18.3 - Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.3 Section 18.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.3 Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Environmental Protection...

  8. 40 CFR 18.3 - Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.3 Section 18.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.3 Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Environmental Protection...

  9. Knowledge in process? Exploring barriers between epidemiological research and local health policy development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the Netherlands municipalities are legally required to draw up a Local Health Policy Memorandum every four years. This policy memorandum should be based on (local) epidemiological research as performed by the Regional Health Services. However, it is largely unknown if and in what way epidemiological research is used during local policy development. As part of a larger study on knowledge utilization at the local level in The Netherlands, an analytical framework on the use of epidemiological research in local health policy development in the Netherlands is presented here. Method Based on a literature search and a short inventory on experiences from Regional Health Services, we made a description of existing research utilization models and concepts about research utilization. Subsequently we mapped different barriers in research transmission. Results The interaction model is regarded as the main explanatory model. It acknowledges the interactive and incremental nature of policy development, which takes place in a context and includes diversity within the groups of researchers and policymakers. This fits well in the dynamic and complex setting of local Dutch health policy. For the conceptual framework we propose a network approach, in which we "extend" the interaction model. We not only focus on the one-to-one relation between an individual researcher and policymaker but include interactions between several actors participating in the research and policy process. In this model interaction between actors in the research and the policy network is expected to improve research utilization. Interaction can obstruct or promote four clusters of barriers between research and policy: expectations, transfer issues, acceptance, and interpretation. These elements of interactions and barriers provide an actual explanation of research utilization. Research utilization itself can be measured on the individual level of actors and on a policy process level. Conclusion The

  10. Four Universities: Achieving Environmental Quality through Environmental Education and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Ralph W., Jr., Ed.; Nash, Roderick, Ed.

    Five universities receiving aid from the Rockefeller Foundation are discussed. The American University has had difficulty initially interdisciplinary environmental studies. Problems include insufficient financial independence, autonomous faculty nature, seniority system, students, and departmental structure. Penn State's efforts involve…

  11. [Evolution of epidemiological methods in clinical research in Spain (1975-1994)].

    PubMed

    Aibar Remón, C; Rabanaque, M J; Alvarez-Dardet, C; Nolasco, A; Moncho, J; Gascón, E

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a sparing utilization of analytical and experimental designs in Spanish clinical research journals. The study aims are to compare among countries, the use of epidemiologic method in articles published in scientific journals, and to determine the extent to which this research has direct funding. Cross-sectional study including all original papers published during 1994 in Medicina Clinica [(Med Clin (Barc)], Revista Clinica Española (Rev Clin Esp), The Lancet (Lancet) and New England Journal of Medicine (N Engl J Med). They were classified according to epidemiological design and we verified the financial support mention. 594 papers were included. Epidemiological studies without control group prevailed in Spanish journals. The most common designs were descriptive studies in Med Clin (Barc), with 45.5%, and clinical series in Rev Clin Esp, with 41.7%. The 33.6% of original papers published in Lancet and 28.4% of N England J Med were randomized trials. We found information about financial support in 73.7% of papers published in Lancet, in 77.4% of N Engl J Med, in 23.1% of Med Clin (Barc) papers and not one in the Rev Clin Esp studies. In Spanish clinical journals the use of epidemiological methods with control group is limited and direct financial support unusual. Wherefore these studies have a limited applicability.

  12. Electronic data collection in epidemiological research. The use of REDCap in the Pelotas birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Blumenberg, Cauane; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2016-07-13

    This paper describes the use of Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) to conduct one of the follow-up waves of the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort. The aim is to point out the advantages and limitations of using this electronic data capture environment to collect data and control every step of a longitudinal epidemiological research, specially in terms of time savings and data quality. We used REDCap as the main tool to support the conduction of a birth cohort follow-up. By exploiting several REDCap features, we managed to schedule assessments, collect data, and control the study workflow. To enhance data quality, we developed specific reports and field validations to depict inconsistencies in real time. Using REDCap it was possible to investigate more variables without significant increases on the data collection time, when comparing to a previous birth cohort follow-up. In addition, better data quality was achieved since negligible out of range errors and no validation or missing inconsistencies were identified after applying over 7,000 interviews. Adopting electronic data capture solutions, such as REDCap, in epidemiological research can bring several advantages over traditional paper-based data collection methods. In favor of improving their features, more research groups should migrate from paper to electronic-based epidemiological research.

  13. Biological and Environmental Research Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Balaji, V.; Boden, Tom; Cowley, Dave; Dart, Eli; Dattoria, Vince; Desai, Narayan; Egan, Rob; Foster, Ian; Goldstone, Robin; Gregurick, Susan; Houghton, John; Izaurralde, Cesar; Johnston, Bill; Joseph, Renu; Kleese-van Dam, Kerstin; Lipton, Mary; Monga, Inder; Pritchard, Matt; Rotman, Lauren; Strand, Gary; Stuart, Cory; Tatusova, Tatiana; Tierney, Brian; Thomas, Brian; Williams, Dean N.; Zurawski, Jason

    2013-09-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In November 2012, ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the BER program office. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1) The scale of data sets available to science collaborations continues to increase exponentially. This has broad impact, both on the network and on the computational and storage systems connected to the network. 2) Many science collaborations require assistance to cope with the systems and network engineering challenges inherent in managing the rapid growth in data scale. 3) Several science domains operate distributed facilities that rely on high-performance networking for success. Key examples illustrated in this report include the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and the Systems Biology Knowledgebase (KBase). This report expands on these points, and addresses others as well. The report contains a findings section as well as the text of the case studies discussed at the review.

  14. Why Ontology Matters to Reviewing Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila

    2009-01-01

    This paper responds to a keynote paper presented by William Scott at the 2007 World Environmental Education Congress held in Durban, South Africa. The keynote address reviewed 30 years of environmental education research. In this response to William Scott's paper I contemplate the way in which environmental education research may enable…

  15. Environmental Education Research: 30 Years on from Tbilisi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, William

    2009-01-01

    This article is a transcript of the author's Keynote Address to the Fourth World Environmental Education Congress, Durban, July 2007. He has been asked to speak about environmental education research since Tbilisi, to explore what environmental education researchers might learn from this work, and look ahead to the challenges that now face them as…

  16. Environmental Education Research: 30 Years on from Tbilisi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, William

    2009-01-01

    This article is a transcript of the author's Keynote Address to the Fourth World Environmental Education Congress, Durban, July 2007. He has been asked to speak about environmental education research since Tbilisi, to explore what environmental education researchers might learn from this work, and look ahead to the challenges that now face them as…

  17. Why Ontology Matters to Reviewing Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila

    2009-01-01

    This paper responds to a keynote paper presented by William Scott at the 2007 World Environmental Education Congress held in Durban, South Africa. The keynote address reviewed 30 years of environmental education research. In this response to William Scott's paper I contemplate the way in which environmental education research may enable…

  18. Conceptualization and measurement of environmental exposure in epidemiology: accounting for activity space related to daily mobility.

    PubMed

    Perchoux, Camille; Chaix, Basile; Cummins, Steven; Kestens, Yan

    2013-05-01

    A considerable body of literature has investigated how environmental exposures affect health through various pathways. These studies have generally adopted a common approach to define environmental exposures, focusing on the local residential environment, using census tracts or postcodes to delimit exposures. However, use of such administrative units may not be appropriate to evaluate contextual effets on health because they are generally not a 'true' representation of the environments to which individuals are exposed. Recent work has suggested that advances may be made if an activity-space approach is adopted. The present paper investigates how various disciplines may contribute to the refinement of the concept of activity space for use in health research. In particular we draw on seminal work in time geography, which provides a framework to describe individual behavior in space and time, and can help the conceptualization of activity space. In addition we review work in environmental psychology and social networks research, which provides insights on how people and places interact and offers new theories for improving the spatial definition of contextual exposures.

  19. HUMAN HEALTH RESEARCH IMPLEMENTATION PLAN, NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), as part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Office of Research and Development (ORD), is responsible for conducting research to improve the risk assessment of chemicals for potential effects ...

  20. Assessment of cold-climate environmental research priorities

    SciTech Connect

    States, J.B.

    1983-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has consistently recognized that cold regions pose unique environmental problems. This report sets forth the conceptual framework and research plans for several high priority research areas. It provides the fundamental basis for implementation of the EPA Cold-Climate Environmental Research Program. This three- to five-year program encompasses both short- and long-term research of high relevance to the EPA and to the cold regions that it serves.

  1. Epidemiologic Features and Environmental Risk Factors of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome, Xinyang, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kun; Cui, Ning; Fang, Li-Qun; Wang, Bing-Jun; Lu, Qing-Bin; Peng, Wei; Li, Hao; Wang, Li-Yuan; Liang, Song; Wang, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Yao-Yun; Zhuang, Lu; Yang, Hong; Gray, Gregory C.; de Vlas, Sake J.; Liu, Wei; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease discovered in rural areas of Central China in 2009, caused by a novel bunyavirus, SFTS virus (SFTSV). The disease usually presents as fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytopenia, with case-fatality rates ranging from 2.5% to 30%. Haemaphysalis longicornis was suspected to be the most likely vector of SFTSV. By the end of 2012, the disease had expanded to 13 provinces of China. SFTS patients have been reported in Japan and South Korea, and a disease similar to SFTS has been reported in the United States. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized the epidemiologic features of 504 confirmed SFTS cases in Xinyang Region, the most severely SFTS-afflicted region in China from 2011 to 2012, and assessed the environmental risk factors. All cases occurred during March to November, with the epidemic peaking from May to July. The patients' ages ranged from 7 to 87 years (median 61 years), and the annual incidence increased with age (χ2 test for trend, P<0.001). The female-to-male ratio of cases was 1.58, and 97.0% of the cases were farmers who resided in the southern and western parts of the region. The Poisson regression analysis revealed that the spatial variations of SFTS incidence were significantly associated with the shrub, forest, and rain-fed cropland areas. Conclusions The distribution of SFTS showed highly significant temporal and spatial heterogeneity in Xinyang Region, with the majority of SFTS cases being elderly farmers who resided in the southern and western parts of the region, mostly acquiring infection between May and July when H. longicornis is highly active. The shrub, rain-fed, and rain-fed cropland areas were associated with high risk for this disease. PMID:24810269

  2. USE OF FOCUS GROUPS FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCHER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Qualitative research techniques are often under-utilized by the environmental health researcher. Focus groups, one such qualitative method, can provide rich data sets for study planning and implementation, risk perception, program and policy research, and exploration into future...

  3. USE OF FOCUS GROUPS FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCHER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Qualitative research techniques are often under-utilized by the environmental health researcher. Focus groups, one such qualitative method, can provide rich data sets for study planning and implementation, risk perception, program and policy research, and exploration into future...

  4. Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-positive patients in Spain: epidemiology and environmental risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Alvaro-Meca, Alejandro; Palomares-Sancho, Ines; Diaz, Asuncion; Resino, Rosa; De Miguel, Angel Gil; Resino, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Specific environmental factors may play a role in the development of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in HIV-positive patients. The aim of this study was to estimate the PCP incidence and mortality in hospitalized HIV-positive patients in Spain during the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era (1997 to 2011), as well as to analyze the climatological factors and air pollution levels in relation to hospital admissions and deaths. Methods We carried out a retrospective study. Data were collected from the National Hospital Discharge Database and the State Meteorological Agency of Spain. A case-crossover analysis was applied to identify environmental risk factors related to hospitalizations and deaths. For each patient, climatic factors and pollution levels were assigned based on readings from the nearest meteorological station to his or her postal code. Results There were 13,139 new PCP diagnoses and 1754 deaths in hospitalized HIV-positive patients from 1997 to 2011. The PCP incidence (events per 1000 person-years) dropped from 11.6 in 1997 to 2000, to 5.4 in 2004 to 2011 (p<0.001). The mortality (events per 10,000 person-years) also decreased from 14.3 in 1997 to 2000, to 7.5 in 2004 to 2011 (p<0.001). Most hospital admissions and deaths occurred in the winter season and the fewest occurred in the summer, overlapping respectively with the lowest and highest temperatures of the year in Spain. Moreover, lower temperatures prior to PCP admission, as well as higher concentrations of NO2 and particulate matter up to 10 m in size (PM10) at the time of admission were associated with higher likelihoods of hospital admission due to PCP when two weeks, one month, 1.5 months or two months were used as controls (p<0.01). Furthermore, higher concentrations of ozone at one month (p=0.007), 1.5 months (p<0.001) and two months (p=0.006) prior to admission were associated with higher likelihoods of hospital admission with PCP. For PCP-related deaths, lower

  5. USEPA RESEARCH ACTIVITIES TO CHARACTERIZE CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Given the vulnerability of children to effects from environmental exposures, understanding links between children's health and environmental exposures is critical. In recent years, significant research has been initiated at USEPA to characterize children's exposures.

  6. USEPA RESEARCH ACTIVITIES TO CHARACTERIZE CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Given the vulnerability of children to effects from environmental exposures, understanding links between children's health and environmental exposures is critical. In recent years, significant research has been initiated at USEPA to characterize children's exposures.

  7. Perineal talc use and ovarian cancer risk: a case study of scientific standards in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Huncharek, Michael; Muscat, Joshua

    2011-11-01

    A number of observational studies (largely case-control) conducted over the last two decades suggest an association between use of talc powders on the female perineum and increased risk of ovarian cancer. A subset of these reports shows a roughly 30-60% increased risk of ovarian cancer associated with perineal talc exposure. A number of researchers partly base their conclusions of an association on the '…chemical relationship between talc and asbestos', the latter substance being a known human carcinogen. Although separating causal from noncausal explanations for an observed statistical association is a difficult process, there currently exist commonly accepted guidelines by which such inferences can be made. These scientific approaches include consideration of the strength of the association, the consistency of the finding across studies, and existence of a biological explanation of the observed phenomenon, among others. When applied to the context of a proposed talc/ovarian cancer association, we conclude that the weak statistical associations observed in a number of epidemiological studies do not support a causal association.

  8. Environmental epidemiology: What's at stake: open issues and methodologies -- report from the 26th Annual Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE).

    PubMed

    Carugno, Michele

    2015-01-09

    At the end of last August, the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle welcomed over 1,100 attendees at the 26th Annual ISEE Conference - "From Local to Global: Advancing Science for Policy in Environmental Health"...

  9. Environmental futures research at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Olson

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little research on environmental futures has been carried out in the United States. An exception is the long-running futures research that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been conducting since the 1970s. This paper reviews past and current efforts toward developing a capacity for environmental foresight within the EPA, and discusses some...

  10. A novel framework for assessing metadata quality in epidemiological and public health research settings.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Christiana; Denaxas, Spiros

    2016-01-01

    Metadata are critical in epidemiological and public health research. However, a lack of biomedical metadata quality frameworks and limited awareness of the implications of poor quality metadata renders data analyses problematic. In this study, we created and evaluated a novel framework to assess metadata quality of epidemiological and public health research datasets. We performed a literature review and surveyed stakeholders to enhance our understanding of biomedical metadata quality assessment. The review identified 11 studies and nine quality dimensions; none of which were specifically aimed at biomedical metadata. 96 individuals completed the survey; of those who submitted data, most only assessed metadata quality sometimes, and eight did not at all. Our framework has four sections: a) general information; b) tools and technologies; c) usability; and d) management and curation. We evaluated the framework using three test cases and sought expert feedback. The framework can assess biomedical metadata quality systematically and robustly.

