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Sample records for environmental exposure effects

  1. NEURODEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurodevelopmental Effects of Environmental Exposures
    Sherry G. Selevan, Pauline Mendola, Deborah C. Rice (US EPA, Washington,
    DC)

    The nervous system starts development early in gestation and continues to develop through adolescence. Thus, critical windows of vuln...

  2. NEURODEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurodevelopmental Effects of Environmental Exposures
    Sherry G. Selevan, Pauline Mendola, Deborah C. Rice (US EPA, Washington,
    DC)

    The nervous system starts development early in gestation and continues to develop through adolescence. Thus, critical windows of vuln...

  3. Environmental Perchlorate Exposure: Potential Adverse Thyroid Effects

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This review will present a general overview of the sources, human studies, and proposed regulatory action regarding environmental perchlorate exposure. Recent findings Some recent studies have reported significant associations between urinary perchlorate concentrations, thyroid dysfunction, and decreased infant IQ in groups who would be particularly susceptible to perchlorate effects. An update regarding the recent proposed regulatory actions and potential costs surrounding amelioration of perchlorate contamination is provided. Summary The potential adverse thyroidal effects of environmental perchlorate exposure remain controversial, and further research is needed to further define its relationship to human health among pregnant and lactating women and their infants. PMID:25106002

  4. Environmental perchlorate exposure: potential adverse thyroid effects.

    PubMed

    Leung, Angela M; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Braverman, Lewis E

    2014-10-01

    This review will present a general overview of the sources, human studies, and proposed regulatory action regarding environmental perchlorate exposure. Some recent studies have reported significant associations between urinary perchlorate concentrations, thyroid dysfunction, and decreased infant intelligence quotient in groups who would be particularly susceptible to perchlorate effects. An update regarding the recently proposed regulatory actions and potential costs surrounding amelioration of perchlorate contamination is provided. The potential adverse thyroidal effects of environmental perchlorate exposure remain controversial, and further research is needed to further define its relationship to human health among pregnant and lactating women and their infants.

  5. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise exposure

    PubMed Central

    Münzel, Thomas; Gori, Tommaso; Babisch, Wolfgang; Basner, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The role of noise as an environmental pollutant and its impact on health are being increasingly recognized. Beyond its effects on the auditory system, noise causes annoyance and disturbs sleep, and it impairs cognitive performance. Furthermore, evidence from epidemiologic studies demonstrates that environmental noise is associated with an increased incidence of arterial hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Both observational and experimental studies indicate that in particular night-time noise can cause disruptions of sleep structure, vegetative arousals (e.g. increases of blood pressure and heart rate) and increases in stress hormone levels and oxidative stress, which in turn may result in endothelial dysfunction and arterial hypertension. This review focuses on the cardiovascular consequences of environmental noise exposure and stresses the importance of noise mitigation strategies for public health. PMID:24616334

  6. Environmental Exposure Effects on Composite Materials for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    The test program concentrates on three major areas: flight exposure; ground based exposure; and accelerated environmental effects and data correlation. Among the parameters investigated were: geographic location, flight profiles, solar heating effects, ultraviolet degradation, retrieval times, and test temperatures. Data from the tests can be used to effectively plan the cost of production and viable alternatives in materials selection.

  7. ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS FROM ENVIRONMENTAL MANGANESE EXPOSURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ubiquitous element, manganese (Mn), is an essential nutrient, but toxic at excessive exposure levels. Therefore, the US EPA set guideline levels for Mn exposure through inhalation (reference concentration-RfC=0.05 ?g/m3) and ingestion (reference dose-RfD=0.14 mg/kg/day (10 mg...

  8. ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS FROM ENVIRONMENTAL MANGANESE EXPOSURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ubiquitous element, manganese (Mn), is an essential nutrient, but toxic at excessive exposure levels. Therefore, the US EPA set guideline levels for Mn exposure through inhalation (reference concentration-RfC=0.05 ?g/m3) and ingestion (reference dose-RfD=0.14 mg/kg/day (10 mg...

  9. Environmental exposure effects on composite materials for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbins, M. N.; Hoffman, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of environmental exposure on composite materials are studied. The environments considered are representative of those experienced by commercial jet aircraft. Initial results have been compiled for the following material systems: T300/5208, T300/5209 and T300/934. Specimens were exposed on the exterior and interior of Boeing 737 airplanes of three airlines, and to continuous ground level exposure at four locations. In addition specimens were exposed in the laboratory to conditions such as: simulated ground-air-ground, weatherometer, and moisture. Residual strength results are presented for specimens exposed for up to two years at three ground level exposure locations and on airplanes from two airlines. Test results are also given for specimens exposed to the laboratory simulated environments. Test results indicate that short beam shear strength is sensitive to environmental exposure and dependent on the level of absorbed moisture.

  10. Environmental degradation of polyacrylamides. II. Effects of environmental (outdoor) exposure.

    PubMed

    Smith, E A; Prues, S L; Oehme, F W

    1997-06-01

    The environmental fate of a polyacrylamide thickening agent (PATA), formulated without and with a glyphosate-surfactant herbicide (GH), was examined under various environmental situations: formulation in surface water and ground water, volatility, and soil mobility. Environmental Fate of PATA in Surface Water and Ground Water: PATA was formulated at four concentrations in distilled-deionized water, three surface water samples, and two ground water samples, without and with a GH. Solutions were placed in glass bottles, covered with plastic wrap, and exposed to environmental (outdoor) conditions for 6 weeks. Acrylamide and ammonium concentration, pH, and bacterial and fungal populations were measured weekly. All solutions in this portion of the study had a homogeneous milky appearance but the conclusions of the study were nearly transparent. The results of this study suggest that polyacrylamide can degrade to acrylamide under environmental conditions. Statistically, there was no linear correlation between the various parameters measured. Volatility: PATA was formulated without and with GH. Each solution plus an acrylamide standard (positive control) was placed in a glass beaker and exposed to environmental (outdoor) conditions for 6 days. Acrylamide concentration, ammonium concentration, pH, and solution volume were measured daily. Acrylamide and ammonium concentrations increased during the study in all formulations, except when solutions evaporated to dryness. pH did not change greatly over the course of the study for these samples. Those solutions containing PATA had a homogeneous milky appearance but by the conclusions of the study were nearly transparent. This suggests a physical structural change in the polymer. Soil Mobility: PATA formulated with GH was also applied to soil columns and soil boxes containing sand, Eudora sandy loam, Eudora sandy clay, and Kohola silt loam. Acrylamide could be detected by Day 2 in all soil columns. Acrylamide could not be

  11. The effects of low environmental cadmium exposure on bone density

    SciTech Connect

    Trzcinka-Ochocka, M.; Jakubowski, M.; Szymczak, W.; Janasik, B.; Brodzka, R.

    2010-04-15

    Recent epidemiological data indicate that low environmental exposure to cadmium, as shown by cadmium body burden (Cd-U), is associated with renal dysfunction as well as an increased risk of cadmium-induced bone disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effects of low environmental cadmium exposure, at the level sufficient to induce kidney damage, on bone metabolism and mineral density (BMD). The project was conducted in the area contaminated with cadmium, nearby a zinc smelter located in the region of Poland where heavy industry prevails. The study population comprised 170 women (mean age=39.7; 18-70 years) and 100 men (mean age=31.9; 18-76 years). Urinary and blood cadmium and the markers of renal tubular dysfunction ({beta}{sub 2}M-U RBP, NAG), glomerular dysfunction (Alb-U and {beta}{sub 2}M-S) and bone metabolism markers (BAP-S, CTX-S) as well as forearm BMD, were measured. The results of this study based on simple dose-effect analysis showed the relationship between increasing cadmium concentrations and an increased excretion of renal dysfunction markers and decreasing bone density. However, the results of the multivariate analysis did not indicate the association between exposure to cadmium and decrease in bone density. They showed that the most important factors that have impact on bone density are body weight and age in the female subjects and body weight and calcium excretion in males. Our investigation revealed that the excretion of low molecular weight proteins occurred at a lower level of cadmium exposure than the possible loss of bone mass. It seems that renal tubular markers are the most sensitive and significant indicators of early health effects of cadmium intoxication in the general population. The correlation of urinary cadmium concentration with markers of kidney dysfunction was observed in the absence of significant correlations with bone effects. Our findings did not indicate any effects of environmental cadmium exposure on bone

  12. Environmental exposure effects on composite materials for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coggeshall, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of environmental exposure on composite materials are determined. The environments considered are representative of those experienced by commercial jet aircraft. Initial results have been compiled for the following material systems: T300/5208, T300/5209, and T300/934. Future results will include AS-1/3501-6 and Kevlar 49/F161-188. Specimens are exposed on the exterior and interior of 737 airplanes of three airlines, and to continuous ground-level exposure at four locations. In addition, specimens are exposed in the laboratory to conditions such as: simulated ground-air-ground, weatherometer, and moisture. Residual strength results are presented for specimens exposed for up to five years at five ground-level exposure locations and on airplanes from one airline.

  13. Effects of environmental cadmium exposure on liver function in adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mo-Yeol; Cho, Soo-Hun; Lim, Youn-Hee; Seo, Jeong-Cheol; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2013-04-01

    There is inconsistency regarding the effects of cadmium exposure on liver function between the positive results found in animal studies and the negative results highlighted in epidemiological studies. We investigated whether environmental cadmium exposure is associated with an elevation in serum liver enzyme activity in Korean adults. This cross-sectional study evaluated adult participants without liver disease from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2008-2009. Multiple linear regression was conducted to investigate the association between blood cadmium concentration and the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) adjusting for age, sex, body mass index and the amount of alcohol consumption. Subjects were stratified into quartiles by their cumulative cadmium exposure rank. We estimated the multivariate-adjusted ORs for liver enzyme elevation using logistic regression models with the first quartile as the reference group. Total number of the subjects in the analysis was 3914. The blood cadmium concentrations were significantly associated with liver enzyme levels (AST, β=2.677, p value <0.0001; ALT, β=3.696, p value <0.0001; ALP, β=11.730, p value <0.0001). As the cadmium levels approached higher quartiles, the ORs for an elevated AST, ALT and ALP was increased significantly. Environmental cadmium exposures are associated with an elevation in serum liver enzyme levels in Korean adults.

  14. Environmental exposure effects on composite materials for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Daniel J.; Bielawski, William J.

    1991-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of long term flight and ground exposure on three commercially available graphite-epoxy material systems: T300/5208, T300/5209, and T300/934. Sets of specimens were exposed on commercial aircraft and ground racks for 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 years. Inflight specimen sites included both the interior and exterior of aircraft based in Hawaii, Texas, and New Zealand. Ground racks were located at NASA-Dryden and the above mentioned states. Similar specimens were exposed to controlled lab conditions for up to 2 years. After each exposure, specimens were tested for residual strength and a dryout procedure was used to measure moisture content. Both room and high temperature residual strengths were measured and expressed as a pct. of the unexposed strength. Lab exposures included the effects of time alone, moisture, time on moist specimens, weatherometer, and simulated ground-air-ground cycling. Residual strengths of the long term specimens were compared with residual strengths of the lab specimens. Strength retention depended on the exposure condition and the material system. Results showed that composite materials can be successfully used on commercial aircraft if environmental effects are considered.

  15. Environmental exposure effects on composite materials for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, M. N.

    1982-01-01

    The data base for composite materials' properties as they are affected by the environments encountered in operating conditions, both in flight and at ground terminals is expanded. Absorbed moisture degrades the mechanical properties of graphite/epoxy laminates at elevated temperatures. Since airplane components are frequently exposed to atmospheric moisture, rain, and accumulated water, quantitative data are required to evaluate the amount of fluids absorbed under various environmental conditions and the subsequent effects on material properties. In addition, accelerated laboratory test techniques are developed are reliably capable of predicting long term behavior. An accelerated environmental exposure testing procedure is developed, and experimental results are correlated and compared with analytical results to establish the level of confidence for predicting composite material properties.

  16. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This book evaluates methodologies in epidemiologic and related studies for obtaining measurements of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The book is divided into three parts. The first part discusses physicochemical and toxicological studies of environmental tobacco smoke, including physicochemical nature of smoke and in vivo and in…

  17. [The effects of prenatal environmental exposures on children development and health].

    PubMed

    Tao, Shuman; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-02-01

    The negative effects of environmental exposure during pregnancy on fetal growth and children development have been confirmed. It has been found that environmental exposures during pregnancy have a great influence on the growth and development of fetus, birth outcomes and children's psychology, behavior and neural development. In this review, according to different types of environmental exposures, we focused on the key issues of the fetus or children induced by four aspects of environment exposure, including environmental chemicals, unhealthy life styles and behaviors, stress and other risk factors, and discussed the adverse effects of environmental factors on the growth and development of infants, children's psychology, behavior, social and cognitive, such as birth defects, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, emotional problems, learning disorder and intelligence development and so on. We also suggested that the researches on mechanism of the negative effects of environmental exposure on children's health should be strengthened in the future.

  18. NEUROBEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS IN CZECH CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient levels of SO2, NOx, PAHs and heavy metals are elevated in Northern Bohemia as a result of intensive mining and combustion of brown coal. To assess the neurotoxicological effects of exposure to these chemicals, tests from the Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES2) we...

  19. Environmental chemical mixtures: Assessing ecological exposure and effects in streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product is a USGS fact sheet that describes a collaborative effort between USGS and US EPA to characterize exposures to chemical mixtures and associated biological effects for a diverse range of US streams representing varying watershed size, land-use patterns, and ecotypes.

  20. NEUROBEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS IN CZECH CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient levels of SO2, NOx, PAHs and heavy metals are elevated in Northern Bohemia as a result of intensive mining and combustion of brown coal. To assess the neurotoxicological effects of exposure to these chemicals, tests from the Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES2) we...

  1. Environmental chemical mixtures: Assessing ecological exposure and effects in streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product is a USGS fact sheet that describes a collaborative effort between USGS and US EPA to characterize exposures to chemical mixtures and associated biological effects for a diverse range of US streams representing varying watershed size, land-use patterns, and ecotypes.

  2. Understanding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Effects in Asthmatic Children through Determination of Urinary Cotinine and Targeted Metabolomics of Plasma

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Effects in Asthmatic Children through Determination of Urinary Cotinine and Targeted Metabolomics of Plasma Introduction Asthma is a complex disease with multiple triggers and causal factors, Exposure to environmental tob...

  3. Understanding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Effects in Asthmatic Children through Determination of Urinary Cotinine and Targeted Metabolomics of Plasma

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Effects in Asthmatic Children through Determination of Urinary Cotinine and Targeted Metabolomics of Plasma Introduction Asthma is a complex disease with multiple triggers and causal factors, Exposure to environmental tob...

  4. ARE ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO CHLOROPHENOXY HERBICIDES ASSOCIATED WITH AN INCREASE IN ADVERSE HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Associations between adverse health effects and environmental exposures are difficult to study because exposures may be widespread, low-dose in nature, and common throughout the study population. Individual risk-factor epidemiology may not be able to initially ident...

  5. ARE ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO CHLOROPHENOXY HERBICIDES ASSOCIATED WITH AN INCREASE IN ADVERSE HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Associations between adverse health effects and environmental exposures are difficult to study because exposures may be widespread, low-dose in nature, and common throughout the study population. Individual risk-factor epidemiology may not be able to initially ident...

  6. Effects of varying environmental conditions on vegetation response to ozone exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Zaleski, R.T.; Triemer, L.R.

    1995-12-31

    Developing an exposure-effects model for plant response to ozone exposure is a complex process. It is known that ozone must enter the plant through the stomata for an effect to occur. Therefore, ozone uptake is related not only to ambient ozone concentrations, but also to environmental factors which control stomatal movement. In addition, cellular factors within the plant can mitigate ozone impact and ultimately control plant response. This paper presents a review of the scientific literature on plant responses (e.g. visible foliar injury, reductions in growth or yield) to ozone exposures under varying environmental conditions known to affect stomatal aperture. The results of this effort show the importance of considering key environmental factors when developing exposure-effects models.

  7. Environmental Exposure Effects on Composite Materials for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    This period's activities were highlighted by continued long term and accelerated lab exposure testing, and by completion of all fabrication tasks on the optional material systems, AS1/3501-6 and Kevlar 49/F161-188. Initial baseline testing was performed on the two optional material systems. Long term exposure specimens were returned from three of the four ground rack sites and from two of the three aircraft locations. Test data from specimens returned from Dryden after 2 years exposure do not indicate continuing trends of strength reduction from the 1 year data. Test data from specimens returned from the Wellington, new Zealand ground rack and on Air New Zealand aircraft after 1 year exposure show strength changes fairly typical of other locations.

  8. Developmental effects of exposures to environmental factors: the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Polanska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Ligocka, Danuta; Brzeznicki, Slawomir; Strugala-Stawik, Halina; Magnus, Per

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of exposure to environmental factors, including lead, mercury, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), on child psychomotor development. The study population consists of mother-child pairs in the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental factors was determined from biomarker measurements as follows: for lead exposure--cord blood lead level, for mercury--maternal hair mercury level, for ETS--cotinine level in saliva and urine, and for PAH--1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) in urine. At the age of 12 (406 subjects) and 24 months (198 subjects) children were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. There were no statistically significant effects of prenatal exposure to mercury or 1-HP on child psychomotor development. After adjusting for potential confounders, adverse effects of prenatal exposure to ETS on motor development ( β = -2.6; P = 0.02) and postnatal exposure to ETS on cognitive ( β = -0.2; P = 0.05) and motor functions ( β = -0.5; P = 0.01) were found. The adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure on cognitive score was of borderline significance ( β = -6.2; P = 0.06). The study underscores the importance of policies and public health interventions that aim to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposure to lead and ETS.

  9. Chemical mixtures and environmental effects: a pilot study to assess ecological exposure and effects in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Kolpin, Dana W.; Bradley, Paul M.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Mills, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and management of the risks of exposure to complex chemical mixtures in streams are priorities for human and environmental health organizations around the world. The current lack of information on the composition and variability of environmental mixtures and a limited understanding of their combined effects are fundamental obstacles to timely identification and prevention of adverse human and ecological effects of exposure. This report describes the design of a field-based study of the composition and biological activity of chemical mixtures in U.S. stream waters affected by a wide range of human activities and contaminant sources. The study is a collaborative effort by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Scientists sampled 38 streams spanning 24 States and Puerto Rico. Thirty-four of the sites were located in watersheds impacted by multiple contaminant sources, including industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, crop and animal agricultural runoff, urban runoff, and other point and nonpoint contaminant sources. The remaining four sites were minimally development reference watersheds. All samples underwent comprehensive chemical and biological characterization, including sensitive and specific direct analysis for over 700 dissolved organic and inorganic chemicals and field parameters, identification of unknown contaminants (environmental diagnostics), and a variety of bioassays to evaluate biological activity and toxicity.

  10. EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The planned interagency National Children's Study (NCS) will be studying a number of exposure issues in the context of health and well-being of infants and young children from pre-conception to age 21. Some of the important environmental exposure questions for NCS, include: how c...

  11. EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The planned interagency National Children's Study (NCS) will be studying a number of exposure issues in the context of health and well-being of infants and young children from pre-conception to age 21. Some of the important environmental exposure questions for NCS, include: how c...

  12. Developmental Effects of Exposures to Environmental Factors: The Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sobala, Wojciech; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Strugala-Stawik, Halina; Magnus, Per

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of exposure to environmental factors, including lead, mercury, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), on child psychomotor development. The study population consists of mother-child pairs in the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental factors was determined from biomarker measurements as follows: for lead exposure—cord blood lead level, for mercury—maternal hair mercury level, for ETS—cotinine level in saliva and urine, and for PAH—1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) in urine. At the age of 12 (406 subjects) and 24 months (198 subjects) children were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. There were no statistically significant effects of prenatal exposure to mercury or 1-HP on child psychomotor development. After adjusting for potential confounders, adverse effects of prenatal exposure to ETS on motor development (β = −2.6; P = 0.02) and postnatal exposure to ETS on cognitive (β = −0.2; P = 0.05) and motor functions (β = −0.5; P = 0.01) were found. The adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure on cognitive score was of borderline significance (β = −6.2; P = 0.06). The study underscores the importance of policies and public health interventions that aim to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposure to lead and ETS. PMID:24191247

  13. Environmental exposure effects on composite materials for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Activities reported include completion of the program design tasks, resolution of a high fiber volume problem and resumption of specimen fabrication, fixture fabrication, and progress on the analysis methodology and definition of the typical aircraft environment. Program design activities including test specimens, specimen holding fixtures, flap-track fairing tailcones, and ground exposure racks were completed. The problem experienced in obtaining acceptable fiber volume fraction results on two of the selected graphite epoxy material systems was resolved with an alteration to the bagging procedure called out in BAC 5562. The revised bagging procedure, involving lower numbers of bleeder plies, produces acceptable results. All required laminates for the contract have now been laid up and cured. Progress in the area of analysis methodology has been centered about definition of the environment that a commercial transport aircraft undergoes. The selected methodology is analagous to fatigue life assessment.

  14. Effects of environmental noise exposure on DNA methylation in the brain and metabolic health.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liqiong; Li, Peng-Hui; Li, Hua; Colicino, Elena; Colicino, Silvia; Wen, Yi; Zhang, Ruiping; Feng, Xiaotian; Barrow, Timothy M; Cayir, Akin; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Byun, Hyang-Min

    2017-02-01

    Environmental noise exposure is associated with adverse effects on human health including hearing loss, heart disease, and changes in stress-related hormone levels. Alteration in DNA methylation in response to environmental exposures is a well-known phenomenon and it is implicated in many human diseases. Understanding how environmental noise exposures affect DNA methylation patterns may help to elucidate the link between noise and adverse effects on health. In this pilot study we examined the effects of environmental noise exposure on DNA methylation of genes related to brain function and investigated whether these changes are related with metabolic health. We exposed four groups of male Wistar rats to moderate intensity noise (70-75dB with 20-4000Hz) at night for three days as short-term exposure, and for three weeks as long-term exposure. Noise exposure was limited to 45dB during the daytime. Control groups were exposed to only 45dB, day and night. We measured DNA methylation in the Bdnf, Comt, Crhr1, Mc2r, and Snca genes in tissue from four brain regions of the rats (hippocampus, frontal lobe, medulla oblongata, and inferior colliculus). Further, we measured blood pressure and body weight after long-term noise exposure. We found that environmental noise exposure is associated with gene-specific DNA methylation changes in specific regions of the brain. Changes in DNA methylation are significantly associated with changes in body weight (between Bdnf DNA methylation and Δ body weight: r=0.59, p=0.018; and between LINE-1 ORF DNA methylation and Δ body weight: =-0.80, p=0.0004). We also observed that noise exposure decreased blood pressure (p=0.038 for SBP, p=0.017 for DBP and p 0. 017 for MAP) and decreased body weight (β=-26g, p=0.008). In conclusion, environmental noise exposures can induce changes in DNA methylation in the brain, which may be associated with adverse effects upon metabolic health through modulation of response to stress-related hormones

  15. Reading exposure: a (largely) environmental risk factor with environmentally-mediated effects on reading performance in the primary school years.

    PubMed

    Harlaar, Nicole; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2007-12-01

    It is widely believed that there are reciprocal links between reading achievement and reading exposure: children who read more do better at reading, and reading achievement itself promotes reading. We tested the hypotheses that these links arise because children's genetically influenced reading performance is correlated with their leisure-time reading exposure, and reading exposure, in turn, may have an environmentally mediated effect on later reading performance. The sample consisted of 3039 twin pairs from the UK Twins Early Development Study (TEDS). Reading exposure was assessed at age 10 using the Author Recognition Test (ART). Reading performance was assessed at ages 7 and 12 using the Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE). ART scores were moderately correlated with TOWRE scores at ages 7 and 12. Shared environmental variance in 7-year TOWRE performance accounted for most of the contribution made by 7-year TOWRE scores to the prediction of 10-year ART scores. Genetic influences on ART scores were modest, but this genetic variance almost completely reflected genetic variance in 7-year TOWRE scores. After controlling for genetic and environmental influences that overlapped between 7-year TOWRE and 10-year ART scores, there was evidence for a separate link between 10-year ART and 12-year TOWRE that was due to shared environmental influences. Genetic influences on early reading achievement contribute to later propensities to seek out reading experiences that might, in turn, reciprocally influence reading achievement through shared environmental paths.

  16. Renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in Thai children

    SciTech Connect

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Jeekeeree, Wanpen; Funkhiew, Thippawan; Sanjum, Rungaroon; Apiwatpaiboon, Thitikarn; Phopueng, Ittipol

    2015-01-15

    Very few studies have shown renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. This population study examined associations between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and renal dysfunctions and blood pressure in environmentally exposed Thai children. Renal functions including urinary excretion of β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium (early renal effects), and total protein (late renal effect), and blood pressure were measured in 594 primary school children. Of the children studied, 19.0% had urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine. The prevalence of urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine was significantly higher in girls and in those consuming rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas. The geometric mean levels of urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium, and total protein significantly increased with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. The analysis did not show increased blood pressure with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. After adjusting for age, sex, and blood lead levels, the analysis showed significant positive associations between urinary cadmium and urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and urinary calcium, but not urinary total protein nor blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence that environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children. A follow-up study is essential to assess the clinical significance and progress of renal effects in these children. - Highlights: • Few studies show renal effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. • We report renal and blood pressure effects from cadmium exposure in Thai children. • Urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and calcium increased with increasing urinary cadmium. • The study found no association between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure. • Environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children.

  17. Environmental Exposures and Development

    PubMed Central

    Mattison, Donald R.

    2010-01-01

    Structured Abstract Purpose of Review Summarize recent studies exploring the relationship between paternal and maternal environmental exposures to chemicals before, at the time of and after conception to adverse developmental outcomes including; preterm birth, death, structural and functional abnormalities and growth restriction. Recent Findings Recent studies have demonstrated that human pregnancy and development is vulnerable to environmental exposures of the father and mother to chemical, biological and physical agents. Exposures associated with adverse developmental outcomes include; air and water pollution, chemicals in foods, occupational exposures, agricultural chemicals, metals, persistent and volatile organics. Developmental endpoints which are linked with these exposures include; growth restriction, functional abnormalities, structural abnormalities, preterm delivery and death. Despite this general understanding we still have incomplete knowledge concerning most exposures and the biological interactions responsible for impaired development and preterm delivery. Summary While single genes and individual chemical exposures are responsible for some instances of adverse pregnancy outcome or developmental disease, gene-environment interactions are responsible for the majority. These gene-environment interactions may occur in the father, mother, placenta or fetus suggesting that critical attention be given to maternal and paternal exposures and gene expression as they relate to the mode of action of the putative developmental toxicant both prior to and during pregnancy. PMID:20216314

  18. Blood-borne biomarkers and bioindicators for linking exposure to health effects in environmental health science.

    PubMed

    Wallace, M Ariel Geer; Kormos, Tzipporah M; Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health science aims to link environmental pollution sources to adverse health outcomes to develop effective exposure intervention strategies that reduce long-term disease risks. Over the past few decades, the public health community recognized that health risk is driven by interaction between the human genome and external environment. Now that the human genetic code has been sequenced, establishing this "G × E" (gene-environment) interaction requires a similar effort to decode the human exposome, which is the accumulation of an individual's environmental exposures and metabolic responses throughout the person's lifetime. The exposome is composed of endogenous and exogenous chemicals, many of which are measurable as biomarkers in blood, breath, and urine. Exposure to pollutants is assessed by analyzing biofluids for the pollutant itself or its metabolic products. New methods are being developed to use a subset of biomarkers, termed bioindicators, to demonstrate biological changes indicative of future adverse health effects. Typically, environmental biomarkers are assessed using noninvasive (excreted) media, such as breath and urine. Blood is often avoided for biomonitoring due to practical reasons such as medical personnel, infectious waste, or clinical setting, despite the fact that blood represents the central compartment that interacts with every living cell and is the most relevant biofluid for certain applications and analyses. The aims of this study were to (1) review the current use of blood samples in environmental health research, (2) briefly contrast blood with other biological media, and (3) propose additional applications for blood analysis in human exposure research.

  19. Effect of environmental exposure on charcoal density and porosity in a boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaodong; Driver, Laura E; Kasin, Isabella; Masiello, Caroline A; Pyle, Lacey A; Dugan, Brandon; Ohlson, Mikael

    2017-08-15

    Although charcoal's density and porosity shape its environmental roles (e.g. controlling its landscape movement and determining the internal pore space available as microbial habitat), the rate of change of these properties in the environment remains largely unknown. With time, charcoal pores may fill or charcoal particles may shatter, altering the ecosystem services delivered. In this study we examined the effects of environmental exposure on the density and porosity of charcoals pyrolyzed at two different temperatures (350 and 520°C). Fresh charcoal made from the dominant local tree (Pinus sylvestris) was returned in litter incubations to Norwegian boreal forest soils for 20months in three different placements: (i) aboveground, (ii) in the humus layer, and (iii) under the humus layer in contact with the mineral subsoil. By varying soil horizon placement we were able to separate the effects of infill from the effects of environmental disturbance on charcoal density and porosity. Environmental exposure changed charcoal density and porosity, and the response varied with environmental placement. Charcoal placed in soil layers increased in porosity by ~1-2% after 20months' incubation. This is likely because open indentations on the charcoal surface became partially occluded, creating more detectable pore space. In contrast, the porosity of charcoal incubated aboveground decreased slightly (~1-2% over 20months). Because there were no minerals or humic substances to infill the aboveground charcoal samples, this porosity reduction was likely caused by breakage of particles induced by weathering. When charcoal particles cleave through pores, internal pore space is destroyed. The small changes observed here indicate that environmental exposure did not trigger rapid shifts in charcoal density and porosity. In addition, these physical properties appear not to have reached equilibrium after 20months incubation, suggesting that the effect of environmental exposure on charcoal

  20. Effects of occupational exposure to tobacco smoke: is there a link between environmental exposure and disease?

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Solange A; Torres, Vukosava M; Louro, Henriqueta; Gomes, Filomena; Lopes, Carlos; Marçal, Nelson; Fragoso, Elsa; Martins, Carla; Oliveira, Cátia L; Hagenfeldt, Manuela; Bugalho-Almeida, António; Penque, Deborah; Simões, Tânia

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, evidence was provided that indoor secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) air pollution remains high in Lisbon restaurants where smoking is allowed, regardless of the protective measures used. The aim of this study was to determine in these locations the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) associated with the particulate phase of SHS (PPAH), a fraction that contains recognized carginogens, such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Data showed that restaurant smoking areas might contain PPAH levels as high as 110 ng/m(3), a value significantly higher than that estimated for nonsmoking areas (30 ng/m(3)) or smoke-free restaurants (22 ng/m(3)). The effective exposure to SHS components in restaurant smoking rooms was confirmed as cotinine levels found in workers' urine. Considering that all workers exhibited normal lung function, eventual molecular changes in blood that might be associated with occupational exposure to SHS and SHS-associated PPAH were investigated by measurement of two oxidative markers, total antioxidant status (TAS) and 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in plasma and serum, respectively. SHS-exposed workers exhibited higher mean levels of serum 8-OHdG than nonexposed workers, regardless of smoking status. By using a proteomics approach based on 2D-DIGE-MS, it was possible to identify nine differentially expressed proteins in the plasma of SHS-exposed nonsmoker workers. Two acute-phase inflammation proteins, ceruloplasmin and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 (ITIH4), were predominant. These two proteins presented a high number of isoforms modulated by SHS exposure with the high-molecular-weight (high-MW) isoforms decreased in abundance while low-MW isoforms were increased in abundance. Whether these expression profiles are due to (1) a specific proteolytic cleavage, (2) a change on protein stability, or (3) alterations on post-translational modification pattern of these proteins remains to be investigated. Considering that these

  1. Are environmental exposures to chlorophenoxy herbicides associated with adverse human health effects?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Exposures to environmental pollutants are suspected of playing a role in the observed increases of many diseases. However, it is difficult to establish a firm link between exposure and disease, because environmental exposures are usually widespread, low-dose in natu...

  2. Are environmental exposures to chlorophenoxy herbicides associated with adverse human health effects?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Exposures to environmental pollutants are suspected of playing a role in the observed increases of many diseases. However, it is difficult to establish a firm link between exposure and disease, because environmental exposures are usually widespread, low-dose in natu...

  3. Assessment of indirect human exposure to environmental sources of nickel: oral exposure and risk characterization for systemic effects.

    PubMed

    De Brouwere, Katleen; Buekers, Jurgen; Cornelis, Christa; Schlekat, Christian E; Oller, Adriana R

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the indirect human exposure to Ni via the oral route for the regional scale in the EU, together with a method to assess additional local exposure from industrial emissions. The approach fills a gap in the generic REACH guidance which is inadequate for assessing indirect environmental exposure of metals. Estimates of regional scale Ni dietary intake were derived from Ni dietary studies performed in the EU. Typical and Reasonable Worst Case dietary Ni intakes for the general population in the EU were below the oral Derived No Effect Level (DNEL) of Ni sulfate for systemic effects. Estimates for the Ni dietary intake at the local scale take into account the influence of aerial Ni deposition and transfer from soil to crops grown near industrial plants emitting Ni. The additional dietary exposure via this local contribution was small. Despite the use of conservative parameters for these processes, this method may underestimate dietary exposure around older industrial sites because REACH guidance does not account for historical soil contamination. Nevertheless, the method developed here can also be used as a screening tool for community-based risk assessment, as it accounts for historical soil pollution. Nickel exposure via drinking water was derived from databases on Ni tap water quality. A small proportion of the EU population (<5%) is likely to be exposed to tap water exceeding the EU standard (20 μg Ni/l). Taking into account the relative gastrointestinal absorption of Ni from water (30%) versus from solid matrices (5%), water intake constitutes, after dietary intake, the second most important pathway for oral Ni intake. Incidental ingestion of Ni from soil/dust at the regional scale, and also at the local scale, was low in comparison with dietary intake.

  4. Renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in Thai children.

    PubMed

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Jeekeeree, Wanpen; Funkhiew, Thippawan; Sanjum, Rungaroon; Apiwatpaiboon, Thitikarn; Phopueng, Ittipol

    2015-01-01

    Very few studies have shown renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. This population study examined associations between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and renal dysfunctions and blood pressure in environmentally exposed Thai children. Renal functions including urinary excretion of β2-microglobulin, calcium (early renal effects), and total protein (late renal effect), and blood pressure were measured in 594 primary school children. Of the children studied, 19.0% had urinary cadmium ≥ 1 μg/g creatinine. The prevalence of urinary cadmium ≥ 1 μg/g creatinine was significantly higher in girls and in those consuming rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas. The geometric mean levels of urinary β2-microglobulin, calcium, and total protein significantly increased with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. The analysis did not show increased blood pressure with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. After adjusting for age, sex, and blood lead levels, the analysis showed significant positive associations between urinary cadmium and urinary β2-microglobulin and urinary calcium, but not urinary total protein nor blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence that environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children. A follow-up study is essential to assess the clinical significance and progress of renal effects in these children.

  5. Effects of a Television Drama about Environmental Exposure to Toxic Substances

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, May G.; Eustis Turf, Elizabeth; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Wells, Kristen; Huang, Grace C.; Beck, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    Objective. This study assessed short-term outcomes of viewing an episode of a prime-time television drama in which a child developed cancer after environmental exposure to an illegal pesticide. The study explored the effects among viewers of feeling transported into a narrative world. Methods. Respondents (n=2,139) to a post-episode Internet panel survey were asked if they had seen the show and asked questions about their demographic information, their frequency of viewing the television show, the degree to which they had felt transported into a narrative world created by the drama, and their knowledge and beliefs about the health effects of environmental exposure. Conversations with key informants from federal agencies and advocacy groups were also held. Results. Episode viewing and narrative transportation were positively associated with knowledge of toxic exposure effects, and transported viewers reported being more likely to report an unusually high number of cancer cases to authorities. The show also appeared to have prompted a clarification of federal pesticide-testing policy. Conclusions. Entertainment Education is a promising strategy for disseminating key points of information about environmental health. PMID:21563723

  6. Advancing the Selection of Neurodevelopmental Measures in Epidemiological Studies of Environmental Chemical Exposure and Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Youngstrom, Eric; LaKind, Judy S.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Lipkin, Paul H.; Goodman, Michael; Squibb, Katherine; Mattison, Donald R.; Anthony, Bruno J.; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth

    2010-01-01

    With research suggesting increasing incidence of pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders, questions regarding etiology continue to be raised. Neurodevelopmental function tests have been used in epidemiology studies to evaluate relationships between environmental chemical exposures and neurodevelopmental deficits. Limitations of currently used tests and difficulties with their interpretation have been described, but a comprehensive critical examination of tests commonly used in studies of environmental chemicals and pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders has not been conducted. We provide here a listing and critical evaluation of commonly used neurodevelopmental tests in studies exploring effects from chemical exposures and recommend measures that are not often used, but should be considered. We also discuss important considerations in selecting appropriate tests and provide a case study by reviewing the literature on polychlorinated biphenyls. PMID:20195443

  7. Sublethal health effects in laboratory rodents from environmentally relevant exposures to oil sands contaminants.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; North, Michelle A; Smits, Judit E G

    2015-12-01

    Increasing activity of oil sands extraction and processing in northern Alberta is marked by ongoing controversy about the nature and extent of associated environmental impacts. Bitumen contains a mixture of toxic chemicals, including metals and residual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), whose release into the environment poses a distinct risk to the surrounding environment, plus wildlife and human health. In the present study, the authors evaluated several subclinical biomarkers of exposure and effect to mixtures of metals (Pb, Cd, and Hg) and/or PAHs (3 alkylated forms) at environmentally relevant concentrations (100-fold and 10-fold higher than the maximum dissolved concentrations found in snow, to simulate a worst-case scenario), using laboratory mice as a model for future studies of small mammals in the wild. Both metals and alkyl-PAHs exposure were associated with 1) increased relative liver, kidney, and spleen size; 2) alterations in the homeostasis of the antioxidant vitamins A and E in liver; and 3) compromised glutathione redox status in testes, with results also indicating synergistic interactions from co-exposure. The combination of morphometric and oxidative stress biomarkers provide reliable and sensitive measures of the response to contaminant exposure in a mammalian model, suggesting associated physiological costs. Based on the present experimental study, the authors propose that wild small mammals will prove to be valuable sentinel species reflecting sublethal health effects from oil sands-related contaminants. The present study's results also present a basis for the interpretation of future field data. © 2015 SETAC.

  8. Combining exposure and effect modeling into an integrated probabilistic environmental risk assessment for nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Rianne; Meesters, Johannes A J; Ter Braak, Cajo J F; van de Meent, Dik; van der Voet, Hilko

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing need for good environmental risk assessment of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Environmental risk assessment of ENPs has been hampered by lack of data and knowledge about ENPs, their environmental fate, and their toxicity. This leads to uncertainty in the risk assessment. To deal with uncertainty in the risk assessment effectively, probabilistic methods are advantageous. In the present study, the authors developed a method to model both the variability and the uncertainty in environmental risk assessment of ENPs. This method is based on the concentration ratio and the ratio of the exposure concentration to the critical effect concentration, both considered to be random. In this method, variability and uncertainty are modeled separately so as to allow the user to see which part of the total variation in the concentration ratio is attributable to uncertainty and which part is attributable to variability. The authors illustrate the use of the method with a simplified aquatic risk assessment of nano-titanium dioxide. The authors' method allows a more transparent risk assessment and can also direct further environmental and toxicological research to the areas in which it is most needed. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2958-2967. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  9. Health Effects and Environmental Justice Concerns of Exposure to Uranium in Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Corlin, Laura; Rock, Tommy; Cordova, Jamie; Woodin, Mark; Durant, John L; Gute, David M; Ingram, Jani; Brugge, Doug

    2016-12-01

    We discuss the recent epidemiologic literature regarding health effects of uranium exposure in drinking water focusing on the chemical characteristics of uranium. While there is strong toxicologic evidence for renal and reproductive effects as well as DNA damage, the epidemiologic evidence for these effects in people exposed to uranium in drinking water is limited. Further, epidemiologic evidence is lacking for cardiovascular and oncogenic effects. One challenge in characterizing health effects of uranium in drinking water is the paucity of long-term cohort studies with individual level exposure assessment. Nevertheless, there are environmental justice concerns due to the substantial exposures for certain populations. For example, we present original data suggesting that individuals living in the Navajo Nation are exposed to high levels of uranium in unregulated well water used for drinking. In 10 out of 185 samples (5.4 %), concentrations of uranium exceeded standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Therefore, efforts to mitigate exposure to toxic elements in drinking water are warranted and should be prioritized.

  10. Trichloroethylene: environmental and occupational exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Campos-Outcalt, D. )

    1992-08-01

    Trichloroethylene is used in paint strippers, rug cleaners, spot removers, typewriter correction fluid and industrial cleaners. It is a common environmental contaminant, detected in over one-third of hazardous waste sites and in 10 percent of groundwater sources. Acute workplace exposure above acceptable levels can cause neurologic, respiratory and hepatic problems. The health effects of prolonged occupational and environmental low-level exposure are probably minimal, but whether such exposure poses a risk remains controversial. Although trichloroethylene has been shown to cause cancer in some animals, it has not been proven to be a human carcinogen. Trichloroethylene has been involved in several well-publicized cases of contamination of community water supplies, and family physicians are likely to receive questions about this chemical.22 references.

  11. UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY RESEARCH ACTIVITIES TO CHARACTERIZE CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Given the well-established vulnerability of children to the effects of environmental exposures and the array of environmental exposures that have not been studied, understanding the relationship between children's health outcomes and environmental exposures is critical for our ...

  12. UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY RESEARCH ACTIVITIES TO CHARACTERIZE CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Given the well-established vulnerability of children to the effects of environmental exposures and the array of environmental exposures that have not been studied, understanding the relationship between children's health outcomes and environmental exposures is critical for our ...

  13. The effects of indoor environmental exposures on pediatric asthma: a discrete event simulation model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the United States, asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood across all socioeconomic classes and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization among children. Asthma exacerbations have been associated with exposure to residential indoor environmental stressors such as allergens and air pollutants as well as numerous additional factors. Simulation modeling is a valuable tool that can be used to evaluate interventions for complex multifactorial diseases such as asthma but in spite of its flexibility and applicability, modeling applications in either environmental exposures or asthma have been limited to date. Methods We designed a discrete event simulation model to study the effect of environmental factors on asthma exacerbations in school-age children living in low-income multi-family housing. Model outcomes include asthma symptoms, medication use, hospitalizations, and emergency room visits. Environmental factors were linked to percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%), which in turn was linked to risk equations for each outcome. Exposures affecting FEV1% included indoor and outdoor sources of NO2 and PM2.5, cockroach allergen, and dampness as a proxy for mold. Results Model design parameters and equations are described in detail. We evaluated the model by simulating 50,000 children over 10 years and showed that pollutant concentrations and health outcome rates are comparable to values reported in the literature. In an application example, we simulated what would happen if the kitchen and bathroom exhaust fans were improved for the entire cohort, and showed reductions in pollutant concentrations and healthcare utilization rates. Conclusions We describe the design and evaluation of a discrete event simulation model of pediatric asthma for children living in low-income multi-family housing. Our model simulates the effect of environmental factors (combustion pollutants and allergens), medication compliance, seasonality

  14. Tubular and glomerular kidney effects in the Chinese general population with low environmental cadmium exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongyue; Sun, Hong; Wu, Ye; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Ding, Zhen; Chen, Xiaodong; Xu, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a well-known nephrotoxic agent, has received a great deal of attention from the Chinese public because of reports of its presence in rice. But very few studies have assessed the renal risk of Cd exposure in children. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to determine whether biologic measures of Cd exposure were associated with biomarkers of early kidney damage in children, adolescents and adults. A total of 1235 subjects (2-86.8 years old) participated in this study and provided samples of blood and urine. As a result, the median urinary Cd level was 0.38 μg g(-1) creatinine in adult men and 0.42 μg g(-1) creatinine in adult women, similar to reference values observed in the United States (median: 0.32-0.40 μg L(-1) in adults). Multiple linear regressions showed Cd in urine to be significantly positively associated with effects on renal tubule biomarkers (as indicated by increased levels of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and β2-microglobulin) after adjusting for age, body mass index, blood lead, and urinary density, in all age groups including children. We also found positive associations between blood Cd and renal tubule biomarkers in children. In conclusion, adverse tubular renal effects might have occurred at the current low Cd levels in the study population, including children. These findings are particularly relevant assessing health risks associated with low environmental exposures to Cd.

  15. Research Review: Environmental exposures, neurodevelopment and child mental health – new paradigms for the study of brain and behavioral effects

    PubMed Central

    Rauh, Virginia A.; Margolis, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Background Environmental exposures play a critical role in the genesis of some child mental health problems. Methods We open with a discussion of children’s vulnerability to neurotoxic substances, changes in the distribution of toxic exposures, and co-occurrence of social and physical exposures. We address trends in prevalence of mental health disorders, and approaches to the definition of disorders that are sensitive to the subtle effects of toxic exposures. We suggest broadening outcomes to include dimensional measures of autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and child learning capacity, as well as direct assessment of brain function. Findings We consider the impact of two important exposures on children’s mental health: lead and pesticides. We argue that longitudinal research designs may capture the cascading effects of exposures across biological systems and the full-range of neuropsychological endpoints. Neuroimaging is a valuable tool for observing brain maturation under varying environmental conditions. A dimensional approach to measurement may be sensitive to subtle sub-clinical toxic effects, permitting the development of exposure-related profiles and testing of complex functional relationships between brain and behavior. Questions about the neurotoxic effects of chemicals become more pressing when viewed through the lens of environmental justice. Conclusions Reduction in the burden of child mental health disorders will require longitudinal study of neurotoxic exposures, incorporating dimensional approaches to outcome assessment and measures of brain function. Research that seeks to identify links between toxic exposures and mental health outcomes has enormous public health and societal value. PMID:26987761

  16. Effects of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and environmental tobacco smoke on child IQ in a Chinese cohort.

    PubMed

    Perera, F; Li, T Y; Lin, C; Tang, D

    2012-04-01

    This study of a birth cohort in the city of Tongliang in Chongqing, China, evaluated the relationship between two prenatal exposures (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAH) and environmental tobacco smoke(ETS)) and child intelligence quotient (IQ) as measured by the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence at age 5 years. A coal-fired power plant was the major source of ambient PAH in this city. We tested the hypothesis that, after adjusting for potential confounders, prenatal exposure to these pollutants would be associated with lower IQ scores at 5 years of age. Nonsmoking mothers and children were enrolled before delivery. PAH exposure was measured by DNA adducts in umbilical cord white blood cells using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Fluorescence. Estimated exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was based on personal interview. At age 5 years, scores for verbal, performance, and full scale IQ were obtained. Multiple regression was used to test the main effects of adducts and environmental tobacco smoke on IQ and to explore the interactions between these exposures on IQ. after adjusting for potential confounders, neither DNA adducts nor exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had significant main effects on IQ. However, significant interactions between adducts and environmental tobacco smoke were observed on full scale (p=0.025) and verbal (p=0.029) IQ scores, indicating that the adverse effects of prenatal PAH exposure became greater as exposure to environmental tobacco smoke increased. The interaction on performance IQ score was not significant (p=0.135). These results suggest that exposure of pregnant women to emissions of PAHs from the coal-burning plant, in combination with prenatal exposure to envrionmental tobacco smoke, may have adversely affected cognitive function of children at age 5. The polluting coal-fired plant has since been closed by the government, with likely important benefits to child health and development. Copyright

  17. Environmental effects of realistic pesticide mixtures on natural biofilm communities with different exposure histories.

    PubMed

    Kim Tiam, Sandra; Morin, Soizic; Pesce, Stephane; Feurtet-Mazel, Agnès; Moreira, Aurélie; Gonzalez, Patrice; Mazzella, Nicolas

    2014-03-01

    This study deals with the use of Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) extracts to assess the impact of low-dose pesticide mixtures on natural biofilm communities originating from either a chronically contaminated or a reference field site. To investigate how natural biofilm communities, pre-exposed to pesticides in situ or not might respond to environmentally realistic changes in pesticide pressure, they were exposed to either clean water or to POCIS extracts (PE) in order to represent toxic pressure with a realistic pesticide mixture directly isolated from the field. The impacts of PE were assessed on structure, physiology and growth of biofilms. Initial levels of tolerance of phototrophic communities to PE were also estimated at day 0. PE exposure led to negative effects on diatom growth kinetics independently of in-field biofilm exposure history. In contrast, the impacts observed on dry weight, ash-free dry mass and algal fluorescence-related parameters followed different trends depending on biofilm origin. Exposure to PE induced changes in diatom assemblages for the biofilm originating from the reference field site with higher relative abundance of Eolimna minima and Nitzschia palea with PE exposure. Initial tolerance of phototrophic communities to PE was 8-fold higher for the biofilm originating from the chronically contaminated site compared to the reference field site. The use of POCIS extracts allowed us to highlight both chronic impacts of low doses of a mixture of pesticides on natural communities with regard to biofilm exposure history as well as initial levels of tolerance of phototrophic communities.

  18. Fetal programming and environmental exposures ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fetal programming is an enormously complex process that relies on numerous environmental inputs from uterine tissue, the placenta, the maternal blood supply, and other sources. Recent evidence has made clear that the process is not based entirely on genetics, but rather on a delicate series of interactions between genes and the environment. It is likely that epigenctic (“above the genome”) changes are responsible for modifying gene expression in the developing fetus, and these modifications can have long-lasting health impacts. Determining which epigenetic regulators are most vital in embryonic development will improve pregnancy outcomes and our ability to treat and prevent disorders that emerge later in life. “Fetal Programming and Environmental Exposures: Implications for Prenatal Care and Preterm Birth’ began with a keynote address by Frederick vom Saal, who explained that low-level exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) perturbs hormone systems in utero and can have negative effects on fetal development. vom Saal presented data on the LOC bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-mimicking compound found in many plastics. He suggested that low-dose exposure to LOCs can alter the development process and enhance chances of acquiring adult diseases, such as breastcancer, diabetes, and even developmental disorders such as attention deficit disorder (ADHD).’ Fetal programming is an enormously complex process that relies on numerous environmental inputs

  19. USEPA RESEARCH ACTIVITIES TO CHARACTERIZE CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Given the vulnerability of children to effects from environmental exposures, understanding links between children's health and environmental exposures is critical. In recent years, significant research has been initiated at USEPA to characterize children's exposures.

  20. USEPA RESEARCH ACTIVITIES TO CHARACTERIZE CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Given the vulnerability of children to effects from environmental exposures, understanding links between children's health and environmental exposures is critical. In recent years, significant research has been initiated at USEPA to characterize children's exposures.

  1. Effects of transplacental exposure to environmental pollutants on birth outcomes in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Frederica P; Rauh, Virginia; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Kinney, Patrick; Camann, David; Barr, Dana; Bernert, Tom; Garfinkel, Robin; Tu, Yi-Hsuan; Diaz, Diurka; Dietrich, Jessica; Whyatt, Robin M

    2003-01-01

    Inner-city, minority populations are high-risk groups for adverse birth outcomes and also are more likely to be exposed to environmental contaminants, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and pesticides. In a sample of 263 nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women, we evaluated the effects on birth outcomes of prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs monitored during pregnancy by personal air sampling, along with ETS estimated by plasma cotinine, and an organophosphate pesticide (OP) estimated by plasma chlorpyrifos (CPF). Plasma CPF was used as a covariate because it was the most often detected in plasma and was highly correlated with other pesticides frequently detected in plasma. Among African Americans, high prenatal exposure to PAHs was associated with lower birth weight (p = 0.003) and smaller head circumference (p = 0.01) after adjusting for potential confounders. CPF was associated with decreased birth weight and birth length overall (p = 0.01 and p = 0.003, respectively) and with lower birth weight among African Americans (p = 0.04) and reduced birth length in Dominicans (p < 0.001), and was therefore included as a covariate in the model with PAH. After controlling for CPF, relationships between PAHs and birth outcomes were essentially unchanged. In this analysis, PAHs and CPF appear to be significant independent determinants of birth outcomes. Further analyses of pesticides will be carried out. Possible explanations of the failure to find a significant effect of PAHs in the Hispanic subsample are discussed. This study provides evidence that environmental pollutants at levels currently encountered in New York City adversely affect fetal development. PMID:12573906

  2. The effect of environmental exposure to pyrethroids and DNA damage in human sperm.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Michał; Wielgomas, Bartosz; Sobala, Wojciech; Piskunowicz, Marta; Radwan, Paweł; Bochenek, Michał; Hanke, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether environmental exposure to pyrethroids was associated with sperm DNA damage. Between January 2008 and April 2011 286 men under 45 years of age with a normal sperm concentration of 15-300 10(6)/ml [WHO 2010] were recruited from an infertility clinic in Lodz, Poland. Participants were interviewed and provided urine, saliva, and semen samples. The pyrethroids metabolites: 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA), cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (CDCCA), trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (TDCCA), and cis-2,2-dibromovinyl-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-carboxylic acid (DBCA) were analyzed in the urine using a validated gas chromatography ion-tap mass spectrometry method. Sperm DNA damage was assessed using a flow cytometry based on sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). A positive association was observed between CDCCA >50th percentile and the percentage of medium DNA fragmentation index (M DFI) and percentage of immature sperms (HDS) (p = 0.04, p = 0.04 respectively). The level of 3PBA >50th percentile in urine was positively related to the percentage of high DNA fragmentation index (H DFI) (p = 0.03). The TDCCA, DBCA levels, and the sum of pyrethroid metabolites were not associated with any sperm DNA damage measures. Our results suggest that environmental pyrethroid exposure may affect sperm DNA damage measures index indicated the reproductive effects of pyrethroid exposure on adult men. In view of the importance of human reproductive health and the widespread usage of pyrethroids, it is important to further investigate these correlations.

  3. Developmental Exposure to Environmental Toxicants.

    PubMed

    Falck, Alison J; Mooney, Sandra; Kapoor, Shiv S; White, Kimberly M R; Bearer, Cynthia; El Metwally, Dina

    2015-10-01

    Children interact with the physical environment differently than adults, and are uniquely susceptible to environmental toxicants. Routes of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and target organ toxicities vary as children grow and develop. This article summarizes the sources of exposure and known adverse effects of toxicants that are ubiquitous in our environment, including tobacco smoke, ethanol, solvents, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds, persistent organic pollutants, and pesticides. Preventive strategies that may be used in counseling children and their families are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Noninvasive biomarkers of manganese exposure and neuropsychological effects in environmentally exposed adults in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Viana, Gustavo F de Sousa; de Carvalho, Chrissie F; Nunes, Lorena S; Rodrigues, Juliana L G; Ribeiro, Nathália S; de Almeida, Diego A; Ferreira, Junia R Dutra; Abreu, Neander; Menezes-Filho, José A

    2014-12-01

    Manganese (Mn), an essential element to humans, in excess can cause neurotoxic damage. So far, Mn exposure assessment has no ideal biomarker. This study aims to investigate the association between Mn exposure, using noninvasive biomarkers, and neuropsychological effects in environmentally exposed adults. The residents of two communities near to a ferromanganese refinery in Bahia, Brazil were evaluated. Volunteers aged 15-55 of both sexes provided scalp hair, axillary hair, fingernail and saliva specimens for Mn determination by electrothermal absorption spectrometry. Several neuropsychological tests were used to evaluate cognitive, attention, memory, motor and executive functions. Significant correlations were observed between Mn in hair (MnH, median 8.95 μg/g), axillary hair (MnAxH,18.49 μg/g) and fingernail (MnFN, 6.91 μg/g) with the performances in several neuropsychological tests. No association was observed between manganese levels in saliva (MnSal, 4.2 μg/L) and any neuropsychological function. Multiple regression analysis detected an inverse association between Log MnH and IQ (β=-4.76 [CI 95% -9.17 to -0.36]) and between Log MnFN and visual working memory (β=-3.33 [CI 95% -6.15 to -0.52]). Direct association was observed between Log MnFN and time of completion in the cognitive flexibility task (β=56.29 [CI 95% 2.41-110.18]). The Mn biomonitoring using noninvasive biomarkers was able to detect high exposure levels, which were associated with detrimental neuropsychological effects in adults exposed to industrial emissions.

