Science.gov

Sample records for environmental factors tested

  1. HIV Testing among Adolescents in Ndola, Zambia: How Individual, Relational, and Environmental Factors Relate to Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denison, Julie A.; McCauley, Ann P.; Dunnett-Dagg, Wendy A.; Lungu, Nalakwanji; Sweat, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how individual, relational and environmental factors related to adolescent demand for HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). A cross-sectional survey among randomly selected 16-19-year-olds in Ndola, Zambia, covered individual (e.g., HIV knowledge), environmental (e.g., distance), and relational factors (e.g., discussed…

  2. Test-retest reliability of a questionnaire to assess physical environmental factors pertaining to physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R; McGinn, Aileen P

    2005-01-01

    Background Despite the documented benefits of physical activity, many adults do not obtain the recommended amounts. Barriers to physical activity occur at multiple levels, including at the individual, interpersonal, and environmental levels. Only until more recently has there been a concerted focus on how the physical environment might affect physical activity behavior. With this new area of study, self-report measures should be psychometrically tested before use in research studies. Therefore the objective of this study was to document the test-retest reliability of a questionnaire designed to assess physical environmental factors that might be associated with physical activity in a diverse adult population. Methods Test and retest surveys were conducted over the telephone with 106 African American and White women and men living in either Forsyth County, North Carolina or Jackson, Mississippi. Reliability of self-reported environmental factors across four domains (e.g., access to facilities and destinations, functionality and safety, aesthetics, natural environment) was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) overall and separately by gender and race. Results Generally items displayed moderate and sometimes substantial reliability (ICC between 0.4 to 0.8), with a few differences by gender or race, across each of the domains. Conclusion This study provides some psychometric evidence for the use of many of these questions in studies examining the effect of self-reported physical environmental measures on physical activity behaviors, among African American and White women and men. PMID:15958168

  3. Effects of environmental and experimental design factors on culturing and testing of Ceriodaphnia dubia

    SciTech Connect

    Cooney, J.D.; DeGraeve, G.M.; Moore, E.L.; Lenoble, B.J.; Pollock, T.L.; Smith, G.J. )

    1989-09-01

    EPA has developed a 7-day toxicity test to evaluate effects of effluents on Ceriodaphnia dubia survival and reproduction. This study evaluated effects of laboratory conditions and culturing and tests procedures on Ceriodaphnia survival and reproduction. Temperature, food concentration, chamber size, solution renewal frequency, light quality, illumination, photoperiod, water type, and test organism age were evaluated to determine how these various factors affected individual culturing success and acceptibility and reproducibility of toxicity test results. Test conditions proposed by EPA were evaluated by varying individual environmental or experimental design conditions to determine a range of responses for survival and reproduction under controlled conditions, both with and without a reference toxicant. For those conditions not specified by EPA (e.g., water hardness, light quality), a commonly used range of conditions was evaluated. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Environmental factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, E. L.; Waligora, J. M.; Horrigan, D. J.; Shumate, W. H.

    1975-01-01

    The selection of an Apollo spacecraft atmosphere was based on the establishment of an acceptable range of atmospheric composition and pressure, the establishment of acceptable carbon dioxide levels, thermal comfort criteria, and acceleration and impact limits. The prime design requirements in a spacecraft system are minimum weight, volume, power usage, reliability, ease of maintenance, environmental compatibility, integration with other systems, and crew compatibility. The selection considerations are reviewed.

  5. Environmental Factors Associated with the Growth of Chinese Literary Genius: A Test of Rogerian Assumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, You-Yuk

    1987-01-01

    This study explored relationships between environmental factors (era, standard of living, freedom, and value) and the growth of Chinese literary genius. Using a new measure, the Chinese Creator Rating Scale, the study found that historical top scorers had above average values on the four environmental factors, supporting the humanistic theory of…

  6. An exposure-weighted score test for genetic associations integrating environmental risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Han, Summer S.; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Ghosh, Arpita; Landi, Marisa Teresa; Caporaso, Neil E.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2015-01-01

    1. Summary Current methods for detecting genetic associations lack full consideration of the background effects of environmental exposures. Recently proposed methods to account for environmental exposures have focused on logistic regressions with gene-environment interactions. In this report, we developed a test for genetic association, encompassing a broad range of risk models, including linear, logistic and probit, for specifying joint effects of genetic and environmental exposures. We obtained the test statistics by maximizing over a class of score tests, each of which involves modified standard tests of genetic association through a weight function. This weight function reflects the potential heterogeneity of the genetic effects by levels of environmental exposures under a particular model. Simulation studies demonstrate the robust power of these methods for detecting genetic associations under a wide range of scenarios. Applications of these methods are further illustrated using data from genome-wide association studies of type 2 diabetes with body mass index and of lung cancer risk with smoking. PMID:26134142

  7. Standard environmental test methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, D R

    1983-12-01

    This guide to uniformity in testing is intended primarily as an aid to persons responsible for designing, developing, and performing environmental tests. It will also be of use to those concerned with production, evaluation, and quality control and assurance. Checklists for preparing the environmental testing portion of product specifications are included, as are copies of Process Standards covering the instrumentation, equipment, and methods for use in environmental testing of Sandia National Laboratories components. Techniques and equipment are constantly improving. This version of SC-4452 reflects current state-of-the-art and practice in environmental testing. Previously existing sections of the document have ben updated and new ones have been added, e.g., Transient Testing on Vibration Machines.

  8. Environmental factors in autism.

    PubMed

    Grabrucker, Andreas M

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication and social behavior, and by repetitive behaviors. Although genetic factors might be largely responsible for the occurrence of autism they cannot fully account for all cases and it is likely that in addition to a certain combination of autism-related genes, specific environmental factors might act as risk factors triggering the development of autism. Thus, the role of environmental factors in autism is an important area of research and recent data will be discussed in this review. Interestingly, the results show that many environmental risk factors are interrelated and their identification and comparison might unveil a common scheme of alterations on a contextual as well as molecular level. For example, both, disruption in the immune system and in zinc homeostasis may affect synaptic transmission in autism. Thus, here, a model is proposed that interconnects the most important and scientifically recognized environmental factors. Moreover, similarities in how these risk factors impact synapse function are discussed and a possible influence on an already well described genetic pathway leading to the development of autism via zinc homeostasis is proposed.

  9. Environmental Factors in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Grabrucker, Andreas M.

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication and social behavior, and by repetitive behaviors. Although genetic factors might be largely responsible for the occurrence of autism they cannot fully account for all cases and it is likely that in addition to a certain combination of autism-related genes, specific environmental factors might act as risk factors triggering the development of autism. Thus, the role of environmental factors in autism is an important area of research and recent data will be discussed in this review. Interestingly, the results show that many environmental risk factors are interrelated and their identification and comparison might unveil a common scheme of alterations on a contextual as well as molecular level. For example, both, disruption in the immune system and in zinc homeostasis may affect synaptic transmission in autism. Thus, here, a model is proposed that interconnects the most important and scientifically recognized environmental factors. Moreover, similarities in how these risk factors impact synapse function are discussed and a possible influence on an already well described genetic pathway leading to the development of autism via zinc homeostasis is proposed. PMID:23346059

  10. Overview of environmental factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purvis, C. K.

    1989-01-01

    The orbital environment is complex, dynamic, and comprised of both natural and system-induced components. Several environment factors are important for materials. Materials selection/suitability determination requires consideration of each and all factors, including synergisms among them. Understanding and evaluating these effects will require ground testing, modeling, and focused flight experimentation.

  11. Environmental Test Screening Procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeidler, Janet

    2000-01-01

    This procedure describes the methods to be used for environmental stress screening (ESS) of the Lightning Mapper Sensor (LMS) lens assembly. Unless otherwise specified, the procedures shall be completed in the order listed, prior to performance of the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP). The first unit, S/N 001, will be subjected to the Qualification Vibration Levels, while the remainder will be tested at the Operational Level. Prior to ESS, all units will undergo Pre-ESS Functional Testing that includes measuring the on-axis and plus or minus 0.95 full field Modulation Transfer Function and Back Focal Length. Next, all units will undergo ESS testing, and then Acceptance testing per PR 460.

  12. Environmental test chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Li

    2016-04-01

    Increasing of particulates in the air in city became a serious problem , but in the Beijing area students rarely research such questions. The intelligent instrument of suspended particulate matter sampler which introduce from the institute of geology and geophysics, Chinese academy of sciences can be collected for all kinds of grain size of suspended matter in the air.We put them near schools,so the PM2.5 in the air near our shool can be collected. The method for analysis is the environmental magnetism, etc. Numerous studies have demonstrated rapid and non-destructive magnetic parameters measurement for rapid estimation of particulate sources of heavy metals and provides a very effective means. Environmental magnetism is a frontier science among earth science, environmental science and magnetism,which has been applied into many fields because it is capable of providing important information for studying the regional or global environmental changes and the impact of human activity on environment. Testing magnetic parameters of the particle can extract atmospheric particulate matter source, distribution, pollution level and dynamic change information. Measured the magnetic parameters of ARM, IRM, hysteresis loop , element composition, soil particle size of the soil, leaf, the river and dustfall samples and PM2.5 of the atmospheric dustfall samples on campus and the Beijing city.By means of environmental magnetism analysis of atmospheric pollutants category, amount, etc. Magnetic properties of pollutants may indicate the source of the pollutants, the nature of the analysis of pollutants, monitoring pollutant change over time.

  13. Environmental factors and aggressive behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.C.

    1982-07-01

    This paper briefly reviews some of the research areas which indicate a correlation between environmental factors and initiation of aggressive behavior. Environmental factors including lunar influences, month of birth, climate and the effects of crowding and certain chemicals are discussed.

  14. Rh Factor Blood Test

    MedlinePlus

    Tests and Procedures Rh factor blood test By Mayo Clinic Staff Rhesus (Rh) factor is an inherited protein found on the surface of red ... positive. Your health care provider will recommend an Rh factor test during your first prenatal visit. This test ...

  15. A test of social cognitive theory reciprocal and sequential effects: hope, superstitious belief and environmental factors among lottery gamblers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai; Chanchalermporn, Nathanat

    2007-06-01

    This study tested social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) hypotheses of reciprocal and sequential effects among person, environment variables and behavior. The study examined the impact of hope, superstitious belief and environmental factors on the frequency, amounts of lottery gambling and chasing of particular numbers among Thai lottery gamblers. One hundred and fifty gamblers who visited two temples in Bangkok to search for number clues before buying tickets and 150 gamblers who simply bought lottery tickets from the stalls were recruited for the study. Models were constructed to test the effect of hope, superstitious belief and environmental factors on gambling behavior, and the reciprocal effect of gambling behavior on hope, superstitious belief and environmental factors. Results confirmed the theoretical reciprocal effects. A sequential effect model showing the effects of environmental factors on superstitious belief, hope and gambling behavior was also constructed and hope was found to be the result of superstitious belief. To reduce lottery gambling, the players need to be warned of their distorted hope and the small chance of winning lottery.

  16. Space Environmental Testing at GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauder, Lonny R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of space environmental testing at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The contents include: 1) Solar Absorptance measurements; 2) Emittance measurements; 3) Transient Calorimetric Technique; 4) Electrostatic charge testing; 5) UV degradation testing; 6) Solar Wind Facility; and 7) Solar Wind testing.

  17. Environmental factors associated with asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Bailus; Stokes, Lynette D.; Warren, Rueben

    2003-01-01

    Asthma, a disease of attacks and remission, continues to account for substantial morbidity and direct economic costs. Numerous studies--epidemiologic, toxicologic and clinical--present evidence for a broad spectrum of environmental risk factors associated with asthma. This review summarizes current thinking on a subset of these factors. Knowledge of potential environmental determinants of asthma is important to both the patient and healthcare professional in the application of multiple modalities of medical and environmental intervention for management of the development, and exacerbation of this chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways. PMID:12760611

  18. Johnny Horizon Environmental Test Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Richard; Bentley, William

    Derived from tests presently used by state and federal agencies involved with pollution detection, this Environmental Test Kit contains materials and instructions for ten experiments. Each experiment is designed to test a different aspect of air and water, to find out whether or not the air and water in the tester's immediate area has been…

  19. Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A.; Korach, K.S. ); Epstein, S. ); Bhattacharyya, M. ); Pounds, J. )

    1994-04-01

    Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis were reviewed at a conference held at the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences 8-9 November 1993. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease and the NIH Office of Research in Women's Health. The objective of the conference was to review what is known about risk factors for osteoporosis and to identify gaps in the present state of knowledge that might be addressed by future research. The conference was divided into two broad themes. The first session focused on current knowledge regarding etiology, risk factors, and approaches to clinical and laboratory diagnosis. This was followed by three sessions in which various environmental pollutants were discussed. Topics selected for review included environmental agents that interfere with bone and calcium metabolism, such as the toxic metals lead, cadmium, aluminum, and fluoride, natural and antiestrogens, calcium, and vitamin D.

  20. Environmental Factors Inducing Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, N

    2012-01-01

    Background An explosion of research has been done in discovering how human health is affected by environmental factors. I will discuss the impacts of environmental cancer causing factors and how they continue to cause multiple disruptions in cellular networking. Some risk factors may not cause cancer. Other factors initiate consecutive genetic mutations that would eventually alter the normal pathway of cellular proliferations and differentiation. Genetic mutations in four groups of genes; (Oncogenes, Tumor suppressor genes, Apoptosis genes and DNA repairing genes) play a vital role in altering the normal cell division. In recent years, molecular genetics have greatly increased our understanding of the basic mechanisms in cancer development and utilizing these molecular techniques for cancer screening, diagnosis, prognosis and therapies. Inhibition of carcinogenic exposures wherever possible should be the goal of cancer prevention programs to reduce exposures from all environmental carcinogens. PMID:23304670

  1. Testing a Model of Environmental Risk and Protective Factors to Predict Middle and High School Students' Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, S. Colby; Woolley, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Data from the School Success Profile generated by 19,228 middle and high school students were organized into three broad categories of risk and protective factors--control, support, and challenge--to examine the relative and combined power of aggregate scale scores in each category so as to predict academic success. It was hypothesized that higher…

  2. Vertical Gun Test Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-18

    phosphate (TBP) as a chemical agent simulant in a maximum of six vertical gun experiments to be conducted at the Energetic Materials Research and... phosphate . Using either of Ka-Bandprocess, with 2 these two substances would not achieve the test objectives of realistically simulating the threat. In...resources, geology and soils , hazardous materials and hazardous waste, health and safety, land use, noise, socioeconomics and environmental justice

  3. Coagulation Factors Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page helpful? Also known as: Factor Assays; Blood Clotting Factors; Clotting Factors [or by the individual factor ... person has enough coagulation activity to control the blood clotting process. It is used by healthcare practitioners to ...

  4. [Environmental factors in Asperger syndrome].

    PubMed

    Abe, Takaaki; Kato, Satoshi

    2007-03-01

    This paper reviews what is currently known about the environmental factors in Asperger syndrome that is a neurodevelopmental disorder of genetic origins. Its characteristics tend to occur in families of those with the syndrome. The rate of complications during pregnancy or the neonatal period in the patients with Asperger syndrome was about the same as that in the control group. It is true that their involvement in their outer world could not influence the core social deficits very much. But it might facilitate the appearance of the second symptoms such as dissociation, anxiety, depression, persecutory delusion as well as antisocial behavior including serious criminal acts.

  5. [Environmental factors in juvenile delinquency].

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, A; Bellia, A; Benvenuto, G; Contiguglia, M A; Cosentino, F

    1975-09-12

    Experimental data are cited for the proposition that the complicated aspects of juvenile delinquency can only be understood and explained by adopting a simultaneous psychological and sociological approach. It is also shown that the manifestations of delinquency, though not its actual presence, may be influenced by sex and a depressed city or rural background. Environmental factors serving as stimulating features and hereditary (i.e. predisposing) factors undoubtedly contribute to the formation of the Ego. The former, however, are elaborated by their receipient and are not sufficient to explain a certain type of behaviour. The influence of cultural models should not be underestimated. These, where predominant, tend to render normative what may be considered as deviant.

  6. Testing and validating environmental models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirchner, J.W.; Hooper, R.P.; Kendall, C.; Neal, C.; Leavesley, G.

    1996-01-01

    Generally accepted standards for testing and validating ecosystem models would benefit both modellers and model users. Universally applicable test procedures are difficult to prescribe, given the diversity of modelling approaches and the many uses for models. However, the generally accepted scientific principles of documentation and disclosure provide a useful framework for devising general standards for model evaluation. Adequately documenting model tests requires explicit performance criteria, and explicit benchmarks against which model performance is compared. A model's validity, reliability, and accuracy can be most meaningfully judged by explicit comparison against the available alternatives. In contrast, current practice is often characterized by vague, subjective claims that model predictions show 'acceptable' agreement with data; such claims provide little basis for choosing among alternative models. Strict model tests (those that invalid models are unlikely to pass) are the only ones capable of convincing rational skeptics that a model is probably valid. However, 'false positive' rates as low as 10% can substantially erode the power of validation tests, making them insufficiently strict to convince rational skeptics. Validation tests are often undermined by excessive parameter calibration and overuse of ad hoc model features. Tests are often also divorced from the conditions under which a model will be used, particularly when it is designed to forecast beyond the range of historical experience. In such situations, data from laboratory and field manipulation experiments can provide particularly effective tests, because one can create experimental conditions quite different from historical data, and because experimental data can provide a more precisely defined 'target' for the model to hit. We present a simple demonstration showing that the two most common methods for comparing model predictions to environmental time series (plotting model time series

  7. Environmental Volunteers: Factors Influencing Their Involvement in Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liarakou, Georgia; Kostelou, Eleni; Gavrilakis, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors that influence volunteers to become involved in environmental action. The research focused on volunteers undertaking action in summer camps organised by an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Greece. The results suggest that the environmental issues addressed in volunteer…

  8. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy A. Wills

    2006-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NTS Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts.

  9. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2004

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-10-01

    The ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2004'' was prepared by Bechtel Nevada (BN) to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of non-radiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2004''. It was produced this year to provide a more cost-effective and wider distribution of a hardcopy summary of the ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2004'' to interested DOE stakeholders.

  10. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  11. Environmental Tests Of Cesium Frequency Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, Richard L.; Tucker, Thomas K.; Greenhall, Charles A.; Diener, William A.; Maleki, Lutfollah

    1992-01-01

    Report describes environmental tests of cesium-beam frequency standards of United States Naval Observatory. Purpose of tests to determine effects of atmospheric temperature, relative humidity, and pressure on frequencies.

  12. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills

    2008-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of nonradiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, a summary of compliance with environmental regulations, pollution prevention and waste minimization accomplishments, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2007. This NTSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting. Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NTS Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This report meets these objectives for the NTS and three offsite Nevada facilities mentioned in this report.

  13. Parkinson's disease: evidence for environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kieburtz, Karl; Wunderle, Kathryn B

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has no known cause. Although recent research has focused particularly on genetic causes of PD, environmental causes also play a role in developing the disease. This article reviews environmental factors that may increase the risk of PD, as well as the evidence behind those factors. Enough evidence exists to suggest that age has a causal relationship to PD. Significant evidence exists that gender, tobacco use, and caffeine consumption are also associated with the development of PD. Other environmental factors (pesticide exposure, occupation, blood urate levels, NSAID use, brain injury, and exercise) have limited or conflicting evidence of a relationship to PD. Future research must not neglect the impact of these environmental factors on the development of PD, especially with respect to potential gene-environment interactions.

  14. Environmental Factors Influencing Epidemic Cholera

    PubMed Central

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Whitcombe, Elizabeth; Hasan, Nur; Haley, Bradd; Akanda, Ali; Huq, Anwar; Alam, Munir; Sack, R. Bradley; Colwell, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Cholera outbreak following the earthquake of 2010 in Haiti has reaffirmed that the disease is a major public health threat. Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to aquatic environment, hence, it cannot be eradicated but hydroclimatology-based prediction and prevention is an achievable goal. Using data from the 1800s, we describe uniqueness in seasonality and mechanism of occurrence of cholera in the epidemic regions of Asia and Latin America. Epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. This causal mechanism is markedly different from endemic cholera where tidal intrusion of seawater carrying bacteria from estuary to inland regions, results in outbreaks. PMID:23897993

  15. Environmental factors influencing epidemic cholera.

    PubMed

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Whitcombe, Elizabeth; Hasan, Nur; Haley, Bradd; Akanda, Ali; Huq, Anwar; Alam, Munir; Sack, R Bradley; Colwell, Rita

    2013-09-01

    Cholera outbreak following the earthquake of 2010 in Haiti has reaffirmed that the disease is a major public health threat. Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to aquatic environment, hence, it cannot be eradicated but hydroclimatology-based prediction and prevention is an achievable goal. Using data from the 1800s, we describe uniqueness in seasonality and mechanism of occurrence of cholera in the epidemic regions of Asia and Latin America. Epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. This causal mechanism is markedly different from endemic cholera where tidal intrusion of seawater carrying bacteria from estuary to inland regions, results in outbreaks.

  16. Environmental factors that shape biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Toyofuku, Masanori; Inaba, Tomohiro; Kiyokawa, Tatsunori; Obana, Nozomu; Yawata, Yutaka; Nomura, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Cells respond to the environment and alter gene expression. Recent studies have revealed the social aspects of bacterial life, such as biofilm formation. Biofilm formation is largely affected by the environment, and the mechanisms by which the gene expression of individual cells affects biofilm development have attracted interest. Environmental factors determine the cell's decision to form or leave a biofilm. In addition, the biofilm structure largely depends on the environment, implying that biofilms are shaped to adapt to local conditions. Second messengers such as cAMP and c-di-GMP are key factors that link environmental factors with gene regulation. Cell-to-cell communication is also an important factor in shaping the biofilm. In this short review, we will introduce the basics of biofilm formation and further discuss environmental factors that shape biofilm formation. Finally, the state-of-the-art tools that allow us investigate biofilms under various conditions are discussed.

  17. Environmental Risk Factors for ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Moazed, Farzad; Calfee, Carolyn S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Over the past several decades, alcohol abuse and cigarette smoke exposure have been identified as risk factors for the development of ARDS. The mechanisms underlying these relationships are complex and remain under investigation but are thought to involve pulmonary immune impairment as well as alveolar epithelial and endothelial dysfunction. This review summarizes the epidemiologic data supporting links between these exposures and ARDS susceptibility and outcomes and highlights key mechanistic investigations that provide insight into the pathways by which each exposure is linked to ARDS. PMID:25453414

  18. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2010-09-13

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009 was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years’ Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs) are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx. This NTSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1A, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.” Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NSO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NTSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2009 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL)-Nellis. It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NSO is responsible for the oversight of TTR ER projects, and the Sandia Site Office of NNSA (NNSA/SSO) has oversight of all other TTR activities. NNSA/SSO produces the TTR annual environmental report available at http://www.sandia.gov/news/publications/environmental/index.html.

  19. [Environmental factors and primary biliary cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Chen, L P; Zhao, H; Lyu, B; Cheng, J L

    2016-07-20

    The complex interplay between immune factors and genetic susceptibility plays an essential role in autoimmune diseases. This is especially true for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). PBC is an autoimmune cholestatic liver disease characterized by the destruction of the small intrahepatic bile ducts and the presence of high-titer antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA). Among the currently known risk factors, genetic predisposition remains to be the dominant one. However, it is insufficient to explain the different geographic distributions of PBC and the incomplete concordance in identical twins. This suggests an association between specific environmental factors and the development of PBC. Nevertheless, a clear and rational association of environmental factors with primary biliary cirrhosis has not yet been fully elucidated. Our current understanding of the environmental triggers of PBC is limited to numerous suspected factors involved in its development, such as xenobiotics, electrophilic drugs, infection, and other physical, chemical, and even biological factors. Although the factors leading to the breakdown of immune tolerance in PBC are still largely unknown, related geoepidemiological studies may help us better understand the impact of the environment. In addition, a better understanding of the interplay between environmental factors and PBC is the critical step toward improving our management and control of PBC and autoimmunity in general.