  11. A novel framework for assessing metadata quality in epidemiological and public health research settings

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Christiana; Denaxas, Spiros

    2016-01-01

    Metadata are critical in epidemiological and public health research. However, a lack of biomedical metadata quality frameworks and limited awareness of the implications of poor quality metadata renders data analyses problematic. In this study, we created and evaluated a novel framework to assess metadata quality of epidemiological and public health research datasets. We performed a literature review and surveyed stakeholders to enhance our understanding of biomedical metadata quality assessment. The review identified 11 studies and nine quality dimensions; none of which were specifically aimed at biomedical metadata. 96 individuals completed the survey; of those who submitted data, most only assessed metadata quality sometimes, and eight did not at all. Our framework has four sections: a) general information; b) tools and technologies; c) usability; and d) management and curation. We evaluated the framework using three test cases and sought expert feedback. The framework can assess biomedical metadata quality systematically and robustly. PMID:27570670

  12. Mental illness and reduction of gun violence and suicide: bringing epidemiologic research to policy

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jeffrey W.; McGinty, E. Elizabeth; Fazel, Seena; Mays, Vickie M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This article describes epidemiologic evidence concerning risk of gun violence and suicide linked to psychiatric disorders, in contrast to media-fueled public perceptions of the dangerousness of mentally ill individuals, and evaluates effectiveness of policies and laws designed to prevent firearms injury and mortality associated with serious mental illnesses and substance use disorders. Methods Research concerning public attitudes toward persons with mental illness is reviewed and juxtaposed with evidence from benchmark epidemiologic and clinical studies of violence and mental illness and of the accuracy of psychiatrists' risk assessments. Selected policies and laws designed to reduce gun violence in relation to mental illness are critically evaluated; evidence-based policy recommendations are presented. Results Media accounts of mass shootings by disturbed individuals galvanize public attention and reinforce popular belief that mental illness often results in violence. Epidemiologic studies show that the large majority of people with serious mental illnesses are never violent. However, mental illness is strongly associated with increased risk of suicide, which accounts for over half of US firearms–related fatalities. Conclusions Policymaking at the interface of gun violence prevention and mental illness should be based on epidemiologic data concerning risk to improve the effectiveness, feasibility, and fairness of policy initiatives. PMID:24861430

  13. Mental illness and reduction of gun violence and suicide: bringing epidemiologic research to policy.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; McGinty, E Elizabeth; Fazel, Seena; Mays, Vickie M

    2015-05-01

    This article describes epidemiologic evidence concerning risk of gun violence and suicide linked to psychiatric disorders, in contrast to media-fueled public perceptions of the dangerousness of mentally ill individuals, and evaluates effectiveness of policies and laws designed to prevent firearms injury and mortality associated with serious mental illnesses and substance use disorders. Research concerning public attitudes toward persons with mental illness is reviewed and juxtaposed with evidence from benchmark epidemiologic and clinical studies of violence and mental illness and of the accuracy of psychiatrists' risk assessments. Selected policies and laws designed to reduce gun violence in relation to mental illness are critically evaluated; evidence-based policy recommendations are presented. Media accounts of mass shootings by disturbed individuals galvanize public attention and reinforce popular belief that mental illness often results in violence. Epidemiologic studies show that the large majority of people with serious mental illnesses are never violent. However, mental illness is strongly associated with increased risk of suicide, which accounts for over half of US firearms-related fatalities. Policymaking at the interface of gun violence prevention and mental illness should be based on epidemiologic data concerning risk to improve the effectiveness, feasibility, and fairness of policy initiatives. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Judy D.

    2003-11-19

    The main objective of the Gordon Research Conference on Applied and Environmental Microbiology was to present and discuss new, fundamental research findings on microorganisms, their activities in the environment, their ecosystem-level effects, and their environmental or commercial applications. To accomplish this goal, knowledge of microbial diversity, interactions and population dynamics was required. The genomic basis of microbial processes, the cycling of naturally occurring and hazardous substances, and methodologies to assess the functional relationships of microorganisms in their habitats were essential for understanding the ecological consequences of microbial activities and the formulation of generalizing principles. In the last decade, molecular technology has revealed that microbial diversity is far more extensive than the limited view obtained from culturing procedures. Great advances in environmental microbiology have resulted from the development and application of molecular approaches to ecology and molecular evolution. A further surprise resulting from the application of these new tools is the blurring of the distinction between pathogenic traits versus those considered non-pathogenic. This year's conference addressed the issues of biodiversity, its development, and the impact of stress on gene selection and expression. In addition microbial metabolic versatility with toxins such as heavy metals, antibiotics, and organic pollutants were discussed. The nine session topics were (1) biodiversity and the bacterial species, (2) mechanisms of biodiversification, (3) biofilms in health and environment, (4) a genomic view of microbial response to stress, (5) microbial use of toxic metals, (6) microbial mineral formation and dissolution, (7) power and limitations of antimicrobials, (8) biodegradation of organic pollutants, and (9) astrobiology. The Conference had an international profile: the Conference Vice-Chair, Dr. Gerard Muyzer, was from The Nether lands

  15. Nanomaterials driven energy, environmental and biomedical research

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Prakash C.; Srinivasan, Sesha S.; Wilson, Jeremiah F.

    2014-03-31

    We have developed state-of-the-art nanomaterials such as nanofibers, nanotubes, nanoparticles, nanocatalysts and nanostructures for clean energy, environmental and biomedical research. Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed, but it can be converted from one form to another. Based on this principle, chemical energy such as hydrogen has been produced from water electrolysis at a much lower voltage using RuO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the Si wafer substrate. Once the hydrogen is produced from the clean sources such as solar energy and water, it has to be stored by physisorption or chemisorption processes on to the solid state systems. For the successful physical adsorption of hydrogen molecule, we have developed novel polyaniline nanostructures via chemical templating and electrospinning routes. Chemical or complex hydrides involving nano MgH{sub 2} and transition metal nanocatalysts have been synthesized to tailor both the thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrogen (chemi) sorption respectively. Utilization of solar energy (UV-Vis) and a coupling of novel semiconductor oxide nanoparticles have been recently demonstrated with enhancement in photo-oxidation and/or photo-reduction processes for the water/air detoxification and sustainable liquid fuel production respectively. Magnetic nanoparticles such as ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} have been synthesized and optimized for biomedical applications such as targeted drug delivery and tumor diagnostic sensing (MRI)

  16. Nanomaterials driven energy, environmental and biomedical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prakash C.; Srinivasan, Sesha S.; Wilson, Jeremiah F.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed state-of-the-art nanomaterials such as nanofibers, nanotubes, nanoparticles, nanocatalysts and nanostructures for clean energy, environmental and biomedical research. Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed, but it can be converted from one form to another. Based on this principle, chemical energy such as hydrogen has been produced from water electrolysis at a much lower voltage using RuO2 nanoparticles on the Si wafer substrate. Once the hydrogen is produced from the clean sources such as solar energy and water, it has to be stored by physisorption or chemisorption processes on to the solid state systems. For the successful physical adsorption of hydrogen molecule, we have developed novel polyaniline nanostructures via chemical templating and electrospinning routes. Chemical or complex hydrides involving nano MgH2 and transition metal nanocatalysts have been synthesized to tailor both the thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrogen (chemi) sorption respectively. Utilization of solar energy (UV-Vis) and a coupling of novel semiconductor oxide nanoparticles have been recently demonstrated with enhancement in photo-oxidation and/or photo-reduction processes for the water/air detoxification and sustainable liquid fuel production respectively. Magnetic nanoparticles such as ZnFe2O4 have been synthesized and optimized for biomedical applications such as targeted drug delivery and tumor diagnostic sensing (MRI).

  17. Nanometrology and its perspectives in environmental research

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-A; Seo, Jung-Kwan; Kim, Taksoo; Lee, Byung-Tae

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Rapid increase in engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in many goods has raised significant concern about their environmental safety. Proper methodologies are therefore needed to conduct toxicity and exposure assessment of nanoparticles in the environment. This study reviews several analytical techniques for nanoparticles and summarizes their principles, advantages and disadvantages, reviews the state of the art, and offers the perspectives of nanometrology in relation to ENP studies. Methods Nanometrology is divided into five techniques with regard to the instrumental principle: microscopy, light scattering, spectroscopy, separation, and single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Results Each analytical method has its own drawbacks, such as detection limit, ability to quantify or qualify ENPs, and matrix effects. More than two different analytical methods should be used to better characterize ENPs. Conclusions In characterizing ENPs, the researchers should understand the nanometrology and its demerits, as well as its merits, to properly interpret their experimental results. Challenges lie in the nanometrology and pretreatment of ENPs from various matrices; in the extraction without dissolution or aggregation, and concentration of ENPs to satisfy the instrumental detection limit. PMID:25384386

  18. Critical Environmental Education Research: Re-Engaging the Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robottom, Ian

    2005-01-01

    The field of research in environmental education has experienced several changes in orientation in its first 25 or so years. In the period of the 70s and 80s, the most visible approach to environmental education research was clearly applied science in nature. From the late 80s/early 90s there has been a period of intense debate about research in…

  19. Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality. PMID:20401332

  20. Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2008-07-14

    This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.

  1. Working across and with Methodological Difference in Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Constance L.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the implications of articles by Louise Chawla (1998) and Karen Malone (1999a) for "doing research." One of the most interesting implications of these two papers for environmental education research is the issues they raise about the challenges for environmental education researchers and education researchers…

  2. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology. PMID:27547751

  3. Environmental Quality and Issues of Adoption Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pampel, Fred, Jr.; van Es, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    Data gathered through telephone interviews with Illinois farmers are used to study the adoption of soil conservation practices (operationalization of environmental innovation) and commercial practices. (NQ)

  4. Use of land surface remotely sensed satellite and airborne data for environmental exposure assessment in cancer research

    PubMed Central

    MAXWELL, SUSAN K.; MELIKER, JAYMIE R.; GOOVAERTS, PIERRE

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, geographic information systems (GIS) have increasingly been used for reconstructing individual-level exposures to environmental contaminants in epidemiological research. Remotely sensed data can be useful in creating space-time models of environmental measures. The primary advantage of using remotely sensed data is that it allows for study at the local scale (e.g., residential level) without requiring expensive, time-consuming monitoring campaigns. The purpose of our study was to identify how land surface remotely sensed data are currently being used to study the relationship between cancer and environmental contaminants, focusing primarily on agricultural chemical exposure assessment applications. We present the results of a comprehensive literature review of epidemiological research where remotely sensed imagery or land cover maps derived from remotely sensed imagery were applied. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of the most commonly used imagery data (aerial photographs and Landsat satellite imagery) and land cover maps. PMID:19240763

  5. Use of land surface remotely sensed satellite and airborne data for environmental exposure assessment in cancer research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, S.K.; Meliker, J.R.; Goovaerts, P.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, geographic information systems (GIS) have increasingly been used for reconstructing individual-level exposures to environmental contaminants in epidemiological research. Remotely sensed data can be useful in creating space-time models of environmental measures. The primary advantage of using remotely sensed data is that it allows for study at the local scale (e.g., residential level) without requiring expensive, time-consuming monitoring campaigns. The purpose of our study was to identify how land surface remotely sensed data are currently being used to study the relationship between cancer and environmental contaminants, focusing primarily on agricultural chemical exposure assessment applications. We present the results of a comprehensive literature review of epidemiological research where remotely sensed imagery or land cover maps derived from remotely sensed imagery were applied. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of the most commonly used imagery data (aerial photographs and Landsat satellite imagery) and land cover maps.

  6. Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and exposure to air toxics: linkages between occupational, indoor, and community air pollution research.

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, Ralph J

    2002-01-01

    Outdoor ambient air pollutant exposures in communities are relevant to the acute exacerbation and possibly the onset of asthma. However, the complexity of pollutant mixtures and etiologic heterogeneity of asthma has made it difficult to identify causal components in those mixtures. Occupational exposures associated with asthma may yield clues to causal components in ambient air pollution because such exposures are often identifiable as single-chemical agents (e.g., metal compounds). However, translating occupational to community exposure-response relationships is limited. Of the air toxics found to cause occupational asthma, only formaldehyde has been frequently investigated in epidemiologic studies of allergic respiratory responses to indoor air, where general consistency can be shown despite lower ambient exposures. The specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified in association with occupational asthma are generally not the same as those in studies showing respiratory effects of VOC mixtures on nonoccupational adult and pediatric asthma. In addition, experimental evidence indicates that airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures linked to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have proinflammatory effects on airways, but there is insufficient supporting evidence from the occupational literature of effects of DEPs on asthma or lung function. In contrast, nonoccupational epidemiologic studies have frequently shown associations between allergic responses or asthma with exposures to ambient air pollutant mixtures with PAH components, including black smoke, high home or school traffic density (particularly truck traffic), and environmental tobacco smoke. Other particle-phase and gaseous co-pollutants are likely causal in these associations as well. Epidemiologic research on the relationship of both asthma onset and exacerbation to air pollution is needed to disentangle effects of air toxics from monitored criteria air pollutants such as particle mass

  7. [Gender inequalities in research in public health and epidemiology in Spain (2007-2014)].

    PubMed

    García-Calvente, María Del Mar; Ruiz-Cantero, María Teresa; Del Río-Lozano, María; Borrell, Carme; López-Sancho, M Pilar

    2015-01-01

    To analyse gender inequalities in research on public health and epidemiology in Spain for the period 2007-2014. A descriptive study was conducted by sex of leadership positions in the Centre for Biomedical Research Network (CIBER), especially in the subject area of epidemiology and public health (CIBERESP) in 2014; scientific societies of public health (SESPAS) and epidemiology (SEE) 2009-2014; research projects requested (13,320) and financed (4,699), and monetary amounts of calls for Strategic Action in Health (AES), 2007-2013. Women were clearly under-represented in positions of leadership and in research excellence in public health (CIBER), with a predominance of men in decision-making positions. Although research projects led by women in AES increased slightly between 2007 and 2013, among proposed projects this figure was less than 50%, with the exception of the public health commission. The gender gap was even greater in funded projects. Projects led by men were more likely to be funded, representing 29% in public health. There was also a persistence of horizontal gender segregation in positions of scientific recognition in the SESPAS and SEE Congresses. The overrepresentation of male leaders in public health research in Spain can be understood as an indicator and a consequence of androcentrism in scientific societies and professional groups. This sexist situation threatens the existence of innovative products and services from a gender perspective that respond to the needs and demands of society as a whole. More women are needed in research incorporating this perspective. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental Systems Research Candidates FY-01 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David Lynn; Piet, Steven James

    2001-03-01

    The Environmental Systems Research Candidates (ESRC) Program ran from April 2000 through September 2001 as part of the Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). ESRA provides key science and technology to meet the cleanup mission of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM), and performs research and development that will help solve current legacy problems and enhance the INEEL’s scientific and technical capability for solving longer-term challenges. This report documents the accomplishments of the ESRC Program. The ESRC Program consisted of 25 tasks subdivided within four research areas.