  5. Peanut allergy: Effect of environmental peanut exposure in children with filaggrin loss-of-function mutations

    PubMed Central

    Brough, Helen A.; Simpson, Angela; Makinson, Kerry; Hankinson, Jenny; Brown, Sara; Douiri, Abdel; Belgrave, Danielle C.M.; Penagos, Martin; Stephens, Alick C.; McLean, W.H. Irwin; Turcanu, Victor; Nicolaou, Nicolaos; Custovic, Adnan; Lack, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    Background Filaggrin (FLG) loss-of-function mutations lead to an impaired skin barrier associated with peanut allergy. Household peanut consumption is associated with peanut allergy, and peanut allergen in household dust correlates with household peanut consumption. Objective We sought to determine whether environmental peanut exposure increases the odds of peanut allergy and whether FLG mutations modulate these odds. Methods Exposure to peanut antigen in dust within the first year of life was measured in a population-based birth cohort. Peanut sensitization and peanut allergy (defined by using oral food challenges or component-resolved diagnostics [CRD]) were assessed at 8 and 11 years. Genotyping was performed for 6 FLG mutations. Results After adjustment for infantile atopic dermatitis and preceding egg skin prick test (SPT) sensitization, we found a strong and significant interaction between natural log (ln [loge]) peanut dust levels and FLG mutations on peanut sensitization and peanut allergy. Among children with FLG mutations, for each ln unit increase in the house dust peanut protein level, there was a more than 6-fold increased odds of peanut SPT sensitization, CRD sensitization, or both in children at ages 8 years, 11 years, or both and a greater than 3-fold increased odds of peanut allergy compared with odds seen in children with wild-type FLG. There was no significant effect of exposure in children without FLG mutations. In children carrying an FLG mutation, the threshold level for peanut SPT sensitization was 0.92 μg of peanut protein per gram (95% CI, 0.70-1.22 μg/g), that for CRD sensitization was 1.03 μg/g (95% CI, 0.90-1.82 μg/g), and that for peanut allergy was 1.17 μg/g (95% CI, 0.01-163.83 μg/g). Conclusion Early-life environmental peanut exposure is associated with an increased risk of peanut sensitization and allergy in children who carry an FLG mutation. These data support the hypothesis that peanut allergy develops through

  6. Peanut allergy: effect of environmental peanut exposure in children with filaggrin loss-of-function mutations.

    PubMed

    Brough, Helen A; Simpson, Angela; Makinson, Kerry; Hankinson, Jenny; Brown, Sara; Douiri, Abdel; Belgrave, Danielle C M; Penagos, Martin; Stephens, Alick C; McLean, W H Irwin; Turcanu, Victor; Nicolaou, Nicolaos; Custovic, Adnan; Lack, Gideon

    2014-10-01

    Filaggrin (FLG) loss-of-function mutations lead to an impaired skin barrier associated with peanut allergy. Household peanut consumption is associated with peanut allergy, and peanut allergen in household dust correlates with household peanut consumption. We sought to determine whether environmental peanut exposure increases the odds of peanut allergy and whether FLG mutations modulate these odds. Exposure to peanut antigen in dust within the first year of life was measured in a population-based birth cohort. Peanut sensitization and peanut allergy (defined by using oral food challenges or component-resolved diagnostics [CRD]) were assessed at 8 and 11 years. Genotyping was performed for 6 FLG mutations. After adjustment for infantile atopic dermatitis and preceding egg skin prick test (SPT) sensitization, we found a strong and significant interaction between natural log (ln [loge]) peanut dust levels and FLG mutations on peanut sensitization and peanut allergy. Among children with FLG mutations, for each ln unit increase in the house dust peanut protein level, there was a more than 6-fold increased odds of peanut SPT sensitization, CRD sensitization, or both in children at ages 8 years, 11 years, or both and a greater than 3-fold increased odds of peanut allergy compared with odds seen in children with wild-type FLG. There was no significant effect of exposure in children without FLG mutations. In children carrying an FLG mutation, the threshold level for peanut SPT sensitization was 0.92 μg of peanut protein per gram (95% CI, 0.70-1.22 μg/g), that for CRD sensitization was 1.03 μg/g (95% CI, 0.90-1.82 μg/g), and that for peanut allergy was 1.17 μg/g (95% CI, 0.01-163.83 μg/g). Early-life environmental peanut exposure is associated with an increased risk of peanut sensitization and allergy in children who carry an FLG mutation. These data support the hypothesis that peanut allergy develops through transcutaneous sensitization in children with an impaired

  7. Effect of Environmental Exposures on Fatigue Life of P/M Disk Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, Susan

    2011-01-01

    As the temperature capability of Ni-base superalloy powder metallurgy disks is steadily increased, environmental resistance and protection of advanced nickel-based turbine disk components are becoming increasingly important. Localized surface hot corrosion attack and damage from oxidation have been shown to impair disk fatigue life and may eventually limit disk operating temperatures. NASA Research Announcement (NRA) contracts have been awarded to GE Aviation and Honeywell Aerospace to separately develop fatigue resistant metallic and ceramic coatings for corrosion resistance and the corrosion/fatigue results of selected coatings will be presented. The microstructural response of a bare ME3 disk superalloy has been evaluated for moderate (704 C) and aggressive (760-816 C) oxidizing exposures up to 2,020 hours. Cross section analysis reveals sub-surface damage (significant for aggressive exposures) that consists of Al2O3 "fingers", interfacial voids, a recrystallized precipitate-free layer and GB carbide dissolution. The effects of a Nichrome corrosion coating on this microstructural response will also be presented.

  8. Possible Immunosuppressive Effects of Drug Exposure and Environmental and Nutritional Effects on Infection and Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Huemer, H. P.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of drugs which are not primarily considered to be immunosuppressive agents have been described to modulate the humoral and cellular immune response in humans or animals. Thereby they may have an influence on the effectiveness and possible side effects of vaccines. This mini review lists some of the different substance classes and also some of endogeneous, infectious, nutritional, and environmental influences with suspected capability to interfere with immunizations. Studies in most cases focused on substances with known immunosuppressive functions, but there is growing evidence for immunomodulatory effects also of commonly used drugs with wide distribution. In particular combinations of those antiproliferative and antiphlogistic side effects of different substance classes have not been studied in detail but may substantially interfere with the development of a functional humoral and cellular immune response. The drugs of importance include antipyretics, anticoagulants, tranquilizers, and substances influencing lipid metabolism but also commonly used drugs of abuse like alcohol or cannabinoids. Additional substances of environmental, nutritional, or microbiological origin may also play a role but their combinatory/synergistic effects have been disregarded so far due to the lack of systematic data and the complex study designs necessary to elucidate those complex epidemiologic questions. PMID:25944981

  9. Effects of in utero and environmental tobacco smoke exposure on lung function in boys and girls with and without asthma.

    PubMed

    Li, Y F; Gilliland, F D; Berhane, K; McConnell, R; Gauderman, W J; Rappaport, E B; Peters, J M

    2000-12-01

    To investigate whether the effects of in utero exposure to maternal smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on lung function vary by sex or asthma status, we examined medical history and tobacco smoke exposure data for 5,263 participants in the Children's Health Study. At study enrollment, parents or guardians of each subject completed a questionnaire, and lung function was measured spirometrically with maximum forced expiratory flow-volume maneuvers. To assess the in utero effects of maternal smoking and ETS exposure on lung function, we used regression splines that accounted for the nonlinear relationship between pulmonary function, height, and age. In utero exposure to maternal smoking was independently associated with deficits in lung function that were larger for children with asthma. Boys and girls with a history of in utero exposure to maternal smoking showed deficits in maximum midexpiratory flow (MMEF) and a decrease in the FEV(1)/FVC ratio. As compared with children without asthma, boys with asthma had significantly larger deficits from in utero exposure in FVC, MMEF, and FEV(1)/FVC, and girls with asthma had larger decreases in FEV(1)/FVC. The effect of ETS exposure varied by children's gender and asthma status. Deficits in flows associated with current ETS exposure were present in children with and without asthma but were significant only among children without asthma. Past ETS exposure was associated with reduced FEV(1), MMEF, and FEV(1)/FVC among boys with asthma. In contrast, past ETS exposure was associated with decreased flow rates in girls without asthma. In summary, both in utero exposure to maternal smoking and ETS exposure were associated with persistent deficits in lung function. The effects of in utero exposure were greatest among children with asthma.

  10. Combined Effects of Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals on Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Den Hond, Elly; Sioen, Isabelle; Nelen, Vera; Baeyens, Willy; Nawrot, Tim S; Loots, Ilse; Van Larebeke, Nick; Schoeters, Greet

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced gender specific effects. In girls, the effect estimate was doubled with co-exposure of thallium, PFOS, lead, cadmium, manganese, and mercury, while in boys, the mixture of MECPP with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures. PMID:27187434

  11. Wind turbines and idiopathic symptoms: The confounding effect of concurrent environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Whether or not wind turbines pose a risk to human health is a matter of heated debate. Personal reactions to other environmental exposures occurring in the same settings as wind turbines may be responsible of the reported symptoms. However, these have not been accounted for in previous studies. We investigated whether there is an association between residential proximity to wind turbines and idiopathic symptoms, after controlling for personal reactions to other environmental co-exposures. We assessed wind turbine exposures in 454 residences as the distance to the closest wind turbine (Dw) and number of wind turbines <1000m (Nw1000). Information on symptoms, demographics and personal reactions to exposures was obtained by a blind questionnaire. We identified confounders using confounders' selection criteria and used adjusted logistic regression models to estimate associations. When controlling only for socio-demographic characteristics, log10Dw was associated with "unnatural fatigue" (ORadj=0.38, 95%CI=0.15-1.00) and "difficulty concentrating" (ORadj=0.26, 95%CI=0.08-0.83) and Nw1000 was associated with "unnatural fatigue" (ORadj=1.35, 95%CI=1.07-1.70) and "headache" (ORadj=1.26, 95%CI=1.00-1.58). After controlling for personal reactions to noise from sources different from wind turbines and agricultural odor exposure, we did not observe a significant relationship between residential proximity to wind turbines and symptoms and the parameter estimates were attenuated toward zero. Wind turbines-health associations can be confounded by personal reactions to other environmental co-exposures. Isolated associations reported in the literature may be due to confounding bias.

  12. The importance of age and smoking in evaluating adverse cytogenetic effects of exposure to environmental agents

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, J.D.; Moore, D.H. II

    1995-08-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific composite DNA probes (``chromosome painting``) is a reliable and efficient method for detecting structural chromosome aberrations. Painting is now being used to quantify chromosome damage in many human populations. In one such study we evaluated 91 unexposed people ranging in age from birth (cord bloods) to 79. We established a baseline frequency of stable aberrations that showed a highly significant curvi-linear increase with age (p < 0.00001) that accounted for 70% of the variance between donors. The magnitude of this effect illustrates the importance of understanding the cytogenetic changes that occur with age, which is particularly important for quantifying the effects of prior adverse environmental, occupational, or accidental exposure. In this paper we use the data obtained in our previous study to characterize the distribution of stable aberrations by age and pack-years of cigarette smoking. We also provide estimates of the number of cell equivalents that need to be scored to detect a given increase in aberrations above the background level surveyed in this population.

  13. Ergonomics. The effect of occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke on the heart rate variability of bar and restaurant workers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mark D; McGlothlin, James D; Rosenthal, Frank S; Black, David R; Zimmerman, Neil J; Bridges, C David

    2010-07-01

    Changes in heart rate variability (HRV) have been linked with cardiac disease and death. Exposure to particulate matter from various sources such as tobacco smoke has been shown to cause alterations in HRV. This study investigated the effects of occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on HRV. Air monitoring was conducted in three bars in which smoking was permitted and one bar where smoking was not permitted. Pre- and post-work shift heart rate monitoring was conducted on volunteer staff from the establishments. Heart rate variability parameters, including SDNN and RMSSD, were calculated, and the differences between pre- and post-shift values were plotted and analyzed with respect to ETS exposure. Post-shift minus pre-shift values of SDNN and RMSSD significantly decreased with exposure to ETS (p < 0.05). Occupational exposure to ETS may decrease heart rate variability.

  14. Second hand smoke exposure in children: environmental factors, physiological effects, and interventions within pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Treyster, Zoya; Gitterman, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Second hand smoke (SHS) exposure has long been correlated with many adverse disease processes, particularly in children. For children growing up with socioeconomic disadvantages and increased exposure to SHS, exposure can have far-reaching consequences. The purpose of this review was to examine the literature assessing the effects of SHS exposure in children, as well as the perspectives of both parents and providers regarding current practices in cessation counseling. The review also sought out recommendations on ways to increase the influence of pediatricians on parental smoking. Children under the age of 18 years. PubMed and MEDLINE were searched systematically. A narrative approach was used because the studies differed in methods and data. The studies showed correlations between SHS exposure and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), asthma, altered respiratory function, infection, cardiovascular effects, behavior problems, sleep difficulties, increased cancer risk, and a higher likelihood of smoking initiation. Questionnaires of both parents and pediatricians showed that pediatricians are not consistently carrying out the recommended smoking cessation interventions, with lack of training as a primary barrier. Nevertheless, interventions targeting improved cessation training for both residents and practicing pediatricians have been studied and show promising results. SHS exposure has many detrimental effects on children's health, particularly for those in low socioeconomic circumstances, for which factors in the built environment accentuated a higher baseline risk. By counseling parents, expanding residency education, and continuing advocacy work, pediatricians can have a significant positive impact on children's health as related to SHS exposure.

  15. Dietary exposure to cadmium and health effects: impact of environmental changes.

    PubMed Central

    Piscator, M

    1985-01-01

    Cadmium exposure, metabolism, and effects are described especially in relation to dietary intakes. Data on dietary intakes in several countries have been complied from studies using the duplicate diet method or fecal analysis. These two methods seem to give more accurate data than estimates based on cadmium concentrations in food classes and food consumption (composite method). The present data on absorption and retention of ingested cadmium indicate that normally less than 5% is ingested, but absorption may increase in women who have iron deficiency. Earlier estimates of the critical concentration in renal cortex being about 200 mg/kg wet weight still seem to be valid. New information is available on present renal levels and their distribution in the general population. The present margin of safety with regard to risk for renal effects is small. To predict future health risks from increases in dietary cadmium due to environmental changes such as acid deposition, it is necessary that the models used are based on correct assumptions. Of interest are the distributions of dietary intake, gastrointestinal absorption, and renal cadmium concentrations. These distributions are normal or lognormal, and since standard deviations are used when estimating risks, it is of paramount importance that the standard deviations are estimated as accurately as possible. At present it is not possible to quantify the effects attributed to acid rain only; account must be also be taken of cadmium added to, e.g., soil by use of sewage sludge and other fertilizers. In addition to risks to human health, cadmium also poses a threat to horses, which generally have renal cadmium concentrations several times higher than adult humans. It is recommended that horses should be monitored in areas when acid deposition is high. Such monitoring might provide valuable information about impact of acid rain. PMID:4076079

  16. Caring for medically unexplained physical symptoms after toxic environmental exposures: effects of contested causation.

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Charles C; Adkins, Joyce A; Cowan, David N

    2002-01-01

    Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) are persistent idiopathic symptoms that drive patients to seek medical care. MUPS syndromes include chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia syndrome, and multiple chemical sensitivities. When MUPS occur after an environmental exposure or injury, an adversarial social context that we call "contested causation" may ensue. Contested causation may occur publicly and involve media controversy, scientific disagreement, political debate, and legal struggles. This adversarial social context may diminish the effectiveness of the provider-patient relationship. Contested causation also may occur privately, when disagreement over the causes of MUPS takes place in the patient-provider context. These patient-provider disagreements over causation often occur because of the enigmatic nature of MUPS. We suggest that a context of contested causation may have serious negative effects on healthcare for individuals with MUPS. Context plays a larger role in MUPS care than it does for most medical care because of the uncertain nature of MUPS, the reliance of standard MUPS therapies on a potentially tenuous patient-provider partnership, and the clinical need to rely routinely on subjective MUPS assessments that often yield discordant patient and provider conclusions. Contested causation may erode patient-provider trust, test the provider's self-assurance and capacity to share power with the patient, and raise problematic issues of compensation, reparation, and blame. These issues may distract patients and providers from therapeutic goals. In occupational and military settings, the adverse impact of contested causation on the patient-provider partnership may diminish therapeutic effectiveness to a greater degree than it does in other medical settings. Contested causation therefore raises questions regarding generalizability of standard therapies for MUPS and related syndromes to these settings. Future research is needed to learn whether

  17. Dietary exposure to cadmium and health effects: impact of environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Piscator, M

    1985-11-01

    Cadmium exposure, metabolism, and effects are described especially in relation to dietary intakes. Data on dietary intakes in several countries have been complied from studies using the duplicate diet method or fecal analysis. These two methods seem to give more accurate data than estimates based on cadmium concentrations in food classes and food consumption (composite method). The present data on absorption and retention of ingested cadmium indicate that normally less than 5% is ingested, but absorption may increase in women who have iron deficiency. Earlier estimates of the critical concentration in renal cortex being about 200 mg/kg wet weight still seem to be valid. New information is available on present renal levels and their distribution in the general population. The present margin of safety with regard to risk for renal effects is small. To predict future health risks from increases in dietary cadmium due to environmental changes such as acid deposition, it is necessary that the models used are based on correct assumptions. Of interest are the distributions of dietary intake, gastrointestinal absorption, and renal cadmium concentrations. These distributions are normal or lognormal, and since standard deviations are used when estimating risks, it is of paramount importance that the standard deviations are estimated as accurately as possible. At present it is not possible to quantify the effects attributed to acid rain only; account must be also be taken of cadmium added to, e.g., soil by use of sewage sludge and other fertilizers. In addition to risks to human health, cadmium also poses a threat to horses, which generally have renal cadmium concentrations several times higher than adult humans. It is recommended that horses should be monitored in areas when acid deposition is high. Such monitoring might provide valuable information about impact of acid rain.

  18. Repeated exposures of the male Sprague Dawley rat reproductive tract to environmental toxicants: Do earlier exposures to di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) alter the effects of later exposures?

    PubMed

    Traore, Kassim; Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Chen, Haolin; Zirkin, Barry R

    2016-06-01

    Although exposures to environmental toxicants occur throughout life, little attention has been paid to the possible effects of exposures early in life on later exposure effects. We asked whether DEHP administered in utero (GD14-parturition) affects how male rats respond to later exposures. Neither in utero nor juvenile (PND21-35) exposures to 100mg/kg/day DEHP affected testis weight or histology as assessed on PND35. However, after in utero DEHP, subsequent juvenile exposure resulted in significantly reduced testis weight and altered testicular histology. Both in utero and juvenile exposures resulted in significant reductions in serum testosterone, but there was no effect of earlier on later exposure. Whether or not there had been in utero DEHP exposure, juvenile DEHP exposure had no effect on body, kidney or liver weights. These observations indicate that in utero exposure can, but will not necessarily, alter later exposure effects, with outcomes dependent upon endpoints measured and dose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental epigenetics in metal exposure

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Zamudio, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that chronic exposure to arsenite, nickel, chromium and cadmium increases cancer incidence in individuals, the molecular mechanisms underlying their ability to transform cells remain largely unknown. Carcinogenic metals are typically weak mutagens, suggesting that genetic-based mechanisms may not be primarily responsible for metal-induced carcinogenesis. Growing evidence shows that environmental metal exposure involves changes in epigenetic marks, which may lead to a possible link between heritable changes in gene expression and disease susceptibility and development. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of metal exposure affecting epigenetic marks and discuss establishment of heritable gene expression in metal-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:21610324

  20. Breast cancer risk and environmental exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, M S; Weston, A

    1997-01-01

    Although environmental contaminants have potential to affect breast cancer risk, explicit environmental links to this disease are limited. The most well-defined environmental risk factors are radiation exposure and alcohol ingestion. Diet is clearly related to the increased incidence of breast cancer in developed countries, but its precise role is not yet established. Recent studies have implicated exposure to organochlorines including DDT as a risk factor for breast cancer in the United States, Finland, Mexico, and Canada. Other investigations have discovered associations between breast cancer risk and exposures to chemical emissions and some occupational exposures. Several points must be considered in evaluating the relationship of environmental exposure to breast cancer. Among these considerations are the mechanism of tumorigenesis, timing of environmental exposure, and genetic modulation of exposure. Epidemiologic and ecologic investigations must take into account the very complex etiology of breast cancer and the knowledge that tumorigenesis can arise from different mechanisms. Thus crucial exposures as well as reproductive events related to breast cancer may occur years before a tumor is evident. Moreover, environmental contaminants may alter reproductive development, directly or indirectly, and thereby effect the course of tumorigenesis. Such alterations include change in gender, change in onset of puberty, and inhibition or promotion of tumor formation. Timing of exposure is therefore important with respect to mechanism and susceptibility. Finally, genetic polymorphisms exist in genes that govern capacity to metabolize environmental contaminants. Higher risk may occur among persons whose enzymes either are more active in the production of procarcinogens or fail to detoxify carcinogenic intermediates formed from chemicals in the environment. PMID:9255576

  1. ATSDR evaluation of health effects of chemicals. V. Xylenes: health effects, toxicokinetics, human exposure, and environmental fate.

    PubMed

    Fay, M; Eisenmann, C; Diwan, S; de Rosa, C

    1998-01-01

    Xylenes, or dimethylbenzenes, are among the highest-volume chemicals in production. Common uses are for gasoline blending, as a solvent or component in a wide variety of products from paints to printing ink, and in the production of phthalates and polyester. They are often encountered as a mixture of the three dimethyl isomers, together with ethylbenzene. As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals found at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) sites that are of greatest concern for public health purposes. These profiles comprehensively summarize toxicological and environmental information. This article constitutes the release of the bulk of this profile (ATSDR, 1995) into the mainstream scientific literature. An extensive listing of known human and animal health effects, organized by route, duration, and end point, is presented. Toxicological information on toxicokinetics, biomarkers, interactions, sensitive subpopulations, reducing toxicity after exposure, and relevance to public health is also included. Environmental information encompasses physical properties, production and use, environmental fate, levels seen in the environment, analytical methods, and a listing of regulations. ATSDR, as mandated by CERCLA (or Superfund), prepares these profiles to inform and assist the public.

  2. Female college student awareness of exposures to environmental toxins in personal care products and their effect on preconception health.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lisa M; Chalupka, Stephanie M; Barrett, Roseann

    2015-02-01

    This research study investigated college women's usage of personal care products and their views on health effects from exposures during the preconception period. Many personal care products and cosmetics contain chemical ingredients that have been known to disrupt human endocrine and neurological systems, and contribute to infertility and adverse birth outcomes. Seventy-two female college students from a single, medium-sized university campus completed a researcher-developed questionnaire. Findings provide insight into the daily exposures young women experience during their reproductive years. Results can inform occupational and environmental health nurses about the personal daily exposures of young women when conducting risk assessments in the workplace or at a school, and can aid in developing interventions that support the environmental health of employees or future employees. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Effect of environmental exposures to lead and cadmium on human lymphocytic detoxifying enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    D'Souza, S.J.; Narurkar, L.M.; Narurkar, M.V. )

    1994-09-01

    Lead (Pb) is among the most toxic heavy elements in the atmosphere. Aerosol lead enters the human blood stream by way of the respiratory tract and indirectly, by surface disposition in the alimentary tract followed by adsorption. Lead pollution is also known to occur through its presence in petrol, pain, glazed vessels and solder. Atmospheric lead pollution may be predominantly high around factories manufacturing Pb alloys. Lead toxicity is associated with inhibition of [alpha]-aminolevulinic acid dehydrase (ALAD) activity, rise in the blood porphyrin, inhibition of ATPase in erthrocytes, decreased blood haemoglobin and anemia. Elevated lead concentrations in pregnant women have been shown to cause hypertension and birth defects. Lead is also known to interact with other elements such as Fe, Zn, Ca and Cu in biological systems. Cadmium (Cd) is not essential for human body. It enters the human environment as a contaminant. Human intake of Cd is chiefly through the food chain (about 400-500 [mu]g/wk). Analysis of neuropsy material shows that smokers accumulate much more Cd than nonsmokers. Chronic Cd poisoning produces proteinuere and affects the proximal tubules of kidney, causing the formation of kidney stones. The reported hypertensive effect of Cd in man has been associated with high Cd/Zn ratio in kidney. Studies on air pollution have shown that Cd concentration in air could be positively correlated with heart disease, hypertension and arteriosclerosis. The present investigation was aimed at assessing the usefulness of human lymphocytic detoxicating enzyme activities and their ratios in an assessment of human health-risks during environmental exposures to Pb and Cd. The human subjects investigated comprised those exposed to highly contaminated lead and cadmium areas in the state of Maharashtra, India. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  4. The effects of environmental tobacco smoke exposure on lung function in a longitudinal study of British adults.

    PubMed

    Carey, I M; Cook, D G; Strachan, D P

    1999-05-01

    Small effects of environmental tobacco smoke exposure on lung function have been demonstrated in many studies of children, but fewer studies have examined adults in this respect. We examined these relations in a 7-year longitudinal study of 1,623 British adults, age 18-73 years, who were nonsmokers throughout. Outcome was measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) adjusted for sex, age, and height. Exposure was assessed by asking subjects whether they lived with a smoker (at both the initial and the follow-up studies) and by salivary cotinine measurements (follow-up study only). Cross-sectionally, subjects exposed at home showed tiny FEV1 deficits at both studies of -4 ml [95% confidence limits (CL) = -31, 23] and -5 ml (95% CL = -32, 22), respectively. Cotinine adjusted for potential confounders showed a stronger association with FEV1, with the highest quintile showing a -105-ml deficit (95% CL = -174, -37) in comparison with the lowest. Longitudinally, no clear relation was apparent between change in FEV1 and average exposure or change in exposure. These results indicate that environmental tobacco smoke is associated with small deficits in adult lung function, consistent with our meta-analysis estimate of a 2.7% deficit in exposed nonsmoking adults. The relations seen with cotinine but not with household exposure may reflect the importance of exposure outside the home.

  5. Effect of sorption on exposures to organic gases from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, B.C.; Hodgson, A.T.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of sorption processes on dynamic ETS organic gas concentrations and potential exposures were studied in a carpeted and furnished 50-m{sup 3} room ventilated at 0.6 h{sup -1}. Ten cigarettes were machine-smoked on six of every seven days over four weeks. Concentrations of ETS-specific tracers and regulated toxic compounds were quantified during daily smoking, post-smoking and background periods. Potential exposures were calculated by period and day. Large sorption effects were observed for the widely used tracers 3-ethenylpyridine and nicotine, and for several toxic compounds including naphthalene and cresol isomers. Short-term adsorption to indoor surfaces reduced concentrations and potential exposures during smoking, while later reemission increased concentrations and exposures hours after smoking ended. Concentrations during nonsmoking periods rose from day to day over the first few weeks, presumably from increased reemission associated with increased sorbed mass concentrations. For sorbing compounds, more than half of daily potential exposures occurred during nonsmoking periods.

  6. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.

    1993-06-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

  7. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

  8. The effects of environmental exposure on reusable surface insulation for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, P. O.; Morrison, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Coated specimens of reusable surface insulation (RSI) were exposed to alternate radiant heating and atmospheric exposure cycles to study the effects of surface contamination on the RSI coating. Different methods of heating were employed on clean and artificially contaminated specimens to determine the contributions of heating conditions to coating devitrification.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO CHLOROPHENOXY HERBICIDES AND ASSOCIATION WITH ADVERSE HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS: EXAMPLE OF THE NEED FOR BETTER METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have made the following observations: newly emerging global patterns of disease have been observed, and environmental exposures have been implicated. Ecologic studies are fundamental for the identification of public health problems. Some level of exposure in a...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO CHLOROPHENOXY HERBICIDES AND ASSOCIATION WITH ADVERSE HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS: EXAMPLE OF THE NEED FOR BETTER METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have made the following observations: newly emerging global patterns of disease have been observed, and environmental exposures have been implicated. Ecologic studies are fundamental for the identification of public health problems. Some level of exposure in a...

  11. Age Induced Effects on ESD Characteristics of Solar Array Coupons After Combined Space Environmental Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Hoang, Bao; Funderburk, Victor V.; Wong, Frankie; Gardiner, George

    2012-01-01

    A set of multi-junction GaAs/Ge solar array test coupons provided by Space Systems/Loral were subjected to a sequence of 5-year increments of combined space environment exposure tests. The test coupons capture an integrated design intended for use in a geosynchronous (GEO) space environment. A key component of this test campaign is performing electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests in the inverted gradient mode. The protocol of the ESD tests is based on the ISO standard for ESD testing on solar array panels [ISO-11221]. The test schematic in the ISO reference has been modified with Space System/Loral designed circuitry to better simulate the on-orbit operational conditions of its solar array design. Part of the modified circuitry is to simulate a solar array panel coverglass flashover discharge. All solar array coupons used in the test campaign consist of four cells constructed to form two strings. The ESD tests were performed at the beginning-of-life (BOL) and at each 5-year environment exposure point until end-of-life (EOL) at 15 years. The space environmental exposure sequence consisted of ultra-violet radiation, electron/proton particle radiation, thermal cycling, and Xenon ion thruster plume erosion. This paper describes the ESD test setup and the importance of the electrical test design in simulating the on-orbit operational conditions. Arc inception voltage results along with ESD test behavior from the BOL condition through the 15th year age condition are discussed. In addition, results from a Xenon plasma plume exposure test with an EOL coupon under the full ESD test condition will be discussed.

  12. Long-term effects of early life exposure to environmental estrogens on ovarian function: Role of epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Gonzalo; Foster, Warren; Paredes, Alfonso; Yi, Kun Don; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens play an important role in development and function of the brain and reproductive tract. Accordingly, it is thought that developmental exposure to environmental estrogens can disrupt neural and reproductive tract development potentially resulting in long-term alterations in neurobehavior and reproductive function. Many chemicals have been shown to have estrogenic activity whereas others affect estrogen production and turnover resulting in disruption of estrogen signaling pathways. However, these mechanisms and the concentrations required to induce these effects cannot account for the myriad adverse effects of environmental toxicants on estrogen sensitive target tissues. Hence, alternative mechanisms are thought to underlie the adverse effects documented in experimental animal models and thus could be important to human health. In this review, the epigenetic regulation of gene expression is explored as a potential target of environmental toxicants including estrogenic chemicals. We suggest that toxicant-induced changes in epigenetic signatures are important mechanisms underlying disruption of ovarian follicular development. In addition, we discuss how exposure to environmental estrogens during early life can alter gene expression through effects on epigenetic control potentially leading to permanent changes in ovarian physiology. PMID:25040227

  13. Long-term effects of early-life exposure to environmental oestrogens on ovarian function: role of epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Cruz, G; Foster, W; Paredes, A; Yi, K D; Uzumcu, M

    2014-09-01

    Oestrogens play an important role in development and function of the brain and reproductive tract. Accordingly, it is considered that developmental exposure to environmental oestrogens can disrupt neural and reproductive tract development, potentially resulting in long-term alterations in neurobehaviour and reproductive function. Many chemicals have been shown to have oestrogenic activity, whereas others affect oestrogen production and turnover, resulting in the disruption of oestrogen signalling pathways. However, these mechanisms and the concentrations required to induce these effects cannot account for the myriad adverse effects of environmental toxicants on oestrogen-sensitive target tissues. Hence, alternative mechanisms are assumed to underlie the adverse effects documented in experimental animal models and thus could be important to human health. In this review, the epigenetic regulation of gene expression is explored as a potential target of environmental toxicants including oestrogenic chemicals. We suggest that toxicant-induced changes in epigenetic signatures are important mechanisms underlying the disruption of ovarian follicular development. In addition, we discuss how exposure to environmental oestrogens during early life can alter gene expression through effects on epigenetic control potentially leading to permanent changes in ovarian physiology. © 2014 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  14. [Long-term effect of environmental cadmium exposure on human body's mineral metabolic balance].

    PubMed

    Ling, H T; Huang, R; Liang, X X; Li, Z X; Wang, J; Tan, J B; Wu, S X; Wang, P; Chen, Z H; Huang, Q; Lyu, Y J; Jiang, Q; Yang, X F; Wu, Y N

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effect of long-term exposure to environmental cadmium on eight mineral element's metabolic balance of human body. To choose a high cadmium area polluted by smelting and mining north of Guangdong province and a cadmium-free area with a similar economic level, and living and eating habit of residents as a contrast from April 2011 to August 2012. Stratified random sampling and clustered sampling method were adopted to choose the non-occupationally cadmium-exposed respondents who have lived in local area for more than 15 years, older than 40 years, having local rice and vegetable as the main dietary source, with simple and relatively stable diet, and without diabetes, kidney disease, thyroid disease, liver disease or other history of chronic disease. This study included 298 respondents, of whom 155 were in cadmium exposure group and 143 in control group. Questionnaires was used to acquire their health status and their morning urine samples were collected. Electrolytically coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to test the concentrations of sodium(Na), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iodine (I). The Mann-Whitney U test method was used to compare the differences of concentrations of urinary cadmium, Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, I, and the ratio of Na to K (Na/K), Ca to P (Ca/P) between exposed group and control group.χ(2) test was used to compare the abnormal rate of urinary cadmium between exposed group and control group. Pearson correlation and multiple regression method were used to investigate the relationship between urinary cadmium levels, gender, age, smoking, passive smoking, and minerals. The urinary cadmium level P50 (P25-P75) in exposed group was 5.45 (2.62-10.68) μg/g·cr, which was higher than that of the control group, which was 1.69 (1.22-2.36) μg/g·cr (Z=-10.49,P<0.001). The abnormal rate of urinary cadmium was 51.6% (80/155), which was higher than that of the control

  15. Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made. PMID:25284196

  16. Environmental source of arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made.

  17. Effects of Lead Exposure, Environmental Conditions, and Metapopulation Processes on Population Dynamics of Spectacled Eiders.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; Grand, James B.; Petersen, Margaret; Rockwell, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Spectacled eider Somateria fischeri numbers have declined and they are considered threatened in accordance with the US Endangered Species Act throughout their range. We synthesized the available information for spectacled eiders to construct deterministic, stochastic, and metapopulation models for this species that incorporated current estimates of vital rates such as nest success, adult survival, and the impact of lead poisoning on survival. Elasticities of our deterministic models suggested that the populations would respond most dramatically to changes in adult female survival and that the reductions in adult female survival related to lead poisoning were locally important. We also examined the sensitivity of the population to changes in lead exposure rates. With the knowledge that some vital rates vary with environmental conditions, we cast stochastic models that mimicked observed variation in productivity. We also used the stochastic model to examine the probability that a specific population will persist for periods of up to 50 y. Elasticity analysis of these models was consistent with that for the deterministic models, with perturbations to adult female survival having the greatest effect on population projections. When used in single population models, demographic data for some localities predicted rapid declines that were inconsistent with our observations in the field. Thus, we constructed a metapopulation model and examined the predictions for local subpopulations and the metapopulation over a wide range of dispersal rates. Using the metapopulation model, we were able to simulate the observed stability of local subpopulations as well as that of the metapopulation. Finally, we developed a global metapopulation model that simulates periodic winter habitat limitation, similar to that which might be experienced in years of heavy sea ice in the core wintering area of spectacled eiders in the central Bering Sea. Our metapopulation analyses suggested that no

  18. Environmental lead exposure and the kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, B.P.; Becker, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Lead and its components remain widely distributed in the environment and in some workplaces. Lead serves no useful physiological function, yet is potentially toxic to several organ systems. For many years human health effects have been recognized after heavy lead exposure. Recently more subtle human effects have been suggested invoking nervous system, reproductive and kidney function. Assessing lead body burden and dose-response relationships of this metal by blood lead determination, porphyrin assessments, chelation testing or bone lead studies may be difficult. Quantitative assessment of subtle changes in kidney function by routine BUN, creatinine, or urinalysis also poses problems. There is now mounting evidence that chronic low level environmental lead exposure may subtly effect kidney function. This paper first examines the history of lead and kidney function and then examines critically the evidence associating low-level environmental lead exposure and effects on renal function. 119 references.

  19. [The effect of smoking on environmental exposure to carbon of inhabitants in highly and little industrially developed areas].

    PubMed

    Czogała, J

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the work was an estimation of the effect of smoking on environmental exposure to CO people living in industrial area of Sosnowiec (a city situated in Upper Silesia) and Tomaszów Lubelski (not much industrially town situated at the border of Roztocze National Park). The investigated material was vein blood of 102 blood donors from Sosnowiec and 103 blood donors from Tomaszów Lubelski both smokers and non-smokers. The level of CO exposure was estimated by determination of carbon monoxide haemoglobin (HbCO) concentration in blood by Wolf's method in Antczak's adaptation. It was stated that average HbCO concentration at non-smokers from Sosnowiec (2.09%) was about 0.9% higher than the one at non-smokers from Tomaszów Lubelski (1.17%). An increase of HbCO concentration in blood of non-smokers from Sosnowiec as compared with non-smokers from Tomaszów Lubelski included also 50 and 90 percentile. In relation to 50 percentile it was 2.05 and 1.0% and in relation to 90 percentile 2.4 and 3.7% respectively. The influence of external environment on CO exposure at smokers was estimated on the base of HbCO determination in blood before starting smoking. It was 2.77 at smokers from Sosnowiec and 1.41% at smokers from Tomaszów Lubelski. Analysing the effect of smoking on smokers exposure to CO it was stated that HbCO concentration in blood in both groups increased linearly with the increase of the number of smoked cigarettes, and average increase per one cigarette was 0.43% for smokers from Sosnowiec and 0.57% for smokers from Tomaszów Lubelski. On the base of the obtained results the following conclusions were drawn: 1. industrial and communal environment contamination with carbon monoxide influences considerably the exposure of both smokers and non-smokers. 2. smoking effects significantly more the exposure of people (smokers) to carbon monoxide than environmental pollution in the investigated industrial area. 3. the exposure to carbon monoxide at smokers up

  20. Environmental exposure to low-doses of ionizing radiation. Effects on early nephrotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Bellés, Montserrat; Gonzalo, Sergio; Serra, Noemí; Esplugas, Roser; Arenas, Meritxell; Domingo, José Luis; Linares, Victoria

    2017-03-31

    Nuclear accidents of tremendous magnitude, such as those of Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011), mean that individuals living in the contaminated areas are potentially exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). However, the dose-response relationship for effects of low doses of radiation is not still established. The present study was aimed at investigating in mice the early effects of low-dose internal radiation exposure on the kidney. Adult male (C57BL/6J) mice were divided into three groups. Two groups received a single subcutaneous (s.c.) doses of cesium ((137)Cs) with activities of 4000 and 8000Bq/kg bw. A third group (control group) received a single s.c. injection of 0.9% saline. To evaluate acute and subacute effects, mice (one-half of each group) were euthanized at 72h and 10 days post-exposure to (137)Cs, respectively. Urine samples were collected for biochemical analysis, including the measurement of F2-isoprostane (F2-IsoP) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) levels. Moreover, the concentrations of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a sensitive marker of oxidative DNA damage, were measured in renal tissue. Urinary excretion of total protein significantly increased at 72h in mice exposed to Cs4000. Uric acid and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) decreased significantly at both times post-exposure in animals exposed to Cs8000. After 72h and 10d of exposure to Cs4000, a significant increase in the γ-glutamil transferase (GGT) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activities was observed. In turn, F2-IsoP levels increased -mainly in the Cs4000 group- at 72h post-exposure. Following irradiation ((137)Cs), the highest level of KIM-1 was corresponded to the Cs4000 group at 72h. Likewise, the main DNA damage was detected in mice exposed to Cs4000, mainly at 10d after irradiation. The alterations observed in several biomarkers suggest an immediate renal damage following exposure to low doses of IR (given as (137)Cs). Further investigations are required to clarify

  1. Differential methylation between ethnic sub-groups reflects the effect of genetic ancestry and environmental exposures

    PubMed Central

    Galanter, Joshua M; Gignoux, Christopher R; Oh, Sam S; Torgerson, Dara; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Thakur, Neeta; Eng, Celeste; Hu, Donglei; Huntsman, Scott; Farber, Harold J; Avila, Pedro C; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; LeNoir, Michael A; Meade, Kelly; Serebrisky, Denise; Rodríguez-Cintrón, William; Kumar, Rajesh; Rodríguez-Santana, Jose R; Seibold, Max A; Borrell, Luisa N; Burchard, Esteban G; Zaitlen, Noah

    2017-01-01

    Populations are often divided categorically into distinct racial/ethnic groups based on social rather than biological constructs. Genetic ancestry has been suggested as an alternative to this categorization. Herein, we typed over 450,000 CpG sites in whole blood of 573 individuals of diverse Hispanic origin who also had high-density genotype data. We found that both self-identified ethnicity and genetically determined ancestry were each significantly associated with methylation levels at 916 and 194 CpGs, respectively, and that shared genomic ancestry accounted for a median of 75.7% (IQR 45.8% to 92%) of the variance in methylation associated with ethnicity. There was a significant enrichment (p=4.2×10-64) of ethnicity-associated sites amongst loci previously associated environmental exposures, particularly maternal smoking during pregnancy. We conclude that differential methylation between ethnic groups is partially explained by the shared genetic ancestry but that environmental factors not captured by ancestry significantly contribute to variation in methylation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20532.001 PMID:28044981

  2. Differential methylation between ethnic sub-groups reflects the effect of genetic ancestry and environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    Galanter, Joshua M; Gignoux, Christopher R; Oh, Sam S; Torgerson, Dara; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Thakur, Neeta; Eng, Celeste; Hu, Donglei; Huntsman, Scott; Farber, Harold J; Avila, Pedro C; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; LeNoir, Michael A; Meade, Kelly; Serebrisky, Denise; Rodríguez-Cintrón, William; Kumar, Rajesh; Rodríguez-Santana, Jose R; Seibold, Max A; Borrell, Luisa N; Burchard, Esteban G; Zaitlen, Noah

    2017-01-03

    Populations are often divided categorically into distinct racial/ethnic groups based on social rather than biological constructs. Genetic ancestry has been suggested as an alternative to this categorization. Herein, we typed over 450,000 CpG sites in whole blood of 573 individuals of diverse Hispanic origin who also had high-density genotype data. We found that both self-identified ethnicity and genetically determined ancestry were each significantly associated with methylation levels at 916 and 194 CpGs, respectively, and that shared genomic ancestry accounted for a median of 75.7% (IQR 45.8% to 92%) of the variance in methylation associated with ethnicity. There was a significant enrichment (p=4.2×10(-64)) of ethnicity-associated sites amongst loci previously associated environmental exposures, particularly maternal smoking during pregnancy. We conclude that differential methylation between ethnic groups is partially explained by the shared genetic ancestry but that environmental factors not captured by ancestry significantly contribute to variation in methylation.

  3. School-Based Study of Complex Environmental Exposures and Related Health Effects in Children: Part A - Exposure. Final Report and Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. School of Public Health.

    The School Health Initiative: Environment, Learning, and Disease (SHIELD) study examined children's exposure to complex mixtures of environmental agents (i.e., volatile organic chemicals, environmental tobacco smoke, allergens, bioaerosols, metals, and pesticides). Environmental, personal, and biological data were collected on ethnically and…

  4. [Chronic exposure to environmental lead in Chilean infants. II: Effects on the psychomotor development].

    PubMed

    Vega, J; Frenz, P; Marchetti, N; Torres, J; Kopplin, E; Delgado, I; Vega, F

    1999-01-01

    Lactating children are specially susceptible to lead toxicity due to their underdeveloped nervous system, lower body mass, higher intestinal absorption and lower elimination rates. To determine the effects of lead exposure, comparing Chilean lactating children residing in rural areas with low lead exposure, and in urban areas with high lead exposure. Newborns from public maternity hospitals of the rural locality of San Felipe and from Metropolitan Santiago, were recruited for the study. On admission to the study, umbilical cord and maternal blood samples were obtained and an inquiry about perinatal, sociohereditary and lead exposure history was done. Children were followed every 6 months until 24 months of age, measuring blood parameters and neurobehavioral development using Bayley scales. Three hundred twelve children from Santiago and 113 from San Felipe were studied. Maternal and children blood lead levels were higher in Santiago, but lower than those reported in other international studies. At 24 months of age, 4.5% of children from Santiago and 0.7% of children from San Felipe had levels over 10 micrograms/dl. No differences in neurobehavioral development were observed between children of both cities. At 24 months, scores of MDI scales were 91 in Santiago and 97 in San Felipe. The figures for PDI scale were 93 in Santiago and 93 in San Felipe. Main risk factors for a retarded neurobehavioral development were socieconomic level with a mean Odds ratio of 3.5 (0.99-12.4), made sex with an Odds ratio of 2.3 (1.09-5.07) and stimulation at home with an Odds ratio of 0.7 (0.53-0.82). In this cohort of children, no effect of lead levels on neurobehavioral development was found.

  5. Environmental effects and exposures to manganese from use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) in gasoline.

    PubMed

    Lynam, D R; Roos, J W; Pfeifer, G D; Fort, B F; Pullin, T G

    1999-01-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl (MMT) has been used since the 1970s in the U.S. as a gasoline octane enhancer Extensive testing of the effects of MMT on regulated gaseous emissions carried out on a wide variety of automobiles showed that use of MMT resulted in significantly lower NOx emissions Tests showed that less than 15% of the manganese from MMT combustion was emitted from the tailpipe, mostly in the PM2.5 fraction as manganese phosphate, with some manganese sulfate and a very small amount of manganese oxide. MMT has been used in Canada in virtually all unleaded gasoline for about 20 years. A probability-based study involving over 900 personal exposure samples in Toronto confirmed exposures to airborne PM2.5 Mn in the general population are quite low (.008 microgram/m3-median). Ambient levels of airborne manganese in Toronto are about the same as those in areas where MMT is not used. Exposures to manganese among the general population in Toronto are well within safe limits determined by the U.S. EPA and other standard setting bodies around the world.

  6. Environmental monitoring of pesticide exposure and effects on mangrove aquatic organisms of Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Sturve, Joachim; Scarlet, Perpetua; Halling, Maja; Kreuger, Jenny; Macia, Adriano

    2016-10-01

    The use of pesticides in Mozambique is increasing along with the development of agriculture in the country. Mangroves along the coastlines are ecologically important areas and vital nursing grounds for many aquatic species, several of which are of high economic value in Mozambique. Barred mudskipper (Periophthalmus argentilineatus), Jarbua fish (Terapon jarbua), Indian white prawn (Penaeus indicus) and the clam Meretrix meretrix were collected at three mangrove sites in the Maputo Bay area. This was complemented with samplings of the freshwater fish Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), which was collected from three sampling sites along rivers in the surroundings of Maputo and from three sites along the Olifants and Limpopo River. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, which is an established biomarker for organophosphates and carbamate pesticides, was measured in brain and liver tissue in fish, and hepatopancreas tissue in prawn and clam. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity was also analyzed. Freshwater samples for pesticide analyses were collected in order to get an initial understanding of the classes and levels of pesticides present in aquatic systems in Mozambique. In addition to field samplings two 48-h exposure experiments were also conducted where the Indian white prawn and Barred mudskipper were exposed to malathion, and Mozambique tilapia exposed to malathion and diazinon. Field results show a significant decrease in AChE activity in fish from four of the sampling sites suggesting that pesticides present in water could be one stressor potentially affecting aquatic organisms negatively. The 48 h exposure experiment results showed a clear dose-response relationship of AChE activity in mudskipper and tilapia suggesting these species as suitable as sentinel species in environmental studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Effect of environmental manganese exposure on verbal learning and memory in Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Torres-Agustín, R; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Schilmann, A; Solís-Vivanco, R; Montes, S; Riojas-Rodríguez, H; Cortez-Lugo, M; Ríos, C

    2013-02-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal, but in excess it becomes neurotoxic. Children's developing nervous system may be especially vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of overexposure to this metal. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Mn exposure on verbal memory and learning in 7- to 11-year-old children. We tested 79 children living in the Molango Mn-mining district and 95 children from a non-exposed community in the same State of Mexico. The Children's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (CAVLT) was administered. Blood and hair samples were obtained to determine Mn concentrations using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. CAVLT performance was compared between the two groups and multilevel regression models were constructed to estimate the association between biomarkers of Mn exposure and the CAVLT scores. The exposed group presented higher hair and blood Mn (p<0.001) than the non-exposed group (median 12.6 vs. 0.6μg/g, 9.5vs. 8.0μg/L respectively), as well as lower scores (p<0.001) for all the CAVLT subscales. Hair Mn was inversely associated with most CAVLT subscales, mainly those evaluating long-term memory and learning (β=-0.47, 95% CI -0.84, -0.09). Blood Mn levels showed a negative but non-significant association with the CAVLT scores. These results suggest that Mn exposure has a negative effect on children's memory and learning abilities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Does exposure to environmental radiofrequency electromagnetic fields cause cognitive and behavioral effects in 10-year-old boys?

    PubMed

    Calvente, Irene; Pérez-Lobato, Rocío; Núñez, María-Isabel; Ramos, Rosa; Guxens, Mònica; Villalba, Juan; Olea, Nicolás; Fernández, Mariana F

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between exposure to electromagnetic fields from non-ionizing radiation and adverse human health effects remains controversial. We aimed to explore the association of environmental radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) exposure with neurobehavioral function of children. A subsample of 123 boys belonging to the Environment and Childhood cohort from Granada (Spain), recruited at birth from 2000 through 2002, were evaluated at the age of 9-11 years. Spot electric field measurements within the 100 kHz to 6 GHz frequency range, expressed as both root mean-square (S(RMS) and maximum power density (S(MAX)) magnitudes, were performed in the immediate surrounds of childreńs dwellings. Neurocognitive and behavioral functions were assessed with a comprehensive battery of tests. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used, adjusting for potential confounders. All measurements were lower than reference guideline limits, with median S(RMS) and S(MAX) values of 285.94 and 2759.68 μW/m(2), respectively. Most of the cognitive and behavioral parameters did not show any effect, but children living in higher RF exposure areas (above median S(RMS) levels) had lower scores for verbal expression/comprehension and higher scores for internalizing and total problems, and obsessive-compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorders, in comparison to those living in areas with lower exposure. These associations were stronger when S(MAX) values were considered. Although some of our results may suggest that low-level environmental RF-EMF exposure has a negative impact on cognitive and/or behavior development in children; given limitations in the study design and that the majority of neurobehavioral functioning tasks were not affected, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn.

  9. The Effect of Microplastic on the Uptake of Chemicals by the Lugworm Arenicola marina (L.) under Environmentally Relevant Exposure Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that ingestion of microplastic increases exposure of aquatic organisms to hydrophobic contaminants. To date, most laboratory studies investigated chemical transfer from ingested microplastic without taking other exposure pathways into account. Therefore, we studied the effect of polyethylene (PE) microplastic in sediment on PCB uptake by Arenicola marina as a model species, quantifying uptake fluxes from all natural exposure pathways. PCB concentrations in sediment, biota lipids (Clip) and porewater measured with passive samplers were used to derive lipid-normalized bioaccumulation metrics Clip, Biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF), Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) and the Biota plastic accumulation factor (BPAF). Small effects of PE addition were detected suggesting slightly increased or decreased bioaccumulation. However, the differences decreased in magnitude dependent on the metric used to assess bioaccumulation, in the order: Clip > BSAF > BPAF > BAF, and were nonsignificant for BAF. The fact that BAF, that is, normalization of Clip on porewater concentration, largely removed all effects of PE, shows that PE did not act as a measurable vector of PCBs. Biodynamic model analysis confirmed that PE ingestion contributed marginally to bioaccumulation. This work confirmed model-based predictions on the limited relevance of microplastic for bioaccumulation under environmentally realistic conditions, and illustrated the importance of assessing exposure through all media in microplastic bioaccumulation studies. PMID:28682597

  10. Effects of exposure to environmental chemicals during pregnancy on the development of the male and female reproductive axes.

    PubMed

    Bellingham, M; Fiandanese, N; Byers, A; Cotinot, C; Evans, N P; Pocar, P; Amezaga, M R; Lea, R G; Sinclair, K D; Rhind, S M; Fowler, P A

    2012-08-01

    There is a large body of literature describing effects of environmental chemicals (ECs), many of them anthropogenic with endocrine-disrupting properties, on development in rodent laboratory species, some of which lead to impaired reproduction and adverse health. This literature joins extensive human epidemiological data and opportunistic wildlife findings on health effects of ECs. In contrast, the effect of endocrine disruption on foetal development and reproductive performance in domestic species is less extensively documented. This applies both to domestic farm and to companion species even though the former is critical to food production and the latter share our homes and many aspects of the modern developed human lifestyle. In domestic species, the nature of chemicals exposure in utero and their consequences for animal health and production are poorly understood. A complication in our understanding is that the pace of development, ontogeny and efficiency of foetal and maternal hepatic and placental activity differs between domestic species. In many ways, this reflects the difficulties in understanding human exposure and consequences of that exposure for the foetus and subsequent adult from epidemiological and largely rodent-based data. It is important that domestic species are included in research into endocrine disruption because of their (i) wide variety of exposure to such chemicals, (ii) greater similarity of many developmental processes to the human, (iii) economic importance and (iv) close similarities to developed world human lifestyle in companion species.

  11. Applicability of Long Duration Exposure Facility environmental effects data to the design of Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christie, Robert J.; Lu, Cheng-Yi; Aronoff, Irene

    1992-01-01

    Data defining space environmental effects on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) are examined in terms of the design of the electrical power system (EPS) of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The significant effects of long-term exposure to space are identified with respect to the performance of the LDEF's materials, components, and systems. A total of 57 experiments were conducted on the LDEF yielding information regarding coatings, thermal systems, electronics, optics, and power systems. The resulting database is analyzed in terms of the specifications of the SSF EPS materials and subsystems and is found to be valuable in the design of control and protection features. Specific applications are listed for findings regarding the thermal environment, atomic oxygen, UV and ionizing radiation, debris, and contamination. The LDEF data are shown to have a considerable number of applications to the design and planning of the SSF and its EPS.

  12. Applicability of Long Duration Exposure Facility environmental effects data to the design of Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christie, Robert J.; Lu, Cheng-Yi; Aronoff, Irene

    1992-01-01

    Data defining space environmental effects on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) are examined in terms of the design of the electrical power system (EPS) of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The significant effects of long-term exposure to space are identified with respect to the performance of the LDEF's materials, components, and systems. A total of 57 experiments were conducted on the LDEF yielding information regarding coatings, thermal systems, electronics, optics, and power systems. The resulting database is analyzed in terms of the specifications of the SSF EPS materials and subsystems and is found to be valuable in the design of control and protection features. Specific applications are listed for findings regarding the thermal environment, atomic oxygen, UV and ionizing radiation, debris, and contamination. The LDEF data are shown to have a considerable number of applications to the design and planning of the SSF and its EPS.

  13. Environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and quality of the home environment: effects on psychodevelopment in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Walkowiak, J; Wiener, J A; Fastabend, A; Heinzow, B; Krämer, U; Schmidt, E; Steingrüber, H J; Wundram, S; Winneke, G

    2001-11-10

    There is uncertainty whether environmental levels of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) adversely affect mental and motor development in early childhood. We aimed to establish whether such an effect is of only prenatal or additional postnatal origin, and if a favourable home environment can counteract this effect. Between 1993 and 1995 we recruited 171 healthy mother-infant pairs and prospectively measured psychodevelopment in newborn infants aged 7, 18, 30, and 42 months. We estimated prenatal and perinatal PCB exposure of newborn babies in cord blood and maternal milk. At 42 months we measured postnatal PCB concentrations in serum. At 18 months the quality of the home environment was assessed using the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scale. Mental and psychomotor development of the children were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development until 30 months and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children at 42 months. Negative associations between milk PCB and mental/motor development were reported at all ages, becoming significant from 30 months onwards. Over 30 months, for a PCB increase from 173 (5th percentile) to 679 ng/g lipids in milk (95th percentile) there was a decrease of 8.3 points (95% CI -16.5 to 0.0) in the Bayley Scales of Infant Development mental scores, and a 9.1 point decrease (95% CI -17.2 to -1.02) in the Bayley Scales of Infant Development motor scores. There was also a negative effect of postnatal PCB exposure via breastfeeding at 42 months. Home environment had a positive effect from 30 months onwards (Bayley Scales of Infant Development mental score increase of 9.4 points [95% CI 2.2-16.7]). Prenatal PCB exposure at current European background levels inhibits, and a favourable home environment supports, mental and motor development until 42 months of age. PCB exposure also has an effect postnatally.

  14. Chronic arsenic exposure and its adverse health effects in Taiwan: a paradigm for management of a global environmental problem.