  20. Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Matthew; Card, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…

  1. Environmental Factors in the Physiology of Abscission

    PubMed Central

    Addicott, Fredrick T.

    1968-01-01

    This paper reviews the physiological effects of the principal environmental factors which can influence the process of leaf abscission. The factors include temperature, light, water, gases, mineral elements, soil conditions, and parasitic organisms. These factors influence a variety of internal physiological conditions and processes which in turn may either accelerate or retard the process of abscission. The most important internal factors include A) sugar, pectin, cellulose, and other carbohydrates; B) energy-yielding respiration; C) enzymic reactions; D) amino acids, purines, and other nitrogenous substances; E) levels of plant hormones; and F) the molecular biological pathway. The current information is consistent with the hypothesis that the environmental factors act in leaf abscission via direct or indirect influences on the synthesis or reaction rate of enzymes. PMID:16657013

  2. Environmental testing of CIS based modules

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, D.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes environmental testing of Siemen`s CIS modules. Charts and diagrams are presented on data concerning: temporary power loss of laminated mini-modules; the 50 thermal cycle test; the 10 humidity freeze cycle test; results after 1000 hours of exposure to damp heat; and interconnect test structures in damp heat testing. It is concluded that moisture ingress causes permanent increases in the series resistance of modules, and that improved packaging is needed for better high humidity reliability. Also, dry dark heat caused temporary power losses which were recovered in sunlight.

  3. Geographic and environmental factors in pediatric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gordis, L.

    1986-07-15

    It is important to determine the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the etiology of childhood cancer in order to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms involved and to develop effective means of primary prevention. Geographic differences in cancer incidence as well as changes in incidence over calendar time have long been used to generate clues to possible etiologic agents. The important role of genetic factors in childhood cancer is clear, and is exemplified by the observations in retinoblastoma. The importance of the contributions of environmental factors in general and of specific factors in particular, to the etiology of cancers in children, has proven more difficult to determine. A variety of environmental factors have been implicated to varying degrees in the etiology of different childhood cancers. These factors include physical agents such as radiation, chemical agents such as nitrosamines, and organic solvents, and infectious agents such as the Epstein-Barr virus. The observations that certain compounds may act as teratogens when a prenatal exposure occurs early in pregnancy and as carcinogens when the exposure occurs late in pregnancy, suggests that there may be a continuum of teratogenesis and carcinogenesis. This finding has major implications for the possible biologic mechanisms that could be involved in childhood cancers and for the design of future research of their etiology and prevention. The etiology of childhood cancer should be viewed as an interaction of environmental factors to which the child or his parent were exposed together with varying degrees of genetically determined susceptibility of the child to the carcinogenic effects of these factors.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility
    Suzanne. E. Fenton
    US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  5. Environmental risk factors for heart disease.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Timothy E; Conklin, Daniel J; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2008-01-01

    In this review, we discuss current evidence linking environmental pollutants to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Extensive evidence indicates that environmental factors contribute to CVD risk, incidence, and severity. Migrant studies show that changes in the environment could substantially alter CVD risk in a genetically stable population. Additionally, CVD risk is affected by changes in nutritional and lifestyle choices. Recent studies in the field of environmental cardiology suggest that environmental toxins also influence CVD. Exposure to tobacco smoke is paradigmatic of such environmental risk and is strongly and positively associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In animal models of exposure, tobacco smoke induces endothelial dysfunction and prothrombotic responses and exacerbates atherogenesis and myocardial ischemic injury. Similar mechanism may be engaged by other pollutants or food constituents. Several large population-based studies indicate that exposure to fine or ultrafine particulate air pollution increases CVD morbidity and mortality, and the plausibility of this association is supported by data from animal studies. Exposure to other chemicals such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and metals has also been reported to elevate CVD risk by affecting atherogenesis, thrombosis, or blood pressure regulation. Maternal exposure to drugs, toxins, and infection has been linked with cardiac birth defects and premature CVD in later life. Collectively, the data support the notion that chronic environmental stress is an important determinant of CVD risk. Further work is required to assess the magnitude of this risk fully and to delineate specific mechanisms by which environmental toxins affect CVD.

  6. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Bozzoni, Virginia; Pansarasa, Orietta; Diamanti, Luca; Nosari, Guido; Cereda, Cristina; Ceroni, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that affects central and peripheral motor neuron cells. Its etiology is unknown, although a relationship between genetic background and environmental factors may play a major role in triggering the neurodegeneration. In this review, we analyze the role of environmental factors in ALS: heavy metals, electromagnetic fields and electric shocks, pesticides, β-N-methylamino-L-alanine, physical activity and the controversial role of sports. The literature on the single issues is analyzed in an attempt to clarify, as clearly as possible, whether each risk factor significantly contributes to the disease pathogenesis. After summarizing conflicting observations and data, the authors provide a final synthetic statement. PMID:27027889

  7. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in School and Pre-School Aged Children with C-14 Urea Breath Test and the Association with Familial and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Çınar, Alev; Sadıç, Murat; İkbal Atılgan, Hasan; Baskın, Aylin; Koca, Gökhan; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT). Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA). Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years) of whom 62 (12.4%) were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6%) were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp) was positive in 245 (49%) cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34%) had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51%) had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8%) children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family. PMID:26316471

  8. Remote sensing of environmental factors affecting health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Petar

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research to identify, by satellite imagery, parameters of the environment affecting health on Earth. Thus, we suggest expanding the application of space technology to preventive medicine, as a new field in the peaceful uses of outer space. The scope of the study includes all parts of the environment, natural and man-made, and all kinds of protection of life: human, animal and vegetation health. The general objective is to consider and classify those factors, detectable from space, that affect or are relevant to health and may be found in the air, water, sea, soil, land, vegetation, as well as those linked to climate, industry, energy production, development works, irrigation systems, and human settlements. The special objective is the classification of environmental factors detectable from space, that are linked to communicable or chronic endemic diseases or health problems. The method of identifying the factors affecting health was the parallel study of environmental epidemiological and biological parameters. The role of environmental factors common to both human and animal populations is discussed. Conclusive findings are formulated and possible applications, both scientific and practical, in other sectors are also discussed.

  9. Specialized Environmental Chamber Test Complex: User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montz, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the Specialized Environmental Test Complex. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  10. SRS environmental technology development field test platform

    SciTech Connect

    Riha, B.D.; Rossabi, J.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.

    1995-09-01

    A critical and difficult step in the development and implementation of new technologies for environmental monitoring and characterization is successfully transferring these technologies to industry and government users for routine assessment and compliance activities. The Environmental Sciences Section of the DOE Savannah River Technology Center provides a forum for developers, potential users, and regulatory organizations to evaluate new technologies in comparison with baseline technologies in a well characterized field test bed. The principal objective of this project is to conduct comprehensive, objective field tests of monitoring and characterization technologies that are not currently used in EPA standard methods and evaluate their performance during actual operating conditions against baseline methods. This paper provides an overview of the field test site and a description of some of the technologies demonstrated at the site including their field applications.

  11. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2003 was prepared by Bechtel Nevada to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy and the information needs of the public. This report is meant to be useful to members of the public, public officials, regulators, and Nevada Test Site contractors. The Executive Summary strives to present in a concise format the purpose of the document, the NTS mission and major programs, a summary of radiological releases and doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of non-radiological releases, and an overview of the Nevada Test Site Environmental Management System. The Executive Summary, combined with the following Compliance Summary, are written to meet all the objectives of the report and to be stand-alone sections for those who choose not to read the entire document.

  12. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills

    2008-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) directs the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is the nation's historical testing site for nuclear weapons from 1951 through 1992 and is currently the nation's unique site for ongoing national-security related missions and high-risk operations. NNSA/NSO strives to provide to the public an understanding of the current activities on the NTS, including environmental monitoring and compliance activities aimed at protecting the public and the environment from radiation hazards and from nonradiological impacts. This document is a summary of the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) for calendar year 2007 (see attached compact disc on inside back cover). The NTSER is a comprehensive report of environmental activities performed at the NTS and offsite facilities over the previous calendar year. It is prepared annually to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the information needs of NNSA/NSO stakeholders. To provide an abbreviated and more readable version of the NTSER, this summary report is produced. This summary does not include detailed data tables, monitoring methods or design, a description of the NTS environment, or a discussion of all environmental program activities performed throughout the year. The reader may obtain a hard copy of the full NTSER as directed on the inside front cover of this summary report.

  13. Nevada Test Site Environmental Summary Report 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) directs the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is the nation's historical testing site for nuclear weapons from 1951 through 1992 and is currently the nation's unique site for ongoing national-security related missions and high-risk operations. NNSA/NSO strives to provide to the public an understanding of the current activities on the NTS, including environmental monitoring and compliance activities aimed at protecting the public and the environment from radiation hazards and from nonradiological impacts. This document is a summary of the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) for calendar year 2006 (see attached compact disc on inside back cover). The NTSER is a comprehensive report of environmental activities performed at the NTS and its satellite facilities over the previous calendar year. It is prepared annually to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the information needs of NNSA/NSO stakeholders. To provide an abbreviated and more readable version of the NTSER, this summary report is produced. This summary does not include detailed data tables, monitoring methods or design, a description of the NTS environment, or a discussion of all environmental program activities performed throughout the year. The reader may obtain a hard copy of the full NTSER as directed on the inside front cover of this summary report.

  14. Quantifying environmental limiting factors on tree cover using geospatial data.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jonathan A; Santos, Maria J; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Vanderbilt, Vern C; Ustin, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Environmental limiting factors (ELFs) are the thresholds that determine the maximum or minimum biological response for a given suite of environmental conditions. We asked the following questions: 1) Can we detect ELFs on percent tree cover across the eastern slopes of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV? 2) How are the ELFs distributed spatially? 3) To what extent are unmeasured environmental factors limiting tree cover? ELFs are difficult to quantify as they require significant sample sizes. We addressed this by using geospatial data over a relatively large spatial extent, where the wall-to-wall sampling ensures the inclusion of rare data points which define the minimum or maximum response to environmental factors. We tested mean temperature, minimum temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET) and PET minus precipitation (PET-P) as potential limiting factors on percent tree cover. We found that the study area showed system-wide limitations on tree cover, and each of the factors showed evidence of being limiting on tree cover. However, only 1.2% of the total area appeared to be limited by the four (4) environmental factors, suggesting other unmeasured factors are limiting much of the tree cover in the study area. Where sites were near their theoretical maximum, non-forest sites (tree cover < 25%) were primarily limited by cold mean temperatures, open-canopy forest sites (tree cover between 25% and 60%) were primarily limited by evaporative demand, and closed-canopy forests were not limited by any particular environmental factor. The detection of ELFs is necessary in order to fully understand the width of limitations that species experience within their geographic range.

  15. Quantifying Environmental Limiting Factors on Tree Cover Using Geospatial Data

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Jonathan A.; Santos, Maria J.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Ustin, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental limiting factors (ELFs) are the thresholds that determine the maximum or minimum biological response for a given suite of environmental conditions. We asked the following questions: 1) Can we detect ELFs on percent tree cover across the eastern slopes of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV? 2) How are the ELFs distributed spatially? 3) To what extent are unmeasured environmental factors limiting tree cover? ELFs are difficult to quantify as they require significant sample sizes. We addressed this by using geospatial data over a relatively large spatial extent, where the wall-to-wall sampling ensures the inclusion of rare data points which define the minimum or maximum response to environmental factors. We tested mean temperature, minimum temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET) and PET minus precipitation (PET-P) as potential limiting factors on percent tree cover. We found that the study area showed system-wide limitations on tree cover, and each of the factors showed evidence of being limiting on tree cover. However, only 1.2% of the total area appeared to be limited by the four (4) environmental factors, suggesting other unmeasured factors are limiting much of the tree cover in the study area. Where sites were near their theoretical maximum, non-forest sites (tree cover < 25%) were primarily limited by cold mean temperatures, open-canopy forest sites (tree cover between 25% and 60%) were primarily limited by evaporative demand, and closed-canopy forests were not limited by any particular environmental factor. The detection of ELFs is necessary in order to fully understand the width of limitations that species experience within their geographic range. PMID:25692604

  16. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy A. Wills

    2009-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) 2008 was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years’ NTSERs are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx.

  17. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy A. Wills

    2009-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) 2008 was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years’ NTSERs are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx.

  18. The Genetic and Environmental Factors for Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Shaag, Ariela; Millodot, Michel; Shneor, Einat; Liu, Yutao

    2015-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is the most common cornea ectatic disorder. It is characterized by a cone-shaped thin cornea leading to myopia, irregular astigmatism, and vision impairment. It affects all ethnic groups and both genders. Both environmental and genetic factors may contribute to its pathogenesis. This review is to summarize the current research development in KC epidemiology and genetic etiology. Environmental factors include but are not limited to eye rubbing, atopy, sun exposure, and geography. Genetic discoveries have been reviewed with evidence from family-based linkage analysis and fine mapping in linkage region, genome-wide association studies, and candidate genes analyses. A number of genes have been discovered at a relatively rapid pace. The detailed molecular mechanism underlying KC pathogenesis will significantly advance our understanding of KC and promote the development of potential therapies. PMID:26075261

  19. The Genetic and Environmental Factors Underlying Hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Pask, Andrew; Heloury, Yves; Sinclair, Andrew H.

    2016-01-01

    Hypospadias results from a failure of urethral closure in the male phallus and affects 1 in 200–300 boys. It is thought to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The development of the penis progresses in 2 stages: an initial hormone-independent phase and a secondary hormone-dependent phase. Here, we review the molecular pathways that contribute to each of these stages, drawing on studies from both human and mouse models. Hypospadias can occur when normal development of the phallus is disrupted, and we provide evidence that mutations in genes underlying this developmental process are causative. Finally, we discuss the environmental factors that may contribute to hypospadias and their potential immediate and transgen erational epigenetic impacts. PMID:26613581

  20. Environmental and genetic risk factors in obesity.

    PubMed

    Hebebrand, Johannes; Hinney, Anke

    2009-01-01

    Because of its high prevalence and the associated medical and psychosocial risks, research into the causes of childhood obesity has experienced a tremendous upswing. Formal genetic data based on twin, adoption, and family studies lead to the conclusion that at least 50% of the interindividual variance of the body mass index (BMI; defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) is due to genetic factors. As a result of the recent advent of genome-wide association studies, the first polygenes involved in body weight regulation have been detected. Each of the predisposing alleles explain a few hundred grams of body weight. More polygenes will be detected in the near future, thus for the first time allowing in-depth analyses of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. They also will enable developmental studies to assess the effect of such alleles throughout childhood and adulthood. The recent increase in obesity prevalence rates illustrates the extreme relevance of environmental factors for body weight. Similar to polygenes, the effect sizes of most such environmental factors are likely to be small, thus rendering their detection difficult. In addition, the validation of the true causality of such factors is not a straightforward task. Important factors are socioeconomic status and television consumption. The authors conclude by briefly assessing implications for treatment and prevention of childhood obesity.

  1. Cold Regions - Environmental Testing of Individual Soldier Clothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-17

    This Test Operations Procedure (TOP) provides testing guidelines for individual Soldier cold weather clothing and footwear in a cold regions...Cold weather clothing test Cold weather footwear test Environmental clothing test Environmental footwear test 16...1983; TOP 10-3-512 Cold Regions Environmental Test of Boot and Similar Footwear , dated 9 May 1980; and TOP 10-4-005 Arctic Environmental Test of

  2. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2010-09-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) directs the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NNSA/NSO prepares the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) to provide the public an understanding of the environmental monitoring and compliance activities that are conducted on the NTS to protect the public and the environment from radiation hazards and from nonradiological impacts. The NTSER is a comprehensive report of environmental activities performed at the NTS and offsite facilities over the previous calendar year. It is prepared annually to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the information needs of NNSA/NSO stakeholders. This summary provides an abbreviated and more readable version of the NTSER. It does not contain detailed descriptions or presentations of monitoring designs, data collection methods, data tables, the NTS environment, or all environmental program activities performed throughout the year. The reader may obtain a hard copy of the full NTSER as directed on the inside front cover of this summary report.

  3. Environmental Factors Impacting Bone-Relevant Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justin T.; Schneider, Andrew D.; Katchko, Karina M.; Yun, Chawon; Hsu, Erin L.

    2017-01-01

    Chemokines play an important role in normal bone physiology and the pathophysiology of many bone diseases. The recent increased focus on the individual roles of this class of proteins in the context of bone has shown that members of the two major chemokine subfamilies—CC and CXC—support or promote the formation of new bone and the remodeling of existing bone in response to a myriad of stimuli. These chemotactic molecules are crucial in orchestrating appropriate cellular homing, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis during normal bone repair. Bone healing is a complex cascade of carefully regulated processes, including inflammation, progenitor cell recruitment, differentiation, and remodeling. The extensive role of chemokines in these processes and the known links between environmental contaminants and chemokine expression/activity leaves ample opportunity for disruption of bone healing by environmental factors. However, despite increased clinical awareness, the potential impact of many of these environmental factors on bone-related chemokines is still ill defined. A great deal of focus has been placed on environmental exposure to various endocrine disruptors (bisphenol A, phthalate esters, etc.), volatile organic compounds, dioxins, and heavy metals, though mainly in other tissues. Awareness of the impact of other less well-studied bone toxicants, such as fluoride, mold and fungal toxins, asbestos, and chlorine, is also reviewed. In many cases, the literature on these toxins in osteogenic models is lacking. However, research focused on their effects in other tissues and cell lines provides clues for where future resources could be best utilized. This review aims to serve as a current and exhaustive resource detailing the known links between several classes of high-interest environmental pollutants and their interaction with the chemokines relevant to bone healing. PMID:28261155

  4. Field Testing of Environmentally Friendly Drilling System

    SciTech Connect

    David Burnett

    2009-05-31

    The Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program addresses new low-impact technology that reduces the footprint of drilling activities, integrates light weight drilling rigs with reduced emission engine packages, addresses on-site waste management, optimizes the systems to fit the needs of a specific development sites and provides stewardship of the environment. In addition, the program includes industry, the public, environmental organizations, and elected officials in a collaboration that addresses concerns on development of unconventional natural gas resources in environmentally sensitive areas. The EFD program provides the fundamentals to result in greater access, reasonable regulatory controls, lower development cost and reduction of the environmental footprint associated with operations for unconventional natural gas. Industry Sponsors have supported the program with significant financial and technical support. This final report compendium is organized into segments corresponding directly with the DOE approved scope of work for the term 2005-2009 (10 Sections). Each specific project is defined by (a) its goals, (b) its deliverable, and (c) its future direction. A web site has been established that contains all of these detailed engineering reports produced with their efforts. The goals of the project are to (1) identify critical enabling technologies for a prototype low-impact drilling system, (2) test the prototype systems in field laboratories, and (3) demonstrate the advanced technology to show how these practices would benefit the environment.

  5. Cardiac risk factors: environmental, sociodemographic, and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to third hand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk.

  6. Potential Environmental Factors in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Oskarsson, Björn; Horton, D. Kevin; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Summary The current state of research in environmental risk factors of ALS has provided many intriguing possible associations. Yet only one-smoking is at this time firmly established. The methodologic difficulties with studying a rare disease that occurs late in life, which could be related to exposures many decades ago, make relationships dauntingly difficult to prove. Despite continued improvement in methodology, significant challenges remain. The diagnostic criteria for ALS are complicated and there are continued efforts to improve them. As they are, the criteria do not yet capture all people with ALS, which further complicates epidemiologic studies. It is hoped that larger datasets with better characterization of different clinical features and laboratory markers will provide more robust estimates of risk factors in ALS in the years to come. A better understanding of environmental risk factors could help reduce exposures and it is hoped markedly reduce ALS incidence over time. Epidemiologic research is critical to advance this field, but the relative rarity of ALS and the current notion that exposures may affect the risk of ALS only decades later make such projects complex with many challenges. One US project of great potential is the National ALS Registry. It is a congressionally-mandated prospective population-based registry encompassing the entire US population. In addition to quantifying the incidence, prevalence, and demographics of ALS in the US, another main goal of the Registry is to examine the risk factors for the disease through online risk factor modules. There are currently 17 different risk factor modules that persons with ALS can complete including, but not limited to, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, military service history, occupational history, and a family history of ALS. Since the Registry's launch in October 2010, over 45,000 online risk factor modules have been completed. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most

  7. Psoriasis: familial predisposition and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Kavli, G; Førde, O H; Arnesen, E; Stenvold, S E

    1985-10-12

    In a survey for coronary risk factors 14 667 adult men and women answered a questionnaire on lifestyle, diet, and health, including whether they had psoriasis. The overall prevalence of psoriasis was 4.79% in men and 4.85% in women. The data showed an increasing incidence of psoriasis. The association with family history, lifestyle, diet, and health was explored by multiple regression analysis. The occurrence of psoriasis in first degree relatives contributed to more than 90% of the explained variance for both sexes. Of the other variables, only the positive association with rheumatoid arthritis was significant in both sexes. It is concluded that the examined environmental factors have only minor effects on the prevalence of psoriasis.

  8. Comparison of JPL and European Environmental Testing Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Man, Kin Fung; Forgave, John C.; Hoffman, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    A comparison of JPL and European environmental testing standards is presented. The contents include: 1) JPL Environmental Testing Documents; 2) Focus of the Comparison; 3) Test Policy; 4) Documentation; 5) Programmatics; 6) Functional Testing; 7) Reporting; 8) Dynamics Test Levels, Durations, & Margins; 9) Thermal Test Levels, Durations, & Margins; and 10) EMC Test Levels, Durations, & Margins.

  9. Perineal skin injury: extrinsic environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Faria, D T; Shwayder, T; Krull, E A

    1996-08-01

    Little research has been performed to evaluate factors that may exacerbate perineal skin injury in the adult population. But extensive research has been done and knowledge has been gained from studies with diaper dermatitis in infants. Our objectives in writing this article are to define the anatomical area affected, the terms used, and to review the available literature for diaper dermatitis in infants, elucidating the similarities and differences between diaper dermatitis in infants and perineal dermatitis in adults. The six extrinsic environmental factors that have been identified and extensively studied in diaper dermatitis are skin wetness, urine, ammonia, feces, local skin pH and microorganisms. Although the complex interactions of the six factors are still not totally defined, we do know that to prevent perineal skin injury, it is helpful to prevent excessive skin hydration, minimize the interaction of urine and feces, minimize local microorganisms, and maintain skin near its physiologic pH. In general, the six extrinsic factors can be extrapolated and applied to the care of adults. Further research in adult fecal enzymes and pH is still necessary.

  10. Natural gas production verification tests. Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to fund, through a contract with Petroleum Consulting Services, Inc. of Canton, Ohio, the testing of the effectiveness of a non-water based hydraulic fracturing treatment to increase gas recovery from low-pressure, tight, fractured Devonian Shale formations. Although Devonian Shales are found in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois Basins, testing will be done only in the dominant, historical five state area of established production. The objective of this proposed project is to assess the benefits of liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})/sand stimulations in the Devonian Shale. In addition, this project would evaluate the potential nondamaging (to the formation) properties of this unique fracturing treatment relative to the clogging or chocking of pores and fractures that act as gas flow paths to the wellbore in the target gas-producing zones of the formation. This liquid CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing process is water-free and is expected to facilitate gas well cleanup, reduce the time required for post-stimulation cleanup, and result in improved production levels in a much shorter time than is currently experienced.