  9. Asbestos related diseases from environmental exposure to crocidolite in Da-yao, China. I. Review of exposure and epidemiological data

    PubMed Central

    Luo, S; Liu, X; Mu, S; Tsai, S; Wen, C; Wong, O.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Scattered patches of crocidolite, one form of asbestos, were found in the surface soil in the rural county of Da-yao in southwestern China. In 1983, researchers from the West China University of Medical Sciences (WCUMS) discovered that residents of two villages in Da-yao had hyperendemic pleural plaques and excessive numbers of pleural mesotheliomas. Aims: To review and summarise epidemiological studies, along with other relevant data, and to discuss the potential contribution to environmental risk assessment. Methods: This report is based on a review of several clinical/epidemiological studies conducted by WCUMS researchers since 1984, which included one cross sectional medical examination survey, one clinical/pathological analysis of 46 cases of mesothelioma, and three retrospective cohort mortality studies. Additional information acquired from reviewing original data first hand during a personal visit along with an interview of medical specialists from Da-yao County Hospital was also incorporated. Results: The prevalence of pleural plaque was 20% among peasants in Da-yao over 40 years of age in the cross sectional survey. The average number of mesothelioma cases was 6.6 per year in the 1984–95 period and 22 per year in the 1996–99 period, in a population of 68 000. For those mesothelioma cases that were histology confirmed, there were 3.8 cases/year in the first period and 9 cases/year in the second. Of the 2175 peasants in this survey, 16 had asbestosis. Lung cancer deaths were significantly increased in all three cohort studies. The annual mortality rate for mesothelioma was 85 per million, 178 per million, and 365 per million for the three cohort studies, respectively. The higher exposed peasants had a fivefold increased mesothelioma mortality compared to their lower exposed counterparts. There were no cases of mesothelioma in the comparison groups where no crocidolite was known to exist in the environment. In the third cohort study, almost

  10. Environmental Research and Education in US Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarz, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    This article evaluates geography as an appropriate home for environmental education. First, it argues that many geographers have defined geography as a discipline with a major, if not primary, interest in human-environment interactions. Next, it reviews the recent statements by non-geographer, environmental scholars that, directly or indirectly,…

  11. Environmental Research At The Advanced Photon Source

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the importance of probing molecular-scale chemical and physical structure of environmental samples in their natural and often hydrated state, synchrotron radiation has been a powerful tool for environmental scientists for decades. Thus, the crucial role that a highly ...

  12. Environmental Research and Education in US Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarz, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    This article evaluates geography as an appropriate home for environmental education. First, it argues that many geographers have defined geography as a discipline with a major, if not primary, interest in human-environment interactions. Next, it reviews the recent statements by non-geographer, environmental scholars that, directly or indirectly,…

  13. Environmental Research At The Advanced Photon Source

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the importance of probing molecular-scale chemical and physical structure of environmental samples in their natural and often hydrated state, synchrotron radiation has been a powerful tool for environmental scientists for decades. Thus, the crucial role that a highly ...

  14. Conducting Accessible Research: Including People With Disabilities in Public Health, Epidemiological, and Outcomes Studies.

    PubMed

    Rios, Dianne; Magasi, Susan; Novak, Catherine; Harniss, Mark

    2016-12-01

    People with disabilities are largely absent from mainstream health research. Exclusion of people with disabilities may be explicit, attributable to poorly justified exclusion criteria, or implicit, attributable to inaccessible study documents, interventions, or research measures. Meanwhile, people with disabilities experience poorer health, greater incidence of chronic conditions, and higher health care expenditure than people without disabilities. We outline our approach to "accessible research design"-research accessible to and inclusive of people with disabilities. We describe a model that includes 3 tiers: universal design, accommodations, and modifications. Through our work on several large-scale research studies, we provide pragmatic examples of accessible research design. Making efforts to include people with disabilities in public health, epidemiological, and outcomes studies will enhance the interpretability of findings for a significant patient population.

  15. An epidemiological and environmental study of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Taneja, Neelam; Sharma, Meera

    2014-06-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are foodborne pathogens of worldwide importance, but a shortage of data exists for STEC isolation from India. Therefore, an epidemiological and environmental study that covers a large geographic area in north India was conducted. Ruminant stool samples (n=650) were collected from 59 dairies. Meat samples (n=450) were collected from local abattoirs and the main slaughterhouse of the region. Additionally, 600 human cases of diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome were screened for STEC. Isolates were characterized for the virulence gene profiles and for the serogroups and were submitted to molecular typing by the multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). Overall, 12.3% of animal stool samples and 6.3% of mutton samples (n=160) were positive for STEC. Additionally, STEC were isolated from 1.7% and 1.6% of watery (n=290) and bloody (n=310) stool specimens, respectively. Animal stool isolates were significantly more prevalent in hilly areas (p<0.05) than in plain areas. Polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the presence of stx1, stx2, hly, espP, saa, toxB, and iha genes in 117 (83.5%), 94 (67.1%), 77 (55%), 33 (23%), 62 (44.2%), 29 (20.7%), and 51 (36%) of the isolates, respectively. Five new serogroups (O55, O33, O173, O165, and O136) are being reported for the first time from India. Four isolates from serogroup O103 were found in mutton and stool specimens of cattle and humans (n=160). One isolate from serogroup O104 was isolated from a mutton sample. MLVA suggested the potential transmission of STEC from contaminated meat and bovine sources. This study confirms the frequent contamination of mutton samples (24%), whereas chicken and pork samples were negative for STEC. This study demonstrates the presence of STEC that carry a large repertoire of virulence genes and the potential transmission of STEC from contaminated mutton and animal stools in north India.

  16. Epidemiologic Methods Lessons Learned from Environmental Public Health Disasters: Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville, South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, Erik R.; Runkle, Jennifer R.; Dhara, Venkata Ramana; Lin, Shao; Naboka, Marina; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Bennett, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Background: Environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants may have devastating effects. While much is known about their immediate devastation, far less is known about long-term impacts of these disasters. Extensive latent and chronic long-term public health effects may occur. Careful evaluation of contaminant exposures and long-term health outcomes within the constraints imposed by limited financial resources is essential. Methods: Here, we review epidemiologic methods lessons learned from conducting long-term evaluations of four environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants at Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville (South Carolina, USA). Findings: We found several lessons learned which have direct implications for the on-going disaster recovery work following the Fukushima radiation disaster or for future disasters. Interpretation: These lessons should prove useful in understanding and mitigating latent health effects that may result from the nuclear reactor accident in Japan or future environmental public health disasters. PMID:23066404

  17. Epidemiologic methods lessons learned from environmental public health disasters: Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville, South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Erik R; Runkle, Jennifer R; Dhara, Venkata Ramana; Lin, Shao; Naboka, Marina; Mousseau, Timothy A; Bennett, Charles

    2012-08-01

    Environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants may have devastating effects. While much is known about their immediate devastation, far less is known about long-term impacts of these disasters. Extensive latent and chronic long-term public health effects may occur. Careful evaluation of contaminant exposures and long-term health outcomes within the constraints imposed by limited financial resources is essential. Here, we review epidemiologic methods lessons learned from conducting long-term evaluations of four environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants at Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville (South Carolina, USA). We found several lessons learned which have direct implications for the on-going disaster recovery work following the Fukushima radiation disaster or for future disasters. These lessons should prove useful in understanding and mitigating latent health effects that may result from the nuclear reactor accident in Japan or future environmental public health disasters.

  18. At the crossroads of anthropology and epidemiology: Current research in cultural psychiatry in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Bhui, Kamaldeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Cultural psychiatry research in the UK comprises a broad range of diverse methodologies, academic disciplines, and subject areas. Methodologies range from epidemiological to anthropological/ethnographic to health services research; mixed methods research is becoming increasingly popular, as are public health and health promotional topics. After briefly outlining the history of cultural psychiatry in the UK we will discuss contemporary research. Prominent themes include: the epidemiology of schizophrenia among Africans/Afro-Caribbeans, migration and mental health, racism and mental health, cultural identity, pathways to care, explanatory models of mental illness, cultural competence, and the subjective experiences of healthcare provision among specific ethnic groups such as Bangladeshis and Pakistanis. Another strand of research that is attracting increasing academic attention focuses upon the relationship between religion, spirituality, and mental health, in particular, the phenomenology of religious experience and its mental health ramifications, as well as recent work examining the complex links between theology and psychiatry. The paper ends by appraising the contributions of British cultural psychiatrists to the discipline of cultural psychiatry and suggesting promising areas for future research. PMID:24114263

  19. At the crossroads of anthropology and epidemiology: current research in cultural psychiatry in the UK.

    PubMed

    Dein, Simon; Bhui, Kamaldeep Singh

    2013-12-01

    Cultural psychiatry research in the UK comprises a broad range of diverse methodologies, academic disciplines, and subject areas. Methodologies range from epidemiological to anthropological/ethnographic to health services research; mixed methods research is becoming increasingly popular, as are public health and health promotional topics. After briefly outlining the history of cultural psychiatry in the UK we will discuss contemporary research. Prominent themes include: the epidemiology of schizophrenia among Africans/Afro-Caribbeans, migration and mental health, racism and mental health, cultural identity, pathways to care, explanatory models of mental illness, cultural competence, and the subjective experiences of healthcare provision among specific ethnic groups such as Bangladeshis and Pakistanis. Another strand of research that is attracting increasing academic attention focuses upon the relationship between religion, spirituality, and mental health, in particular, the phenomenology of religious experience and its mental health ramifications, as well as recent work examining the complex links between theology and psychiatry. The paper ends by appraising the contributions of British cultural psychiatrists to the discipline of cultural psychiatry and suggesting promising areas for future research.

  20. Epidemiology, determinants and dynamics of cholera in Pakistan: gaps and prospects for future research.

    PubMed

    Naseer, Maliha; Jamali, Tanzil

    2014-11-01

    Cholera is one of the notifiable endemic diseases in Pakistan, but the reporting of cholera cases is still unsatisfactory. Most of the diagnosed cases are never reported to the relevant authorities. In the year 1993 - 2005, the country did not report any single case of cholera to the WHO. The objectives of this review were to understand the epidemiology and to identify the possible determinants of cholera infection in Pakistan. Medscape, Medline, PakMedinet and PubMed, was searched, using key words, epidemiology and determinants of cholera infection in Pakistan during 1995 - 2010. Morbidity and mortality due to cholera infection during 1995 - 2010, without any language restriction. Out of 27 articles published between 1995 - 2010, 17 articles were included in the review. Vibrio cholerae O139 identified as a major cause of infection in older age group, while O1 biotype of cholera as a predominant cause of cholera among young individuals. Mainly reported determinants of cholera in Pakistan include poor sanitation and hygiene practices, increased population density in urban areas, leading to rapid and unplanned urbanization of the major cities and climate change due to increased environmental pollution in Pakistan are plausible factors for endemicity of cholera in Pakistan. Cholera reporting as a notifiable disease to the relevant departments and timely action can prevent the risk of outbreaks. There is a need to identify specific behavioral and environmental determinants responsible for outbreaks and epidemics of cholera in Pakistan which can help to design appropriate preventive and control interventions.

  1. Reporting of Bayesian analysis in epidemiologic research should become more transparent.

    PubMed

    Rietbergen, Charlotte; Debray, Thomas P A; Klugkist, Irene; Janssen, Kristel J M; Moons, Karel G M

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the use of Bayesian data analysis in epidemiology in the past decade and particularly to evaluate the quality of research papers reporting the results of these analyses. Complete volumes of five major epidemiological journals in the period 2005-2015 were searched via PubMed. In addition, we performed an extensive within-manuscript search using a specialized Java application. Details of reporting on Bayesian statistics were examined in the original research papers with primary Bayesian data analyses. The number of studies in which Bayesian techniques were used for primary data analysis remains constant over the years. Though many authors presented thorough descriptions of the analyses they performed and the results they obtained, several reports presented incomplete method sections and even some incomplete result sections. Especially, information on the process of prior elicitation, specification, and evaluation was often lacking. Though available guidance papers concerned with reporting of Bayesian analyses emphasize the importance of transparent prior specification, the results obtained in this systematic review show that these guidance papers are often not used. Additional efforts should be made to increase the awareness of the existence and importance of these checklists to overcome the controversy with respect to the use of Bayesian techniques. The reporting quality in epidemiological literature could be improved by updating existing guidelines on the reporting of frequentist analyses to address issues that are important for Bayesian data analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Discovering environmental cancer: Wilhelm Hueper, post-World War II epidemiology, and the vanishing clinician's eye.

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, C

    1997-01-01

    Today, our understanding of and approach to the exogenous causes of cancer are dominated by epidemiological practices that came into widespread use after World War II. This paper examines the forces, considerations, and controversies that shaped postwar risk factor epidemiology in the United States. It is argued that, for all of the new capabilities it brought, this risk factor epidemiology has left us with less of a clinical eye for unrecognized cancer hazards, especially from limited and localized exposures in the work-place. The focus here is on Wilhelm Hueper, author of the first textbook on occupational cancer (1942). Hueper became the foremost spokesman for earlier identification practices centering on occupational exposures. The new epidemiological methods and associated institutions that arose in the 1940s and 1950s bore an unsettled relation to earlier claims and methods that some, Hueper among them, interpreted as a challenge. Hueper's critique of the new epidemiology identified some of its limitations and potentially debilitating consequences that remain with us today. Images p1825-a p1827-a p1829-a PMID:9366640

  3. Complexity and interdisciplinary approaches to environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2013-03-01

    The launch of volume 8 of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) comes at a critical time in terms of innovations and exciting areas of science, but particularly in the areas linking environmental research and action. The most recent climate change Conference of the Parties meeting (COP), in Doha in December 2012, has now come and gone. As has been dissected in the press, very little was accomplished. Some will see this as a failure, as I do, and others will reasonably enough note that this meeting, the 18th such COP was1 never intended to be a milestone moment. The current plan, in fact, is for a 'post-Kyoto' international climate agreement to be adopted only at the COP20 summit in December 2015. As we lead up to COP20, and potentially other regional or national approaches to climate protection, innovations in science, innovations in policy tools, and political commitment must come together. The science of climate change only continues to get clearer and clearer, and bleaker [1]. Later this year the IPCC will release its Fifth Assessment Report, AR5. The draft versions are out for review now. ERL has published a number of papers on climate change science, mitigation and adaptation, but one area where the world needs a particular focus is on the nexus of science and action. A summary of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's findings from the first assessment report (FAR; 1990) to the latest report is presented in figure 1. This graphic is specifically not about the scientific record alone. What is most important about this figure is the juxtaposition of the language of science and the language of ... language. Figure 1. Figure 1. A superposition of the state of climate science in three key data sets, and the dates of the first, second, third and fourth assessment reports (FAR, SAR, TAR, and AR4, respectively) plotted as vertical lines. On the right are the key statements from each of these reports, along with the conclusion of the Special Report on

  4. Social epidemiology and complex system dynamic modelling as applied to health behaviour and drug use research

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Sandro; Hall, Chris; Kaplan, George A

    2009-01-01

    A social epidemiologic perspective considers factors at multiple levels of influence (e.g., social networks, neighborhoods, states) that may individually or jointly affect health and health behaviour. This provides a useful lens through which to understand the production of health behaviours in general, and drug use in particular. However, the analytic models that are commonly applied in population health sciences limit the inference we are able to draw about the determination of health behaviour by factors, likely interrelated, across levels of influence. Complex system dynamic modelling techniques may be useful in enabling the adoption of a social epidemiologic approach in health behaviour and drug use research. We provide an example of a model that aims to incorporate factors at multiple levels of influence in understanding drug dependence. We conclude with suggestions about future directions in the field and how such models may serve as virtual laboratories for policy experiments aimed at improving health behaviour. PMID:18930649

  5. Social epidemiology and complex system dynamic modelling as applied to health behaviour and drug use research.

    PubMed

    Galea, Sandro; Hall, Chris; Kaplan, George A

    2009-05-01

    A social epidemiologic perspective considers factors at multiple levels of influence (e.g., social networks, neighbourhoods, states) that may individually or jointly affect health and health behaviour. This provides a useful lens through which to understand the production of health behaviours in general, and drug use in particular. However, the analytic models that are commonly applied in population health sciences limit the inference we are able to draw about the determination of health behaviour by factors, likely interrelated, across levels of influence. Complex system dynamic modelling techniques may be useful in enabling the adoption of a social epidemiologic approach in health behaviour and drug use research. We provide an example of a model that aims to incorporate factors at multiple levels of influence in understanding drug dependence. We conclude with suggestions about future directions in the field and how such models may serve as virtual laboratories for policy experiments aimed at improving health behaviour.