    PubMed

    Lan, Cheng-Che; Yu, Hsin-Su; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2011-09-01

    It was estimated that, nearly 100 million people are at risk for drinking arsenic (As)-contaminated drinking water. Although the WHO guideline recommends that levels of As in drinking water should not exceed 10 μm/L, it was estimated that more than 30 million people drink As-containing water at levels more than 50 μm/L in Bangladesh and India alone. Therefore, the adverse health effects resulting from chronic As exposure pose a global threat. In Taiwan, studies focusing on the health effects resulting from chronic As exposure through contaminated drinking water have been ongoing for more than 50 years. During the past half century, it was recognized that the impact of high As exposure on human health is much more complicated than originally anticipated. Chronic As exposure resulted in infamous blackfoot disease, which is unique to As endemic areas in Taiwan, and various diseases including cancers and non-cancers. Although the potential-biological outcomes have been well-documented, the pathomechanisms leading from As exposure to occurrence and development of the diseases remain largely unclear. One of the major obstacles that hindered further understanding regarding the adverse health effect resulting from chronic As exposure is documentation of cumulative As exposure from the distant past, which remains difficult as the present technologies mostly document relatively recent As exposure. Furthermore, the susceptibility to As exposure appears to differ between different ethnic groups and individuals and is modified by lifestyle factors including smoking habits and nutrition status. No consensus data has yet been reached even after comparing the study results obtained from different parts of the world focusing on associations between human As toxicity and genetic polymorphisms in terms of cellular detoxification enzymes, tumor suppressor proteins, and DNA repair pathway. With the availability of the new powerful "OMIC" technologies, it may now be possible to gain

  15. Effects of exposure to low levels of environmental cadmium on renal biomarkers.

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Curtis W; Sarasua, Sara M; Campagna, Dave; Kathman, Steven J; Lybarger, Jeffrey A; Mueller, Patricia W

    2002-01-01

    We conducted a study among residents of a small community contaminated with heavy metals from a defunct zinc smelter and residents from a comparison community to determine whether biologic measures of cadmium exposure were associated with biomarkers of early kidney damage. Creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels did not differ between the smelter and comparison communities; thus we combined individuals from both communities (n = 361) for further analyses. The overall mean urinary cadmium level was low, 0.26 microg/g creatinine, similar to reference values observed in the U.S. general population. For children ages 6-17 years, urinary concentration of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), alanine aminopeptidase (AAP), and albumin were positively associated with urinary cadmium, but these associations did not remain statistically significant after adjusting for urinary creatinine and other potential confounders. For adults ages 18 or older, urinary concentration of NAG, AAP, and albumin were positively associated with urinary cadmium. The associations with NAG and AAP but not with albumin remained statistically significant after adjusting for creatinine and other potential confounders. We found a positive dose-effect relationship between levels of creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium and NAG and AAP activity, and statistically significant differences in mean activity for these two enzymes between the highest (> or =1.0 microg cadmium/g creatinine) and the lowest (< or =0.25 microg cadmium/g creatinine) exposure groups. The findings of this study indicate that biologic measures of cadmium exposure at levels below 2.0 microg/g creatinine may produce measurable changes in kidney biomarkers. PMID:11836143

  16. IMPLICATIONS OF PARTICULATE MATTER RESEARCH PROGRAM UPON EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT AND APPORTIONMENT AND ATTRIBUTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent personal exposure panel studies and monitoring programs addressing fine particulate matter (PM) and associated co-pollutants have elucidated the physical and statistical relationships between personal exposures, residential indoor concentrations (and sources), concentratio...

  17. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Mamane, Ali; Raherison, Chantal; Tessier, Jean-François; Baldi, Isabelle; Bouvier, Ghislaine

    2015-09-01

    Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7-10 years) was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides.

  18. Environmental epigenetics and phytoestrogen/phytochemical exposures.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos M; Skinner, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important environmental factors to promote epigenetic alterations in an individual is nutrition and exposure to plant compounds. Phytoestrogens and other phytochemicals have dramatic effects on cellular signaling events, so have the capacity to dramatically alter developmental and physiological events. Epigenetics provides one of the more critical molecular mechanisms for environmental factors such as phytoestrogens/phytochemicals to influence biology. In the event these epigenetic mechanisms become heritable through epigenetic transgenerational mechanisms the impacts on the health of future generations and areas such as evolutionary biology need to be considered. The current review focuses on available information on the environmental epigenetics of phytoestrogen/phytochemical exposures, with impacts on health, disease and evolutionary biology considered. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Phytoestrogens'.

  19. Cadmium, Environmental Exposure, and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Satarug, Soisungwan; Garrett, Scott H.; Sens, Mary Ann; Sens, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We provide an update of the issues surrounding health risk assessment of exposure to cadmium in food. Data sources We reviewed epidemiologic studies published between 2004 and 2009 concerning the bioavailability of cadmium in food, assessment of exposure, and body burden estimate, along with exposure-related effects in nonoccupationally exposed populations. Data extraction and synthesis Bioavailability of ingested cadmium has been confirmed in studies of persons with elevated dietary exposure, and the findings have been strengthened by the substantial amounts of cadmium accumulated in kidneys, eyes, and other tissues and organs of environmentally exposed individuals. We hypothesized that such accumulation results from the efficient absorption and systemic transport of cadmium, employing multiple transporters that are used for the body’s acquisition of calcium, iron, zinc, and manganese. Adverse effects of cadmium on kidney and bone have been observed in environmentally exposed populations at frequencies higher than those predicted from models of exposure. Increasing evidence implicates cadmium in the risk of diseases that involve other tissues and organ systems at cadmium concentrations that do not produce effects on bone or renal function. Conclusions Population data raise concerns about the validity of the current safe intake level that uses the kidney as the sole target in assessing the health risk from ingested cadmium. The data also question the validity of incorporating the default 5% absorption rate in the threshold-type risk assessment model, known as the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), to derive a safe intake level for cadmium. PMID:20123617

  20. Effects of environmental exposure to diazepam on the reproductive behavior of fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, Varenka; Choe, Ree; Schlenk, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Pharmaceutical drugs are continuously discharged into the aquatic environment primarily through wastewater discharge; therefore, their possible effects on wildlife is a reason of concern. Diazepam is a widely prescribed benzodiazepine drug used to treat insomnia and anxiety disorders, and it has been found in wastewater effluents worldwide. The present study tested the effects of diazepam on fecundity and the reproductive behavior of the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, a fish that exhibits male parental care. Sexually mature fathead minnows were housed at a ratio of one male and two females per tank and exposed to nominal (measured) concentrations of 0, 0.1 (0.14 ± 0.06), 1.0 (1.04 ± 0.15), 10 (13.4 ± 1.5) µg L(-1) for 21 days. Fish receiving the low diazepam treatment had significantly larger clutches than fish receiving the highest concentration but neither were different from controls. Diazepam exposure was not associated with a significant change in fertilization rate, hatchability or time to hatch, but a trend toward a higher number of eggs/day was observed in fish exposed to the low diazepam concentration relative to those exposed to the medium concentration. There were no significant differences in any of the behaviors analyzed when responses were averaged over time. The results showed that exposure to diazepam at concentrations as high as 13 µg L(-1) did not significantly impact the reproductive behavior of fathead minnow. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Endosulfan exposure disrupts pheromonal systems in the red-spotted newt: a mechanism for subtle effects of environmental chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    Park, D; Hempleman, S C; Propper, C R

    2001-01-01

    Because chemicals introduced into the environment by humans can affect both long-term survivorship and reproduction of amphibians, discovering the specific mechanisms through which these chemicals act may facilitate the development of plans for amphibian conservation. We investigated the amphibian pheromonal system as a potential target of common environmental chemicals. By treating female red-spotted newts, Notophthalmus viridescens, to a commonly used insecticide, endosulfan, we found that the pheromonal system is highly susceptible to low-concentration exposure. The impairment of the pheromonal system directly led to disrupted mate choice and lowered mating success. There were no other notable physiologic or behavioral changes demonstrated by the animals at the insecticide concentrations administered. Our findings suggest that the amphibian pheromonal system is one of the systems subject to subtle negative effects of environmental chemicals. PMID:11485864

  2. Cardiovascular disease and environmental exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenman, K D

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews the possible association between cardiovascular disease and occupational and environmental agents. The effects of carbon monoxide, fibrogenic dusts, carbon disulphide, heavy metals, noise, radiation, heat, cold, solvents and fluorocarbons are discussed. New directions for investigation are suggested. PMID:465378

  3. Laboratory measurements on radon exposure effects on local environmental temperature: Implications for satellite TIR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Giovanni; Solecki, Andrzej Tomasz; Tchorz-Trzeciakiewicz, Dagmara Eulalia; Piekarz, Magdalena; Karolina Grudzinska, Katarzyna

    Surface latent heat flux (SLHF) is proportional to the heat released by phase changes during solidification, evaporation or melting. Effects of SLHF on the earth's surface could be measured by satellite techniques capable of measuring thermal infrared radiation (TIR). Recent studies have found a possible correlation between SLHF and earthquakes, hence satellite techniques are widely used in research into the possible link between SLHF and earthquakes. Possible fluctuations in SLHF values during seismic periods have been attributed to different causes, such as the expulsion from the ground of greenhouse gases or because of radon. In particular, ionization processes due to radon decay could lead to changes in air temperature. Laboratory experiments have been carried out to highlight the possible role of radon in the thermal environmental conditions of a laboratory-controlled atmospheric volume.

  4. Double exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, J

    1999-01-01

    One study after another is finding strong associations between a variety of human illness and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). A 1986 report by the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that ETS is a cause of disease, including lung cancer, in healthy nonsmokers. Other reports have documented causal associations between ETS and lower respiratory tract infections, middle ear disease and exacerbation of asthma in children, heart disease, retardation of fetal growth, sudden infant death syndrome, and nasal sinus cancer. However, the findings from many of these studies remain controversial. A number of scientists remain skeptical about the association between ETS and serious illness in nonsmokers, charging that scientific journals either fail to publish pro-tobacco findings and meta-analyses or disregard those that are published. They also claim that many epidemiological studies declare causal associations based on marginal odds ratios. PMID:10090715

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL MANGANESE: GUIDELINE EXPOSURE LEVELS, EVIDENCE OF HEALTH EFFECTS AND RESEARCH NEEDS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction. The ubiquitous element, manganese (Mn), is an essential nutrient, but toxic at excessive exposure levels. The US EPA, therefore, set guideline levels for Mn exposure through inhalation (reference concentration-RfC=0.05 g/m3) and ingestion (reference dose-RfD=0.14 m...

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL MANGANESE: GUIDELINE EXPOSURE LEVELS, EVIDENCE OF HEALTH EFFECTS AND RESEARCH NEEDS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction. The ubiquitous element, manganese (Mn), is an essential nutrient, but toxic at excessive exposure levels. The US EPA, therefore, set guideline levels for Mn exposure through inhalation (reference concentration-RfC=0.05 g/m3) and ingestion (reference dose-RfD=0.14 m...

  7. Environmental Exposure and Leptospirosis, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Michael A.S.; Smith, Hannah; Joseph, Priya; Gilman, Robert H.; Bautista, Christian T.; Campos, Kalina J.; Cespedes, Michelle; Klatsky, Peter; Vidal, Carlos; Terry, Hilja; Calderon, Maritza M.; Coral, Carlos; Cabrera, Lilia; Parmar, Paminder S.

    2004-01-01

    Human infection by leptospires has highly variable clinical manifestations, which range from subclinical infection to fulminant disease. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional seroepidemiologic study in Peru to determine potential relationships of environmental context to human exposure to Leptospira and disease associated with seroconversion. Three areas were studied: a flooded, urban slum in the Peruvian Amazon city of Iquitos; rural, peri-Iquitos villages; and a desert shantytown near Lima. Seroprevalence in Belen was 28% (182/650); in rural areas, 17% (52/316); and in a desert shantytown, 0.7% (1/150). Leptospira-infected peridomestic rats were found in all locales. In Belen, 20 (12.4%) of 161 patients seroconverted between dry and wet seasons (an incidence rate of 288/1,000). Seroconversion was associated with history of febrile illness; severe leptospirosis was not seen. Human exposure to Leptospira in the Iquitos region is high, likely related both to the ubiquity of leptospires in the environment and human behavior conducive to transmission from infected zoonotic sources. PMID:15207052

  8. Environmental exposure and leptospirosis, Peru.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michael A S; Smith, Hannah; Joeph, Priya; Gilman, Robert H; Bautista, Christian T; Campos, Kalina J; Cespedes, Michelle; Klatsky, Peter; Vidal, Carlos; Terry, Hilja; Calderon, Martiza M; Coral, Carlos; Cabrera, Lilia; Parmar, Paminder S; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2004-06-01

    Human infection by leptospires has highly variable clinical manifestations, which range from subclinical infection to fulminant disease. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional seroepidemiologic study in Peru to determine potential relationships of environmental context to human exposure to Leptospira and disease associated with seroconversion. Three areas were studied: a flooded, urban slum in the Peruvian Amazon city of Iquitos; rural, peri-Iquitos villages; and a desert shantytown near Lima. Seroprevalence in Belen was 28% (182/650); in rural areas, 17% (52/316); and in a desert shantytown, 0.7% (1/150). Leptospira-infected peridomestic rats were found in all locales. In Belen, 20 (12.4%) of 161 patients seroconverted between dry and wet seasons (an incidence rate of 288/1,000). Seroconversion was associated with history of febrile illness; severe leptospirosis was not seen. Human exposure to Leptospira in the Iquitos region is high, likely related both to the ubiquity of leptospires in the environment and human behavior conducive to transmission from infected zoonotic sources.

  9. Reading Exposure: A (Largely) Environmental Risk Factor with Environmentally-Mediated Effects on Reading Performance in the Primary School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Background: It is widely believed that there are reciprocal links between reading achievement and reading exposure: children who read more do better at reading, and reading achievement itself promotes reading. We tested the hypotheses that these links arise because children's genetically influenced reading performance is correlated with their…

  10. DARTAB: a program to combine airborne radionuclide environmental exposure data with dosimetric and health effects data to generate tabulations of predicted health impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Begovich, C.L.; Eckerman, K.F.; Schlatter, E.C.; Ohr, S.Y.; Chester, R.O.

    1981-08-01

    The DARTAB computer code combines radionuclide environmental exposure data with dosimetric and health effects data to generate tabulations of the predicted impact of radioactive airborne effluents. DARTAB is independent of the environmental transport code used to generate the environmental exposure data and the codes used to produce the dosimetric and health effects data. Therefore human dose and risk calculations need not be added to every environmental transport code. Options are included in DARTAB to permit the user to request tabulations by various topics (e.g., cancer site, exposure pathway, etc.) to facilitate characterization of the human health impacts of the effluents. The DARTAB code was written at ORNL for the US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation Programs.

  11. Cumulative Risk Assessment: An Overview of Methodological Approaches for Evaluating Combined Health Effects from Exposure to Multiple Environmental Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Systematic evaluation of cumulative health risks from the combined effects of multiple environmental stressors is becoming a vital component of risk-based decisions aimed at protecting human populations and communities. This article briefly examines the historical development of cumulative risk assessment as an analytical tool, and discusses current approaches for evaluating cumulative health effects from exposure to both chemical mixtures and combinations of chemical and nonchemical stressors. A comparison of stressor-based and effects-based assessment methods is presented, and the potential value of focusing on viable risk management options to limit the scope of cumulative evaluations is discussed. The ultimate goal of cumulative risk assessment is to provide answers to decision-relevant questions based on organized scientific analysis; even if the answers, at least for the time being, are inexact and uncertain. PMID:22470298

  12. NEUROSENSORY EFFECTS OF CHRONIC HUMAN EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC ASSOCIATED WITH BODY BURDEN AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEASURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to arsenic in drinking water is known to produce a variety of health problems including peripheral neuropathy. Auditory, visual and somatosensory impairments have been reported in Mongolian farmers living in the Yellow River Valley where drinking water is contami...

  13. NEUROSENSORY EFFECTS OF CHRONIC HUMAN EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC ASSOCIATED WITH BODY BURDEN AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEASURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to arsenic in drinking water is known to produce a variety of health problems including peripheral neuropathy. Auditory, visual and somatosensory impairments have been reported in Mongolian farmers living in the Yellow River Valley where drinking water is contami...

  14. Biased Exposure-Health Effect Estimates from Selection in Cohort Studies: Are Environmental Studies at Particular Risk?

    PubMed

    Weisskopf, Marc G; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard; Power, Melinda C

    2015-11-01

    The process of creating a cohort or cohort substudy may induce misleading exposure-health effect associations through collider stratification bias (i.e., selection bias) or bias due to conditioning on an intermediate. Studies of environmental risk factors may be at particular risk. We aimed to demonstrate how such biases of the exposure-health effect association arise and how one may mitigate them. We used directed acyclic graphs and the example of bone lead and mortality (all-cause, cardiovascular, and ischemic heart disease) among 835 white men in the Normative Aging Study (NAS) to illustrate potential bias related to recruitment into the NAS and the bone lead substudy. We then applied methods (adjustment, restriction, and inverse probability of attrition weighting) to mitigate these biases in analyses using Cox proportional hazards models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Analyses adjusted for age at bone lead measurement, smoking, and education among all men found HRs (95% CI) for the highest versus lowest tertile of patella lead of 1.34 (0.90, 2.00), 1.46 (0.86, 2.48), and 2.01 (0.86, 4.68) for all-cause, cardiovascular, and ischemic heart disease mortality, respectively. After applying methods to mitigate the biases, the HR (95% CI) among the 637 men analyzed were 1.86 (1.12, 3.09), 2.47 (1.23, 4.96), and 5.20 (1.61, 16.8), respectively. Careful attention to the underlying structure of the observed data is critical to identifying potential biases and methods to mitigate them. Understanding factors that influence initial study participation and study loss to follow-up is critical. Recruitment of population-based samples and enrolling participants at a younger age, before the potential onset of exposure-related health effects, can help reduce these potential pitfalls. Weisskopf MG, Sparrow D, Hu H, Power MC. 2015. Biased exposure-health effect estimates from selection in cohort studies: are environmental studies at

  15. Public effective doses from environmental natural gamma exposures indoors and outdoors in Iran.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Mehdi; Roositalab, Jalil; Mohammadi, Jahangir

    2015-12-01

    The effective doses of public in Iran due to external gamma exposures from terrestrial radionuclides and from cosmic radiation indoors and outdoors of normal natural background radiation areas were determined by measurements and by calculations. For direct measurements, three measurement methods were used including a NaI(TI) scintillation survey meter for preliminary screening, a pressurised ionising chamber for more precise measurements and early warning measurement equipment systems. Measurements were carried out in a large number of locations indoors and outdoors ∼1000 houses selected randomly in 36 large cities of Iran. The external gamma doses of public from living indoors and outdoors were also calculated based on the radioactivity measurements of samples taken from soil and building materials by gamma spectrometry using a high-resolution HPGe system. The national mean background gamma dose rates in air indoors and outdoors based on measurements are 126.9±24.3 and 111.7±17.72 nGy h(-1), respectively. When the contribution from cosmic rays was excluded, the values indoors and outdoors are 109.2±20.2 and 70.2±20.59.4 nGy h(-1), respectively. The dose rates determined for indoors and outdoors by calculations are 101.5±9.2 and 72.2±9.4 nGy h(-1), respectively, which are in good agreement with directly measured dose rates within statistical variations. By considering a population-weighted mean for terrestrial radiation, the ratio of indoor to outdoor dose rates is 1.55. The mean annual effective dose of each individual member of the public from terrestrial radionuclides and cosmic radiation, indoors and outdoors, is 0.86±0.16 mSv y(-1) by measurements and 0.8±0.2 mSv y(-1) by calculations. The results of this national survey of public annual effective doses from national natural background external gamma radiation determined by measurements and calculations indoors and outdoors of 1000 houses in 36 cities of Iran are presented and discussed. © The

  16. Laboratory measurements on Radon exposure effects on local environmental temperature: implications for satellite TIR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Giovanni; Tomasz Solecki, Andrzej; Eulalia Tchorz-Trzeciakiewicz, Dagmara; Karolina Grudzinska, Katarzyna

    2014-05-01

    Surface latent heat flux (SLHF) is proportional to the heat released by phase changes during solidification or evaporation or melting. Effects of SLHF on earth's surface have also been measured by satellite techniques able to measure thermal infrared radiation (TIR). Recent studies found a possible correlation between SLHF and earthquakes thus satellite techniques are widely utilized in researches on the possible link between SLHF and earthquakes. Possible fluctuations on SLHF values during seismic periods have been attributed to different causes like the expulsion from the ground of greenhouse gases or by Radon. In particular ionization processes due to Radon decay could lead to changes in air temperature. Laboratory experiments have been carried out to highlight the possible role of Radon in thermal environmental conditions of a laboratory controlled atmospheric volume. Samples of highly radioactive granite powder containing 600 Bq/kg of Radium that is 20 times higher than the average continental lithosphere content has been stored in a desiccator of 0,005 m3 volume for 30 days to accumulate radon 222Rn in the desiccator air. After radon accumulation the desiccator was placed inside a styrofoam chamber of 1x0.5x0.5 m size and the cover removed. The relative humidity of chamber air was 72% and temperature 24 oC. Experiment was monitored by an infrared camera Flir Therma CAM PM695 operating in the spectrum band 7,5-13 µm with thermal resolution 0,01ºC and a RadStar RS300-I Radon Detector/Monitor with 1 hour time resolution. Air temperature and humidity were monitored by a digital Terdens thermohygrometer. No significant thermal or humidity effects were observed.

  17. Assessing exposures to environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Leaderer, B.P. )

    1990-01-01

    The combustion of tobacco indoors results in the emission of a wide range of air contaminants that are associated with a variety of acute and chronic health and comfort effects. Exposures to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are assessed for epidemiologic studies and risk assessment and risk management applications. An individual's or population's exposure to ETS can be assessed by direct methods, which employ personal air monitoring and biomarkers, and indirect methods, which utilize various degrees of microenvironmental measurements of spaces, models, and questionnaires in combination with time-activity information. The major issues related to assessing exposures to ETS are summarized and discussed, including the physical-chemical nature of ETS air contaminants, use of proxy air contaminants to represent ETS, use of biomarkers, models for estimating ETS concentrations indoors, and the application of questionnaires.

  18. Measuring the Effect of Environmental Tobacco Smoke on Lung Function: Results From a Small Observational Investigation of Acute Exposure.

    PubMed

    McCormick-Ricket, Iben; Canterberry, Melanie; Ghaffar, Atif; Parada, Nereida A; Carton, Thomas W

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in smoky venues puts patrons and employees at risk for immediate respiratory symptoms. Although much literature focuses on outcomes associated with chronic ETS exposure, the current study assesses changes in lung function after acute exposure. Ninety-six nonsmoking, healthy adults were exposed to ETS at a bar. Lung function [eg, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)] was assessed at baseline, immediately after 3 hours of ETS exposure, and 2 hours after exiting the bar. PM2.5 recordings were also measured. Repeated-measures analysis of variance found significant decreases in FEV1, FVC and FEF25-75%, and peak expiratory flow after ETS exposure compared with baseline that remained significantly decreased after a 2-hour recovery period. Acute exposure to ETS in a natural environment significantly attenuates lung function. A subgroup experienced heightened reductions in lung function.

  19. Effect of environmental phthalate exposure on pregnancy duration and birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Polańska, Kinga; Ligocka, Danuta; Sobala, Wojciech; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of phthalate exposure on pregnancy duration and birth outcomes based on the Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL). Phthalate exposure was determined by measuring 11 phthalate metabolites (mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), 3OH-mono-n-butyl phthalate (OH-MnBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono‑ (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-hydroxy-iso-nonyl phthalate (MHiNP), mono-oxo-iso-nonyl phthalate (MOiNP), and mono-n-octyl phthalate (MOP)) in the urine collected from 165 mothers during the third trimester of pregnancy by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The following measures at birth were considered: gestational age, birth weight, length as well as head and chest circumference. Pregnancy duration was inversely associated with natural log concentrations (μg/g creatinine) of MEP (standardized regression coefficient (β) = -0.2, p = 0.04) after adjustment for a variety of confounders. Significant impact of MOiNP on head circumference (β = -0.1, p = 0.05) was also observed. The study findings add further support to the hypothesis that phthalate exposure may be associated with shorter pregnancy duration and a decreased head circumference, and underscore importance of public health interventions to reduce that exposure. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  20. Effects of maternal diet and environmental exposure to organochlorine pesticides on newborn weight in Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, C; Mariscal-Arcas, M; Heras-Gonzalez, L; Ibañez-Peinado, D; Rivas, A; Olea-Serrano, F

    2016-08-01

    An appropriate eating pattern is essential during childbearing years and pregnancy to ensure a healthy pregnancy and newborn. Our group developed a Mediterranean Diet Score for Pregnancy (MDS-P) based on the MD and the specific need of pregnant women for Fe, Ca, and folic acid. Humans are daily exposed to endocrine disruptors, which may alter body weight and hormone system regulation. This study analyzed the relationship of maternal diet and in utero exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with newborn weight in mothers and newborns from Southern Spain. Higher MDS-P score, folic acid supplementation, and greater in utero exposure to endosulfan-diol and endosulfan-1 were related to higher newborn weight. MDS-P score was not associated with maternal weight gain during pregnancy (above or below 12 Kg). Residues from one or more OCPs were detected in 96.5% of umbilical cord serum samples from 320 newborns. The most frequent residues were endosulfans (96.5%). The presence of endosulfan-diol, endosulfan-I, p-p´DDT, folic acid supplementation, and a higher MDS-P (>8) were predictive factors for newborn overweight (>3500 g). Conversely, smoking during pregnancy, shorter gestation time (32-36 vs. 37-39 weeks), and lesser maternal weight gain during pregnancy predicted lower newborn weight (<2500 g). These results indicate prenatal exposure to OCPs in Southern Spain and its possible impact on the weight of healthy full-term newborns. Further studies are warranted to interpret the consequences of this exposure and identify preventive measures. Adherence to the MD and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy emerged as predictive factors for overweight in newborns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the effect of an environmental management program on exposure to manganese in a mining zone in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cortez-Lugo, Marlene; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Moreno-Macías, Hortensia; Montes, Sergio; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Yaneth; Hernández-Bonilla, David; Catalán-Vázquez, Minerva; Díaz-Godoy, Raúl; Rodríguez-Dozal, Sandra

    2017-09-10

    In the state of Hidalgo, Mexico, is found the largest second deposit of Manganese (Mn) in Latin America. Various studies on the sources of emission, exposure, and the effects on the health of children and adults have been conducted utilizing an ecosystem approach. Given the findings of Mn levels in air and the neurocognitive effects, an Environmental Management Program (EMP) was designed and implemented with the purpose of reducing exposure to Mn of the population, including various actions for reducing Mn emissions into the atmosphere. To evaluate the impact of the EMP on the concentrations of Mn in air, as well as the modification of exposure to Mn in the blood and hair of adult residents of the communities intervened. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in five rural communities, in which Mn concentrations were evaluated in air and in blood in the years 2002 and 2007, pre-intervention, and in 2013, postintervention. In 2003, the concentration of hair Mn among the communities was evaluated. Measurements were carried out of Particulate Matter (PM) of >10 and 2.5μm (PM10 and PM2.5), and Mn in PM10 and PM2.5 were measured using proton-induced X-ray emissions (PIXE). The method of Difference in Differences (DID) was applied to estimate the impact of EMP on Mn concentrations in particulate matter via linear regression through multilevel models. To evaluate the effect of Mn concentrations in air over Mn concentrations in blood in both study periods in the mining communities per year (2002 and 2013), a linear regression model for each year was employed. We estimated that the EMP contributed to reducing the average daily concentrations of Mn in PM10 and PM2.5 by 92 and 85%, respectively. The adjusted model did not show an effect of Mn concentrations in air over Mn concentrations in blood in both study periods. The results suggest that the measures implemented to reduce Mn emissions in air exerted a significant impact on the reduction of inhaled exposure in adult

  2. Transgenerational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Joya, Xavier; Manzano, Cristina; Álvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Torres, Francesc; Salat-Batlle, Judith; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

    2014-07-16

    Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS), active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal) using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life.

  3. Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Joya, Xavier; Manzano, Cristina; Álvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Torres, Francesc; Salat-Batlle, Judith; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS), active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal) using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life. PMID:25032741

  4. Effects of oil exposure and dispersant use upon environmental adaptation performance and fitness in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Claireaux, Guy; Théron, Michael; Prineau, Michel; Dussauze, Matthieu; Merlin, François-Xavier; Le Floch, Stéphane

    2013-04-15

    The worldwide increasing recourse to chemical dispersants to deal with oil spills in marine coastal ecosystems is a controversial issue. Yet, there exists no adequate methodology that can provide reliable predictions of how oil and dispersant-treated oil can affect relevant organism or population-level performance. The primary objective of the present study was to examine and compare the effects of exposure to untreated oil (weathered Arabian light crude oil), chemically dispersed oil (Finasol, TOTAL-Fluides) or dispersant alone, upon the ability of fish for environmental adaptation. To reach that goal, we implemented high-throughput, non-lethal challenge tests to estimate individual hypoxia and heat tolerance as surrogate measures of their capacity to face natural contingencies. Experimental populations were then transferred into semi-natural tidal ponds and correlates of individuals' fitness (growth and survival) were monitored over a period of 6 months. In accordance with our stated objectives, the contamination conditions tested corresponded to those observed under an oil slick drifting in shallow waters. Our results revealed that the response of control fish to both challenges was variable among individuals and temporally stable (repeatable) over a 2-month period. Exposure to chemical dispersant did not affect the repeatability of fish performance. However, exposure to oil or to a mixture of oil plus dispersant affected the repeatability of individuals' responses to the experimental challenge tests. At population level, no difference between contamination treatments was observed in the distribution of individual responses to the hypoxia and temperature challenge tests. Moreover, no correlation between hypoxia tolerance and heat tolerance was noticed. During the field experiment, hypoxia tolerance and heat tolerance were found to be determinants of survivorship. Moreover, experimental groups exposed to oil or to dispersant-treated oil displayed significantly

  5. Public health implications of environmental exposures.

    PubMed Central

    De Rosa, C T; Pohl, H R; Williams, M; Ademoyero, A A; Chou, C H; Jones, D E

    1998-01-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a public health agency with responsibility for assessing the public health implications associated with uncontrolled releases of hazardous substances into the environment. The biological effects of low-level exposures are a primary concern in these assessments. One of the tools used by the agency for this purpose is the risk assessment paradigm originally outlined and described by the National Academy of Science in 1983. Because of its design and inherent concepts, risk assessment has been variously employed by a number of environmental and public health agencies and programs as a means to organize information, as a decision support tool, and as a working hypothesis for biologically based inference and extrapolation. Risk assessment has also been the subject of significant critical review. The ATSDR recognizes the utility of both the qualitative and quantitative conclusions provided by traditional risk assessment, but the agency uses such estimates only in the broader context of professional judgment, internal and external peer review, and extensive public review and comment. This multifaceted approach is consistent with the Council on Environmental Quality's description and use of risk analysis as an organizing construct based on sound biomedical and other scientific judgment in concert with risk assessment to define plausible exposure ranges of concern rather than a single numerical estimate that may convey an artificial sense of precision. In this approach biomedical opinion, host factors, mechanistic interpretation, molecular epidemiology, and actual exposure conditions are all critically important in evaluating the significance of environmental exposure to hazardous substances. As such, the ATSDR risk analysis approach is a multidimensional endeavor encompassing not only the components of risk assessment but also the principles of biomedical judgment, risk management, and risk communication

  6. Genotoxic effects of environmental exposure to arsenic and lead on children in region Lagunera, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Gómez, Javier; García-Vargas, Gonzalo-Gerardo; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Calderón-Aranda, Emma-Soraida; Gómez, Arístides; Vera, Eunice; Valverde, Mahara; Cebrián, Mariano E; Rojas, Emilio

    2008-10-01

    DNA damage and DNA repair ability by means of the comet assay and the hydrogen peroxide challenge in lymphocytes from 65 children exposed simultaneously to As and Pb in Region Lagunera, Mexico. The first exposure scenario was concerned with natural As contamination in drinking water affecting all children, particularly those attending the schools farthest from (Gomez Palacio) and closest to the smelter (Pedro Garcia). The second scenario related to additional Pb and As soil and dust contamination in the schools located in the smelter vicinity (Heroe de Nacozari and Pedro Garcia). Most children (93%) had As in urine (AsU) above 50 microg/L and 65% had blood Pb (PbB) above 10 microg/dL. The highest AsU median levels were observed in the school farthest from the smelter, whereas the highest PbB values were observed in the closest school. DNA damage and a decreased repair ability observed in children attending the schools were more severe than those reported for healthy Mexican children. However, the multivariate analysis did not show significant associations between DNA basal damage and PbB or AsU. Lymphocytes from 58% of the children did not respond to the peroxide challenge, and those had a more severe basal DNA damage. DNA repair capacity showed a slowed response and was negatively associated with AsU. Thus, in addition to reduced exposure, further studies are needed to ascertain if the deficiency in DNA repair is transient or if children are already displaying a mutator phenotype and are at risk of developing cancer.

  7. Environmental chemical exposures and human epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Dong; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Every year more than 13 million deaths worldwide are due to environmental pollutants, and approximately 24% of diseases are caused by environmental exposures that might be averted through preventive measures. Rapidly growing evidence has linked environmental pollutants with epigenetic variations, including changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs. Environ mental chemicals and epigenetic changes All of these mechanisms are likely to play important roles in disease aetiology, and their modifications due to environmental pollutants might provide further understanding of disease aetiology, as well as biomarkers reflecting exposures to environmental pollutants and/or predicting the risk of future disease. We summarize the findings on epigenetic alterations related to environmental chemical exposures, and propose mechanisms of action by means of which the exposures may cause such epigenetic changes. We discuss opportunities, challenges and future directions for future epidemiology research in environmental epigenomics. Future investigations are needed to solve methodological and practical challenges, including uncertainties about stability over time of epigenomic changes induced by the environment, tissue specificity of epigenetic alterations, validation of laboratory methods, and adaptation of bioinformatic and biostatistical methods to high-throughput epigenomics. In addition, there are numerous reports of epigenetic modifications arising following exposure to environmental toxicants, but most have not been directly linked to disease endpoints. To complete our discussion, we also briefly summarize the diseases that have been linked to environmental chemicals-related epigenetic changes. PMID:22253299

  8. Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and health risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Jaakkola, M S; Samet, J M

    1999-01-01

    This article addresses concepts of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure assessment relevant for health risk assessment based on human studies. We present issues that should be considered when selecting a method for ETS exposure assessment for the purposes of health risk assessment and review data on ETS exposure levels in the workplace and in home environments. Two types of estimates are needed for a quantitative risk assessment of the health effects resulting from occupational ETS exposure: (italic)a(/italic)) an unbiased estimate of the exposure-effect (or dose-response) relation between ETS and the health effect of interest, and (italic)b(/italic)) estimates of the distribution of ETS exposure in different workplaces. By combining the estimated exposure-effect relation with information on exposure distribution for a population of interest, we can calculate the proportions of disease cases attributable to occupational ETS exposure as well as the excess number of cases due to specified exposure conditions. Several dimensions of the exposure profile should be considered when assessing ETS exposure for estimating the exposure-effect relation, including the magnitude of exposure and the biologically relevant time specificity of exposure. The magnitude of exposure is determined by the ETS source strength, environmental factors modifying concentrations, and duration of exposure. Time specificity considerations include the latency period for each health outcome of interest, the time-exposure profile relevant for different disease mechanisms, and the sensitive age period with regard to health effects. The most appropriate indicator of ETS exposure depends on these factors and on the time period that can be assessed with different methods. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10592138

  9. Developmental Exposure to an Environmental PCB Mixture ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Developmental PCB exposure impairs hearing and induces brainstem audiogenic seizures in adult offspring. The degree to which this enhanced susceptibility to seizure is manifest in other brain regions has not been examined. Thus, electrical kindling of the amygdala was used to evaluate the effect of developmental exposure to an environmentally relevant PCB mixture on seizure susceptibility in the rat. Female Long-Evans rats were dosed orally with 0 or 6 mg/kg/day of the PCB mixture dissolved in corn oil vehicle during the perinatal period. On postnatal day (PND) 21, pups were weaned, and two males from each litter were randomly selected for the kindling study. As adults, the male rats were implanted bilaterally with electrodes in the basolateral amygdala. For each animal, afterdischarge (AD) thresholds in the amygdala were determined on the first day of testing followed by once daily stimulation at a standard 200 µA stimulus intensity until three stage 5 generalized seizures (GS) ensued. Developmental PCB exposure did not affect the AD threshold or total cumulative AD duration, but PCB exposure did increase the latency to behavioral manifestations of seizure propagation. PCB exposed animals required significantly more stimulations to reach stage 2 seizures compared to control animals, indicating an attenuated focal (amygdala) excitability. A delay in kindling progression from a focally stimulated limbic site stands in contrast to our previous finding of increase

  10. Environmental exposures to Florida red tides: Effects on emergency room respiratory diagnoses admissions.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Fleming, Lora E; Backer, Lorraine C; Bean, Judy A; Tamer, Robert; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Kane, Terrance; Wanner, Adam; Dalpra, Dana; Reich, Andrew; Baden, Daniel G

    2006-10-01

    Human exposure to Florida red tides formed by Karenia brevis, occurs from eating contaminated shellfish and inhaling aerosolized brevetoxins. Recent studies have documented acute symptom changes and pulmonary function responses after inhalation of the toxic aerosols, particularly among asthmatics. These findings suggest that there are increases in medical care facility visits for respiratory complaints and for exacerbations of underlying respiratory diseases associated with the occurrence of Florida red tides.This study examined whether the presence of a Florida red tide affected the rates of admission with a respiratory diagnosis to a hospital emergency room in Sarasota, FL. The rate of respiratory diagnoses admissions were compared for a 3-month time period when there was an onshore red tide in 2001 (red tide period) and during the same 3-month period in 2002 when no red tide bloom occurred (non-red tide period). There was no significant increase in the total number of respiratory admissions between the two time periods. However, there was a 19% increase in the rate of pneumonia cases diagnosed during the red tide period compared with the non-red tide period. We categorized home residence zip codes as coastal (within 1.6 km from the shore) or inland (>1.6 km from shore). Compared with the non-red tide period, the coastal residents had a significantly higher (54%) rate of respiratory diagnoses admissions than during the red tide period. We then divided the diagnoses into subcategories (i.e. pneumonia, bronchitis, asthma, and upper airway disease). When compared with the non-red tide period, the coastal zip codes had increases in the rates of admission of each of the subcategories during the red tide period (i.e. 31, 56, 44, and 64%, respectively). This increase was not observed seen in the inland zip codes.These results suggest that the healthcare community has a significant burden from patients, particularly those who live along the coast, needing emergency

  11. Neurophysiological effects of chronic indoor environmental toxic mold exposure on children.

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, Ebere C; Campbell, Andrew W; Vojdani, Aristo

    2003-04-28

    The phenomenon of building-related diseases is attracting much research interest in recent years because of the extent to which it affects people with compromised immune systems, especially children. In this study, we reported the neurological findings in children who attended our Center because of chronic exposure to toxic molds. Clinical neurological and neurobehavioral questionnaires were administered with the cooperation of the children's parents. The children then underwent a series of neurophysiological tests including electroencephalogram (EEG), brainstem evoked potential (BAEP), visual evoked potential (VEP), and somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP). The results showed high levels of abnormalities in the analysis of the subjective responses derived from the questionnaires. The EEG examination was abnormal in seven out of ten of the patients compared to the controls with only one in ten with episodes of bihemispheric sharp activity. In all the patients, there was frontotemporal theta wave activity that seemed to indicate diffuse changes characteristic of metabolic encephalopathies. Also, there was highly marked 1 to 3 Hz delta activity that was asymmetrical in the right hemisphere of the brain in three out of ten patients. The waveforms of BAEP showed abnormalities in 90% of the patients with both 15' and 31' check sizes compared to none in the controls. There were significant delays in waveform V in a majority of the patients representing dysfunctional cognitive process and conductive hearing loss in both ears. VEP showed clear abnormalities in four in ten of the patients with P100 amplitudes and latencies decreased bilaterally. In all the patients, there was slowing of conduction in the right tibial at an average of 36.9 ms and there was significant decrease in amplitude of response at the proximal stimulation site. Sensory latencies obtained in the median, ulnar, and sural nerves bilaterally showed abnormalities in five out of ten compared to none in the

  12. Exposure to modern, widespread environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals and their effect on the reproductive potential of women: an overview of current epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Karwacka, Anetta; Zamkowska, Dorota; Radwan, Michał; Jurewicz, Joanna

    2017-07-31

    Growing evidence indicates that exposure to widespread, environmental contaminants called endocrine disruptors (EDCs) negatively affects animal and human reproductive health and has been linked to several diseases including infertility. This review aims to evaluate the impact of environmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals [phthalates, parabens, triclosan, bisphenol A (BPA), organochlorine (PCBs) and perfluorinated (PFCs) compounds] on the reproductive potential among women, by reviewing most recently published literature. Epidemiological studies focusing on EDCs exposure and reproductive potential among women for the last 16 years were identified by a search of the PUBMED, MEDLINE, EBSCO and TOXNET literature databases. The results of the presented studies show that exposure to EDCs impacts the reproductive potential in women, measured by ovarian reserve and by assisted reproductive technology outcomes. Exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals decrease: (i) oestradiol levels (BPA); (ii) anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations (PCBs); (iii) antral follicle count (BPA, parabens, phthalates); (iv) oocyte quality (BPA, triclosan, phthalates, PCBs); (v) fertilization rate (PFCs, PCBs); (vi) implantation (BPA, phthalates, PCBs); (vii) embryo quality (triclosan, PCBs, BPA); (viii) rate of clinical pregnancy and live births (parabens, phthalates). The studies were mostly well-designed and used prospective cohorts with the exposure assessment based on the biomarker of exposure. Considering the suggested health effects, more epidemiological data is urgently needed to confirm the presented findings.

  13. Biomonitoring human exposure to environmental carcinogenic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Farmer, P B; Sepai, O; Lawrence, R; Autrup, H; Sabro Nielsen, P; Vestergård, A B; Waters, R; Leuratti, C; Jones, N J; Stone, J; Baan, R A; van Delft, J H; Steenwinkel, M J; Kyrtopoulos, S A; Souliotis, V L; Theodorakopoulos, N; Bacalis, N C; Natarajan, A T; Tates, A D; Haugen, A; Andreassen, A; Ovrebø, S; Shuker, D E; Amaning, K S; Castelain, P

    1996-07-01

    A coordinated study was carried out on the development, evaluation and application of biomonitoring procedures for populations exposed to environmental genotoxic pollutants. The procedures used involved both direct measurement of DNA or protein damage (adducts) and assessment of second biological effects (mutation and cytogenetic damage). Adduct detection at the level of DNA or protein (haemoglobin) was carried out by 32P-postlabelling, immunochemical, HPLC or mass spectrometric methods. Urinary excretion products resulting from DNA damage were also estimated (immunochemical assay, mass spectrometry). The measurement of adducts was focused on those from genotoxicants that result from petrochemical combustion or processing, e.g. low-molecular-weight alkylating agents, PAHs and compounds that cause oxidative DNA damage. Cytogenetic analysis of lymphocytes was undertaken (micronuclei, chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges) and mutation frequency was estimated at a number of loci including the hprt gene and genes involving in cancer development. Blood and urine samples from individuals exposed to urban pollution were collected. Populations exposed through occupational or medical sources to larger amounts of some of the genotoxic compounds present in the environmental samples were used as positive controls for the environmentally exposed population. Samples from rural areas were used as negative controls. The project has led to new, more sensitive and more selective approaches for detecting carcinogen-induced damage to DNA and proteins, and subsequent biological effects. These methods were validated with the occupational exposures, which showed evidence of DNA and/or protein and/or chromosome damage in workers in a coke oven plant, garage workers exposed to diesel exhaust and workers exposed to ethylene oxide in a sterilization plant. Dose reponse and adduct repair were studied for methylated adducts in patients treated with methylating cytostatic drugs

  14. Effects of environmental contaminant exposure on visual brain development: a prospective electrophysiological study in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Ethier, Audrey-Anne; Muckle, Gina; Bastien, Célyne; Dewailly, Éric; Ayotte, Pierre; Arfken, Cynthia; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Saint-Amour, Dave

    2012-10-01

    The Inuit from Nunavik (Northern Québec) are one of the most highly exposed populations to environmental contaminants in North America mainly due to the bioaccumulation of contaminants in fish and marine mammals that constitute an important part of their diet. This follow-up study aimed to assess the impact of exposure to contaminants on visual brain development in school-age Inuit children (mean age=10.9 years). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were measured in umbilical cord blood and again in blood samples at the time of testing, reflecting pre- and current exposure, respectively. Pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were scalp-recorded at the occipital cortex. Visual stimulation consisted of achromatic gratings presented at four visual contrast levels: 95%, 30%, 12% and 4%. The relation between environmental contaminant body burdens and VEPs was examined by regression analysis controlling for confounding variables, including fish nutrients and other toxicants. No significant association was found for PCB exposure after statistical adjustments. Cord blood mercury level was associated with a reduction of the N75 amplitude at the highest contrast level and with a delay of the N75 latency at the 12% contrast level. Prenatal exposure to lead was associated with a delay of the N150 latency at most contrast levels. This study suggests that heavy metal exposure, in particular during the gestational period, can impair the development of visual processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Approaches for predicting effects of unintended environmental exposure to an endocrine active pharmaceutical, tamoxifen

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tamoxifen is an endocrine-active pharmaceutical (EAP) that is used world-wide. Because tamoxifen is a ubiquitous pharmaceutical and interacts with estrogen receptors, a case study was conducted with this compound to (1) determine effects on reproductive endpoints in a nontarget s...

  16. Approaches for predicting effects of unintended environmental exposure to an endocrine active pharmaceutical, tamoxifen

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tamoxifen is an endocrine-active pharmaceutical (EAP) that is used world-wide. Because tamoxifen is a ubiquitous pharmaceutical and interacts with estrogen receptors, a case study was conducted with this compound to (1) determine effects on reproductive endpoints in a nontarget s...

  17. DNA ARRAYS TO MONITOR GENE EXPRESSION IN RAT BLOOD AND UTERUS FOLLOWING 17-BETA-ESTRADIOL EXPOSURE: BIOMONITORING ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS USING SURROGATE TISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA arrays to monitor gene expression in rat blood and uterus following 17-b-estradiol exposure - biomonitoring environmental effects using surrogate tissues
    John C. Rockett, Robert J. Kavlock, Christy R. Lambright, Louise G. Parks, Judith E. Schmid, Vickie S. Wilson, Carmen W...

  18. AN APPROACH TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODELS TO QUANTITATIVELY ASSESS THE EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTALLY RELEVANT LEVELS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An approach to the development of quantitative models to assess the effects of exposure to environmentally relevant levels of endocrine disruptors on homeostasis in adults.

    Ben-Jonathan N, Cooper RL, Foster P, Hughes CL, Hoyer PB, Klotz D, Kohn M, Lamb DJ, Stancel GM.
    <...

  19. DNA ARRAYS TO MONITOR GENE EXPRESSION IN RAT BLOOD AND UTERUS FOLLOWING 17-BETA-ESTRADIOL EXPOSURE: BIOMONITORING ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS USING SURROGATE TISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA arrays to monitor gene expression in rat blood and uterus following 17-b-estradiol exposure - biomonitoring environmental effects using surrogate tissues
    John C. Rockett, Robert J. Kavlock, Christy R. Lambright, Louise G. Parks, Judith E. Schmid, Vickie S. Wilson, Carmen W...

  20. Environmental Exposure to Manganese in Air: Associations ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND: Manganese (Mn) inhalation has been associated with neuropsychological and neurological sequelae in exposed workers. Few environmental epidemiologic studies have examined the potentialy neurotoxic effects of Mn exposure in ambient air on motor function and hand tremor in adult community residents. Mn exposed residents were recruited in two Ohio towns: Marietta, a town near a ferro-manganese smelter, and East Liverpool, a town adjacent to a facility processing, crushing, screening, and packaging Mn products.METHODS: Chronic (≥10years) exposure to ambient air Mn in adult residents and effects on neuropsychological and neurological outcomes were investigated. Participants from Marietta (n=100) and East Liverpool (n=86) were combined for analyses. AERMOD dispersion modeling of fixed-site outdoor air monitoring data estimated Mn inhalation over a ten year period. Adult Mn­ exposed residents' psychomotor ability was assessed using Finger Tapping, Hand Dynamometer, Grooved Pegbcard, and the Computerized Adaptive Testing System (CATSYS) Tremor system.Bayesian structural equation modeling was used to assess associations between air-Mn and motor function and tremor .RESULTS: Air-Mn exposure was significantly correlated in bivariate analyses with the tremor test (CATSYS) for intensity, center frequency and harmonic index. The Bayesian path analysis model showed associations of air-Mn with the CATSYS non-dominant center frequency and harmonic ind

  1. Effectiveness Analysis of Filters Used with Radon Detectors under Extreme Environmental Conditions for Long-term Exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, V.; Font, Ll.; Baixeras, C.; Garcia-Orellana, J.; Bach, J.; Grossi, C.; Vargas, A.

    Active and passive radon detectors have been exposed with different filter configurations at the INTE radon chamber controlled conditions. Correction factors and delay times of the radon diffusion through each filter have been determined. Additionally, some of the studied filter/detector configurations have been used to measure radon in several workplaces and outdoor sites under real extreme environmental conditions. Analysis of these detectors showed partial degradation, so used filters seem not to be protective enough for long-term exposures.

  2. Exposure to Environmental Air Manganese and Medication ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element with natural low levels found in water, food, and air, but due to industrialized processes, both workplace and the environmental exposures to Mn have increased. Recently, environmental studies have reported physical and mental health problems associated with air-Mn exposure, but medical record reviews for exposed residents are rare in the literature. When medical records and clinical testing are unavailable, examination of residents’ prescribed medication use may be used as a surrogate of health effects associated with Mn. We examined medication use among adult Ohio residents in two towns with elevated air-Mn (n=185) and one unexposed control town (n=90). Study participants recorded medication use in a health questionnaire and brought their currently prescribed medication, over-the-counter and supplement lists to their interview. Two physicians (family and psychiatric medicine) reviewed the provided medication list and developed medical categories associated with the medications used. The exposed (E) and control (C) groups were compared on the established 12 medication and 1 supplement categories using chi-square tests. The significant medication categories were further analyzed using hierarchical binomial logistic regression adjusting for education, personal income, and years of residency. The two groups were primarily white (E:94.6%; C:96.7%) but differed on education (E:13.8; C:15.2 years), residence length in their re

  3. Impact of an asbestos cement factory on mesothelioma incidence: global assessment of effects of occupational, familial, and environmental exposure.

    PubMed

    Mensi, Carolina; Riboldi, Luciano; De Matteis, Sara; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Consonni, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the incidence of malignant mesothelioma (MM) associated with distinct sources of asbestos exposure (occupational, familial, or environmental). We assessed the impact of asbestos exposure-global and by source-on the incidence of MM in Broni, an Italian town in which an asbestos cement factory once operated (1932-1993). Based on data collected by the Lombardy Mesothelioma Registry, we calculated the number of observed and expected MM cases among workers, their cohabitants, and people living in the area in 2000-2011. We identified 147 MM cases (17.45 expected), 138 pleural and nine peritoneal, attributable to exposure to asbestos from the factory. Thirty-eight cases had past occupational exposure at the factory (2.33 expected), numbering 32 men (26 pleural, six peritoneal) and six women (four pleural, two peritoneal). In the families of the workers, there were 37 MM cases (4.23 expected), numbering five men (all pleural) and 32 women (31 pleural, one peritoneal). Among residents in Broni or in the adjacent/surrounding towns, there were 72 cases of pleural MM (10.89 expected), numbering 23 men and 49 women. The largest MM excess was found in the towns of Broni (48 observed, 3.68 expected) and Stradella (16 observed, 1.85 expected). This study documents the large impact of the asbestos cement factory, with about 130 excess MM cases in a 12-year period. The largest MM burden was among women, from non-occupational exposure. Almost half of the MM cases were attributable to environmental exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of environmental cadmium and lead exposure on adults neighboring a discharge: Evidences of adverse health effects.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Mathilde; Toure, Aminata; Garçon, Guillaume; Diop, Cheikh; Bouhsina, Saâd; Dewaele, Dorothée; Cazier, Fabrice; Courcot, Dominique; Tall-Dia, Anta; Shirali, Pirouz; Diouf, Amadou; Fall, Mamadou; Verdin, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine Pb and Cd concentrations in humans and to assess the effect of co-exposure to these metals on biomarkers of oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity. Blood and urine levels of Pb and Cd, oxidative stress and urinary renal biomarkers were measured in 77 subjects neighboring a discharge and 52 in the control site. Exposed subjects showed significantly higher levels of lead and cadmium in blood and urine than the controls. Excessive production of reactive oxygen species induced by these metals in exposed subjects conducted to a decrease in antioxidant defense system (GPx, Selenium, GSH) and an increase in lipid peroxidation (MDA). Moreover, changes in markers of nephrotoxicity (high urinary concentrations of total protein, RBP and CC16, as well as GSTα and LDH increased activities) suggested the occurrence of discrete and early signs of impaired renal function for the discharge neighboring population.

  5. Immunosuppressive effects and associated compensatory responses in zebrafish after full life-cycle exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of cadmium.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sai-Nan; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Yuan, Shuang-Shuang; Zhu, Qing-Ling; Wu, Chang-Wen

    2017-07-01

    In natural environments, fish survive in polluted water by cadmium (Cd) throughout their whole life cycle. However, little information is available on Cd toxicity considering a life cycle assessment. The present study investigated effects of environmental levels of cadmium (0, 2.5, and 5μg/L) on immune responses in liver and spleen of zebrafish for 15 weeks, from embryos to sexually maturity. Nitric oxide (NO) levels and iNOS activity declined in liver and spleen of zebrafish exposed to 5μg/L Cd, suggesting an immunosuppressive effect. The result was further supported by the decreased transcriptional levels of proinflammatory cytokines by Cd, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in liver. However, a sharp increase in the mRNA levels of these cytokines was observed in spleen of zebrafish exposed to Cd. The increased mRNA expression of these proinflammatory cytokines may be the secondary effect following immunosuppression and just reflect a compensatory mechanism for coping with the decreased immunity, which may explain an increase in mRNA levels and a decrease in iNOS activity in spleen of zebrafish exposed to Cd. In liver, the down-regulated mRNA levels of iNOS paralleled with the decreased iNOS activity, suggesting a synchronous response from a molecular level to a biochemical level. Positive correlations between mRNA expression levels of nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) and proinflammatory cytokines were also observed, suggesting that NF-κB might be required for the protracted induction of inflammatory genes. The corresponding changes in the mRNA levels of the inhibitor of κBα (IκBαa and IκBαb) may form a feedback loop to restore transcriptional activity of NF-κB. Furthermore, splenic ROS levels were increased by 5μg/L Cd, possibly activating NF-κB pathway. Taken together, immunosuppressive effects and tissue-dependent compensatory responses were demonstrated in

  6. Exposure Concepts for Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern life depends upon the use of many chemicals, products, and practices to promote well being and economic growth. However, when these chemicals, products and practices present the potential for harm to humans and ecosystems, they are termed environmental stressors and, as s...

  7. Exposure Concepts for Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern life depends upon the use of many chemicals, products, and practices to promote well being and economic growth. However, when these chemicals, products and practices present the potential for harm to humans and ecosystems, they are termed environmental stressors and, as s...

  8. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

  9. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

  10. Exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting compounds and men's health.

    PubMed

    Meeker, John D

    2010-07-01

    Human exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have received increased attention in recent years due to the documentation of widespread exposure to a number of EDCs among the general population, experimental data demonstrating endocrine-related effects on reproduction, development, metabolism, and cancer, and observations for increasing trends (as well as geographic trends) in endocrine-related disorders among populations. However, human studies of exposure to most environmental EDCs in relation to adverse health outcomes remain limited. This review focuses on the human data generated to date on the relationship between exposures to environmental EDCs and men's health. The agents discussed here, which include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were chosen based on their exposure prevalence and the presence of existing human data in studies of male reproductive health, altered reproductive and thyroid hormone levels, diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome, and endocrine-related cancers. Taken together, the epidemiologic data on the environmental EDCs suggest that there may be associations between exposure and adverse health outcomes in men. However, the limited human data, and in many instances inconsistent data across studies, highlight the need for further research on these chemicals. Future longitudinal molecular epidemiology studies with appropriately designed exposure assessments are needed to determine potential causal relationships, to identify the most important time windows/life stages of exposure, and to define individual susceptibility factors for adverse effects on men's health in response to exposure.