  11. Environmental Testing in Thermal Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Inside a thermal vacuum at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, technicians prepare NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander for environmental testing.

    The Phoenix lander was encapsulated in its aeroshell -- which included both the back shell and heat shield -- as it was subjected to extreme cold and heat in a vacuum, space-like condition. The spacecraft undergoes extensive environmental testing to confirm Phoenix will perform in the extreme conditions it will experience during its trip from Earth to Mars, during its arrival and landing, and while it works on the surface of Mars.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Environmental testing for new SOFIA flight hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachenmann, Michael; Wolf, Jürgen; Strecker, Rainer; Weckenmann, Benedikt; Trimpe, Fritz; Hall, Helen J.

    2014-07-01

    New flight hardware for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) has to be tested to prove its safety and functionality and to measure its performance under flight conditions. Although it is not expected to experience critical issues inside the pressurized cabin with close-to-normal conditions, all equipment has to be tested for safety margins in case of a decompression event and/or for unusual high temperatures, e.g. inside an electronic unit caused by a malfunction as well as unusual high ambient temperatures inside the cabin, when the aircraft is parked in a desert. For equipment mounted on the cavity side of the telescope, stratospheric conditions apply, i.e., temperatures from -40 °C to -60°C and an air pressure of about 0.1 bar. Besides safety aspects as not to endanger personnel or equipment, new hardware inside the cavity has to function and to perform to specifications under such conditions. To perform these tests, an environmental test laboratory was set up at the SOFIA Science Center at the NASA Ames Research Center, including a thermal vacuum chamber, temperature measurement equipment, and a control and data logging workstation. This paper gives an overview of the test and measurement equipment, shows results from the commissioning and characterization of the thermal vacuum chamber, and presents examples of the component tests that were performed so far. To test the focus position stability of optics when cooling them to stratospheric temperatures, an auto-collimation device has been developed. We will present its design and results from measurements on commercial off-the-shelf optics as candidates for the new Wide Field Imager for SOFIA as an example.

  13. What's so local about global climate change? Testing social theories of environmental degradation to quantify the demographic, economic, and governmental factors associated with energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in U.S. metropolitan areas and counties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribbia, John Luke

    . The STIRPAT method is used to test four social theories of environmental degradation -- the treadmill of production, ecological modernization, urban ecological transitions, and human ecology theories -- by quantifying variables associated with energy use and CO2 emissions drawn from each theory. The specific findings demonstrate that various demographic, economic, and governmental factors are related strongly to metropolitan area energy consumption and county-level CO2 emissions. The human ecology, treadmill of production, and urban ecological transitions theories are important to explaining how and why climate-related impacts differ for a wide variety of local areas in the United States. Related to human ecology and treadmill of production theory, environmental degradation is highest in metropolitan areas and counties with large populations and large economies that have various mechanisms in place to facilitate economic growth. By contrast, some U.S. counties are beginning to remedy their impact on the environment by applying economic and governmental resources toward the mitigation of CO2 emissions, which provides evidence of support for urban ecological transitions theory. However, because climate change is a complex cross-scale global environmental problem and the results in this dissertation confirm that this problem is locally driven by similar population and economic factors also affecting the climate at larger spatial scales, mitigation efforts to reduce energy use and emissions at the local level will be fruitless without a well-coordinated, cross-scale (local to global) ideological shift that puts less priority on economic goals and more on environmental sustainability. These results, and the methodological and theoretical framework applied in this dissertation, thus provide a useful platform for the successful application of future research that specifically addresses mitigation strategies to reduce local-level environmental impacts. This dissertation

  14. Environmental factors regulating soil organic matter chlorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Teresia; Montelius, Malin; Reyier, Henrik; Rietz, Karolina; Karlsson, Susanne; Lindberg, Cecilia; Andersson, Malin; Danielsson, Åsa; Bastviken, David

    2016-04-01

    Natural chlorination of organic matter is common in soils. Despite the widespread abundance of soil chlorinated soil organic matter (SOM), frequently exceeding soil chloride abundance in surface soils, and a common ability of microorganisms to produce chlorinated SOM, we lack fundamental knowledge about dominating processes and organisms responsible for the chlorination. To take one step towards resolving the terrestrial chlorine (Cl) puzzle, this study aims to analyse how environmental factors influence chlorination of SOM. Four factors were chosen for this study: soil moisture (W), nitrogen (N), chloride (Cl) and organic matter quality (C). These factors are all known to be important for soil processes. Laboratory incubations with 36Cl as a Cl tracer were performed in a two soil incubation experiments. It was found that addition of chloride and nitrogen seem to hamper the chlorination. For the C treatment, on the other hand, the results show that chlorination is enhanced by increased availability of labile organic matter (glucose and maltose). Even higher chlorination was observed when nitrogen and water were added in combination with labile organic matter. The effect that more labile organic matter strongly stimulated the chlorination rates was confirmed by the second separate experiment. These results indicate that chlorination was not primarily a way to cut refractory organic matter into digestible molecules, representing one previous hypothesis, but is related with microbial metabolism in other ways that will be further discussed in our presentation.

  15. Testing against "normal" with environmental data.

    PubMed

    Kilgour, Bruce W; Somers, Keith M; Barrett, Timothy J; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Francis, Anthony P

    2017-01-01

    Normal ranges are some fraction of a reference distribution deemed to represent an expected condition, typically 95%. They are frequently used as the basis for generic criteria for monitoring programs designed to test whether a sample is outside of "normal," as in reference-condition approach studies. Normal ranges are also the basis for criteria for more classic environmental effects monitoring programs designed to detect differences in mean responses between reference and exposure areas. Limits on normal ranges are estimated with error that varies depending largely on sample size. Direct comparison of a sample or a mean to estimated limits of a normal range will, with some frequency, lead to incorrect conclusions about whether a sample or a mean is inside or outside the normal range when the sample or the mean is near the limit. Those errors can have significant costs and risk implications. This article describes tests based on noncentral distributions that are appropriate for quantifying the likelihood that samples or means are outside a normal range. These noncentral tests reverse the burden of evidence (assuming that the sample or mean is at or outside normal), and thereby encourage proponents to collect more robust sample sizes that will demonstrate that the sample or mean is not at the limits or beyond the normal range. These noncentral equivalence and interval tests can be applied to uni- and multivariate responses, and to simple (e.g., upstream vs downstream) or more complex (e.g., before vs after, or upstream vs downstream) study designs. Statistical procedures for the various tests are illustrated with benthic invertebrate community data collected as part of the Regional Aquatics Monitoring Program (RAMP) in the vicinity of oil sands operations in northern Alberta, Canada. An Excel workbook with functions and calculations to carry out the various tests is provided in the online Supplemental Data. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:188-197. © 2016 SETAC.

  16. Knowledge, Internal, and Environmental Factors on Environmental Care Behaviour among Aboriginal Students in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Norshariani Abd

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the contribution of predictor factors (i.e. knowledge about the environment as well as internal and environmental factors) on environmental care behaviour among aboriginal students. The knowledge about the environment that was investigated in this research includes environmental knowledge and environmental action knowledge.…

  17. Analysis of relationships between symptoms and environmental factors over time

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, G.; Lebowitz, M.D.

    1984-02-01

    Weekly respiratory symptom information was obtained on a random population of 3800 whites in Tucson. The authors asked weekly about 14 symptoms representing acute respiratory illnesses (ARI), rhinitis (Rh), and other conditions. The denominator for each week was about 80 randomly chosen subjects from the study population. Interactions of the air pollutants total suspended particulate, oxidants, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides for the basin, meteorological information, and aero-allergens were examined. The temporal and spatial interactions between the weekly symptoms and the environmental factors were tested utilizing multivariate methods such as Fourier analyses, multiple regression, and the stimulus-response method, adjusting for lags and controlling for season. Multiple regressions with a smoothing function (using fourier or other methods) yield significant correlations between symptoms and the environmental factors, and separate the ARI's from the Rh's and the miscellaneous symptoms.

  18. 46 CFR 113.05-7 - Environmental tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental tests. 113.05-7 Section 113.05-7 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 113.05-7 Environmental tests. Communication, alarm system, control, and monitoring equipment must meet the environmental tests of— (a) Section 4-9-7, Table 9, of...

  19. 46 CFR 113.05-7 - Environmental tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental tests. 113.05-7 Section 113.05-7 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 113.05-7 Environmental tests. Communication, alarm system, control, and monitoring equipment must meet the environmental tests of— (a) Section 4-9-7, Table 9, of...

  20. 46 CFR 113.05-7 - Environmental tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Environmental tests. 113.05-7 Section 113.05-7 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 113.05-7 Environmental tests. Communication, alarm system, control, and monitoring equipment must meet the environmental tests of— (a) Section 4-9-7, Table 9, of...

  1. 46 CFR 113.05-7 - Environmental tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Environmental tests. 113.05-7 Section 113.05-7 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 113.05-7 Environmental tests. Communication, alarm system, control, and monitoring equipment must meet the environmental tests of— (a) Section 4-9-7, Table 9, of...

  2. Exploratory Environmental Tests of Several Heat Shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, George P.; Betts, John, Jr.

    1961-01-01

    Exploratory tests have been conducted with several conceptual radiative heat shields of composite construction. Measured transient temperature distributions were obtained for a graphite heat shield without insulation and with three types of insulating materials, and for a metal multipost heat shield, at surface temperatures of approximately 2,000 F and 1,450 F, respectively, by use of a radiant-heat facility. The graphite configurations suffered loss of surface material under repeated irradiation. Temperature distribution calculated for the metal heat shield by a numerical procedure was in good agreement with measured data. Environmental survival tests of the graphite heat shield without insulation, an insulated multipost heat shield, and a stainless-steel-tile heat shield were made at temperatures of 2,000 F and dynamic pressures of approximately 6,000 lb/sq ft, provided by an ethylene-heated jet operating at a Mach number of 2.0 and sea-level conditions. The graphite heat shield survived the simulated aerodynamic heating and pressure loading. A problem area exists in the design and materials for heat-resistant fasteners between the graphite shield and the base structure. The insulated multipost heat shield was found to be superior to the stainless-steel-tile heat shield in retarding heat flow. Over-lapped face-plate joints and surface smoothness of the insulated multi- post heat shield were not adversely affected by the test environment. The graphite heat shield without insulation survived tests made in the acoustic environment of a large air jet. This acoustic environment is random in frequency and has an overall noise level of 160 decibels.

  3. Cone Penetrometer N Factor Determination Testing Results

    SciTech Connect

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2014-03-05

    This document contains the results of testing activities to determine the empirical 'N Factor' for the cone penetrometer in kaolin clay simulant. The N Factor is used to releate resistance measurements taken with the cone penetrometer to shear strength.

  4. Understanding clinical immunological testing in alleged chemically induced environmental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Salvaggio, J E

    1996-08-01

    cases. Without consideration of these factors, a patient might be erroneously diagnosed as having some form of "immune dysregulation," "environmental immune dysfunction," or "immunotoxic" syndrome on the basis of only a single panel of cellular immunologic profiles or related immunologic tests illustrating slight deviations from the norm and in the absence of overt disease on physical examination. Consideration must also be given to an understanding of biologic variability and diurnal variations in lymphoid cell numbers in interpreting cellular immunologic profiles. For example, the necessity for age and sex-matched controls, test reproducibility, quantitative versus functional assays, and the significance of major versus minor deviations from the norm must be appreciated. In addition, many other conditions can effect immunologic tests, such as medications, psychologic factors, cigarette smoking, and the presence of concurrent disease, including minor viral infections. All of these variables should be appreciated in test interpretation. Certain clinical indications for analysis of cellular components of the immune system, using flow cytometry, have been provided as guidelines although they are by no means accepted by all groups due to their current incomplete evaluation by the clinical immunology community. These suggested indications are discussed. In this article, attempts are made to outline the various quantitative and functional tests used to assess the immune system, with emphasis on "biomarker" tests to detect possible immune system "damage." Dangers involved in attempting to make clinical evaluations based on results of isolated in vitro assessment of quantity or function of immune system cellular and humoral components without considering the results of a good medical history and physical examination, the many pitfalls involved in the tests, and the many confounding variables that affect the tests are emphasized, as well as the need for proper controls...

  5. 1994 site environmental report, Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Forston, W.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Kirk-Mayer, Inc., for the Tonopah Test Range operated by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories` responsibility for environmental surveillance results extends to those activities performed by Sandia National Laboratories or under its direction. Results from other environmental surveillance activities are included to provide a measure of completeness in reporting. Other environmental compliance programs such as the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, environmental permits, and environmental restoration and waste management programs are also included in this report, prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with DOE Order 5400. 1.

  6. 1993 site environmental report Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Howard, D.; McClellan, Y.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company for the Tonopah Test Range operated by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories` responsibility for environmental monitoring results extend to those activities performed by Sandia National Laboratories or under its direction. Results from other environmental monitoring activities are included to provide a measure of completeness in reporting. Other environmental compliance programs such as the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, environmental permits, and environmental restoration and waste management programs are also included in this report, prepared for the US Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1.

  7. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  8. The Environmental Factor in International Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Joan Martin

    1985-01-01

    U.S.-Canadian and Mexican water-related issues testify to the role that natural resources/ environmental issues play in foreign policy and demonstrate how environmental problems can affect the public and private sectors of a nation internally. How people affect the environment is an irreducible bottom line for stable international trade and market…

  9. Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, Randy

    2011-08-20

    Problem drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) investigation of problem drywall incorporates three parallel tracks: (1) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and reported health symptoms; (2) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and electrical and fire safety issues in affected homes; and (3) tracing the origin and the distribution of the drywall. To assess the potential impact on human health and to support testing for electrical and fire safety, the CPSC has initiated a series of laboratory tests that provide elemental characterization of drywall, characterization of chemical emissions, and in-home air sampling. The chemical emission testing was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The LBNL study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1 of this study, LBNL tested thirty drywall samples provided by CPSC and reported standard emission factors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, reactive sulfur gases (RSGs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The standard emission factors were determined using small (10.75 liter) dynamic test chambers housed in a constant temperature environmental chamber. The tests were all run at 25 C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and with an area-specific ventilation rate of {approx}1.5 cubic meters per square meter of emitting surface per hour [m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/h]. The thirty samples that were tested in Phase 1 included seventeen that were manufactured in China in 2005, 2006 and 2009, and thirteen that were manufactured in North America in 2009. The measured emission factors for VOCs and aldehydes were generally low and did not differ significantly between the Chinese and North American drywall. Eight of the samples tested had elevated emissions of volatile sulfur-containing compounds with total RSG emission factors between 32 and 258 micrograms per square meter

  10. Environmental Factors in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Juran, Brian D.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of the autoimmune liver disease primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) remains largely unresolved, owing in large part to the complexity of interaction between environmental and genetic contributors underlying disease development. Observations of disease clustering, differences in geographical prevalence, and seasonality of diagnosis rates suggest the environmental component to PBC is strong, and epidemiological studies have consistently found cigarette smoking and history of urinary tract infection to be associated with PBC. Current evidence implicates molecular mimicry as a primary mechanism driving loss of tolerance and subsequent autoimmunity in PBC, yet other environmentally influenced disease processes are likely to be involved in pathogenesis. In this review, the authors provide an overview of current findings and touch on potential mechanisms behind the environmental component of PBC. PMID:25057950

  11. Mini mental state examination: influence of sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral factors and vascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Freidl, W; Schmidt, R; Stronegger, W J; Irmler, A; Reinhart, B; Koch, M

    1996-01-01

    Age and education have been found to affect the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of elderly normals, but there have been no studies assessing the influence of environmental and behavioral factors on this test. We therefore administered the MMSE to 1437 normal elderly subjects in the setting of a stroke prevention study and correlated their results to 16 sociodemographic, environmental, and behavioral factors, and vascular risk factors. Study statistics composed of a multiple logistic regression analysis and graphical models revealed the relations between variables in greater detail. Logistic regression yielded education level, occupational status, living as a single, general life stress, physical strain, and physical inactivity to be independent predictors of the MMSE score. Age was not included in this model. Graphical models demonstrated similar results, but did not include living as a single and physical inactivity. As shown in our independence graph, general life stress is the crucial predictor and links other environmental and sociodemographic variables with the test performance of elderly normals.

  12. Assessment of space environmental factors by cytotoxicity bioassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, Christine E.; Arenz, Andrea; Baumstark-Khan, Christa

    2007-02-01

    Cellular bioassays for detection of cyto- and genotoxicity are useful in the risk assessment of space environmental factors. Such bioassay systems have the potential complement the physical detector systems used in space, insofar as they yield intrinsically biologically weighted measures of cellular responses. The experiment Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CERASP) has been selected by NASA/ESA to be performed on the International Space Station. It will supply basic information on the cellular response to radiation applied in microgravity. One of the biological endpoints under investigation will be survival reflected by radiation-dependent reduction of constitutive expression of the enhanced variant of green fluorescent protein (EGFP), originally isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea victoria. In this ground based study, the usefulness of this approach in comparison to standard techniques (colony forming ability test, MTT test) is shown.

  13. Simple tests of the factorization assumption

    SciTech Connect

    Mannel, T. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, D-2000 Hamburg 52, Germany ); Roberts, W.; Ryzak, Z. )

    1991-07-01

    We suggest simple experimental tests to determine whether or not the factorization assumption is valid for the two-body, nonleptonic decays of heavy hadrons, when both daughter hadrons are also heavy.

  14. Non-dietary environmental risk factors in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferrís-i-Tortajada, J; Berbel-Tornero, O; Garcia-i-Castell, J; López-Andreu, J.A.; Sobrino-Najul, E; Ortega-García, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim is to update and disclose the main environmental risk factors, excluding dietary factors, involved in the etiopathology of prostate cancer. Materials and methods Bibliographic review of the last 25 years of non-dietary environmental risk factors associated with prostate cancer between 1985 and 2010, obtained from MedLine, CancerLit, Science Citation Index and Embase. The search profiles were Environmental Risk Factors/Tobacco/Infectious-Inflammatory Factors/Pesticides/Vasectomy/Occupational Exposures/ Chemoprevention Agents/Radiation and Prostate Cancer. Results While some non-dietary environmental risk factors increase the risk of acquiring the disease, others decrease it. Of the former, it is worth mentioning exposal to tobacco smoke, chronic infectious-inflammatory prostatic processes and occupational exposure to cadmium, herbicides and pesticides. The first factors that reduce the risk are the use of chemopreventive drugs (Finasterida, Dutasteride) and exposure to ultraviolet solar radiation. With the current data, a vasectomy does not influence the risk of developing the disease. Conclusions The slow process of prostate carcinogenesis is the final result of the interaction of constitutional risk and environmental factors. Non-dietary environmental factors play an important role in the etiopathology of this disease. To appropriately assess the risk factors, extensive case studies that include all the possible variables must be analyzed. PMID:21439685

  15. Do Environmental Factors Modify the Genetic Risk of Prostate Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Stacy; Peskoe, Sarah B.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Huang, Wen-Yi; Hayes, Richard B.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Isaacs, William B.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many SNPs influence prostate cancer risk. To what extent genetic risk can be reduced by environmental factors is unknown. Methods We evaluated effect modification by environmental factors of the association between susceptibility SNPs and prostate cancer in 1,230 incident prostate cancer cases and 1,361 controls, all white and similar ages, nested in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Trial. Genetic risk scores were calculated as number of risk alleles for 20 validated SNPs. We estimated the association between higher genetic risk (≥ 12 SNPs) and prostate cancer within environmental factor strata and tested for interaction. Results Men with ≥12 risk alleles had 1.98, 2.04, and 1.91 times the odds of total, advanced, and nonadvanced prostate cancer, respectively. These associations were attenuated with the use of selenium supplements, aspirin, ibuprofen, and higher vegetable intake. For selenium, the attenuation was most striking for advanced prostate cancer: compared with <12 alleles and no selenium, the OR for ≥12 alleles was 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.67–2.55] in nonusers and 0.99 (0.38–2.58) in users (Pinteraction = 0.031). Aspirin had the most marked attenuation for nonadvanced prostate cancer: compared with <12 alleles and nonusers, the OR for ≥12 alleles was 2.25 (1.69–3.00) in nonusers and 1.70 (1.25–2.32) in users (Pinteraction = 0.009). This pattern was similar for ibuprofen (Pinteraction = 0.023) and vegetables (Pinteraction = 0.010). Conclusions This study suggests that selenium supplements may reduce genetic risk of advanced prostate cancer, whereas aspirin, ibuprofen, and vegetables may reduce genetic risk of nonadvanced prostate cancer. PMID:25342390

  16. Jet Propulsion Laboratory Environmental Verification Processes and Test Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Alan R.; Green, Nelson W.

    2006-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the JPL processes for enviornmental verification and testing of aerospace systems is presented. The topics include: 1) Processes: a) JPL Design Principles b) JPL Flight Project Practices; 2) Environmental Verification; and 3) Test Effectiveness Assessment: Inflight Anomaly Trends.

  17. Engineering Design Handbook: Environmental Series. Part Two. Natural Environmental Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    Polysulphide Silicones Chlorosulphonated Polyethylene Acrylate Polyesters Fluorinated ate and zirconium oxide are good ultraviolet reflectors...for a group of fluorinated hydrocarbons. 9-38 different fall speeds. Larger drops capture a fraction of smaller droplets contained in a column of...nism and an electrophilic attack on double bonds. Light and humidity appear to be factors that must be present before an ap- preciable alteration

  18. Genetic and environmental factors influencing human diseases with telomere dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Hinh

    2009-01-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of serious and fatal forms of human blood disorder (acquired aplastic anemia, AA) and lung disease (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, IPF). We and other researchers have recently shown that naturally occurring mutations in genes encoding the telomere maintenance complex (telomerase) may predispose patients to the development of AA or IPF. Epidemiological data have shown that environmental factors can also cause and/or exacerbate the pathogenesis of these diseases. The exact mechanisms that these germ-line mutations in telomere maintenance genes coupled with environmental insults lead to ineffective hematopoiesis in AA and lung scarring in IPF are not well understood, however. In this article, we provide a summary of evidence for environmental and genetic factors influencing the diseases. These studies provide important insights into the interplay between environmental and genetic factors leading to human diseases with telomere dysfunction. PMID:19684885

  19. UV-T-RH combined environmental testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    A combined environmental aging chamber was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The chamber has an ultraviolet (UV) light source that can be varied between 1 to 2 suns, temperature control from -40 to +175 C, and adjustable humidity. Results from two initial aging experiments (Tedlar and amorphous silicon colar cells) were presented.

  20. Environmental risk factors in the incidence of Johne's disease.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Geoffrey N; Hough, Rupert L; Avery, Lisa M; Maltin, Charlotte A; Campbell, Colin D

    2015-01-01

    This review addresses the survival and persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative pathogen of Johne's disease (JD), once it has left its ruminant host. JD has significant economic impact on dairy, beef and sheep industries and is difficult to control due to the long-term sub-clinical nature of the infection, intermittent or persistent MAP shedding during and after this period, inadequate test effectiveness, and the potential for MAP to exist for extended periods outside the host. The role that environmental factors play in the persistence and spread of MAP and consequent disease is assessed. Published risk factor analysis, organism survival across various environmental media and conditions, presence and spread in ruminant and non-ruminant wildlife, and the general potential for survival and multiplication of MAP ex-host both on and off-farm are discussed and knowledge gaps highlighted. An inclusive approach to disease management that takes into account the persistence and transport of the causative organism in on-farm soils and waters, land use and management, dispersal by domestic and non-domestic host species, as well as general animal husbandry is required on those farms where more traditional approaches to disease management have failed to reduce disease prevalence.