  6. 40 CFR 18.9 - Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.9 Section 18.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.9 Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Initial appointments to...

  7. 40 CFR 18.4 - Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.4 Section 18.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.4 Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. All...

  8. 40 CFR 18.9 - Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.9 Section 18.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.9 Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Initial appointments to...

  9. 40 CFR 18.5 - Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.5 Section 18.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.5 Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Scholastic and...

  10. 40 CFR 18.9 - Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.9 Section 18.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.9 Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Initial appointments to...

  11. 40 CFR 18.5 - Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.5 Section 18.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.5 Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Scholastic and...

  12. 40 CFR 18.4 - Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.4 Section 18.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.4 Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. All...

  13. 40 CFR 18.9 - Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.9 Section 18.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.9 Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Initial appointments to...

  14. 40 CFR 18.9 - Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.9 Section 18.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.9 Duration of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Initial appointments to...

  15. 40 CFR 18.4 - Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.4 Section 18.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.4 Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. All...

  16. 40 CFR 18.4 - Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.4 Section 18.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.4 Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. All...

  17. 40 CFR 18.5 - Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.5 Section 18.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.5 Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Scholastic and...

  18. 40 CFR 18.5 - Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.5 Section 18.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.5 Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Scholastic and...

  19. 40 CFR 18.5 - Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.5 Section 18.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.5 Qualifications for Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Scholastic and...

  20. 40 CFR 18.4 - Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection Research Fellowships. 18.4 Section 18.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.4 Establishment of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. All...

  1. 4th International Conference on Malignancies in AIDS and Other Acquired Immunodeficiencies: Basic,Epidemiologic and Clinical Research

    Cancer.gov

    Summary of speakers and events from the 2000 ICMAOI conference, focused on presenting basic, epidemiologic, and clinical aspects of research on malignancies in HIV-infected and other immunosuppressed individuals.

  2. 3rd International Conference on Malignancies in AIDS and Other Acquired Immunodeficiencies: Basic,Epidemiologic and Clinical Research

    Cancer.gov

    Summary of speakers and events from the 1999 ICMAOI conference, focused on presenting basic, epidemiologic, and clinical aspects of research on malignancies in HIV-infected and other immunosuppressed individuals.

  3. 9th International Conference on Malignancies in AIDS and Other Acquired Immunodeficiencies: Basic,Epidemiologic and Clinical Research

    Cancer.gov

    Summary of speakers and events from the 2005 ICMAOI conference, focused on presenting basic, epidemiologic, and clinical aspects of research on malignancies in HIV-infected and other immunosuppressed individuals.

  4. 10th International Conference on Malignancies in AIDS and Other Acquired Immunodeficiencies: Basic, Epidemiologic and Clinical Research

    Cancer.gov

    Summary of speakers and events from the 2006 ICMAOI conference, focused on presenting basic, epidemiologic, and clinical aspects of research on malignancies in HIV-infected and other immunosuppressed individuals.

  5. 5th International Conference on Malignancies in AIDS and Other Acquired Immunodeficiencies: Basic,Epidemiologic and Clinical Research

    Cancer.gov

    Summary of speakers and events from the 2005 ICMAOI conference, focused on presenting basic, epidemiologic, and clinical aspects of research on malignancies in HIV-infected and other immunosuppressed individuals.

  6. 6th International Conference on Malignancies in AIDS and Other Acquired Immunodeficiencies: Basic,Epidemiologic and Clinical Research

    Cancer.gov

    Summary of speakers and events from the 2002 ICMAOI conference, focused on presenting basic, epidemiologic, and clinical aspects of research on malignancies in HIV-infected and other immunosuppressed individuals.

  7. 7th International Conference on Malignancies in AIDS and Other Acquired Immunodeficiencies: Basic,Epidemiologic and Clinical Research

    Cancer.gov

    Summary of speakers and events from the 2003 ICMAOI conference, focused on presenting basic, epidemiologic, and clinical aspects of research on malignancies in HIV-infected and other immunosuppressed individuals.

  8. CONSTANCES: a general prospective population-based cohort for occupational and environmental epidemiology: cohort profile.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Marcel; Carton, Matthieu; Descatha, Alexis; Leclerc, Annette; Roquelaure, Yves; Santin, Gaëlle; Zins, Marie

    2017-01-01

    WHY THE COHORT WAS SET UP?: CONSTANCES is a general-purpose cohort with a focus on occupational and environmental factors. CONSTANCES was designed as a randomly selected sample of French adults aged 18-69 years at inception; 200 000 participants will be included. At enrolment, the participants are invited to complete questionnaires and to attend a health screening centre (HSC) for a health examination. A biobank will be set up. The follow-up includes an yearly self-administered questionnaire, a periodic visit to an HSC and linkage to social and national health administrative databases. Data collected for participants include social and demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, life events and behaviours. Regarding occupational and environmental factors, a wealth of data on organisational, chemical, biological, biomechanical and psychosocial lifelong exposure, as well as residential characteristics, are collected at enrolment and during follow-up. The health data cover a wide spectrum: self-reported health scales, reported prevalent and incident diseases, long-term chronic diseases and hospitalisations, sick-leaves, handicaps, limitations, disabilities and injuries, healthcare usage and services provided, and causes of death. To take into account non-participation and attrition, a random cohort of non-participants was set up and will be followed through the same national databases as participants. Inclusions begun at the end of 2012 and more than 110 000 participants were already included by September 2016. Several projects on occupational and environmental risks already applied to a public call for nested research projects. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. CONSTANCES: a general prospective population-based cohort for occupational and environmental epidemiology: cohort profile

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Marcel; Carton, Matthieu; Descatha, Alexis; Leclerc, Annette; Roquelaure, Yves; Santin, Gaëlle; Zins, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Why the cohort was set up? CONSTANCES is a general-purpose cohort with a focus on occupational and environmental factors. Cohort participants CONSTANCES was designed as a randomly selected sample of French adults aged 18–69 years at inception; 200 000 participants will be included. Data collection phases At enrolment, the participants are invited to complete questionnaires and to attend a health screening centre (HSC) for a health examination. A biobank will be set up. The follow-up includes an yearly self-administered questionnaire, a periodic visit to an HSC and linkage to social and national health administrative databases. Main types of data collected Data collected for participants include social and demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, life events and behaviours. Regarding occupational and environmental factors, a wealth of data on organisational, chemical, biological, biomechanical and psychosocial lifelong exposure, as well as residential characteristics, are collected at enrolment and during follow-up. The health data cover a wide spectrum: self-reported health scales, reported prevalent and incident diseases, long-term chronic diseases and hospitalisations, sick-leaves, handicaps, limitations, disabilities and injuries, healthcare usage and services provided, and causes of death. Control of selection effects To take into account non-participation and attrition, a random cohort of non-participants was set up and will be followed through the same national databases as participants. Data access Inclusions begun at the end of 2012 and more than 110 000 participants were already included by September 2016. Several projects on occupational and environmental risks already applied to a public call for nested research projects. PMID:27884936

  10. Conjoined Twins: A Worldwide Collaborative Epidemiological Study of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    PubMed Central

    MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; LUNA-MUÑOZ, LEONORA; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; DUTRA, MARIA DA GRAÇA; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA K.; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MÉTNEKI, JULIA; MORGAN, MARGERY; PIERINI, ANNA; RISSMAN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SIFFEL, CSABA; SZABOVA, ELENA; ARTEAGA-VÁZQUEZ, JAZMÍN

    2015-01-01

    Conjoined twins (CT) are a very rare developmental accident of uncertain etiology. Prevalence has been previously estimated to be 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 100,000 births. The process by which monozygotic twins do not fully separate but form CT is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to analyze diverse epidemiological aspects of CT, including the different variables listed in the Introduction Section of this issue of the Journal. The study was made possible using the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR) structure. This multicenter worldwide research includes the largest sample of CT ever studied. A total of 383 carefully reviewed sets of CT obtained from 26,138,837 births reported by 21 Clearinghouse Surveillance Programs (SP) were included in the analysis. Total prevalence was 1.47 per 100,000 births (95% CI: 1.32–1.62). Salient findings including an evident variation in prevalence among SPs: a marked variation in the type of pregnancy outcome, a similarity in the proportion of CT types among programs: a significant female predominance in CT: particularly of the thoracopagus type and a significant male predominance in parapagus and parasitic types: significant differences in prevalence by ethnicity and an apparent increasing prevalence trend in South American countries. No genetic, environmental or demographic significant associated factors were identified. Further work in epidemiology and molecular research is necessary to understand the etiology and pathogenesis involved in the development of this fascinating phenomenon of nature. PMID:22002822

  11. Health and Environmental Research Online (HERO) database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    HERO contains the key studies EPA uses to develop environmental risk assessments for the public. EPA uses risk assessments to characterize the nature and magnitude of health risks to humans and the ecosystem from pollutants and chemicals in the environment.

  12. Studying Environmental Moves and Relocations: A Research Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Robert J.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research on man-environment relations and initiates the process of formulating a research paradigm for studying environmental moves and readjustments. Uses a renovated academic center as a specimen case. (JR)

  13. Global environmental change and human population health: a conceptual and scientific challenge for epidemiology.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J

    1993-02-01

    A large and rapidly growing human population, resource intensive industrial practices, and land exhausting agriculture has overloaded the carrying capacity of the planet's natural systems. Evidence of overloading include global warming, soil degradation and topsoil loss, decreasing stratospheric ozone, depletion of groundwater, reduced genetic and ecosystem diversity, and acidification of water and soils. These global environmental changes threaten human health in qualitatively different way than the way conventional environmental pollutants do. The risks arising from these changes stem from impairment of productivity (soils, forests, oceans, biodiversity) or stability (climate, sea level, ultraviolet, filtration). Epidemiologist must adopt an ecological model to identify, study, and to quantify the health effects of ecological disturbances. The health effects from these disturbances include those caused by atmospheric changes, by reduced agricultural yield, and by uncontrolled growth of urban populations. The UN recognizes that scientific disciplines and human capabilities to evaluate and provide sound guidance cannot keep pace with the fast rate of ecological change. Thus, rather than empirical evidence, interdisciplinary research, using modeling and forecasting to assess health effects, is needed to provide decision makers with the best available estimates.

  14. Current Understanding of Lifestyle and Environmental Factors and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: An Epidemiological Update

    PubMed Central

    Bassig, Bryan A.; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zhang, Yawei; Zheng, Tongzhang

    2012-01-01

    The incidence rates of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have steadily increased over the last several decades in the United States, and the temporal trends in incidence can only be partially explained by the HIV epidemic. In 1992, an international workshop sponsored by the United States National Cancer Institute concluded that there was an “emerging epidemic” of NHL and emphasized the need to investigate the factors responsible for the increasing incidence of this disease. Over the past two decades, numerous epidemiological studies have examined the risk factors for NHL, particularly for putative environmental and lifestyle risk factors, and international consortia have been established in order to investigate rare exposures and NHL subtype-specific associations. While few consistent risk factors for NHL aside from immunosuppression and certain infectious agents have emerged, suggestive associations with several lifestyle and environmental factors have been reported in epidemiologic studies. Further, increasing evidence has suggested that the effects of these and other exposures may be limited to or stronger for particular NHL subtypes. This paper examines the progress that has been made over the last twenty years in elucidating the etiology of NHL, with a primary emphasis on lifestyle factors and environmental exposures. PMID:23008714

  15. Novel Phenotype Issues Raised in Cross-National Epidemiological Research on Drug Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Stage-transition models based on the American Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) generally are applied in epidemiology and genetics research on drug dependence syndromes associated with cannabis, cocaine, and other internationally regulated drugs (IRD). Difficulties with DSM stage-transition models have surfaced during cross-national research intended to provide a truly global perspective, such as the work of the World Mental Health Surveys (WMHS) Consortium. Alternative simpler dependence-related phenotypes are possible, including population-level count process models for steps early and before coalescence of clinical features into a coherent syndrome (e.g., zero-inflated Poisson regression). Selected findings are reviewed, based on ZIP modeling of alcohol, tobacco, and IRD count processes, with an illustration that may stimulate new research on genetic susceptibility traits. The annual National Surveys on Drug Use and Health can be readily modified for this purpose, along the lines of a truly anonymous research approach that can help make NSDUH-type cross-national epidemiological surveys more useful in the context of subsequent genome wide association (GWAS) research and post-GWAS investigations with a truly global health perspective. PMID:20201862

  16. [The NINFEA project and the emerging forms of engagement of citizens in epidemiological research].

    PubMed

    Richiardi, Lorenzo; Pizzi, Costanza; Rusconi, Franca; Merletti, Franco

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade a new form of participation of the citizens in research activities and in the production of knowledge has emerged.This development has started to reach epidemiological research, as illustrated in the recent section "EpiChange" of the journal Epidemiologia e Prevenzione. The conduction of epidemiological research through the engagement of citizens and new forms of production of knowledge - including peer-production - is still in its infancy. In 2005,we started in Italy a birth cohort, the NINFEA project, which uses the Internet to recruit pregnant women and to follow-up their children. Participants are volunteers who decide to take part in the research project. In this paper, we consider the aspects of the NINFEA project that are consistent with the concept of collaborative production of knowledge. In particular,we discuss issues related to the motivation of the participants, the selection of the research hypotheses to be evaluated and the definition of the population of interest of the study.

  17. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), conducted December 14 through 18, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by private contractors. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with SERI. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SERI, and interviews with site personnel. 33 refs., 22 figs., 21 tabs.