  11. Environmental exposure measurement in cancer epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Environmental exposures, used in the broadest sense of lifestyle, infections, radiation, natural and man-made chemicals and occupation, are a major cause of human cancer. However, the precise contribution of specific risk factors and their interaction, both with each other and with genotype, continues to be difficult to elucidate. This is partially due to limitations in accurately measuring exposure with the subsequent risk of misclassification. One of the primary challenges of molecular cancer epidemiology therefore is to improve exposure assessment. Progress has been made with biomarkers such as carcinogens and their metabolites, DNA and protein adducts and mutations measured in various tissues and body fluids. Nevertheless, much remains to be accomplished in order to establish aetiology and provide the evidence base for public health decisions. This review considers some of the principles behind the application of exposure biomarkers in cancer epidemiology. It also demonstrates how the same biomarkers can contribute both to establishing the biological plausibility of associations between exposure and disease and be valuable endpoints in intervention studies. The potential of new technologies such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabonomics to provide a step change in environmental exposure assessment is discussed. An increasing recognition of the role of epigenetic changes in carcinogenesis presents a fresh challenge as alterations in DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA in response to environmental exposures demand a new generation of exposure biomarker. The overall importance of this area of research is brought into sharp relief by the large prospective cohort studies (e.g. UK Biobank) which need accurate exposure measurement in order to shed light on the complex gene:environment interactions underlying common chronic disorders including cancer. It is suggested that a concerted effort is now required, with appropriate funding, to develop and

  12. Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Exposures: Clinical ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and homes as it relates to the health and comfort of the occupants. Many ambient (outdoor) air pollutants readily permeate indoor spaces. Because indoor air can be considerably more polluted than ambient air, the USEPA lists poor IAQ as a major environmental concern. In the sections that follow, health effects associated with commonly encountered ambient air pollutants and indoor contaminants will be broken down by agent class. In some cases, exposure may be acute, with one or more pets (and owners) experiencing signs within a relatively short period. However, most exposures are episodic or chronic, making it difficult to definitively link poor IAQ to respiratory or other adverse health outcomes. Age or underlying immunologic, cardiac, or respiratory disease may further complicate the clinical picture, as those patients may be more sensitive to (and affected by) lower concentrations than prove problematic for healthy housemates. Because pets, like their owners, spend most of their lives indoors, we will discuss how certain home conditions can worsen indoor air quality and will briefly discuss measures to improve IAQ for owners and their pets. In this overview presentation, health effects associated with commonly encountered ambient air pollutants and indoor contaminants will be broken down by agent class. Because pets, like their owners, spend most of their lives indoo

  13. Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Exposures: Clinical ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and homes as it relates to the health and comfort of the occupants. Many ambient (outdoor) air pollutants readily permeate indoor spaces. Because indoor air can be considerably more polluted than ambient air, the USEPA lists poor IAQ as a major environmental concern. In the sections that follow, health effects associated with commonly encountered ambient air pollutants and indoor contaminants will be broken down by agent class. In some cases, exposure may be acute, with one or more pets (and owners) experiencing signs within a relatively short period. However, most exposures are episodic or chronic, making it difficult to definitively link poor IAQ to respiratory or other adverse health outcomes. Age or underlying immunologic, cardiac, or respiratory disease may further complicate the clinical picture, as those patients may be more sensitive to (and affected by) lower concentrations than prove problematic for healthy housemates. Because pets, like their owners, spend most of their lives indoors, we will discuss how certain home conditions can worsen indoor air quality and will briefly discuss measures to improve IAQ for owners and their pets. In this overview presentation, health effects associated with commonly encountered ambient air pollutants and indoor contaminants will be broken down by agent class. Because pets, like their owners, spend most of their lives indoo

  14. Are engineered nano iron oxide particles safe? an environmental risk assessment by probabilistic exposure, effects and risk modeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Deng, Lei; Caballero-Guzman, Alejandro; Nowack, Bernd

    2016-12-01

    Nano iron oxide particles are beneficial to our daily lives through their use in paints, construction materials, biomedical imaging and other industrial fields. However, little is known about the possible risks associated with the current exposure level of engineered nano iron oxides (nano-FeOX) to organisms in the environment. The goal of this study was to predict the release of nano-FeOX to the environment and assess their risks for surface waters in the EU and Switzerland. The material flows of nano-FeOX to technical compartments (waste incineration and waste water treatment plants) and to the environment were calculated with a probabilistic modeling approach. The mean value of the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of nano-FeOX in surface waters in the EU for a worst-case scenario (no particle sedimentation) was estimated to be 28 ng/l. Using a probabilistic species sensitivity distribution, the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) was determined from ecotoxicological data. The risk characterization ratio, calculated by dividing the PEC by PNEC values, was used to characterize the risks. The mean risk characterization ratio was predicted to be several orders of magnitude smaller than 1 (1.4 × 10(-)(4)). Therefore, this modeling effort indicates that only a very limited risk is posed by the current release level of nano-FeOX to organisms in surface waters. However, a better understanding of the hazards of nano-FeOX to the organisms in other ecosystems (such as sediment) needs to be assessed to determine the overall risk of these particles to the environment.

  15. Biomarkers of exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on swallows nesting along the Rio Grande, Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Mora, Miguel A; Musquiz, Daniel; Bickham, John W; Mackenzie, Duncan S; Hooper, Michael J; Szabo, Judit K; Matson, Cole W

    2006-06-01

    We collected adult cave swallows (Petrochelidon fulva) and cliff swallows (P. pyrrhonota) during the breeding seasons in 1999 and 2000 from eight locations along the Rio Grande from Brownsville to El Paso (unless otherwise specified, all locations are Texas, USA) and an out-of-basin reference location. Body mass, spleen mass, hepatosomatic index (HSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI), thyroxine (T4) in plasma, DNA damage measured as the half-peak coefficient of variation of DNA content (HPCV) in blood cells, as well as acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in brain were compared with concentrations of organochlorines, metals, and metalloids in carcasses to determine potential effects of contaminants on swallows during the breeding season. Concentrations of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) were significantly greater in swallows from El Paso than in those from most locations, except for Pharr and Llano Grande. All swallows from these three locations had p,p'-DDE concentrations of 3 microg/g wet weight or greater. Swallows from El Paso either had or shared the highest concentrations of p,p'-DDE, polychlorinated biphenyls, and 13 inorganic elements. Swallows from El Paso exhibited greater spleen mass and HPCV values as well as lower T4 values compared with those from other locations. Thyroxine was a potential biomarker of contaminant exposure in swallows of the Rio Grande, because it was negatively correlated with p,p'-DDE and Se. Spleen mass was positively correlated with selenium and HSI and negatively correlated with body mass, GSI, Mn, and Ni. Overall, the present study suggests that insectivorous birds living in areas of high agricultural and industrial activity along the Rio Grande bioaccumulate environmental contaminants. These contaminants, particularly p,p'-DDE, may be among multiple factors that impact endocrine and hematopoietic function in Rio Grande swallows.

  16. Biomarkers of exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on swallows nesting along the Rio Grande, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mora, M.A.; Musquiz, D.; Bickham, J.W.; MacKenzie, D.S.; Hooper, M.J.; Szabo, J.K.; Matson, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    We collected adult cave swallows (Petrochelidon fulva) and cliff swallows (P. pyrrhonota) during the breeding seasons in 1999 and 2000 from eight locations along the Rio Grande from Brownsville to El Paso (unless otherwise specified, all locations are Texas, USA) and an out-of-basin reference location. Body mass, spleen mass, hepatosomatic index (HSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI), thyroxine (T4) in plasma, DNA damage measured as the half-peak coefficient of variation of DNA content (HPCV) in blood cells, as well as acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in brain were compared with concentrations of organochlorines, metals, and metalloids in carcasses to determine potential effects of contaminants on swallows during the breeding season. Concentrations of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p???-DDE) were significantly greater in swallows from El Paso than in those from most locations, except for Pharr and Llano Grande. All swallows from these three locations had p,p???-DDE concentrations of 3 ??g/g wet weight or greater. Swallows from El Paso either had or shared the highest concentrations of p,p???-DDE, polychlorinated biphenyls, and 13 inorganic elements. Swallows from El Paso exhibited greater spleen mass and HPCV values as well as lower T4 values compared with those from other locations. Thyroxine was a potential biomarker of contaminant exposure in swallows of the Rio Grande, because it was negatively correlated with p,p???-DDE and Se. Spleen mass was positively correlated with selenium and HSI and negatively correlated with body mass, GSI, Mn, and Ni. Overall, the present study suggests that insectivorous birds living in areas of high agricultural and industrial activity along the Rio Grande bioaccumulate environmental contaminants. These contaminants, particularly p,p???-DDE, may be among multiple factors that impact endocrine and hematopoietic function in Rio Grande swallows. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  17. Thrombocytopenia associated with environmental exposure to polyurethane

    SciTech Connect

    Michelson, A.D. )

    1991-10-01

    Few chemicals in the environment have been implicated as causes of isolated thrombocytopenia, and the evidence is usually less than convincing because the patients were not rechallenged with the chemical in vivo. In the present paper, a child is reported with the onset of thrombocytopenia in temporal association with environmental exposure to polyurethane. Five years after the initial thrombocytopenia had resolved, an inadvertent in vivo rechallenge with environmental polyurethane resulted in recurrence of the thrombocytopenia. This recurrence, together with the fact that only 1-4% of cases of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in children recur, provided strong evidence for a causal role for the polyurethane exposure in this patient's thrombocytopenia. In summary, environmental exposure to polyurethane should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acquired thrombocytopenia in childhood.

  18. Environmental exposures: an underrecognized contribution to noncommunicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Norman, Rosana E; Carpenter, David O; Scott, James; Brune, Marie Noel; Sly, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    Previous attempts to determine the degree to which exposure to environmental factors contribute to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have been very conservative and have significantly underestimated the actual contribution of the environment for at least two reasons. Firstly, most previous reports have excluded the contribution of lifestyle behavioral risk factors, but these usually involve significant exposure to environmental chemicals that increase risk of disease. Secondly, early life exposure to chemical contaminants is now clearly associated with an elevated risk of several diseases later in life, but these connections are often difficult to discern. This is especially true for asthma and neurodevelopmental conditions, but there is also a major contribution to the development of obesity and chronic diseases. Most cancers are caused by environmental exposures in genetically susceptible individuals. In addition, new information shows significant associations between cardiovascular diseases and diabetes and exposure to environmental chemicals present in air, food, and water. These relationships likely reflect the combination of epigenetic effects and gene induction. Environmental factors contribute significantly more to NCDs than previous reports have suggested. Prevention needs to shift focus from individual responsibility to societal responsibility and an understanding that effective prevention of NCDs ultimately relies on improved environmental management to reduce exposure to modifiable risks.

  19. Exposures from environmental radioactivity: international safety standards.

    PubMed

    Balonov, Mikhail

    2008-11-01

    The paper presents the current international system for the protection of the public against environmental radioactivity. The protection system applies to all the three human exposure situations, i.e., planned, emergency and existing exposures. Radiation protection is a developing scientific and practical discipline and some of the areas in public radiation protection and protection of the environment that are in need of further elaboration are identified in the paper.

  20. Effect of environmental exposure to cigarette smoke on blood pressure in 24‑hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gać, Paweł; Poręba, Rafał; Poręba, Małgorzata; Mazur, Grzegorz; Sobieszczańska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    A relationship between environmental exposure to cigarette smoke and blood pressure has not been well‑established. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of environmental exposure to cigarette smoke on blood pressure (BP) in patients with essential hypertension. The study involved 39 nonsmoking patients with essential hypertension treated with hypotensive agents and environmentally exposed to cigarette smoke (group 1) and 39 nonsmoking patients with essential hypertension treated with hypotensive agents and not exposed to cigarette smoke (group 2). The following variables of 24‑hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) were measured: systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure (PP) during 24‑hour ABPM, and, separately, for the period of daily activity and night rest. In group 1, the mean values of 24‑hour SBP, DBP, MAP, and PP, daytime SBP, DBP, MAP, and PP, and nighttime SBP, MAP, and PP were significantly higher than those in group 2. Statistically significant positive linear correlations were demonstrated between the mean time of daily exposure (expressed in hours) to cigarette smoke and 24‑hour MAP and PP (r = 0.52 and r = 0.48, respectively, P <0.05). Advanced age, higher low‑density lipoprotein cholesterol and glucose concentrations, and environmental exposure to cigarette smoke were independent factors of elevated 24‑hour PP in the study group. In patients with essential hypertension, environmental exposure to cigarette smoke may result in elevated BP values in 24‑hour ABPM.

  1. Biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Benowitz, N L

    1999-01-01

    Biomarkers are desirable for quantitating human exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and for predicting potential health risks for exposed individuals. A number of biomarkers of ETS have been proposed. At present cotinine, measured in blood, saliva, or urine, appears to be the most specific and the most sensitive biomarker. In nonsmokers with significant exposure to ETS, cotinine levels in the body are derived primarily from tobacco smoke, can be measured with extremely high sensitivity, and reflect exposure to a variety of types of cigarettes independent of machine-determined yield. Under conditions of sustained exposure to ETS (i.e., over hours or days), cotinine levels reflect exposure to other components of ETS. Supporting the validity of cotinine as a biomarker, cotinine levels have been positively correlated to the risks of some ETS-related health complications in children who are not cigarette smokers. Images Figure 1 PMID:10350520

  2. Environmental asbestos exposure sources in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong-Mug; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Hwang, Young-Sik; Kim, Young-Ki; Lee, Yong-Jin

    2016-10-01

    Because of the long asbestos-related disease latencies (10-50 years), detection, diagnosis, and epidemiologic studies require asbestos exposure history. However, environmental asbestos exposure source (EAES) data are lacking. To survey the available data for past EAES and supplement these data with interviews. We constructed an EAES database using a literature review and interviews of experts, former traders, and workers. Exposure sources by time period and type were visualized using a geographic information system (ArcGIS), web-based mapping (Google Maps), and OpenWeatherMap. The data were mounted in the GIS to show the exposure source location and trend. The majority of asbestos mines, factories, and consumption was located in Chungnam; Gyeonggi, Busan, and Gyeongnam; and Gyeonggi, Daejeon, and Busan, respectively. Shipbuilding and repair companies were mostly located in Busan and Gyeongnam. These tools might help evaluate past exposure from EAES and estimate the future asbestos burden in Korea.

  3. Environmental exposures to agrochemicals in the Sierra Nevada mountain range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeNoir, J.; Aston, L.; Data, S.; Fellers, G.; McConnell, L.; Sieber, J.

    2000-01-01

    The release of pesticides into the environment may impact human and environmental health. Despite the need for environmental exposure data, few studies quantify exposures in urban areas and even fewer determine exposures to wildlife in remote areas. Although it is expected that concentrations in remote regions will be low, recent studies suggest that even low concentrations may have deleterious effects on wildlife. Many pesticides are known to interfere with the endocrine systems of humans and wildlife, adversely affecting growth, development, and behavior. This chapter reviews the fate and transport of pesticides applied in the Central Valley of California and quantifies their subsequent deposition into the relatively pristine Sierra Nevada Mountain Range.

  4. Environmental cadmium exposure impacts physiological responses in Manila clams.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liqiang; Zhang, Yu; Liang, Jian; Xu, Xian; Wang, Hua; Yang, Feng; Yan, Xiwu

    2014-06-01

    The physiological responses of marine bivalves to chronic cadmium (Cd) exposure at sub-lethal concentrations have been well documented. As of now, few studies have examined the effect of Cd exposure and subsequent recovery period at environmentally realistic concentrations. In this study, environmentally, Cd exposures were performed to assess the physiological responses of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. The clams were exposed to waterborne Cd at two environmentally realistic concentrations (4 and 40 μg L(-1)) for 35 days and then allowed to recover for another 35 days. The accumulation and elimination of Cd in R. philippinarum were tissue-specific and dose- and time-dependent. Cd accumulation increased sharply in the digestive gland, and Cd elimination was rapid in the gill. Major physiological responses, including clearance rate, absorption efficiency, respiration rate, excretion rate, oxygen to nitrogen ratio, and scope for growth, were significantly affected by Cd exposure. Yet, the clams exposed to 4-μg L(-1) Cd were able to quickly recover their normal physiological processes and clearly exhibited catch-up growth once they were transferred to clean seawater. Hence, R. philippinarum can exhibit good physiological plasticity when confronted with moderately environmental Cd exposure. All physiological responses measured exhibited a highly significant and generally predictable correlation with tissue Cd concentration, which in turn, reflected environmentally realistic exposure conditions. Our results further confirm that the measurement of physiological responses is a sensitive method for assessing stress at environmentally realistic metal concentrations.

  5. Effect of environmental interventions to reduce exposure to asthma triggers in homes of low-income children in Seattle.

    PubMed

    Takaro, Tim K; Krieger, James W; Song, Lin

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness of community health workers (CHWs) assisting families in reducing exposure to indoor asthma triggers has not been studied. In all, 274 low-income asthmatic children were randomly assigned to high- or low-intensity groups. CHWs visited all homes to assess exposures, develop action plans and provide bedding encasements. The higher-intensity group also received cleaning equipment and five to nine visits over a year focusing on asthma trigger reduction. The asthma trigger composite score decreased from 1.56 to 1.19 (Delta=-0.37, 95% CI 0.13, 0.61) in the higher-intensity group and from 1.63 to 1.43 in the low-intensity group (Delta=-0.20, 95% CI 0.004, 0.4). The difference in this measure due to the intervention was significant at the P=0.096 level. The higher-intensity group also showed improvement during the intervention year in measurements of condensation, roaches, moisture, cleaning behavior, dust weight, dust mite antigen, and total antigens above a cut point, effects not demonstrated in the low-intensity group. CHWs are effective in reducing asthma trigger exposure in low-income children. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of specific interventions and structural improvements on asthma trigger exposure and health.

  6. Carryover effects of larval exposure to different environmental bacteria drive adult trait variation in a mosquito vector

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Laura B.; Jiolle, Davy; Minard, Guillaume; Moltini-Conclois, Isabelle; Volant, Stevenn; Ghozlane, Amine; Bouchier, Christiane; Ayala, Diego; Paupy, Christophe; Moro, Claire Valiente; Lambrechts, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Conditions experienced during larval development of holometabolous insects can affect adult traits, but whether differences in the bacterial communities of larval development sites contribute to variation in the ability of insect vectors to transmit human pathogens is unknown. We addressed this question in the mosquito Aedes aegypti, a major arbovirus vector breeding in both sylvatic and domestic habitats in Sub-Saharan Africa. Targeted metagenomics revealed differing bacterial communities in the water of natural breeding sites in Gabon. Experimental exposure to different native bacterial isolates during larval development resulted in significant differences in pupation rate and adult body size but not life span. Larval exposure to an Enterobacteriaceae isolate resulted in decreased antibacterial activity in adult hemolymph and reduced dengue virus dissemination titer. Together, these data provide the proof of concept that larval exposure to different bacteria can drive variation in adult traits underlying vectorial capacity. Our study establishes a functional link between larval ecology, environmental microbes, and adult phenotypic variation in a holometabolous insect vector. PMID:28835919

  7. The effect of positioning on preterm infants' sleep-wake states and stress behaviours during exposure to environmental stressors.

    PubMed

    Peng, Niang-Huei; Chen, Li-Li; Li, Tsai-Chung; Smith, Marlaine; Chang, Yu-Shan; Huang, Li-Chi

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies separately examined the effects of positioning or environmental stressors on preterm infants' sleep and stress. Since positioning and environmental stressors occur simultaneously during infant hospitalization exploring these variables in the same study may offer new insights. A quasi-experimental study by one-group interrupted time-series design. In the current study, a total of 22 preterm infants were enrolled. Each infant was moved to either the supine or prone position for an hour at a time. Infants were videotaped and the sleep-wake states, stress behaviours and environmental conditions (light, noise and stimulation/handling) were recorded during the observation period. A total of 80 observations from 22 infants were accrued. In the supine position, preterm infants demonstrated more frequent waking states after adjusting for various environmental stressors (p < .01). These infants demonstrated more frequent stress behaviours in the supine position after adjusting for various environmental stressors (p < .01). These results suggest that the prone position is a more favourable position for facilitating sleep and reducing stress for preterm infants exposed to varying environmental stressors. Preterm infants present different stress behaviours in response to varying types of environmental stimuli. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Epidemiology of Environmental Exposure and Malignant Mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bian; van Gerwen, Maaike; Bonassi, Stefano; Taioli, Emanuela

    2017-07-01

    Although the association between exposure to asbestos and malignant mesothelioma (particularly malignant pleural mesothelioma) has been well established, the health impact of environmental exposure (EE) to asbestos has been less studied. This review summarizes the most recent studies on the association between malignant mesothelioma and EE with asbestos to identify features associated with EE and quantify the association with malignant mesothelioma. There were 44 studies from 18 countries that met our selection criteria, with a considerable amount of heterogeneity in their study design, measures of exposure, and health outcomes. The male-to-female ratio was close to or less than 1 and generally lower than the ratio reported when both occupational and environmental exposures were considered. Although recent studies have continued to improve our understanding of environmental exposure to asbestos, challenges remain. We have highlighted a few new research directions, such as a need for reliable matrices to identify common and less recognized types of EE, asbestos biomarker studies specifically focusing on EE, and research on populations and geographic areas that have not been previously studied. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of environmental exposure to hydrogen sulfide on central nervous system and respiratory function: a systematic review of human studies

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Eunjung; Mbowe, Omar; Lee, Angela S. W.; Davis, James

    2016-01-01

    Background Assessment of the health effects of low-level exposure to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on humans through experiments, industrial, and community studies has shown inconsistent results. Objective To critically appraise available studies investigating the effect of H2S on the central nervous system (CNS) and on respiratory function. Methods A search was conducted in 16 databases for articles published between January 1980 and July 2014. Two researchers independently evaluated potentially relevant papers based on a set of inclusion/exclusion criteria. Results Twenty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria: 6 experimental, 12 industry-based studies, and 10 community-based studies (one article included both experimental and industry-based studies). The results of the systematic review varied by study setting and quality. Several community-based studies reported associations between day-to-day variations in H2S levels and health outcomes among patients with chronic respiratory conditions. However, evidence from the largest and better-designed community-based studies did not support that chronic, ambient H2S exposure has health effects on the CNS or respiratory function. Results from industry-based studies varied, reflecting the diversity of settings and the broad range of H2S exposures. Most studies did not have individual measurements of H2S exposure. Discussion The results across studies were inconsistent, justifying the need for further research. PMID:27128692

  10. Effect of environmental exposure to hydrogen sulfide on central nervous system and respiratory function: a systematic review of human studies.

    PubMed

    Lim, Eunjung; Mbowe, Omar; Lee, Angela S W; Davis, James

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of the health effects of low-level exposure to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on humans through experiments, industrial, and community studies has shown inconsistent results. To critically appraise available studies investigating the effect of H2S on the central nervous system (CNS) and on respiratory function. A search was conducted in 16 databases for articles published between January 1980 and July 2014. Two researchers independently evaluated potentially relevant papers based on a set of inclusion/exclusion criteria. Twenty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria: 6 experimental, 12 industry-based studies, and 10 community-based studies (one article included both experimental and industry-based studies). The results of the systematic review varied by study setting and quality. Several community-based studies reported associations between day-to-day variations in H2S levels and health outcomes among patients with chronic respiratory conditions. However, evidence from the largest and better-designed community-based studies did not support that chronic, ambient H2S exposure has health effects on the CNS or respiratory function. Results from industry-based studies varied, reflecting the diversity of settings and the broad range of H2S exposures. Most studies did not have individual measurements of H2S exposure. The results across studies were inconsistent, justifying the need for further research.

  11. Effects of environmental hypercapnia and metal (Cd and Cu) exposure on acid-base and metal homeostasis of marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Ivanina, Anna V; Hawkins, Chelsea; Beniash, Elia; Sokolova, Inna M

    2015-01-01

    Elevated CO2 levels reduce seawater pH and may affect bioavailability of trace metals in estuaries. We studied the interactive effects of common metal pollutants (50 μg l(-1) Cd or Cu) and PCO2 (~395, 800 and 2000 μatm) on metal levels, intracellular pH, expression of metal binding proteins and stress biomarkers in estuarine bivalves Crassostrea virginica (oysters) and Mercenaria mercenaria (hard clams). Cd (but not Cu or hypercapnia) exposure affected the acid-base balance of hemocytes resulting in elevated intracellular pH. Cd and Cu exposure led to the increase in the tissue metal burdens, and metal accumulation was reduced by elevated PCO2 in the mantle but not hemocytes. No change was found in the intracellular free Cd(2+), Cu(2+) or Fe(2+) during Cu or Cd exposure indicating that these metals are bound to intracellular ligands. Free Zn(2+) content in oyster hemocytes was suppressed by Cd and Cu exposure and below the detection limits in clam hemocytes, which went hand-in-hand with the elevated mRNA expression of metallothioneins and ferritin in Cd- and Cu-exposed bivalves, enhanced by hypercapnia. The metal-binding and antioxidant mechanisms of oysters and clams were sufficient to effectively maintain intracellular redox status, even though metal exposure combined with moderate hypercapnia (~800 μatm PCO2) led to the elevated production of reactive oxygen species in hemocytes. Overall, while hypercapnia modulates metal accumulation, binding capacity and oxidative stress in estuarine bivalves, the physiological effects of elevated CO2 are mild compared to the effects of other common stressors.

  12. Environmental exposure to benzene: an update.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, L

    1996-01-01

    During the 1990s, several large-scale studies of benzene concentrations in air, food, and blood have added to our knowledge of its environmental occurrence. In general, the new studies have confirmed the earlier findings of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (TEAM) studies and other large-scale studies in Germany and the Netherlands concerning the levels of exposure and major sources. For example, the new studies found that personal exposures exceeded indoor concentrations of benzene, which in turn exceeded outdoor concentrations. The new studies of food concentrations have confirmed earlier indications that food is not an important pathway for benzene exposure. The results of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey on blood levels in a nationwide sample of 883 persons are in good agreement with the concentrations in exhaled breath measured in about 800 persons a decade earlier in the TEAM studies. Major sources of exposure continue to be active and passive smoking, auto exhaust, and driving or riding in automobiles. New methods in breath and blood sampling and analysis offer opportunities to investigate short-term peak exposures and resulting body burden under almost any conceivable field conditions. PMID:9118882

  13. Environmental exposure to benzene: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, L.

    1996-12-01

    During the 1990s, several large-scale studies of benzene concentrations in air, food, and blood have added to our knowledge of its environmental occurrence. In general, the new studies have confirmed the earlier findings of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (TEAM) studies and other large-scale studies in Germany and the Netherlands concerning the levels of exposure and major sources. For example, the new studies found that personal exposures exceeded indoor concentrations of benzene, which in turn exceeded outdoor concentrations. The new studies of food concentrations have confirmed earlier indications that food is not an important pathway for benzene exposure. The results of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey on blood levels in a nationwide sample of 883 persons are in good agreement with the concentrations in exhaled breath measured in about 800 persons a decade earlier in the TEAM studies. Major sources of exposure continue to be active and passive smoking, auto exhaust, and driving or riding in automobiles. New methods in breath and blood sampling and analysis offer opportunities to investigate short-term peak exposures and resulting body burden under almost any conceivable field conditions. 45 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Environmental Effects of Navigation Traffic: Laboratory Studies of the Effects on Mussels of Intermittent Exposure to Turbulence and Suspended Solids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    by 0:N ratios in excess of 145. 21. Exposure of all three species of unionid mussels to infrequent (once every 3 hr) and frequent turbidity (once... unionids in nature are normally less than 50 (unpublished observations), as are summer 0:N ratios for other freshwater molluscs (Ald- ridge 1985). Such a...Hildreth 1976). In addition, differences in the shape of unionids can be attributed to hydrologic conditions (Van der Schalie 1941, Clarke 1982 and

  15. Predicting biological effects of environmental mixtures using exposure:activity ratios (EAR) derived from US EPA’s ToxCast data: Retrospective application to chemical monitoring data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical monitoring has been widely used in environmental surveillance to assess exposure to environmental contaminants which could represent potential hazards to exposed organisms. However, the ability to detect chemicals in the environment has rapidly outpaced assessment of pot...

  16. Predicting biological effects of environmental mixtures using exposure:activity ratios (EAR) derived from US EPA’s ToxCast data: Retrospective application to chemical monitoring data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical monitoring has been widely used in environmental surveillance to assess exposure to environmental contaminants which could represent potential hazards to exposed organisms. However, the ability to detect chemicals in the environment has rapidly outpaced assessment of pot...

  17. Osmium: An Appraisal of Environmental Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ivan C.; Carson, Bonnie L.; Ferguson, Thomas L.

    1974-01-01

    In the U.S., the chief source of new osmium is copper refining, where this metal is produced as a byproduct. Probably less than 10% of the osmium in the original copper ore is recovered, and 1000–3000 oz troy of osmium is lost each year to the environment as the toxic, volatile tetroxide from copper smelters. In 1971, about 2000 oz troy of osmium was domestically refined, most of which was from secondary sources. An additional 4169 oz troy of osmium was toll-refined. Major uses for osmium tetroxide identified are for catalysis, especially in steroid synthesis, and for tissue staining. Minor uses of osmium metal are for electrical contacts and for imparting hardness to alloys for mechanical pivots, etc. Unreclaimed osmium tetroxide that reaches wastewater streams is probably rapidly reduced by organic matter to nontoxic osmium dioxide or osmium metal, which would settle out in the sediment of the water course. Waste osmium metal, itself innocuous and chemically resistant, would be oxidized to the toxic tetroxide if incinerated. Because of the small amounts used and their wide dispersal, the amounts of osmium tetroxide in wastewater and air should pose no hazard to man or the environment. The chief acute toxic effects of osmium tetroxide are well known and include eye and respiratory-tract damage. Few data are available that provide information on possible effects of nonacute exposure resulting from environmental contamination by osmium. However, workers continually exposed to osmium tetroxide vapors (refiners and histologists) and rheumatoid arthritis patients who have received intra-articular injections of osmic acid solutions have shown no apparent damage from exposure to low levels of osmium. PMID:4470919

  18. Exposure to Environmental Ozone Alters Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Sokol, Rebecca Z.; Kraft, Peter; Fowler, Ian M.; Mamet, Rizvan; Kim, Elizabeth; Berhane, Kiros T.

    2006-01-01

    Idiopathic male infertility may be due to exposure to environmental toxicants that alter spermatogenesis or sperm function. We studied the relationship between air pollutant levels and semen quality over a 2-year period in Los Angeles, California, by analyzing repeated semen samples collected by sperm donors. Semen analysis data derived from 5,134 semen samples from a sperm donor bank were correlated with air pollutant levels (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter < 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter) measured 0–9, 10–14, and 70–90 days before semen collection dates in Los Angeles between January 1996 and December 1998. A linear mixed-effects model was used to model average sperm concentration and total motile sperm count for the donation from each subject. Changes were analyzed in relationship to biologically relevant time points during spermatogenesis, 0–9, 10–14, and 70–90 days before the day of semen collection. We estimated temperature and seasonality effects after adjusting for a base model, which included donor’s date of birth and age at donation. Forty-eight donors from Los Angeles were included as subjects. Donors were included if they collected repeated semen samples over a 12-month period between January 1996 and December 1998. There was a significant negative correlation between ozone levels at 0–9, 10–14, and 70–90 days before donation and average sperm concentration, which was maintained after correction for donor’s birth date, age at donation, temperature, and seasonality (p < 0.01). No other pollutant measures were significantly associated with sperm quality outcomes. Exposure to ambient ozone levels adversely affects semen quality. PMID:16507458

  19. A novel alternative to environmental monitoring to detect workers at risk for beryllium exposure-related health effects.

    PubMed

    Fireman, Elizabeth; Lerman, Yehuda; Stark, Moshe; Pardo, Asher; Schwarz, Yehuda; Van Dyke, Michael V; Elliot, Jill; Barkes, Briana; Newman, Lee; Maier, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a methodology for surveillance and monitoring of beryllium exposure using biological monitoring to complement environmental monitoring. Eighty-three Israeli dental technicians (mean age 41.6 ± 1.36 years) and 80 American nuclear machining workers (54.9 ± 1.21 years) were enrolled. Biological monitoring was carried out by analyzing particle size (laser technique) and shape (image analysis) in 131/163 (80.3%) induced sputum samples (Dipa Analyser, Donner Tech, Or Aquiva, Israel). Environmental monitoring was carried out only in the United States (Sioutas impactor, SKC, Inc., Eighty Four, Pa.). Pulmonary function testing performance and induced sputum retrieval were done by conventional methods. Sixty-three Israeli workers and 37 American workers were followed up for at least 2 years. Biological monitoring by induced sputum indicated that a >92% accumulation of <5 μm particles correlated significantly to a positive beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test result (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.2-11.4, p = 0.015) among all participants. Environmental monitoring showed that beryllium particles were <1 μm, and this small fraction (0.1-1 μ) was significantly more highly accumulated in nuclear machining workers compared to dental technicians. The small fractions positively correlated with induced sputum macrophages (r = 0.21 p = 0.01) and negatively correlated with diffusion lung carbon monoxide single breath (DLCO-SB r = 0.180 p = 0.04) in all subjects. Years of exposure were positively correlated to the number of accumulated particles 2-3 μ in diameter (r = 0.2, p = 0.02) and negatively correlated to forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity findings (r = -0.18, p = 0.02). DLCO was decreased in both groups after two years of monitoring. Biological monitoring is more informative than environmental monitoring in the surveillance and monitoring of workers in beryllium industries. Induced sputum is a feasible and promising

  20. A Novel Alternative to Environmental Monitoring to Detect Workers at Risk for Beryllium Exposure-Related Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fireman, Elizabeth; Lerman, Yehuda; Stark, Moshe; Pardo, Asher; Schwarz, Yehuda; Van Dyke, Michael V.; Elliot, Jill; Barkes, Briana; Newman, Lee; Maier, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a methodology for surveillance and monitoring of beryllium exposure using biological monitoring to complement environmental monitoring. Eighty-three Israeli dental technicians (mean age 41.6 ± 1.36 years) and 80 American nuclear machining workers (54.9 ± 1.21 years) were enrolled. Biological monitoring was carried out by analyzing particle size (laser technique) and shape (image analysis) in 131/163 (80.3%) induced sputum samples (Dipa Analyser, Donner Tech, Or Aquiva, Israel). Environmental monitoring was carried out only in the United States (Sioutas impactor, SKC, Inc., Eighty Four, Pa.). Pulmonary function testing performance and induced sputum retrieval were done by conventional methods. Sixty-three Israeli workers and 37 American workers were followed up for at least 2 years. Biological monitoring by induced sputum indicated that a >92% accumulation of <5 µm particles correlated significantly to a positive beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test result (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.2–11.4, p = 0.015) among all participants. Environmental monitoring showed that beryllium particles were <1 µm, and this small fraction (0.1–1 µ) was significantly more highly accumulated in nuclear machining workers compared to dental technicians. The small fractions positively correlated with induced sputum macrophages (r = 0.21 p = 0.01) and negatively correlated with diffusion lung carbon monoxide single breath (DLCO-SB r = 0.180 p = 0.04) in all subjects. Years of exposure were positively correlated to the number of accumulated particles 2–3 µ in diameter (r = 0.2, p = 0.02) and negatively correlated to forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity findings (r = −0.18, p = 0.02). DLCO was decreased in both groups after two years of monitoring. Biological monitoring is more informative than environmental monitoring in the surveillance and monitoring of workers in beryllium industries. Induced sputum is a feasible and

  1. Susceptibility of human populations to environmental exposure to organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Undeman, Emma; Brown, Trevor N; Wania, Frank; McLachlan, Michael S

    2010-08-15

    Environmental exposure to organic contaminants is a complex function of environmental conditions, food chain characteristics, and chemical properties. In this study the susceptibility of various human populations to environmental exposure to neutral organic contaminants was compared. An environmental fate model and a linked bioaccumulation model were parametrized to describe ecosystems in different climatic regions (temperate, arctic, tropical, and steppe). The human body burden resulting from constant emissions of hypothetical chemicals was estimated for each region. An exposure susceptibility index was defined as the body burden in the region of interest normalized to the burden of the same chemical in a reference human from the temperate region eating an average diet. For most persistent chemicals emitted to air, the Arctic had the highest susceptibility index (max 520). Susceptibility to exposure was largely determined by the food web properties. The properties of the physical environment only had a marked effect when air or water, not food, was the dominant source of human exposure. Shifting the mode of emission markedly changed the relative susceptibility of the ecosystems in some cases. The exposure arising from chemical use clearly varies between ecosystems, which makes an understanding of ecosystem susceptibility to exposure important for chemicals management.

  2. [Occupational and environmental exposures and relations with pulmonary health].

    PubMed

    Komus, Nuray; Albayrak, Sinem; Ellidokuz, Hulya; Cimrin, Arif Hikmet

    2008-01-01

    The effects of living conditions and occupational and environmental exposures on pulmonary health are well known. Turkey, as a developing country, has a high risk of occupational and environmental exposure, and knowledge on the issue is limited. To prove the general living conditions of the inpatients in our clinic, and to study relation of pulmonary diseases with respiratory exposures. Detailed history of occupational and environmental exposure of the subjects who were followed as inpatients has been examined, and the relation with their diseases has been evaluated. Lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pneumonia were the most common reasons for hospitalization. Respiratory disease was observed 1.93 times more in males. The risk of lung cancer was 6.36 times higher in smokers, 4.28 times more in ex-smokers, and 2.19 times more in subjects living in downtown. And the risk of respiratory disease was 2.12 times in the dwellers of concrete buildings, and 1.70 times in subjects utilizing one of the risky heating equipment. When the disease distribution was examined in accordance with the occupational groups, civil servants, farmers, teachers, and petty officers were more prone to lung cancer, whereas, workers, housewives, and merchants were inclined to other diseases. Environmental and occupational exposure becomes frequent and complicated because of the current socioeconomic conditions. While exposure to tobacco smoke becomes the most important threat, exposures resulting from the common environment or job ambients should also be taken into consideration.

  3. Environmental Exposures and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Environmental exposures, ranging from perchlorate in rocket fuel to polychlorinated biphenols, have been shown to influence thyroid function. Although most of these agents are associated with reduced thyroid hormone levels or impaired thyroid hormone action, a number of environmental exposures confer an increased risk of autoimmune thyroid disease. Summary Factors that increase autoimmune thyroid disease risk include radiation exposure, both from nuclear fallout and medical radiation, increased iodine intake, as well as several contaminants in the environment that influence the thyroid. Although ∼70% of the risk for developing autoimmune thyroid disease is attributable to genetic background, environmental triggers are thought to play a role in the development of autoimmune thyroid disease in susceptible individuals. Conclusions Understanding the association of environmental agents with thyroid dysfunction can be utilized to reduce the risk to populations. Knowledge of the specific factors that trigger autoimmune thyroid disease and their mode of action, however, may also inform risk reduction in the individual patient. These factors are especially relevant for those at increased risk of autoimmune thyroid disease based on family history. PMID:20578899

  4. Environmental exposures and autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Brent, Gregory A

    2010-07-01

    Environmental exposures, ranging from perchlorate in rocket fuel to polychlorinated biphenols, have been shown to influence thyroid function. Although most of these agents are associated with reduced thyroid hormone levels or impaired thyroid hormone action, a number of environmental exposures confer an increased risk of autoimmune thyroid disease. Factors that increase autoimmune thyroid disease risk include radiation exposure, both from nuclear fallout and medical radiation, increased iodine intake, as well as several contaminants in the environment that influence the thyroid. Although approximately 70% of the risk for developing autoimmune thyroid disease is attributable to genetic background, environmental triggers are thought to play a role in the development of autoimmune thyroid disease in susceptible individuals. Understanding the association of environmental agents with thyroid dysfunction can be utilized to reduce the risk to populations. Knowledge of the specific factors that trigger autoimmune thyroid disease and their mode of action, however, may also inform risk reduction in the individual patient. These factors are especially relevant for those at increased risk of autoimmune thyroid disease based on family history.

  5. Environmental Exposures, Epigenetics and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sanjukta

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Review Epigenetic modifications are heritable alterations of the genome, which can govern gene expression without altering the DNA sequence. The purpose of this review is to render an overview of the possible mechanisms of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in response to environmental pollutants leading to cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Recent Findings An era of cataloging epigenetic marks of the various diseased states has recently commenced, including those within the genes responsible for atherosclerosis, ischemia, hypertension and heart failure. From varied study approaches directed either towards the general understanding of the key pathway regulatory genes, or sampling population cohorts for global and gene-specific changes, it has been possible to identify several epigenetic signatures of environmental exposure relevant to CVD. Signatures of epigenetic dysregulation can be detected in peripheral blood samples, even within few hours of environmental exposure. However, the field now faces the demand for thorough, systematic, rationalized approaches to establish the relation of an exposure-driven epigenetic changes to clinical outcomes, by using sophisticated and reliable research designs and tools. Summary An understanding of chromatin remodeling in response to environmental stimuli conducive to CVD is emerging, with the promise of novel diagnostic and therapeutic candidates. PMID:22669047

  6. Effects of prior oral exposure to combinations of environmental immunosuppressive agents on ovalbumin allergen-induced allergic airway inflammation in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Tomoki; Nishino, Risako; Kosaka, Tadashi; Watanabe, Yuko; Kurosawa, Yoshimi; Ueda, Hideo; Harada, Takanori

    2014-08-01

    Abstract Humans are exposed daily to multiple environmental chemicals in the atmosphere, in food, and in commercial products. Therefore, hazard identification and risk management must account for exposure to chemical mixtures. The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the effects of combinations of three well-known environmental immunotoxic chemicals - methoxychlor (MXC), an organochlorine compound; parathion (PARA), an organophosphate compound; and piperonyl butoxide (PBO), an agricultural insecticide synergist - by using a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway inflammation. Four-week-old Balb/c mice were exposed orally to either one or two of the environmental immunotoxic chemicals for five consecutive days, prior to intraperitoneal sensitization with OVA and an inhalation challenge. We assessed IgE levels in serum, B-cell counts, and cytokine production in hilar lymph nodes, and differential cell counts and levels of related chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Mice treated with MXC + PARA or PBO + MXC showed marked increases in serum IgE, IgE-positive B-cells and cytokines in lymph nodes, and differential cell counts and related chemokines in BALF compared with mice that received the vehicle control or the corresponding individual test substances. These results suggest that simultaneous exposure to multiple environmental chemicals aggravates allergic airway inflammation more than exposure to individual chemicals. It is expected that the results of this study will help others in their evaluation of immunotoxic combinational effects when conducting assessments of the safety of environmental/occupational chemicals.

  7. Fish biliary PAH metabolites estimated by fixed-wavelength fluorescence as an indicator of environmental exposure and effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, X.; Peterson, D.S.; Baumann, P.C.; Lin, E.L.C.

    2003-01-01

    Biliary polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites have been studied since the mid 1980s as an indicator of exposure of fish to PAHs. However, the measurements of PAH metabolites are often costly and time-consuming. A simple and rapid method, fixed-wavelength fluorescence (FF), was used to measure the concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P)-type and naphthalene (NAPH)-type PAH metabolites in the bile of brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from Old Woman Creek, Ottawa River, Cuyahoga River-harbor and Cuyahoga River-upstream. The biliary PAH metabolites in fish from the less contaminated Old Woman Creek were significantly lower than those from the industrially contaminated Ottawa and Cuyahoga rivers. The levels of biliary PAH metabolites were found to be related to the PAH sediment contamination for the four sites except Cuyahoga River-upstream, and to the prevalence of fish barbel abnormalities and external raised lesions observed in all rivers except Ottawa. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between the occurrence of barbel abnormalities and concentrations of biliary NAPH-type metabolites and between the occurrence of raised lesions and concentrations of B[a]P-type metabolites. This study provides added evidence that FF is an effective bile analysis method for determining the exposure of fish to PAHs. This study also indicates that the measurement of PAH metabolites could help establish causal relationship between the chemical exposure and effects such as barbel abnormalities and raised lesions.

  8. On the rumors about the silent spring. Review of the scientific evidence linking occupational and environmental pesticide exposure to endocrine disruption health effects.

    PubMed

    Cocco, Pierluigi

    2002-01-01

    Occupational exposure to some pesticides, and particularly DBCP and chlordecone, may adversely affect male fertility. However, apart from the therapeutic use of diethylstilbestrol, the threat to human reproduction posed by "endocrine disrupting" environmental contaminants has not been supported by epidemiological evidence thus far. As it concerns other endocrine effects described in experimental animals, only thyroid inhibition following occupational exposure to amitrole and mancozeb has been confirmed in humans. Cancer of the breast, endometrium, ovary, prostate, testis, and thyroid are hormone-dependent, which fostered research on the potential risk associated with occupational and environmental exposure to the so-called endocrine-disrupting pesticides. The most recent studies have ruled out the hypothesis of DDT derivatives as responsible for excess risks of cancer of the reproductive organs. Still, we cannot exclude a role for high level exposure to o,p'-DDE, particularly in post-menopausal ER+ breast cancer. On the other hand, other organochlorine pesticides and triazine herbicides require further investigation for a possible etiologic role in some hormone-dependent cancers.

  9. Addressing environmental health Implications of mold exposure after major flooding.

    PubMed

    Metts, Tricia A

    2008-03-01

    Extensive water damage resulting from major flooding is often associated with mold growth if materials are not quickly and thoroughly dried. Exposure to fungal contamination can lead to several infectious and noninfectious health effects impacting the respiratory system, skin, and eyes. Adverse health effects can be categorized as infections, allergic or hypersensitivity reactions, or toxic-irritant reactions. Workers and building occupants can minimize their exposure to mold by avoiding areas with excessive mold growth, using personal protective equipment, and implementing environmental controls. Occupational health professionals should encourage workers to seek health care if they experience any symptoms that may be linked to mold exposure.

  10. [Markers of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure].

    PubMed

    Metz-Favre, C; Donnay, C; de Blay, F

    2005-02-01

    Tobacco smoke is one of the most common air pollutants found in the indoor environment. Passive smoking is defined as the involuntary inhalation of tobacco smoke present in the air. This article examines the advantages and limitations of the methods that are available to measure environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Passive smoking can be assessed either by measuring tobacco smoke pollutants found in the air directly or by using biomarker assays, an indirect measure of exposure. As far as the direct measurement of air pollutants is concerned, nicotine and 3-Ethenylpyridine levels seem most suitable because of their specificity. Four specific biological markers of tobacco smoke exposure are available: nicotine, cotinine, thiocyanates, and protein or DNA adducts. Only urinary cotinine assay can be retained as a reliable marker of exposure to tobacco smoke. It has been used as a reference in most epidemiological studies but only reflects tobacco exposure over the preceding 48 hours. The measurement of nicotine and cotinine levels in the appendages of the skin (hair and nails) reflects exposure to tobacco over the previous three months and could become a better reference marker in epidemiological and toxicological studies.

  11. Domain-specific effects of prenatal exposure to PCBs, mercury, and lead on infant cognition: results from the Environmental Contaminants and Child Development Study in Nunavik.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Olivier; Muckle, Gina; Jacobson, Joseph L; Carter, R Colin; Kaplan-Estrin, Melissa; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Éric; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2014-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), methylmercury (MeHg), and lead (Pb) are environmental contaminants known for their adverse effects on cognitive development. In this study we examined the effects of prenatal exposure to PCBs, MeHg, and Pb on cognitive development in a sample of Inuit infants from Arctic Québec. Mothers were recruited at local prenatal clinics. PCBs, mercury (Hg), Pb, and two seafood nutrients-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and selenium (Se)-were measured in umbilical cord blood. Infants (n = 94) were assessed at 6.5 and 11 months of age on the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII), A-not-B test, and Bayley Scales of Infant Development-2nd Edition (BSID-II). Multiple regression analyses revealed that higher prenatal PCB exposure was associated with decreased FTII novelty preference, indicating impaired visual recognition memory. Prenatal Hg was associated with poorer performance on A-not-B, which depends on working memory and is believed to be a precursor of executive function. Prenatal Pb was related to longer FTII fixation durations, indicating slower speed of information processing. PCBs, MeHg, and Pb each showed specific and distinct patterns of adverse associations with the outcomes measured during infancy. By contrast, none of these exposures was associated with performance on the BSID-II, a global developmental measure. The more focused, narrow band measures of cognitive function that appeared to be sensitive to these exposures also provide early indications of long-term impairment in specific domains that would otherwise not likely be evident until school age. Boucher O, Muckle G, Jacobson JL, Carter RC, Kaplan-Estrin M, Ayotte P, Dewailly É, Jacobson SW. 2014. Domain-specific effects of prenatal exposure to PCBs, mercury, and lead on infant cognition: results from the Environmental Contaminants and Child Development Study in Nunavik. Environ Health Perspect 122:310-316; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206323.

  12. Estimated Environmental Exposures for MISSE-7B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria M.; Moore, Chip; Norwood, Joseph K.; Henrie, Ben; DeGroh, Kim

    2012-01-01

    This paper details the 18-month environmental exposure for Materials International Space Station Experiment 7B (MISSE-7B) ram and wake sides. This includes atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, particulate radiation, thermal cycling, meteoroid/space debris impacts, and observed contamination. Atomic oxygen fluence was determined by measured mass and thickness loss of polymers of known reactivity. Diodes sensitive to ultraviolet light actively measured solar radiation incident on the experiment. Comparisons to earlier MISSE flights are discussed.

  13. Environmental monitoring of secondhand smoke exposure

    PubMed Central

    Apelberg, Benjamin J; Hepp, Lisa M; Avila-Tang, Erika; Gundel, Lara; Hammond, S Katharine; Hovell, Melbourne F; Hyland, Andrew; Klepeis, Neil E; Madsen, Camille C; Navas-Acien, Ana; Repace, James; Samet, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    The complex composition of secondhand smoke (SHS) provides a range of constituents that can be measured in environmental samples (air, dust and on surfaces) and therefore used to assess non-smokers' exposure to tobacco smoke. Monitoring SHS exposure (SHSe) in indoor environments provides useful information on the extent and consequences of SHSe, implementing and evaluating tobacco control programmes and behavioural interventions, and estimating overall burden of disease caused by SHSe. The most widely used markers have been vapour-phase nicotine and respirable particulate matter (PM). Numerous other environmental analytes of SHS have been measured in the air including carbon monoxide, 3-ethenylpyridine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, nitrogen oxides, aldehydes and volatile organic compounds, as well as nicotine in dust and on surfaces. The measurement of nicotine in the air has the advantage of reflecting the presence of tobacco smoke. While PM measurements are not as specific, they can be taken continuously, allowing for assessment of exposure and its variation over time. In general, when nicotine and PM are measured in the same setting using a common sampling period, an increase in nicotine concentration of 1 μg/m3 corresponds to an average increase of 10 μg/m3 of PM. This topic assessment presents a comprehensive summary of SHSe monitoring approaches using environmental markers and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of these methods and approaches. PMID:22949497

  14. A systematic review on the effects of environmental exposure to some organohalogens and phthalates on early puberty

    PubMed Central

    Poursafa, Parinaz; Ataei, Ehsan; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early puberty is a common worldwide problem. Different parameters as genetics, metabolic diseases, obesity, as well as environmental factors may affect the age of puberty. This systematic review aims to survey the related literature on the effects of environmental pollutants and especially organohalogens and phthalates on early puberty. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of papers published in the English language was completed in January 2014. Studies on the associations of organohalogens and phthalates with the puberty time were included. A literature search was conducted in EMBASE, PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and Cochrane Library from 1995 to January 2014; moreover manual search through references of relevant manuscripts was considered. The literature search identified 212 papers, of which 13 papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria of the current study. Two reviewers independently identified relevant papers for potential inclusion and assessed the methodological quality. Results: This review included 6572 participants in nine countries from three continents (Europe, North America, and Asia). Different studies determined the effects of pollutants on maturation signs and pubertal stages and confirmed the association of organohalogens and phthalates with early puberty. Conclusion: Based on the studied literature, environmental pollutants surround and accumulate in human societies and their adverse health effects are well documented. It can be concluded that organohalogens and phthalates are disturbing the normal process of puberty timing; especially their influence on early maturation in girls should be underscored. PMID:26600838

  15. Interactive effects of copper exposure and environmental hypercapnia on immune functions of marine bivalves Crassostrea virginica and Mercenaria mercenaria.

    PubMed

    Ivanina, Anna V; Hawkins, Chelsea; Sokolova, Inna M

    2016-02-01

    Estuarine organisms such as bivalves are commonly exposed to trace metals such as copper (Cu) and hypercapnia (elevated CO2 levels) in their habitats, which may affect their physiology and immune function. This study investigated the combined effects of elevated CO2 levels (∼800-2000 μatm PCO2, such as predicted by the near-future scenarios of global climate change) and Cu (50 μg l(-1)) on immune functions of the sediment dwelling hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria and an epifaunal bivalve, the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. Clams and oysters were exposed for 4 weeks to different CO2 and Cu levels, and tissue Cu burdens and immune parameters were assessed to test the hypothesis that hypercapnia will enhance Cu uptake due to the higher bioavailability of free Cu(2+) and increase the immunomodulatory effects of Cu. Exposure to Cu stimulated key immune parameters of clams and oysters leading to increased number of circulating hemocytes, higher phagocytosis and adhesion ability of hemocytes, as well as enhanced antiparasitic and antibacterial properties of the hemolymph reflected in higher activities of lysozyme and inhibitors of cysteine proteases. Lysozyme activation by Cu exposure was most prominent in normocapnia (∼400 μatm PCO2) and an increase in the levels of the protease inhibitors was strongest in hypercapnia (∼800-2000 μatm PCO2), but other immunostimulatory effects of Cu were evident in all PCO2 exposures. Metabolic activity of hemocytes of clams and oysters (measured as routine and mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates) was suppressed by Cu exposure likely reflecting lower rates of ATP synthesis and/or turnover. However, this metabolic suppression had no negative effects of the studied immune functions of hemocytes such as phagocytosis or adhesion capacity. Hypercapnia (∼800-2000 μatm PCO2) slightly but significantly enhanced accumulation of Cu in hemocytes, consistent with higher Cu(2+) bioavailability in CO2-acidified water, but

  16. Environmental exposures in utero and microRNA.

    PubMed

    Kappil, Maya; Chen, Jia

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the effects of in-utero exposures to environmental agents is of great importance as the resulting deregulation of biological processes can affect both fetal development and health outcomes that manifest later in life. Due to their established role in developmental processes and inherent stability ex vivo, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as attractive candidates to explore the impact of such exposures during this critical window of susceptibility. In this review, we summarize the findings of studies assessing miRNAs as markers of in-utero environmental exposures and as candidates for the molecular basis through which these exposures exert their influence on children's health. To date, miRNA expression profiles due to various in-utero environmental exposures, including xenochemicals, endogenous factors, and nutritional status, have been reported. While the validity of the identified exposure-specific miRNA profiles remains to be established, the findings thus far do raise interesting questions worth addressing in future studies. Gaps that remain to be addressed include linking specific in-utero exposures to subsequent health outcomes based on established miRNA expression profiles and experimentally validating putative downstream targets of the deregulated miRNAs.

  17. A multi-metric assessment of environmental contaminant exposure and effects in an urbanized reach of the Charles River near Watertown, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stephen B.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Baumann, Paul C.; DeWeese, Lawrence R.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Coyle, James J.; Smith, David S.

    2012-01-01

    The Charles River Project provided an opportunity to simultaneously deploy a combination of biomonitoring techniques routinely used by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program, the Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends Project, and the Contaminant Biology Program at an urban site suspected to be contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In addition to these standardized methods, additional techniques were used to further elucidate contaminant exposure and potential impacts of exposure on biota. The purpose of the study was to generate a comprehensive, multi-metric data set to support assessment of contaminant exposure and effects at the site. Furthermore, the data set could be assessed to determine the relative performance of the standardized method suites typically used by the National Water Quality Assessment Program and the Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends Project, as well as the additional biomonitoring methods used in the study to demonstrate ecological effects of contaminant exposure. The Contaminant Effects Workgroup, an advisory committee of the U.S. Geological Survey/Contaminant Biology Program, identified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as the contaminant class of greatest concern in urban streams of all sizes. The reach of the Charles River near Watertown, Massachusetts, was selected as the site for this study based on the suspected presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination and the presence of common carp (Cyprinus carpio), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni). All of these fish have extensive contaminant-exposure profiles related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other environmental contaminants. This project represented a collaboration of universities, Department of the Interior bureaus including multiple components of the USGS (Biological Resources Discipline and Water Resources Discipline Science Centers, the

  18. Occupational and environmental human lead exposure in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Paoliello, M.M.B. . E-mail: monibas@sercomtel.com.br; De Capitani, E.M.

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review of data on assessment of exposure and adverse effects due to environmental and occupational lead exposure in Brazil. Epidemiological investigations on children lead exposure around industrial and mining areas have shown that lead contamination is an actual source of concern. Lead in gasoline has been phasing out since the 1980s, and it is now completely discontinued. The last lead mining and lead refining plant was closed in 1995, leaving residual environmental lead contamination which has recently been investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Moreover, there are hundreds of small battery recycling plants and secondary smelting facilities all over the country, which produce focal urban areas of lead contamination. Current regulatory limits for workplace lead exposure have shown to be inadequate as safety limits according to a few studies carried out lately.

  19. Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Parron, Tesifon; Requena, Mar; Hernandez, Antonio F.; Alarcon, Raquel

    2011-11-15

    Preliminary studies have shown associations between chronic pesticide exposure in occupational settings and neurological disorders. However, data on the effects of long-term non-occupational exposures are too sparse to allow any conclusions. This study examines the influence of environmental pesticide exposure on a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and discusses their underlying pathologic mechanisms. An ecological study was conducted using averaged prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral degeneration, polyneuropathies, affective psychosis and suicide attempts in selected Andalusian health districts categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on the number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. A total of 17,429 cases were collected from computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of having Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and suicide were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use as compared to those with lower pesticide use. The multivariate analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts and that males living in these areas had increased risks for polyneuropathies, affective disorders and suicide attempts. In conclusion, this study supports and extends previous findings and provides an indication that environmental exposure to pesticides may affect the human health by increasing the incidence of certain neurological disorders at the level of the general population. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative-psychiatric disorders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts in high exposure areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Males from

  20. Environmental radiation exposure: Regulation, monitoring, and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.Y.; Yu, C.; Hong, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactive releases to the environment from nuclear facilities constitute a public health concern. Protecting the public from such releases can be achieved through the establishment and enforcement of regulatory standards. In the United States, numerous standards have been promulgated to regulate release control at nuclear facilities. Most recent standards are more restrictive than those in the past and require that radioactivity levels be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Environmental monitoring programs and radiological dose assessment are means of ensuring compliance with regulations. Environmental monitoring programs provide empirical information on releases, such as the concentrations of released radioactivity in environmental media, while radiological dose assessment provides the analytical means of quantifying dose exposures for demonstrating compliance.