  1. Environmental tests of metallization systems for terrestrial photovoltaic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, P., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Seven different solar cell metallization systems were subjected to temperature cycling tests and humidity tests. Temperature cycling excursions were -50 deg C to 150 deg C per cycle. Humidity conditions were 70 deg C at 98% relative humidity. The seven metallization systems were: Ti/Ag, Ti/Pd/Ag, Ti/Pd/Cu, Ni/Cu, Pd/Ni/Solder, Cr/Pd/Ag, and thick film Ag. All metallization systems showed a slight to moderate decrease in cell efficiencies after subjection to 1000 temperature cycles. Six of the seven metallization systems also evidenced slight increases in cell efficiencies after moderate numbers of cycles, generally less than 100 cycles. The copper based systems showed the largest decrease in cell efficiencies after temperature cycling. All metallization systems showed moderate to large decreases in cell efficiencies after 123 days of humidity exposure. The copper based systems again showed the largest decrease in cell efficiencies after humidity exposure. Graphs of the environmental exposures versus cell efficiencies are presented for each metallization system, as well as environmental exposures versus fill factors or series resistance.

  2. 14. Interior view of Test Cell 10 (environmental) in Components ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior view of Test Cell 10 (environmental) in Components Test Laboratory (T-27), showing east and south walls. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  3. Nevada Test Site environmental data report for calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Black, S.C.; Townsend, Y.E.; Kinnison, R.R.

    1998-03-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, ``General Environmental Protection Program,`` establishes environmental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities for DOE operations. These mandates require compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental protection regulations. During calendar year (CY) 1996, environmental protection and monitoring programs were conducted at the Nevada Test Site and other DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV)-managed sites in Nevada and across the US. A detailed discussion of these environmental protection and monitoring programs and summary data and assessments for environmental monitoring results are provided in the DOE/NV Annual Site Environmental Report-1996 (ASER), DOE/NV/11718-137. This document provides summary data results and detailed assessments for the environmental monitoring conducted for all DOE/NV-managed sites in CY1996.

  4. Block 2 solar cell module environmental test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    Environmental tests were performed of on 76 solar cell modules produced by four different manufacturers. The following tests were performed: (1) 28 day temperature and humidity; (2) rain and icing; (3) salt fog; (4) sand and dust; (5) vacuum/steam/pressure; (6) fungus; (7) temperature/altitude; and (8) thermal shock. Environmental testing of the solar cell modules produced cracked cells, cracked encapsulant and encapsulant delaminations on various modules. In addition, there was some minor cell and frame corrosion.

  5. Environmental lead toxicity and nutritional factors.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Siddiqui, Mohd Kaleem Javed

    2007-08-01

    Environmental lead toxicity is an old but persistent public health problem throughout the world and children are more susceptible to lead than adults because of their hand to mouth activity, increased respiratory rates and higher gastrointestinal absorption per unit body weight. In the last decade children's blood lead levels have fallen significantly in a number of countries. Despite this reduction, childhood lead toxicity continues to be a major public health problem for certain at-risk groups of children, and concern remains over the effects of lead on intellectual development. The currently approved clinical intervention method is to give chelating agents, which bind and removed lead from lead burdened tissues. Studies indicate, however, that there is a lack of safety and efficacy when conventional chelating agents are used. Several studies are underway to determine the beneficial effect of nutrients supplementation following exposure to lead. Data suggest that nutrients may play an important role in abating some toxic effects of lead. To explain the importance of using exogenous nutrients in treating environmental lead toxicity the following topics are addressed: (i) different sources of lead exposure/current blood lead levels and (ii) protective effects of nutrients supplementation (some essential elements and vitamins) in lead toxicity.

  6. Environmental factors explaining the vegetation patterns in a temperate peatland.

    PubMed

    Pellerin, Stéphanie; Lagneau, Louis-Adrien; Lavoie, Martin; Larocque, Marie

    2009-08-01

    Although ombrotrophic temperate peatlands are important ecosystems for maintaining biodiversity in eastern North America, the environmental factors influencing their flora are only partly understood. The relationships between plant species distribution and environmental factors were thus studied within the oldest temperate peatland of Québec. Plant assemblages were identified by cluster analysis while CCA was used to related vegetation gradients to environmental factors. Five assemblages were identified; three typical of open bog and two characterized by more minerotrophic vegetation. Thicker peat deposit was encounter underlying the bog assemblages while higher water table level and percentage of free surface water distinguished the minerotrophic assemblages. Overall, the floristic patterns observed were spatially structured along the margins and the expanse. The most important environmental factors explaining this spatial gradient were the percentage of free surface water and the highest water-table level.

  7. Environmental Factors in the Onset of Illness Aboard Navy Ships.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-01

    this paper are those of the authors. No endorsement by the Department of the Navy has been given or should be inferred. •* Environmental & Social ... Medicine Department, Naval Health Research Center, P.O. Box 85122, San Diego, CA 92138-9174. Environmental Factors in the Onset of Illness Aboard Navy Ships

  8. Lunar Polar Environmental Testing: Regolith Simulant Conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhenz, Julie

    2014-01-01

    As ISRU system development approaches flight fidelity, there is a need to test hardware in relevant environments. Extensive laboratory and field testing have involved relevant soil (lunar regolith simulants), but the current design iterations necessitate relevant pressure and temperature conditions. Including significant quantities of lunar regolith simulant in a thermal vacuum chamber poses unique challenges. These include facility operational challenges (dust tolerant hardware) and difficulty maintaining a pre-prepared soil state during pump down (consolidation state, moisture retention).For ISRU purposes, the regolith at the lunar poles will be of most interest due to the elevated water content. To test at polar conditions, the regolith simulant must be doped with water to an appropriate percentage and then chilled to cryogenic temperatures while exposed to vacuum conditions. A 1m tall, 28cm diameter bin of simulant was developed for testing these simulant preparation and drilling operations. The bin itself was wrapped with liquid nitrogen cooling loops (100K) so that the simulant bed reached an average temperature of 140K at vacuum. Post-test sampling was used to determine desiccation of the bed due to vacuum exposure. Depth dependent moisture data is presented from frozen and thawed soil samples.Following simulant only evacuation tests, drill hardware was incorporated into the vacuum chamber to test auguring techniques in the frozen soil at thermal vacuum conditions. The focus of this testing was to produce cuttings piles for a newly developed spectrometer to evaluate. This instrument, which is part of the RESOLVE program science hardware, detects water signatures from surface regolith. The drill performance, behavior of simulant during drilling, and characteristics of the cuttings piles will be offered.

  9. Environmental Risk Factors in Hospital Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Daniel Z.; Resnik, Harvey L.P.; Holder-Perkins, Vicenzio

    2004-01-01

    Suicide of hospitalized patients is the most common sentinel event reviewed by The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Shorter lengths of stay, sicker patients, and higher patient to staff ratios challenge the ability of the hospital to maintain safety. Risk factors associated with the physical environment of the…

  10. Environmental testing of block 3 solar cell modules. Part 1: Qualification testing of standard production modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    Qualification tests of solar cell modules are described. These modules continue to show improvement over earlier type modules tested. Cell cracking and delamination are less prevalent, and interconnect problems and electrical degradation from environmental testing are now rare.

  11. Simulated Space Environmental Testing on Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Dennis A.; Fogdall, Larry B.; Bohnhoff-Hlavacek, Gail; Connell, John W. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An exploratory program has been conducted, to irradiate some mature commercial and some experimental polymer films with radiation simulating certain Earth orbits, and to obtain data about the response of each test film's reflective and tensile properties. Protocols to conduct optimized tests were considered and developed to a "prototype" level during this program. Fifteen polymer film specimens were arranged on a specially designed test fixture. The fixture featured controlled exposure areas, and protected the ends of the samples for later gripping in tensile tests. The fixture featured controlled exposure areas, and protected the ends of the samples for later gripping in tensile tests. The fixture containing the films was installed in a clean vacuum chamber where protons, electrons and solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation could simultaneously irradiate the specimens. Near realtime UV rates were used, whereas proton and electron rates were accelerated appreciably to simulate 5 years in orbit during a two month test. Periodically, the spectral reflectance of each film was measured in situ. After the end of the irradiation, final reflectance measurements were made in situ, and solar absorptance values were derived for each specimen. These samples were then measured in air for thermal emittance and for tensile strength. Most specimens withstood the irradiation intact, but with reduced reflectance (increased solar absorptance). Thermal emittance changed slightly in several materials, as did their tensile strength and elongation at break. Conclusions are drawn about the performance of the films. Simulated testing to an expected 5 year dose of electrons and protons consistent with those expected at L2 and 0.98 AU orbits and 100 equivalent solar hours exposure.

  12. Large Scale Flame Spread Environmental Characterization Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayman, Lauren K.; Olson, Sandra L.; Gokoghi, Suleyman A.; Brooker, John E.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Kacher, Henry F.

    2013-01-01

    Under the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration Project (SFSDP), as a risk mitigation activity in support of the development of a large-scale fire demonstration experiment in microgravity, flame-spread tests were conducted in normal gravity on thin, cellulose-based fuels in a sealed chamber. The primary objective of the tests was to measure pressure rise in a chamber as sample material, burning direction (upward/downward), total heat release, heat release rate, and heat loss mechanisms were varied between tests. A Design of Experiments (DOE) method was imposed to produce an array of tests from a fixed set of constraints and a coupled response model was developed. Supplementary tests were run without experimental design to additionally vary select parameters such as initial chamber pressure. The starting chamber pressure for each test was set below atmospheric to prevent chamber overpressure. Bottom ignition, or upward propagating burns, produced rapid acceleratory turbulent flame spread. Pressure rise in the chamber increases as the amount of fuel burned increases mainly because of the larger amount of heat generation and, to a much smaller extent, due to the increase in gaseous number of moles. Top ignition, or downward propagating burns, produced a steady flame spread with a very small flat flame across the burning edge. Steady-state pressure is achieved during downward flame spread as the pressure rises and plateaus. This indicates that the heat generation by the flame matches the heat loss to surroundings during the longer, slower downward burns. One heat loss mechanism included mounting a heat exchanger directly above the burning sample in the path of the plume to act as a heat sink and more efficiently dissipate the heat due to the combustion event. This proved an effective means for chamber overpressure mitigation for those tests producing the most total heat release and thusly was determined to be a feasible mitigation

  13. The impact of environmental factors in severe psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Andrea; Malchow, Berend; Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, schizophrenia has been regarded as a developmental disorder. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis proposes schizophrenia to be related to genetic and environmental factors leading to abnormal brain development during the pre- or postnatal period. First disease symptoms appear in early adulthood during the synaptic pruning and myelination process. Meta-analyses of structural MRI studies revealing hippocampal volume deficits in first-episode patients and in the longitudinal disease course confirm this hypothesis. Apart from the influence of risk genes in severe psychiatric disorders, environmental factors may also impact brain development during the perinatal period. Several environmental factors such as antenatal maternal virus infections, obstetric complications entailing hypoxia as common factor or stress during neurodevelopment have been identified to play a role in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, possibly contributing to smaller hippocampal volumes. In major depression, psychosocial stress during the perinatal period or in adulthood is an important trigger. In animal studies, chronic stress or repeated administration of glucocorticoids have been shown to induce degeneration of glucocorticoid-sensitive hippocampal neurons and may contribute to the pathophysiology of affective disorders. Epigenetic mechanisms altering the chromatin structure such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation may mediate effects of environmental factors to transcriptional regulation of specific genes and be a prominent factor in gene-environmental interaction. In animal models, gene-environmental interaction should be investigated more intensely to unravel pathophysiological mechanisms. These findings may lead to new therapeutic strategies influencing epigenetic targets in severe psychiatric disorders. PMID:24574956

  14. 40 CFR 1039.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... establish deterioration factors? 1039.520 Section 1039.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Test Procedures § 1039.520 What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? Sections 1039.240 and 1039.245 describe the method for testing that must be performed...

  15. 40 CFR 1039.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... establish deterioration factors? 1039.520 Section 1039.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Test Procedures § 1039.520 What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? Sections 1039.240 and 1039.245 describe the method for testing that must be performed...

  16. 40 CFR 1039.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... establish deterioration factors? 1039.520 Section 1039.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Test Procedures § 1039.520 What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? Sections 1039.240 and 1039.245 describe the method for testing that must be performed...

  17. 40 CFR 1042.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... establish deterioration factors? 1042.520 Section 1042.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Test Procedures § 1042.520 What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? Sections 1042.240 and 1042.245 describe the required methods for testing to...

  18. 40 CFR 1039.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... establish deterioration factors? 1039.520 Section 1039.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Test Procedures § 1039.520 What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? Sections 1039.240 and 1039.245 describe the method for testing that must be performed...

  19. 40 CFR 1039.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... establish deterioration factors? 1039.520 Section 1039.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Test Procedures § 1039.520 What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? Sections 1039.240 and 1039.245 describe the method for testing that must be performed...

  20. 40 CFR 1042.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... establish deterioration factors? 1042.520 Section 1042.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Test Procedures § 1042.520 What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? Sections 1042.240 and 1042.245 describe the required methods for testing to...

  1. 40 CFR 1042.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... establish deterioration factors? 1042.520 Section 1042.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Test Procedures § 1042.520 What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? Sections 1042.240 and 1042.245 describe the required methods for testing to...

  2. 40 CFR 1042.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... establish deterioration factors? 1042.520 Section 1042.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Test Procedures § 1042.520 What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? Sections 1042.240 and 1042.245 describe the required methods for testing to...

  3. 40 CFR 1042.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... establish deterioration factors? 1042.520 Section 1042.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Test Procedures § 1042.520 What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? Sections 1042.240 and 1042.245 describe the required methods for testing to...

  4. Testing methods and techniques: Environmental testing: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Various devices and techniques are described for testing hardware and components in four special environments: low temperature, high temperature, high pressure, and vibration. Items ranging from an automatic calibrator for pressure transducers to a fixture for testing the susceptibility of materials to ignition by electric spark are included.

  5. Product acceptance environmental and destructive testing for reliability.

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorack, Michael A.; Kerschen, Thomas J.; Collins, Elmer W.

    2007-08-01

    To determine whether a component is meeting its reliability requirement during production, acceptance sampling is employed in which selected units coming off the production line are subjected to additional environmental and/or destructive tests that are within the normal environment space to which the component is expected to be exposed throughout its life in the Stockpile. This report describes what these tests are and how they are scored for reliability purposes. The roles of screens, Engineering Use Only tests, and next assembly product acceptance testing are also discussed, along with both the advantages and disadvantages of environmental and destructive testing.

  6. Social anxiety disorder: A review of environmental risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Christina A; Schmidt, Louis A

    2008-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a debilitating and chronic illness characterized by persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations, with a relatively high lifetime prevalence of 7% to 13% in the general population. Although the last two decades have witnessed enormous growth in the study of biological and dispositional factors underlying SAD, comparatively little attention has been directed towards environmental factors in SAD, even though there has been much ongoing work in the area. In this paper, we provide a recent review and critique of proposed environmental risk factors for SAD, focusing on traditional as well as some understudied and overlooked environmental risk factors: parenting and family environment, adverse life events, cultural and societal factors, and gender roles. We also discuss the need for research design improvements and considerations for future directions. PMID:18728768

  7. Allergic to life: Psychological factors in environmental illness

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, G.E.; Katon, W.J.; Sparks, P.J. )

    1990-07-01

    Environmental illness is an increasingly frequent and medically unexplained syndrome of allergy to common environmental agents. A recent outbreak of chemical-induced illness allowed study of psychological factors in environmental illness. Thirty-seven symptomatic plastics workers completed structured diagnostic interviews and self-report measures of somatization and psychopathology. The 13 subjects who developed environmental illness scored higher on all measures than those who did not. The greatest differences were in prior history of anxiety or depressive disorder (54% versus 4%) and number of medically unexplained physical symptoms before exposure (6.2 versus 2.9). These findings suggest that psychological vulnerability strongly influences chemical sensitivity following chemical exposure.

  8. Global latitudinal variations in marine copepod diversity and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Rombouts, Isabelle; Beaugrand, Grégory; Ibanez, Frédéric; Gasparini, Stéphane; Chiba, Sanae; Legendre, Louis

    2009-09-07

    Latitudinal gradients in diversity are among the most striking features in ecology. For terrestrial species, climate (i.e. temperature and precipitation) is believed to exert a strong influence on the geographical distributions of diversity through its effects on energy availability. Here, we provide the first global description of geographical variation in the diversity of marine copepods, a key trophic link between phytoplankton and fish, in relation to environmental variables. We found a polar-tropical difference in copepod diversity in the Northern Hemisphere where diversity peaked at subtropical latitudes. In the Southern Hemisphere, diversity showed a tropical plateau into the temperate regions. This asymmetry around the Equator may be explained by climatic conditions, in particular the influence of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone, prevailing mainly in the northern tropical region. Ocean temperature was the most important explanatory factor among all environmental variables tested, accounting for 54 per cent of the variation in diversity. Given the strong positive correlation between diversity and temperature, local copepod diversity, especially in extra-tropical regions, is likely to increase with climate change as their large-scale distributions respond to climate warming.

  9. 15. Interior view of Test Cell 10 (environmental) in Components ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view of Test Cell 10 (environmental) in Components Test Laboratory (T-27), showing north and east walls. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. The window in the wall to the left enables personnel in the control room to observe component testing in the cell. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION TEST PROTOCOL, GENERAL VENTILATION FILTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification Test Protocol, General Ventilation Filters provides guidance for verification tests.

    Reference is made in the protocol to the ASHRAE 52.2P "Method of Testing General Ventilation Air-cleaning Devices for Removal Efficiency by P...

  11. Environmental Testing of Glass-Fiber/Epoxy Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faddoul, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Pair of reports discusses long-term environmental tests of glassfiber/epoxy composite pressure vessels. Strength diminishes during long exposure to environment. Since such data necessary for accurate design of long-life structures such as pressure vessels, NASA Lewis Research Center built outdoor test stand in 1973. Test stand maintains system under constant pressure loading without frequent intervention of personnel.

  12. EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS ON FETAL TESTES TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Environmental Chemicals on Fetal Testes Testosterone Production

    Lambright, CS , Wilson, VS , Furr, J, Wolf, CJ, Noriega, N, Gray, LE, Jr.
    US EPA, ORD/NHEERL/RTD, RTP, NC

    Exposure of pregnant rodents to certain environmental chemicals during criti...

  13. Generator Set Environmental and Stability Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    be seen in Figure 1. Table 1. Generator Equipment Details Model Serial Numbers of Units Tested Output [kW] MFR Engine Model Weight [lbs...Scientific model CR3000. Thirty two thermocouples were used on each generator , along with five pressure transducers. Voltage, current, and frequency...cleaned and adjusted to meet the spec. After reinstallation, both generators ran smooth at no load conditions. Model : Serial: Cylinder # Old

  14. Methodology Investigation. Chamber Versus Environmental Deterioration Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    CLASSIFICATIONI OF THIS PAGE4’Whmn Doe gtarod ;!A D-.9 `7 , -. -- - -~----Elm - o TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE LIST OF FIGURES . ii .. FOREWORD...significant change in system performance during the 1-year test. 1.4.2 Optical System System Failure Rates. Column 2 of table 1 presents the optical system...jungle and the fungus chamber environments; however, it was not significantly differen. from that at the control site. Column 3 of table 1 presents the

  15. Environmental test planning, selection and standardization aids available

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, E. H.; Foley, J. T.

    1968-01-01

    Requirements for instrumentation, equipment, and methods to be used in conducting environmental tests on components intended for use by a wide variety of technical personnel of different educational backgrounds, experience, and interests is announced.

  16. THE TOXCAST PROGRAM FOR PRIORITIZING TOXICITY TESTING OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing methods for utilizing computational chemistry, high-throughput screening (HTS) and various toxicogenomic technologies to predict potential for toxicity and prioritize limited testing resources towards chemicals...

  17. Spacecraft Redundancy and Environmental Tests: An Historic Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollman, V. S.; Blockinger, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The necessity of providing highly redundant spacecraft in the shuttle era was evaluated. Environmental and acceptance tests were done. Histories of 67 spacecraft over a 12 year period were analyzed. The final result of this study is that LMSC (Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Inc.) is convinced of the significant value of redundancy in spacecraft and systems environmental testing and such techniques should be carried forward into the shuttle era.

  18. Environmental Tests of the Flight GLAST LAT Tracker Towers

    SciTech Connect

    Bagagli, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Barbiellini, G.; Belli, F.; Borden, T.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Caliandro, G.A.; Cecchi, C.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Angelis, A.De; Drell, P.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Goodman, J.; Himel, T.

    2008-03-12

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space telescope (GLAST) is a gamma-ray satellite scheduled for launch in 2008. Before the assembly of the Tracker subsystem of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) science instrument of GLAST, every component (tray) and module (tower) has been subjected to extensive ground testing required to ensure successful launch and on-orbit operation. This paper describes the sequence and results of the environmental tests performed on an engineering model and all the flight hardware of the GLAST LAT Tracker. Environmental tests include vibration testing, thermal cycles and thermal-vacuum cycles of every tray and tower as well as the verification of their electrical performance.

  19. Environmental Risk Factors for Pneumocystis Pneumonia Hospitalizations in HIV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Djawe, Kpandja; Levin, Linda; Swartzman, Alexandra; Fong, Serena; Roth, Brenna; Subramanian, Anuradha; Grieco, Katherine; Jarlsberg, Leah; Miller, Robert F.; Huang, Laurence; Walzer, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) is the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients in the United States. Although the host risk factors for the development of PcP are well established, the environmental (climatological, air pollution) risk factors are poorly understood. The major goal of this study was to determine the environmental risk factors for admissions of HIV-positive patients with PcP to a single medical center. Methods. Between 1997 and 2008, 457 HIV-positive patients with microscopically confirmed PcP were admitted to the San Francisco General Hospital. A case-crossover design was applied to identify environmental risk factors for PcP hospitalizations. Climatological and air pollution data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency and Weather Warehouse databases. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of each environmental factor and PcP hospital admission. Results. Hospital admissions were significantly more common in the summer than in the other seasons. Increases in temperature and sulfur dioxide levels were independently associated with hospital admissions for PcP, but the effects of sulfur dioxide were modified by increasing carbon monoxide levels. Conclusions. This study identifies both climatological and air pollution constituents as independent risk factors for hospitalization of HIV-positive patients with PcP in San Francisco. Thus, the environmental effects on PcP are more likely complex than previously thought. Further studies are needed to understand how these factors exert their effects and to determine if these factors are associated with PcP in other geographic locations. PMID:23042978

  20. 1989 environmental monitoring report, Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, S.; Phelan, J.; Wolff, T.; Yeager, G.; Dionne, D.; West, G.

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company (REECo) for the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) operated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Other environmental compliance programs such as National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), environmental permits, environmental restoration, and waste management programs are also included. The maximum offsite dose impact from 1989 operations was 8.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} mrem as a result of an unusual occurrence. The population received a collective dose of 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} person-rem from this incidence, while the same populations received 4.94 person-rem from natural background radiation. The 1989 SNL, TTR operations had no adverse impact on the general public or the environment. 18 refs., 2 figs., 14 tabs.