  18. Potential Selection Bias Associated With Using Geocoded Birth Records for Epidemiological Research

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sandie; Hu, Hui; Mao, Liang; Roussos-Ross, Dikea; Roth, Jeffrey; Xu, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Purpose There is an increasing use of geocoded birth registry data in environmental epidemiology research. Ungeocoded records are routinely excluded. Methods We used classification and regression tree analysis (CART) and logistic regression to investigate potential selection bias associated with this exclusion among all singleton Florida births in 2009 (N=210,285). Results The rate of unsuccessful geocoding was 11.5% (n=24,171). This ranged between 0% to 100% across zip codes. Living in a rural zip code was the strongest predictor of being ungeocoded. Other predictors for geocoding status varied with urbanity status. In urban areas, maternal race [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) ranging between 1.08 for Hispanic to 1.18 for Black compared to White], maternal age [aOR: 1.16 (1.10-1.23) for ages 20-34 compared to <20], maternal nativity [aOR: 1.20 (1.15, 1.25) for Non-US vs. US born], delivery at a birth center [aOR: 1.72(1.49, 2.00 compared to hospital delivery)], multiparity [aOR: 0.91 (0.88, 0.94)], maternal smoking [aOR: 0.82 (0.76-0.88)] and having non-private insurance [aOR: 1.25 (1.20-1.30) for Medicaid vs. private insurance] were significantly associated with being ungeocoded. In rural areas, births delivered at birth center [aOR: 2.91(1.80-4.73)] or home [aOR: 1.94(1.28-2.95) had increased odds compared to hospital births. The characteristics predictive of being ungeocoded were also significantly associated with adverse birth outcomes such as low birthweight and preterm delivery, and the association for maternal age was different when ungeocoded births were included and excluded. Conclusions Geocoding status is not random. Women with certain exposure-outcome characteristics may be more likely to be ungeocoded and excluded, indicating potential selection bias. PMID:26907541

  19. Potential selection bias associated with using geocoded birth records for epidemiologic research.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sandie; Hu, Hui; Mao, Liang; Roussos-Ross, Dikea; Roth, Jeffrey; Xu, Xiaohui

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing use of geocoded birth registry data in environmental epidemiology research. Ungeocoded records are routinely excluded. We used classification and regression tree analysis and logistic regression to investigate potential selection bias associated with this exclusion among all singleton Florida births in 2009 (n = 210,285). The rate of unsuccessful geocoding was 11.5% (n = 24,171). This ranged between 0% and 100% across zip codes. Living in a rural zip code was the strongest predictor of being ungeocoded. Other predictors for geocoding status varied with urbanity status. In urban areas, maternal race (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] ranging between 1.08 for Hispanic and 1.18 for black compared to white), maternal age [aOR: 1.16 (1.10-1.23) for ages 20-34 compared to <20], maternal nativity [aOR: 1.20 (1.15-1.25) for non-US versus US born], delivery at a birth center [aOR: 1.72 (1.49-2.00) compared to hospital delivery], multiparity [aOR: 0.91 (0.88-0.94)], maternal smoking [aOR: 0.82 (0.76-0.88)], and having nonprivate insurance [aOR: 1.25 (1.20-1.30) for Medicaid versus private insurance] were significantly associated with being ungeocoded. In rural areas, births delivered at birth center [aOR: 2.91 (1.80-4.73)] or home [aOR: 1.94 (1.28-2.95)] had increased odds compared to hospital births. The characteristics predictive of being ungeocoded were also significantly associated with adverse birth outcomes such as low birth weight and preterm delivery, and the association for maternal age was different when ungeocoded births were included and excluded. Geocoding status is not random. Women with certain exposure-outcome characteristics may be more likely to be ungeocoded and excluded, indicating potential selection bias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmentally Mediated Risks for Psychopathology: Research Strategies and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To consider the research design requirements needed to provide a rigorous test of environmental mediation hypotheses and to summarize the main findings from research using such designs. Method: Selective review of empirical evidence dealing with psychopathology. Results: There is robust evidence of environmentally mediated risks for…

  1. Environmentally Mediated Risks for Psychopathology: Research Strategies and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To consider the research design requirements needed to provide a rigorous test of environmental mediation hypotheses and to summarize the main findings from research using such designs. Method: Selective review of empirical evidence dealing with psychopathology. Results: There is robust evidence of environmentally mediated risks for…

  2. 75 FR 6651 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... the Office of Biological and Environmental Research News From the Biological Systems Science and... Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy; Office of Science.... David Thomassen, Designated Federal Officer, BERAC, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office...

  3. Environmental Behavior and Gender: An Emerging Area of Concern for Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakellari, Maria; Skanavis, Constantina

    2013-01-01

    Ecofeminism suggests that women are more active than men regarding environmental issues for a variety of social, cultural, and biological reasons. In support to these arguments, women predominate within the overall grassroots of the Environmental Justice movement. However, claims have been made that environmental education theory and research are…

  4. Environmental Behavior and Gender: An Emerging Area of Concern for Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakellari, Maria; Skanavis, Constantina

    2013-01-01

    Ecofeminism suggests that women are more active than men regarding environmental issues for a variety of social, cultural, and biological reasons. In support to these arguments, women predominate within the overall grassroots of the Environmental Justice movement. However, claims have been made that environmental education theory and research are…

  5. Environmental research program: FY 1987, annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    This multidisciplinary research program includes fundamental and applied research in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology, as well as research on the development of advanced methods of measurement and analysis. The Program's Annual Report contains summaries of research performed during FY 1987 in the areas of atmospheric aerosols, flue gas chemistry, combustion, membrane bioenergetics, and analytical chemistry. The main research interests of the Atmospheric Aerosol Research group concern the chemical and physical processes that occur in haze, clouds, and fogs. For their studies, the group is developing novel analytical and research methods for characterizing aerosol species. Aerosol research is performed in the laboratory and in the field. Studies of smoke emissions from fires and their possible effects on climatic change, especially as related to nuclear winter, are an example of the collaboration between the Atmospheric Aerosol Research and Combustion Research Groups.

  6. Environmental-performance research priorities: Wood products. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-15

    This report describes a research plan to establish environmental, energy, and economic performance measures for renewable building materials, and to identify management and technology alternatives to improve environmental performance in a cost-effective manner. The research plan is designed to: (1) collect environmental and economic data on all life-cycle stages of the materials, (2) ensure that the data follows consistent definitions and collection procedures, and (3) develop analytical procedures for life-cycle analysis to address environmental performance questions. The research will be subdivided into a number of individual project modules. The five processing stages of wood used to organize the research plan are: (1) resource management and harvesting; (2) processing; (3) design and construction of structures; (4) use, maintenance, and disposal; and (5) waste recycling. Individual research module descriptions are provided in the report, as well as assessment techniques, research standards and protocol, and research management. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Involving lay community researchers in epidemiological research: experiences from a seroprevalence study among sub-Saharan African migrants.

    PubMed

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities.

  8. Involving lay community researchers in epidemiological research: experiences from a seroprevalence study among sub-Saharan African migrants

    PubMed Central

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities. PMID:26885938

  9. Epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis: present situation and priorities for further research*

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    The article highlights specific aspects of the epidemiology of schistosomiasis where insufficient data are available on which to base appropriate control strategies. Emphasis is placed on the part that immunological techniques might play in improving the baseline epidemiological data. A study of acquired resistance to the disease is also important in relation to epidemiology and control. The clinical manifestations of the disease vary in different areas and further study of the relation between the clinical and pathological manifestations are therefore required. In relation to the intermediate host, the main priority for research concerns the definition of the location and time-patterns of transmission foci within any particular area: variations in transmission are of particular importance in relation to man-made water resources. Although chemotherapy will play an increasing role in control, its importance will depend on local conditions: coordinated and standardized trials are required of chemotherapeutic agents in different regions and in various defined groups of subjects. The effects of chemotherapy on immunity to reinfection and on immunopathology also require study. With all types of snail control—chemical, ecological, and biological—cost-effectiveness aspects are important. With chemicals, it is important to bear in mind other possible effects on the environment. In the field of water supplies and sanitation, several aspects are important in relation to schistosomiasis transmission and community involvement should be encouraged. PMID:308404

  10. The next generation of large-scale epidemiologic research: implications for training cancer epidemiologists.

    PubMed

    Spitz, Margaret R; Lam, Tram Kim; Schully, Sheri D; Khoury, Muin J

    2014-11-15

    There is expanding consensus on the need to modernize the training of cancer epidemiologists to accommodate rapidly emerging technological advancements and the digital age, which are transforming the practice of cancer epidemiology. There is also a growing imperative to extend cancer epidemiology research that is etiological to that which is applied and has the potential to affect individual and public health. Medical schools and schools of public health are recognizing the need to develop such integrated programs; however, we lack the data to estimate how many current training programs are effectively equipping epidemiology students with the knowledge and tools to design, conduct, and analyze these increasingly complex studies. There is also a need to develop new mentoring approaches to account for the transdisciplinary team-science environment that now prevails. With increased dialogue among schools of public health, medical schools, and cancer centers, revised competencies and training programs at predoctoral, doctoral, and postdoctoral levels must be developed. Continuous collection of data on the impact and outcomes of such programs is also recommended. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Persisting problems related to race and ethnicity in public health and epidemiology research.

    PubMed

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude

    2013-02-01

    A recent and comprehensive review of the use of race and ethnicity in research that address health disparities in epidemiology and public health is provided. First it is described the theoretical basis upon which race and ethnicity differ drawing from previous work in anthropology, social science and public health. Second, it is presented a review of 280 articles published in high impacts factor journals in regards to public health and epidemiology from 2009-2011. An analytical grid enabled the examination of conceptual, theoretical and methodological questions related to the use of both concepts. The majority of articles reviewed were grounded in a theoretical framework and provided interpretations from various models. However, key problems identified include a) a failure from researchers to differentiate between the concepts of race and ethnicity; b) an inappropriate use of racial categories to ascribe ethnicity; c) a lack of transparency in the methods used to assess both concepts; and d) failure to address limits associated with the construction of racial or ethnic taxonomies and their use. In conclusion, future studies examining health disparities should clearly establish the distinction between race and ethnicity, develop theoretically driven research and address specific questions about the relationships between race, ethnicity and health. One argue that one way to think about ethnicity, race and health is to dichotomize research into two sets of questions about the relationship between human diversity and health.

  12. Medical surveillance, exposure registries, and epidemiologic research for workers exposed to nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Trout, Douglas B; Schulte, Paul A

    2010-03-10

    While there is a growing body of information about hazards of nanomaterials, little is known about the risks to workers exposed to them. However, workers are the first people in society that are being exposed to the growing inventory of "nano-enabled" products in commerce. The number of workers involved in the investigation, manufacture, production, and disposal of these types of products is growing. Although toxicologic research is still the highest priority, it is time to actively anticipate the health needs of workers. To date, precautionary risk management approaches have been widely advocated. Now there is a need to initiate an evolving process to identify the issues in medical surveillance, utilization of exposure registries, and the conduct of epidemiologic research. Each of these are related complex endeavors that build on the toxicologic evidence and extent of exposure. There is a need to assess the scientific basis and research needs for determining early functional changes, organ system and disease responses for use in targeted medical surveillance. There is also need for development of criteria for extrapolating toxicological data in biological systems to predict the risk of adverse outcomes in humans. In the meantime, exposure registries may be pivotal in helping societies act in the face of uncertainty in a precautionary manner, but legal, ethical, and logistical issues need resolution. Epidemiologic research will build on these efforts and may ultimately contribute critical definitive rationale for medical screening, risk assessment and management.

  13. Postinfectious Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Focus on Epidemiology and Research Agendas

    PubMed Central

    Deising, Adam; Gutierrez, Ramiro L.; Porter, Chad K.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic research is fundamental and complementary to our understanding of disease and development of primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions. To put the current evidence into context and identify gaps and research priorities in the areas of disease attribution, burden of disease, clinical characterization, and management of postinfectious functional gastrointestinal disorders (PI-FGDs), we took a multidisciplinary approach from the domains of infectious disease, gastroenterology, epidemiology, and public health. Our review of data from these disciplines found that, despite a complete understanding of pathoetiology, studies continue to accumulate and point toward evidence of a causal association for FGD. For some FGDs, Bradford Hill’s criteria for causality yield more certainty than other criteria. In addition, the growing recognition of the impact of acute foodborne illness on economics and society is leading to exploration of the potential long-term health effects and disease burden of PI-FGDs, although a paucity of data exist in terms of pathogen-specific risk, disability duration, and relevant disability weights. Lastly, the understanding of PI-FGDs is changing the way research is approached and suggests a need for a more expansive exploration of biologic mechanisms and how FGDs are categorized. Areas of research priorities are catalogued in this paper and will hopefully provide inspiration for future studies and contributions to the field of gastroenterology. PMID:23961264

  14. Epidemiological Characteristics and Environmental Risk Factors of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome in Hubei Province, China, from 2011 to 2016

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tang; Li, Xin-Lou; Liu, Man; Song, Xiao-Jia; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Yu-Bin; Tian, Bao-Pin; Xing, Xue-Sen; Li, Shi-Yue

    2017-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a tick-borne viral disease affecting hundreds of people in China each year. To better understand the epidemiological characteristics and environmental risk factors associated with the incidence of SFTS in Hubei Province, China, we conducted a retrospective epidemiological study and risk assessment of SFTS from 2011 to 2016. Although, the incidence and epidemic areas of SFTS are increasing, the fatality rate has decreased. Elderly farmers are the population most commonly infected with SFTS virus between May and July in the northeast Hubei Province, which seems to be consistent with local agricultural activities and the seasonal abundance of ticks. Spatial scanning showed that regions bordering with Xinyang City, Henan Province accounted for most of the SFTS cases in Hubei Province, and there was a significant association of SFTS incidence with temporal changes in the climate within these clusters. Multivariate modeling analysis identified density of cattle, rain-fed cropland, built-up land, temperature, and relative humidity as independent risk factors for the distribution of SFTS. Future epidemiological and serological studies are warranted to elucidate the dynamics and immunity patterns of local SFTS disease and to optimize interventions. PMID:28337190

  15. An analytical framework for delirium research in palliative care settings: integrated epidemiologic, clinician-researcher, and knowledge user perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Peter G; Davis, Daniel H J; Ansari, Mohammed; Hosie, Annmarie; Kanji, Salmaan; Momoli, Franco; Bush, Shirley H; Watanabe, Sharon; Currow, David C; Gagnon, Bruno; Agar, Meera; Bruera, Eduardo; Meagher, David J; de Rooij, Sophia E J A; Adamis, Dimitrios; Caraceni, Augusto; Marchington, Katie; Stewart, David J

    2014-08-01

    Delirium often presents difficult management challenges in the context of goals of care in palliative care settings. The aim was to formulate an analytical framework for further research on delirium in palliative care settings, prioritize the associated research questions, discuss the inherent methodological challenges associated with relevant studies, and outline the next steps in a program of delirium research. We combined multidisciplinary input from delirium researchers and knowledge users at an international delirium study planning meeting, relevant literature searches, focused input of epidemiologic expertise, and a meeting participant and coauthor survey to formulate a conceptual research framework and prioritize research questions. Our proposed framework incorporates three main groups of research questions: the first was predominantly epidemiologic, such as delirium occurrence rates, risk factor evaluation, screening, and diagnosis; the second covers pragmatic management questions; and the third relates to the development of predictive models for delirium outcomes. Based on aggregated survey responses to each research question or domain, the combined modal ratings of "very" or "extremely" important confirmed their priority. Using an analytical framework to represent the full clinical care pathway of delirium in palliative care settings, we identified multiple knowledge gaps in relation to the occurrence rates, assessment, management, and outcome prediction of delirium in this population. The knowledge synthesis generated from adequately powered, multicenter studies to answer the framework's research questions will inform decision making and policy development regarding delirium detection and management and thus help to achieve better outcomes for patients in palliative care settings. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An Analytical Framework for Delirium Research in Palliative Care Settings: Integrated Epidemiologic, Clinician-Researcher, and Knowledge User Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Mohammed; Hosie, Annmarie; Kanji, Salmaan; Momoli, Franco; Bush, Shirley H.; Watanabe, Sharon; Currow, David C.; Gagnon, Bruno; Agar, Meera; Bruera, Eduardo; Meagher, David J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.J.A.; Adamis, Dimitrios; Caraceni, Augusto; Marchington, Katie; Stewart, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Context Delirium often presents difficult management challenges in the context of goals of care in palliative care settings. Objectives The aim was to formulate an analytical framework for further research on delirium in palliative care settings, prioritize the associated research questions, discuss the inherent methodological challenges associated with relevant studies, and outline the next steps in a program of delirium research. Methods We combined multidisciplinary input from delirium researchers and knowledge users at an international delirium study planning meeting, relevant literature searches, focused input of epidemiologic expertise, and a meeting participant and coauthor survey to formulate a conceptual research framework and prioritize research questions. Results Our proposed framework incorporates three main groups of research questions: the first was predominantly epidemiologic, such as delirium occurrence rates, risk factor evaluation, screening, and diagnosis; the second covers pragmatic management questions; and the third relates to the development of predictive models for delirium outcomes. Based on aggregated survey responses to each research question or domain, the combined modal ratings of “very” or “extremely” important confirmed their priority. Conclusion Using an analytical framework to represent the full clinical care pathway of delirium in palliative care settings, we identified multiple knowledge gaps in relation to the occurrence rates, assessment, management, and outcome prediction of delirium in this population. The knowledge synthesis generated from adequately powered, multicenter studies to answer the framework’s research questions will inform decision making and policy development regarding delirium detection and management and thus help to achieve better outcomes for patients in palliative care settings. PMID:24726762

  17. Current Research in Environmental Education. ERIC/SMEAC Environmental Education Digest No. 1, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disinger, John F.