  1. Exposure of honey bees (Apis mellifera) to different classes of insecticides exhibit distinct molecular effect patterns at concentrations that mimic environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Christen, Verena; Fent, Karl

    2017-07-01

    Pesticides are implicated in the decline of honey bee populations. Many insecticides are neurotoxic and act by different modes of actions. Although a link between insecticide exposure and changed behaviour has been made, molecular effects underlying these effects are poorly understood. Here we elucidated molecular effects at environmental realistic concentrations of two organophosphates, chlorpyrifos and malathion, the pyrethroid cypermethrin, and the ryanodine receptor activator, chlorantraniliprole. We assessed transcriptional alterations of selected genes at three exposure times (24 h, 48 h, 72 h) in caged honey bees exposed to different concentrations of these compounds. Our targeted gene expression concept focused on several transcripts, including nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α 1 and α 2 (nAChRα1, nAChRα2) subunits, the multifunctional gene vitellogenin, immune system related genes of three immune system pathways, genes belonging to the detoxification system and ER stress genes. Our data indicate a dynamic pattern of expressional changes at different exposure times. All four insecticides induced strong alterations in the expression of immune system related genes suggesting negative implications for honey bee health, as well as cytochrome P450 enzyme transcripts suggesting an interference with metabolism. Exposure to neurotoxic chlorpyrifos, malathion and cypermethrin resulted in up-regulation of nAChRα1 and nAChRα2. Moreover, alterations in the expression of vitellogenin occurred, which suggests implications on foraging activity. Chlorantraniliprole induced ER stress which may be related to toxicity. The comparison of all transcriptional changes indicated that the expression pattern is rather compound-specific and related to its mode of action, but clusters of common transcriptional changes between different compounds occurred. As transcriptional alterations occurred at environmental concentrations our data provide a molecular basis for observed

  2. Testicular microlithiasis and neoplastic lesions in wild eland (Tragelaphus oryx): possible effects of exposure to environmental pollutants?

    PubMed

    Bornman, M S; Barnhoorn, I E J; de Jager, C; Veeramachaneni, D N R

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare wildlife in the proximity and away from the sources of known industrial pollution. Macroscopic, focal, gritty areas that appeared white were observed in the testes of all 24 South African eland (Tragelaphus oryx) culled in the Rietvlei Nature Reserve (RNR; n=17) between 2001 and 2003 and Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve (SNR; n=7) in 2004. Histopathological evaluation of testes showed multiple intratubular dystrophic calcifications, focal areas of sperm stasis and interstitial chronic cell infiltrates with fibrosis. Spermatogenesis was generally impaired; a few atypical germ cells were also encountered. Sertoli cell vacuolization and sloughing of the seminiferous epithelium were evident. Adenomatous changes of the rete testis, reflective of possible chronic estrogenic exposure, were found. In testes collected from three reference eland in 2007 from the Molopo Nature Reserve (MNR) in the Kalahari/Kgalagadi Desert, except for one focal area of sperm stasis and another with microcalcification, the seminiferous epithelium as well as collecting/rete tubules were normal. Analyses of fat tissue for environmental pollutants showed that 11 out of 17 RNR eland contained a detectable estrogenic chemical p-nonylphenol (mean+/-SD: 184.8+/-24.6 microg/kg fat); no organochlorine chemicals or polychlorinated biphenyls were detected. Of the 7 SNR eland, 5 had detectable octylphenol residues (50.2+/-30.9 microg/kg fat), 3 had detectable p-nonylphenol (137.8+/-77.9 microg/kg fat), 3 had o-p'-DDT (114.9+/-31.1 microg/kg fat), 3 had p-p'-DDT (127.3+/-49.9 microg/kg(79.5+/-30.4 microg/kg fat) and 5 contained o-p'-DDE (27.7+/-9.9 microg/kg fat). One eland from the MNR contained one 70.6 microg o-p'-DDT/kg fat and another p-p'-DDE 61.3 microg/kg fat. Therefore, in eland with testicular abnormalities, significant amounts of various estrogenic chemicals were bioaccumulated in fat samples. It therefore seems likely that the lesions found in RNR and SNR

  3. The Relationship between Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease and the Potential Modifying Effect of Diet in a Prospective Cohort among American Indians: The Strong Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Fretts, Amanda M; Howard, Barbara V; Yeh, Fawn; Clark, Maggie L

    2017-05-09

    American Indians experience high rates of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been linked to CVD, possibly due to pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways. We examined the relationship between self-reported exposure to ETS and fatal and nonfatal CVD incidence using Cox proportional hazards models among 1843 non-smoking American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Study. We also evaluated potential modifying effects of several dietary nutrients high in anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties with ETS exposure on fatal and nonfatal CVD by creating interaction terms between ETS exposure and the dietary variable. Participants exposed to ETS had a higher hazard (hazard ratio: 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.44) for developing CVD compared to persons not exposed. Interaction analyses suggested stronger effects of ETS on CVD incidence among those consuming diets lower in vitamin E as compared to those consuming higher amounts, particularly on the additive scale. Additional research is recommended to clarify whether public health prevention strategies should simultaneously target reductions in ETS exposures and improvements in diets that may exceed the expected benefits of targeting these risk factors separately.

  4. Environmental exposure assessment of engineered nanoparticles: why REACH needs adjustment.

    PubMed

    Meesters, Johannes A J; Veltman, Karin; Hendriks, A Jan; van de Meent, Dik

    2013-07-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) possess novel properties making them attractive for application in a wide spectrum of fields. These novel properties are not accounted for in the environmental risk assessment methods that the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) proposes in their guidance on environmental exposure estimation, although ENMs are already applied in a variety of consumer and industrial products. It is thus necessary to evaluate the guidance document REACH provides on environmental exposure estimation on its applicability to ENMs. This is most urgently the case for engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), as the novel properties are most often only applicable to them. The environmental fate of ENPs was reviewed and compared to the environmental fate of chemicals according to the REACH guidance. Major deviations between the fate of ENPs and predicted fate by REACH were found. They were related to at least 1 of 3 major assumptions made in REACH guidance: 1) in REACH, environmental alteration processes are all thought of as removal processes, whereas alterations of ENPs in the environment may greatly affect their properties, environmental effects, and behavior, 2) in REACH, chemicals are supposed to dissolve instantaneously and completely on release into the environment, whereas ENPs should be treated as nondissolved nanosized solids, and 3) in REACH, partitioning of dissolved chemicals to solid particles in air, water, and soil is estimated with thermodynamic equilibrium coefficients, but in the case of ENPs thermodynamic equilibrium between "dispersed" and "attached" states is generally not expected. The environmental exposure assessment of REACH therefore needs adjustment to cover the specific environmental fate of ENPs. Incorporation of the specific environmental fate processes of ENPs into the environmental risk assessment framework of REACH requires a pragmatic approach. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  5. Methylmercury Exposure and Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Yu-Mi

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury is a hazardous substance that is of interest with regard to environmental health, as inorganic mercury circulating in the general environment is dissolved into freshwater and seawater, condensed through the food chain, ingested by humans, and consequently affects human health. Recently, there has been much interest and discussion regarding the toxicity of methylmercury, the correlation with fish and shellfish intake, and methods of long-term management of the human health effects of methylmercury. What effects chronic exposure to a low concentration of methylmercury has on human health remains controversial. Although the possibility of methylmercury poisoning the heart and blood vessel system, the reproductive system, and the immune system is continuously raised and discussed, and the carcinogenicity of methylmercury is also under discussion, a clear conclusion regarding the human health effects according to exposure level has not yet been drawn. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives proposed to prepare additional fish and shellfish intake recommendations for consumers based on the quantified evaluation of the hazardousness of methylmercury contained in fish and shellfish, methylmercury management in the Korea has not yet caught up with this international trend. Currently, the methylmercury exposure level of Koreans is known to be very high. The starting point of methylmercury exposure management is inorganic mercury in the general environment, but food intake through methylation is the main exposure source. Along with efforts to reduce mercury in the general environment, food intake management should be undertaken to reduce the human exposure to methylmercury in Korea. PMID:23230465

  6. Methylmercury exposure and health effects.

    PubMed

    Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Kyung-Eun

    2012-11-01

    Methylmercury is a hazardous substance that is of interest with regard to environmental health, as inorganic mercury circulating in the general environment is dissolved into freshwater and seawater, condensed through the food chain, ingested by humans, and consequently affects human health. Recently, there has been much interest and discussion regarding the toxicity of methylmercury, the correlation with fish and shellfish intake, and methods of long-term management of the human health effects of methylmercury. What effects chronic exposure to a low concentration of methylmercury has on human health remains controversial. Although the possibility of methylmercury poisoning the heart and blood vessel system, the reproductive system, and the immune system is continuously raised and discussed, and the carcinogenicity of methylmercury is also under discussion, a clear conclusion regarding the human health effects according to exposure level has not yet been drawn. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives proposed to prepare additional fish and shellfish intake recommendations for consumers based on the quantified evaluation of the hazardousness of methylmercury contained in fish and shellfish, methylmercury management in the Korea has not yet caught up with this international trend. Currently, the methylmercury exposure level of Koreans is known to be very high. The starting point of methylmercury exposure management is inorganic mercury in the general environment, but food intake through methylation is the main exposure source. Along with efforts to reduce mercury in the general environment, food intake management should be undertaken to reduce the human exposure to methylmercury in Korea.

  7. Health implications of environmental exposure to asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J.C.

    1985-10-01

    The health impact of environmental pollution resulting from the industrial use of asbestos can be assessed in three ways. First, there are the direct epidemiological surveys. These indicate that domestic exposure has been responsible for cases of mesothelioma and possibly lung cancer and radiological changes in family contacts of asbestos workers. Exposure in the neighborhood of crocidolite mines and factories has also resulted in cases of mesothelioma but no similar evidence exists for chrysotile or amosite. Neither air nor water pollution has been directly incriminated as a cause of either respiratory or digestive malignancies. Second, a few attempts have been made to extrapolate from exposure response findings in industrial cohorts. For several reasons, even for lung cancer, this approach is dubious: the observed gradients have a 100-fold range in slope; the equivalences of dust, fiber and gravimetric measures are largely guesswork; and the carcinogenic potential of mineral fibers, particularly for the pleura, varies enormously with fiber type and/or dimensions. No adequate exposure-response observations have been made for mesothelioma. A third approach makes use of the differing incidence of mesothelioma in men and women. Data from several countries indicate that, until the 1950s, the rates were similar in both sexes. Since then, the incidence in males has risen steeply--in the U.S. and U.K. at about 10% per annum. In females, on the other hand, there has been little or no convincing increase. These data suggest that the ''background'' level of mesothelioma in both sexes is and has been about 2 per million per annum and that--as at least some mesothelioma cases in females are directly or indirectly attributable to occupational exposure--there is little room left for any contribution from the general environment.

  8. Environmental Exposures and Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nandipati, Sirisha; Litvan, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) affects millions around the world. The Braak hypothesis proposes that in PD a pathologic agent may penetrate the nervous system via the olfactory bulb, gut, or both and spreads throughout the nervous system. The agent is unknown, but several environmental exposures have been associated with PD. Here, we summarize and examine the evidence for such environmental exposures. We completed a comprehensive review of human epidemiologic studies of pesticides, selected industrial compounds, and metals and their association with PD in PubMed and Google Scholar until April 2016. Most studies show that rotenone and paraquat are linked to increased PD risk and PD-like neuropathology. Organochlorines have also been linked to PD in human and laboratory studies. Organophosphates and pyrethroids have limited but suggestive human and animal data linked to PD. Iron has been found to be elevated in PD brain tissue but the pathophysiological link is unclear. PD due to manganese has not been demonstrated, though a parkinsonian syndrome associated with manganese is well-documented. Overall, the evidence linking paraquat, rotenone, and organochlorines with PD appears strong; however, organophosphates, pyrethroids, and polychlorinated biphenyls require further study. The studies related to metals do not support an association with PD. PMID:27598189

  9. Progress in High Throughput Exposure Assessment for Prioritizing Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (SRA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    For thousands of chemicals in commerce, there is little or no information about exposure or health and ecological effects. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has ongoing research programs to develop and evaluate models that use the often minimal chemical information a...

  10. Progress in High Throughput Exposure Assessment for Prioritizing Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (SRA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    For thousands of chemicals in commerce, there is little or no information about exposure or health and ecological effects. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has ongoing research programs to develop and evaluate models that use the often minimal chemical information a...

  11. Environmental Exposure to Manganese in Air: Associations ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Manganese (Mn), an essential element, can be neurotoxic in high doses. This cross-sectional study explored the oognitive function of adults residing in two towns (Marietta and East Liverpool, Ohio, USA) identified as having high levels of environmental airborne Mn from industrial sources. Air-Mn site surface emissions method modeling for total suspended particulate (TSP) ranged from 0.03 to 1.61 µg/m(3) in Marietta and 0.01-6.32 µg/m(3) in East Liverpool. A comprehensive screening test battery of cognitive function, including the domains of abstract thinking, attention/concentration, executive function and memory was administered. The mean age of the participants was 56 years (±10.8 years). Participants were mostly female (59.1) and primarily white (94.6%). Significant relationships (p<0.05) were found between Mn exposure and performance on working and visuospatial memory (e.g., Rey-0 Immediate B3=0.19, Rey-0 Delayed B3=0.16) and verbal skills (e.g., Similarities B3=0.19). Using extensive cognitive testing and computer modeling of 10-plus years of measured air monitoring data, this study suggests that long-term environmental exposure to high levels of air-Mn, the exposure metric of this paper, may result in mild deficits of cognitive function in adult populations. This study addresses research questions under Sustainable and Healthy Communities (2.2.1.6 lessons learned, best practices and stakeholder feedback from community and tribal participa

  12. Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Parrón, Tesifón; Requena, Mar; Hernández, Antonio F; Alarcón, Raquel

    2011-11-01

    Preliminary studies have shown associations between chronic pesticide exposure in occupational settings and neurological disorders. However, data on the effects of long-term non-occupational exposures are too sparse to allow any conclusions. This study examines the influence of environmental pesticide exposure on a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and discusses their underlying pathologic mechanisms. An ecological study was conducted using averaged prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral degeneration, polyneuropathies, affective psychosis and suicide attempts in selected Andalusian health districts categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on the number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. A total of 17,429 cases were collected from computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of having Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and suicide were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use as compared to those with lower pesticide use. The multivariate analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts and that males living in these areas had increased risks for polyneuropathies, affective disorders and suicide attempts. In conclusion, this study supports and extends previous findings and provides an indication that environmental exposure to pesticides may affect the human health by increasing the incidence of certain neurological disorders at the level of the general population.

  13. Performance of GPS-devices for environmental exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Beekhuizen, Johan; Kromhout, Hans; Huss, Anke; Vermeulen, Roel

    2013-01-01

    Integration of individual time-location patterns with spatially resolved exposure maps enables a more accurate estimation of personal exposures to environmental pollutants than using estimates at fixed locations. Current global positioning system (GPS) devices can be used to track an individual's location. However, information on GPS-performance in environmental exposure assessment is largely missing. We therefore performed two studies. First, a commute-study, where the commute of 12 individuals was tracked twice, testing GPS-performance for five transport modes and two wearing modes. Second, an urban-tracking study, where one individual was tracked repeatedly through different areas, focused on the effect of building obstruction on GPS-performance. The median error from the true path for walking was 3.7 m, biking 2.9 m, train 4.8 m, bus 4.9 m, and car 3.3 m. Errors were larger in a high-rise commercial area (median error=7.1 m) compared with a low-rise residential area (median error=2.2 m). Thus, GPS-performance largely depends on the transport mode and urban built-up. Although ~85% of all errors were <10 m, almost 1% of the errors were >50 m. Modern GPS-devices are useful tools for environmental exposure assessment, but large GPS-errors might affect estimates of exposures with high spatial variability.

  14. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Theodore C.; Pfau, Jean C.; Gavett, Stephen H.; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Summary Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials). PMID:26230287

  15. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Danielle J; Larson, Theodore C; Pfau, Jean C; Gavett, Stephen H; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-08-01

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials).

  16. Domain-Specific Effects of Prenatal Exposure to PCBs, Mercury, and Lead on Infant Cognition: Results from the Environmental Contaminants and Child Development Study in Nunavik

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Olivier; Muckle, Gina; Carter, R. Colin; Kaplan-Estrin, Melissa; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Éric

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), methylmercury (MeHg), and lead (Pb) are environmental contaminants known for their adverse effects on cognitive development. Objectives: In this study we examined the effects of prenatal exposure to PCBs, MeHg, and Pb on cognitive development in a sample of Inuit infants from Arctic Québec. Methods: Mothers were recruited at local prenatal clinics. PCBs, mercury (Hg), Pb, and two seafood nutrients—docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and selenium (Se)—were measured in umbilical cord blood. Infants (n = 94) were assessed at 6.5 and 11 months of age on the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII), A-not-B test, and Bayley Scales of Infant Development–2nd Edition (BSID-II). Results: Multiple regression analyses revealed that higher prenatal PCB exposure was associated with decreased FTII novelty preference, indicating impaired visual recognition memory. Prenatal Hg was associated with poorer performance on A-not-B, which depends on working memory and is believed to be a precursor of executive function. Prenatal Pb was related to longer FTII fixation durations, indicating slower speed of information processing. Conclusions: PCBs, MeHg, and Pb each showed specific and distinct patterns of adverse associations with the outcomes measured during infancy. By contrast, none of these exposures was associated with performance on the BSID-II, a global developmental measure. The more focused, narrow band measures of cognitive function that appeared to be sensitive to these exposures also provide early indications of long-term impairment in specific domains that would otherwise not likely be evident until school age. Citation: Boucher O, Muckle G, Jacobson JL, Carter RC, Kaplan-Estrin M, Ayotte P, Dewailly É, Jacobson SW. 2014. Domain-specific effects of prenatal exposure to PCBs, mercury, and lead on infant cognition: results from the Environmental Contaminants and Child Development Study in Nunavik. Environ Health Perspect 122:310

  17. Housing and health: intersection of poverty and environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    Rauh, Virginia A; Landrigan, Philip J; Claudio, Luz

    2008-01-01

    The importance of adequate housing for the maintenance of health and well-being has long been a topic of scientific and public health policy discussion, but the links remain elusive. Here we explore the role of the residential environment in the etiology of illness (specifically asthma) and the persistence of socioeconomic health disparities. Housing conditions, shaped by social forces, affect exposure to physical and chemical "toxicants," thereby translating social adversities into individual illness and population health disparities. We discuss the mediating role of housing in determining health outcomes at multiple levels (social-structural, neighborhood, and individual family). To date, little attention has been paid by most environmental health scientists to the social-structural conditions underlying gross inequities in the distribution of toxic exposures, with even less attention to the processes whereby these social conditions may directly affect susceptibility to the toxic exposures themselves. This chapter goes beyond traditional medical and environmental science models to incorporate a range of social and physical determinants of environmental pollutions, illustrating how these conditions result in health and illness. We focus here on childhood asthma as an example of a serious public health problem that has been associated with low income, minority status, and characteristics of the home environment. We end the chapter with a discussion of the environmental justice movement and the role of housing as a potential agent of change and focus of interventions aimed to reduce the harmful effects of environmental pollutants.

  18. Environmental fate and exposure; neonicotinoids and fipronil.

    PubMed

    Bonmatin, J-M; Giorio, C; Girolami, V; Goulson, D; Kreutzweiser, D P; Krupke, C; Liess, M; Long, E; Marzaro, M; Mitchell, E A D; Noome, D A; Simon-Delso, N; Tapparo, A

    2015-01-01

    Systemic insecticides are applied to plants using a wide variety of methods, ranging from foliar sprays to seed treatments and soil drenches. Neonicotinoids and fipronil are among the most widely used pesticides in the world. Their popularity is largely due to their high toxicity to invertebrates, the ease and flexibility with which they can be applied, their long persistence, and their systemic nature, which ensures that they spread to all parts of the target crop. However, these properties also increase the probability of environmental contamination and exposure of nontarget organisms. Environmental contamination occurs via a number of routes including dust generated during drilling of dressed seeds, contamination and accumulation in arable soils and soil water, runoff into waterways, and uptake of pesticides by nontarget plants via their roots or dust deposition on leaves. Persistence in soils, waterways, and nontarget plants is variable but can be prolonged; for example, the half-lives of neonicotinoids in soils can exceed 1,000 days, so they can accumulate when used repeatedly. Similarly, they can persist in woody plants for periods exceeding 1 year. Breakdown results in toxic metabolites, though concentrations of these in the environment are rarely measured. Overall, there is strong evidence that soils, waterways, and plants in agricultural environments and neighboring areas are contaminated with variable levels of neonicotinoids or fipronil mixtures and their metabolites (soil, parts per billion (ppb)-parts per million (ppm) range; water, parts per trillion (ppt)-ppb range; and plants, ppb-ppm range). This provides multiple routes for chronic (and acute in some cases) exposure of nontarget animals. For example, pollinators are exposed through direct contact with dust during drilling; consumption of pollen, nectar, or guttation drops from seed-treated crops, water, and consumption of contaminated pollen and nectar from wild flowers and trees growing near

  19. The effect of misunderstanding the chemical properties of environmental contaminants on exposure beliefs: A case involving dioxins

    PubMed Central

    Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J.; Turkelson, Angela; Franzblau, Alfred; Diebol, Julia K.; Allerton, Lindsay A.; Parker, Edith A.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical properties of contaminants lead them to behave in particular ways in the environment and hence have specific pathways to human exposure. If residents of affected communities lack awareness of these properties, however, they could make incorrect assumptions about where and how exposure occurs. We conducted a mailed survey of 904 residents of Midland and Saginaw counties in Michigan, USA to assess to what degree residents of a community with known dioxin contamination appear to understand the hydrophobic nature of dioxins and the implications of that fact on different potential exposure pathways. Participants assessed whether various statements about dioxins were true, including multiple statements assessing beliefs about dioxins in different types of water. Participants also stated whether they believed different exposure pathways were currently significant sources of dioxin exposure in this community. A majority of residents believed that dioxins can be found in river water that has been filtered to completely remove all particulates, well water, and even city tap water, beliefs which are incongruous with the hydrophobic nature of dioxins. Mistrust of government and personal concern about dioxins predicted greater beliefs about dioxins in water. In turn, holding more beliefs about dioxins in water predicted beliefs that drinking and touching water are currently significant exposure pathways for dioxins. Ensuring that community residents’ mental models accurately reflect the chemical properties of different contaminants can be important to helping them to adjust their risk perceptions and potentially their risk mitigation behaviors accordingly. PMID:23391895

  20. The effect of misunderstanding the chemical properties of environmental contaminants on exposure beliefs: a case involving dioxins.

    PubMed

    Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Turkelson, Angela; Franzblau, Alfred; Diebol, Julia K; Allerton, Lindsay A; Parker, Edith A

    2013-03-01

    Chemical properties of contaminants lead them to behave in particular ways in the environment and hence have specific pathways to human exposure. If residents of affected communities lack awareness of these properties, however, they could make incorrect assumptions about where and how exposure occurs. We conducted a mailed survey of 904 residents of Midland and Saginaw counties in Michigan, USA to assess to what degree residents of a community with known dioxin contamination appear to understand the hydrophobic nature of dioxins and the implications of that fact on different potential exposure pathways. Participants assessed whether various statements about dioxins were true, including multiple statements assessing beliefs about dioxins in different types of water. Participants also stated whether they believed different exposure pathways were currently significant sources of dioxin exposure in this community. A majority of residents believed that dioxins can be found in river water that has been filtered to completely remove all particulates, well water, and even city tap water, beliefs which are incongruous with the hydrophobic nature of dioxins. Mistrust of government and personal concern about dioxins predicted greater beliefs about dioxins in water. In turn, holding more beliefs about dioxins in water predicted beliefs that drinking and touching water are currently significant exposure pathways for dioxins. Ensuring that community residents' mental models accurately reflect the chemical properties of different contaminants can be important to helping them to adjust their risk perceptions and potentially their risk mitigation behaviors accordingly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Epigenetic toxicity of environmental chemicals upon exposure during development - Bisphenol A and valproic acid may have epigenetic effects.

    PubMed

    Ideta-Otsuka, Maky; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Narita, Minoru; Hirabayashi, Yoko

    2017-09-06

    As of 2017, chemical substances registered in Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) exceed 100 million, which is increasing yearly. The safety of chemical substances is adequately managed by regulations based on scientific information from toxicity tests. However, there are substances reported to have "biological effects" even though they are judged to be nontoxic in conventional toxicity tests. Therefore, it is necessary to consider a new concept on toxicity, "epigenetic toxicity". In this review, we explain about epigenetic toxicity using bisphenol A (BPA) and valproic acid (VPA) as examples. We also discuss the problems associated with the judgment of epigenetic toxicity. Currently, epigenetic changes can only be detected by biochemical methods, which are labor-intensive. Therefore, we are developing reporter mice that can be used to detect epigenetic toxicity during conventional toxicity tests. In addition, we consider that linking epigenomic changes with phenotypic changes is important, because causality is important for toxicity evaluation. Therefore, we are developing an artificial epigenome-editing technology. If we can develop a safety-assessment system by incorporating epigenetic evaluation into toxicity tests, we can increase the safety of both food and environmental chemical substances. The practical application of such a new safety-assessment system will be increasingly important in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Development of cytochromes P450 in avian species as a biomarker for environmental contaminant exposure and effect: Procedures and baseline values

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melancon, M.J.; Bengston, David A.; Henshel, Diane S.

    1996-01-01

    As in mammals and fish, birds respond to many environmental contaminants with induction of hepatic cytochromes P450. In order to monitor cytchromes P450 in specific avian species, for assessing the status of that species or the habitat it utilizes, it is necessary to have background information on the appropriate assay conditions and the responsiveness of cytochrome P450 induction in that species. Assay of four monooxygenases which give resorufin as product using a fluorescence microwell plate scanner has proven to be an effective approach. Information is provided on the incubation conditions and baseline activity for twenty avian species at ages ranging from pipping embryo to adult. Induction responsiveness is presented for sixteen of them. This information can serve as a guide for those who wish to utilize cytochrome P450 as a biomarker for contaminant exposure and effect to aid in selection of appropriate species, age, and monooxygenase assay(s).

  3. Developmental effects of exposure to ultraviolet B radiation on the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersi: Mitochondria as a target of environmental UVB radiation.

    PubMed

    de Quadros, Thaline; Schramm, Heloísa; Zeni, Eliane C; Simioni, Carmen; Allodi, Silvana; Müller, Yara M R; Ammar, Dib; Nazari, Evelise M

    2016-10-01

    In South America, increased UVB radiation has become an important environmental issue that is potentially threatening aquatic ecosystems. Considering that species exhibit different degrees of sensitivity to UVB radiation and that embryos are more sensitive than organisms at later life stages, the aim of this study was to characterize the effects of UVB radiation on subcellular compartments of embryos of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersi. This species lives and reproduces in clear and shallow waters, where UV radiation can fully penetrates. Embryos were irradiated with a UVB 6W lamp for 30min and examined after 1h, 12h, 24h and 48h of exposure. The irradiance of the UVB used simulates the UV radiation that embryos receive in the natural environment. The subcellular compartment most affected by the UVB radiation was the mitochondria, which exhibited a circular shape, a decrease in mitochondrial cristae, rupture of membranes and a morphology compatible with fission. These impairments were observed simultaneously with increased ROS production, just after 1h of UVB exposure. Thus, we investigated proteins related to mitochondrial fission (Drp-1) and fusion (Mfn-1), which are essential to cell maintenance. We found a significant increase in Drp-1 expression at all analyzed time-points and a significant decrease in Mfn-1 expression only after 24h of UVB exposure. Additionally, a decrease in embryonic cell viability was verified via the mitochondrial integrity assay. To conclude, we observed important mitochondrial dysfunctions against the environmental stress caused by UVB radiation. Moreover, the cellular responses found are critical and should not be disregarded, because they impact embryos that can potentially compromise the aquatic ecosystems.

  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF TRANSGENERATIONAL CADMIUM EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were used to compare the effects of environmentally relevant cadmium (Cd) exposure on reproduction in adult animals previously exposed in ovo or as hatchlings. Adults were raised either from eggs produced during a two week exposure to 0, 1, 5, o...

  5. Farming-Associated Environmental Exposures and Atopic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Jill A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review important farming related environmental factors and host immunologic features with resulting impact on atopic and non-atopic upper and lower respiratory diseases. Data Sources PubMed databases were searched for relevant articles pertaining to farming practices, organic dust exposure, immunology, atopy, rhinitis, asthma, bronchitis and respiratory disease. Study Selections Articles were selected based on relevance to the topic of the review. Results Overall, farming exposures, particularly in children, appears protective against developing IgE-mediated diseases. However, upper and lower respiratory diseases, which tend to be non-allergic marked by enhanced neutrophilic influx, are prevalent in the farming community. These environments are complex and heterogeneous and a large number of environmental factors including dust particles, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria components, peptidoglycans, endotoxins, fungi, gases, pesticides, and allergens are important mediators. Pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors and nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptors play key roles in the host defense response. An allergy evaluation tailored to the subjects’ environmental history remains important. Therapeutic interventions are limited and attempts to reduce personnel exposure are recommended. Conclusion Upper and lower respiratory adverse health effects, particularly non-IgE mediated, are common to agriculture work and represent a substantial concern for farmers, workers, and their families. Regional and international differences in farming practice in addition to type, timing, duration, and intensity of the exposure are important considerations in the evaluation of symptomatic subjects. PMID:22840248

  6. HUMAN BIOMONITORING TO LINK ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE TO BIOLOGICALLY RELEVANT DOSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abstract and presentation on Human Biomonitoring to Link Environmental Exposure to Biologically Relevant Dose describes the use of biomarkers of exposure, biomarkers of current health state, and biomarker measurements. The abstract and presentation focuses on how biomarkers ...

  7. INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    North Carolina Central University (NCCU) recently began an innovative human exposure research program in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory in Research Triangle Park, NC. In this project, researchers will examine ...

  8. INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    North Carolina Central University (NCCU) recently began an innovative human exposure research program in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory in Research Triangle Park, NC. In this project, researchers will examine ...

  9. Environmental effects of poly(phenylene ether) blends after long-term exposure to potable hot water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclean, Steven

    In recent years, engineering thermoplastic resins have been contemplated for use in a variety pressurized fluid handling components such as potable water delivery pipes, fitting and valves. In this research, rigid blends of glassy poly(phenylene ether) (PPE) polymer are studied to assess their suitability in long-term, potable, hot water environments. Three distinct PPE-based model compounds were prepared for this research: (i) a 50/50 blend of PPE and high impact polystyrene (HIPS); (ii) a 50/50 blend of PPE and HIPS with the inclusion of an anti-oxidant package and; (iii) a blend consisting of capped PPE, crystal polystyrene and styrene-ethyelene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) rubber. A fourth engineering thermoplastic, namely bisphenol-A polysulfone (PSU), was incorporated into the study as a benchmark material due to its proven reliability in hot water applications. Aging experiments were carried out for 8,000 hours in an 80°C water bath and an 80°C convection oven to characterize physical property retention and degradation mechanisms in each material. During water bath immersion, excessive, non-Fickian water diffusion occurred in both PPE/HIPS blends which led to water clustering and disc shaped microcavities on the order of 50 to 100 mum in diameter. These voids in the bulk caused appreciable losses in tensile elongation and fatigue resistance. The capped PPE/PS/SEBS blend, however, managed water uptake more effectively and its chemistry deterred water clustering. With further improvements to the formulation, such as larger rubber domains or an alternative impact modifier, the capped PPE blend may be able to offer physical property retention equal to that of PSU. With the exception of slight craze formation at sharp specimen edges during hot water immersion, the PSU material proved to be an exceptional material candidate throughout the entire experimentation. Surprisingly long-term hot water exposure did not cause gross chemical degradation in any of the materials

  10. Hair as a Biomarker of Environmental Manganese Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Eastman, Rachel R.; Jursa, Tom P.; Benedetti, Chiara; Lucchini, Roberto G.; Smith, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    The absence of well-validated biomarkers of manganese (Mn) exposure in children remains a major obstacle for studies of Mn toxicity. We developed a hair cleaning methodology to establish the utility of hair as an exposure biomarker for Mn and other metals (Pb, Cr, Cu), using ICP-MS, scanning electron microscopy, and laser ablation ICP-MS to evaluate cleaning efficacy. Exogenous metal contamination on hair that was untreated or intentionally contaminated with dust or Mn-contaminated water was effectively removed using a cleaning method of 0.5% Triton X-100 sonication plus 1N nitric acid sonication. This cleaning method was then used on hair samples from children (n=121) in an ongoing study of environmental Mn exposure and related health effects. Mean hair Mn levels were 0.121 μg/g (median = 0.073 μg/g, range = 0.011 – 0.736 μg/g), which are ~4 to 70-fold lower than levels reported in other pediatric Mn studies. Hair Mn levels were also significantly higher in children living in the vicinity of active, but not historic, ferroalloy plant emissions compared to controls (P<0.001). These data show that exogenous metal contamination on hair can be effectively cleaned of exogenous metal contamination, and they substantiate the use of hair Mn levels as a biomarker of environmental Mn exposure in children. PMID:23259818

  11. Hair as a biomarker of environmental manganese exposure.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Rachel R; Jursa, Tom P; Benedetti, Chiara; Lucchini, Roberto G; Smith, Donald R

    2013-02-05

    The absence of well-validated biomarkers of manganese (Mn) exposure in children remains a major obstacle for studies of Mn toxicity. We developed a hair cleaning methodology to establish the utility of hair as an exposure biomarker for Mn and other metals (Pb, Cr, Cu), using ICPMS, scanning electron microscopy, and laser ablation ICPMS to evaluate cleaning efficacy. Exogenous metal contamination on hair that was untreated or intentionally contaminated with dust or Mn-contaminated water was effectively removed using a cleaning method of 0.5%Triton X-100 sonication plus 1 N nitric acid sonication. This cleaning method was then used on hair samples from children (n = 121) in an ongoing study of environmental Mn exposure and related health effects. Mean hair Mn levels were 0.121 μg/g (median = 0.073 μg/g, range = 0.011-0.736 μg/g), which are ∼4 to 70-fold lower than levels reported in other pediatric Mn studies. Hair Mn levels were also significantly higher in children living in the vicinity of active, but not historic, ferroalloy plant emissions compared to controls (P < 0.001). These data show that hair can be effectively cleaned of exogenous metal contamination, and they substantiate the use of hair Mn levels as a biomarker of environmental Mn exposure in children.

  12. PARAOXONASE-1 AND EARLY LIFE ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    PubMed Central

    Marsillach, Judit; Costa, Lucio G.; Furlong, Clement E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute and chronic exposures to widely used organophosphorus (OP) insecticides are common. Children’s detoxification mechanisms are not well developed until several years after birth. The increased cases of neurodevelopmental disorders in children, together with their increased susceptibility to OP neurotoxicity cannot be explained by genetic factors alone but could be related to gene-environment interactions. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an enzyme that can detoxify OPs but its catalytic efficiency for hydrolysis to certain OPs is modulated by the Q192R polymorphism. Findings Studies in animals have provided important information on the role of PON1 in protecting against gestational and postnatal toxicity to OPs. The PON1Q192 allele is less efficient hydrolyzing certain OPs than the PON1R192 allele. Maternal PON1 status (PON1 activity levels, the most important measurement, and functional Q192R phenotype) modulates the detrimental effects of exposure to the OP chlorpyrifos oxon on fetal brain gene expression and biomarkers of exposure. Epidemiological studies suggest that children from mothers with lower PON1 status that were in contact with OPs during pregnancy tend to show smaller head circumference at birth and adverse effects in cognitive function during childhood. Conclusion Infants and children are vulnerable to OP toxicity. The detrimental consequences of OPs on neurodevelopment can lead to future generations with permanent cognitive problems and susceptibility to develop neurodegenerative diseases. Improved methods using mass spectrometry to monitor OP-adducted biomarker proteins are needed and will be extremely helpful in early life biomonitoring, while measurement of PON1 status as a biomarker of susceptibility will help identify mothers and children highly sensitive to OPs. The use of adductomics instead of enzymatic activity assays for biomonitoring OP exposures have proved to provide several advantages, including the use of dried blood spots

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT USING IMMUNOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of immunochemical technologies including, but not limited to, immunoassays is expanding to include various aspects of environmental analysis. Ultimately, the basis for environmental investigations is concern about human and ecological exposure to potentially toxic compoun...

  14. Significance of environmental exposure pathways for technetium

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.O.; Gardner, R.H.; Bartell, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    Numerical simulation techniques are used to produce a probable range of predicted values from estimates of uncertainty assigned to the parameters of radiological assessment models. This range is used to indicate the uncertainty in the model's prediction. The importance of individual parameters and exposure pathways is determined by their relative contribution to this simulated uncertainty index. The major pathways of exposure to humans resulting from the airborne emissions of /sup 99/Tc involve the consumption of vegetables, vegetable products, and poultry eggs. The most important model parameters are related to the mobility of /sup 99/Tc in soil, the incorporation of /sup 99/Tc into the edible portions of crops, its transfer from vegetation to poultry eggs, and its atmospheric deposition. Uncertainty in the dose for individuals exposed to /sup 99/Tc-contaminated liquid discharges is dominated by the bioaccumulation of this isotope in aquatic food chains and by the possibility that contaminated surface water will be used as a source of drinking water. Results suggest that future reductions in the present estimates of uncertainty will lead to the dismissal of /sup 99/Tc as an environmentally important radionuclide, provided that de minimis dose levels are eventually adopted and releases of /sup 99/Tc from individual nuclear fuel cycle facilities will not be substantially larger than 1 Ci/year to the atmosphere and 100 Ci/year to the aquatic environment. These conclusions do not account for the possibility of a large long-term accumulation and remobilization of /sup 99/Tc in aquatic sediment and/or surface soils. 32 references, 9 tables.

  15. The Yugoslavia Prospective Study of environmental lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Factor-Litvak, P; Wasserman, G; Kline, J K; Graziano, J

    1999-01-01

    The Yugoslavia Prospective Study of environmental lead exposure has studied the associations between exposure to lead and pregnancy outcomes; childhood neuropsychological, behavioral, and physical development; and hematologic, renal, and cardiovascular function. The cohort comprises 577 children born to women recruited at midpregnancy in two towns in Kosovo, Yugoslavia; one town is the site of a lead smelter, refinery, and battery plant and the other is 25 miles away and relatively unexposed. A sample of these children has been followed at 6-month intervals through 7.5 years of age. Blood lead concentrations ranged from 1 to 70 microg/dl. Exposure to lead was not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exposure was associated with modest decrements in intelligence, small increases in blood pressure, higher risks of proteinuria, small increases in behavior problems, and perturbed hematopoiesis. Only at low level exposures (i.e., <16 microg/dl) were small associations with decreased height found. We discuss methodological problems that may hinder causal interpretation of these data, namely, use of blood lead concentration as an exposure measure, confounding, and town-specific associations. We conclude that while reported associations are small, collectively they lend support to the notion that lead is a toxicant with numerous adverse health effects. Images Figure 1 PMID:9872712

  16. Abnormal environmental light exposure in the intensive care environment.

    PubMed

    Fan, Emily P; Abbott, Sabra M; Reid, Kathryn J; Zee, Phyllis C; Maas, Matthew B

    2017-08-01

    We sought to characterize ambient light exposure in the intensive care unit (ICU) environment to identify patterns of light exposure relevant to circadian regulation. A light monitor was affixed to subjects' bed at eye level in a modern intensive care unit and continuously recorded illuminescence for at least 24h per subject. Blood was sampled hourly and measured for plasma melatonin. Subjects underwent hourly vital sign and bedside neurologic assessments. Care protocols and the ICU environment were not modified for the study. A total of 67,324 30-second epochs of light data were collected from 17 subjects. Light intensity peaked in the late morning, median 64.1 (interquartile range 19.7-138.7) lux. The 75th percentile of light intensity exceeded 100lx only between 9AM and noon, and never exceeded 150lx. There was no correlation between melatonin amplitude and daytime, nighttime or total light exposure (Spearman's correlation coefficients all <0.2 and p>0.5). Patients' environmental light exposure in the intensive care unit is consistently low and follows a diurnal pattern. No effect of nighttime light exposure was observed on melatonin secretion. Inadequate daytime light exposure in the ICU may contribute to abnormal circadian rhythms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental exposure to asbestos: from geology to mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Mehmet; Bakan, Nur Dilek

    2014-05-01

    This article aims to review the geological background of environmental asbestos exposure and the distribution of asbestos-related disease (ARD) in association with naturally occurring asbestos (NOA), and discusses the potential health risks associated with exposure to non-occupational asbestos. With the motion of continental and oceanic plates, in some parts of the world serpentinites in the lower layer of the oceanic plate move into the continental plate and form the so-called ophiolites. Ophiolites consist of soil and rocks containing serpentine-type asbestos. There is an increase in ARDs in regions close to ophiolites. Indoor exposure and outdoor exposure to NOA, outdoor exposure to industrial asbestos and mines, urbanization and construction works in NOA regions are the known sources and types of environmental asbestos exposure. Although there is an expectance of decline in ARDs caused by industrial exposure to asbestos, the environmental exposure to asbestos is still a challenge waiting to be overcome.

  18. Effect of time of exposure to environmental risk on the lung function of foundry workers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos de Moraes, Mônica; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; Bernardes, Rosane Andrea Bretas; Negreiros, Alexandher; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This cross-sectional study aimed to compare foundry workers of the metallurgical industry with high and low exposure time and with a control group. [Subject and Methods] The workers were evaluated for pulmonary function and peak expiratory flow (PEF), respiratory symptoms, smoking habits, and physical activity level. Descriptive statistical analysis and ANOVA one-way test were used. [Results] The mean age was 33.9 ± 8.25 years (18–59), pulmonary function: FVC: 95 ± 18% of predicted, FEV1: 95.0 ± 15.8% of predicted, FEV1/FVC ratio of 0.82 ± 0.09, and PEF = 499.7 ± 118.5 l/min. Overall, 85.1% of workers were classified that physically active, 7.93% of workers reported respiratory symptoms, and 14.28% reported being smokers. There was no statistically significant difference between groups for the variables of lung function. [Conclusion] The pulmonary function is preserved in foundry workers independently of exposure time. PMID:27064981

  19. Environmental contamination and human exposure to lead in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paoliello, Monica M B; De Capitani, Eduardo M

    2005-01-01

    Adverse effects caused by environmental lead pollution are well recognized. Being a widespread agent in the environment and a major harmful element to organic systems, mostly to children, lead has been investigated all over the world, aiming to improve measures regarding its control. The purpose of this chapter is to present a review of the situation of production, uses, assessment of exposure, and adverse effects from environmental lead contamination in Brazil. It also presents aspects of Brazilian legislation setting up maximum permissible levels of lead in several environmental compartments such as surface and drinking water, soils, sediment, urban air, and also in commercially sold food, vegetables, fish, and meat, in an effort to control industrial emissions. Epidemiological investigations on children's lead exposure around industrial and mining areas are revised, showing that many situations where lead contamination is potentially present still need to be addressed by governmental agencies. In Brazil, lead was withdrawn from gasoline by the end of the 1980s, and the last lead mining and primary smelting plant was closed in 1995, leaving residual environmental lead contamination, which has recently been investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Nevertheless, there are hundreds of small secondary battery recycling plants all over the country, running smelting facilities that produce local urban areas of lead contamination.

  20. Mitochondrial Redox Dysfunction and Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Caito, Samuel W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Mitochondria are structurally and biochemically diverse, even within a single type of cell. Protein complexes localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane synthesize ATP by coupling electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. The organelles produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) from mitochondrial oxygen and ROS can, in turn, alter the function and expression of proteins used for aerobic respiration by post-translational and transcriptional regulation. Recent Advances: New interest is emerging not only into the roles of mitochondria in disease development and progression but also as a target for environmental toxicants. Critical Issues: Dysregulation of respiration has been linked to cell death and is a major contributor to acute neuronal trauma, peripheral diseases, as well as chronic neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Future Directions: Here, we discuss the mechanisms underlying the sensitivity of the mitochondrial respiratory complexes to redox modulation, as well as examine the effects of environmental contaminants that have well-characterized mitochondrial toxicity. The contaminants discussed in this review are some of the most prevalent and potent environmental contaminants that have been linked to neurological dysfunction, altered cellular respiration, and oxidation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 578–595. PMID:25826672

  1. Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report, “Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults,” focuses on information sources and data available for modeling environmental exposures in the older U.S. population, defined here to be people 60 years and older, with an emphasis on those...

  2. Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report, “Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults,” focuses on information sources and data available for modeling environmental exposures in the older U.S. population, defined here to be people 60 years and older, with an emphasis on those...

  3. Traffic density as a surrogate measure of environmental exposures in studies of air pollution health effects: Long-term mortality in a cohort of US veterans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipfert, F. W.; Wyzga, R. E.; Baty, J. D.; Miller, J. P.

    Vehicular traffic is an ubiquitous source of air pollution in developed nations, yet relatively few epidemiology studies have considered its long-term health effects. This paper uses an areal measure of traffic density as a surrogate index of exposure to vehicular traffic. We present associations between county-level traffic density (annual vehicle-km traveled km -2), ambient air quality, and mortality in a cohort of about 70,000 male US veterans (the Washington University-EPRI Veterans Cohort) who were enrolled in 1976 and followed through 2001. Traffic density is seen to be a significant and robust predictor of survival in this cohort, more so than ambient air quality, with the possible exception of ozone. Stronger effects of traffic density are seen in the counties that have ambient air quality monitoring data, which also tend to have higher levels of traffic density. These proportional-hazard modeling results indicate only modest changes in traffic-related mortality risks over time, from 1976-2001, despite the decline in regulated tailpipe emissions per vehicle since the mid-1970s. This suggests that other environmental effects may be involved, such as particles from brake, tire, and road wear, traffic noise, psychological stress, and spatial gradients in socioeconomic status.

  4. Chronic exposure to environmental levels of tribromophenol impairs zebrafish reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Jun; Liu Chunsheng; Yu Liqin; Zhou Bingsheng

    2010-02-15

    Tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) is ubiquitously found in aquatic environments and biota. In this study, we exposed zebrafish embryos (F{sub 0}; 2'''' days post-fertilization, dpf) to environmental concentration (0.3 mug/L) and a higher concentration (3.0 mug/L) of TBP and assessed the impact of chronic exposure (120 dpf) on reproduction. TBP exposure did not cause a significant increase in the malformation and reduction in the survival in the F{sub 0}-generation fish. After TBP exposure, the plasma testosterone and estradiol levels significantly increased in males and decreased in females. The transcription of steroidogenic genes (3beta-HSD, 17beta-HSD, CYP17, CYP19A, CYP19B) was significantly upregulated in the brain and testes in males and downregulated in the brain and ovary in females. TBP exposure significantly downregulated and upregulated the expression of VTG in the liver of female and male fish, respectively. Meanwhile, TBP exposure altered the sex ratio toward a male-dominant state. The F{sub 1}-generation larvae exhibited increased malformation, reduced survival, and retarded growth, suggesting that TBP in the aquatic environment has significant adverse effects on fish population.

  5. Developmental Origins of Health and Disease: Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, James M.; Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Wadhwa, Pathik D.

    2010-01-01

    The developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) approach has evolved over the past 20 years, and the current hypothesis proposes that fetal adaptations to intrauterine and maternal conditions during development shape structure and function of organs. Here we present a review of some environmental exposures that may trigger fetal maladaptations in these processes, including three examples: exposures to tobacco smoke, antidepressant medication, and folic acid deficits in the food supply. We provide a selected review of current research on the effects of each of these exposures on fetal development and birth outcomes, and use the DOHaD approach to suggest how these exposures may alter long-term outcomes. In the interpretation of this literature, we review the evidence of gene–environment interactions based on evaluation of biological pathways and evidence that some exposures to the fetus may be moderated by maternal and fetal genotypes. Finally, we use the design of the National Children’s Study (now in progress) to propose how the DOHaD approach could be used to address questions that have emerged in this area that are relevant to reproductive medicine and subsequent health outcomes. PMID:19711249

  6. Cognitive Function Related to Environmental Exposure to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background: The towns of Marietta and East Liverpool (EL), Ohio, have been identified as having elevated manganese (Mn) in air due to industrial pollution. Objectives: To evaluate relationships between environmental Mn (Mn-air) exposure and distance from the source and cognitive function in residents of two Ohio towns. Methods: Data were obtained from an EPA-sponsored study comparing two towns exposed to Mn-air (Marietta and EL). A cross-sectional design was used. The same inclusion/exclusion criteria and procedures were applied in the two towns. A neuropsychological screening test battery was administered to study participants (EL=86, Marietta=100) which included Stroop Color Word Test, Animal Naming, Auditory Consonant Trigrams (ACT) and Rey-O. To estimate Mn-air, U.S.EPA’s AERMOD dispersion model was used. Distance from source was calculated based on participants’ residential address and air miles from industrial facility emitting Mn-air. A binary logistic regression model controlling for annual household income was used to examine distance from source and neuropsychological outcomes Results: There were no age, sex, or employment status differences between the two towns. Years education was lower in EL (mean (M)=12.9) than Marietta (M=14.6) and years residency in town were higher in EL (M=47.0) than Marietta (M=36.1). EL participants resided closer to the Mn source than Marietta (M=1.12 vs M=4.75 air miles). Mn-air concentrations were higher in EL (M=0

  7. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and health effects among hospitality workers in Sweden--before and after the implementation of a smoke-free law.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Matz; Boëthius, Göran; Axelsson, Sara; Montgomery, Scott M

    2008-08-01

    This study attempted to identify changes in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, as well as symptoms and attitudes among hospitality workers after the introduction of extended smoke-free workplace legislation. A total of 37 volunteers working in bingo halls and casinos (gaming workers) and 54 bars and restaurant employees (other workers) in nine Swedish communities participated in the study. Altogether 71 of 91 persons (14 daily smokers and 57 nonsmokers) participated in both the pre-ban baseline survey and the follow-up 12 months after the ban. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, smoking habits, respiratory and sensory symptoms, and attitudes towards the ban were recorded, and spirometry was carried out. The frequency of reported respiratory and sensory symptoms was approximately halved among the nonsmokers in both occupational groups after the introduction of the ban. Initially 87% had exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that was over the nicotine cut-off level chosen to identify possible health risk ( <0.5 microg/m3) while, after the ban, it was only 22%, a relative risk of 0.25 (95% confidence interval 0.15-0.41). The risk decreased in both occupational groups, but gaming workers experienced the highest pre-ban exposure levels. Attitudes towards the legislation were largely positive, particularly after the ban. However, there was no notable change in lung function, and there was no notable reduction in the number of cigarettes consumed by smokers. The introduction of smoke-free legislation was associated with a substantial reduction in respiratory and sensory symptoms, as well as reduced exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at work, particularly among gaming workers.

  8. Exposure to Crystal Violet, Its Toxic, Genotoxic and Carcinogenic Effects on Environment and Its Degradation and Detoxification for Environmental Safety.

    PubMed

    Mani, Sujata; Bharagava, Ram Naresh

    2016-01-01

    Crystal Violet (CV), a triphenylmethane dye, has been extensively used in human and veterinary medicine as a biological stain, as a textile dye in textile processing industries and also used to provide a deep violet color to paints and printing ink. CV is also used as a mutagenic and bacteriostatic agent in medical solutions and antimicrobial agent to prevent the fungal growth in poultry feed. Inspite of its many uses, CV has been reported as a recalcitrant dye molecule that persists in environment for a long period and pose toxic effects in environment. It acts as a mitotic poison, potent carcinogen and a potent clastogene promoting tumor growth in some species of fish. Thus, CV is regarded as a biohazard substance. Although, there are several physico-chemical methods such as adsorption, coagulation and ion-pair extraction reported for the removal of CV, but these methods are insufficient for the complete removal of CV from industrial wastewaters and also produce large quantity of sludge containing secondary pollutants. However, biological methods are regarded as cost-effective and eco-friendly for the treatment of industrial wastewaters, but these methods also have certain limitations. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop such eco-friendly and cost-effective biological treatment methods, which can effectively remove the dye from industrial wastewaters for the safety of environment, as well as human and animal health.

  9. Using the Fish Larvae and Egg Exposure System (FLEES) to Generate Effects Data for Informing Environmental Windows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    endangered , threatened or commercially valuable species , such as the walleye (Sander vitreus) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) (Reine et al. 1998...complete a specific part of its life cycle due to resuspended sediment. However, there is limited information concerning species -specific biological...has been used for several years across multiple dredging projects to generate effects data for various aquatic species . These results are presented

  10. Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards and Climate Change in Ethiopia: Synthesis of Situational Analysis, Needs Assessment and the Way Forward.

    PubMed

    Berhane, Kiros; Kumie, Abera; Samet, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The burden of diseases caused by environmental and occupational health hazards and the effects of global climate change are of growing concerns in Ethiopia. However, no adequate information seems to be available on the current situation. This means there is a critical gap in research, policy framework and implementation in the country. The purpose of this paper was to synthesize evidence from a systematic situational analysis and needs assessment to help establish a hub for research and training on three major themes and their related policy frameworks: air pollution and health, occupational health and safety and climate change and health. The methods used in this work include a systematic review of secondary data from peer-reviewed literature, thesis reports from academia, government and national statistical reports. Limited primary data based on key informant interviews held with major stakeholders were also used as sources of data. Exposures to high levels of indoor and outdoor air pollutants were found to be major sources of public health challenges. Lack of occupational safety and health due to agricultural activities and exposure to industries was found to be substantial. Worse is the growing fear that climate change will pose increasingly significant multidimensional challenges to the environment and public health. Across all three areas of focus, there was a paucity of information on local scientific evidence. There is also very limited trained skilled manpower and physical infrastructure to monitor the environment and enforce regulatory guidelines. Research, policy frameworks and regulatory mechanisms were among the cross-cutting issues that needed urgent attention. Critical gaps were observed in research and training across the three themes. Also, there is a limitation in implementing the link between policy and related regulations in the environment and health.