  1. Environmental factors affecting inflammatory bowel disease: have we made progress?

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is only partially understood; various environmental and host (e.g. genetic, epithelial, immune, and nonimmune) factors are involved. The critical role for environmental factors is strongly supported by recent worldwide trends in IBD epidemiology. One important environmental factor is smoking. A meta-analysis partially confirms previous findings that smoking was found to be protective against ulcerative colitis and, after the onset of the disease, might improve its course, decreasing the need for colectomy. In contrast, smoking increases the risk of developing Crohn's disease and aggravates its course. The history of IBD is dotted by cyclic reports on the isolation of specific infectious agents responsible for Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. The more recently published cold chain hypothesis is providing an even broader platform by linking dietary factors and microbial agents. An additional, recent theory has suggested a breakdown in the balance between putative species of 'protective' versus 'harmful' intestinal bacteria - this concept has been termed dysbiosis resulting in decreased bacterial diversity. Other factors such as oral contraceptive use, appendectomy, dietary factors (e.g. refined sugar, fat, and fast food), perinatal events, and childhood infections have also been associated with both diseases, but their role is more controversial. Nonetheless, there is no doubt that economic development, leading to improved hygiene and other changes in lifestyle ('westernized lifestyle') may play a role in the increase in IBD. This review article focuses on the role of environmental factors in the pathogenesis and progression of IBDs.

  2. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Nevada Test Site, Mercury, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Test Site (NTS), conducted June 22 through July 10, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the NTS. The Survey covers all environment media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations and activities performed at the NTS, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by the Battelle Columbus Division under contract with DOE. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the NTS Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the NTS Survey. 165 refs., 42 figs., 52 tabs.

  3. The Search for Causative Environmental Factors in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Rogler, Gerhard; Zeitz, Jonas; Biedermann, Luc

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has become a 'prototype disease' for chronic auto-inflammatory disorders with a polygenic background and important multifaceted environmental trigger components. The environmental factors contribute both to pathogenesis and disease flares. Thus, IBD is a disease par excellence to study the interactions between host genetics, environmental factors (such as infections or smoking) and 'in-vironmental' factors - for example, our intestinal microbiota. Longitudinal intercurrent events, including the impact of long-term medication on disease progression or stabilization, can exemplarily be studied in this disease group. Whilst alterations in the human genome coding relevant variant protein products have most likely not emerged significantly over the last 50 years, the incidence of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis has dramatically increased in Western countries and more recently in the Asia Pacific area. An interesting concept indicates that 'Western lifestyle factors' trigger chronic intestinal inflammation or disease flares in a genetically susceptible host. To understand the disease pathogenesis as well as triggers for flares or determinants of disease courses, we must further investigate potential en(in)vironmental factors. As environmental conditions, in contrast to genetic risk factors, can be influenced, knowledge on those risk factors becomes crucial to modulate disease incidence, disease course or clinical presentation. It is obvious that prevention of environmentally triggered disease flares would be a goal most relevant for IBD patients. An increased prevalence of IBD in urban environment has been documented in Switzerland by the Swiss IBD cohort study. Several studies have attempted to identify such factors; however, only a few have been validated. The best investigated environmental factor identified in IBD cohort analyses is smoking. Other environmental factors that have been associated with clinical presentation or

  4. Environmental Testing of the NEXT PM1R Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John S.; Anderson, John R.; VanNoord, Jonathan L.; Soulas, George C.

    2007-01-01

    The NEXT propulsion system is an advanced ion propulsion system presently under development that is oriented towards robotic exploration of the solar system using solar electric power. The subsystem includes an ion engine, power processing unit, feed system components, and thruster gimbal. The Prototype Model engine PM1 was subjected to qualification-level environmental testing in 2006 to demonstrate compatibility with environments representative of anticipated mission requirements. Although the testing was largely successful, several issues were identified including the fragmentation of potting cement on the discharge and neutralizer cathode heater terminations during vibration which led to abbreviated thermal testing, and generation of particulate contamination from manufacturing processes and engine materials. The engine was reworked to address most of these findings, renamed PM1R, and the environmental test sequence was repeated. Thruster functional testing was performed before and after the vibration and thermal-vacuum tests. Random vibration testing, conducted with the thruster mated to the breadboard gimbal, was executed at 10.0 Grms for 2 min in each of three axes. Thermal-vacuum testing included three thermal cycles from 120 to 215 C with hot engine re-starts. Thruster performance was nominal throughout the test program, with minor variations in a few engine operating parameters likely caused by facility effects. There were no significant changes in engine performance as characterized by engine operating parameters, ion optics performance measurements, and beam current density measurements, indicating no significant changes to the hardware as a result of the environmental testing. The NEXT PM1R engine and the breadboard gimbal were found to be well-designed against environmental requirements based on the results reported herein. The redesigned cathode heater terminations successfully survived the vibration environments. Based on the results of this test

  5. Integrated Impacts of environmental factors on the degradation of fumigants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Yates, S. R.

    2007-12-01

    Volatilization of fumigants has been concerned as one of air pollution sources. Fumigants are used to control nematodes and soil-born pathogens for a pre-plant treatment to increase the production of high-cash crops. One of technologies to reduce the volatilization of fumigants to atmosphere is to enhance the degradation of fumigants in soil. Fumigant degradation is affected by environmental factors such as moisture content, temperature, initial concentration of injected fumigants, and soil properties. However, effects of each factor on the degradation were limitedly characterized and integrated Impacts from environmental factors has not been described yet. Degradation of 1,3- dichloropropene (1,3-D) was investigated in various condition of temperatures (20-60 °C), moisture contents (0 ¡V 30 %) and initial concentrations (0.6 ¡V 60 mg/kg) with Arlington sandy loam soil. Abiotic and biotic degradation processes were distinguished using two sterilization methods with HgCl2 and autoclave and impacts of environmental factors were separately assessed for abiotic and biotic degradations. Initially, degradation rates (k) of cis and trans 1,3-D isomers were estimated by first-order kinetics and modified depending on impacts from environmental factors. Arrhenius equation and Walker¡¦s equation which were conventionally used to describe temperature and moisture effects on degradation were assessed for integrated impacts from environmental factors and logarithmical correlation was observed between initial concentrations of applied fumigants and degradation rates. Understanding integrated impacts of environmental factors on degradation will help to design more effective emission reduction schemes in various conditions and provide more practical parameters for modeling simulations.

  6. Epigenetic Effect of Environmental Factors on Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Takeo; Mochizuki, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    Both environmental factors and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Epigenetics, an essential mechanism for gene regulation based on chemical modifications of DNA and histone proteins, is also involved in congenital ASDs. It was recently demonstrated that environmental factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals and mental stress in early life, can change epigenetic status and gene expression, and can cause ASDs. Moreover, environmentally induced epigenetic changes are not erased during gametogenesis and are transmitted to subsequent generations, leading to changes in behavior phenotypes. However, epigenetics has a reversible nature since it is based on the addition or removal of chemical residues, and thus the original epigenetic status may be restored. Indeed, several antidepressants and anticonvulsants used for mental disorders including ASDs restore the epigenetic state and gene expression. Therefore, further epigenetic understanding of ASDs is important for the development of new drugs that take advantages of epigenetic reversibility. PMID:27187441

  7. Oral Health Inequalities: Relationships between Environmental and Individual Factors.

    PubMed

    Gupta, E; Robinson, P G; Marya, C M; Baker, S R

    2015-10-01

    Recent research has emphasized the relationships between environmental and individual factors that may influence population oral health and lead to health inequalities. However, little is known about the effect of interactions between environmental and individual factors on inequalities in clinical (e.g., decayed teeth) and subjective oral health outcomes (e.g., oral health-related quality of life [OHQoL]). This cohort study aimed to explore the direct and mediated longitudinal interrelationships between key environmental and individual factors on clinical and subjective oral health outcomes in adults. Self-reported measures of OHQoL and individual (sense of coherence [SOC], social support, stress, oral health beliefs, dental behaviors, and subjective socioeconomic status [SES]) and environmental factors (SES and social network) were collected at baseline and 3-mo follow-up, together with a baseline clinical examination of 495 adult employees of an automobile parts manufacturer in India. Lagged structural equation modeling was guided by the adapted Wilson and Cleary/Brunner and Marmot model linking clinical, individual, and environmental variables to quality of life. The study provides tentative evidence that SES may influence levels of resources such as social support and SOC, which mediate stress and in turn may influence subjective oral health outcomes. Accordingly, the present findings and the adapted Wilson and Cleary/Brunner and Marmot model on which they are predicted provide support for the psychosocial pathway being key in the SES-oral health relationship. The pathways through which environmental factors interact with individual factors to impact subjective oral health outcomes identified here may bring opportunities for more targeted oral health promotion strategies.

  8. Life style factors and acquired susceptibility to environmental disease.

    PubMed

    Au, W W

    2001-10-01

    Multifactorial risk factors are responsible for many diseases. They can be broadly categorized as environmental, genetic and life style factors. Much attention has been focused on the first two categories, e.g. the identification of environmental toxicants/carcinogens and the elucidation of genetic susceptibility to disease. Life style risk factors such as aging, poor nutrition, infection and exposure to toxicants can also increase susceptibility to illnesses. These life style factors can therefore be considered to cause acquired susceptibility for increased risk for environmental disease. Among Egyptians, infection with the parasite, Schistosoma, is the primary risk factor for bladder cancer and the risk is enhanced by exposure to mutagenic chemicals. We have shown that inheritance of susceptible metabolizing genes that can increase body burden of mutagenic chemicals enhances the risk. We have also hypothesized that chronic exposure to mutagenic chemicals causes cellular abnormalities that can reduce the capacity of cells to repair DNA damage and thus increase the risk for environmental disease. We have used a challenge assay to show that cells from cigarette smokers and from populations exposed to uranium, butadiene and pesticides have abnormal DNA repair responses compared to matched controls. On the other hand, the response is normal in workers exposed to very low concentrations of butadiene and benzene, and in mothers who had children with birth defects. This suggests that exposure to high enough concentrations of certain mutagens can cause acquired susceptibility in human populations. The acquired susceptibility is expected to interact with environmental factors and with genetic susceptibility to increase risk for environmental disease.

  9. Genetic and Environmental Factors in Complex Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    van Loo, K.M.J; Martens, G.J.M

    2007-01-01

    Complex neurodevelopmental disorders, such as schizophrenia, autism, attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder, (manic) depressive illness and addiction, are thought to result from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Association studies on candidate genes and genome-wide linkage analyses have identified many susceptibility chromosomal regions and genes, but considerable efforts to replicate association have been surprisingly often disappointing. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of the genetic contribution to complex neurodevelopmental disorders, focusing on the findings from association and linkage studies. Furthermore, the contribution of the interaction of the genetic with environmental and epigenetic factors to the aetiology of complex neurodevelopmental disorders as well as suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:19412416

  10. 1996 Site environmental report Tonopah test range Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Forston, W.; Duncan, D.; Sanchez, R.

    1997-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. This annual report (calendar year 1996) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management, clean-up of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In compliance with DOE Orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL`s responsibility for environmentals surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL`s responsibility for environmental surveillance extends only to those activities performed by SNL or under its direction. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized herein.

  11. 1998 Annual Site Environmental Report Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.K.; Fink, C.H.; Sanchez, R.V.

    1999-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. This annual report (calendar year 1998) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management cleanup of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In compliance with DOE orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL's responsibility for environmental surveillance at TTR extends only to those areas where SNL activities are carried out. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized. This report has been prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990a).

  12. 1997 annual site environmental report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, Todd; Duncan, Dianne; Forston, William; Sanchez, Rebecca

    1998-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. Thes annual report (calendar year 1997) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management, cleanup of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act. In compliance with DOE orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL's responsibility for environmental surveillance extends only to those activities performed by SNL or under its direction. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized. This report has been prepared as required by DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program.

  13. Failures in Hybrid Microcircuits During Environmental Testing. History Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    This purpose of this viewgraph presentation is to discuss failures in hermetic hybrids observed at the GSFC PA Lab during environmental stress testing. The cases discussed are: Case I. Substrate metallization failures during Thermal cycling (TC). Case II. Flex lid-induced failure. Case Ill. Hermeticity failures during TC. Case IV. Die metallization cracking during TC. and how many test cycles and parts is necessary? Case V. Wire Bond failures after life test. Case VI. Failures caused by Au/In IMC growth.

  14. Modal confidence factor in vibration testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The theory and applications of a time domain modal test technique are presented. The method uses free decay of random responses from a structure under test to identify its modal characteristics namely, natural frequencies, damping factors, and mode shapes. The method can identify multimodal (highly coupled) systems and modes that have very small contribution in the responses. A method is presented to decrease the effects of high levels of noise in the data and thus improve the accuracy of identified parameters. This is accomplished using an oversized mathematical model. The concept of modal confidence factor (MCF) is developed. The MCF is a number calculated for every identified mode for a structure under test. The MCF varies from 0.000 for a distorted, nonlinear, or noise mode to 100.0 for a pure structural mode. The theory of the MCF is based on the correlation that exits between the modal deflection at a certain station and the modal deflection at the same station delayed in time. The theory and application of the MCF is illustrated by two experiments. The first experiment deals with simulated responses from a two degree of freedom system with 20 percent, 40 percent, and 100 percent noise added. The second experiment was run on a generalized payload model. The free decay response from the payload model contained about 22 percent noise.

  15. Status of Centralized Environmental Creep Testing Facility Preparation and Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Weiju; Battiste, Rick

    2006-10-01

    Because the ASME Codes do not cover environmental issues that are crucial in the design and construction of VHTR system, investigation of long-term impure helium effects on metallurgical stability and properties becomes very important. The present report describes the development of centralized environmental creep testing facility, its close collaborations with the experiments in low velocity helium recirculation loop, important lessons learned, upgrades in system design in FY06, and current status of the development.

  16. Nevada Test Site annual site environmental report, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Wruble, D T; McDowell, E M

    1990-11-01

    Prior to 1989 annual reports of environmental monitoring and assessment results for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were prepared in two separate parts. Onsite effluent monitoring and environmental monitoring results were reported in an onsite report prepared by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). Results of the offsite radiological surveillance program conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada, were reported separately by that Agency. Beginning with this 1989 annual Site environmental report for the NTS, these two documents are being combined into a single report to provide a more comprehensive annual documentation of the environmental protection program conducted for the nuclear testing program and other nuclear and non-nuclear activities at the Site. The two agencies have coordinated preparation of this combined onsite and offsite report through sharing of information on environmental releases and meteorological, hydrological, and other supporting data used in dose-estimate calculations. 57 refs., 52 figs., 65 tabs.

  17. Environmental testing results over a tracker drive train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, María; Calvo-Parra, Gustavo; Gil, Eduardo; de la Rubia, Oscar; Hillebrand, Mario; Rubio, Francisca; Aipperspach, Wolfgang; Gombert, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Environmental testing following the draft of the IEC62817 standard has been carried out at ISFOC using a Soitec Solar tracker drive. The objective of this work is twofold; first to assure that the tracker design can perform under varying conditions and survive under extreme conditions and secondly to test the viability and usefulness of the tests described in the standard. After some changes in the device under test (specifically, gear-box oil) the drive system produced satisfactory results, assuring its performance under operational temperatures. Therefore, this work has demonstrated that the tests described in the standard are useful for detecting early failures.

  18. ISO environmental testing and reliability standards for optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Robert E.

    1993-12-01

    In this paper, we give a little background into the work of ISO/TC172/SC1/WG1, the ISO subcommittee that is writing standards for the environmental testing of optics and optical instruments. By environmental test standards, we mean standards that outline what sort of climatic variations and conditions of use optical instruments must survive and still operate within given performance specifications. The scope of the standards this subcommittee is writing is then described followed by a thorough description of the general content of the 2 standards that are nearing completion. Finally, we discuss the applicability of these standards and how they may affect optics and optical systems that are intended for sale in international markets. We also discuss briefly the relationship of these ISO standards to MIL-STD-810E, Environmental Test Methods and Engineering Guidelines, the U.S. Military standard.

  19. Maternal environmental risk factors for congenital hydrocephalus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kalyvas, Aristotelis V; Kalamatianos, Theodosis; Pantazi, Mantha; Lianos, Georgios D; Stranjalis, George; Alexiou, George A

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Congenital hydrocephalus (CH) is one of the most frequent CNS congenital malformations, representing an entity with serious pathological consequences. Although several studies have previously assessed child-related risk factors associated with CH development, there is a gap of knowledge on maternal environmental risk factors related to CH. The authors have systematically assessed extrinsic factors in the maternal environment that potentially confer an increased risk of CH development. METHODS The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were systematically searched for works published between 1966 and December 2015 to identify all relevant articles published in English. Only studies that investigated environmental risk factors concerning the mother-either during gestation or pregestationally-were included. RESULTS In total, 13 studies (5 cohorts, 3 case series, 3 case-control studies, 1 meta-analysis, and 1 case report) meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. Maternal medication or alcohol use during gestation; lifestyle modifiable maternal pathologies such as obesity, diabetes, or hypertension; lack of prenatal care; and a low socioeconomic status were identified as significant maternal environmental risk factors for CH development. Maternal infections and trauma to the mother during pregnancy have also been highlighted as potential mother-related risk factors for CH. CONCLUSIONS Congenital hydrocephalus is an important cause of serious infant health disability that can lead to health inequalities among adults. The present study identified several maternal environmental risk factors for CH, thus yielding important scientific information relevant to prevention of some CH cases. However, further research is warranted to confirm the impact of the identified factors and examine their underlying behavioral and/or biological basis, leading to the generation of suitable prevention strategies.

  20. Gender differences in autoimmunity associated with exposure to environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmunity is thought to result from a combination of genetics, environmental triggers, and stochastic events. Gender is also a significant risk factor with many diseases exhibiting a female bias. Although the role of environmental triggers, especially medications, in eliciting autoimmunity is well established less is known about the interplay between gender, the environment and autoimmunity. This review examines the contribution of gender in autoimmunity induced by selected chemical, physical and biological agents in humans and animal models. Epidemiological studies reveal that environmental factors can be associated with a gender bias in human autoimmunity. However many studies show that the increased risk of autoimmunity is often influenced by occupational exposure or other gender biased activities. Animal studies, although often prejudiced by the exclusive use of female animals, reveal that gender bias can be strain specific suggesting an interaction between sex chromosome complement and background genes. This observation has important implications because it argues that within a gender biased disease there may be individuals in which gender does not contribute to autoimmunity. Exposure to environmental factors, which encompasses everything around us, adds an additional layer of complexity. Understanding how the environment influences the relationship between sex chromosome complement and innate and adaptive immune responses will be essential in determining the role of gender in environmentally-induced autoimmunity. PMID:22137891

  1. Casing pull tests for directionally drilled environmental wells

    SciTech Connect

    Staller, G.E.; Wemple, R.P.; Layne, R.R.

    1994-11-01

    A series of tests to evaluate several types of environmental well casings have been conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and it`s industrial partner, The Charles Machine Works, Inc. (CMW). A test bed was constructed at the CMW test range to model a typical shallow, horizontal, directionally drilled wellbore. Four different types of casings were pulled through this test bed. The loads required to pull the casings through the test bed and the condition of the casing material were documented during the pulling operations. An additional test was conducted to make a comparison of test bed vs actual wellbore casing pull loads. A directionally drilled well was emplaced by CMW to closely match the test bed. An instrumented casing was installed in the well and the pull loads recorded. The completed tests are reviewed and the results reported.

  2. [Endemic goiter in Latium: environmental and genetic factors].

    PubMed

    Paggi, A

    1998-01-01

    Most studies on the pathogenesis of endemic goiter focus above all on iodine deficiency. In some endemic goiter areas (i.e. Nigeria) there is no evidence of iodine deficiency; therefore, we suggest the taking into account of various factors, both environmental and non-environmental. We report the results of two studies carried out in three different areas in Latium: one of them (Cerveteri, RM) could be classified as high prevalence of goiter area, while the two others (Roccasecca dei Volsci, LT and Castel San Pietro Romano, RM) are true endemic goiter areas. The role of environmental factors, radioactivity and electromagnetism, foodstuff, the hydrogeological and chemical composition of natural water and the importance of genetics are here discussed, assuming that the endemic goiter could have a multifactorial pathogenesis.

  3. Environmental qualification testing of the prototype pool boiling experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, J. Andrew

    1992-01-01

    The prototype Pool Boiling Experiment (PBE) flew on the STS-47 mission in September 1992. This report describes the purpose of the experiment and the environmental qualification testing program that was used to prove the integrity of the prototype hardware. Component and box level vibration and thermal cycling tests were performed to give an early level of confidence in the hardware designs. At the system level, vibration, thermal extreme soaks, and thermal vacuum cycling tests were performed to qualify the complete design for the expected shuttle environment. The system level vibration testing included three axis sine sweeps and random inputs. The system level hot and cold soak tests demonstrated the hardware's capability to operate over a wide range of temperatures and gave the project team a wider latitude in determining which shuttle thermal altitudes were compatible with the experiment. The system level thermal vacuum cycling tests demonstrated the hardware's capability to operate in a convection free environment. A unique environmental chamber was designed and fabricated by the PBE team and allowed most of the environmental testing to be performed within the project's laboratory. The completion of the test program gave the project team high confidence in the hardware's ability to function as designed during flight.

  4. Social and Environmental Factors Influencing In-Prison Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodall, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.…

  5. Control and the Aged: Environmental or Personality Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiffany, Phyllis G.; Dey, Kay

    Control over self, lifestyle, and environment is a major factor in how one ages. To investigate how age acts as an environmental force in affecting perceptions of control, 45 adults, aged 60-80, from western Kansas were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), the Tiffany Experienced Control Scales (ECS), the Minnesota…

  6. Determining Factors of Environmental Education in Spanish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrán, Manuel; Andrades, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to analyze the main factors that might determine the extent to which Spanish organizational management educators use environmental stand-alone subjects to equip students with alternative views of business. To give a more qualitative study, this paper also provides a more detailed curriculum analysis from a double point of…

  7. Environmental Factors Item Development for Persons With Stroke, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Allen W.; Magasi, Susan; Hammel, Joy; Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Garcia, Sofia F.; Hahn, Elizabeth A.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Tulsky, David; Gray, David B.; Hollingsworth, Holly; Jerousek, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe methods used in operationalizing environmental factors; to describe the results of a research project to develop measures of environmental factors that affect participation; and to define an initial item set of facilitators and barriers to participation after stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Design Instrument development included an extensive literature review, item classification and selection, item writing, and cognitive testing following the approach of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. Setting Community. Participants Content area and outcome measurement experts (n=10) contributed to instrument development; individuals (n=200) with the target conditions participated in focus groups and in cognitive testing (n=15). Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures Environmental factor items were categorized in 6 domains: assistive technology; built and natural environment; social environment; services, systems, and policies; access to information and technology; and economic quality of life. Results We binned 2273 items across the 6 domains, winnowed this pool to 291 items for cognitive testing, and recommended 274 items for pilot data collection. Conclusions Five of the 6 domains correspond closely to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health taxonomy of environmental factors; the sixth domain, economic quality of life, reflects an important construct that reflects financial resources that affect participation. Testing with a new and larger sample is underway to evaluate reliability, validity, and sensitivity. PMID:24378804

  8. Environmental Testing of the NEXT PM1 Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synder, John S.; Anderson, John R.; VanNoord, Jonathan L.; Soulas, George C.

    2008-01-01

    The NEXT propulsion system is an advanced ion propulsion system presently under development that is oriented towards robotic exploration of the solar system using solar electric power. The Prototype Model engine PM1 was subjected to qualification-level environmental testing to demonstrate compatibility with environments representative of anticipated mission requirements. Random vibration testing, conducted with the thruster mated to the breadboard gimbal, was executed at 10.0 Grms for 2 minutes in each of three axes. Thermal-vacuum testing included a deep cold soak of the engine to temperatures of -168 C and thermal cycling from -120 to 203 C. Although the testing was largely successful, several issues were identified including the fragmentation of potting cement on the discharge and neutralizer cathode heater terminations during vibration which led to abbreviated thermal testing, and generation of particulate contamination from manufacturing processes and engine materials. Thruster performance was nominal throughout the test program, with minor variations in some engine operating parameters likely caused by facility effects. In general, the NEXT PM1 engine and the breadboard gimbal were found to be well-designed against environmental requirements based on the results reported herein. After resolution of the findings from this test program the hardware environmental qualification program can proceed with confidence.