    This digest describes a selection of environmental education research studies that were included in the ERIC system in 1985. It is noted that much of the reported research in environmental education continues to deal with the affective domain, but that there are stronger efforts toward relating affective components with knowledge gain,…

  18. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 2 - Epidemiology, Wildlife and Economics.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Robinson, L; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    We assessed knowledge gaps in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) research, and in this study, we consider (i) epidemiology, (ii) wildlife and (iii) economics. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-2015) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD research. During 2011-2015, modelling studies were dominant in the broad field of epidemiology; however, continued efforts are required to develop robust models for use during outbreaks in FMD-free countries, linking epidemiologic and economics models. More guidance is needed for both the evaluation and the setting of targets for vaccine coverage, population immunity and vaccine field efficacy. Similarly, methods for seroprevalence studies need to be improved to obtain more meaningful outputs that allow comparison across studies. To inform control programmes in endemic countries, field trials assessing the effectiveness of vaccination in extensive smallholder systems should be performed to determine whether FMD can be controlled with quality vaccines in settings where implementing effective biosecurity is challenging. Studies need to go beyond measuring only vaccine effects and should extend our knowledge of the impact of FMD and increase our understanding of how to maximize farmer participation in disease control. Where wildlife reservoirs of virus exist, particularly African Buffalo, we need to better understand when and under what circumstances transmission to domestic animals occurs in order to manage this risk appropriately, considering the impact of control measures on livelihoods and wildlife. For settings where FMD eradication is unfeasible, further ground testing of commodity-based trade is recommended. A thorough review of global FMD control programmes, covering successes and failures, would be extremely valuable and could be used to guide other control programmes.

  19. Review of Research on Environmental Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunig, James E.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews existing knowledge on the behavior of public relations practitioners in environmental problems, public concern and media coverage of pollution and deterioation of the natural environment. Available from: Public Relations Review, Ray Hiebert, Dean, College of Journalism, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. (MH)

  20. NASA Airspace Systems Environmentally Focused Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavolowsky, John

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation focuses on how the Next Generation Air Space System can assist in reducing environmental pollution and reduced fuel consumption. By modifying some of the current aviation practices such as the dive and drive descent and making more efficient air traffic flow, the new system can assist in noise reduction, emissions reductions and reduce delays in routing and improve operational efficiency

  1. What Research Says: Environmental Education's Definitional Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disinger, John F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses problems related to defining environmental education (EE), examining historical attempts to define EE and EE's forerunners and/or concurrent companions (including resource-use, progressive resource management, and population education). Indicates that although unanimity of agreement results from problems of communication and "turf…

  2. Review of Research on Environmental Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunig, James E.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews existing knowledge on the behavior of public relations practitioners in environmental problems, public concern and media coverage of pollution and deterioation of the natural environment. Available from: Public Relations Review, Ray Hiebert, Dean, College of Journalism, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. (MH)

  3. Randomized controlled trials in environmental health research: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2008-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are becoming increasingly common in environmental health research. Like all studies involving human subjects, environmental health RCTs raise many ethical challenges, ranging from obtaining informed consent to minimizing risks to protecting privacy and confidentiality. One of the most important issues raised by these studies is whether it is ethical to withhold effective environmental health interventions from research subjects in order to satisfy scientific objectives. Although environmental health investigators usually do not have professional obligations to provide medical care to research subjects, they have ethical obligations to avoid exploiting them. Withholding interventions from research subjects can be ethical, provided that it does not lead to exploitation of individuals or groups. To avoid exploiting individuals or groups, investigators should ensure that research subjects and study populations receive a fair share of the benefits of research.

  4. Current research on transcultural psychiatry in the Anglophone Caribbean: epistemological, public policy, and epidemiological challenges.

    PubMed

    Hickling, Frederick W; Gibson, Roger C; Hutchinson, Gerard

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we review recent research on mental health in the Caribbean. Three major themes emerge: (a) the effects of colonialism on the Caribbean psyche; (b) decolonization of psychiatric public policy, including innovative treatment approaches, deinstitutionalization, and community and policy responses to mental health issues; and (c) the nature and epidemiology of psychiatric pathology among contemporary Caribbean people, with particular focus on migration, genetic versus social causation of psychosis and personality disorders, and mechanisms of resilience and social capital. Caribbean transcultural psychiatry illustrates the principles of equipoise unique to developing countries that protect the wellness and continued survival of postcolonial Caribbean people.

  5. European Community research on environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Sors, A I

    1993-01-01

    Within the 12 Member States of the European Community (EC), environmental policy is now formulated primarily at Community level. As a result, the EC has important regulatory responsibilities for the protection of workers, consumers, and the general public from risks that may arise from environmental chemicals, foremost among them potential carcinogens and mutagens. An important part of EC environmental research and development is intended to provide a scientific basis for these regulations as well as increasing understanding of the basic mechanisms involved in environmental carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. This paper contains a brief introduction to EC environment policy and research, followed by an overview of EC chemicals control activities that are of particular relevance to the research and development program. Community-level research on environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis is then reviewed in some detail, including the achievements of recent projects, the scientific content of the current program, and perspectives for the future. PMID:8143645

  6. A review of the application of inflammatory biomarkers in epidemiologic cancer research.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Darren R; Scherer, Dominique; Muir, Kenneth; Schildkraut, Joellen; Boffetta, Paolo; Spitz, Margaret R; Le Marchand, Loic; Chan, Andrew T; Goode, Ellen L; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Hung, Rayjean J

    2014-09-01

    Inflammation is a facilitating process for multiple cancer types. It is believed to affect cancer development and progression through several etiologic pathways, including increased levels of DNA adduct formation, increased angiogenesis, and altered antiapoptotic signaling. This review highlights the application of inflammatory biomarkers in epidemiologic studies and discusses the various cellular mediators of inflammation characterizing the innate immune system response to infection and chronic insult from environmental factors. Included is a review of six classes of inflammation-related biomarkers: cytokines/chemokines, immune-related effectors, acute-phase proteins, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, prostaglandins and cyclooxygenase-related factors, and mediators such as transcription factors and growth factors. For each of these biomarkers, we provide a brief overview of the etiologic role in the inflammation response and how they have been related to cancer etiology and progression within the literature. We provide a discussion of the common techniques available for quantification of each marker, including strengths, weaknesses, and potential pitfalls. Subsequently, we highlight a few under-studied measures to characterize the inflammatory response and their potential utility in epidemiologic studies of cancer. Finally, we suggest integrative methods for future studies to apply multifaceted approaches to examine the relationship between inflammatory markers and their roles in cancer development.

  7. Environmental Quality Research Fish and Aufwuchs Bioassay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    unlimited. AIR FORCE AEROSPACE MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY AEROSPACE MEDICAL DIVISION AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, OHIO...invention that may in any way be related thereto. Please do not request copies of this report from Air Force Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory...MD Director Toxic Hazards Division Air Force Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory AIR FORCE/56780/29 November 1979-- 150 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  8. Empirical research on international environmental migration: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Obokata, Reiko; Veronis, Luisa; McLeman, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a systematic review of scholarly publications that report empirical findings from studies of environmentally-related international migration. There exists a small, but growing accumulation of empirical studies that consider environmentally-linked migration that spans international borders. These studies provide useful evidence for scholars and policymakers in understanding how environmental factors interact with political, economic and social factors to influence migration behavior and outcomes that are specific to international movements of people, in highlighting promising future research directions, and in raising important considerations for international policymaking. Our review identifies countries of migrant origin and destination that have so far been the subject of empirical research, the environmental factors believed to have influenced these migrations, the interactions of environmental and non-environmental factors as well as the role of context in influencing migration behavior, and the types of methods used by researchers. In reporting our findings, we identify the strengths and challenges associated with the main empirical approaches, highlight significant gaps and future opportunities for empirical work, and contribute to advancing understanding of environmental influences on international migration more generally. Specifically, we propose an exploratory framework to take into account the role of context in shaping environmental migration across borders, including the dynamic and complex interactions between environmental and non-environmental factors at a range of scales.

  9. Exposure Assessment for Atmospheric Ultrafine Particles (UFPs) and Implications in Epidemiologic Research

    PubMed Central

    Sioutas, Constantinos; Delfino, Ralph J.; Singh, Manisha

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiologic research has shown increases in adverse cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes in relation to mass concentrations of particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5 or ≤10 μm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, respectively). In a companion article [Delfino RJ, Sioutas C, Malik S. 2005. Environ Health Perspect 113(8):934–946]), we discuss epidemiologic evidence pointing to underlying components linked to fossil fuel combustion. The causal components driving the PM associations remain to be identified, but emerging evidence on particle size and chemistry has led to some clues. There is sufficient reason to believe that ultrafine particles < 0.1 μm (UFPs) are important because when compared with larger particles, they have order of magnitudes higher particle number concentration and surface area, and larger concentrations of adsorbed or condensed toxic air pollutants (oxidant gases, organic compounds, transition metals) per unit mass. This is supported by evidence of significantly higher in vitro redox activity by UFPs than by larger PM. Although epidemiologic research is needed, exposure assessment issues for UFPs are complex and need to be considered before undertaking investigations of UFP health effects. These issues include high spatial variability, indoor sources, variable infiltration of UFPs from a variety of outside sources, and meteorologic factors leading to high seasonal variability in concentration and composition, including volatility. To address these issues, investigators need to develop as well as validate the analytic technologies required to characterize the physical/chemical nature of UFPs in various environments. In the present review, we provide a detailed discussion of key characteristics of UFPs, their sources and formation mechanisms, and methodologic approaches to assessing population exposures. PMID:16079062

  10. Spatial epidemiology of blastomycosis hospitalizations: detecting clusters and identifying environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Amy E; Adjemian, Jennifer; Steiner, Claudia A; Prevots, D Rebecca

    2015-06-01

    Blastomycosis is a disease caused by endemic fungi that ranges from severe pulmonary or disseminated to mild or asymptomatic. Environmental factors associated with it are not well described throughout the endemic area. We used the intramural State Inpatient Database from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and ArcMap GIS to identify geographic high-risk clusters of blastomycosis hospitalizations in 13 states in the US endemic regions (AR, IA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO, MS, OH, TN, and WI). We then used logistic regression to identify risk factors associated with these high-risk clusters. We describe six clusters of counties in which there was an elevated incidence of blastomycosis hospitalizations. We identified maximum mean annual temperature, percentage of persons aged ≥65 years, and mercury and copper soil content as being associated with high-risk clusters. Specifically, the odds of a county being part of a high-risk cluster was associated with increasing percentage of population over age 65, decreasing maximum temperature, increasing mercury, and decreasing copper soil content. Healthcare providers should be aware of these high-risk areas so that blastomycosis can be included, as appropriate, in a differential diagnosis for patients currently or previously residing in these areas.

  11. Applied Science Division annual report, Environmental Research Program FY 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, E.J.; Novakov, T.

    1984-05-01

    The primary concern of the Environmental Research Program is the understanding of pollutant formation, transport, and transformation and the impacts of pollutants on the environment. These impacts include global, regional, and local effects on the atmosphere and hydrosphere, and on certain aspects of human health. This multidisciplinary research program includes fundamental and applied research in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology, as well as research on the development of advanced methods of measurement and analysis. During FY 1983, research concentrated on atmospheric physics and chemistry, applied physics and laser spectroscopy, combustion theory and phenomena, environmental effects of oil shale processing, freshwater ecology and acid precipitation, trace element analysis for the investigation of present and historical environmental impacts, and a continuing survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring.

  12. Environmental Research Puts Science into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaikowski, Lori; Lichtman, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The new paradigm for student research should be articulations and collaborations with local governmental, academic, and civic entities. This will enable students to make lasting contributions to bettering their communities through scientific research, and to better understand the practical relevance of science. This article presents two such…

  13. Environmental Research Puts Science into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaikowski, Lori; Lichtman, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The new paradigm for student research should be articulations and collaborations with local governmental, academic, and civic entities. This will enable students to make lasting contributions to bettering their communities through scientific research, and to better understand the practical relevance of science. This article presents two such…

  14. Environmental Research Division technical progress report, January 1984-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    Technical progress in the various research and assessment activities of Argonne National Laboratory's Environmental Research Division is reported for the period 1984 to 1985. Textual, graphic, and tabular information is used to briefly summarize (in separate chapters) the work of the Division's Atmospheric Physics, Environmental Effects Research, Environmental Impacts, Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, and Waste Management Programs. Information on professional qualifications, awards, and outstanding professional activities of staff members, as well as lists of publications, oral presentations, special events organized, and participants in educational programs, are provided in appendices at the end of each chapter.

  15. Environmental Research Division technical progress report: January 1986--October 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    Technical process in the various research activities of Argonne National Laboratory's Environmental Research Division is reported for the period 1986-1987. Textual, graphic, and tabular information is used to briefly summarize (in separate chapters) the work of the Division's Atmospheric Physics, Environmental Effects Research, Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, and Organic Geochemistry and Environmental Instrumentation Programs. Information on professional qualifications, awards, and outstanding professional activities of staff members, as well as lists of publications, oral presentations, special events organized, and participants in educational programs, are provided in appendices at the end of each chapter. Individual projects under each division are processed separately for the data bases.

  16. Environmental Sciences Division: Summaries of research in FY 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This document describes the Fiscal Year 1996 activities and products of the Environmental Sciences Division, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research. The report is organized into four main sections. The introduction identifies the basic program structure, describes the programs of the Environmental Sciences Division, and provides the level of effort for each program area. The research areas and project descriptions section gives program contact information, and provides descriptions of individual research projects including: three-year funding history, research objective and approach used in each project, and results to date. Appendixes provide postal and e-mail addresses for principal investigators and define acronyms used in the text. The indexes provide indexes of principal investigators, research institutions, and keywords for easy reference. Research projects are related to climatic change and remedial action.

  17. Epidemiology of IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... IBD? Projects and Partners Data and Statistics Resources Epidemiology of the IBD Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 5:1424-9. 2 Loftus EV, Jr. Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: Incidence, prevalence, and environmental ...

  18. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report.