  11. The Role of Environmental Exposures in Neurodegeneration and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Jason R.; Greenamyre, J. Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Neurodegeneration describes the loss of neuronal structure and function. Numerous neurodegenerative diseases are associated with neurodegeneration. Many are rare and stem from purely genetic causes. However, the prevalence of major neurodegenerative diseases is increasing with improvements in treating major diseases such as cancers and cardiovascular diseases, resulting in an aging population. The neurological consequences of neurodegeneration in patients can have devastating effects on mental and physical functioning. The causes of most cases of prevalent neurodegenerative diseases are unknown. The role of neurotoxicant exposures in neurodegenerative disease has long been suspected, with much effort devoted to identifying causative agents. However, causative factors for a significant number of cases have yet to be identified. In this review, the role of environmental neurotoxicant exposures on neurodegeneration in selected major neurodegenerative diseases is discussed. Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were chosen because of available data on environmental influences. The special sensitivity the nervous system exhibits to toxicant exposure and unifying mechanisms of neurodegeneration are explored. PMID:21914720

  12. Effects of chronic exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of waterborne depleted uranium on the digestive tract of zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Starrlight; Pereira, Sandrine; Floriani, Magali; Camilleri, Virginie; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M; Gagnaire, Béatrice; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2015-04-01

    Uranium is a naturally occurring element, but activities linked to the nuclear fuel cycle can increase background levels in the surrounding waters. For this reason it is important to understand how this affects organisms residing in the water column. The objective of this study was to assess histopathological effects of uranium on the gut wall of a widely used model organism: zebrafish, Danio rerio. To this end we exposed zebrafish to 84 and 420 nM depleted uranium for over a month and then examined the histology of intestines of exposed individuals compared to controls. The gut wall of individuals exposed to 84 and 420 nM of uranium had large regions of degraded mucosa. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis (EDX) we found that uranium induced a decrease in the amount of calcium containing mitochondrial matrix granules per mitochondria. This is suggestive of perturbations to cellular metabolism and more specifically to cellular calcium homeostasis. TEM-EDX of the gut wall tissue further showed that some uranium was internalized in the nucleus of epithelial cells in the 420 nM treatment. Fluorescent in situ hybridization using specific probes to detect all eubacteria was performed on frozen sections of 6 individual fish in the 84 nM and 420 nM treatments. Bacterial colonization of the gut of individuals in the 420 nM seemed to differ from that of the controls and 84 nM individuals. We suggest that host-microbiota interactions are potentially disturbed in response to uranium induced stress. The damage induced by waterborne uranium to the gut wall did not seem to depend on the concentration of uranium in the media. We measure whole body residues of uranium at the end of the experiment and compute the mean dose rate absorbed for each condition. We discuss why effects might be uncoupled from external concentration and highlight that it is not so much the external concentration but the dynamics of

  13. Environmental Exposure to Triclosan and Semen Quality.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenting; Zhang, Hao; Tong, Chuanliang; Xie, Chong; Fan, Guohua; Zhao, Shasha; Yu, Xiaogang; Tian, Ying; Zhang, Jun

    2016-02-17

    Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxy-diphenyl ether, TCS) is widely used in personal care, household, veterinary and industrial products. It was considered as a potential male reproductive toxicant in previous in vitro and in vivo studies. However, evidence from human studies is scarce. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between TCS exposure and semen quality. We measured urinary TCS concentrations in 471 men recruited from a male reproductive health clinic. TCS was detected in 96.7% of urine samples, with a median concentration of 0.97 ng (mg·creatinine)(-1) (interquartile range, 0.41-2.95 ng (mg·creatinine)(-1)). A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between natural logarithm (Ln) transformed TCS concentration (Ln-TCS) and Ln transformed number of forward moving sperms (adjusted coefficient β = -0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) (-0.32, -0.02). Furthermore, among those with the lowest tertile of TCS level, Ln-TCS was negatively associated with the number of forward moving sperms (β = -0.35; 95% CI (-0.68, -0.03)), percentage of sperms with normal morphology (β = -1.64; 95% CI (-3.05, -0.23)), as well as number of normal morphological sperms, sperm concentration and count. Our findings suggest that the adverse effect of TCS on semen quality is modest at the environment-relevant dose in humans. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  14. Arterial structure and function and environmental exposure to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Schutte, R; Nawrot, T; Richart, T; Thijs, L; Roels, H A; Van Bortel, L M; Struijker-Boudier, H; Staessen, J A

    2008-06-01

    Few studies have addressed the effect of cadmium toxicity on arterial properties. We investigated the possible association of 24 h urinary cadmium excretion (an index of lifetime exposure) with measures of arterial function in a randomly selected population sample (n = 557) from two rural areas with low and high environmental exposure to cadmium. 24 h urinary cadmium excretion was significantly higher in the high compared with the low exposure group (p<0.001). Even though systolic (p = 0.42), diastolic (p = 0.14) and mean arterial pressure (p = 0.68) did not differ between the high and low exposure groups, aortic pulse wave velocity (p = 0.008), brachial pulse pressure (p = 0.026) and femoral pulse pressure (p = 0.008) were significantly lower in the high exposure group. Additionally, femoral distensibility (p<0.001) and compliance (p = 0.001) were significantly higher with high exposure. Across quartiles of 24 h urinary cadmium excretion (adjusted for sex and age), brachial (p for trend = 0.015) and femoral (p for trend = 0.018) pulse pressure significantly decreased and femoral distensibility (p for trend = 0.008) and compliance (p for trend = 0.007) significantly increased with higher cadmium excretion. After full adjustment, the partial regression coefficients confirmed these associations. Pulse wave velocity (beta = -0.79+/-0.27; p = 0.004) and carotid (beta = -4.20+/-1.51; p = 0.006), brachial (beta = -5.43+/-1.41; p = 0.001) and femoral (beta = -4.72+/-1.74; p = 0.007) pulse pressures correlated negatively, whereas femoral compliance (beta = 0.11+/-0.05; p = 0.016) and distensibility (beta = 1.70+/-0.70; p = 0.014) correlated positively with cadmium excretion. Increased cadmium body burden is associated with lower aortic pulse wave velocity, lower pulse pressure throughout the arterial system, and higher femoral distensibility.

  15. Protecting children: reducing their environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Klerman, Lorraine

    2004-04-01

    The present review examines the current status of efforts to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS) among infants and young children. Estimates of the number of children exposed vary, but it is probably over 20 million or about 35% of all U.S. children. Healthy People 2010 sets as an objective the reduction, to 10%, of the proportion of children regularly exposed to tobacco smoke at home. Children with ETS exposure are at higher risk for upper respiratory illnesses, asthma, otitis media, and sudden infant death syndrome. Eight experimental or quasi-experimental studies of attempts to reduce children' ETS exposure with sample sizes of greater than 100 were conducted in the United States and published between 1990 and 2003. Most of these studies showed a significant impact on maternal smoking and on the number of cigarettes smoked in the home, although intervention-control differences were relatively small. Despite support from professional organizations and federal government groups, many pediatricians and family physicians do not routinely engage in intensive efforts to reduce children's ETS exposure. Training in techniques for reducing tobacco dependence should be included in professional education programs. Public and private insurance should reimburse providers for efforts in this area. An overall strategy for reducing children's ETS exposure should combine individual counseling and education in offices, clinics, and homes with community education and regulatory and economic policies (i.e., smoking bans and excise taxes). Additional funding is needed for studies of provider knowledge, attitudes, and practices; of the effectiveness of various communication strategies; and of office- and community-based strategies to reduce ETS exposure.

  16. Environmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Sacha A; Shahine, Lora K; Lathi, Ruth B

    2016-09-15

    Establishment of early pregnancy is the result of complex biochemical interactions between the decidua and blastocyst. Any alteration in this chemical dialogue has the potential to result in adverse pregnancy outcomes including miscarriage. Sporadic miscarriage is the most common complication of pregnancy and can be caused by multiple factors. While the most common cause of miscarriage is genetic abnormalities in the fetus, other contributing factors certainly can play a role in early loss. One such factor is environmental exposure, in particular to endocrine-disrupting chemicals, which has the potential to interfere with endogenous hormone action. These effects can be deleterious, especially in early pregnancy when the hormonal milieu surrounding implantation is in delicate balance. The purpose of this paper is to review the current evidence on the role of environmental toxins in reproduction.

  17. Effect of Environmental Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Exposure on Inflammatory Mediators and Serotonin Metabolism in a Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Reale, Marcella; D'Angelo, Chiara; Costantini, Erica; Tata, Ada Maria; Regen, Francesca; Hellmann-Regen, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to environmental extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) in everyday life is increasing and it is a matter of great debate whether exposure to ELF-EMF can be harmful to human health. The neuropathology and symptoms of neurodegenerative disease depends on factors other than genetic predispositions, such as environmental exposure to disease-related risk factors. Research focusing on a possible contribution of ELF-EMF to cell injury and to the development of neurodegenerative disorders is characterized by conflicting data from epidemiological and animal studies. Due to lack of a direct link between neurodegenerative processes and ELF-EMF exposure, our goal was to investigate if ELF-EMF exposure may represent a possible risk factor. In the present study, using neuronal-like SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, we show that the balance between generation and elimination of reactive oxygen species, as well as the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines linked to oxidative stress, was maintained ensuring that cells respond properly to ELF-EMF (50Hz /1mT). In SH-SY5Y-exposed cells we observed increased intracellular 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/5-hydroxytryptamine ratio reflecting the rate of transmitter synthesis, catabolism and release, while matrix metalloproteinases that play critical roles in neuronal cell death were not significantly altered. The results presented here indicate that changes caused by short (1h-3h) and sub-chronic (48 h) exposure to 50Hz/1mT ELF-EMF in SH-SY5Y cells are minor in comparison to the neuronal cell damage expected to underlie neurodegeneration or cognitive impairment. Thus, these results are in accord with epidemiological studies that have provided little support for a link between ELF-EMFs and neurodegeneration.

  18. Developmental Exposure to Environmental Chemicals and Metabolic Changes in Children.

    PubMed

    Russ, Karin; Howard, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other forms of metabolic disease have been rising over the past several decades. Although diet and physical activity play important roles in these trends, other environmental factors also may contribute to this significant public health issue. In this article, we discuss the possibility that widespread exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may contribute to the development of metabolic diseases in children. We summarize the epidemiological evidence on exposure to environmental chemicals during early development and metabolic outcomes in infants and children. Prenatal exposure to EDCs, particularly the persistent organic pollutant DDT and its metabolite DDE, may influence growth patterns during infancy and childhood. The altered growth patterns associated with EDCs vary according to exposure level, sex, exposure timing, pubertal status, and age at which growth is measured. Early exposure to air pollutants also is linked to impaired metabolism in infants and children. As a result of these and other studies, professional health provider societies have called for a reduction in environmental chemical exposures. We summarize the resources available to health care providers to counsel patients on how to reduce chemical exposures. We conclude with a discussion of environmental policies that address chemical exposures and ultimately aim to improve public health.

  19. Environmental Exposures and Children's Health Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrigan, Philip J.

    2005-01-01

    The author looks at the sharp increase in a number of childhood disorders--including asthma, certain cancers, and learning/behavioral disabilities--and the role environmental toxins may play in this increase. He describes the need to train many more health professionals in prenatal and children's environmental health and the national network of…

  20. Environmental Exposures and Children's Health Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrigan, Philip J.

    2005-01-01

    The author looks at the sharp increase in a number of childhood disorders--including asthma, certain cancers, and learning/behavioral disabilities--and the role environmental toxins may play in this increase. He describes the need to train many more health professionals in prenatal and children's environmental health and the national network of…

  1. Exposure of U.S. workers to environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, S K

    1999-01-01

    The concentrations of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to which workers are exposed have been measured, using nicotine or other tracers, in diverse workplaces. Policies restricting workplace smoking to a few designated areas have been shown to reduce concentrations of ETS, although the effectiveness of such policies varies among work sites. Policies that ban smoking in the workplace are the most effective and generally lower all nicotine concentrations to less than 1 microg/m3; by contrast, mean concentrations measured in workplaces that allow smoking generally range from 2 to 6 microg/m3 in offices, from 3 to 8 microg/m3 in restaurants, and from 1 to 6 microg/m3 in the workplaces of blue-collar workers. Mean nicotine concentrations from 1 to 3 microg/m3 have been measured in the homes of smokers. Furthermore, workplace concentrations are highly variable, and some concentrations are more than 10 times higher than the average home levels, which have been established to cause lung cancer, heart disease, and other adverse health effects. For the approximately 30% of workers exposed to ETS in the workplace but not in the home, workplace exposure is the principal source of ETS. Among those with home exposures, exposures at work may exceed those resulting from home. We conclude that a significant number of U.S. workers are exposed to hazardous levels of ETS. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:10350518

  2. Environmental liability and reducing corporate exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Holzer, S.T.; Meyer, G.A.

    1994-12-31

    As public concern continues to focus on environmental safety, the government responds with an ever-expanding web of environmental regulation of business and industry. The federal, state, and local laws enacted to protect the environment impose numerous obligations on managers and directors. Failure to comply with these environmental regulatory schemes may result in harsh civil and criminal penalties. Liability is also associated with real property transactions. Past and present owners as well as other parties involved in real estate transactions may be liable for contamination and be required to pay tremendous cleanup costs. To protect themselves from such liability, companies must be familiar with the law and adopt a comprehensive and ongoing in-house environmental management program. This chapter will focus on potential liability and the use of environmental audits to meet the ever-increasing legal obligations.

  3. FIELD DEPLOYABLE TECHNIQUES TO MONITOR EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS THROUGHOUT THE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE OF WILD BIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern about potential for endocrine disrupting chemicals to interfere with normal breeding behaviors of wildlife prompted this study of effects of exposure to environmental estrogens during the breeding cycle of wild birds. The house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) was selected as...

  4. FIELD DEPLOYABLE TECHNIQUES TO MONITOR EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS THROUGHOUT THE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE OF WILD BIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern about potential for endocrine disrupting chemicals to interfere with normal breeding behaviors of wildlife prompted this study of effects of exposure to environmental estrogens during the breeding cycle of wild birds. The house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) was selected as...

  5. Environmental Exposure to Manganese in Air: Associations with Tremor and Motor Function

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Manganese (Mn) inhalation has been associated with neuropsychological and neurological sequelae in exposed workers. Few environmental epidemiologic studies have examined the potentialy neurotoxic effects of Mn exposure in ambient air on motor function and han...

  6. Environmental Exposure to Manganese in Air: Associations with Tremor and Motor Function

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Manganese (Mn) inhalation has been associated with neuropsychological and neurological sequelae in exposed workers. Few environmental epidemiologic studies have examined the potentialy neurotoxic effects of Mn exposure in ambient air on motor function and han...

  7. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS DOCUMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Health and Environmental Effects Documents (HEEDS) are prepared for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). This document series is intended to support listings under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as to provide health-related limits and goals for emergency and remedial actions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency Program Office files are evaluated as they pertain to potential human health, aquatic life and environmental effects of hazardous waste constituents. Several quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. For systemic toxicants, these include Reference Doses (RfDs) for chronic and subchronic exposures for both the inhalation and oral exposures. In the case of suspected carcinogens, RfDs may not be estimated. Instead, a carcinogenic potency factor, or q1*, is provided. These potency estimates are derived for both oral and inhalation exposures where possible. In addition, unit risk estimates for air and drinking water are presented based on inhalation and oral data, respectively. Reportable quantities (RQs) based on both chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity are derived. The RQ is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified under CERCLA.

  8. Environmental Exposure to Triclosan and Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenting; Zhang, Hao; Tong, Chuanliang; Xie, Chong; Fan, Guohua; Zhao, Shasha; Yu, Xiaogang; Tian, Ying; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan (2,4,4′-trichloro-2′-hydroxy-diphenyl ether, TCS) is widely used in personal care, household, veterinary and industrial products. It was considered as a potential male reproductive toxicant in previous in vitro and in vivo studies. However, evidence from human studies is scarce. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between TCS exposure and semen quality. We measured urinary TCS concentrations in 471 men recruited from a male reproductive health clinic. TCS was detected in 96.7% of urine samples, with a median concentration of 0.97 ng (mg·creatinine)−1 (interquartile range, 0.41–2.95 ng (mg·creatinine)−1). A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between natural logarithm (Ln) transformed TCS concentration (Ln-TCS) and Ln transformed number of forward moving sperms (adjusted coefficient β = −0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) (−0.32, −0.02). Furthermore, among those with the lowest tertile of TCS level, Ln-TCS was negatively associated with the number of forward moving sperms (β = −0.35; 95% CI (−0.68, −0.03)), percentage of sperms with normal morphology (β = −1.64; 95% CI (−3.05, −0.23)), as well as number of normal morphological sperms, sperm concentration and count. Our findings suggest that the adverse effect of TCS on semen quality is modest at the environment-relevant dose in humans. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:26901211

  9. Environmental exposure to lead (Pb) and variations in its susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jina; Lee, Youngeun; Yang, Mihi

    2014-01-01

    Based on exposure frequency and intrinsic toxicity, lead (Pb) ranks one of the highest priority toxic materials. Continuous regulation of environmental Pb exposure has contributed to dramatically diminished exposure levels of Pb, for example, blood level of Pb. However, the safety level of Pb is not established, as low-level exposure to Pb still shows severe toxicity in high susceptible population and late onset of some diseases from early exposure. In the present study, we focused on food-borne Pb exposure and found broad variations in Pb exposure levels via food among countries. In addition, there are genetic or ethnical variations in Pb-targeted and protective genes. Moreover, various epigenetic alterations were induced by Pb poisoning. Therefore, we suggest a systemic approach including governmental (public) and individual prevention from Pb exposure with continuous biological monitoring and genetic or epigenetic consideration.

  10. Biological effects from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards.

    PubMed

    Hardell, Lennart; Sage, Cindy

    2008-02-01

    During recent years there has been increasing public concern on potential health risks from power-frequency fields (extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields; ELF) and from radiofrequency/microwave radiation emissions (RF) from wireless communications. Non-thermal (low-intensity) biological effects have not been considered for regulation of microwave exposure, although numerous scientific reports indicate such effects. The BioInitiative Report is based on an international research and public policy initiative to give an overview of what is known of biological effects that occur at low-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs) exposure. Health endpoints reported to be associated with ELF and/or RF include childhood leukaemia, brain tumours, genotoxic effects, neurological effects and neurodegenerative diseases, immune system deregulation, allergic and inflammatory responses, breast cancer, miscarriage and some cardiovascular effects. The BioInitiative Report concluded that a reasonable suspicion of risk exists based on clear evidence of bioeffects at environmentally relevant levels, which, with prolonged exposures may reasonably be presumed to result in health impacts. Regarding ELF a new lower public safety limit for habitable space adjacent to all new or upgraded power lines and for all other new constructions should be applied. A new lower limit should also be used for existing habitable space for children and/or women who are pregnant. A precautionary limit should be adopted for outdoor, cumulative RF exposure and for cumulative indoor RF fields with considerably lower limits than existing guidelines, see the BioInitiative Report. The current guidelines for the US and European microwave exposure from mobile phones, for the brain are 1.6 W/Kg and 2 W/Kg, respectively. Since use of mobile phones is associated with an increased risk for brain tumour after 10 years, a new biologically based guideline is warranted. Other health impacts associated with exposure to

  11. The Effects of Earphone Use and Environmental Lead Exposure on Hearing Loss in the Korean Population: Data Analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Huh, Da-An; Choi, Yun-Hee; Moon, Kyong Whan

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have reported that frequent earphone use and lead exposure are risk factors for hearing loss, most of these studies were limited to small populations or animal experiments. Several studies that presented the joint effect of combined exposure of noise and heavy metal on hearing loss were also mainly conducted on occupational workers exposed to high concentration. We investigated both the individual and joint effects of earphone use and environmental lead exposure on hearing loss in the Korean general population. We analyzed data from 7,596 Koreans provided by the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) during the period 2010-2013. The pure-tone average (PTA) of hearing thresholds at 2, 3, and 4 kHz frequencies was computed, and hearing loss was defined as a PTA ≥ 25 dB in one or both ears. A dose-response relationship in hearing loss with earphone use time and blood lead level is observed after adjustment for confounding factors. With a 1-hour increase in earphone use time and 1 μg/dL increase in blood lead concentration, the odds of hearing loss increased by 1.19 and 1.43 times, respectively. For hearing loss, the additive and multiplicative effect of earphone use and blood lead level were not statistically significant. Earphone use and environmental lead exposure have an individual effect on hearing loss in the general population. However, the estimated joint effect of earphone use and lead exposure was not statistically significant.

  12. Assessment of environmental cockroach allergen exposure.

    PubMed

    Chew, Ginger L

    2012-10-01

    In the past, cockroach allergen exposure assessment mainly focused on settled dust in homes in low-income urban cities in the United States. That choice was not wrong; without measureable levels of cockroach allergen, it is difficult to show associations with any home characteristics, much less with health outcomes (e.g., allergy, asthma). However, recent studies in other suburban areas, schools, and other countries have elucidated the importance of cockroach allergen in these environments too. In addition, characterizing the underlying factors that give rise to cockroach allergen exposure (or protect against it) can lead to more targeted public health interventions. This review discusses different approaches to sampling indoor environments, interprets recent asthma and allergy studies, compares cockroach allergen levels from past studies with those of recent studies, and describes strategies for decreasing exposures.

  13. Assessment of Environmental Cockroach Allergen Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Ginger L.

    2016-01-01

    In the past, cockroach allergen exposure assessment mainly focused on settled dust in homes in low-income urban cities in the United States. That choice was not wrong; without measureable levels of cockroach allergen, it is difficult to show associations with any home characteristics much less with health outcomes (e.g., allergy, asthma). However, recent studies in other suburban areas, schools, and other countries have elucidated the importance of cockroach allergen in these environments too. In addition, characterizing the underlying factors that give rise to cockroach allergen exposure (or protect against it) can lead to more targeted public health interventions. This review discusses different approaches to sampling indoor environments, interprets recent asthma and allergy studies, compares cockroach allergen levels from past studies with those of recent studies, and describes strategies to decrease exposures. PMID:22825884

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL PCB EXPOSURE AND RISK OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Hormonally active environmental agents recently have been associated with the development of endometriosis. METHODS: We undertook a study to assess the relation between endometriosis, an estrogen dependent gynecologic disease, and 62 individual polychlorinated biphe...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL PCB EXPOSURE AND RISK OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Hormonally active environmental agents recently have been associated with the development of endometriosis. METHODS: We undertook a study to assess the relation between endometriosis, an estrogen dependent gynecologic disease, and 62 individual polychlorinated biphe...

  16. Developing and Evaluating New Methods for Assessing Concurrent Environmental Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary of purpose and scope (no longer than 200 words): One limitation to current environmental health research is the focus on single contaminant exposures. Each exposure estimated in epidemiologic models accounts for a relatively small proportion of observed variance in health...

  17. Developing and Evaluating New Methods for Assessing Concurrent Environmental Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary of purpose and scope (no longer than 200 words): One limitation to current environmental health research is the focus on single contaminant exposures. Each exposure estimated in epidemiologic models accounts for a relatively small proportion of observed variance in health...

  18. PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF TRANSGENERATIONAL CADMIUM EXPOSURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of assays were modified or developed to use with small fish species, specifically Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). These assays were used to compare the effects of environmentally relevant cadmium (Cd) exposure on indicators of endocrine function in adult animals previ...

  19. PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF TRANSGENERATIONAL CADMIUM EXPOSURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of assays were modified or developed to use with small fish species, specifically Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). These assays were used to compare the effects of environmentally relevant cadmium (Cd) exposure on indicators of endocrine function in adult animals previ...

  20. ELEMENTAL SPECIATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MATRICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic and tin are two trace metals where exposure assessments have moved towards a speciation based approach because the toxicity is very chemical form dependent. This toxicity difference can be one of many factors which influence the formulation of certain regulations. For a...

  1. ELEMENTAL SPECIATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MATRICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic and tin are two trace metals where exposure assessments have moved towards a speciation based approach because the toxicity is very chemical form dependent. This toxicity difference can be one of many factors which influence the formulation of certain regulations. For a...

  2. Environmental exposure to preformed nitroso compounds.

    PubMed

    Tricker, A R; Spiegelhalder, B; Preussmann, R

    1989-01-01

    In the human environment, nitrosatable amine precursors to N-nitroso compounds and nitrosating species such as nitrite and oxides of nitrogen are abundant. As a result, the formation of N-nitroso compounds and human exposure to these compounds show a rather complex pattern. The largest known human exposures to exogenous N-nitrosamines occur in the work place. This is particularly evident in the rubber and tyre manufacturing industry and in metal cutting and grinding shops. Nearly all industries which are concerned with the production and/or use of amines have a related nitrosamine problem. Outside the industrial environment, commodities such as cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, rubber and household products, which are either prepared from amines or contain high concentrations of amino compounds, may be subject to contamination by low concentrations of N-nitroso compounds. This contamination may result from the use of contaminated starting materials, in particular amines, or from the formation of N-nitroso compounds during manufacturing processes. A similar problem exists with agricultural chemicals. As our knowledge of the occurrence and formation of N-nitroso compounds in the environment increases, preventive measures can be introduced, particularly in manufacturing industries, to reduce the levels of human exposure to nitrosamines in the work place and to protect the consumer from nitrosamine exposure from household commodities.

  3. Association between environmental tobacco smoke exposure and dementia syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruoling; Wilson, Kenneth; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Dongmei; Qin, Xia; He, Meizi; Hu, Zhi; Ma, Ying; Copeland, John R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has a range of adverse health effects, but its association with dementia remains unclear and with dementia syndromes unknown. We examined the dose–response relationship between ETS exposure and dementia syndromes. Methods Using a standard method of GMS, we interviewed 5921 people aged ≥60 years in five provinces in China in 2007–2009 and characterised their ETS exposure. Five levels of dementia syndrome were diagnosed using the Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy instrument. The relative risk (RR) of moderate (levels 1–2) and severe (levels 3–5) dementia syndromes among participants exposed to ETS was calculated in multivariate adjusted regression models. Results 626 participants (10.6%) had severe dementia syndromes and 869 (14.7%) moderate syndromes. Participants exposed to ETS had a significantly increased risk of severe syndromes (adjusted RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.59). This was dose-dependently related to exposure level and duration. The cumulative exposure dose data showed an adjusted RR of 0.99 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.28) for >0–24 level years of exposure, 1.15 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.42) for 25–49 level years, 1.18 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.59) for 59–74 level years, 1.39 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.84) for 75–99 level years and 1.95 (95% CI 1.34 to 2.83) for ≥100 level years. Significant associations with severe syndromes were found in never smokers and in former/current smokers. There were no positive associations between ETS and moderate dementia syndromes. Conclusions ETS should be considered an important risk factor for severe dementia syndromes. Avoidance of ETS may reduce the rates of severe dementia syndromes worldwide. PMID:23104731

  4. Exposure to Environmental Air Manganese and Medication Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element with natural low levels found in water, food, and air, but due to industrialized processes, both workplace and the environmental exposures to Mn have increased. Recently, environmental studies have reported physical and mental health problem...

  5. Exposure to Environmental Air Manganese and Medication Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element with natural low levels found in water, food, and air, but due to industrialized processes, both workplace and the environmental exposures to Mn have increased. Recently, environmental studies have reported physical and mental health problem...

  6. Effects of antihistamine on up-regulation of histamine H1 receptor mRNA in the nasal mucosa of patients with pollinosis induced by controlled cedar pollen challenge in an environmental exposure unit.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Nakagawa, Hideyuki; Fujii, Tatsuya; Sakoda, Takema; Enomoto, Tadao; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Noriaki

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of antihistamine on the up-regulation of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa of patients with pollinosis induced by controlled exposure to pollen using an environmental exposure unit. Out of 20 patients, we designated 14 responders, whose levels of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa were increased after the first pollen exposure and excluded 6 non-responders. Accordingly, the first exposure to pollen without treatment significantly induced both nasal symptoms and the up-regulation of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa of the responders. Subsequently, prophylactic administration of antihistamine prior to the second pollen exposure significantly inhibited both of the above effects in the responders. Moreover, the nasal expression of H1R mRNA before the second pollen exposure in the responders pretreated with antihistamine was significantly decreased, as compared with that before the first pollen exposure without treatment. These findings suggest that antihistamines suppressed histamine-induced transcriptional activation of H1R gene in the nasal mucosa, in addition to their blocking effect against histamine on H1R, resulting in a decrease of nasal symptoms. These findings further suggest that by their inverse agonistic activity, antihistamines suppress the basal transcription of nasal H1R in the absence of histamine in responders.

  7. AN INTEGRATED NETWORK APPROACH TO IDENTIFYING BIOLOGICAL PATHWAYS AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE INTERACTIONS IN COMPLEX DISEASES

    PubMed Central

    DARABOS, CHRISTIAN; QIU, JINGYA; MOORE, JASON H.

    2015-01-01

    Complex diseases are the result of intricate interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. In previous studies, we used epidemiological and genetic data linking environmental exposure or genetic variants to phenotypic disease to construct Human Phenotype Networks and separately analyze the effects of both environment and genetic factors on disease interactions. To better capture the intricacies of the interactions between environmental exposure and the biological pathways in complex disorders, we integrate both aspects into a single “tripartite” network. Despite extensive research, the mechanisms by which chemical agents disrupt biological pathways are still poorly understood. In this study, we use our integrated network model to identify specific biological pathway candidates possibly disrupted by environmental agents. We conjecture that a higher number of co-occurrences between an environmental substance and biological pathway pair can be associated with a higher likelihood that the substance is involved in disrupting that pathway. We validate our model by demonstrating its ability to detect known arsenic and signal transduction pathway interactions and speculate on candidate cell-cell junction organization pathways disrupted by cadmium. The validation was supported by distinct publications of cell biology and genetic studies that associated environmental exposure to pathway disruption. The integrated network approach is a novel method for detecting the biological effects of environmental exposures. A better understanding of the molecular processes associated with specific environmental exposures will help in developing targeted molecular therapies for patients who have been exposed to the toxicity of environmental chemicals. PMID:26776169

  8. Reporting individual results for biomonitoring and environmental exposures: lessons learned from environmental communication case studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Measurement methods for chemicals in biological and personal environmental samples have expanded rapidly and become a cornerstone of health studies and public health surveillance. These measurements raise questions about whether and how to report individual results to study participants, particularly when health effects and exposure reduction strategies are uncertain. In an era of greater public participation and open disclosure in science, researchers and institutional review boards (IRBs) need new guidance on changing norms and best practices. Drawing on the experiences of researchers, IRBs, and study participants, we discuss ethical frameworks, effective methods, and outcomes in studies that have reported personal results for a wide range of environmental chemicals. Belmont Report principles and community-based participatory research ethics imply responsibilities to report individual results, and several recent biomonitoring guidance documents call for individual reports. Meaningful report-back includes contextual information about health implications and exposure reduction strategies. Both narrative and graphs are helpful. Graphs comparing an individual’s results with other participants in the study and benchmarks, such as the National Exposure Report, are helpful, but must be used carefully to avoid incorrect inferences that higher results are necessarily harmful or lower results are safe. Methods can be tailored for specific settings by involving participants and community members in planning. Participants and researchers who have participated in report-back identified benefits: increasing trust in science, retention in cohort studies, environmental health literacy, individual and community empowerment, and motivation to reduce exposures. Researchers as well as participants gained unexpected insights into the characteristics and sources of environmental contamination. Participants are almost universally eager to receive their results and do not regret

  9. Reporting individual results for biomonitoring and environmental exposures: lessons learned from environmental communication case studies.

    PubMed

    Brody, Julia Green; Dunagan, Sarah C; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brown, Phil; Patton, Sharyle; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2014-05-26

    Measurement methods for chemicals in biological and personal environmental samples have expanded rapidly and become a cornerstone of health studies and public health surveillance. These measurements raise questions about whether and how to report individual results to study participants, particularly when health effects and exposure reduction strategies are uncertain. In an era of greater public participation and open disclosure in science, researchers and institutional review boards (IRBs) need new guidance on changing norms and best practices. Drawing on the experiences of researchers, IRBs, and study participants, we discuss ethical frameworks, effective methods, and outcomes in studies that have reported personal results for a wide range of environmental chemicals. Belmont Report principles and community-based participatory research ethics imply responsibilities to report individual results, and several recent biomonitoring guidance documents call for individual reports. Meaningful report-back includes contextual information about health implications and exposure reduction strategies. Both narrative and graphs are helpful. Graphs comparing an individual's results with other participants in the study and benchmarks, such as the National Exposure Report, are helpful, but must be used carefully to avoid incorrect inferences that higher results are necessarily harmful or lower results are safe. Methods can be tailored for specific settings by involving participants and community members in planning. Participants and researchers who have participated in report-back identified benefits: increasing trust in science, retention in cohort studies, environmental health literacy, individual and community empowerment, and motivation to reduce exposures. Researchers as well as participants gained unexpected insights into the characteristics and sources of environmental contamination. Participants are almost universally eager to receive their results and do not regret getting

  10. Gut Dysbiosis in Animals Due to Environmental Chemical Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiome consists of over 103–104 microorganism inhabitants that together possess 150 times more genes that the human genome and thus should be considered an “organ” in of itself. Such communities of bacteria are in dynamic flux and susceptible to changes in host environment and body condition. In turn, gut microbiome disturbances can affect health status of the host. Gut dysbiosis might result in obesity, diabetes, gastrointestinal, immunological, and neurobehavioral disorders. Such host diseases can originate due to shifts in microbiota favoring more pathogenic species that produce various virulence factors, such as lipopolysaccharide. Bacterial virulence factors and metabolites may be transmitted to distal target sites, including the brain. Other potential mechanisms by which gut dysbiosis can affect the host include bacterial-produced metabolites, production of hormones and factors that mimic those produced by the host, and epimutations. All animals, including humans, are exposed daily to various environmental chemicals that can influence the gut microbiome. Exposure to such chemicals might lead to downstream systemic effects that occur secondary to gut microbiome disturbances. Increasing reports have shown that environmental chemical exposures can target both host and the resident gut microbiome. In this review, we will first consider the current knowledge of how endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), heavy metals, air pollution, and nanoparticles can influence the gut microbiome. The second part of the review will consider how potential environmental chemical-induced gut microbiome changes might subsequently induce pathophysiological responses in the host, although definitive evidence for such effects is still lacking. By understanding how these chemicals result in gut dysbiosis, it may open up new remediation strategies in animals, including humans, exposed to such chemicals. PMID:28936425

  11. Environmental contaminant exposures and preterm birth: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Kelly K.; O’Neill, Marie S.; Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth is a significant public health concern, as it is associated with high risk of infant mortality, various morbidities in both the neonatal period and later in life, and a significant societal economic burden. As many cases are of unknown etiology, identification of the contribution of environmental contaminant exposures is a priority in the study of preterm birth. This is a comprehensive review of all known studies published from 1992 through August 2012 linking maternal exposure to environmental chemicals during pregnancy with preterm birth. Using PubMed searches studies were identified that examined associations between preterm birth and exposure to 5 categories of environmental toxicants, including persistent organic pollutants, drinking water contaminants, atmospheric pollutants, metals and metalloids, and other environmental contaminants. Individual studies were summarized and specific suggestions made for future work in regard to exposure and outcome assessment methods as well as study design, with the recommendation of focusing on potential mediating toxicological mechanisms. In conclusion, no consistent evidence was found for positive associations between individual chemical exposures and preterm birth. By identifying limitations and addressing the gaps that may have impeded the ability to identify true associations thus far, this review can guide future epidemiologic studies of environmental exposures and preterm birth. PMID:23682677

  12. Health effects of environmental exposure to cadmium: objectives, design and organization of the cadmibel study: a cross-sectional morbidity study carried out in Belgium from 1985 to 1989

    PubMed Central

    Lauwerys, Robert; Amery, Antoon; Bernard, Alfred; Bruaux, Pierre; Buchet, Jean-Pierre; Claeys, Françoise; De Plaen, Pierre; Ducoffre, Geneviève; Fagard, Robert; Lijnen, Paul; Nick, Laurence; Roels, Harry; Rondia, Désiré; Saint-Remy, Annie; Sartor, Francis; Staessen, Jan

    1990-01-01

    Cadmium is a cumulative environmental pollutant. For the general population mainly exposed by the oral route and through tobacco smoke inhalation, the kidney is the critical organ. Belgium is the principal producer of cadmium in Europe, and certain areas of the country are polluted by cadmium mainly because of past emissions from nonferrous industries. Preliminary studies carried out in one polluted area have suggested that environmental pollution might lead to an increased uptake of cadmium by the human body and possibly to health effects. Thus, a large-scale morbidity study has been initiated to assess the validity of this hypothesis. The present paper describes the protocol of this study. Its main objectives are to determine to what extent environmental exposure to cadmium resulting from industrial emissions may lead to accumulation of the metal in the human organism; to establish whether or not environmental exposure may induce renal changes and/or influence blood pressure; and to assess the acceptable internal dose of cadmium for the general population. The study design takes advantage of the fact that biological indicators of exposure, body burden, and early nephrotoxic effects of cadmium are available, which increase the likelihood of detecting a cause-effect relationship. PMID:2269233

  13. Environmental chemical exposures and disturbances of heme synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, W E; Stockbridge, H L; Labbe, R F; Woods, J S; Anderson, K E; Bissell, D M; Bloomer, J R; Ellefson, R D; Moore, M R; Pierach, C A; Schreiber, W E; Tefferi, A; Franklin, G M

    1997-01-01

    Porphyrias are relatively uncommon inherited or acquired disorders in which clinical manifestations are attributable to a disturbance of heme synthesis (porphyrin metabolism), usually in association with endogenous or exogenous stressors. Porphyrias are characterized by elevations of heme precursors in blood, urine, and/or stool. A number of chemicals, particularly metals and halogenated hydrocarbons, induce disturbances of heme synthesis in experimental animals. Certain chemicals have also been linked to porphyria or porphyrinuria in humans, generally involving chronic industrial exposures or environmental exposures much higher than those usually encountered. A noteworthy example is the Turkish epidemic of porphyria cutanea tarda produced by accidental ingestion of wheat treated with the fungicide hexachlorobenzene. Measurements of excreted heme precursors have the potential to serve as biological markers for harmful but preclinical effects of certain chemical exposures; this potential warrants further research and applied field studies. It has been hypothesized that several otherwise unexplained chemical-associated illnesses, such as multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome, may represent mild chronic cases of porphyria or other acquired abnormalities in heme synthesis. This review concludes that, although it is reasonable to consider such hypotheses, there is currently no convincing evidence that these illnesses are mediated by a disturbance of heme synthesis; it is premature or unfounded to base clinical management on such explanations unless laboratory data are diagnostic for porphyria. This review discusses the limitations of laboratory measures of heme synthesis, and diagnostic guidelines are provided to assist in evaluating the symptomatic individual suspected of having a porphyria. PMID:9114276

  14. Environmental exposure and altered menstrual function

    SciTech Connect

    Keye, W.R. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The impact of environmental agents and occupational factors on hypothalamic and pituitary function and menstruation are poorly understood. To date, most research related to environment, occupation, and reproduction has focused on pregnancy outcome, not menstrual function. It is imperative, however, that menstrual function be considered as an outcome variable in the study of reproduction and occupation.

  15. Developing a Salivary Antibody Multiplex Immunoassay to Measure Human Exposure to Environmental Pathogens

    EPA Science Inventory

    The etiology and impacts of human exposure to environmental pathogens are of major concern worldwide and, thus, the ability to assess exposure and infections using cost effective, high-throughput approaches would be indispensable. The principal objective of this work is to devel...

  16. Developing a Salivary Antibody Multiplex Immunoassay to Measure Human Exposure to Environmental Pathogens

    EPA Science Inventory

    The etiology and impacts of human exposure to environmental pathogens are of major concern worldwide and, thus, the ability to assess exposure and infections using cost effective, high-throughput approaches would be indispensable. The principal objective of this work is to devel...

  17. DO CHILDREN BENEFIT FROM INCREASING CIGARETTE TAXES? ACCOUNTING FOR THE ENDOGENEITY OF LUNG HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    My research investigates the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and lung function in children. I use detailed individual health data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) to measure the effect of environmental tobacco smoke ...

  18. DO CHILDREN BENEFIT FROM INCREASING CIGARETTE TAXES? ACCOUNTING FOR THE ENDOGENEITY OF LUNG HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    My research investigates the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and lung function in children. I use detailed individual health data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) to measure the effect of environmental tobacco smoke ...

  19. Effects of chronic exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of brominated flame retardants on the reproductive and thyroid system in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Ernest, Sheila R; Wade, Michael G; Lalancette, Claudia; Ma, Yi-Qian; Berger, Robert G; Robaire, Bernard; Hales, Barbara F

    2012-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are incorporated into a wide variety of consumer products, are readily released into home and work environments, and are present in house dust. Studies using animal models have revealed that exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may impair adult male reproductive function and thyroid hormone physiology. Such studies have generally characterized the outcome of acute or chronic exposure to a single BFR technical mixture or congener but not the impact of environmentally relevant BFR mixtures. We tested whether exposure to the BFRs found in house dust would have an adverse impact on the adult male rat reproductive system and thyroid function. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to a complex BFR mixture composed of three commercial brominated diphenyl ethers (52.1% DE-71, 0.4% DE-79, and 44.2% decaBDE-209) and hexabromocyclododecane (3.3%), formulated to mimic the relative congener levels in house dust. BFRs were delivered in the diet at target doses of 0, 0.02, 0.2, 2, or 20 mg/kg/day for 70 days. Compared with controls, males exposed to the highest dose of BFRs displayed a significant increase in the weights of the kidneys and liver, which was accompanied by induction of CYP1A and CYP2B P450 hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes. BFR exposure did not affect reproductive organ weights, serum testosterone levels, testicular function, or sperm DNA integrity. The highest dose caused thyroid toxicity as indicated by decreased serum thyroxine (T4) and hypertrophy of the thyroid gland epithelium. At lower doses, the thickness of the thyroid gland epithelium was reduced, but no changes in hormone levels (T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone) were observed. Thus, exposure to BFRs affected liver and thyroid physiology but not male reproductive parameters.

  20. THE ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY BRANCH - PROVIDING CHEMICAL ANSWERS TO ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE AND RISK PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Chemistry Branch (ECB) is part of the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) within EPA's Office of Research and Development. ECB is located in NERL's Environmental Sciences Division in Las Vegas, Nevada. We are 15 Research Chemists and Environmental Scien...

  1. Retrospective dosimetry related to chronic environmental exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degteva, M. O.; Kozheurov, V. P.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Neta, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of the environment occurred in the early fifties as a result of the releases from the Mayak plutonium production complex (Southern Urals, Russia). The releases of liquid wastes into the Techa river resulted in chronic exposure of 30,000 residents of the riverside communities. Since 1951 90Sr body burdens have been measured for over half of this cohort. This paper presents the analysis of data on 90Sr in humans and describes the reconstruction of internal doses for these people.

  2. Renal and Neurologic Effects of Cadmium, Lead, Mercury, and Arsenic in Children: Evidence of Early Effects and Multiple Interactions at Environmental Exposure Levels

    PubMed Central

    de Burbure, Claire; Buchet, Jean-Pierre; Leroyer, Ariane; Nisse, Catherine; Haguenoer, Jean-Marie; Mutti, Antonio; Smerhovský, Zdenek; Cikrt, Miroslav; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Razniewska, Grazyna; Jakubowski, Marek; Bernard, Alfred

    2006-01-01

    Lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic are common environmental pollutants in industrialized countries, but their combined impact on children’s health is little known. We studied their effects on two main targets, the renal and dopaminergic systems, in > 800 children during a cross-sectional European survey. Control and exposed children were recruited from those living around historical nonferrous smelters in France, the Czech Republic, and Poland. Children provided blood and urine samples for the determination of the metals and sensitive renal or neurologic biomarkers. Serum concentrations of creatinine, cystatin C, and β2-microglobulin were negatively correlated with blood lead levels (PbB), suggesting an early renal hyperfiltration that averaged 7% in the upper quartile of PbB levels (> 55 μg/L; mean, 78.4 μg/L). The urinary excretion of retinol-binding protein, Clara cell protein, and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase was associated mainly with cadmium levels in blood or urine and with urinary mercury. All four metals influenced the dopaminergic markers serum prolactin and urinary homovanillic acid, with complex interactions brought to light. Heavy metals polluting the environment can cause subtle effects on children’s renal and dopaminergic systems without clear evidence of a threshold, which reinforces the need to control and regulate potential sources of contamination by heavy metals. PMID:16581550

  3. Effects of exercise and environmental complexity on deficits in trace and contextual fear conditioning produced by neonatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, W B; St Cyr, S A; Jablonski, S A; Hunt, P S; Klintsova, A Y; Stanton, M E

    2013-07-01

    In rodents, voluntary exercise and environmental complexity increases hippocampal neurogenesis and reverses spatial learning and long-term potentiation deficits in animals prenatally exposed to alcohol. The present experiment extended these findings to neonatal alcohol exposure and to delay, trace, and contextual fear conditioning. Rats were administered either 5.25 g/kg/day alcohol via gastric intubation or received sham-intubations (SI) between Postnatal Day (PD) 4 and 9 followed by either free access to a running wheel on PD 30-41 and housing in a complex environment on PD 42-72 (wheel-running plus environmental complexity; WREC) or conventional social housing (SHSH) from PD 30 to 72. Adult rats (PD 80 ± 5) received 5 trials/day of a 10-s flashing-light conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with .8 mA footshock either immediately (delay conditioning) or after a 10-s trace interval (trace conditioning) for 2 days. Neonatal alcohol exposure impaired context and trace conditioning, but not short-delay conditioning. The WREC intervention did not reverse these deficits, despite increasing context-related freezing in ethanol-exposed and SI animals.

  4. Environmental PAH exposure and male idiopathic infertility: a review on early life exposures and adult diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Madeen, Erin P; Williams, David E

    2017-03-01

    The male reproductive system is acutely and uniquely sensitive to a variety of toxicities, including those induced by environmental pollutants throughout the lifespan. Early life hormonal and morphological development results in several especially sensitive critical windows of toxicity risk associated with lifelong decreased reproductive health and fitness. Male factor infertility can account for over 40% of infertility in couples seeking treatment, and 44% of infertile men are diagnosed with idiopathic male infertility. Human environmental exposures are poorly understood due to limited available data. The latency between maternal and in utero exposure and a diagnosis in adulthood complicates the correlation between environmental exposures and infertility. The results from this review include recommendations for more and region specific monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure, longitudinal and clinical cohort considerations of exposure normalization, gene-environment interactions, in utero exposure studies, and controlled mechanistic animal experiments. Additionally, it is recommended that detailed semen analysis and male fertility data be included as endpoints in environmental exposure cohort studies due to the sensitivity of the male reproductive system to environmental pollutants, including PAHs.

  5. Neurobehavioral effects of developmental methylmercury exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, S.G.; Grant-Webster, K.S.

    1995-09-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a global environmental problem and is listed by the International Program of Chemical Safety as one of the six most dangerous chemicals in the world`s environment. Human exposure to MeHg primarily occurs through the consumption of contaminated food such as fish, although catastrophic exposures due to industrial pollution have occurred. The fetus is particularly sensitive to MeHg exposure and adverse effects on infant development have been associated with levels of exposure that result in few, if any, signs of maternal clinical illness or toxicity. High levels of prenatal exposure in humans result in neurobehavioral effects such as cerebral palsy and severe mental retardation. Prenatal exposure to MeHg in communities with chronic low-level exposure is related to decreased birthweight and early sensorimotor dysfunction such as delayed onset of walking. Neurobehavioral alterations have also been documented in studies with non human primates and rodents. Available information on the developmental neurotoxic effects of MeHg, particularly the neurobehavioral effects, indicates that the fetus and infant are more sensitive to adverse effects of MEHg. It is therefore recommended that pregnant women and women of childbearing age be strongly advised to limit their exposure to potential sources of MeHg. Based on results from human and animal studies on the developmental neurotoxic effects of methylmercury, the accepted reference dose should be lowered to 0.025 to 0.06 MeHg {mu}g/kg/day. Continued research on the neurotoxic effects associated with low level developmental exposure is needed. 107 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Neurobehavioral effects of developmental methylmercury exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, S G; Grant-Webster, K S

    1995-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a global environmental problem and is listed by the International Program of Chemical Safety as one of the six most dangerous chemicals in the world's environment. Human exposure to MeHg primarily occurs through the consumption of contaminated food such as fish, although catastrophic exposures due to industrial pollution have occurred. The fetus is particularly sensitive to MeHg exposure and adverse effects on infant development have been associated with levels of exposure that result in few, if any, signs of maternal clinical illness or toxicity. High levels of prenatal exposure in humans result in neurobehavioral effects such as cerebral palsy and severe mental retardation. Prenatal exposure to MeHg in communities with chronic low-level exposure is related to decreased birthweight and early sensorimotor dysfunction such as delayed onset of walking. Neurobehavioral alterations have also been documented in studies with nonhuman primates and rodents. Available information on the developmental neurotoxic effects of MeHg, particularly the neurobehavioral effects, indicates that the fetus and infant are more sensitive to adverse effects of MeHg. It is therefore recommended that pregnant women and women of childbearing age be strongly advised to limit their exposure to potential sources of MeHg. Based on results from human and animal studies on the developmental neurotoxic effects of methylmercury, the accepted reference dose should be lowered to 0.025 to 0.06 MeHg microgram/kg/day. Continued research on the neurotoxic effects associated with low level developmental exposure is needed. PMID:8549462

  7. Exposure to an environmental estrogen breaks down sexual isolation between native and invasive species

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Jessica L; Blum, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Environmental change can increase the likelihood of interspecific hybridization by altering properties of mate recognition and discrimination between sympatric congeners. We examined how exposure to an environmentally widespread endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC), bisphenol A (BPA), affected visual communication signals and behavioral isolation between an introduced freshwater fish and a native congener (genus: Cyprinella). Exposure to BPA induced changes in the expression of male secondary traits as well as male and female mate choice, leading to an overall reduction in prezygotic isolation between congeners. Changes in female mate discrimination were not tightly linked to changes in male phenotypic traits, suggesting that EDC exposure may alter female choice thresholds independently of the effects of exposure on males. These findings indicate that environmental exposure to EDCs can lead to population declines via the erosion of species boundaries and by promoting the establishment and spread of non-native species via hybridization. PMID:23346234

  8. Linking the Epigenome with Exposure Effects and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The epigenome is a dynamic mediator of gene expression that shapes the way that cells, tissues, and organisms respond to their environment. Initial studies in the emerging field of “toxicoepigenetics” have described either the impact of an environmental exposure on the epigenome or the association of epigenetic signatures with the onset or progression of disease: however, the majority of these pioneering studies examined the relationship between discrete epigenetic modifications and the effects of a single environmental factor. While these data provide critical blocks with which we construct our understanding of the role of the epigenome in susceptibility and disease, they are akin to individual letters in a complex alphabet that is used to compose the language of the epigenome. Advancing the use of epigenetic data to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying exposure effects, identify susceptible populations, and inform the next generation of risk management depends on our ability to integrate these data in a way that accounts for their cumulative impact on gene regulation. Here we will review current examples demonstrating associations between the epigenetic impacts of intrinsic factors, such as such as age, genetics, and sex, and environmental exposures shape the epigenome and susceptibility, to exposure effects and disease. We will also demonstrate how the “epigenetic seed and soil'' model can be used as a conceptua

  9. Linking the Epigenome with Exposure Effects and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The epigenome is a dynamic mediator of gene expression that shapes the way that cells, tissues, and organisms respond to their environment. Initial studies in the emerging field of “toxicoepigenetics” have described either the impact of an environmental exposure on the epigenome or the association of epigenetic signatures with the onset or progression of disease: however, the majority of these pioneering studies examined the relationship between discrete epigenetic modifications and the effects of a single environmental factor. While these data provide critical blocks with which we construct our understanding of the role of the epigenome in susceptibility and disease, they are akin to individual letters in a complex alphabet that is used to compose the language of the epigenome. Advancing the use of epigenetic data to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying exposure effects, identify susceptible populations, and inform the next generation of risk management depends on our ability to integrate these data in a way that accounts for their cumulative impact on gene regulation. Here we will review current examples demonstrating associations between the epigenetic impacts of intrinsic factors, such as such as age, genetics, and sex, and environmental exposures shape the epigenome and susceptibility, to exposure effects and disease. We will also demonstrate how the “epigenetic seed and soil'' model can be used as a conceptua

  10. Racial differences in Urban children's environmental exposures to lead.

    PubMed Central

    Lanphear, B P; Weitzman, M; Eberly, S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study explored whether differences in environmental lead exposures explain the racial disparity in children's blood lead levels. METHODS: Environmental sources of lead were identified for a random sample of 172 urban children. RESULTS: Blood lead levels were significantly higher among Black children. Lead-contamination of dust was higher in Black children's homes, and the condition of floors and interior paint was generally poorer. White children were more likely to put soil in their mouths and to suck their fingers, whereas Black children were more likely to put their mouths on window sills and to use a bottle. Major contributors to blood lead were interior lead exposures for Black children and exterior lead exposures for White children. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in housing conditions and exposures to lead-contaminated house dust contribute strongly to the racial disparity in urban children's blood lead levels. PMID:8876521

  11. Environmental exposures due to natural disasters

    PubMed Central

    Knap, Anthony H.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    The environmental mobilization of contaminants by “natural disasters” is a subject of much interest; however, little has been done to address these concerns, especially in the developing world. Frequencies and predictability of events, both globally and regionally as well as the intensity, vary widely. It is clear that there are greater probabilities for mobilization of modern contaminants in sediments. Over the past 100 years of industrialization many chemicals are buried in riverine, estuarine and coastal sediments. There are a few studies, which have investigated this potential risk especially to human health. Studies that focus on extreme events need to determine the pre-existing baseline, determine the medium to long term fate and transport of contaminants and investigate aquatic and terrestrial pathways. Comprehensive studies are required to investigate the disease pathways and susceptibility for human health concerns. PMID:26982607

  12. Environmental exposures due to natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Knap, Anthony H; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    The environmental mobilization of contaminants by "natural disasters" is a subject of much interest, however, little has been done to address these concerns, especially in the developing world. Frequencies and predictability of events, both globally and regionally as well as the intensity, vary widely. It is clear that there are greater probabilities for mobilization of modern contaminants in sediments. Over the past 100 years of industrialization many chemicals are buried in riverine, estuarine and coastal sediments. There are a few studies, which have investigated this potential risk especially to human health. Studies that focus on extreme events need to determine the pre-existing baseline, determine the medium to long term fate and transport of contaminants and investigate aquatic and terrestrial pathways. Comprehensive studies are required to investigate the disease pathways and susceptibility for human health concerns.

  13. Effects of chronic dietary exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on survival, growth, reproduction and biochemical responses of female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giesy, John P.; Jones, Paul D.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Newsted, John L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Williams, Lisa L.

    2002-01-01

    Adult female rainbow trout were exposed to dietary 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at concentrations of 1.8, 18 and 90 ng TCDD/kg (ww) food for up to 300 day. At the end of the exposure fish were spawned and the reproductive outcomes were assessed. TCDD was accumulated into tissues and eggs in a dose-dependent manner with steady state being achieved after 50–100 day of exposure. Biochemical and hematological parameters were monitored at 50, 100, 150, and 200 day after the beginning of exposure. The survival of adult female trout was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by exposure to TCDD in the diet. Fish fed 1.8 ng TCDD/kg, moist weight of diet, showed significantly reduced survival compared with those fed the control diet. TCDD also affected survival of fry from females fed 1.8 ng TCDD/kg. Observed adverse effects in adult fish were as sensitive as early life-stage endpoints. Liver EROD activity was only moderately increased in all exposure groups after 250+ day of exposure. Low rates of edema and deformities were observed in fry from all treatment groups including controls. This study has demonstrated adverse effects of TCDD to both adults and fry at concentrations comparable to current environmental concentrations. This suggests that direct adult toxicity as well as reproductive endpoints need to be incorporated in the current risk assessment paradigm for these compounds.

  14. Biological markers in animals can provide information on exposure and bioavailability of environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Shugart, L.R.; Adams, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Talmage, S.S.; McCarthy, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of agents present in the environment seek to identify the extent to which they contribute to the causation of a specific toxic, clinical, or pathological endpoint. The multifactorial nature of disease etiology, long latency periods and the complexity of exposure, all contribute to the difficulty of establishing associations and casual relationships between a specific exposure and an adverse outcome. These barriers to studies of exposures and subsequent risk assessment cannot generally be changed. However, the appropriate use of biological markers in animal species living in a contaminated habitat can provide a measure of potential damage from that exposure and, in some instances, act as a surrogate for human environmental exposures. Quantitative predictivity of the effect of exposure to environmental pollutants is being approached by employing an appropriate array of biological end points. 34 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  15. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts: results from the ENRIECO project

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts) project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts), occupational exposures (N=33), outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27). Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite exposure assessment. Collaborative analyses with data from several birth cohorts have already been performed successfully for outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens, biological contaminants, molds, POPs and SHS. Key success factors for collaborative analyses are common definitions of main exposure and health variables. Our review emphasizes that such common definitions need ideally be arrived at in the study design phase. However, careful comparison of methods used in existing studies also offers excellent opportunities for collaborative analyses. Investigators can use this review to evaluate the potential for future collaborative analyses with respect to data availability and methods used in the different cohorts and to identify potential partners for a specific research

  16. The Pregnancy Exposome: Multiple Environmental Exposures in the INMA-Sabadell Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Oliver; Basagaña, Xavier; Agier, Lydiane; de Castro, Montserrat; Hernandez-Ferrer, Carles; Gonzalez, Juan R; Grimalt, Joan O; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Sunyer, Jordi; Slama, Rémy; Vrijheid, Martine

    2015-09-01

    The "exposome" is defined as "the totality of human environmental exposures from conception onward, complementing the genome" and its holistic approach may advance understanding of disease etiology. We aimed to describe the correlation structure of the exposome during pregnancy to better understand the relationships between and within families of exposure and to develop analytical tools appropriate to exposome data. Estimates on 81 environmental exposures of current health concern were obtained for 728 women enrolled in The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) birth cohort, in Sabadell, Spain, using biomonitoring, geospatial modeling, remote sensors, and questionnaires. Pair-wise Pearson's and polychoric correlations were calculated and principal components were derived. The median absolute correlation across all exposures was 0.06 (5th-95th centiles, 0.01-0.54). There were strong levels of correlation within families of exposure (median = 0.45, 5th-95th centiles, 0.07-0.85). Nine exposures (11%) had a correlation higher than 0.5 with at least one exposure outside their exposure family. Effectively all the variance in the data set (99.5%) was explained by 40 principal components. Future exposome studies should interpret exposure effects in light of their correlations to other exposures. The weak to moderate correlation observed between exposure families will permit adjustment for confounding in future exposome studies.