  9. Environmental testing of flat plate solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, J.; Dumas, L.; Hoffman, A.

    1978-01-01

    Commercially available flat-plate solar cell modules have been subjected to a variety of environmental tests designed to simulate service conditions. Among the tests are those simulating heat and rain, wind-driven rains, humidity and freezing, humidity and heat, humidity with a voltage bias, salt fog, hail impact, and fungus infestation. Tests for optical surface soiling and the combined effects of temperature, humidity and UV irradiation are under development. A correlation has been demonstrated between degradation caused by the qualification tests and such observed field effects as power loss.

  10. Bio-environmental factors associated with myopia: An updated review.

    PubMed

    Galvis, V; Tello, A; Camacho, P A; Parra, M M; Merayo-Lloves, J

    2017-02-02

    Experimental studies in animals, as well as observational and intervention studies in humans, seem to support the premise that the development of juvenile myopia is promoted by a combination of the effect of genetic and environmental factors, with a complex interaction between them. The very rapid increase in myopia rates in some parts of the world, such as Southeast Asia, supports a significant environmental effect. Several lines of evidence suggest that humans might respond to various external factors, such as increased activity in near vision, increased educational pressure, decreased exposure to sunlight outdoors, dietary changes (including increased intake of carbohydrates), as well as low light levels indoors. All these factors could be associated with a higher prevalence of myopia.

  11. Environmental qualification testing of terrestrial solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The placement of solar cell modules in various climates and locations throughout the world results in different degrees and combinations of environmental stresses. Coupled with a design lifetime goal of 20 years, early detection and correction of module design deficiencies can result in significantly better long-term economics. This paper describes an environmental test research program for developing qualification requirements and procedures for flat-plate solar cell modules. A multiple iterative approach for establishing and evaluating test requirements is discussed as well as the rationale for the selection of levels and durations for the current qualification tests. The status of study efforts involving optical surface soiling, encapsulation delamination, and voltage bias-humidity testing is reviewed.

  12. Environmental Health Factors and Sexually Dimorphic Differences in Behavioral Disruptions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.; Trainor, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that environmental factors—in particular, those that we are exposed to during perinatal life—can dramatically shape the organism’s risk for later diseases, including neurobehavioral disorders. However, depending on the environmental insult, one sex may demonstrate greater vulnerability than the other sex. Herein, we focus on two well-defined extrinsic environmental factors that lead to sexually dimorphic behavioral differences in animal models and linkage in human epidemiological studies. These include maternal or psychosocial stress (such as social stress) and exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds (such as one of the most prevalent, bisphenol A [BPA]). In general, the evidence suggests that early environmental exposures, such as BPA and stress, lead to more pronounced behavioral deficits in males than in females, whereas female neurobehavioral patterns are more vulnerable to later in life stress. These findings highlight the importance of considering sex differences and developmental timing when examining the effects of environmental factors on later neurobehavioral outcomes. PMID:25705580

  13. [Environmental and genetic risk factors for endometrial carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Sénéchal, Claire; Cottereau, Edouard; de Pauw, Antoine; Elan, Camille; Dagousset, Isabelle; Fourchotte, Virginie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lae, Marick; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buecher, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    In France, endometrial cancer is at the first rank of gynecological cancers for cancer incidence, before ovarian and cervical cancers. In fact, the number of incident cases has been estimated to 7275 for the year 2012; the number of death due to endometrial cancer to 2025. This cancer is hormone-dependent and endogenous (reproductive factors) or exogenous (oral combined contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy) causes of exposition to estrogens are the major environmental risk factors for both types of endometrial cancers: type I or well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinomas; and type II including all other histological types: papillary serous adenocarcinomas, clear cell adenocarcinomas and carcinosarcomas, also known as malignant mixed Mullerian tumor, MMMT. Obesity, diabetes mellitus and adjuvant treatment of breast cancer with tamoxifen are also associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. Genetic factors may also be implicated in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer either as "minor genetic factors" (susceptibility factors), which remain largely unknown and are responsible for the increased observed risk in relatives of women affected with endometrial cancer; or as major genetic factors responsible for hereditary forms and namely for Lynch syndrome whose genetic transmission is of autosomic dominant type. The appropriate recognition of Lynch syndrome is of critical importance because affected patients and their relatives should benefit from specific care. The aims of this review is to describe major environmental and genetic risk factors for endometrial cancer with specific attention to most recent advances in this field and to describe recommendations for care of at-risk women.

  14. High Endoatmospheric Defense Interceptor (HEDI) technology testing program environmental assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrineau, Dru

    1989-05-01

    The High Endoatmospheric Defense Interceptor (HEDI) is one of the many technologies being considered in the strategic defense initiative (SDI) technology research program and has the potential to support the requirements for the strategic defense system. The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to analyze the environmental consequences of testing activities for the HEDI technology test program in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act. The HEDI is a technology that would employ ground-based missiles to intercept and destroy hostile submarine-launched ballistic missiles and intercontinental ballistic missiles during that portion of flight that puts the target in the high endoatmosphere (the terminal portion of an attacking missile trajectory). The HEDI vehicle would consist of a two-stage launch vehicle (booster) and kill vehicle with a conventional warhead. The basic thrust of the efforts already accomplished has been to assess the operational utility of HEDI in the context of a complete strategic defense system.

  15. Invertebrates in testing of environmental chemicals: are they alternatives?

    PubMed Central

    Lagadic, L; Caquet, T

    1998-01-01

    An enlarged interpretation of alternatives in toxicology testing includes the replacement of one animal species with another, preferably a nonmammalian species. This paper reviews the potential of invertebrates in testing environmental chemicals and provides evidence of their usefulness in alternative testing methodologies. The first part of this review addresses the use of invertebrates in laboratory toxicology testing. Problems in extrapolating results obtained in invertebrates to those obtained from vertebrates are noted, suggesting that invertebrates can essentially be used in addition to rather than as replacements for vertebrates in laboratory toxicity tests. However, evaluation of the ecologic impact of environmental chemicals must include defining end points that may frequently differ from those classically used in biomedical research. In this context, alternative approaches using invertebrates may be more pertinent. The second part of the review therefore focuses on the use of invertebrates in situ to assess the environmental impact of pollutants. Advantages of invertebrates in ecotoxicologic investigation are presented for their usefulness for seeking mechanistic links between effects occurring at the individual level and consequences for higher levels of biologic organization (e.g., population and community). In the end, it is considered that replacement of vertebrates by invertebrates in ecotoxicity testing is likely to become a reality when basic knowledge of metabolic, physiologic, and developmental patterns in the latter will be sufficient to assess the effect of a given chemical through end points that could be different between invertebrates and vertebrates. PMID:9599707

  16. Environmental Assessment for the LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, S.E.; Novo, M.G.; Shinn, J.H.

    1986-04-01

    The LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, is being constructed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). In this Environmental Assessment, environmental consequences of spilling hazardous materials in the Frenchman Flat basin are evaluated and mitigations and recommendations are stated in order to protect natural resources and reduce land-use impacts. Guidelines and restrictions concerning spill-test procedures will be determined by the LGF Test Facility Operations Manager and DOE based on toxicity documentation for the test material, provided by the user, and mitigations imposed by the Environmental Assessment. In addition to Spill Test Facility operational procedures, certain assumptions have been made in preparation of this document: no materials will be considered for testing that have cumulative, long-term persistence in the environment; spill tests will consist of releases of 15 min or less; and sufficient time will be allowed between tests for recovery of natural resources. Geographic limits to downwind concentrations of spill materials were primarily determined from meteorological data, human occupational exposure standards to hazardous materials and previous spill tests. These limits were established using maximum spill scenarios and environmental impacts are discussed as worst case scenarios; however, spill-test series will begin with smaller spills, gradually increasing in size after the impacts of the initial tests have been evaluated.

  17. Modal confidence factor in vibration testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The modal confidence factor (MCF) is a number calculated for every identified mode for a structure under test. The MCF varies from 0.00 for a distorted nonlinear, or noise mode to 100.0 for a pure structural mode. The theory of the MCF is based on the correlation that exists between the modal deflection at a certain station and the modal deflection at the same station delayed in time. The theory and application of the MCF are illustrated by two experiments. The first experiment deals with simulated responses from a two-degree-of-freedom system with 20%, 40%, and 100% noise added. The second experiment was run on a generalized payload model. The free decay response from the payload model contained 22% noise.

  18. Environmental factors in the development of autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Sealey, L A; Hughes, B W; Sriskanda, A N; Guest, J R; Gibson, A D; Johnson-Williams, L; Pace, D G; Bagasra, O

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly heterogeneous developmental conditions characterized by deficits in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and obsessive/stereotyped patterns of behavior and repetitive movements. Social interaction impairments are the most characteristic deficits in ASD. There is also evidence of impoverished language and empathy, a profound inability to use standard nonverbal behaviors (eye contact, affective expression) to regulate social interactions with others, difficulties in showing empathy, failure to share enjoyment, interests and achievements with others, and a lack of social and emotional reciprocity. In developed countries, it is now reported that 1%-1.5% of children have ASD, and in the US 2015 CDC reports that approximately one in 45 children suffer from ASD. Despite the intense research focus on ASD in the last decade, the underlying etiology remains unknown. Genetic research involving twins and family studies strongly supports a significant contribution of environmental factors in addition to genetic factors in ASD etiology. A comprehensive literature search has implicated several environmental factors associated with the development of ASD. These include pesticides, phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls, solvents, air pollutants, fragrances, glyphosate and heavy metals, especially aluminum used in vaccines as adjuvant. Importantly, the majority of these toxicants are some of the most common ingredients in cosmetics and herbicides to which almost all of us are regularly exposed to in the form of fragrances, face makeup, cologne, air fresheners, food flavors, detergents, insecticides and herbicides. In this review we describe various scientific data to show the role of environmental factors in ASD.

  19. Environmental vascular risk factors: new perspectives for stroke prevention.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Pacheco, Oscar; Román, Gustavo C

    2007-11-15

    Despite intensive evaluation of acute stroke patients, perhaps only half of the attributable stroke risk is usually identified. In addition to traditional and non-traditional vascular risk factors-including most recently homocysteine, inflammation, and alterations of coagulation-a number of environmental risk factors for stroke have been identified in the last decade. In this update we review the following: lower education and poor socioeconomic status (probable surrogates for exposure to traditional high-risk behaviors such as smoking, poor nutrition, lack of prenatal control, absence of preventive medical and dental care, and non-compliance of treatment of conditions such as hypertension); depression, stress and affective disorders; obstructive sleep apnea; passive smoking and environmental pollution; infections, in particular periodontal diseases that increase C-reactive protein (CRP); raised body mass index (obesity); exercise, and diet. The possible role of high-fructose corn syrup in the epidemic of obesity in the USA is reviewed. Protective diets include higher consumption of fish, olive oil, grains, fruits and vegetables (Mediterranean diet), as well as probiotic bacteria in yogurt and dairy products. Careful attention should be given to the patient's environment looking for modifiable factors. The effects of clean environmental air and water, adequate diet and appropriate nutrition, healthy teeth, exercise, and refreshing sleep in the prevention of stroke and cardiovascular disease appear to be quite compelling. Although some of these modifiable risk factors lack evidence-based information, judicious clinical sense should be used to counteract the potentially damaging effects of adverse environmental vascular risk factors.

  20. Pleural Mesothelioma in New Caledonia: Associations with Environmental Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Francine; Maurizot, Pierre; Mangeas, Morgan; Ambrosi, Jean-Paul; Douwes, Jeroen; Robineau, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Background High incidences of malignant mesothelioma (MM) have been observed in New Caledonia. Previous work has shown an association between MM and soil containing serpentinite. Objectives We studied the spatial and temporal variation of MM and its association with environmental factors. Methods We investigated the 109 MM cases recorded in the Cancer Registry of New Caledonia between 1984 and 2008 and performed spatial, temporal, and space–time cluster analyses. We conducted an ecological analysis involving 100 tribes over a large area including those with the highest incidence rates. Associations with environmental factors were assessed using logistic and Poisson regression analyses. Results The highest incidence was observed in the Houaïlou area with a world age-standardized rate of 128.7 per 100,000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI), 70.41–137.84]. A significant spatial cluster grouped 18 tribes (31 observed cases vs. 8 expected cases; p = 0.001), but no significant temporal clusters were identified. The ecological analyses identified serpentinite on roads as the greatest environmental risk factor (odds ratio = 495.0; 95% CI, 46.2–4679.7; multivariate incidence rate ratio = 13.0; 95% CI, 10.2–16.6). The risk increased with serpentinite surface, proximity to serpentinite quarries and distance to the peridotite massif. The association with serpentines was stronger than with amphiboles. Living on a slope and close to dense vegetation appeared protective. The use of whitewash, previously suggested to be a risk factor, was not associated with MM incidence. Conclusions Presence of serpentinite on roads is a major environmental risk factor for mesothelioma in New Caledonia. PMID:21193386

  1. Masculinity and femininity in twin children: genetic and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J E; Baker, L A; Jacklin, C N

    1989-12-01

    Genetic and environmental origins of individual differences in masculine and feminine personality attributes were investigated in a sample of 38 monozygotic and 32 dizygotic twin pairs (total N = 140) during pre- and early adolescence. Self-report measures of both masculine and feminine characteristics were obtained for each child using 2 standardized instruments: the Children's Personality Attributes Questionnaire (CPAQ) and the Adolescent Self-Perception Inventory (ASPI). Multivariate biometrical analyses revealed significant genetic influences in all measures, accounting for 20%-48% of the observed variation in each. Environmental influences, which explained the remaining 52%-80% of variance in masculinity and femininity, were apparently specific to each individual and not shared by members of the same twin pair. The results underscore the importance of considering both genetic and environmental factors in gender-role development, particularly in studies of family resemblance.

  2. Miniature environmental chambers for temperature humidity bias testing of microelectronics.

    PubMed

    Hook, Michael David; Mayer, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Environmental chambers are commonly used for reliability testing of microelectronics and other products and materials. These chambers are large, expensive, and limit electrical connectivity to devices under test. In this paper, we present a collection of ten small, low-cost environmental chambers, with humidity control based on mixtures of water and glycerol placed inside the chambers. We demonstrate relative humidities from 44% to 90%, at temperatures from 30 to 85 °C, enabling industry-standard testing at 85% humidity and 85 °C. The division of samples between ten separate chambers allows different conditions to be applied to each sample, in order to quickly characterize the effects of the environment on device reliability, enabling extrapolation to estimate lifetimes in working conditions.

  3. The effects of space relevant environmental factors on halophilic Archaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuko, Stefan; Moeller, Ralf; Rettberg, Petra

    Within the last 50 years, space technology has provided tools for transporting terrestrial (microbial) life beyond Earth's protective shield in order to study its responses to selected conditions of space. Microorganisms are ubiquitous and can be found in almost every environment on Earth. They thrive and survive in a broad spectrum of environments and are true masters in adapting to rapidly changing external conditions. Although microorganisms cannot actively grow under the harsh conditions of outer space or other known planets, some microorganisms might be able to survive for a time in space or other planets as dormant, inactive spores or in similar desiccation-resistant resting states, e.g., enclosed in halite crystals or biofilms. Halite crystals are the realm of halophilic Archaea as they have adapted to life at extreme salt concentrations. They can stay entrapped in such crystals for millions of years without losing viability and therefore the family Halobacteriaceae belongs to the group of microorganisms which may survive space travel or may even be found on other planets. Several members of this family have been utilized in space relevant experiments where they were exposed to detrimental environmental conditions such as UV-C radiation, vacuum, temperature cycles (+60(°) C and -25(°) C) and heavy iron bombardment (150 MeV He, 500 MeV Ar and 500 MeV Fe ions). The viability was evaluated by colony forming unit (cfu) counts as well as with the LIFE/DEAD kit. Results revealed that UV-C radiation (up to 1.000 J/m (2) ) has a considerable effect on the viability, whereas the other tested parameters inflict little damage onto the organisms. Repair of UV-C inflicted damage is efficient and several DNA damage repair genes are up-regulated following exposure. Halophilic archaea display a strong resistance against heavy iron bombardment, with dosages of up to 2.000 Gy 500 MeV Fe ions needed to establish a visible effect on the vitality. Genomic integrity after

  4. A questionnaire-based study on the role of environmental factors in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ritesh; Devi, Durga; Gupta, Dheeraj; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an immunological disorder caused by hypersensitivity against Aspergillus fumigatus. The pathogenesis of ABPA remains unknown. Few studies have investigated the role of environmental factors in pathogenesis of ABPA. Herein, we investigate the role of environmental factors in ABPA. Materials and Methods: In this prospective case-control study, consecutive patients with asthma (Aspergillus sensitized and unsensitized) and ABPA were investigated using a standardized questionnaire to enquire into their demographic characteristics, clinical details, exposure to organic matter and living conditions (home environment, presence of moisture in the walls, and others). Asthma severity and control was assessed using the 2002 The Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) recommendations and asthma control test, respectively. Results: During the study period, 202 subjects of asthma (103 and 99 Aspergillus unsensitized and sensitized asthma, respectively) and 101 ABPA with a mean (SD) age of 35.3 (14.7) years were included. The baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups except for a higher prevalence of severe persistent asthma in the ABPA group (79% vs. 44%, P = 0.0001). No significant differences in environmental factors were noted in the ABPA population compared to asthmatic patients except for a higher rural residence in ABPA (47% vs. 66%, P = 0.007). Conclusions: The study found no significant environmental differences in ABPA compared to asthmatic patients. It is likely that environmental factors are not the primary pathogenetic factors in causation of ABPA. PMID:25125809

  5. Testing gravity using the environmental dependence of dark matter halos.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gong-Bo; Li, Baojiu; Koyama, Kazuya

    2011-08-12

    In this Letter, we investigate the environmental dependence of dark matter halos in theories which attempt to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe by modifying general relativity (GR). Using high-resolution N-body simulations in f(R) gravity models which recover GR in dense environments by virtue of the chameleon mechanism, we find a significant difference, which depends on the environment, between the lensing and dynamical masses of dark matter halos. This environmental dependence of the halo properties can be used as a smoking gun to test GR observationally.

  6. [COMPLEX ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND POSTVACCINAL IMMUNE STATE].

    PubMed

    Kryazhev, D A; Boev, M V; Tulina, L M; Neplokhov, A A; Boev, V M

    2016-01-01

    This article was written on the base of the analysis of data of protocols of annual serological sturdies of the post-vaccination immunity status in indicator groups of populations, the analysis of samples of drinking water air and soil with the assessment of the socio-economic development of mono-towns and rural settlements. In the article there is reflected the comprehensive assessment of environmental factors and specific features of the formation of socio-economic conditions of rural communities and mono towns. There was performed a comparative assessment of the status of post-vaccination immunity to infections controlled by specific means of prevention, in different age groups in mono towns and rural settlements. There was established a dependence of the formation of post-vaccination immunity on the state of environmental factors.

  7. Environmental Risk Factors in Patients with Noninvasive Fungal Sinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Mostafa, Badr Eldin; El Sharnoubi, Mohammed M. K.; El-Sersy, Hesham A. A.; Mahmoud, Mohammed S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of our study was to try to determine the possible environmental risk factors for noninvasive fungal sinusitis in Egyptian patients. Methods. This is a prospective epidemiological case control study on the environmental risk factors of noninvasive fungal sinusitis. It included 60 patients and 100 age and sex matched controls. Results. There was a statistically significant relation between apartment floor, surface area, exposure to dust, exposure to cockroaches, poor air conditioning, and fungal sinusitis. Yet, no statistical significance was found between allergy related occupations, exposure to animals or plants, although their percentages were higher among cases, smoking, and urban or rural residence. Conclusion. We suggest that for patients with noninvasive fungal sinusitis a change in their living environment must be implied with better exposure to sunlight, larger well ventilated homes, proper cleaning of dust and cockroach extermination, and if possible the judicious use of air conditioners. PMID:27274885

  8. Genetic and environmental factors in experimental and human cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Takayama, S.; Takebe, H.; Gelboin, H.V.; MaChahon, B.; Matsushima, T.; Sugimura, T.

    1980-01-01

    Recently technological advances in assaying mutagenic principles have revealed that there are many mutagens in the environment, some of which might be carcinogenic to human beings. Other advances in genetics have shown that genetic factors might play an important role in the induction of cancer in human beings, e.g., the high incidence of skin cancers in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. These proceedings deal with the relationships between genetic and environmental factors in carcinogenesis. The contributors cover mixed-function oxidases, pharmacogenetics, twin studies, DNA repair, immunology, and epidemiology.

  9. Environmental risk factors and the developmental basis for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zawia, Nasser H; Basha, M Riyaz

    2005-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder whose clinical manifestations appear in old age. The hallmark pathological features of AD (amyloid plaques and associated proteins) are present in normal aging indivduals, suggesting that AD may result from the acceleration of normal age-related processes in the brain. The sporadic nature of most AD cases strongly argues for an environmental link that may drive AD pathogenesis; however, it is unclear when this environmental stress may occur. Therefore it is important to identify an environmental trigger(s) and to pinpoint the period during which such factors pose the greatest risk. Recently, we reported that developmental exposure of rats to the xenobiotic metal lead (Pb) resulted in a delayed overexpression (20 months later) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its amyloidogenic Abeta product. Similarly, aged monkeys exposed to Pb as infants also responded in the same way. These data suggest that environmental influences occurring during brain development predetermine the expression and regulation of APP later in life, potentially influencing the course of amyloidogenesis, and argue for both an environmental trigger and a developmental origin of AD. In this review, we present evidence for the developmental basis of neurodegeneration and discuss mechanisms that may explain how perturbations during development can have long-term or delayed consequences in the aging brain.

  10. Skin hypoxia: a promoting environmental factor in melanomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Bedogni, Barbara; Powell, Marianne Broome

    2006-06-01

    Melanomagenesis is a complex phenomenon in which environmental, genetic and host factors play a role. Sun burns in early childhood are a known risk factor in melanoma development. Alteration of prosurvival genes such as Ras and Akt and loss of function of the p16(INK4a)-CDK4/6-pRb and p14(ARF)-HDM2-p53 pathways are strongly associated with human melanoma. We have demonstrated that normally occurring skin hypoxia represents a previously unappreciated host promoting factor in melanomagenesis. Melanocytes that express oncogenes such as Akt, and are therefore genetically unstable, show a transform phenotype only in a mild hypoxic environment that resembles the hypoxic status of the skin. Hypoxia, therefore, is not just a prerogative of advanced neoplasia; physiologic tissue hypoxia, through the activity of HIF1alpha, can function as a promoting factor in tumorigenesis.