  19. Coordinating centers in cancer epidemiology research: the Asia Cohort Consortium coordinating center.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Betsy; Smith, Briana R; Potter, John D

    2011-10-01

    Although it is tacitly recognized that a good coordinating center (CC) is essential to the success of any multisite collaborative project, very little study has been done on what makes a CC successful, why some CCs fail, or how to build a CC that meets the needs of a given project. Moreover, very little published guidance is available, as few CCs outside the clinical trial realm write about their work. The Asia Cohort Consortium (ACC) is a collaborative cancer epidemiology research project that has made strong scientific and organizational progress over the past 3 years by focusing its CC on the following activities: collaboration development; operations management; statistical and data management; and communications infrastructure and tool development. Our hope is that, by sharing our experience building the ACC CC, we can begin a conversation about what it means to run a CC for multi-institutional collaboration in cancer epidemiology, help other collaborative projects solve some of the issues associated with collaborative research, and learn from others. ©2011 AACR

  20. Coordinating Centers in Cancer-Epidemiology Research: The Asia Cohort Consortium Coordinating Center

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Betsy; Smith, Briana R; Potter, John D

    2011-01-01

    Although it is tacitly recognized that a good Coordinating Center (CC) is essential to the success of any multi-site collaborative project, very little study has been done on what makes a CC successful, why some CCs fail, or how to build a CC that meets the needs of a given project. Moreover, very little published guidance is available, as few CCs outside the clinical-trial realm write about their work. The Asia Cohort Consortium (ACC) is a collaborative cancer-epidemiology research project that has made strong scientific and organizational progress over the past three years by focusing its CC on the following activities: collaboration development; operations management; statistical and data management; and communications infrastructure and tool development. Our hope is that, by sharing our experience building the ACC CC, we can begin a conversation about what it means to run a coordinating center for multi-institutional collaboration in cancer epidemiology, help other collaborative projects solve some of the issues associated with collaborative research, and learn from others. PMID:21803842

  1. About the Western Ecology Division (WED) of EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Western Ecology Division (WED) conducts innovative research on watershed ecological epidemiology and the development of tools to achieve sustainable and resilient watersheds for application by stakeholders.

  2. The leukemias: Epidemiologic aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Linet, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Particularly geared to physicians and cancer researchers, this study of the epidemiology and etiology of leukemia analyzes the four major leukemia subtypes in terms of genetic and familial determinant factors and examines the incidence, distribution and frequency of reported leukemia clusters. Linet discusses the connection between other types of malignancies, their treatments, and the subsequent development of leukemia and evaluates the impact on leukemia onset of such environmental factors as radiation therapy, drugs, and occupational hazards.

  3. Engaging Children: Research Issues around Participation and Environmental Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacking, Elisabeth Barratt; Barratt, Robert; Scott, William

    2007-01-01

    In this article we explore a number of issues arising from the papers in this special issue of "Environmental Education Research." The papers focus on current examples of childhood environment research in the UK together with research reviews from the UK, the US and Australia. In order to provide a framework for considering and…

  4. Engaging Children: Research Issues around Participation and Environmental Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacking, Elisabeth Barratt; Barratt, Robert; Scott, William

    2007-01-01

    In this article we explore a number of issues arising from the papers in this special issue of "Environmental Education Research." The papers focus on current examples of childhood environment research in the UK together with research reviews from the UK, the US and Australia. In order to provide a framework for considering and…

  5. Directions for environmentally biodegradable polymer research

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G. )

    1993-03-01

    A major factor promoting interest in biodegradable polymers is the growing concern raised by the recalcitrance and unknown environmental fate of many of the currently used synthetic polymers. These polymers include both water-soluble and water-insoluble types. The former are generally specialty polymers with functional groups that effect water solubility such as carboxyl, hydroxyl, amido, etc.; the latter are usually nonfunctional polymers commonly referred to as commodity plastics. Both types of polymers are widely used in many applications. Water-soluble polymers are used, for example, in cosmetics, water treatment, dispersants, thickeners, detergents, and superabsorbents, and they include poly(acrylic acid), polyacrylamide, poly(vinyl alcohol), and poly(ethylene glycol). Plastics are used in packaging, disposable diaper backing, fishing nets, and agricultural film; they include polymers such as polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(ethylene terephthalate), and Nylon 6.6. In this Account, the author presents a personal perspective on definitions and test protocols for biodegradable polymers as well as how they will influence the future direction and developments in the field. However, before doing so he digresses briefly to present a commentary on the role of biodegradable polymers in environmental waste management. This should be useful for those readers unfamiliar with the subject, and it will set the stage for the rest of the discussion. 36 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Investigating the Benefits of Participatory Action Research for Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bywater, Krista

    2014-01-01

    Environmental education (EE) continues to focus on enhancing people's ecological knowledge to encourage sustainable actions. This deficit approach presumes that once informed about environmental harms, people will work towards sustainable solutions for healthy societies. Yet research overwhelmingly demonstrates that knowledge of environmental…

  7. Investigating the Benefits of Participatory Action Research for Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bywater, Krista

    2014-01-01

    Environmental education (EE) continues to focus on enhancing people's ecological knowledge to encourage sustainable actions. This deficit approach presumes that once informed about environmental harms, people will work towards sustainable solutions for healthy societies. Yet research overwhelmingly demonstrates that knowledge of environmental…

  8. Environmental Justice Research: Contemporary Issues and Emerging Topics

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Collins, Timothy W.; Grineski, Sara E.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research seeks to document and redress the disproportionate environmental burdens and benefits associated with social inequalities. Although its initial focus was on disparities in exposure to anthropogenic pollution, the scope of EJ research has expanded. In the context of intensifying social inequalities and environmental problems, there is a need to further strengthen the EJ research framework and diversify its application. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) incorporates 19 articles that broaden EJ research by considering emerging topics such as energy, food, drinking water, flooding, sustainability, and gender dynamics, including issues in Canada, the UK, and Eastern Europe. Additionally, the articles contribute to three research themes: (1) documenting connections between unjust environmental exposures and health impacts by examining unsafe infrastructure, substance use, and children’s obesity and academic performance; (2) promoting and achieving EJ by implementing interventions to improve environmental knowledge and health, identifying avenues for sustainable community change, and incorporating EJ metrics in government programs; and (3) clarifying stakeholder perceptions of EJ issues to extend research beyond the documentation of unjust conditions and processes. Collectively, the articles highlight potentially compounding injustices and an array of approaches being employed to achieve EJ. PMID:27809294

  9. Environmental Justice Research: Contemporary Issues and Emerging Topics.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E

    2016-11-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research seeks to document and redress the disproportionate environmental burdens and benefits associated with social inequalities. Although its initial focus was on disparities in exposure to anthropogenic pollution, the scope of EJ research has expanded. In the context of intensifying social inequalities and environmental problems, there is a need to further strengthen the EJ research framework and diversify its application. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) incorporates 19 articles that broaden EJ research by considering emerging topics such as energy, food, drinking water, flooding, sustainability, and gender dynamics, including issues in Canada, the UK, and Eastern Europe. Additionally, the articles contribute to three research themes: (1) documenting connections between unjust environmental exposures and health impacts by examining unsafe infrastructure, substance use, and children's obesity and academic performance; (2) promoting and achieving EJ by implementing interventions to improve environmental knowledge and health, identifying avenues for sustainable community change, and incorporating EJ metrics in government programs; and (3) clarifying stakeholder perceptions of EJ issues to extend research beyond the documentation of unjust conditions and processes. Collectively, the articles highlight potentially compounding injustices and an array of approaches being employed to achieve EJ.

  10. [Implementation of a quality management system for research and teaching in a university department of epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Berghöfer, Anne; de Bucourt, Maximilian; Willich, Stefan N

    2007-01-01

    The present article analyses the development and implementation of quality management systems at institutes for clinical and theoretical research as exemplified by the Charité University Medical Centre's Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology, and Health Economics in Berlin. The Institute established its quality management system independently (i.e. without external consultants) and was able to fulfil the standard requirements within one year. The quality management system was successfully certified under European Standard DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 by an authorized external DIN-accredited inspection authority in October 2005 and recertified one year later. The certification covered the areas of research, teaching, and supporting administration. Our description of the individual steps involved and the corresponding timeline may be useful to organizations of a similar type and size seeking professional external certification.

  11. Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adult Cancer Study—A Methodologic Approach in Cancer Epidemiology Research

    PubMed Central

    Link, Nancy J.; Maurer, Eva; Largent, Joan; Kent, Erin; Morris, Rebecca A.; Sender, Leonard S.; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2009-01-01

    Advances have been made in treatment and outcomes for pediatric cancer. However adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer have not experienced similar relative improvements. We undertook a study to develop the methodology necessary for epidemiologic cancer research in these age groups. Our goal was to create the Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cancer (KAYAC) project to create a resource to address research questions relevant to this population. We used a combination of clinic and population-based ascertainment to enroll 111 cases aged 0–39 for this methodology development study. The largest groups of cancer types enrolled include: breast cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, and melanoma. The overall participation rate is 69.8% and varies by age and tumor type. The study included patients, mothers, and fathers. The methods used to establish this resource are described, and the values of the resource in studies of childhood and young adult cancer are outlined. PMID:20445801

  12. An Overview Of Current Research At The Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of the current research at the Environmental Protection Agency. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT ROGER B. YEARDLEY, JR., LAND REMEDIATION AND POLLUTION CONTROL DIVISION, 513-569-7548.

  13. An Overview Of Current Research At The Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of the current research at the Environmental Protection Agency. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT ROGER B. YEARDLEY, JR., LAND REMEDIATION AND POLLUTION CONTROL DIVISION, 513-569-7548.

  14. Green Infrastructure Research and Demonstration at the Edison Environmental Center

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will review the need for storm water control practices and will present a portion of the green infrastructure research and demonstration being performed at the Edison Environmental Center.

  15. Green Infrastructure Research and Demonstration at the Edison Environmental Center

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will review the need for storm water control practices and will present a portion of the green infrastructure research and demonstration being performed at the Edison Environmental Center.

  16. Applying environmental product design to biomedical products research.

    PubMed

    Messelbeck, J; Sutherland, L

    2000-12-01

    The principal themes for the Biomedical Research and the Environment Conference Committee on Environmental Economics in Biomedical Research include the following: healthcare delivery companies and biomedical research organizations, both nonprofit and for-profit, need to improve their environmental performance; suppliers of healthcare products will be called upon to support this need; and improving the environmental profile of healthcare products begins in research and development (R&D). The committee report begins with requirements from regulatory authorities (e.g., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], the U.S. Food and Drug Administration), and the healthcare delivery sector). The 1998 American Hospital Association and EPA Memorandum of Understanding to reduce solid waste and mercury from healthcare facilities is emblematic of these requirements. The dominant message from the requirements discussion is to ensure that R&D organizations do not ignore customer, environmental, and regulatory requirements in the early stages of product development. Several representatives from healthcare products manufacturers presented their companies' approaches to meeting these requirements. They reported on efforts to ensure that their R&D processes are sensitive to the environmental consequences from manufacturing, distributing, using, and disposing of healthcare products. These reports describe representatives' awareness of requirements and the unique approaches their R&D organizations have taken to meet these requirements. All representatives reported that their R&D organizations have embraced environmental product design because it avoids the potential of returning products to R&D to improve the environmental profile. Additionally, several reports detailed cost savings, sustainability benefits, and improvements in environmental manufacturing or redesign, and increased customer satisfaction. Many companies in healthcare delivery are working to improve environmental

  17. Applying environmental product design to biomedical products research.

    PubMed Central

    Messelbeck, J; Sutherland, L

    2000-01-01

    The principal themes for the Biomedical Research and the Environment Conference Committee on Environmental Economics in Biomedical Research include the following: healthcare delivery companies and biomedical research organizations, both nonprofit and for-profit, need to improve their environmental performance; suppliers of healthcare products will be called upon to support this need; and improving the environmental profile of healthcare products begins in research and development (R&D). The committee report begins with requirements from regulatory authorities (e.g., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], the U.S. Food and Drug Administration), and the healthcare delivery sector). The 1998 American Hospital Association and EPA Memorandum of Understanding to reduce solid waste and mercury from healthcare facilities is emblematic of these requirements. The dominant message from the requirements discussion is to ensure that R&D organizations do not ignore customer, environmental, and regulatory requirements in the early stages of product development. Several representatives from healthcare products manufacturers presented their companies' approaches to meeting these requirements. They reported on efforts to ensure that their R&D processes are sensitive to the environmental consequences from manufacturing, distributing, using, and disposing of healthcare products. These reports describe representatives' awareness of requirements and the unique approaches their R&D organizations have taken to meet these requirements. All representatives reported that their R&D organizations have embraced environmental product design because it avoids the potential of returning products to R&D to improve the environmental profile. Additionally, several reports detailed cost savings, sustainability benefits, and improvements in environmental manufacturing or redesign, and increased customer satisfaction. Many companies in healthcare delivery are working to improve environmental

  18. US EPA Environmental Justice Research Roadmap: Cross Agency Research Priority

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consideration of how to assess the health risk of mixtures and to characterize cumulative risk have long been challenges in toxicology and public health. The 1994 White House Executive Order (EO) 12898 Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice (EJ) in Minority Populations...

  19. US EPA Environmental Justice Research Roadmap: Cross Agency Research Priority

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consideration of how to assess the health risk of mixtures and to characterize cumulative risk have long been challenges in toxicology and public health. The 1994 White House Executive Order (EO) 12898 Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice (EJ) in Minority Populations...

  20. NASA Integrated Systems Research with an Environmental Focus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Jean; Collier, Fay

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) with a focus on the work being done on reduction of environmental impact from aeronautics. The focus of the ISRP is to Conduct research at an integrated system-level on promising concepts and technologies and explore, assess, or demonstrate the benefits in a relevant environment. The presentation reviews the criteria for an ISRP project, and discusses the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project, and the technical challenges.

  1. Environmental Sciences Division: Summaries of research in FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This report focuses on research in global change, as well as environmental remediation. Global change research investigates the following: distribution and balance of radiative heat energy; identification of the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases; and prediction of changes in the climate and concomitant ecological effects. Environmental remediation develops the basic understanding needed to remediate soils, sediments, and ground water that have undergone radioactive and chemical contamination.

  2. Leveraging Epidemiology and Clinical Studies of Cancer Outcomes: Recommendations and Opportunities for Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    As the number of cancer survivors continues to grow, research investigating the factors that affect cancer outcomes, such as disease recurrence, risk of second malignant neoplasms, and the late effects of cancer treatments, becomes ever more important. Numerous epidemiologic studies have investigated factors that affect cancer risk, but far fewer have addressed the extent to which demographic, lifestyle, genomic, clinical, and psychosocial factors influence cancer outcomes. To identify research priorities as well as resources and infrastructure needed to advance the field of cancer outcomes and survivorship research, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a workshop titled “Utilizing Data from Cancer Survivor Cohorts: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities” on November 3, 2011, in Washington, DC. This commentary highlights recent findings presented at the workshop, opportunities to leverage existing data, and recommendations for future research, data, and infrastructure needed to address high priority clinical and research questions. Multidisciplinary teams that include epidemiologists, clinicians, biostatisticians, and bioinformaticists will be essential to facilitate future cancer outcome studies focused on improving clinical care of cancer patients, identifying those at high risk of poor outcomes, and implementing effective interventions to ultimately improve the quality and duration of survival. PMID:23197494

  3. Leveraging epidemiology and clinical studies of cancer outcomes: recommendations and opportunities for translational research.

    PubMed

    Elena, Joanne W; Travis, Lois B; Simonds, Naoko I; Ambrosone, Christine B; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Bhatia, Smita; Cerhan, James R; Hartge, Patricia; Heist, Rebecca S; Kushi, Lawrence H; Lash, Timothy L; Morton, Lindsay M; Onel, Kenan; Pierce, John P; Robison, Leslie L; Rowland, Julia H; Schrag, Deborah; Sellers, Thomas A; Seminara, Daniela; Shu, Xiao Ou; Thomas, Nancy E; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Freedman, Andrew N

    2013-01-16

    As the number of cancer survivors continues to grow, research investigating the factors that affect cancer outcomes, such as disease recurrence, risk of second malignant neoplasms, and the late effects of cancer treatments, becomes ever more important. Numerous epidemiologic studies have investigated factors that affect cancer risk, but far fewer have addressed the extent to which demographic, lifestyle, genomic, clinical, and psychosocial factors influence cancer outcomes. To identify research priorities as well as resources and infrastructure needed to advance the field of cancer outcomes and survivorship research, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a workshop titled "Utilizing Data from Cancer Survivor Cohorts: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities" on November 3, 2011, in Washington, DC. This commentary highlights recent findings presented at the workshop, opportunities to leverage existing data, and recommendations for future research, data, and infrastructure needed to address high priority clinical and research questions. Multidisciplinary teams that include epidemiologists, clinicians, biostatisticians, and bioinformaticists will be essential to facilitate future cancer outcome studies focused on improving clinical care of cancer patients, identifying those at high risk of poor outcomes, and implementing effective interventions to ultimately improve the quality and duration of survival.