  17. Fetal Exposure to Environmental Neurotoxins in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Fan, Chun-Hua; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) are recognized neurotoxins in children that particularly affect neurodevelopment and intellectual performance. Based on the hypothesis that the fetal basis of adult disease is fetal toxic exposure that results in adverse outcomes in adulthood, we explored the concentrations of key neurotoxins (i.e., Hg, Pb, Cd, and As) in meconium to identify the risk factors associated with these concentrations. From January 2007 to December 2009, 545 mother-infant pairs were recruited. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb and As in the meconium of babies of foreign-born mothers (22.9 and 38.1 µg/kg dry weight, respectively) were significantly greater than those of babies of Taiwan-born mothers (17.5 and 33.0 µg/kg dry weight, respectively). Maternal age (≥30 y), maternal education, use of traditional Chinese herbs during pregnancy, and fish cutlet consumption (≥3 meals/wk) were risk factors associated with concentrations of key prenatal neurotoxins. The Taiwan government should focus more attention on providing intervention programs for immigrant mothers to help protect the health of unborn babies. Further investigation on how multiple neurotoxins influence prenatal neurodevelopment is warranted. PMID:25299345

  18. Environmental copper: its dynamics and human exposure issues.

    PubMed

    Georgopoulos, P G; Roy, A; Yonone-Lioy, M J; Opiekun, R E; Lioy, P J

    2001-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the environmental patterns and dynamics of copper from the perspective of issues that affect our ability to examine current human exposures. It presents selected summary information on the levels of copper found in various media and exposure pathways from a variety of information sources, and discusses the breadth and the limitations of this information. The analysis presented focuses on the ability to provide quantitative values for both external metrics of exposures (microenvironmental levels) and internal biological markers of exposure. The status of the current information on environmental copper is placed within a conceptual framework that can be used to identify data gaps, assess the utility of current biological markers of exposure, and examine the need for systematic and consistent data-gathering studies to improve our ability to complete exposure assessments. A primary concern is the exposure to copper through potable water supplies; this is considered within a framework that examines copper levels and distribution in food, soil, air and sediments, as well as the levels found in biological media such as urine, blood, and hair. An existing water consumption model for copper and associated exposure factors is briefly discussed. This type of model will eventually be valuable within a total exposure analysis modeling framework that can consider and prioritize exposures from multiple routes and differentiate levels of concern for both excesses and deficiencies in exposure, an important issue, since copper is an essential nutrient. Finally, this review attempts to examine the needs for better information using as a basis the concerns briefly mentioned in the recent NRC report "Copper in Drinking Water" (National Research Council, 2000).

  19. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure during Pregnancy and Child Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Polanska, Kinga; Krol, Anna; Ligocka, Danuta; Mikolajewska, Karolina; Mirabella, Fiorino; Chiarotti, Flavia; Calamandrei, Gemma; Hanke, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    The developing fetus is especially vulnerable to environmental toxicants, including tobacco constituents. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during pregnancy on child neurodevelopment within the first two years of life. The study population consisted of 461 non-smoking pregnant women (saliva cotinine level <10 ng/mL). Maternal passive smoking was assessed based on the cotinine level in saliva analyzed by the use of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI + MS/MS) and by questionnaire data. The cotinine cut-off value for passive smoking was established at 1.5 ng/mL (sensitivity 63%, specificity 71%). Psychomotor development was assessed in children at the age of one- and two-years using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. Approximately 30% of the women were exposed to ETS during pregnancy. The multivariate linear regression model indicated that ETS exposure in the 1st and the 2nd trimesters of pregnancy were associated with decreasing child language functions at the age of one (β = −3.0, p = 0.03, and β = −4.1, p = 0.008, respectively), and two years (β = −3.8, p = 0.05, and β = −6.3, p = 0.005, respectively). A negative association was found for cotinine level ≥1.5 ng/mL in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy and child cognition at the age of 2 (β = −4.6, p = 0.05), as well as cotinine levels ≥1.5 ng/mL in all trimesters of pregnancy and child motor abilities at two years of age (β = −3.9, p = 0.06, β = −5.3, p = 0.02, and β = −4.2, p = 0.05, for the 1st, the 2nd, and the 3rd trimester of pregnancy, respectively; for the 1st trimester the effect was of borderline statistical significance). This study confirmed that ETS exposure during pregnancy can have a negative impact on child psychomotor development within the first two years of life and underscore the importance of public health interventions aiming at reducing this

  20. Epigenetics, linking social and environmental exposures to preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Burris, Heather H; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth remains a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity. Despite decades of research, marked racial and socioeconomic disparities in preterm birth persist. In the US, more than 16% of African American infants are born before 37 weeks of gestation compared to less than 11% of white infants. While income and education differences predict a portion of these racial disparities, income and education are proxies of the underlying causes rather than the true cause. How these differences lead to the pathophysiology remains unknown. Beyond tobacco smoke exposure, most preterm birth investigators overlook environment exposures that often correlate with poverty. Environmental exposures to industrial contaminants track along both socioeconomic and racial/ethnic lines due to cultural variation in personal product use, diet and residential geographical separation. Emerging evidence suggests that environmental exposure to metals and plasticizers contribute to preterm birth and epigenetic modifications. The extent to which disparities in preterm birth result from interactions between the social and physical environments that produce epigenetic modifications remains unclear. In this review, we highlight studies that report associations between environmental exposures and preterm birth as well as perinatal epigenetic sensitivity to environmental contaminants and socioeconomic stressors. PMID:26460521

  1. Estimated Environmental Exposures for MISSE-3 and MISSE-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria M.; Pippin, Gary; Kinard, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Describes the estimated environmental exposure for MISSE-2 and MISSE-4. These test beds, attached to the outside of the International Space Station, were planned for 3 years of exposure. This was changed to 1 year after MISSE-1 and -2 were in space for 4 years. MISSE-3 and -4 operate in a low Earth orbit space environment, which exposes them to a variety of assaults including atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, particulate radiation, thermal cycling, and meteoroid/space debris impact, as well as contamination associated with proximity to an active space station. Measurements and determinations of atomic oxygen fluences, solar UV exposure levels, molecular contamination levels, and particulate radiation are included.

  2. Environmental Exposure Assessment of Pesticides in Farmworker Homes

    PubMed Central

    Hoppin, Jane A.; Adgate, John L.; Eberhart, Monty; Nishioka, Marcia; Ryan, P. Barry

    2006-01-01

    Farmworkers and their families are exposed to pesticides both at work and in their homes. Environmental exposure assessment provides a means to evaluate pesticides in the environment and human contact with these chemicals through identification of sources and routes of exposure. To date, a variety of methods have been used to assess pesticide exposure among farmworker families, mostly focusing on dust and handwipe samples. While many of the methods are similar, differences in the collection, chemical analysis, and statistical analysis, can limit the comparability of results from farm-worker studies. This mini-monograph discusses the strategies used to assess pesticide exposures, presents limitations in the available data for farmworkers, and suggests research needs for future studies of pesticide exposure among farmworker families. PMID:16759997

  3. Progress in cadmium-related health effects in persons with high environmental exposure in northwestern Thailand: A five-year follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Krintratun, Somyot; Punta, Boonyarat; Funkhiew, Thippawan

    2012-01-15

    Food-borne cadmium was the principal source of exposure for persons living in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. This report presents progress in cadmium-related health effects among persons with high cadmium exposure. The study included 436 persons who had urinary cadmium levels {>=}5 {mu}g/g creatinine and were screened for urinary cadmium, renal function, hypertension, diabetes and urinary stones in 2005 (baseline) and 2010 (5-year follow-up). Study renal biomarkers included urinary excretion of {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin ({beta}{sub 2}-MG), total protein and calcium, serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium statistically significantly reduced from 9.5{+-}1.6 {mu}g/g creatinine in 2005 to 8.8{+-}1.6 {mu}g/g creatinine in 2010. Compared to baseline, the follow-up examination revealed significant increases in urinary {beta}{sub 2}-MG (tubular effect), urinary total protein and serum creatinine, and a decrease in GFR (glomerular effects). Progressive renal dysfunctions were similarly observed in persons both with and without reduction in cadmium intake. Significant increases in prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and urinary stones were also detected at follow-up. These three disorders were found to markedly impair renal functions in the study persons. Our study indicates that in persons with prolonged excessive cadmium exposure, toxic health effects may progress even after exposure reduction. Renal damage from cadmium can be due to its direct nephrotoxic effect and also through the related disorders causing nephropathy.

  4. High throughput heuristics for prioritizing human exposure to environmental chemicals.

    PubMed

    Wambaugh, John F; Wang, Anran; Dionisio, Kathie L; Frame, Alicia; Egeghy, Peter; Judson, Richard; Setzer, R Woodrow

    2014-11-04

    The risk posed to human health by any of the thousands of untested anthropogenic chemicals in our environment is a function of both the hazard presented by the chemical and the extent of exposure. However, many chemicals lack estimates of exposure intake, limiting the understanding of health risks. We aim to develop a rapid heuristic method to determine potential human exposure to chemicals for application to the thousands of chemicals with little or no exposure data. We used Bayesian methodology to infer ranges of exposure consistent with biomarkers identified in urine samples from the U.S. population by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We performed linear regression on inferred exposure for demographic subsets of NHANES demarked by age, gender, and weight using chemical descriptors and use information from multiple databases and structure-based calculators. Five descriptors are capable of explaining roughly 50% of the variability in geometric means across 106 NHANES chemicals for all the demographic groups, including children aged 6-11. We use these descriptors to estimate human exposure to 7968 chemicals, the majority of which have no other quantitative exposure prediction. For thousands of chemicals with no other information, this approach allows forecasting of average exposure intake of environmental chemicals.

  5. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure.

    PubMed

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista; Masiello, Caroline A; Dugan, Brandon; Toselli, Moreno

    2016-09-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30tha(-1). We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρs) and envelope (ρe) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0-5nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over short (~years) timescales.

  6. Effects of environmental enrichment on behavioral deficits and alterations in hippocampal BDNF induced by prenatal exposure to morphine in juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmadalipour, A; Sadeghzadeh, J; Vafaei, A A; Bandegi, A R; Mohammadkhani, R; Rashidy-Pour, A

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal morphine exposure throughout pregnancy can induce a series of neurobehavioral and neurochemical disturbances by affecting central nervous system development. This study was designed to investigate the effects of an enriched environment on behavioral deficits and changes in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels induced by prenatal morphine in rats. On pregnancy days 11-18, female Wistar rats were randomly injected twice daily with saline or morphine. Offspring were weaned on postnatal day (PND) 21. They were subjected to a standard rearing environment or an enriched environment on PNDs 22-50. On PNDs 51-57, the behavioral responses including anxiety and depression-like behaviors, and passive avoidance memory as well as hippocampal BDNF levels were investigated. The light/dark (L/D) box and elevated plus maze (EPM) were used for the study of anxiety, forced swimming test (FST) was used to assess depression-like behavior and passive avoidance task was used to evaluate learning and memory. Prenatal morphine exposure caused a reduction in time spent in the EPM open arms and a reduction in time spent in the lit side of the L/D box. It also decreased step-through latency and increased time spent in the dark side of passive avoidance task. Prenatal morphine exposure also reduced immobility time and increased swimming time in FST. Postnatal rearing in an enriched environment counteracted with behavioral deficits in the EPM and passive avoidance task, but not in the L/D box. This suggests that exposure to an enriched environment during adolescence period alters anxiety profile in a task-specific manner. Prenatal morphine exposure reduced hippocampal BDNF levels, but enriched environment significantly increased BDNF levels in both saline- and morphine-exposed groups. Our results demonstrate that exposure to an enriched environment alleviates behavioral deficits induced by prenatal morphine exposure and up-regulates the decreased levels of BDNF

  7. The Effects of Earphone Use and Environmental Lead Exposure on Hearing Loss in the Korean Population: Data Analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2010–2013

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Hee; Moon, Kyong Whan

    2016-01-01

    Background Although previous studies have reported that frequent earphone use and lead exposure are risk factors for hearing loss, most of these studies were limited to small populations or animal experiments. Several studies that presented the joint effect of combined exposure of noise and heavy metal on hearing loss were also mainly conducted on occupational workers exposed to high concentration. Objectives We investigated both the individual and joint effects of earphone use and environmental lead exposure on hearing loss in the Korean general population. Methods We analyzed data from 7,596 Koreans provided by the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) during the period 2010–2013. The pure-tone average (PTA) of hearing thresholds at 2, 3, and 4 kHz frequencies was computed, and hearing loss was defined as a PTA ≥ 25 dB in one or both ears. Results A dose-response relationship in hearing loss with earphone use time and blood lead level is observed after adjustment for confounding factors. With a 1-hour increase in earphone use time and 1 μg/dL increase in blood lead concentration, the odds of hearing loss increased by 1.19 and 1.43 times, respectively. For hearing loss, the additive and multiplicative effect of earphone use and blood lead level were not statistically significant. Conclusions Earphone use and environmental lead exposure have an individual effect on hearing loss in the general population. However, the estimated joint effect of earphone use and lead exposure was not statistically significant. PMID:28030613

  8. Does exposure prediction bias health-effect estimation?: The relationship between confounding adjustment and exposure prediction.

    PubMed

    Cefalu, Matthew; Dominici, Francesca

    2014-07-01

    In environmental epidemiology, we are often faced with 2 challenges. First, an exposure prediction model is needed to estimate the exposure to an agent of interest, ideally at the individual level. Second, when estimating the health effect associated with the exposure, confounding adjustment is needed in the health-effects regression model. The current literature addresses these 2 challenges separately. That is, methods that account for measurement error in the predicted exposure often fail to acknowledge the possibility of confounding, whereas methods designed to control confounding often fail to acknowledge that the exposure has been predicted. In this article, we consider exposure prediction and confounding adjustment in a health-effects regression model simultaneously. Using theoretical arguments and simulation studies, we show that the bias of a health-effect estimate is influenced by the exposure prediction model, the type of confounding adjustment used in the health-effects regression model, and the relationship between these 2. Moreover, we argue that even with a health-effects regression model that properly adjusts for confounding, the use of a predicted exposure can bias the health-effect estimate unless all confounders included in the health-effects regression model are also included in the exposure prediction model. While these results of this article were motivated by studies of environmental contaminants, they apply more broadly to any context where an exposure needs to be predicted.

  9. Bladder cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    Kiriluk, Kyle J; Prasad, Sandip M; Patel, Amit R; Steinberg, Gary D; Smith, Norm D

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 50% of bladder cancer incidence in the United States has been attributed to known carcinogens, mainly from cigarette smoking. Following the identification of this important causative factor, many investigators have attempted to identify other major causes of bladder cancer in the environment. Genetic and epigenetic alterations related to carcinogenesis in the bladder have been linked to environmental and occupational factors unrelated to cigarette smoking and may account for a significant portion of bladder cancer cases in non-smokers. The interaction between genetics and exposures may modulate bladder cancer risk and influence the differing incidence, progression, and mortality of this disease in different genders and races. Comparative molecular studies are underway to measure the relative effects of environment and inheritance to account for observed differences in the epidemiology of bladder cancer. The use of geospatial tools and population-based data will offer further insight into the environmentally-linked causes of bladder cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses in healthy adult men

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Buqing; Rykova, Marina; Jäger, Gundula; Feuerecker, Matthias; Hörl, Marion; Matzel, Sandra; Ponomarev, Sergey; Vassilieva, Galina; Nichiporuk, Igor; Choukèr, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors have long been known to influence immune responses. In particular, clinical studies about the association between migration and increased risk of atopy/asthma have provided important information on the role of migration associated large sets of environmental exposures in the development of allergic diseases. However, investigations about environmental effects on immune responses are mostly limited in candidate environmental exposures, such as air pollution. The influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses are still largely unknown. A simulated 520-d Mars mission provided an opportunity to investigate this topic. Six healthy males lived in a closed habitat simulating a spacecraft for 520 days. When they exited their “spacecraft” after the mission, the scenario was similar to that of migration, involving exposure to a new set of environmental pollutants and allergens. We measured multiple immune parameters with blood samples at chosen time points after the mission. At the early adaptation stage, highly enhanced cytokine responses were observed upon ex vivo antigen stimulations. For cell population frequencies, we found the subjects displayed increased neutrophils. These results may presumably represent the immune changes occurred in healthy humans when migrating, indicating that large sets of environmental exposures may trigger aberrant immune activity. PMID:26306804

  11. Health Effects of Noise Exposure in Children.

    PubMed

    Stansfeld, Stephen; Clark, Charlotte

    2015-06-01

    Environmental noise exposure, such as road traffic noise and aircraft noise, is associated with a range of health outcomes in children. Children demonstrate annoyance responses to noise, and noise is also related to lower well-being and stress responses, such as increased levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline. Noise does not cause more serious mental health problems, but there is growing evidence for an association with increased hyperactivity symptoms. Studies also suggest that noise might cause changes in cardiovascular functioning, and there is some limited evidence for an effect on low birth weight. There is robust evidence for an effect of school noise exposure on children's cognitive skills such as reading and memory, as well as on standardised academic test scores. Environmental noise does not usually reach levels that are likely to affect children's hearing; however, increasing use of personal electronic devices may leave some children exposed to harmful levels of noise.

  12. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: I. BIOMARKERS FOR ASSESSING EXPOSURE AND EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Effects of Chronic Exposure to Arsenic via Drinking Water in Inner Mongolia: I. Biomarkers for Assessing Exposure and Effects

    Judy L. Mumford, Ph.D., Mike Schmitt, M.S.P.H., Richard K. Kwok, M.S.P.H., Rebecca Calderon, Ph.D., National Health and Environmental Effect...

  13. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: I. BIOMARKERS FOR ASSESSING EXPOSURE AND EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Effects of Chronic Exposure to Arsenic via Drinking Water in Inner Mongolia: I. Biomarkers for Assessing Exposure and Effects

    Judy L. Mumford, Ph.D., Mike Schmitt, M.S.P.H., Richard K. Kwok, M.S.P.H., Rebecca Calderon, Ph.D., National Health and Environmental Effect...

  14. Combat Exposure Severity as a Moderator of Genetic and Environmental Liability to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Erika J.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Miller, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Twin studies of veterans and adults suggest that approximately 30–46% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is attributable to genetic factors. The remaining variance is attributable to the non-shared environment, which, by definition, includes combat exposure. This study used a gene by measured environment twin design to examine if the effect of genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the etiology PTSD were dependent on level of combat exposure. Methods The sample was drawn from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry and included 620 male-male twin pairs who served in the U.S. Military in South East Asia during the Vietnam War era. Analyses were based on data from a clinical diagnostic interview of lifetime PTSD symptoms and a self-report measure of combat exposure. Results Biometric modeling revealed that the effect of genetic and non-shared environment factors on PTSD varied as a function of level of combat exposure such that the association between these factors and PTSD was stronger at higher levels of combat exposure. Conclusions Combat exposure may act as a catalyst that augments the impact of hereditary and environmental contributions to PTSD. Individuals with the greatest exposure to combat trauma were at increased risk for PTSD as a function of both genetic and other environmental factors. Additional work is needed to determine the biological and environmental mechanisms driving these associations. PMID:24001428

  15. Cognitive Function Related to Environmental Exposure to Manganese

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The towns of Marietta and East Liverpool (EL), Ohio, have been identified as having elevated manganese (Mn) in air due to industrial pollution. Objectives: To evaluate relationships between environmental Mn (Mn-air) exposure and distance from the source and cognitive...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES IN RURAL IOWA HOMES WITH ASTHMATIC CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES IN RURAL IOWA HOMES WITH ASTHMATIC CHILDREN
    Erik R. Svendsen*?, Stephen J. Reynolds*?, James A. Merchant*, Ann M. Stromquist*, Peter S. Thorne*. * The University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA ?Current: USEPA,RTP, NC ?Current: Colorado...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL PCB AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND RISK OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental PCB and Pesticide Exposure and Risk of Endometriosis

    Germaine M. Buck1, John M. Weiner2, Hebe Greizerstein3, Brian Whitcomb1, Enrique Schisterman1, Paul Kostyniak3, Danelle Lobdell4, Kent Crickard5, and Ralph Sperrazza5

    1Epidemiology Branch, Division o...

  18. Environmental exposure to arsenic and chromium in an industrial area.

    PubMed

    Vimercati, Luigi; Gatti, Maria F; Gagliardi, Tommaso; Cuccaro, Francesco; De Maria, Luigi; Caputi, Antonio; Quarato, Marco; Baldassarre, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic and chromium are widespread environmental contaminants that affect global health due to their toxicity and carcinogenicity. To date, few studies have investigated exposure to arsenic and chromium in a population residing in a high-risk environmental area. The aim of this study is to evaluate the exposure to arsenic and chromium in the general population with no occupational exposure to these metals, resident in the industrial area of Taranto, Southern Italy, through biological monitoring techniques. We measured the levels of chromium, inorganic arsenic, and methylated metabolites, in the urine samples of 279 subjects residing in Taranto and neighboring areas. Qualified health staff administered a standardized structured questionnaire investigating lifestyle habits and controlling for confounding factors. The biological monitoring data showed high urinary concentrations of both the heavy metals investigated, particularly Cr. On this basis, it will be necessary to carry out an organized environmental monitoring program, taking into consideration all exposure routes so as to correlate the environmental concentrations of these metals with the biomonitoring results.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL PCB AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND RISK OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental PCB and Pesticide Exposure and Risk of Endometriosis

    Germaine M. Buck1, John M. Weiner2, Hebe Greizerstein3, Brian Whitcomb1, Enrique Schisterman1, Paul Kostyniak3, Danelle Lobdell4, Kent Crickard5, and Ralph Sperrazza5

    1Epidemiology Branch, Division o...

  20. Cognitive Function Related to Environmental Exposure to Manganese

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The towns of Marietta and East Liverpool (EL), Ohio, have been identified as having elevated manganese (Mn) in air due to industrial pollution. Objectives: To evaluate relationships between environmental Mn (Mn-air) exposure and distance from the source and cognitive...

  1. Risk-based indicators of Canadians’ exposures to environmental carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tools for estimating population exposures to environmental carcinogens are required to support evidence-based policies to reduce chronic exposures and associated cancers. Our objective was to develop indicators of population exposure to selected environmental carcinogens that can be easily updated over time, and allow comparisons and prioritization between different carcinogens and exposure pathways. Methods We employed a risk assessment-based approach to produce screening-level estimates of lifetime excess cancer risk for selected substances listed as known carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Estimates of lifetime average daily intake were calculated using population characteristics combined with concentrations (circa 2006) in outdoor air, indoor air, dust, drinking water, and food and beverages from existing monitoring databases or comprehensive literature reviews. Intake estimates were then multiplied by cancer potency factors from Health Canada, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, and the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment to estimate lifetime excess cancer risks associated with each substance and exposure pathway. Lifetime excess cancer risks in excess of 1 per million people are identified as potential priorities for further attention. Results Based on data representing average conditions circa 2006, a total of 18 carcinogen-exposure pathways had potential lifetime excess cancer risks greater than 1 per million, based on varying data quality. Carcinogens with moderate to high data quality and lifetime excess cancer risk greater than 1 per million included benzene, 1,3-butadiene and radon in outdoor air; benzene and radon in indoor air; and arsenic and hexavalent chromium in drinking water. Important data gaps were identified for asbestos, hexavalent chromium and diesel exhaust in outdoor and indoor air, while little data were available to assess risk for substances in dust, food

  2. Exposure to lead in stained glass work. An environmental evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pant, B C; Harrison, J R; Long, G W; Gupta, S

    1994-01-25

    An environmental evaluation was conducted to determine lead exposure in a group of crafts people who produce stained glass and Tiffany glass. The environmental evaluation consisted of air sampling for potential lead emissions from solder and of work area dusts. In addition, the completion of a questionnaire, observation of work practices and noting of other details relevant to hazardous exposures were carried out. Lead concentrations in air were found to be well below the ACGIH TLV-TWA of 150 micrograms/m3. High lead concentrations were found in the work area dust samples. Exposure to high concentrations of lead could occur by ingestion as a result of neglect of basic hygiene precautions.

  3. Environmental tobacco smoke: Exposure-response relationships in epidemiologic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wu-Williams, A.H. ); Samet, J.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Demonstration of a dose-response relationship for environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is an important indication of causality. Central to the analysis and interpretation of dose-response relations as described in epidemiological studies is the relationship between dose and exposure. It must be recognized that in studies of ETS the authors have only surrogate measures of dose, and these surrogate measures (based on exposure) are imperfect. The question-based measures of ETS exposure generally have not been standardized, may have limited validity and reliability, and cannot comprehensively describe total ETS exposure, exposure to individual ETS components, nor doses of biologically relevant agents at target sites. Nevertheless, useful data have been yielded in epidemiologic studies linking ETS exposure to increased respiratory infection and symptoms, reduced lung growth in children, and increased lung cancer in nonsmoking adults. The more consistent exposure-response data for studies on acute health in children may reflect the greater difficulty in measuring exposure in studies of chronic health in adults.

  4. Histopathological effects of chronic aqueous exposure to bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO) to environmentally relevant concentrations reveal thymus atrophy in European flounder (Platichthys flesus).

    PubMed

    Grinwis, G C M; Wester, P W; Vethaak, A D

    2009-10-01

    Although the use of tributyltin in antifouling paints has been banned, this compound is still a serious pollutant of the marine environment. This paper describes a unique study in which European flounder (Platichthys flesus) were chronically (8 months) exposed to bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO) in the water under controlled laboratory conditions. Residue levels in selected tissues (liver, muscle) and general health status indices were measured and the effects on several organs (gills, liver, mesonephros, ovary/testis, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract) were examined histopathologically. Additionally, morphometric analysis of the thymus was performed. The major finding is that exposure of flounder to 5 microg TBTO/l over a period of 8 months, resulting in body burdens comparable to high field levels, induced significant reduction of thymus volume, possibly affecting immunocompetence of the animals. Chronic exposure of European flounder to tributyltin is therefore likely to affect the general health status of this species in heavily polluted aquatic environments.

  5. Occupational and environmental exposures as risk factors for systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Glinda S; Parks, Christine G

    2004-10-01

    Although genetic susceptibility plays a strong role in the etiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), recent research has provided new evidence of the potential influence of environmental factors in the risk for this disease. This paper describes epidemiologic and experimental research pertaining to occupational and environmental sources of exposure to respirable crystalline silica, solvents and pesticides, and two "lifestyle" factors (smoking and hair dye use). As has been seen with other systemic autoimmune diseases (eg, systemic sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis), a series of epidemiologic studies, using different designs in different settings, have demonstrated relatively strong and consistent associations between occupational silica exposure and SLE. The type and quality of exposure assessment is an important consideration in evaluating these studies. Recent experimental studies examined the effect of trichloroethylene exposure in MRL+/+ mice, but to date there have been few epidemiologic studies of solvents and SLE. There are numerous avenues with respect to environmental factors in SLE that need additional research.

  6. Lessons learned from the Children's Environmental Exposure Research Study.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Wing, Steven

    2007-03-01

    We examined 5 different ethical concerns about the Children's Environmental Exposure Research Study and make some recommendations for future studies of exposure to hazardous environmental agents in the home. Researchers should seek community consultation and participation; make participants aware of all the risks associated with the research, including hazards discovered in the home and uncertainties about the risks of agents under investigation; and take steps to ensure that their studies will not have unfair representation of the poor or people of color. Researchers should also avoid even the appearance of a financial conflict of interest in studies that are likely to be controversial and make it clear to all parties that studies will not intentionally expose subjects to hazardous environmental agents.

  7. Genome-wide analysis of parent-of-origin interaction effects with environmental exposure (PoOxE): An application to European and Asian cleft palate trios

    PubMed Central

    Gjerdevik, Miriam; Romanowska, Julia; Beaty, Terri H.; Lie, Rolv T.

    2017-01-01

    Cleft palate only is a common birth defect with high heritability. Only a small fraction of this heritability is explained by the genetic variants identified so far, underscoring the need to investigate other disease mechanisms, such as gene-environment (GxE) interactions and parent-of-origin (PoO) effects. Furthermore, PoO effects may vary across exposure levels (PoOxE effects). Such variation is the focus of this study. We upgraded the R-package Haplin to enable direct tests of PoOxE effects at the genome-wide level. From a previous GWAS, we had genotypes for 550 case-parent trios, of mainly European and Asian ancestry, and data on three maternal exposures (smoking, alcohol, and vitamins). Data were analyzed for Europeans and Asians separately, and also for all ethnicities combined. To account for multiple testing, a false discovery rate method was used, where q-values were generated from the p-values. In the Europeans-only analyses, interactions with maternal smoking yielded the lowest q-values. Two SNPs in the ‘Interactor of little elongation complex ELL subunit 1’ (ICE1) gene had a q-value of 0.14, and five of the 20 most significant SNPs were in the ‘N-acetylated alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase-like 2’ (NAALADL2) gene. No evidence of PoOxE effects was found in the other analyses. The connections to ICE1 and NAALADL2 are novel and warrant further investigation. More generally, the new methodology presented here is easily applicable to other traits and exposures in which a family-based study design has been implemented. PMID:28898263

  8. Genome-wide analysis of parent-of-origin interaction effects with environmental exposure (PoOxE): An application to European and Asian cleft palate trios.

    PubMed

    Haaland, Øystein A; Jugessur, Astanand; Gjerdevik, Miriam; Romanowska, Julia; Shi, Min; Beaty, Terri H; Marazita, Mary L; Murray, Jeffrey C; Wilcox, Allen J; Lie, Rolv T; Gjessing, Håkon K

    2017-01-01

    Cleft palate only is a common birth defect with high heritability. Only a small fraction of this heritability is explained by the genetic variants identified so far, underscoring the need to investigate other disease mechanisms, such as gene-environment (GxE) interactions and parent-of-origin (PoO) effects. Furthermore, PoO effects may vary across exposure levels (PoOxE effects). Such variation is the focus of this study. We upgraded the R-package Haplin to enable direct tests of PoOxE effects at the genome-wide level. From a previous GWAS, we had genotypes for 550 case-parent trios, of mainly European and Asian ancestry, and data on three maternal exposures (smoking, alcohol, and vitamins). Data were analyzed for Europeans and Asians separately, and also for all ethnicities combined. To account for multiple testing, a false discovery rate method was used, where q-values were generated from the p-values. In the Europeans-only analyses, interactions with maternal smoking yielded the lowest q-values. Two SNPs in the 'Interactor of little elongation complex ELL subunit 1' (ICE1) gene had a q-value of 0.14, and five of the 20 most significant SNPs were in the 'N-acetylated alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase-like 2' (NAALADL2) gene. No evidence of PoOxE effects was found in the other analyses. The connections to ICE1 and NAALADL2 are novel and warrant further investigation. More generally, the new methodology presented here is easily applicable to other traits and exposures in which a family-based study design has been implemented.

  9. Environmental exposure to cadmium and human birthweight.

    PubMed

    Fréry, N; Nessmann, C; Girard, F; Lafond, J; Moreau, T; Blot, P; Lellouch, J; Huel, G

    1993-04-30

    Fetal toxicity of cadmium (Cd) is well documented in rodents. However, little information is available regarding the human fetus. To investigate the effect of low levels of Cd on the human placenta and the consequences on birthweight, we conducted a study of 102 mothers and their newborns in an obstetrical care unit. Placental and hair samples were collected at delivery to determine Cd concentrations. The main finding of this study was the relationship between a decrease in birthweight and an increase of newborn hair Cd which varied in the presence of placental calcification. In cases of parenchymal calcifications, placental Cd levels were higher (Wilcoxon test, P < 0.05) and newborn hair Cd levels were lower (Wilcoxon test, P < 0.01) than in the absence of calcification. These relationships remained significant even after taking into account smoking habits and gestational age. In the presence of calcification, an increase in the level of Cd in newborn hair was related to a decrease in birthweight which was independent of placental Cd concentration (rpartial = -0.49, P < 0.01). In the absence of calcification, a decrease in birthweight was observed for the upper values of newborn hair Cd (r = -0.44, P < 0.05 when Cd > or = 0.3 ppm). The difference in birthweight between infants in the first and last quartiles of newborn hair Cd was 472 g in cases of calcifications and 122 g in the absence of calcification. Other placental parameters were not significantly related to placental Cd concentration.

  10. A Review of the Field on Children's Exposure to Environmental Contaminants: A Risk Assessment Approach.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Alesia; Penney, Rosalind; Solo-Gabriele, Helena

    2017-03-04

    Background: Children must be recognized as a sensitive population based on having biological systems and organs in various stages of development. The processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of environmental contaminants within a child's body are considered less advanced than those of adults, making them more susceptible to disease outcomes following even small doses. Children's unique activities of crawling and practicing increased hand-to-mouth ingestion also make them vulnerable to greater exposures by certain contaminants within specific environments. Approach: There is a need to review the field of children's environmental exposures in order to understand trends and identify gaps in research, which may lead to better protection of this vulnerable and sensitive population. Therefore, explored here are previously published contemporary works in the broad area of children's environmental exposures and potential impact on health from around the world. A discussion of children's exposure to environmental contaminants is best organized under the last four steps of a risk assessment approach: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment (including children's activity patterns) and risk characterization. We first consider the many exposure hazards that exist in the indoor and outdoor environments, and emerging contaminants of concern that may help guide the risk assessment process in identifying focus areas for children. A section on special diseases of concern is also included. Conclusions: The field of children's exposures to environmental contaminants is broad. Although there are some well-studied areas offering much insight into children exposures, research is still needed to further our understanding of exposures to newer compounds, growing disease trends and the role of gene-environment interactions that modify adverse health outcomes. It is clear that behaviors of adults and children play a role in reducing or

  11. Environmental exposure to asbestos and the exposure-response relationship with mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Madkour, M T; El Bokhary, M S; Awad Allah, H I; Awad, A A; Mahmoud, H F

    2009-01-01

    An epidemiological and environmental study was carried out in Shubra El-Kheima city, greater Cairo, of the exposure-response relationship between asbestos and malignant pleural mesothelioma. Radiological screening was done for 487 people occupationally exposed to asbestos, 2913 environmentally exposed to asbestos and a control group of 979 with no history of exposure. Pleural biopsy was done for suspicious cases. The airborne asbestos fibre concentrations were determined in all areas. There were 88 cases of mesothelioma diagnosed, 87 in the exposed group. The risk of mesothelioma was higher in the environmentally exposed group than other groups, and higher in females than males. The prevalence of mesothelioma increased with increased cumulative exposure to asbestos.

  12. Integrated Environmental Assessment Part III: ExposureAssessment

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.; Small, Mitchell J.

    2006-06-01

    Human exposure assessment is a key step in estimating the environmental and public health burdens that result chemical emissions in the life cycle of an industrial product or service. This column presents the third in a series of overviews of the state of the art in integrated environmental assessment - earlier columns described emissions estimation (Frey and Small, 2003) and fate and transport modeling (Ramaswami, et al., 2004). When combined, these first two assessment elements provide estimates of ambient concentrations in the environment. Here we discuss how both models and measurements are used to translate ambient concentrations into metrics of human and ecological exposure, the necessary precursors to impact assessment. Exposure assessment is the process of measuring and/or modeling the magnitude, frequency and duration of contact between a potentially harmful agent and a target population, including the size and characteristics of that population (IPCS, 2001; Zartarian, et al., 2005). Ideally the exposure assessment process should characterize the sources, routes, pathways, and uncertainties in the assessment. Route of exposure refers to the way that an agent enters the receptor during an exposure event. Humans contact pollutants through three routes--inhalation, ingestion, and dermal uptake. Inhalation occurs in both outdoor environments and indoor environments where most people spend the majority of their time. Ingestion includes both water and food, as well as soil and dust uptake due to hand-to-mouth activity. Dermal uptake occurs through contacts with consumer products; indoor and outdoor surfaces; the water supply during washing or bathing; ambient surface waters during swimming or boating; soil during activities such as work, gardening, and play; and, to a lesser extent, from the air that surrounds us. An exposure pathway is the course that a pollutant takes from an ambient environmental medium (air, soil, water, biota, etc), to an exposure medium

  13. Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, B. E.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the results of an NRA funded program entitled Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase that received funding through a NASA NRA (NRA8-31) and was monitored by personnel in the NASA Space Environmental Effects (SEE) Program. The NASA Project number was 02029. The Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledgebase (SCMOK) was created as a part of the earlier NRA8-20. One of the previous tasks and part of the previously developed Knowledgebase was to accumulate data from facilities using QCMs to measure the outgassing data for satellite materials. The main object of this current program was to increase the number of material outgassing datasets from 250 up to approximately 500. As a part of this effort, a round-robin series of materials outgassing measurements program was also executed that allowed comparison of the results for the same materials tested in 10 different test facilities. Other programs tasks included obtaining datasets or information packages for 1) optical effects of contaminants on optical surfaces, thermal radiators, and sensor systems and 2) space environmental effects data and incorporating these data into the already existing NASA/SEE Knowledgebase.

  14. Panel 1: medical surveillance prior to, during, and following potential environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    Brix, Kelley; O'Donnell, Francis L

    2011-07-01

    This review assesses the Department of Defense approach to medical surveillance of environmental exposures during deployments. Seven steps in the process are reviewed: (1) exposure assessment, (2) identification of the target population, (3) surveillance for current exposures, (4) surveillance for long-term effects, (5) record keeping for environmental data, (6) analysis of surveillance data, and (7) communication of results. Exposures need to be evaluated as soon as they are recognized, and potentially exposed individuals should be identified at the time of the exposure. Long-term health surveillance relies primarily on electronic medical records. Department of Defense databases are powerful resources for surveillance for service members, up until the time of separation. The Millennium Cohort Study is tracking the health status of 150,000 service members for 21 years, including after separation. Risk communication principles should be incorporated when reporting surveillance results. Often, there are several interested audiences, in addition to military leaders and service members.

  15. Environmental Influences on Reproductive Health, the Importance of Chemical Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Aolin; Padula, Amy; Sirota, Marina; Woodruff, Tracey J.

    2016-01-01

    Unstructured Abstract Chemical exposures during pregnancy can have a profound and life-long impact on human health. Due to the omnipresence of chemicals in our daily life, there is continuous contact with chemicals in food, water, air and consumer products. Consequently, human biomonitoring studies show that pregnant women around the globe are exposed to a variety of chemicals. In this review, we provide a summary of current data on maternal and fetal exposure as well as health consequences from these exposures. We review several chemical classes including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), phenols, phthalates, pesticides, and metals. Additionally, we discuss environmental disparities and vulnerable populations, and future research directions. We conclude by providing some recommendations for prevention of chemical exposure and its adverse reproductive health consequences. PMID:27513554

  16. Environmental influences on reproductive health: the importance of chemical exposures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aolin; Padula, Amy; Sirota, Marina; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2016-09-15

    Chemical exposures during pregnancy can have a profound and life-long impact on human health. Because of the omnipresence of chemicals in our daily life, there is continuous contact with chemicals in food, water, air, and consumer products. Consequently, human biomonitoring studies show that pregnant women around the globe are exposed to a variety of chemicals. In this review we provide a summary of current data on maternal and fetal exposure, as well as health consequences from these exposures. We review several chemical classes, including polychlorinated biphenyls, perfluoroalkyl substances, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phenols, phthalates, pesticides, and metals. Additionally, we discuss environmental disparities and vulnerable populations, and future research directions. We conclude by providing some recommendations for prevention of chemical exposure and its adverse reproductive health consequences. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and heart rate variability.

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C A; Eatough, D J; Gold, D R; Pang, Y; Nielsen, K R; Nath, P; Verrier, R L; Kanner, R E

    2001-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been associated with cardiovascular mortality. Pathophysiologic pathways leading from ETS exposure to cardiopulmonary disease are still being explored. Reduced cardiac autonomic function, as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), has been associated with cardiac vulnerability and may represent an important pathophysiologic mechanism linking ETS and risk of cardiac mortality. In this study we evaluated acute ETS exposure in a commercial airport with changes in HRV in 16 adult nonsmokers. We conducted ambulatory electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring for 8-hr periods while participants alternated 2 hr in nonsmoking and smoking areas. Nicotine and respirable suspended particle concentrations and participants' blood oxygen saturation were also monitored. We calculated time and frequency domain measures of HRV for periods in and out of the smoking area, and we evaluated associations with ETS using comparative statistics and regression modeling. ETS exposure was negatively associated with all measures of HRV. During exposure periods, we observed an average decrement of approximately 12% in the standard deviation of all normal-to-normal heart beat intervals (an estimate of overall HRV). ETS exposures were not associated with mean heart rate or blood oxygen saturation. Altered cardiac autonomic function, assessed by decrements in HRV, is associated with acute exposure to ETS and may be part of the pathophysiologic mechanisms linking ETS exposure and increased cardiac vulnerability. PMID:11485870

  18. A New Model for Environmental Assessment and Exposure Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Ciaccio, Christina E.; Kennedy, Kevin; Portnoy, Jay M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental assessment and exposure reduction are a set of diagnostic and treatment techniques that work in tandem with the traditional medical approach by reducing a patient’s exposure to adverse environmental conditions as part of medical care. Assessment involves identifying the specific exposures to which a patient is sensitive and locating the corresponding contaminants in the patient’s environment. This provides a more complete diagnostic evaluation of a patient’s problem than could be obtained merely by examining the patient alone. Exposure reduction involves reducing the identified triggers to levels that are below thresholds that are associated with increased risk of sensitization and disease morbidity. Assessment of an environment for contaminants focuses on a chain of factors that include contaminant sources such as cockroaches, rodents, dust mites and fungi that excrete contaminants into an environment, facilitative factors such as moisture, food, water and shelter that help sources to thrive, and reservoirs where contaminants can accumulate prior to subsequent transport to occupants. By using this model to guide environmental assessments and their corresponding interventions, the root cause of health problems can be addressed, leading to improved quality of life for patients and reduced need for chronic medications. PMID:22933137

  19. ACCOUNTING FOR THE ENDOGENEITY OF HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE IN CHILDREN: AN APPLICATION TO CONTINUOUS LUNG FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study is to estimate an unbiased exposure effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on children's continuous lung function. A majority of the evidence from health studies suggests that ETS exposure in early life contributes significantly to childhood ...

  20. Mercy Mercy Me: Social Injustice and the Prevention of Environmental Pollutant Exposures among Ethnic Minority and Poor Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilworth-Bart, Janean E.; Moore, Colleen F.

    2006-01-01

    Children's lead and pesticide exposures are used as examples to examine social disparities in exposure reduction efforts as well as environmental policies impacting children in poverty and minority children. The review also presents an estimate of the effect of social disparities in lead exposure on standardized test performance. Because including…

  1. Mercy Mercy Me: Social Injustice and the Prevention of Environmental Pollutant Exposures among Ethnic Minority and Poor Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilworth-Bart, Janean E.; Moore, Colleen F.

    2006-01-01

    Children's lead and pesticide exposures are used as examples to examine social disparities in exposure reduction efforts as well as environmental policies impacting children in poverty and minority children. The review also presents an estimate of the effect of social disparities in lead exposure on standardized test performance. Because including…

  2. ACCOUNTING FOR THE ENDOGENEITY OF HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE IN CHILDREN: AN APPLICATION TO CONTINUOUS LUNG FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study is to estimate an unbiased exposure effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on children's continuous lung function. A majority of the evidence from health studies suggests that ETS exposure in early life contributes significantly to childhood ...

  3. Environmental exposure assessment framework for nanoparticles in solid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders; Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-06-01

    Information related to the potential environmental exposure of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the solid waste management phase is extremely scarce. In this paper, we define nanowaste as separately collected or collectable waste materials which are or contain ENMs, and we present a five-step framework for the systematic assessment of ENM exposure during nanowaste management. The framework includes deriving EOL nanoproducts and evaluating the physicochemical properties of the nanostructure, matrix properties and nanowaste treatment processes as well as transformation processes and environment releases, eventually leading to a final assessment of potential ENM exposure. The proposed framework was applied to three selected nanoproducts: nanosilver polyester textile, nanoTiO2 sunscreen lotion and carbon nanotube tennis racquets. We found that the potential global environmental exposure of ENMs associated with these three products was an estimated 0.5-143 Mg/year, which can also be characterised qualitatively as medium, medium, low, respectively. Specific challenges remain and should be subject to further research: (1) analytical techniques for the characterisation of nanowaste and its transformation during waste treatment processes, (2) mechanisms for the release of ENMs, (3) the quantification of nanowaste amounts at the regional scale, (4) a definition of acceptable limit values for exposure to ENMs from nanowaste and (5) the reporting of nanowaste generation data.

  4. Environmental lead exposure: a public health problem of global dimensions.

    PubMed Central

    Tong, S.; von Schirnding, Y. E.; Prapamontol, T.

    2000-01-01

    Lead is the most abundant of the heavy metals in the Earth's crust. It has been used since prehistoric times, and has become widely distributed and mobilized in the environment. Exposure to and uptake of this non-essential element have consequently increased. Both occupational and environmental exposures to lead remain a serious problem in many developing and industrializing countries, as well as in some developed countries. In most developed countries, however, introduction of lead into the human environment has decreased in recent years, largely due to public health campaigns and a decline in its commercial usage, particularly in petrol. Acute lead poisoning has become rare in such countries, but chronic exposure to low levels of the metal is still a public health issue, especially among some minorities and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. In developing countries, awareness of the public health impact of exposure to lead is growing but relatively few of these countries have introduced policies and regulations for significantly combating the problem. This article reviews the nature and importance of environmental exposure to lead in developing and developed countries, outlining past actions, and indicating requirements for future policy responses and interventions. PMID:11019456

  5. Perspectives for integrating human and environmental exposure assessments.

    PubMed

    Ciffroy, P; Péry, A R R; Roth, N

    2016-10-15

    Integrated Risk Assessment (IRA) has been defined by the EU FP7 HEROIC Coordination action as "the mutual exploitation of Environmental Risk Assessment for Human Health Risk Assessment and vice versa in order to coherently and more efficiently characterize an overall risk to humans and the environment for better informing the risk analysis process" (Wilks et al., 2015). Since exposure assessment and hazard characterization are the pillars of risk assessment, integrating Environmental Exposure assessment (EEA) and Human Exposure assessment (HEA) is a major component of an IRA framework. EEA and HEA typically pursue different targets, protection goals and timeframe. However, human and wildlife species also share the same environment and they similarly inhale air and ingest water and food through often similar overlapping pathways of exposure. Fate models used in EEA and HEA to predict the chemicals distribution among physical and biological media are essentially based on common properties of chemicals, and internal concentration estimations are largely based on inter-species (i.e. biota-to-human) extrapolations. Also, both EEA and HEA are challenged by increasing scientific complexity and resources constraints. Altogether, these points create the need for a better exploitation of all currently existing data, experimental approaches and modeling tools and it is assumed that a more integrated approach of both EEA and HEA may be part of the solution. Based on the outcome of an Expert Workshop on Extrapolations in Integrated Exposure Assessment organized by the HEROIC project in January 2014, this paper identifies perspectives and recommendations to better harmonize and extrapolate exposure assessment data, models and methods between Human Health and Environmental Risk Assessments to support the further development and promotion of the concept of IRA. Ultimately, these recommendations may feed into guidance showing when and how to apply IRA in the regulatory decision

  6. Environmental arsenic exposure and DNA methylation of the tumor suppressor gene p16 and the DNA repair gene MLH1: effect of arsenic metabolism and genotype.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Vahter, Marie; Concha, Gabriela; Broberg, Karin

    2012-11-01

    Arsenic is carcinogenic, possibly partly through epigenetic mechanisms. We evaluated the effects of arsenic exposure and metabolism on DNA methylation. Arsenic exposure and methylation efficiency in 202 women in the Argentinean Andes were assessed from concentrations of arsenic metabolites in urine (inorganic arsenic, methylarsonic acid [MMA], and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA]), measured by HPLC-ICPMS. Methylation of CpGs of the tumor suppressor gene p16, the DNA repair gene MLH1, and the repetitive elements LINE1 was measured by PCR pyrosequencing of blood DNA. Genotyping (N = 172) for AS3MT was performed using Sequenom™, and gene expression (N = 90) using Illumina DirectHyb HumanHT-12 v3.0. Median arsenic concentration in urine was 230 μg L(-1) (range 10.1-1251). In linear regression analysis, log(2)-transformed urinary arsenic concentrations were positively associated with methylation of p16 (β = 0.14, P = 0.0028) and MLH1 (β = 0.28, P = 0.0011), but not with LINE1. Arsenic concentrations were of borderline significance negatively correlated with expression of p16 (r(s) = -0.20; P = 0.066)), but not with MLH1. The fraction of inorganic arsenic was positively (β = 0.026; P = 0.010) and DMA was negatively (β = -0.017, P = 0.043) associated with p16 methylation with no effect of MMA. Carriers of the slow-metabolizing AS3MT haplotype were associated with more p16 methylation (P = 0.022). Arsenic exposure was correlated with increased methylation, in blood, of genes encoding enzymes that suppress carcinogenesis, and the arsenic metabolism efficiency modified the degree of epigenetic alterations.

  7. Alcohol, drugs, caffeine, tobacco, and environmental contaminant exposure: reproductive health consequences and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Sadeu, J C; Hughes, Claude L; Agarwal, Sanjay; Foster, Warren G

    2010-08-01

    Reproductive function and fertility are thought to be compromised by behaviors such as cigarette smoking, substance abuse, and alcohol consumption; however, the strength of these associations are uncertain. Furthermore, the reproductive system is thought to be under attack from exposure to environmental contaminants, particularly those chemicals shown to affect endocrine homeostasis. The relationship between exposure to environmental contaminants and adverse effects on human reproductive health are frequently debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have spread into the lay press drawing increased public and regulatory attention. Therefore, the objective of the present review was to critically evaluate the literature concerning the relationship between lifestyle exposures and adverse effects on fertility as well as examining the evidence for a role of environmental contaminants in the purported decline of semen quality and the pathophysiology of subfertility, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and endometriosis. The authors conclude that whereas cigarette smoking is strongly associated with adverse reproductive outcomes, high-level exposures to other lifestyle factors are only weakly linked with negative fertility impacts. Finally, there is no compelling evidence that environmental contaminants, at concentrations representative of the levels measured in contemporary biomonitoring studies, have any effect, positive or negative, on reproductive health in the general population. Further research using prospective study designs with robust sample sizes are needed to evaluate testable hypotheses that address the relationship between exposure and adverse reproductive health effects.

  8. Gender differences in autoimmunity associated with exposure to environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmunity is thought to result from a combination of genetics, environmental triggers, and stochastic events. Gender is also a significant risk factor with many diseases exhibiting a female bias. Although the role of environmental triggers, especially medications, in eliciting autoimmunity is well established less is known about the interplay between gender, the environment and autoimmunity. This review examines the contribution of gender in autoimmunity induced by selected chemical, physical and biological agents in humans and animal models. Epidemiological studies reveal that environmental factors can be associated with a gender bias in human autoimmunity. However many studies show that the increased risk of autoimmunity is often influenced by occupational exposure or other gender biased activities. Animal studies, although often prejudiced by the exclusive use of female animals, reveal that gender bias can be strain specific suggesting an interaction between sex chromosome complement and background genes. This observation has important implications because it argues that within a gender biased disease there may be individuals in which gender does not contribute to autoimmunity. Exposure to environmental factors, which encompasses everything around us, adds an additional layer of complexity. Understanding how the environment influences the relationship between sex chromosome complement and innate and adaptive immune responses will be essential in determining the role of gender in environmentally-induced autoimmunity. PMID:22137891

  9. Gender differences in autoimmunity associated with exposure to environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Pollard, K Michael

    2012-05-01

    Autoimmunity is thought to result from a combination of genetics, environmental triggers, and stochastic events. Gender is also a significant risk factor with many diseases exhibiting a female bias. Although the role of environmental triggers, especially medications, in eliciting autoimmunity is well established less is known about the interplay between gender, the environment and autoimmunity. This review examines the contribution of gender in autoimmunity induced by selected chemical, physical and biological agents in humans and animal models. Epidemiological studies reveal that environmental factors can be associated with a gender bias in human autoimmunity. However many studies show that the increased risk of autoimmunity is often influenced by occupational exposure or other gender biased activities. Animal studies, although often prejudiced by the exclusive use of female animals, reveal that gender bias can be strain specific suggesting an interaction between sex chromosome complement and background genes. This observation has important implications because it argues that within a gender biased disease there may be individuals in which gender does not contribute to autoimmunity. Exposure to environmental factors, which encompasses everything around us, adds an additional layer of complexity. Understanding how the environment influences the relationship between sex chromosome complement and innate and adaptive immune responses will be essential in determining the role of gender in environmentally-induced autoimmunity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Influence of Human and Environmental Exposure Factors on Personal NO2 Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency’s (US EPA) Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) deployed a total of over 2000 nitrogen dioxide, NO2, passive monitors during 3 years of field data collections. These 24-h based personal, residential outdoor and comm...

  11. The Influence of Human and Environmental Exposure Factors on Personal NO2 Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency’s (US EPA) Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) deployed a total of over 2000 nitrogen dioxide, NO2, passive monitors during 3 years of field data collections. These 24-h based personal, residential outdoor and comm...

  12. Health Consequences of Environmental Exposures: Changing Global Patterns of Exposure and Disease.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, Philip J; Sly, J Leith; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Silva, Emerson R; Huo, Xia; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Zar, Heather J; King, Malcolm; Ha, Eun-Hee; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Ahanchian, Hamid; Sly, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a major cause of disease and death. Exposures in early life are especially dangerous. Patterns of exposure vary greatly across countries. In low-income and lower middle income countries (LMICs), infectious, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases are still major contributors to disease burden. By contrast, in upper middle income and high-income countries noncommunicable diseases predominate. To examine patterns of environmental exposure and disease and to relate these patterns to levels of income and development, we obtained publically available data in 12 countries at different levels of development through a global network of World Health Organization Collaborating Centres in Children's Environmental Health. Pollution exposures in early life contribute to both patterns. Chemical and pesticide pollution are increasing, especially in LMICs. Hazardous wastes, including electronic waste, are accumulating. Pollution-related chronic diseases are becoming epidemic. Future Global Burden of Disease estimates must pay increased attention to the short- and long-term consequences of environmental pollution. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings.

    PubMed

    Myöhänen, Kirsi; Vähäkangas, Kirsi

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to many different chemicals during pregnancy through maternal circulation is possible. Transplacental transfer of xenobiotics can be demonstrated using human placental perfusion. Also, placental perfusion can give information about the placental kinetics as well as metabolism and accumulation in the placenta because it retains the tissue structure and function. Although human placental perfusion has been used extensively to study the transplacental transfer of drugs, the information on food and environmental carcinogens is much more limited. This review deals with the foetal exposure to food and environmental carcinogens in human beings. In particular, human transplacental transfer of the food carcinogens such as acrylamide, glycidamide and nitrosodimethylamine are in focus. Because these carcinogens are genotoxic, the functional capacity of human placenta to induce DNA adduct formation or metabolize these above mentioned CYP2E1 substrates is of interest in this context. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  14. Occupational and Environmental Exposures Associated with Testicular Germ Cell Tumours: Systematic Review of Prenatal and Life-Long Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Béranger, Rémi; Le Cornet, Charlotte; Schüz, Joachim; Fervers, Béatrice

    2013-01-01

    Background Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) are the most common cancers in men aged between 15 and 44 years and the incidence has increased steeply over the past 30 years. The rapid increase in the incidence, the spatial variation and the evolution of incidence in migrants suggest that environmental risk factors play a role in TGCT aetiology. The purpose of our review is to summarise the current state of knowledge on occupational and environmental factors thought to be associated with TGCT. Methods A systematic literature search of PubMed. All selected articles were quality appraised by two independent researchers using the ‘Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale’. Results After exclusion of duplicate reports, 72 relevant articles were selected; 65 assessed exposure in adulthood, 7 assessed parental exposures and 2 assessed both. Associations with occupation was reported for agricultural workers, construction workers, firemen, policemen, military personnel, as well as workers in paper, plastic or metal industries. Electromagnetic fields, PCBs and pesticides were also suggested. However, results were inconsistent and studies showing positive associations tended to had lower quality ranking using the assessment scale (p=0.02). Discussion Current evidence does not allow concluding on existence of any clear association between TGCT and adulthood occupational or environmental exposure. The limitations of the studies may partly explain the inconsistencies observed. The lack of association with adulthood exposure is in line with current hypotheses supporting the prenatal origin of TGCT. Future research should focus on prenatal or early life exposure, as well as combined effect of prenatal and later life exposure. National and international collaborative studies should allow for more adequately powered epidemiological studies. More sophisticated methods for assessing exposure as well as evaluating gene–environment interactions will be necessary to establish

  15. Reducing exposure to environmental toxicants before birth: moving from risk perception to risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Grason, Holly A; Misra, Dawn P

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we considered approaches to reducing maternal exposure to hazardous environmental toxicants, focusing on risk communication to pregnant women and providers, but also considering identification of environmental toxicants in the community and reduction of environmental toxicants. We addressed the following questions: (1) What do pregnant women and their providers know about environmental toxicants and perinatal health? and (2) What policy strategies are needed (should be considered) to move forward in risk reduction in this area? We reviewed the literature on knowledge of pregnant women and providers regarding these issues. While there is limited research on what pregnant women and their providers know about environmental toxicants and perinatal health, there is evidence of reproductive and perinatal toxicity. This article describes a wide range of policy strategies that could be implemented to address environmental toxicants in the context of perinatal health. Effective leadership in this area will likely require collaboration of both environmental health and maternal and child health leaders and organizations.

  16. Personal and Environmental Exposure Assessment Measurements at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, Naomi, H.

    2000-06-01

    The research is directed to developing state-of-the-art personal and environmental exposure assessment for inhaled radionuclides at Fernald during D&D. An additional objective is the radiochemical analyses of soil samples taken around the radium (K-65) silos before and after removal of the material. Lead-210, the long lived decay product of radon released during the removal, provides a sensitive tracer to determine the entire inventory of radon released.