  11. American Cancer Society perspectives on environmental factors and cancer.

    PubMed

    Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Thun, Michael J; Ward, Elizabeth; Portier, Kenneth M; Balch, Alan J; Delancey, John Oliver L; Samet, Jonathan M

    2009-01-01

    Cancer prevention is central to the mission of the American Cancer Society (ACS). The ACS's prevention activities take many forms, but are primarily focused on modifiable risk factors that have been demonstrated to have the largest impact on cancer risk in the general population (with particular emphasis on tobacco use because of its large impact on cancer), and well-proven policy and program interventions. The ACS addresses nutrition, physical inactivity and obesity, alcohol consumption, excessive sun exposure, prevention of certain chronic infections, and selected other environmental factors through a variety of venues, including consensus guidelines (eg, nutrition and physical activity, human papillomavirus vaccination) and developing educational materials for health care providers and the general public. In contrast to the broad definition of environmental factors used by the ACS and most other public health agencies, some members of the general public associate the term "environmental" only with toxic air and water pollutants and other, predominantly manmade, hazards that people encounter, often involuntarily, in their daily life. This article will provide an overview of the ACS's approach to the prevention of cancer associated with such toxic pollutants in the context of its mission and priorities with respect to cancer prevention.

  12. Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode (AMOLED) Environmental Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salazar, George A.

    2013-01-01

    This report focuses on the limited environmental testing of the AMOLED display performed as an engineering evaluation by The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC)-specifically. EMI. Thermal Vac, and radiation tests. The AMOLED display is an active-matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) technology. The testing provided an initial understanding of the technology and its suitability for space applications. Relative to light emitting diode (LED) displays or liquid crystal displays (LCDs), AMOLED displays provide a superior viewing experience even though they are much lighter and smaller, produce higher contrast ratio and richer colors, and require less power to operate than LCDs. However, AMOLED technology has not been demonstrated in a space environment. Therefore, some risks with the technology must be addressed before they can be seriously considered for human spaceflight. The environmental tests provided preliminary performance data on the ability of the display technology to handle some of the simulated induced space/spacecraft environments that an AMOLED display will see during a spacecraft certification test program. This engineering evaluation is part of a Space Act Agreement (SM) between The NASA/JSC and Honeywell International (HI) as a collaborative effort to evaluate the potential use of AMOLED technology for future human spaceflight missions- both government-led and commercial. Under this SM, HI is responsible for doing optical performance evaluation, as well as temperature and touch screen studies. The NASA/JSC is responsible for performing environmental testing comprised of EMI, Thermal Vac, and radiation tests. Additionally, as part of the testing, limited optical data was acquired to assess performance as the display was subjected to the induced environments. The NASA will benefit from this engineering evaluation by understanding AMOLED suitability for future use in space as well as becoming a smarter buyer (or developer) of the technology. HI benefits

  13. Environmental test program for superconducting materials and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haertling, Gene; Randolph, Henry; Hsi, Chi-Shiung; Verbelyi, Darren

    1992-01-01

    A systematic approach to obtaining real time, superconducting YBa2Cu30(7-x) materials is presented. The work was carried out under the overall direction of Clemson University with tasks being performed at both Clemson and Westinghouse (Aiken, SC). Clemson prepared the tapecast superconducting 123 material and fabricated in into substrate-supported, environmentally-protected conducting links. Following this, all of the elements were individually tested for resistance vs. temperature and Tc; and then a portion of them were kept at Clemson for further testing while a randomly selected group was delivered to Westinghouse for specialized testing and evaluation in their low temperature/high vacuum and radiation facilities. In addition, a number of control samples (12 ea.) were put on the shelf at Clemson for further reference at the end of the testing period. The specific tests conducted at Clemson and Westinghouse/SRC are presented with a summary of the results.

  14. Individual and Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents’ Dietary Behavior in Low- and Middle-Income Settings

    PubMed Central

    Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Leroy, Jef L.; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Ochoa-Avilès, Angélica; Holdsworth, Michelle; Verbeke, Wim; Maes, Lea; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Objective Given the public health importance of improving dietary behavior in chronic disease prevention in low- and middle-income countries it is crucial to understand the factors influencing dietary behavior in these settings. This study tested the validity of a conceptual framework linking individual and environmental factors to dietary behavior among Ecuadorian adolescents aged 10–16 years. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 784 school-going Ecuadorian adolescents in urban and rural Southern Ecuador. Participants provided data on socio-economic status, anthropometry, dietary behavior and its determining factors. The relationships between individual (perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, habit strength, and a better understanding of healthy food) and environmental factors (physical environment: accessibility to healthy food; social environment: parental permissiveness and school support), and their association with key components of dietary behavior (fruit and vegetables, sugary drinks, breakfast, and unhealthy snack intake) were assessed using structural equation modeling. Results The conceptual model performed well for each component of eating behavior, indicating acceptable goodness-of-fit for both the measurement and structural models. Models for vegetable intake and unhealthy snacking showed significant and direct effects of individual factors (perceived benefits). For breakfast and sugary drink consumption, there was a direct and positive association with socio-environmental factors (school support and parental permissiveness). Access to healthy food was associated indirectly with all eating behaviors (except for sugary drink intake) and this effect operated through socio-environmental (parental permissiveness and school support) and individual factors (perceived benefits). Conclusion Our study demonstrated that key components of adolescents’ dietary behaviors are influenced by a complex interplay of individual and

  15. Some critical factors for engineering and environmental microgravity investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debeglia, N.; Dupont, F.

    2002-07-01

    The gravity method is one of the geophysical tools used for engineering and environmental investigations where the detection of cavities, karst phenomena, subsoil irregularities, or landfills is essential. In many cases, deep or small-scale heterogeneities generating low-amplitude anomalies have to be detected and the reliability of further interpretation requires highly accurate measurements, carefully corrected for any quantifiable disturbing effects. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors likely to limit measurement quality and how to make improvements. Calibrations of a Scintrex gravimeter were made between French relative and absolute base stations, and the relative uncertainties on the calibration factors were estimated for these links. Ranging from 10 -3, for calibration on an old gravity net, to 10 -4, for a high amplitude absolute base line, this accuracy will be generally sufficient for microgravity surveys. Continuous gravity recordings of Scintrex gravimeters, installed at the same stable site, enabled the estimation of the stability and accuracy of the instruments and revealed that some of the time variations of g measurements, such as instrumental drift, tidal effects and seismic noise, are not entirely removed by standard processing procedures. The accuracy of corrected gravity measurements is mainly limited by inadequate corrections of tidal effects and by a poor estimation of ocean loading effects. In comparison with residual defaults in tidal corrections, instrumental and seismic noises are taken more properly into account by statistical data processing. In field operation, residual tidal effects are generally integrated into an experimental terrain drift estimated on the basis of frequent repeated measurements. A differential gravity approach, based on a fixed gravimeter reference whose recordings are used to correct measurements made with a mobile gravimeter, has also been investigated at a test site. Compared to standard

  16. Draft environmental assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped form the Ea/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. The origin and nature of the TMI core debris and the proposed drying process are described and analyzed in detail in this EA. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.

  17. Environmental Assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped from the EA/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. A new drying process was subsequently developed and is analyzed in Section 2.1.2 of this document. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.

  18. The impact of environmental factors on traffic accidents in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Lankarani, Kamran B.; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Aghabeigi, Mohammad Reza; Moafian, Ghasem; Hoseinzadeh, Amin; Vossoughi, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Road traffic crashes are the third highest cause of mortality in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of roadway environmental factors on traffic crash. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran between March 21, 2010 and December 30, 2010. The data on road traffic crashes were obtained from the Traffic Police Department records. These records were classified to control for the main confounders related to the type of crash and roadway environmental factors. Roadway environmental factors included crash scene light, weather, place of accident, the defects and geometrics of roadway and road surface. Results: The study included 542,863 traffic crashes. The proportions of road traffic crash which led to injury were 24.44% at sunrise and 27.16% at sunset compared with 5.43% and 1.43% deaths at sunrise and sunset respectively. In regard to day time accidents, the proportions were 20.50% injuries and 0.55% deaths. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the ratio of injuries and deaths were significantly higher at sunrise and sunset than those occurring during daytime (P less than 0.001). The highest rate of death (5.07%) was due to dusty weather compared to 5.07% for other weather conditions (P less than 0.001). The highest mortality rate (3.45%) occurred on oily surfaces (P less than 0.001). The defective traffic signs were responsible for 30,046 injuries and 5.58% deaths, and road narrowing accounted for 22,775 injuries and, 4.23% deaths which indicated that the roadway defects inflict most frequent injuries and deaths. The lowest (0.74 %) and highest (3.09%) proportion of traffic crash- related deaths were due to flat straight and winding uphill/downhill roads respectively (P less than 0.001). Conclusions: Sunrise, sunset, dusty weather, oily road surfaces and winding uphill/downhill road were hazardous environmental factors. This study provides an insight into the potential impacts of environmental

  19. Impacts of environmental factors on fine root lifespan

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, M. Luke; Guo, Dali

    2014-01-01

    The lifespan of fast-cycling roots is a critical parameter determining a large flux of plant carbon into soil through root turnover and is a biological feature regulating the capacity of a plant to capture soil water and nutrients via root-age-related physiological processes. While the importance of root lifespan to whole-plant and ecosystem processes is increasingly recognized, robust descriptions of this dynamic process and its response to changes in climatic and edaphic factors are lacking. Here we synthesize available information and propose testable hypotheses using conceptual models to describe how changes in temperature, water, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) availability impact fine root lifespan within a species. Each model is based on intrinsic responses including root physiological activity and alteration of carbohydrate allocation at the whole-plant level as well as extrinsic factors including mycorrhizal fungi and pressure from pathogens, herbivores, and other microbes. Simplifying interactions among these factors, we propose three general principles describing fine root responses to complex environmental gradients. First, increases in a factor that strongly constrains plant growth (temperature, water, N, or P) should result in increased fine root lifespan. Second, increases in a factor that exceeds plant demand or tolerance should result in decreased lifespan. Third, as multiple factors interact fine root responses should be determined by the most dominant factor controlling plant growth. Moving forward, field experiments should determine which types of species (e.g., coarse vs. fine rooted, obligate vs. facultative mycotrophs) will express greater plasticity in response to environmental gradients while ecosystem models may begin to incorporate more detailed descriptions of root lifespan and turnover. Together these efforts will improve quantitative understanding of root dynamics and help to identify areas where future research should be focused

  20. Calendar Year 2004 annual site environmental report : Tonopah Test Range, Nevada & Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, Amber L.; Wagner, Katrina; Goering, Teresa Lynn; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2005-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, manages TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2004. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2005) and DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2004b).

  1. Factors influencing behavior in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, Olena V; Kanekar, Shami; D'Anci, Kristen E; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-06-13

    The forced swim test (FST) is a behavioral test in rodents which was developed in 1978 by Porsolt and colleagues as a model for predicting the clinical efficacy of antidepressant drugs. A modified version of the FST added the classification of active behaviors into swimming and climbing, in order to facilitate the differentiation between serotonergic and noradrenergic classes of antidepressant drugs. The FST is now widely used in basic research and the pharmaceutical screening of potential antidepressant treatments. It is also one of the most commonly used tests to assess depressive-like behavior in animal models. Despite the simplicity and sensitivity of the FST procedure, important differences even in baseline immobility rates have been reported between different groups, which complicate the comparison of results across studies. In spite of several methodological papers and reviews published on the FST, the need still exists for clarification of factors which can influence the procedure. While most recent reviews have focused on antidepressant effects observed with the FST, this one considers the methodological aspects of the procedure, aiming to summarize issues beyond antidepressant action in the FST. The previously published literature is analyzed for factors which are known to influence animal behavior in the FST. These include biological factors, such as strain, age, body weight, gender and individual differences between animals; influence of preconditioning before the FST: handling, social isolation or enriched environment, food manipulations, various kinds of stress, endocrine manipulations and surgery; schedule and routes of treatment, dosage and type of the drugs as well as experimental design and laboratory environmental effects. Consideration of these factors in planning experiments may result in more consistent FST results.

  2. Recommendation for a test battery for the ecotoxicological evaluation of the environmental safety of construction products.

    PubMed

    Gartiser, Stefan; Heisterkamp, Ines; Schoknecht, Ute; Bandow, Nicole; Burkhardt, N Michael; Ratte, Monika; Ilvonen, Outi

    2017-03-01

    The European Construction Products Regulation allows Member States to adopt rules for evaluating the environmental impact of their buildings. The aim of the project was to develop recommendations for a test battery for the ecotoxicological assessment of the environmental impact of construction products for outdoor use and contribute to the European harmonization of test methods. From a shortlist of 39 products 20 products were included in the ecotoxicological testing program. Monolithic and plate-like construction products were eluted in the Dynamic Surface Leaching test (DSLT) in accordance with CEN/TS 16637-2, granular products were eluted in a one stage batch test in accordance with DIN EN 12457-1. The eluates were examined in four aquatic toxicity tests (algae, daphnia, luminescent bacteria, fish eggs), a genotoxicity test (umu test) and in the respirometer test (OECD 301 F). Here, low to very high ecotoxicity was observed (up to a dilution factor of 1536). Six out of 8 eluates, whose TOC exceeded 10 mg L(-1) showed a good biodegradability above 75%. The intra-laboratory repeatability of the Lowest Ineffective Dilution (LID) usually was within ±1 dilution steps (ecotoxicity tests) and ±2 dilution steps (leaching and ecotoxicity tests). This is acceptable, when considering that the overall variability of sample preparation, leaching test, and bioassays add up. The conclusions lead to practical recommendations for a suitable combination of leaching and ecotoxicity tests.

  3. The Prevalence of Specific Ecologies in Marine Organisms with Relation to Environmental Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, S.; Gao, Y.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2015-12-01

    The environment is constantly changing; in recent times, the issue of global warming in particular has raised concerns about ecosystems. Marine organisms are just one type of organism affected by environmental changes; by studying how changes in the environment in the past have affected evolution, we can make predictions for the future. Drastic environmental changes have occurred since the beginning of the Cambrian (541 Ma), as have changes in the ecologies of different phyla and marine organisms as a whole. Organisms must adapt to changing environments, and by analyzing the correlations between the two variables, we can find out which environmental factors play roles in the prevalences of characteristics in populations. Distinctive patterns in the originations and extinctions of ecologies in large fractions of a population and the changes in environmental conditions are visible through careful analysis. We have found, through correlation tests between factors, that statistically significant correlations (p-values < 5%) do exist between certain ecologies (including motility, feeding habits, and tiering) and environmental factors. In particular, these include changes in sea level and carbon dioxide levels, two of the biggest effects of global warming that is currently occurring. Research into these factors is important for our understanding of the changing world of today.

  4. Associations between environmental factors and incidence of cutaneous melanoma. Review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cutaneous melanoma is one of the most serious skin cancers. It is caused by neural crest-derived melanocytes - pigmented cells normally present in the epidermis and, sometimes, in the dermis. Methods We performed a review of current knowledge on the risk factors of cutaneous melanoma. Relevant studies were identified using the PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, Scopus, Scholar Google and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Results Melanoma incurs a considerable public health burden owing to the worldwide dramatic rise in incidence since the mid-1960s. Ultraviolet radiation exposure is the predominant environmental risk factor. The role of geographical (latitude) and individual factors such as skin type, life style, vitamin D levels and antioxidant protection, sunburn, and exposure to other environmental factors possibly contributing to melanoma risk (such as cosmetics including sunscreen, photosensitising drugs, and exogenous hormones) are reviewed in this article. Recently, both rare high risk susceptibility genes and common polymorphic genes contributing to melanoma risk have been identified. Conclusions Cutaneous melanoma is a complex cancer with heterogeneous aetiology that continues to increase in incidence. Introduction of new biomarkers may help to elucidate the mechanism of pathogenesis and individual susceptibility to the disease, and make both prevention and treatment more effective. PMID:22759494

  5. Performance Evaluation Tests for Environmental Research (PETER): Collected Papers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    RESEARCH (PETER): COLLECTED PAPERS ,Robert S. Kennedy, Alvah C. Bittner, Jr., Robert C. Carter, Michele Krause, (Mary M. Harbeson, Denise B. McCafferty...EVALUATION TESTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH (PETER): COLLECTED PAPERS Robert S. Kennedy, Alvah C. Bittner, Jr., Robert C. Carter, Michele Krause, Mary M...characteristics (defined in 1. Alvares, K. M., & Hulin , C. L. Two explana Table 1) for each score. The remaining columns of tions of temporal changes

  6. Environmental Baseline Survey Tonopah Test Range Utility Easement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-05

    State of Nevada have been regulated by the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order ( FFACO ). The TIREBSF 6-6-0S.doc 4 May 5, 2005 TON OPAH TEST...RANGE UTILITY EASEMENT FFACO was negotiated between DOEISSO, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), and the u.s. Department of...Defense (DoD). According to the FFACO Use Restrictions Map for TTR, the proposed utility easement would not come in contact with or impact any ERP sites

  7. Contribution of Spaceflight Environmental Factors to Vision Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanello, Susana B.

    2011-01-01

    the combined effects of radiation exposure and iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury in rat eyes. All main eye structures will be analyzed in this study: retina, lens and cornea. A study in collaboration with the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element (SHFH) investigates the effects of lunar dust exposure on the rat cornea. It is anticipated that common underlying oxidative stress mechanisms of damage may be observed as a result of these three stressors: radiation, nutritional iron and lunar dust. The contribution of fluid shift is addressed by a study using rats subjected to hindlimb suspension. The hypothesis to be tested in this study is that the mechanical stress imparted by the pressure differential across the optic disc and lamina cribosa will impact oxygenation (therefore causing oxidative stress and hypoxia) and cell survival. This study also includes the assessment of two nutritional antioxidant countermeasures: epigallocatechin gallate (green tea) and resveratrol. Finally, as a result of two successful tissue sharing efforts, we are proceeding with the analysis of eye samples of mice aboard two shuttle missions: STS-133 and STS-135. Results from the STS-133 study are presented in an independent abstract. Briefly, the results show that spaceflight represents a source of environmental stress that directly translates into oxidative and cellular stress in the retina. Similar analysis is also planned for the cornea. These samples add large value to our current vision research as they provide data on the direct effects of low-earth orbit spaceflight on eye structures and physiology.

  8. Environmental testing of block 2 solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    The testing procedures and results of samples of the LSA Project Block 2 procurement of silicon solar cell modules are described. Block 2 was the second large scale procurement of silicon solar cell modules made by the JPL Low-cost Solar Array Project with deliveries in 1977 and early 1978. The results showed that the Block 2 modules were greatly improved over Block 1 modules. In several cases it was shown that design improvements were needed to reduce environmental test degradation. These improvements were incorporated during this production run.

  9. Draft Test Guideline: Oyster Bioconcentration Factor (BCF)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  10. Draft Test Guideline: Fish Bioconcentration Factor (BCF)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following draft test guideline is part of a series of test guidelines that have been developed by EPA for use in the testing of pesticides and toxic substances, and the development of test data for submission to the Agency for review.

  11. Factor Structure of the TOEFL Internet-Based Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawaki, Yasuyo; Stricker, Lawrence J.; Oranje, Andreas H.

    2009-01-01

    This construct validation study investigated the factor structure of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based test (TOEFL[R] iBT). An item-level confirmatory factor analysis was conducted for a test form completed by participants in a field study. A higher-order factor model was identified, with a higher-order general factor…

  12. In search of a temporal niche: environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Hut, Roelof A; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; van der Vinne, Vincent; De la Iglesia, Horacio

    2012-01-01

    Time as an ecological niche variable or "temporal niche" can be defined in the context of the most prominent environmental cycles, including the tidal cycle, the lunar day and month, the solar day, and the earth year. For the current review, we focus on the 24-h domain generated through the earth's rotation around its axis (solar day). The daily environmental cycles of light and temperature are a dominant ecological factor generating a variety of adaptations among animals. In this review, we describe these adaptations with a special focus on the visual system and on the adaptive plasticity of activity patterns. Our goals are: (1) Underscore the importance of the 24-h time axis as critical variable in the ecological niche. (2) Highlight cases of temporal niche switches at the evolutionary timescale (phylogenetic level). (3) Review temporal niche switching within an individual's lifespan. (4) Evaluate possible underlying mechanisms for temporal niche switching. (5) Describe a new hypothesis of circadian thermoenergetics which may explain several cases of temporal niche switching in mammals. With this, we hope to inspire experiments under natural conditions or more complex laboratory environments, aimed to reveal environmental factors and mechanisms underlying specific temporal programs.

  13. Potential for use of environmental factors in urban planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira da Silva, Ricardo; van der Ploeg, Martine; van Delden, Hedwig; Fleskens, Luuk

    2016-04-01

    Projections for population growth estimate, on top of the current 7.4 billion world population, an increase of 2 billion people for the next 40 years. It is also projected that 66 per cent of the world population in 2050 will live in urban areas. To accommodate the urban population growth cities are changing continuously land cover to urban areas. Such changes are a threat for natural resources and food production systems stability and capability to provide food and other functions. However, little has been done concerning a rational soil management for food production in urban and peri-urban areas. This study focuses on the assessment of soil lost due to urban expansion and discusses the potential loss regarding the quality of the soil for food production and environmental functions. It is relevant to increase the knowledge on the role of soils in peri-urban areas and in the interaction of physical, environmental and social factors. The methodology consists of assessing the soil quality in and around urban and peri-urban areas. It focuses particularly on the physical properties and the environmental factors, for two periods of time and account the potential losses due to urban expansion. This project is on-going, therefore current advances will be presented and will look for a discussion on the contribution of soil quality for decision-making and land management in urban and peri-urban areas.

  14. Environmental risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Masako; Yoshinaga, Masao; Nomura, Yuichi; Ushinohama, Hiroya; Sato, Seiichi; Tauchi, Nobuo; Horigome, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Hideto; Sumitomo, Naokata; Shiraishi, Hirohiko; Nagashima, Masami

    2016-12-01

    While the prevalence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has decreased worldwide, this decline has plateaued recently. Strategies are needed to resume the constant decrease of SIDS in Japan. A prospective electrocardiographic screening program for infants was performed between July 2010 and March 2011. Parents of 4319 infants were asked about environmental factors related to SIDS through questionnaires at a one-month medical checkup and one year. Parental awareness of prone position, smoke exposure, and breast feeding as environmental factors were 81.4 %, 69.0 %, and 47.8 %, respectively. The prevalence of laying infants exclusively in a supine position was 96.7 %. At the one-month medical checkup, smoking prevalence was 41.7 % in fathers and 2.1 % in mothers. Maternal smoking prevalence was significantly increased at one year after (p < 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis showed that risk factors for new or continued maternal smoking habits were maternal smoking habits at one month (p < 0.001), paternal smoking habits one year later (p < 0.001), and younger maternal age (p = 0.02).

  15. Environmental risk factors of childhood asthma in urban centers.

    PubMed

    Malveaux, F J; Fletcher-Vincent, S A

    1995-09-01

    Asthma morbidity and mortality are disproportionately high in urban centers, and minority children are especially vulnerable. Factors that contribute to this dilemma include inadequate preventive medical care for asthma management, inadequate asthma knowledge and management skills among children and their families, psychosocial factors, and environmental exposure to allergens or irritants. Living in substandard housing often constitutes excess exposure to indoor allergens and pollutants. Allergens associated with dust mites (DM) and cockroaches (CR) are probably important in both onset and worsening of asthma symptoms for children who are chronically exposed to these agents. Young children spend a great deal of time on or near the floor where these allergens are concentrated in dust. Of children (2 to 10 years of age) living in metropolitan Washington, DC, 60% were found to be sensitive to CR and 72% were allergic to DM. Exposure to tobacco smoke contributes to onset of asthma earlier in life and is a risk factor for asthma morbidity. Since disparity of asthma mortality and morbidity among minority children in urban centers is closely linked to socioeconomic status and poverty, measures to reduce exposure to environmental allergens and irritants and to eliminate barriers to access to health care are likely to have a major positive impact. Interventions for children in urban centers must focus on prevention of asthma symptoms and promotion of wellness.