  4. Enhancing Student Understanding of Environmental Sciences Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurwick, Noel P.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an authentic semi-guided student research project. Studies the impact of a regional invasion of non-indigenous worm species on decomposition in forest soils. Describes the experimental design, data analysis, and interpretation of the data. (Contains 16 references.) (YDS)

  5. Enhancing Student Understanding of Environmental Sciences Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurwick, Noel P.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an authentic semi-guided student research project. Studies the impact of a regional invasion of non-indigenous worm species on decomposition in forest soils. Describes the experimental design, data analysis, and interpretation of the data. (Contains 16 references.) (YDS)

  6. Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Kerr Center, situated on 16 acres three miles south of Ada, Oklahoma, houses the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) of the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL). The division develops strategies and technologies to protect and restore grou...

  7. Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Kerr Center, situated on 16 acres three miles south of Ada, Oklahoma, houses the Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) of the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL). The division develops strategies and technologies to protect and restore grou...

  8. Age-Adjustment and Related Epidemiology Rates in Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John D.; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence,…

  9. Age-Adjustment and Related Epidemiology Rates in Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John D.; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence,…

  10. Prevalence and Epidemiologic Characteristics of FASD From Various Research Methods with an Emphasis on Recent In-School Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Philip A.; Gossage, J. Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Robinson, Luther K.; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Hoyme, H. Eugene

    2009-01-01

    Researching the epidemiology and estimating the prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) for mainstream populations anywhere in the world has presented a challenge to researchers. Three major approaches have been used in the past: surveillance and record review systems, clinic-based studies, and…

  11. Prevalence and Epidemiologic Characteristics of FASD From Various Research Methods with an Emphasis on Recent In-School Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Philip A.; Gossage, J. Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Robinson, Luther K.; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Hoyme, H. Eugene

    2009-01-01

    Researching the epidemiology and estimating the prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) for mainstream populations anywhere in the world has presented a challenge to researchers. Three major approaches have been used in the past: surveillance and record review systems, clinic-based studies, and…

  12. An International Comparison of the Instigation and Design of Health Registers in the Epidemiological Response to Major Environmental Health Incidents.

    PubMed

    Behbod, Behrooz; Leonardi, Giovanni; Motreff, Yvon; Beck, Charles R; Yzermans, Joris; Lebret, Erik; Muravov, Oleg I; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Wolkin, Amy Funk; Lauriola, Paolo; Close, Rebecca; Crabbe, Helen; Pirard, Philippe

    Epidemiological preparedness is vital in providing relevant, transparent, and timely intelligence for the management, mitigation, and prevention of public health impacts following major environmental health incidents. A register is a set of records containing systematically collected, standardized data about individual people. Planning for a register of people affected by or exposed to an incident is one of the evolving tools in the public health preparedness and response arsenal. We compared and contrasted the instigation and design of health registers in the epidemiological response to major environmental health incidents in England, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United States. Consultation with experts from the 5 nations, supplemented with a review of gray and peer-reviewed scientific literature to identify examples where registers have been used. Populations affected by or at risk from major environmental health incidents in England, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United States. Nations were compared with respect to the (1) types of major incidents in their remit for considering a register; (2) arrangements for triggering a register; (3) approaches to design of register; (4) arrangements for register implementation; (5) uses of registers; and (6) examples of follow-up studies. Health registers have played a key role in the effective public health response to major environmental incidents, including sudden chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear, as well as natural, more prolonged incidents. Value has been demonstrated in the early and rapid deployment of health registers, enabling the capture of a representative population. The decision to establish a health register must ideally be confirmed immediately or soon after the incident using a set of agreed criteria. The establishment of protocols for the instigation, design, and implementation of health registers is recommended as part of preparedness activities. Key stakeholders must be

  13. Construction and validation of a list of common Middle Eastern surnames for epidemiological research

    PubMed Central

    Nasseri, Kiumarss

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Middle Eastern (ME) population is rapidly growing in the US but cannot be easily identified in cancer registry or other databases for epidemiological research. The purpose of this study was to develop a list of common Middle Eastern surnames and validate it by linking with a cancer registry incidence files. Methods Surnames and place of birth in the Middle East were obtained from various sources. After exclusion of the non-specific entries, the final combined list included 49,610 surnames and was matched with the California Cancer Registry incidence file for 1988-2003. Results Overall, 1.4% of all registered cases were positively identified as ME that is similar to the proportion of ME population in California. Two third of the identified cases had known place of birth in the Middle East and of those, 70% were non-Arabs. The sensitivity of the list in detecting ME birth in men and women are 91% and 86%, respectively. The positive predictive values for men and women are 72% and 65%. The specificity and negative predictive values are universally over 99 percent. Conclusion The high accuracy reported for this Middle Eastern surname list (MESL) makes it a valuable tool for epidemiological studies of this ethnic population. PMID:18023539

  14. Epidemiological research drives a paradigm shift in complementary feeding - the celiac disease story and lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Nordyke, Katrina; Olsson, Cecilia; Hernell, Olle; Ivarsson, Anneli

    2010-01-01

    Breast milk is the initial natural food for infants, but already during the second half year complementary feeding is essential. Epidemiological research, first on celiac disease and later on atopic diseases, has driven a paradigm shift with respect to most favorable age to introduce complementary feeding. Simplified, this implies a shift from later to earlier introduction, which is now taken into account in recommendations on infant feeding. Complementary feeding, including all foods, should not be initiated for any infant before 4 months of age, and not later than around 6 months, including infants with elevated disease risk (e.g. for celiac disease or atopic diseases). Motivating reasons could be that ongoing breastfeeding provides an 'immunological umbrella' and/ or a different age interval gives a 'window of opportunity' for developing oral tolerance towards gluten and other food antigens. This will for some infants be in conflict with recent WHO recommendations on exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. Epidemiology has evolved over time and could, if increasingly used, contribute even more to innovations in pediatric nutrition and other phenomena related to population health.

  15. Frequently used sleep questionnaires in epidemiological and genetic research for obstructive sleep apnea: a review.

    PubMed

    Fedson, Annette C; Pack, Allan I; Gislason, Thorarinn

    2012-12-01

    Many sleep questionnaires are utilized by the epidemiological and genetic research communities. This paper reviewed sleep-related questions and answers commonly used in epidemiological studies (focused on sleep apnea and snoring), with an emphasis on the utility of the response options. A literature search was conducted to identify relevant sleep questionnaires. Questionnaires were limited to the English language and had to include questions specific to snoring or stop breathing during sleep. Questionnaires had to demonstrate a citation count >10 through Web of Science. A comparison of questions and answers, and elements important in the design of good quality instruments was conducted. Fourteen questionnaires met the inclusion criteria for final review. Validation was conducted for many of these instruments, though the methods and validation populations were highly variable. Study sample sizes were also relatively small and differed in methods of data analysis. These questionnaires were very heterogeneous, with only some (n = 6) allowing a "don't know" alternative. Six specified the time period referred to as "past month", one referred to "last three months" and the remaining questionnaires had no specific timeframe. The response alternatives to specific questions were Yes/No (n = 5), wording only like "never", "seldom", "often" (n = 4), or a frequency scale indicating times per week (n = 8). There is a need for improved standardized instruments not only to capture relevant sleep information but also to allow greater comparability between studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Current status and future prospects of epidemiology and public health training and research in the WHO African region

    PubMed Central

    Nachega, Jean B; Uthman, Olalekan A; Ho, Yuh-Shan; Lo, Melanie; Anude, Chuka; Kayembe, Patrick; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Gomo, Exnevia; Sow, Papa Salif; Obike, Ude; Kusiaku, Theophile; Mills, Edward J; Mayosi, Bongani M; IJsselmuiden, Carel

    2012-01-01

    Background To date little has been published about epidemiology and public health capacity (training, research, funding, human resources) in WHO/AFRO to help guide future planning by various stakeholders. Methods A bibliometric analysis was performed to identify published epidemiological research. Information about epidemiology and public health training, current research and challenges was collected from key informants using a standardized questionnaire. Results From 1991 to 2010, epidemiology and public health research output in the WHO/AFRO region increased from 172 to 1086 peer-reviewed articles per annum [annual percentage change (APC) = 10.1%, P for trend < 0.001]. The most common topics were HIV/AIDS (11.3%), malaria (8.6%) and tuberculosis (7.1%). Similarly, numbers of first authors (APC = 7.3%, P for trend < 0.001), corresponding authors (APC = 8.4%, P for trend < 0.001) and last authors (APC = 8.5%, P for trend < 0.001) from Africa increased during the same period. However, an overwhelming majority of respondents (>90%) reported that this increase is only rarely linked to regional post-graduate training programmes in epidemiology. South Africa leads in publications (1978/8835, 22.4%), followed by Kenya (851/8835, 9.6%), Nigeria (758/8835, 8.6%), Tanzania (549/8835, 6.2%) and Uganda (428/8835, 4.8%) (P < 0.001, each vs South Africa). Independent predictors of relevant research productivity were ‘in-country numbers of epidemiology or public health programmes’ [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 3.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.90–6.11; P = 0.03] and ‘number of HIV/AIDS patients’ (IRR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.02–1.66; P < 0.001). Conclusions Since 1991, there has been increasing epidemiological research productivity in WHO/AFRO that is associated with the number of epidemiology programmes and burden of HIV/AIDS cases. More capacity building and training initiatives in epidemiology are required to promote research and address the public health challenges

  17. Current status and future prospects of epidemiology and public health training and research in the WHO African region.

    PubMed

    Nachega, Jean B; Uthman, Olalekan A; Ho, Yuh-Shan; Lo, Melanie; Anude, Chuka; Kayembe, Patrick; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Gomo, Exnevia; Sow, Papa Salif; Obike, Ude; Kusiaku, Theophile; Mills, Edward J; Mayosi, Bongani M; Ijsselmuiden, Carel

    2012-12-01

    To date little has been published about epidemiology and public health capacity (training, research, funding, human resources) in WHO/AFRO to help guide future planning by various stakeholders. A bibliometric analysis was performed to identify published epidemiological research. Information about epidemiology and public health training, current research and challenges was collected from key informants using a standardized questionnaire. From 1991 to 2010, epidemiology and public health research output in the WHO/AFRO region increased from 172 to 1086 peer-reviewed articles per annum [annual percentage change (APC) = 10.1%, P for trend < 0.001]. The most common topics were HIV/AIDS (11.3%), malaria (8.6%) and tuberculosis (7.1%). Similarly, numbers of first authors (APC = 7.3%, P for trend < 0.001), corresponding authors (APC = 8.4%, P for trend < 0.001) and last authors (APC = 8.5%, P for trend < 0.001) from Africa increased during the same period. However, an overwhelming majority of respondents (>90%) reported that this increase is only rarely linked to regional post-graduate training programmes in epidemiology. South Africa leads in publications (1978/8835, 22.4%), followed by Kenya (851/8835, 9.6%), Nigeria (758/8835, 8.6%), Tanzania (549/8835, 6.2%) and Uganda (428/8835, 4.8%) (P < 0.001, each vs South Africa). Independent predictors of relevant research productivity were 'in-country numbers of epidemiology or public health programmes' [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 3.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.90-6.11; P = 0.03] and 'number of HIV/AIDS patients' (IRR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.02-1.66; P < 0.001). Since 1991, there has been increasing epidemiological research productivity in WHO/AFRO that is associated with the number of epidemiology programmes and burden of HIV/AIDS cases. More capacity building and training initiatives in epidemiology are required to promote research and address the public health challenges facing the continent.

  18. Focus on environmental justice: new directions in international research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2017-03-01

    More than three decades since the emergence of the environmental justice (EJ) movement in the U.S., environmental injustices continue to unfold across the world to include new narratives of air and water pollution, as well as new forms of injustices associated with climate change, energy use, natural disasters, urban greenspaces, and public policies that adversely affect socially disadvantaged communities and future generations. This focus issue of Environmental Research Letters provides an interdisciplinary forum for conceptual, methodological, and empirical scholarship on EJ activism, research, and policy that highlights the continuing salience of an EJ perspective to understanding nature-society linkages. The 16 letters published in this focus issue address a variety of environmental issues and social injustices in multiple countries across the world, and advance EJ research by: (1) demonstrating how environmental injustice emerges through particular policies and political processes; (2) exploring environmental injustices associated with industrialization and industrial pollution; and (3) documenting unjust exposure to various environmental hazards in specific urban landscapes. As the discourse of EJ continues to evolve both topically and geographically, we hope that this focus issue will help establish research agendas for the next generation of EJ scholarship on distributive, procedural, participatory, and other forms of injustices, as well as their interrelationships.

  19. Environmental Quality Research Fish and Aufwuchs Bioassay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    purchased from: National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, Virginia 22161 Federal Government agencies and their...Heilshorn, candidate for the M.S. degree in Sanitary Engineering, and Mr. Sang- Eun Lee, doctoral candidate in Sanitary Engineering, served as research...ENCLOSED DELIVERY I STAILES STEEL AAAL -0FELWTRINEFC SEPARATIOED RESERV I CENTMETRS FUFULCOTATAN-DLVEY AYTEM NEFC 𔃽 The tap water entering the

  20. Amoebae as Potential Environmental Hosts for Mycobacterium ulcerans and Other Mycobacteria, but Doubtful Actors in Buruli Ulcer Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Gryseels, Sophie; Amissah, Diana; Durnez, Lies; Vandelannoote, Koen; Leirs, Herwig; De Jonckheere, Johan; Portaels, Françoise; Ablordey, Anthony; Eddyani, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    Background The reservoir and mode of transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, remain unknown. Ecological, genetic and epidemiological information nonetheless suggests that M. ulcerans may reside in aquatic protozoa. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally infected Acanthamoeba polyphaga with M. ulcerans and found that the bacilli were phagocytised, not digested and remained viable for the duration of the experiment. Furthermore, we collected 13 water, 90 biofilm and 45 detritus samples in both Buruli ulcer endemic and non-endemic communities in Ghana, from which we cultivated amoeboid protozoa and mycobacteria. M. ulcerans was not isolated, but other mycobacteria were as frequently isolated from intracellular as from extracellular sources, suggesting that they commonly infect amoebae in nature. We screened the samples as well as the amoeba cultures for the M. ulcerans markers IS2404, IS2606 and KR-B. IS2404 was detected in 2% of the environmental samples and in 4% of the amoeba cultures. The IS2404 positive amoeba cultures included up to 5 different protozoan species, and originated both from Buruli ulcer endemic and non-endemic communities. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of experimental infection of amoebae with M. ulcerans and of the detection of the marker IS2404 in amoeba cultures isolated from the environment. We conclude that amoeba are potential natural hosts for M. ulcerans, yet remain sceptical about their implication in the transmission of M. ulcerans to humans and their importance in the epidemiology of Buruli ulcer. PMID:22880141