  17. Environmental Effects of BPA

    PubMed Central

    Canesi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Research on bisphenol A (BPA) as an environmental contaminant has now major regulatory implications toward the ecosystem health, and hence it is incumbent on scientists to do their research to the highest standards possible, in order that the most appropriate decisions are made to mitigate the impacts to aquatic wildlife. However, the contribution given so far appears rather fragmented. The present overview aims to collect available information on the effects of BPA on aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates to provide a general scenario and to suggest future developments toward more comprehensive approaches useful for aquatic species protection. PMID:26674307

  18. Arsenic pesticides and environmental pollution: exposure, poisoning, hazards and recommendations.

    PubMed

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Mohammad, Amina El-Hosini; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid element. Acute high-dose exposure to arsenic can cause severe systemic toxicity and death. Lower dose chronic arsenic exposure can result in subacute toxicity that can include peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, skin eruptions, and hepatotoxicity. Long-term effects of arsenic exposure include an in Due to the physiologic effects of the arsenic on all body systems, thus, chronic arsenic-poisoned patient is a major nursing challenge. The critical care nurse provides valuable assessment and interventions that prevent major multisystem complications from arsenic toxicity.

  19. Interactive effects between CYP1A1 genotypes and environmental polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans exposures on liver function profile.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Su, Huey-Jen; Wang, Ying-Jan; Guo, Yue-Liang; Liao, Pao-Chi; Lee, Ching-Chang

    2006-02-01

    Previous studies reported that polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) induced hepatic cytochrome P-4501A1 (CYP1A1). The aim of this study was to examine the interactive influence of CYP1A1 genotypes and PCDD/Fs exposure on liver function profile. PCDD/Fs levels and liver function parameters were determined in serum and correlated with genetic polymorphism of CYP1A1/Msp 1 in 225 human volunteers who had no or minimal occupational exposure to PCDD/F. The results showed that the highest glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activity levels were found in subjects with homozygous variant CYP1A1/Msp 1, followed by heterozygous variant, and finally homozygous wild type for those individuals whose serum PCDD/Fs levels were higher than 17.4 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid. Data suggest that GPT activity levels may be modified by interaction of CYP1A1/Msp 1 genotype with dioxin after adjustment for age, alcohol consumption, and history of liver illness. Further studies are needed to characterize the variation in other related genes to verify whether a correlation exists between serum PCDD/Fs levels and adverse health effects.

  20. Environmental exposure to lead and mercury in Mexican children: a real health problem.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C; Moreno, Ma Elena; Rodríguez-Kessler, Theresia; Luna, Ana; Arias-Salvatierra, Daniela; Gómez, Rocío; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S

    2011-11-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) remains a world public health problem, particularly for young children in developing countries. In Mexico, the main sources of exposure to Pb and Hg are wastes from human activities that increase the natural sources of these metals. Pb and Hg are highly toxic during development and maturation periods of the central nervous system (CNS); these effects are associated with the risk for neurodegenerative diseases. Mexico has numerous exposure sources to Pb and Hg; nevertheless, information on exposure in children is limited, particularly for Hg. Therefore, we conducted a review of the studies performed in children exposed to Pb and Hg. Data presented support that an important proportion of Mexican children have Pb levels above values associated with dangerous effects. On the other hand, studies on Hg-exposure are scarce, so we need more studies to estimate the magnitude of the problem and to determine exposure levels in Mexican children. Available data support the urgent need for coordinated actions among researchers, and health and environmental government authorities to implement education and nutritional campaigns, as well as to decrease exposure and effects of Pb and Hg. In addition, there must be a priority for the implementation of educational campaigns directed to the general population, but with emphasis in parents, education staff and health care providers to decrease both the risk of exposure of children to Pb and Hg and the effects of the exposure to these metals.

  1. Environmental exposure and mitochondrial epigenetics: study design and analytical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Hyang-Min; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2015-01-01

    The environment can influence human health and disease in many harmful ways. Many epidemiological studies have been conducted with the aim of elucidating the association between environmental exposure and human disease at the molecular and pathological levels, and such associations can often be through induced epigenetic changes. One such mechanism for this is through environmental factors increasing oxidative stress in the cell, and this stress can subsequently lead to alterations in DNA molecules. The two cellular organelles that contain DNA are the nucleus and mitochondria, and the latter are particularly sensitive to oxidative stress, with mitochondrial functions often disrupted by increased stress. There has been a substantial increase over the past decade in the number of epigenetic studies investigating the impact of environmental exposures upon genomic DNA, but to date there has been insufficient attention paid to the impact upon mitochondrial epigenetics in studying human disease with exposure to environment. Here, in this review, we will discuss mitochondrial epigenetics with regards to epidemiological studies, with particular consideration given to study design and analytical challenges. Furthermore, we suggest future directions and perspectives in the field of mitochondrial epigenetic epidemiological studies. PMID:24402053

  2. Use of time to pregnancy to study environmental exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, D.D.; Wilcox, A.J.; Weinberg, C.R.

    1986-09-01

    There is need in reproductive epidemiology for sensitive and convenient screening tools that can be used to study environmental and occupational exposures. The measurement of fecundability (the probability of pregnancy in each cycle) by ascertaining how long it takes couples to conceive, may be useful for this purpose. Theoretically, exposures that interfere with any of the biologic processes involved in achieving pregnancy could lower fecundability among exposed men or women. To evaluate problems with collecting data on time to pregnancy, telephone interviews were conducted with nearly 700 pregnant women who reported having planned their pregnancies. Power curves were developed based on the distribution of time to pregnancy in the interviewed population. These curves indicate that relatively small sample sizes are sufficient for investigating an exposure. For example, the authors estimate that to detect a given 50% drop in mean fecundability with 80% power would require data from 55 exposed and 55 unexposed women who are pregnant. Disadvantages of using time to pregnancy as a reproductive endpoint include susceptibility to selection bias and need for data on several potential confounding variables. The next step in evaluating time to pregnancy as a reproductive endpoint is to apply it in studies of environmental or occupational exposures.

  3. Modeling Mesothelioma Risk Associated with Environmental Asbestos Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Maule, Milena Maria; Magnani, Corrado; Dalmasso, Paola; Mirabelli, Dario; Merletti, Franco; Biggeri, Annibale

    2007-01-01

    Background Environmental asbestos pollution can cause malignant mesothelioma, but few studies have involved dose–response analyses with detailed information on occupational, domestic, and environmental exposures. Objectives In the present study, we examined the spatial variation of mesothelioma risk in an area with high levels of asbestos pollution from an industrial plant, adjusting for occupational and domestic exposures. Methods This population-based case–control study included 103 incident cases of mesothelioma and 272 controls in 1987–1993 in the area around Casale Monferrato, Italy, where an important asbestos cement plant had been active for decades. Information collected included lifelong occupational and residential histories. Mesothelioma risk was estimated through logistic regression and a mixed additive–multiplicative model in which an additive scale was assumed for the risk associated with both residential distance from the plant and occupational exposures. The adjusted excess risk gradient by residential distance was modeled as an exponential decay with a threshold. Results Residents at the location of the asbestos cement factory had a relative risk for mesothelioma of 10.5 [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.8–50.1), adjusted for occupational and domestic exposures. Risk decreased rapidly with increasing distance from the factory, but at 10-km the risk was still 60% of its value at the source. The relative risk for occupational exposure was 6.0 (95% CI, 2.9–13.0), but this increased to 27.5 (95% CI, 7.8–153.4) when adjusted for residential distance. Conclusions This study provides strong evidence that asbestos pollution from an industrial source greatly increases mesothelioma risk. Furthermore, relative risks from occupational exposure were underestimated and were markedly increased when adjusted for residential distance. PMID:17637924

  4. The association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and breast cancer: a review by the California Environmental Protection Agency.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark D; Marty, Melanie A; Broadwin, Rachel; Johnson, Kenneth C; Salmon, Andrew G; Winder, Bruce; Steinmaus, Craig

    2007-02-01

    The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) recently completed a health effects assessment of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) which resulted in California listing ETS as a Toxic Air Contaminant in January 2006. As part of the assessment, studies on the association between exposure to ETS and breast cancer were reviewed. Twenty-six published reports (including 3 meta-analyses) evaluating the association between ETS exposure and breast cancer were reviewed. A weight-of-evidence approach was applied to evaluate the data and draw conclusions about the association between breast cancer and ETS exposure. The published data indicate an association between ETS and breast cancer in younger primarily premenopausal women. Thirteen of 14 studies (10 case-control and four cohort) that allowed analysis by menopausal status reported elevated risk estimates for breast cancer in premenopausal women, seven of which were statistically significant. Our meta-analyses indicated elevated summary relative risks ranging from OR 1.68 (95% C.I. 1.31, 2.15) for all 14 studies to 2.20 (95% C.I. 1.69, 2.87) for those with the best exposure assessment. Cal/EPA concluded that regular ETS exposure is causally related to breast cancer diagnosed in younger, primarily premenopausal women and that the association is not likely explained by bias or confounding.

  5. Characterizing Variability and Uncertainty in Exposure Assessments Improves links to Environmental Decision-Making

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Decisions often rely upon observational data or model estimates. For instance, the evaluation of human health or ecological risks often includes information on pollutant emission rates, environmental concentrations, exposures, and exposure/dose-response data. Whet...

  6. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOR APPLICATION OF CFD TO ESTIMATING HUMAN EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), Fluent, Inc. and the US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) propose to improve the ability of environmental scientists to use computer modeling for environmental exposure to air pollutants in human exp...

  7. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOR APPLICATION OF CFD TO ESTIMATING HUMAN EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), Fluent, Inc. and the US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) propose to improve the ability of environmental scientists to use computer modeling for environmental exposure to air pollutants in human exp...

  8. Effects of environmental stressors on vigilance performance

    SciTech Connect

    Duchon, J.C.; Hudock, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report on research for reducing accidents and improving the person-machine interface found in surface and underground mining operations. Miners are exposed to a variety of environmental stressors, e.g., extreme heat, noise, vibration, and adverse illumination, throughout the workday. Exposure to these environmental stressors has been noted to affect performance of vigilance tasks. Since impaired performance of vigilance tasks can lead to industrial accidents, further investigation of the effects of environmental stressors on human performance is warranted. A description of the environmental conditions present in the mining workplace is presented. A review of experiments dealing with the effects of environmental stressors on vigilance task performance is given. The applicability of past research to actual mining operations is considered.

  9. Improving Environmental Health Literacy and Justice through Environmental Exposure Results Communication.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D; Brody, Julia Green; Lothrop, Nathan; Loh, Miranda; Beamer, Paloma I; Brown, Phil

    2016-07-08

    Understanding the short- and long-term impacts of a biomonitoring and exposure project and reporting personal results back to study participants is critical for guiding future efforts, especially in the context of environmental justice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate learning outcomes from environmental communication efforts and whether environmental health literacy goals were met in an environmental justice community. We conducted 14 interviews with parents who had participated in the University of Arizona's Metals Exposure Study in Homes and analyzed their responses using NVivo, a qualitative data management and analysis program. Key findings were that participants used the data to cope with their challenging circumstances, the majority of participants described changing their families' household behaviors, and participants reported specific interventions to reduce family exposures. The strength of this study is that it provides insight into what people learn and gain from such results communication efforts, what participants want to know, and what type of additional information participants need to advance their environmental health literacy. This information can help improve future report back efforts and advance environmental health and justice.

  10. Improving Environmental Health Literacy and Justice through Environmental Exposure Results Communication

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brody, Julia Green; Lothrop, Nathan; Loh, Miranda; Beamer, Paloma I.; Brown, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the short- and long-term impacts of a biomonitoring and exposure project and reporting personal results back to study participants is critical for guiding future efforts, especially in the context of environmental justice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate learning outcomes from environmental communication efforts and whether environmental health literacy goals were met in an environmental justice community. We conducted 14 interviews with parents who had participated in the University of Arizona’s Metals Exposure Study in Homes and analyzed their responses using NVivo, a qualitative data management and analysis program. Key findings were that participants used the data to cope with their challenging circumstances, the majority of participants described changing their families’ household behaviors, and participants reported specific interventions to reduce family exposures. The strength of this study is that it provides insight into what people learn and gain from such results communication efforts, what participants want to know, and what type of additional information participants need to advance their environmental health literacy. This information can help improve future report back efforts and advance environmental health and justice. PMID:27399755

  11. Current knowledge of environmental exposure in children during the sensitive developmental periods.

    PubMed

    Perlroth, Norma Helena; Castelo Branco, Christina Wyss

    This study aims to identify the scientific evidence on the risks and effects of exposure to environmental contaminants in children during sensitive developmental periods. The search was performed in the Bireme database, using the terms: children's health, environmental exposure, health vulnerability, toxicity pathways and developmental disabilities in the LILACS, MEDLINE and SciELO systems. Children differ from adults in their unique physiological and behavioral characteristics and the potential exposure to risks caused by several threats in the environment. Exposure to toxic agents is analyzed through toxicokinetic processes in the several systems and organs during the sensitive phases of child development. The caused effects are reflected in the increased prevalence of congenital malformations, diarrhea, asthma, cancer, endocrine and neurological disorders, among others, with negative impacts throughout adult life. To identify the causes and understand the mechanisms involved in the genesis of these diseases is a challenge for science, as there is still a lack of knowledge on children's susceptibility to many environmental contaminants. Prevention policies and more research on child environmental health, improving the recording and surveillance of environmental risks to children's health, should be an ongoing priority in the public health field. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Racial differences in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among children.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen E; Kahn, Robert S; Khoury, Jane; Lanphear, Bruce P

    2005-03-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among U.S. children. Despite African-American children's having a lower reported exposure to tobacco compared to whites, they suffer disproportionately from tobacco-related illnesses and have higher levels of serum cotinine than white children. The goal of this study was to test whether African-American children have higher levels of serum and hair cotinine, after accounting for ETS exposure and various housing characteristics. We investigated the level of cotinine in both hair and serum in a sample of 222 children with asthma. Using a previously validated survey for adult smokers, we assessed each child's exposure to ETS. We collected detailed information on the primary residence, including home volume, ventilation, and overall home configuration. Despite a lower reported ETS exposure, African-American children had higher mean levels of serum cotinine (1.41 ng/mL vs. 0.97 ng/mL; p = 0.03) and hair cotinine (0.25 ng/mg vs. 0.07 ng/mg; p < 0.001) compared with white children. After adjusting for ETS exposure, housing size, and other demographic characteristics, serum and hair cotinine levels remained significantly higher in African-American children (ss = 0.34, p = 0.03) than in white children (ss = 1.06, p < 0.001). Housing volume was significantly associated with both serum and hair cotinine but did not fully explain the race difference. Our results demonstrate that, despite a lower reported exposure to ETS, African-American children with asthma had significantly higher levels of both serum and hair cotinine than did white children. Identifying causes and consequences of increased cotinine may help explain the striking differences in tobacco-related illnesses.

  13. Racial Differences in Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke among Children

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Stephen E.; Kahn, Robert S.; Khoury, Jane; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among U.S. children. Despite African-American children’s having a lower reported exposure to tobacco compared to whites, they suffer disproportionately from tobacco-related illnesses and have higher levels of serum cotinine than white children. The goal of this study was to test whether African-American children have higher levels of serum and hair cotinine, after accounting for ETS exposure and various housing characteristics. We investigated the level of cotinine in both hair and serum in a sample of 222 children with asthma. Using a previously validated survey for adult smokers, we assessed each child’s exposure to ETS. We collected detailed information on the primary residence, including home volume, ventilation, and overall home configuration. Despite a lower reported ETS exposure, African-American children had higher mean levels of serum cotinine (1.41 ng/mL vs. 0.97 ng/mL; p = 0.03) and hair cotinine (0.25 ng/mg vs. 0.07 ng/mg; p < 0.001) compared with white children. After adjusting for ETS exposure, housing size, and other demographic characteristics, serum and hair cotinine levels remained significantly higher in African-American children (β = 0.34, p = 0.03) than in white children (β = 1.06, p < 0.001). Housing volume was significantly associated with both serum and hair cotinine but did not fully explain the race difference. Our results demonstrate that, despite a lower reported exposure to ETS, African-American children with asthma had significantly higher levels of both serum and hair cotinine than did white children. Identifying causes and consequences of increased cotinine may help explain the striking differences in tobacco-related illnesses. PMID:15743729

  14. Attentional Modulation of the Mere Exposure Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagi, Yoshihiko; Ikoma, Shinobu; Kikuchi, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    The "mere exposure effect" refers to the phenomenon where previous exposures to stimuli increase participants' subsequent affective preference for those stimuli. This study explored the effect of selective attention on the mere exposure effect. The experiments manipulated the to-be-attended drawings in the exposure period (either red or green…

  15. Attentional Modulation of the Mere Exposure Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagi, Yoshihiko; Ikoma, Shinobu; Kikuchi, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    The "mere exposure effect" refers to the phenomenon where previous exposures to stimuli increase participants' subsequent affective preference for those stimuli. This study explored the effect of selective attention on the mere exposure effect. The experiments manipulated the to-be-attended drawings in the exposure period (either red or green…

  16. Environmental lead exposure as a risk for childhood aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, M; Akhtar, M J; Verma, S; Kumar, A; Siddiqui, M K J

    2011-01-01

    Concern about environmental lead exposure as a significant public health threat has increased as evidence has accumulated regarding adverse health effects at successively lower levels. Aplastic anemia is a hematological disorder of unknown etiology with a high lethality rate. Lead is a known toxicant for the hematopoietic system. Oxidative stress appears to be the possible mode of lead toxicity. We evaluated the effects of blood lead level on oxidative stress parameters in children suffering from aplastic anemia disease. Seventeen children with aplastic anemia disease (15 male and 2 female, age 3-12 y) were recruited in the study group. Fifty one healthy children (45 male and 6 female, age 3-12 y) having normal blood profiles and not suffering from any chronic disease(s) were used as controls. Blood lead level and oxidative stress parameters were determined. Mean blood lead level was significantly higher while δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity, a biomarker for lead exposure was significantly lower in the study group as compared to the control group (p < 0.05 for each). Thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), a marker of lipid peroxidation, was significantly higher while the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) level was significantly lower in the study group as compared to the control group (p < 0.05 for each). Activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) was significantly higher in the study group than in the control group (p < 0.05). There was a significant negative correlation of blood lead levels with δ-ALAD (r = -0.45; p < 0.05) and GSH (r = -0.32; p < 0.05), and a positive correlation with TBARS (r = 0.41; p < 0.05) and CAT (r = 0.37; p < 0.05). Although a causal pathway cannot be determined from this study, our results indicated that lead induces oxidative stress in children suffering from aplastic anemia. Lead-induced oxidative stress as an underlying mechanism for aplastic anemia warrants further research.

  17. Environmental and Occupational Pesticide Exposure and Human Sperm Parameters: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Martenies, Sheena E.; Perry, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    Of continuing concern are the associations between environmental or occupational exposures to pesticides and semen quality parameters. Prior research has indicated that there may be associations between exposure to pesticides of a variety of classes and decreased sperm health. The intent of this review was to summarize the most recent evidence related to pesticide exposures and commonly used semen quality parameters, including concentration, motility and morphology. The recent literature was searched for studies published between January, 2007 and August, 2012 that focused on environmental or occupational pesticide exposures. Included in the review are 17 studies, 15 of which reported significant associations between exposure to pesticides and semen quality indicators. Two studies also investigated the roles genetic polymorphisms may play in the strength or directions of these associations. Specific pesticides targeted for study included dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and abamectin. Pyrethroids and organophosphates were analyzed as classes of pesticides rather than as individual compounds, primarily due to the limitations of exposure assessment techniques. Overall, a majority of the studies reported significant associations between pesticide exposure and sperm parameters. A decrease in sperm concentration was the most commonly reported finding among all of the pesticide classes investigated. Decreased motility was also associated with exposures to each of the pesticide classes, although these findings were less frequent across studies. An association between pesticide exposure and sperm morphology was less clear, with only two studies reporting an association. The evidence presented in this review continues to support the hypothesis that exposures to pesticides at environmentally or occupationally relevant levels may be associated with decreased sperm health. Future work in this area should focus on associations between specific

  18. Environmental and occupational pesticide exposure and human sperm parameters: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Martenies, Sheena E; Perry, Melissa J

    2013-05-10

    Of continuing concern are the associations between environmental or occupational exposures to pesticides and semen quality parameters. Prior research has indicated that there may be associations between exposure to pesticides of a variety of classes and decreased sperm health. The intent of this review was to summarize the most recent evidence related to pesticide exposures and commonly used semen quality parameters, including concentration, motility and morphology. The recent literature was searched for studies published between January 2007 and August 2012 that focused on environmental or occupational pesticide exposures. Included in the review are 17 studies, 15 of which reported significant associations between exposure to pesticides and semen quality indicators. Two studies also investigated the roles genetic polymorphisms may play in the strength or directions of these associations. Specific pesticides targeted for study included dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and abamectin. Pyrethroids and organophosphates were analyzed as classes of pesticides rather than as individual compounds, primarily due to the limitations of exposure assessment techniques. Overall, a majority of the studies reported significant associations between pesticide exposure and sperm parameters. A decrease in sperm concentration was the most commonly reported finding among all of the pesticide classes investigated. Decreased motility was also associated with exposures to each of the pesticide classes, although these findings were less frequent across studies. An association between pesticide exposure and sperm morphology was less clear, with only two studies reporting an association. The evidence presented in this review continues to support the hypothesis that exposures to pesticides at environmentally or occupationally relevant levels may be associated with decreased sperm health. Future work in this area should focus on associations between specific

  19. Clinical laboratory manifestations of exposure to dioxin in children. A six-year study of the effects of an environmental disaster near Seveso, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Mocarelli, P.; Marocchi, A.; Brambilla, P.; Gerthoux, P.; Young, D.S.; Mantel, N.

    1986-11-21

    Following a major environmental accident near Seveso, Italy, on July 10, 1976, we attempted to determine if the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) released into the atmosphere had any effect on the liver function and lipid metabolism of exposed children. From July 1976 to June 1982, we analyzed the results of more than 4500 laboratory tests (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, and triglycerides in plasma and delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine) in a population of about 1500 children aged 6 to 10 years at the moment of the accident. The children exposed to the highest concentration of TCDD showed alterations in serum gamma-glutamyltransferase and alanine aminotransferase activity compared with the control group. These differences were restricted to values inside limits set from the lower end of the normal range to slightly above it. The observed abnormalities were slight and disappeared with time.

  20. Methods to Calculate the Heat Index as an Exposure Metric in Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Michelle L.; Peng, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Environmental health research employs a variety of metrics to measure heat exposure, both to directly study the health effects of outdoor temperature and to control for temperature in studies of other environmental exposures, including air pollution. To measure heat exposure, environmental health studies often use heat index, which incorporates both air temperature and moisture. However, the method of calculating heat index varies across environmental studies, which could mean that studies using different algorithms to calculate heat index may not be comparable. Objective and Methods: We investigated 21 separate heat index algorithms found in the literature to determine a) whether different algorithms generate heat index values that are consistent with the theoretical concepts of apparent temperature and b) whether different algorithms generate similar heat index values. Results: Although environmental studies differ in how they calculate heat index values, most studies’ heat index algorithms generate values consistent with apparent temperature. Additionally, most different algorithms generate closely correlated heat index values. However, a few algorithms are potentially problematic, especially in certain weather conditions (e.g., very low relative humidity, cold weather). To aid environmental health researchers, we have created open-source software in R to calculate the heat index using the U.S. National Weather Service’s algorithm. Conclusion: We identified 21 separate heat index algorithms used in environmental research. Our analysis demonstrated that methods to calculate heat index are inconsistent across studies. Careful choice of a heat index algorithm can help ensure reproducible and consistent environmental health research. Citation: Anderson GB, Bell ML, Peng RD. 2013. Methods to calculate the heat index as an exposure metric in environmental health research. Environ Health Perspect 121:1111–1119; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206273

  1. Environmental exposure to manganese in air: Associations with cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Bowler, Rosemarie M; Kornblith, Erica S; Gocheva, Vihra V; Colledge, Michelle A; Bollweg, George; Kim, Yangho; Beseler, Cheryl L; Wright, Chris W; Adams, Shane W; Lobdell, Danelle T

    2015-07-01

    Manganese (Mn), an essential element, can be neurotoxic in high doses. This cross-sectional study explored the cognitive function of adults residing in two towns (Marietta and East Liverpool, Ohio, USA) identified as having high levels of environmental airborne Mn from industrial sources. Air-Mn site surface emissions method modeling for total suspended particulate (TSP) ranged from 0.03 to 1.61 μg/m(3) in Marietta and 0.01-6.32 μg/m(3) in East Liverpool. A comprehensive screening test battery of cognitive function, including the domains of abstract thinking, attention/concentration, executive function and memory was administered. The mean age of the participants was 56 years (±10.8 years). Participants were mostly female (59.1) and primarily white (94.6%). Significant relationships (p<0.05) were found between Mn exposure and performance on working and visuospatial memory (e.g., Rey-O Immediate β=-0.19, Rey-O Delayed β=-0.16) and verbal skills (e.g., Similarities β=-0.19). Using extensive cognitive testing and computer modeling of 10-plus years of measured air monitoring data, this study suggests that long-term environmental exposure to high levels of air-Mn, the exposure metric of this paper, may result in mild deficits of cognitive function in adult populations.

  2. Environmental pathways and human exposure to manganese in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Nadir; Schneider, Rosana C S; Molin, Daniela D; Riegel, Guilherme Z; Costa, Adilson B; Corbellini, Valeriano A; Torres, João P M; Malm, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    The study of environmental pathways and human exposure to Manganese (Mn) in Southern Brazil was performed using two steps. The first step consisted of taking water samples from the surface of the Pardinho River. The average results from this technique showed a significant increase of pollutants, including increased levels of Mn, above the environmentally acceptable standard recommended by the Brazilian National Environment Council. Additionally, 64 soil samples were taken from areas with and without agricultural activity. Many results were above the mean crust and did not indicate significant differences of Mn levels between the sampled areas. For the second step, 12 families were selected and assessed for exposure to Mn in a region with high levels of Mn in the soil. Most of the analyzed foods contained amounts of Mn above the reference values, indicating that food can be an important source of exposure. The Mn content from the hair of most subjects studied was also high compared to reference values from non-exposed populations. Although the contamination appeared to come from a natural origin, the results found in the present study showed that the Mn levels present in the Pardinho River Basin are a relevant public health issue.

  3. Environmental exposure to manganese in air: Associations with cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, Rosemarie M.; Kornblith, Erica S.; Gocheva, Vihra V.; Colledge, Michelle A.; Bollweg, George; Kim, Yangho; Beseler, Cheryl L.; Wright, Chris W.; Adams, Shane W.; Lobdell, Danelle T.

    2016-01-01

    Manganese (Mn), an essential element, can be neurotoxic in high doses. This cross-sectional study explored the cognitive function of adults residing in two towns (Marietta and East Liverpool, Ohio, USA) identified as having high levels of environmental airborne Mn from industrial sources. Air-Mn site surface emissions method modeling for total suspended particulate (TSP) ranged from 0.03 to 1.61 μg/m3 in Marietta and 0.01–6.32 μg/m3 in East Liverpool. A comprehensive screening test battery of cognitive function, including the domains of abstract thinking, attention/concentration, executive function and memory was administered. The mean age of the participants was 56 years (±10.8 years). Participants were mostly female (59.1) and primarily white (94.6%). Significant relationships (p < 0.05) were found between Mn exposure and performance on working and visuospatial memory (e.g., Rey-O Immediate β = −0.19, Rey-O Delayed β = −0.16) and verbal skills (e.g., Similarities β = −0.19). Using extensive cognitive testing and computer modeling of 10-plus years of measured air monitoring data, this study suggests that long-term environmental exposure to high levels of air-Mn, the exposure metric of this paper, may result in mild deficits of cognitive function in adult populations. PMID:26096496

  4. NMR shielding and a thermodynamic study of the effect of environmental exposure to petrochemical solvent on DPPC, an important component of lung surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monajjemi, M.; Afsharnezhad, S.; Jaafari, M. R.; Abdolahi, T.; Nikosade, A.; Monajemi, H.

    2007-12-01

    The chemical and petrochemical industries are the major air polluters. Millions of workers are exposed to toxic chemicals on the job, and it is becoming more toxic, causing much damage to respiratory system, today. One of the main components of lung alveoli is a surfactant. DPPC (Dipalmitolphosphatidylcholine) is the predominant lipid component in the lung surfactant, which is responsible for lowering surface tension in alveoli. In this article, we used an approximate model and ab initio computations to describe interactions between DPPC and some chemical solvents, such as benzene, toluene, heptane, acetone, chloroform, ether, and ethanol, which cause lung injuries and lead to respiratory distress such as ARDS. The effect of these solvents on the conformation and disordering of the DPPC head group was investigated by calculations at the Hatree-Fock level using the 6-31G basis set with the Onsager continuum solvation, GAIO, and frequency models. The simulation model was confirmed by accurate NMR measurements as concerns conformational energy. Water can be the most suitable solvent for DPPC. Furthermore, this study shows that ethanol has the most destructive effect on the conformation and lipid disorder of the DPPC head group of the lung surfactant in our model. Our finding will be useful for detecting the dysfunction of DPPC in the lung surfactant caused by acute or chronic exposures to air toxics from petrochemical organic solvent emission source and chronic alcohol consumption, which may lead to ARDS.

  5. Children's health in Latin America: the influence of environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    Laborde, Amalia; Tomasina, Fernando; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Bruné, Marie-Noel; Buka, Irena; Comba, Pietro; Corra, Lilian; Cori, Liliana; Duffert, Christin Maria; Harari, Raul; Iavarone, Ivano; McDiarmid, Melissa A; Gray, Kimberly A; Sly, Peter D; Soares, Agnes; Suk, William A; Landrigan, Philip J

    2015-03-01

    Chronic diseases are increasing among children in Latin America. To examine environmental risk factors for chronic disease in Latin American children and to develop a strategic initiative for control of these exposures, the World Health Organization (WHO) including the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the Collegium Ramazzini, and Latin American scientists reviewed regional and relevant global data. Industrial development and urbanization are proceeding rapidly in Latin America, and environmental pollution has become widespread. Environmental threats to children's health include traditional hazards such as indoor air pollution and drinking-water contamination; the newer hazards of urban air pollution; toxic chemicals such as lead, asbestos, mercury, arsenic, and pesticides; hazardous and electronic waste; and climate change. The mix of traditional and modern hazards varies greatly across and within countries reflecting industrialization, urbanization, and socioeconomic forces. To control environmental threats to children's health in Latin America, WHO, including PAHO, will focus on the most highly prevalent and serious hazards-indoor and outdoor air pollution, water pollution, and toxic chemicals. Strategies for controlling these hazards include developing tracking data on regional trends in children's environmental health (CEH), building a network of Collaborating Centres, promoting biomedical research in CEH, building regional capacity, supporting development of evidence-based prevention policies, studying the economic costs of chronic diseases in children, and developing platforms for dialogue with relevant stakeholders.

  6. Environmental health impacts: occurrence, exposure and significance, Lancaster University, UK, 9-10 September 2003.

    PubMed

    Martin, Francis L; Semple, Kirk T

    2004-09-01

    Speakers: John Ashby (Syngenta CTL, UK), Peter A. Behnisch (Eurofins GfA, Germany), Paul L. Carmichael (Unilever Colworth, UK), Curtis C.Harris (National Cancer Institute, USA), Kevin C. Jones (Lancaster University, UK), Andreas Kortenkamp (School of Pharmacy, London, UK), Caroline J. Langdon (Reading University, UK), Anthony M. Lynch (GlaxoSmithKline, UK), Francis L. Martin (Lancaster University, UK), Trevor J. McMillan (Lancaster University, UK), David H. Phillips (Institute of Cancer Research, UK), Huw J. Ricketts (University of Cardiff, UK), Michael N. Routledge (University of Leeds, UK), J. Thomas Sanderson (Utrecht University, The Netherlands) and Kirk T. Semple (Lancaster University, UK) The effects of many environmental exposures to either single contaminants or to mixtures still remain to be properly assessed in ecotoxicological and human toxicological settings. Such assessments need to be carried out using relevant biological assays. On a mechanistic basis, future studies need to be able to extrapolate exposure to disease risk. It is envisaged that such an approach would lead to the development of appropriate strategies to either reduce exposures or to initiate preventative measures in susceptible individuals or populations. To mark the opening of a new Institute, the Lancaster Environmental Centre, an environmental health workshop was held over 2 days (9-10 September 2003) at Lancaster University, UK. The fate, behaviour and movement of chemicals in the environment, together with environmental exposures and human health, biomarkers of such exposures, hormone-like compounds and appropriate genetic toxicology methodologies, were discussed.

  7. Issues in Assessing Environmental Exposures to Manufactured Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Loux, Nicholas T.; Su, Yee San; Hassan, Sayed M.

    2011-01-01

    Manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) are commonly considered to be commercial products possessing at least one dimension in the size range of 10−9 m to 10−7 m. As particles in this size range represent the smaller fraction of colloidal particles characterized by dimensions of 10−9 m to 10−6 m, they differ from both molecular species and bulk particulate matter in the sense that they are unlikely to exhibit significant settling under normal gravitational conditions and they are also likely to exhibit significantly diminished diffusivities (when compared to truly dissolved species) in environmental media. As air/water, air/soil, and water/soil intermedium transport is governed by diffusive processes in the absence of significant gravitational and inertial impaction processes in environmental systems, models of MN environmental intermedium transport behavior will likely require an emphasis on kinetic approaches. This review focuses on the likely environmental fate and transport of MNs in atmospheric and aquatic systems. Should significant atmospheric MNs emission occur, previous observations suggest that MNs may likely exhibit an atmospheric residence time of ten to twenty days. Moreover, while atmospheric MN aggregates in a size range of 10−7 m to 10−6 m will likely be most mobile, they are least likely to deposit in the human respiratory system. An examination of various procedures including the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory of colloidal particle suspension stability in water indicates that more sophisticated approaches may be necessary in order to develop aquatic exposure models of acceptable uncertainty. In addition, concepts such as Critical Coagulation Concentrations and Critical Zeta Potentials may prove to be quite useful in environmental aquatic exposure assessments. PMID:22016703

  8. Issues in assessing environmental exposures to manufactured nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Loux, Nicholas T; Su, Yee San; Hassan, Sayed M

    2011-09-01

    Manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) are commonly considered to be commercial products possessing at least one dimension in the size range of 10(-9) m to 10(-7) m. As particles in this size range represent the smaller fraction of colloidal particles characterized by dimensions of 10(-9) m to 10(-6) m, they differ from both molecular species and bulk particulate matter in the sense that they are unlikely to exhibit significant settling under normal gravitational conditions and they are also likely to exhibit significantly diminished diffusivities (when compared to truly dissolved species) in environmental media. As air/water, air/soil, and water/soil intermedium transport is governed by diffusive processes in the absence of significant gravitational and inertial impaction processes in environmental systems, models of MN environmental intermedium transport behavior will likely require an emphasis on kinetic approaches. This review focuses on the likely environmental fate and transport of MNs in atmospheric and aquatic systems. Should significant atmospheric MNs emission occur, previous observations suggest that MNs may likely exhibit an atmospheric residence time of ten to twenty days. Moreover, while atmospheric MN aggregates in a size range of 10(-7) m to 10(-6) m will likely be most mobile, they are least likely to deposit in the human respiratory system. An examination of various procedures including the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory of colloidal particle suspension stability in water indicates that more sophisticated approaches may be necessary in order to develop aquatic exposure models of acceptable uncertainty. In addition, concepts such as Critical Coagulation Concentrations and Critical Zeta Potentials may prove to be quite useful in environmental aquatic exposure assessments.

  9. Timing of Environmental Exposures as a Critical Element in Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The role of the chemical environment in disease initiation or progression is becoming more evident. Endocrine disruption via environmental chemicals is now well documented in humans, rodent research models, and wildlife. Breast cancer is an endocrine-based disease whose risk may be modified by environmental exposures. Our purpose is to encourage more investigation into early life environmental exposures as they relate to breast cancer risk factors and disease over a lifetime. Evidence: The 2009 President's Cancer Panel, 2012 Institute of Medicine, 2013 Interagency Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Coordinating Committee reports, and research publications dated ≥2012 in PubMed were used to inform our perspective. Consensus Process: Literature was reviewed and evidence gathered on the effects of the environment on risk of breast cancer or mammary tumor development in animal research models as it pertained to the influence of timing of exposure on later-life outcomes. Conclusions: Evidence has accumulated for several chemicals that environmental factors have a stronger effect on breast cancer risk when exposure occurred early in life. The insecticide, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, is an excellent example and is just one of several chemicals for which there seems to be both animal and human evidence for the developmental basis of adult disease. The developing breast undergoes many changes in early life, leaving it vulnerable to the effects of epigenetic marks, endocrine disruption, and carcinogens. More research is needed in the area of early beginnings of breast cancer, with prevention of the disease as the ultimate goal. PMID:26214118

  10. An exposure-weighted score test for genetic associations integrating environmental risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Han, Summer S.; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Ghosh, Arpita; Landi, Marisa Teresa; Caporaso, Neil E.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2015-01-01

    1. Summary Current methods for detecting genetic associations lack full consideration of the background effects of environmental exposures. Recently proposed methods to account for environmental exposures have focused on logistic regressions with gene-environment interactions. In this report, we developed a test for genetic association, encompassing a broad range of risk models, including linear, logistic and probit, for specifying joint effects of genetic and environmental exposures. We obtained the test statistics by maximizing over a class of score tests, each of which involves modified standard tests of genetic association through a weight function. This weight function reflects the potential heterogeneity of the genetic effects by levels of environmental exposures under a particular model. Simulation studies demonstrate the robust power of these methods for detecting genetic associations under a wide range of scenarios. Applications of these methods are further illustrated using data from genome-wide association studies of type 2 diabetes with body mass index and of lung cancer risk with smoking. PMID:26134142

  11. The concept of exposure in environmental health for nursing.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Marcella Remer; Schwartz Barcott, Donna

    2017-06-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of exposure in environmental health for nursing. The importance of the environment has long been recognized in nursing, although the nature and scope of the concept and how it influences health have varied over time. Exposure is the sufficient and necessary link between environment and health. In nursing practice, the word 'exposure' has been used frequently with no clear standard definition. Concept analysis using Kim's first-level analytics. Chronological review (1980-2015) of the nursing science literature was conducted through ProQuest Dissertations and Theses and CINAHL, followed by a multi-disciplinary search through PubMed (1980-2015), texts and the Internet to compare definitions and measurements of exposure and related concepts. Explicit and implicit conceptual definitions and measurements of exposure were identified, categorized and analysed. The newly defined concept of 'exposure' is a process involves three phases: 1, contact is made between a target and one or more agents in the same environment; 2, the agent accesses the target by one or more routes of entry; and 3, the agent enters the target by crossing a barrier or boundary. Existing measurements related to each phase are identified and discussed. Definitions of 'target' and 'agent' were refined for congruency. Consistent use of terms as defined is critical to development of nursing knowledge. These concepts should be incorporated into nursing-related research to evaluate their usefulness to nursing. Alignment of this concept with relevant theories should be critically examined. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE ALTERS GENE EXPRESSION IN THE DEVELOPING MURINE HIPPOCAMPUS

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Horn, Kristin H.; Greene, Robert M.; Pisano, M. Michele

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effects of passive smoke exposures on the developing brain. Objective The purpose of the current study was to identify changes in gene expression in the murine hippocampus as a consequence of in utero exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke (an experimental equivalent of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)) at exposure levels that do not result in fetal growth inhibition. Methods A whole body smoke inhalation exposure system was utilized to deliver ETS to pregnant C57BL/6J mice for six hours/day from gestational days 6–17 (gd 6–17) [for microarray] or gd 6–18.5 [for fetal phenotyping]. Results There were no significant effects of ETS exposure on fetal phenotype. However, 61 “expressed” genes in the gd 18.5 fetal hippocampus were differentially regulated (up- or down-regulated by 1.5 fold or greater) by maternal exposure to ETS. Of these 61 genes, 25 genes were upregulated while 36 genes were downregulated. A systems biology approach, including computational methodologies, identified cellular response pathways, and biological themes, underlying altered fetal programming of the embryonic hippocampus by in utero cigarette smoke exposure. Conclusions Results from the present study suggest that even in the absence of effects on fetal growth, prenatal smoke exposure can alter gene expression during the “early” period of hippocampal growth and may result in abnormal hippocampal morphology, connectivity, and function. PMID:19969065

  13. Prenatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke alters gene expression in the developing murine hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Horn, Kristin H; Greene, Robert M; Michele Pisano, M

    2010-04-01

    Little is known about the effects of passive smoke exposures on the developing brain. The purpose of the current study was to identify changes in gene expression in the murine hippocampus as a consequence of in utero exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke (an experimental equivalent of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)) at exposure levels that do not result in fetal growth inhibition. A whole body smoke inhalation exposure system was utilized to deliver ETS to pregnant C57BL/6J mice for 6 h/day from gestational days 6-17 (gd 6-17) [for microarray] or gd 6-18.5 [for fetal phenotyping]. There were no significant effects of ETS exposure on fetal phenotype. However, 61 "expressed" genes in the gd 18.5 fetal hippocampus were differentially regulated (up- or down-regulated by 1.5-fold or greater) by maternal exposure to ETS. Of these 61 genes, 25 genes were upregulated while 36 genes were down-regulated. A systems biology approach, including computational methodologies, identified cellular response pathways, and biological themes, underlying altered fetal programming of the embryonic hippocampus by in utero cigarette smoke exposure. Results from the present study suggest that even in the absence of effects on fetal growth, prenatal smoke exposure can alter gene expression during the "early" period of hippocampal growth and may result in abnormal hippocampal morphology, connectivity, and function. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cancer mortality in relation to environmental chromium exposure.

    PubMed

    Fryzek, J P; Mumma, M T; McLaughlin, J K; Henderson, B E; Blot, W J

    2001-07-01

    From the 1950s to the 1980s, hexavalent chromium compounds were used as additives at certain water-cooling towers at three southern California gas compressor facilities. Claims of potential residential chromium exposure prompted the examination of age-adjusted mortality rates during 1989 to 1998 for lung cancer, all cancer, and all deaths for neighborhoods near versus distant from the plants. Differences in the rates between areas tended to be small and not statistically significant. The only significant difference was a lower, rather than higher, rate of total cancer among women in the potentially exposed areas. Study limitations preclude a definitive assessment of risk, but similar to previous investigations of cancer in relation to environmental chromium exposure in other locations, this study found no evidence of a cancer hazard among residents living near these California gas compressor facilities.

  15. Adverse Environmental Exposures During Gestation and Childhood: Predictors of Adolescent Drinking.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Marie D; De Genna, Natacha; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy

    2016-08-23

    Adverse conditions, including exposures to drugs and other environmental influences during early development, may affect behaviors later in life. This study examined the role of environmental influences from the gestation and childhood on adolescent drinking behavior. 917 mother/offspring dyads were followed prospectively from pregnancy to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Prenatal exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana were measured during gestation. Data were collected at each phase on childhood environment, including parenting practices, quality of the home environment, maternal depression and hostility, and lifetime exposure to child maltreatment and community violence. Alcohol outcomes were offspring age of drinking initiation and level of drinking at age 16 years. Cox Proportional Hazards ratios were used to model offspring age of drinking initiation. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate significant predictors of drinking level. Childhood environment, including less parental strictness, greater exposure to violence and childhood maltreatment, significantly predicted earlier age of alcohol initiation. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was significantly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to initiate alcohol use early and drink at higher levels. Early and heavier alcohol use was associated with early exposures to adversity such as prenatal alcohol exposure, and child exposures to maltreatment and violence. These results highlight the importance of environmental adversity and less effective parenting practices on the development of adolescent drinking behavior.

  16. Radium in the environment: exposure pathways and health effects.

    PubMed

    Brugge, Doug; Buchner, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Radium is a naturally occurring radioactive element in the environment that can exist as several isotopes. Little information is available on the acute (short-term) non-cancer effects in humans. Radium exposure has resulted in acute leukopenia, anemia, necrosis of the jaw, and other effects. Cancer is the major effect of concern. Radium, via oral exposure, is known to cause bone, head, and nasal passage tumors in humans. The US Environmental Protection Agency has not classified radium for carcinogenicity.

  17. Environmental Perchlorate and Thiocyanate Exposures and Infant Serum Thyroid Function

    PubMed Central

    Braverman, Lewis E.; He, Xuemei; Schuller, Kristin E.; Roussilhes, Alexandra; Jahreis, Katherine A.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Breastfed infants rely on maternal iodine for thyroid hormone production required for neurodevelopment. Dietary iodine among women of childbearing age in the United States may be insufficient. Perchlorate (competitive inhibitor of the sodium/iodide symporter [NIS]) exposure is ubiquitous. Thiocyanate, from cigarettes and diet, is a weaker NIS inhibitor. Environmental perchlorate and thiocyanate exposures could decrease breast milk iodine by competitively inhibiting NIS in lactating breasts (thus impairing infants' iodine availability), and/or infants' thyroidal NIS to directly decrease infant thyroid function. The current study assessed the relationships between environmental perchlorate and thiocyanate exposures and infant serum thyroid function. Methods Iodine, perchlorate, and thiocyanate in breast milk, maternal and infant urine, and infant serum thyroid function tests were cross-sectionally measured in Boston-area women and their 1–3 month-old breastfed infants. Univariate and multivariable analyses assessed relationships between iodine, perchlorate, thiocyanate, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and free thyroxine (FT4) levels. Results In 64 mothers and infants, median (range) iodine levels were 45.6 μg/L (4.3–1080) in breast milk, 101.9 μg/L (27–570) in maternal urine, and 197.5 μg/L (40–785) in infant urine. Median perchlorate concentrations were 4.4 μg/L (0.5–29.5) in breast milk, 3.1 μg/L (0.2–22.4) in maternal urine, and 4.7 μg/L (0.3–25.3) in infant urine. There were no correlations between infant TSH or FT4 and iodine, perchlorate, and thiocyanate levels in breast milk, maternal urine, and infant urine. In multivariable analyses, perchlorate and thiocyanate levels in breast milk, maternal urine, and infant urine were not significant predictors of infant TSH or FT4. Conclusions Boston-area mothers and their breastfed infants are generally iodine sufficient. Although environmental perchlorate and thiocyanate

  18. Clarifying and simplifying the management of environmental exposures under different exposure situations.

    PubMed

    Pentreath, R J

    2012-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection recognises three different exposure situations: planned, existing, and emergency. In all three situations, the release of radionuclides into the natural environment leads to exposures of non-human species, as well as having the potential for exposures of the general public. Each release may therefore need separate evaluations of these two consequences in order to clarify the relevant objectives of protection, their compliance with various legal requirements, and how these objectives can be achieved. However, the need to meet more than one objective should not necessarily lead to a more complicated regulatory system. Indeed, with regard to low-level routine discharges from most nuclear plants, there would appear to be scope for simplifying the entire system, to protect both humans and biota, by using discharge consent and specified radionuclide environmental quality standards for water, soil, and air in a manner similar to that used to regulate other major, non-nuclear industries. In contrast, different objectives for humans and the environment need to be set and evaluated independently for existing exposure situations. For emergency situations, the separate consequences of different management options for humans and the environment should be made clear. Should an emergency occur, it is important to have meaningful environmental criteria in order to communicate clearly with the public at large as events unfold.

  19. Environmental and biological monitoring for lead exposure in California workplaces.

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, L; Sharp, D S; Samuels, S; Perkins, C; Rosenberg, J

    1990-01-01

    Patterns of environmental and biological monitoring for lead exposure were surveyed in lead-using industries in California. Employer self-reporting indicates a large proportion of potentially lead-exposed workers have never participated in a monitoring program. Only 2.6 percent of facilities have done environmental monitoring for lead, and only 1.4 percent have routine biological monitoring programs. Monitoring practices vary by size of facility, with higher proportions in industries in which larger facilities predominate. Almost 80 percent of battery manufacturing employees work in job classifications which have been monitored, versus only 1 percent of radiator-repair workers. These findings suggest that laboratory-based surveillance for occupational lead poisoning may seriously underestimate the true number of lead poisoned workers and raise serious questions regarding compliance with key elements of the OSHA Lead Standard. PMID:2368850

  20. Cardiovascular actions of cadmium at environmental exposure levels

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, S.J.; Glonek, T.; Perry, H.M. Jr.; Erlanger, M.; Perry, E.F.

    1982-08-27

    A low intake of dietary cadmium induces specific dose-dependent functional and biochemical changes in the cardiovascular tissues of rats. Maximum changes occur when the cadmium intake is 10 to 20 micrograms per kilogram of body weight per day. The changes reflect the accumulation of critical concentrations of cadmium in the cardiovascular tissues. The biologic activity of cadmium is demonstrated for intakes that approach those of the average American adult exposed to the usual environmental concentrations of the element but not to industrial concentrations. The sensitivity of the cardiovascular system to low doses of cadmium could not be anticipated by extrapolation from data on exposure to high concentrations of cadmium. The data support the hypothesis that ingested or inhaled environmental cadmium may contribute to essential hypertension in humans.

  1. Evidence for Concurrent Effects of Exposure to Environmental Cadmium and Lead on Hepatic CYP2A6 Phenotype and Renal Function Biomarkers in Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Satarug, Soisungwan; Nishijo, Muneko; Ujjin, Pailin; Vanavanitkun, Yuvaree; Baker, Jason R.; Moore, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the interrelationships between phenotype of hepatic cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6), nephropathy, and exposure to cadmium and lead in a group of 118 healthy Thai men and women who had never smoked. Their urinary Cd excretion ranged from 0.05 to 2.36 μg/g creatinine, whereas their urinary Pb excretion ranged from 0.1 to 12 μg/g creatinine. Average age and Cd burden of women and men did not differ. Women, however, on average showed a 46% higher urinary Pb excretion (p < 0.001) and lower zinc status, suggested by lower average serum Zn and urinary Zn excretion compared with those in men. Cd-linked nephropathy was detected in both men and women. However, Pb-linked nephropathy was seen only in women, possibly because of higher Pb burden coupled with lower protective factors, notably of Zn (p < 0.001), in women compared with men. In men, Pb burden showed a negative association with CYP2A6 activity (adjusted β= −0.29, p = 0.003), whereas Cd burden showed a positive association with CYP2A6 activity (adjusted β= 0.38, p = 0.001), suggesting opposing effects of Cd and Pb on hepatic CYP2A6 phenotype. The weaker correlation between Cd burden CYP2A6 activity in women despite similarity in Cd burden between men and women is consistent with opposing effects of Pb and Cd on hepatic CYP2A6 phenotypic expression. A positive correlation between Cd-linked nephropathy (urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase excretion) and CYP2A6 activity in men (r = 0.39, p = 0.002) and women (r = 0.37, p = 0.001) suggests that Cd induction of hepatic CYP2A6 expression and Cd-linked nephropathy occurred simultaneously. PMID:15531436

  2. Contaminant exposures in various environmental media: How can toxicity comparisons be made?

    SciTech Connect

    Lanno, R.P.; McCarty, L.S.

    1995-12-31

    Environmental protection is usually based upon guidelines or standards expressed as chemical values in environmental media such as air, sediment, soil, and water. The basis for such guidelines is laboratory toxicity test data, often time-dependent LC50 values (e.g., 96-h LC50s), where toxicity is expressed in terms of the concentration of chemical contaminant in the exposure medium. This preoccupation with exposure-based estimates of toxic dose has led to many difficulties when attempting to compare the relative toxicity of compounds between species and under various modifying conditions in the same medium. Furthermore, viable comparisons of toxic potencies between organisms inhabiting different environmental media has been all but impossible. This paper exploits the relationship between body residues and adverse biological effects to compare the effects of certain modifying factors (e.g., temperature) on expressed toxicity and toxic potency both within and between different species in one medium. As well, this approach is used to make comparisons of toxic potency between different species in different environmental media. Such comparisons are made by standardizing toxic responses to time-independent toxicity thresholds and using the critical body residue at the chosen biological response endpoint as the dose surrogate rather than the concentration of chemical in the exposure medium. Comparisons of exposure-based and organism residue-based toxicity between fish, and invertebrates in soil (earthworms) and sediment (amphipods) are presented. Recommendations to facilitate such comparisons are reviewed.

  3. Can Exposure to Environmental Chemicals Increase the Risk of Diabetes Type 1 Development?

    PubMed Central

    Stene, Lars Christian

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease, where destruction of beta-cells causes insulin deficiency. The incidence of T1DM has increased in the last decades and cannot entirely be explained by genetic predisposition. Several environmental factors are suggested to promote T1DM, like early childhood enteroviral infections and nutritional factors, but the evidence is inconclusive. Prenatal and early life exposure to environmental pollutants like phthalates, bisphenol A, perfluorinated compounds, PCBs, dioxins, toxicants, and air pollutants can have negative effects on the developing immune system, resulting in asthma-like symptoms and increased susceptibility to childhood infections. In this review the associations between environmental chemical exposure and T1DM development is summarized. Although information on environmental chemicals as possible triggers for T1DM is sparse, we conclude that it is plausible that environmental chemicals can contribute to T1DM development via impaired pancreatic beta-cell and immune-cell functions and immunomodulation. Several environmental factors and chemicals could act together to trigger T1DM development in genetically susceptible individuals, possibly via hormonal or epigenetic alterations. Further observational T1DM cohort studies and animal exposure experiments are encouraged. PMID:25883945

  4. Relation of Prenatal Methylmercury Exposure from Environmental Sources to Childhood IQ.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Joseph L; Muckle, Gina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Éric; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2015-08-01

    Although prenatal methylmercury exposure has been linked to poorer intellectual function in several studies, data from two major prospective, longitudinal studies yielded contradictory results. Associations with cognitive deficits were reported in a Faroe Islands cohort, but few were found in a study in the Seychelles Islands. It has been suggested that co-exposure to another contaminant, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), may be responsible for the positive findings in the former study and that co-exposure to nutrients in methylmercury-contaminated fish may have obscured and/or protected against adverse effects in the latter. We aimed to determine the degree to which co-exposure to PCBs may account for the adverse effects of methylmercury and the degree to which co-exposure to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may obscure these effects in a sample of Inuit children in Arctic Québec. IQ was estimated in 282 school-age children from whom umbilical cord blood samples had been obtained and analyzed for mercury and other environmental exposures. Prenatal mercury exposure was related to poorer estimated IQ after adjustment for potential confounding variables. The entry of DHA into the model significantly strengthened the association with mercury, supporting the hypothesis that beneficial effects from DHA intake can obscure adverse effects of mercury exposure. Children with cord mercury ≥ 7.5 μg/L were four times as likely to have an IQ score < 80, the clinical cut-off for borderline intellectual disability. Co-exposure to PCBs did not alter the association of mercury with IQ. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document an association of prenatal mercury exposure with poorer performance on a school-age assessment of IQ, a measure whose relevance for occupational success in adulthood is well established. This association was seen at levels in the range within which many U.S. children of Asian-American background are exposed.

  5. Adverse respiratory symptoms and environmental exposures among children and adolescents following Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Rath, Barbara; Young, Elizabeth A; Harris, Amy; Perrin, Keith; Bronfin, Daniel R; Ratard, Raoult; Vandyke, Russell; Goldshore, Matthew; Magnus, Manya

    2011-01-01

    Children and adolescents are especially vulnerable to environmental exposures and their respiratory effects. Following Hurricane Katrina in 2005, residents experienced multiple adverse environmental exposures. We characterized the association between upper respiratory symptoms (URS) and lower respiratory symptoms (LRS) and environmental exposures among children and adolescents affected by Hurricane Katrina. We conducted a cross-sectional study following the return of the population to New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina (October 2005 and February 2006) among a convenience sample of children and adolescents attending New Orleans health facilities. We used uni-, bi-, and multivariable analyses to describe participants, exposures, and associations with URS/LRS. Of 1,243 participants, 47% were Caucasian, 50% were male, and 72% were younger than 11 years of age. Multiple environmental exposures were identified during and after the storm and at current residences: roof/glass/storm damage (50%), outside mold (22%), dust (18%), and flood damage (15%). Self-reported URS and LRS (76% and 36%, respectively) were higher after the hurricane than before the hurricane (22% and 9%, respectively, p<0.0001). Roof/glass/storm damage at home was associated with URS (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15, 2.21) and LRS (AOR=1.35, 95% CI 1.01, 1.80), while mold growth at home was associated with LRS (AOR=1.47, 95% CI 1.02, 2.12). Children and adolescents affected by Hurricane Katrina experienced environmental exposures associated with increased prevalence of reported URS and LRS. Additional research is needed to investigate the long-term health impacts of Hurricane Katrina.

  6. Adverse Respiratory Symptoms and Environmental Exposures Among Children and Adolescents Following Hurricane Katrina

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Barbara; Young, Elizabeth A.; Harris, Amy; Perrin, Keith; Bronfin, Daniel R.; Ratard, Raoult; VanDyke, Russell; Goldshore, Matthew; Magnus, Manya

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Children and adolescents are especially vulnerable to environmental exposures and their respiratory effects. Following Hurricane Katrina in 2005, re