  16. Human Factors Engineering. Part 1. Test Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-15

    Design (Subjective Testing Techniques ) AMC Regulation 70-13 Test Incident ,ind Related Reporting AR 602-2 Manpower and Personnel Integration :MANDRINT...collection techniques , to the particular item being tested. An HFE Test Planning Checklist for ensuring that applicable steps are followed is provided in...speed reduction techniques and direct readout devices &re used in the analysis of the recorded noise data, the frequency response characteristics of

  17. Environmental Variation in Contamination Outgas Testing of a Composite Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-15

    not the same as the ex-situ TML and CVCM measurements determined through ASTM E595 testing.3 The QCM-to-effusion cell orifice view factor (cm2) is...International, West Conshohocken, PA, www.astm.org. 3. ASTM Standard E595 , 2007, "Standard Test Method for Total Mass Loss and Collected Volatile Condensable...can provide a valuable array of outgassing information. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Outgassing, Molecular contamination, Spacecraft materials, Composite, ASTM

  18. Factor Analysis of Various Anaerobic Power Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, James M.; And Others

    A study investigated the relationship between selected anthropometric variables and of numerous anaerobic power tests with measures obtained on an isokinetic dynamometer. Thirty-one male college students performed several anaerobic power tests, including: the vertical jump using the Lewis formula; the Margaria-Kalamen stair climb test; the Wingate…

  19. Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico existing environmental analyses bounding environmental test facilities.

    SciTech Connect

    May, Rodney A.; Bailey-White, Brenda E.; Cantwell, Amber

    2009-06-01

    This report identifies current environmental operating parameters for the various test and support facilities at SNL/NM. The intent of this report is solely to provide the limits which bound the facilities' operations. Understanding environmental limits is important to maximizing the capabilities and working within the existing constraints of each facility, and supports the decision-making process in meeting customer requests, cost and schedule planning, modifications to processes, future commitments, and use of resources. Working within environmental limits ensures that mission objectives will be met in a manner that protects human health and the environment. It should be noted that, in addition to adhering to the established limits, other approvals and permits may be required for specific projects.

  20. Alternate retrieval technology demonstrations program - test report (ARD Environmental, Inc.)

    SciTech Connect

    Berglin, E.J.

    1997-07-31

    A prototype vehicle, control system, and waste and water scavenging system were designed and fabricated with essentially the full capabilities of the vehicle system proposed by ARD Environmental. A test tank mockup, including riser and decontamination chamber were designed and fabricated, and approximately 830 cubic feet of six varieties of waste simulants poured. The tests were performed by ARD Environmental personnel at its site in Laurel, Maryland, from 4/22/97 through 5/2/97. The capabilities tested were deployment and retrieval, extended mobility and productivity, the ability to operate the system using video viewing only, retrieval after simulated failure, and retrieval and decontamination. Testing commenced with deployment of the vehicle into the tank. Deployment was accomplished using a crane and auxiliary winch to position the vehicle and lower it through the decontamination chamber, into the 36`` diameter x 6` high riser, and touch down on the waste field in the tank. The initial mobility tests were conducted immediately after deployment, prior to sluicing, as the waste field exhibited the greatest amount of variation at this time. This test demonstrated the ability of the vehicle to maneuver over the simulated waste field, and the ability of the operator to work with only video viewing available. In addition, the ability of the vehicle to right itself after being turned on its side was demonstrated. The production rate was evaluated daily through the testing period by measuring the surface and estimating the amount of material removed. The test demonstrated the ability of the vehicle to reduce the waste surface using 400 psi (nominal) water jets, scavenge water and material from the work area, and move to any location, even in the relatively confined space of the 20` diameter test tank. In addition, the ability to sluice to a remote scavenging module was demonstrated. The failure mode test demonstrated the ability to retrieve a stuck vehicle by pulling

  1. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 Attachment A: Site Description

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy A. Wills

    2009-09-01

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2009a). Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  2. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005, Attachment A - Site Description

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy A. Wills

    2006-10-01

    This appendix to the ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005'', dated October 2006 (DOE/NV/11718--1214; DOE/NV/25946--007) expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction. Included are subsections that summarize the site?s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site which afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This appendix complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  3. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 Attachment A: Site Description

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills

    2008-09-01

    This appendix expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 (U.S. Department of Energy [DOE], 2008). Included are subsections that summarize the site's geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site which afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  4. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009, Attachment A: Site Description

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2010-09-13

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009. Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  5. Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Test Area North (TAN) Pool is located within the fenced TAN facility boundaries on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The TAN pool stores 344 canisters of core debris from the March, 1979, Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor accident; fuel assemblies from Loss-of-Fluid Tests (LOFT); and Government-owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies. The LOFT and government owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies are hereafter referred to collectively as {open_quotes}commercial fuels{close_quotes} except where distinction between the two is important to the analysis. DOE proposes to remove the canisters of TMI core debris and commercial fuels from the TAN Pool and transfer them to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim dry storage until an alternate storage location other than at the INEL, or a permanent federal spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository is available. The TAN Pool would be drained and placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for refurbishment or eventual decommissioning. This environmental assessment (EA) identifies and evaluates environmental impacts associated with (1) constructing an Interim Storage System (ISS) at ICPP; (2) removing the TMI and commercial fuels from the pool and transporting them to ICPP for placement in an ISS, and (3) draining and stabilizing the TAN Pool. Miscellaneous hardware would be removed and decontaminated or disposed of in the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). This EA also describes the environmental consequences of the no action alternative.

  6. Maternal lifestyle and environmental risk factors for autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lyall, Kristen; Schmidt, Rebecca J; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past 10 years, research into environmental risk factors for autism has grown dramatically, bringing evidence that an array of non-genetic factors acting during the prenatal period may influence neurodevelopment. Methods: This paper reviews the evidence on modifiable preconception and/or prenatal factors that have been associated, in some studies, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including nutrition, substance use and exposure to environmental agents. This review is restricted to human studies with at least 50 cases of ASD, having a valid comparison group, conducted within the past decade and focusing on maternal lifestyle or environmental chemicals. Results: Higher maternal intake of certain nutrients and supplements has been associated with reduction in ASD risk, with the strongest evidence for periconceptional folic acid supplements. Although many investigations have suggested no impact of maternal smoking and alcohol use on ASD, more rigorous exposure assessment is needed. A number of studies have demonstrated significant increases in ASD risk with estimated exposure to air pollution during the prenatal period, particularly for heavy metals and particulate matter. Little research has assessed other persistent and non-persistent organic pollutants in association with ASD specifically. Conclusions: More work is needed to examine fats, vitamins and other maternal nutrients, as well as endocrine-disrupting chemicals and pesticides, in association with ASD, given sound biological plausibility and evidence regarding other neurodevelopmental deficits. The field can be advanced by large-scale epidemiological studies, attention to critical aetiological windows and how these vary by exposure, and use of biomarkers and other means to understand underlying mechanisms. PMID:24518932

  7. Environmental Test Program for the Mars Exploration Rover Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Terry C.; VanVelzer, Paul L.

    2004-01-01

    On June 10 and July 7, 2003 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched two spacecraft from Cape Canaveral, Florida for a six (6) months flight to the Red Planet, Mars. The two Mars Exploration Rover spacecraft landed safely on the planet in January 2004. Prior to the successful launch, both of the spacecraft were involved in a comprehensive test campaign that included development, qualification, and protoflight test programs. Testing was performed to simulate the environments associated with launch, inter-planetary cruise, landing on the planet and Mars surface operations. Unique test requirements included operating the spacecraft while the chamber pressure was controlled to simulate the decent to the planet from deep space, high impact landing loads and rover operations on the surface of the planet at 8 Torr and -130 C. This paper will present an overview of the test program that included vibration, pyro-shock, landing loads, acoustic noise, thermal vacuum and solar simulation testing at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Environmental Test Laboratory facilities in Pasadena, California.

  8. The Certification of Environmental Chambers for Testing Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Keith

    2009-01-01

    The JPL chamber certification process for ensuring that test chambers used to test flight hardware meet a minimum standard is critical to the safety of the hardware and personnel. Past history as demonstrated that this process is important due to the catastrophic incidents that could occur if the chamber is not set up correctly. Environmental testing is one of the last phases in the development of a subsystem, and it typically occurs just before integration of flight hardware into the fully assembled flight system. A seemingly insignificant -miscalculation or missed step can necessitate rebuilding or replacing a subsystem due to over-testing or damage from the test chamber. Conversely, under-testing might fail to detect weaknesses that might cause failure when the hardware is in service. This paper describes the process that identifies the many variables that comprise the testing scenario and screening of as built chambers, the training of qualified operators, and a general "what-to-look-for" in minimum standards.

  9. The Certification of Environmental Chambers for Testing Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The JPL chamber certification process for ensuring that test chambers used to test flight hardware meet a minimum standard is critical to the safety of the hardware and personnel. Past history has demonstrated that this process is important due to the catastrophic incidents that could occur if the chamber is not set up correctly. Environmental testing is one of the last phases in the development of a subsystem, and it typically occurs just before integration of flight hardware into the fully assembled flight system. A seemingly insignificant -miscalculation or missed step can necessitate rebuilding or replacing a subsystem due to over-testing or damage from the test chamber. Conversely, under-testing might fail to detect weaknesses that might cause failure when the hardware is in service. This paper describes the process that identifies the many variables that comprise the testing scenario and screening of as built chambers, the training of qualified operators, and a general "what-to-look-for" in minimum standards.

  10. [Post natal depression: the socio-environmental factors].

    PubMed

    Séguin, L; Cossette, L

    1991-06-01

    In the weeks and months that follow the birth of a child, between 10 and 20 per cent of mothers experience serious or moderate symptoms of depression. This state of psychological distress affects the mother-infant interaction, and can modify the child's development in the longer term. Recent studies increasingly link these symptoms to environmental and psychosocial stress factors. The setting up of relevant and efficient prevention and promotion programs requires a better understanding of the effect of stress and social support on the mental health of mothers.

  11. Thermal Environmental Testing of NSTAR Engineering Model Ion Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, Vincent K.; Patterson, Michael J.; Becker, Raymond A.

    1999-01-01

    NASA's New Millenium program will fly a xenon ion propulsion system on the Deep Space 1 Mission. Tests were conducted under NASA's Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness (NSTAR) Program with 3 different engineering model ion thrusters to determine thruster thermal characteristics over the NSTAR operating range in a variety of thermal environments. A liquid nitrogen-cooled shroud was used to cold-soak the thruster to -120 C. Initial tests were performed prior to a mature spacecraft design. Those results and the final, severe, requirements mandated by the spacecraft led to several changes to the basic thermal design. These changes were incorporated into a final design and tested over a wide range of environmental conditions.

  12. Supplemental final environmental impact statement for advanced solid rocket motor testing at Stennis Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Since the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) and Record of Decision on the FEIS describing the potential impacts to human health and the environment associated with the program, three factors have caused NASA to initiate additional studies regarding these issues. These factors are: (1) The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) agreed to use the same comprehensive procedures to identify and delineate wetlands; (2) EPA has given NASA further guidance on how best to simulate the exhaust plume from the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) testing through computer modeling, enabling more realistic analysis of emission impacts; and (3) public concerns have been raised concerning short and long term impacts on human health and the environment from ASRM testing.

  13. Environmental factors controlling methane emissions from peatlands in northern Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dise, Nancy B.; Gorham, Eville; Verry, Elon S.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental factors affecting the emission of methane from peatlands were investigated by correlating CH4 emission data for two years, obtained from five different peatland ecosystems in northern Minnesota, with peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification. The relationship obtained between the CH4 flux and these factors was compared to results from a field manipulation experiment in which the water table was artificially raised in three experimental plots within the driest peatland. It was found that peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification explained 91 percent of the variance in log CH4 flux, successfully predicted annual CH4 emission from individual wetlands, and predicted the change in flux due to the water table manipulation. Raising the water table in the bog corrals by an average of 6 cm in autumn 1989 and 10 cm in summer 1990 increased CH4 emission by 2.5 and 2.2 times, respectively.

  14. ASTHMA, ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS, AND HYPERTENSION AMONG ARAB AMERICANS IN THE METRO DETROIT AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The importance of environmental risk factors in asthma etiology has been well-documented, and certain environmental risk factors have also been associated with hypertension. However, few previous studies have examined the relationship between hypertension and asthma. This study...

  15. Experimental and environmental factors affect spurious detection of ecological thresholds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daily, Jonathan P.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Smith, David; Snyder, Craig D.

    2012-01-01

    Threshold detection methods are increasingly popular for assessing nonlinear responses to environmental change, but their statistical performance remains poorly understood. We simulated linear change in stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated the performance of commonly used threshold detection methods based on model fitting (piecewise quantile regression [PQR]), data partitioning (nonparametric change point analysis [NCPA]), and a hybrid approach (significant zero crossings [SiZer]). We demonstrated that false detection of ecological thresholds (type I errors) and inferences on threshold locations are influenced by sample size, rate of linear change, and frequency of observations across the environmental gradient (i.e., sample-environment distribution, SED). However, the relative importance of these factors varied among statistical methods and between inference types. False detection rates were influenced primarily by user-selected parameters for PQR (τ) and SiZer (bandwidth) and secondarily by sample size (for PQR) and SED (for SiZer). In contrast, the location of reported thresholds was influenced primarily by SED. Bootstrapped confidence intervals for NCPA threshold locations revealed strong correspondence to SED. We conclude that the choice of statistical methods for threshold detection should be matched to experimental and environmental constraints to minimize false detection rates and avoid spurious inferences regarding threshold location.

  16. Environmental factors that influence cyanobacteria and geosmin occurrence in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton are small to microscopic, free-floating algae that inhabit the open water of freshwater, estuarine, and saltwater systems. In freshwater lake and reservoirs systems, which are the focus of this chapter, phytoplankton communities commonly consist of assemblages of the major taxonomic groups, including green algae, diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of single-celled organisms that can exist in a wide range of environments, not just open water, because of their adaptability [1-3]. It is the adaptability of cyanobacteria that enables this group to dominate the phytoplankton community and even form nuisance or harmful blooms under certain environmental conditions [3-6]. In fact, cyanobacteria are predicted to adapt favorably to future climate change in freshwater systems compared to other phytoplankton groups because of their tolerance to rising temperatures, enhanced vertical thermal stratification of aquatic ecosystems, and alterations in seasonal and interannual weather patterns [7, 8]. Understanding those environmental conditions that favor cyanobacterial dominance and bloom formation has been the focus of research throughout the world because of the concomitant production and release of nuisance and toxic cyanobacterial-derived compounds [4-6, 7-10]. However, the complex interaction among the physical, chemical, and biological processes within lakes, reservoirs, and large rivers often makes it difficult to identify primary environmental factors that cause the production and release of these cyanobacterial by-products.

  17. Environmental factors that influence cyanobacteria and geosmin occurrence in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton are small to microscopic, free-floating algae that inhabit the open water of freshwater, estuarine, and saltwater systems. In freshwater lake and reservoirs systems, which are the focus of this chapter, phytoplankton communities commonly consist of assemblages of the major taxonomic groups, including green algae, diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of single-celled organisms that can exist in a wide range of environments, not just open water, because of their adaptability [1-3]. It is the adaptability of cyanobacteria that enables this group to dominate the phytoplankton community and even form nuisance or harmful blooms under certain environmental conditions [3-6]. In fact, cyanobacteria are predicted to adapt favorably to future climate change in freshwater systems compared to other phytoplankton groups because of their tolerance to rising temperatures, enhanced vertical thermal stratification of aquatic ecosystems, and alterations in seasonal and interannual weather patterns [7, 8]. Understanding those environmental conditions that favor cyanobacterial dominance and bloom formation has been the focus of research throughout the world because of the concomitant production and release of nuisance and toxic cyanobacterial-derived compounds [4-6, 7-10]. However, the complex interaction among the physical, chemical, and biological processes within lakes, reservoirs, and large rivers often makes it difficult to identify primary environmental factors that cause the production and release of these cyanobacterial by-products [9].

  18. Environmental factors that influence cyanobacteria and geosmin occurrence in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton are small to microscopic, free-floating algae that inhabit the open water of freshwater, estuarine, and saltwater systems. In freshwater lake and reservoirs systems, which are the focus of this chapter, phytoplankton communities commonly consist of assemblages of the major taxonomic groups, including green algae, diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of single-celled organisms that can exist in a wide range of environments, not just open water, because of their adaptability. It is the adaptability of cyanobacteria that enables this group to dominate the phytoplankton community and even form nuisance or harmful blooms under certain environmental conditions. In fact, cyanobacteria are predicted to adapt favorably to future climate change in freshwater systems compared to other phytoplankton groups because of their tolerance to rising temperatures, enhanced vertical thermal stratification of aquatic ecosystems, and alterations in seasonal and interannual weather patterns. Understanding those environmental conditions that favor cyanobacterial dominance and bloom formation has been the focus of research throughout the world because of the concomitant production and release of nuisance and toxic cyanobacterial-derived compounds. However, the complex interaction among the physical, chemical, and biological processes within lakes, reservoirs, and large rivers often makes it difficult to identify primary environmental factors that cause the production and release of these cyanobacterial by-products.

  19. Estimating cyanobacteria community dynamics and its relationship with environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenhuai; Chen, Huirong; Lei, Anping; Lu, Jun; Hu, Zhangli

    2014-01-20

    The cyanobacteria community dynamics in two eutrophic freshwater bodies (Tiegang Reservoir and Shiyan Reservoir) was studied with both a traditional microscopic counting method and a PCR-DGGE genotyping method. Results showed that cyanobacterium Phormidium tenue was the predominant species; twenty-six cyanobacteria species were identified in water samples collected from the two reservoirs, among which fourteen were identified with the morphological method and sixteen with the PCR-DGGE method. The cyanobacteria community composition analysis showed a seasonal fluctuation from July to December. The cyanobacteria population peaked in August in both reservoirs, with cell abundances of 3.78 × 10(8) cells L(-1) and 1.92 × 10(8) cells L(-1) in the Tiegang and Shiyan reservoirs, respectively. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was applied to further investigate the correlation between cyanobacteria community dynamics and environmental factors. The result indicated that the cyanobacteria community dynamics was mostly correlated with pH, temperature and total nitrogen. This study demonstrated that data obtained from PCR-DGGE combined with a traditional morphological method could reflect cyanobacteria community dynamics and its correlation with environmental factors in eutrophic freshwater bodies.

  20. Environmental non-occupational risk factors associated with bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferrís, J.; Berbel, O.; Alonso-López, J.; Garcia, J.; Ortega, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Context Bladder carcinoma (BC), due its high morbidity and relapsing course, generates significant economic and health care costs. Accordingly, we reviewed the environmental nonoccupational risk factors (RF), more or less evidence-based, in the etiology and pathogenesis of BC, because the involvement of urologists is essential for prevention. Acquisition of evidence Review of the peer-reviewed literature (1987–2012) on nonoccupational environmental RF associated with BC retrieved from Medline, Embase and Science Citation Index. The search profiles have been “Risk factors/Epidemiology/Tobacco-smoking/Diet-nutrition-water-liquids/Radiation/Infectious/Farmacological drugs” and “Bladder cancer”. Synthesis of evidence Smoking was associated with 50% of BC in both sexes. Smokers have a 2–5 times higher risk than nonsmokers, directly proportional to the amount and duration of addiction. Drinking water contaminated with arsenic and chromium chlorination byproducts increases the risk of BC. High consumption of red meat and saturated fat may increase the risk, while high intake of fruits and vegetables decreases it. Patients treated with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and ionizing radiation have an increased risk of BC. Frequent and prolonged use of hair dyes and Schistosoma haematobium infestation increases the risk of BC. Conclusions The reduction or the cessation of smoking decrease BC. The contaminant-free water consumption with the increase of vegetal foods favors BC prevention. Cancer survivors treated with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and radiation therapy should be monitored for early diagnosis of BC. PMID:23618510

  1. [Relations of landslide and debris flow hazards to environmental factors].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-ping; Xu, Jing; Bi, Bao-gui

    2009-03-01

    To clarify the relations of landslide and debris flow hazards to environmental factors is of significance to the prediction and evaluation of landslide and debris flow hazards. Base on the latitudinal and longitudinal information of 18431 landslide and debris flow hazards in China, and the 1 km x 1 km grid data of elevation, elevation difference, slope, slope aspect, vegetation type, and vegetation coverage, this paper analyzed the relations of landslide and debris flow hazards in this country to above-mentioned environmental factors by the analysis method of frequency ratio. The results showed that the landslide and debris flow hazards in China more occurred in lower elevation areas of the first and second transitional zones. When the elevation difference within a 1 km x 1 km grid cell was about 300 m and the slope was around 30 degree, there was the greatest possibility of the occurrence of landslide and debris hazards. Mountain forest land and slope cropland were the two land types the hazards most easily occurred. The occurrence frequency of the hazards was the highest when the vegetation coverage was about 80%-90%.

  2. Environmental Factors Influencing Arctic Halogen Chemistry During Late Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burd, J.; Nghiem, S. V.; Simpson, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive halogen radicals (e.g. Br, Cl atoms and their oxides, BrO, ClO) are important oxidizers in the troposphere that decrease atmospheric pollutants and deplete tropospheric ozone, affecting the abundance of other oxidizers such as the hydroxyl radical. During Arctic springtime, the heterogeneous chemical cycles (often called the "bromine explosion") produce high levels of bromine monoxide (BrO), through reactions on saline snow, ice, and/or aerosol surfaces. Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measured BrO at Barrow, AK, from 2008-2009 and 2012-2015, as well at various locations above the frozen Arctic Ocean with O-Buoys in 2008 and 2011-2015. Observed BrO levels drop suddenly during late spring (May-June) and generally do not recover, which indicates the bromine explosion cycle can no longer produce significant amounts of BrO. We have established, through an objective algorithm, the local day of year of this drop in BrO as the "seasonal end." Additionally, in about half of the years, "recurrence" events were observed where BrO levels recover for at least a day. This study investigates the environmental factors influencing seasonal end and recurrence events including: temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and snowmelt. Analysis of BrO and air temperature revealed the temperature reaches 0°C within five days of the seasonal end event; however, temperatures drop below freezing during a recurrence event. In addition, there are periods where the temperature remains below freezing, but no recurrence event is observed. This BrO and temperature analysis indicates above-freezing air temperature prevents reactive bromine release; however, it is not the only environmental factor influencing this heterogeneous recycling. Further analysis of additional environmental influences on the bromine explosion cycle could help to better understand and model bromine chemistry in the Arctic.

  3. Overview of the Taxonomy of Environmental Types and the Factor Structure of the Salter Environmental Type Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Daniel W.; Vandiver, Beverly J.

    2002-01-01

    The Salter Environmental Type Assessment (SETA) was created to be a commensurate measure for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and to improve the efficacy of the person-environmental interaction paradigm to student affairs. A confirmatory factor analysis of SETA profiles supported the four dimensions in environmental type theory. The utility of this…

  4. Environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer: an update.

    PubMed

    Barone, Elisa; Corrado, Alda; Gemignani, Federica; Landi, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most aggressive diseases. Only 10 % of all PC cases are thought to be due to genetic factors. Here, we analyzed the most recently published case-control association studies, meta-analyses, and cohort studies with the aim to summarize the main environmental factors that could have a role in PC. Among the most dangerous agents involved in the initiation phase, there are the inhalation of cigarette smoke, and the exposure to mutagenic nitrosamines, organ-chlorinated compounds, heavy metals, and ionizing radiations. Moreover, pancreatitis, high doses of alcohol drinking, the body microbial infections, obesity, diabetes, gallstones and/or cholecystectomy, and the accumulation of asbestos fibers seem to play a crucial role in the progression of the disease. However, some of these agents act both as initiators and promoters in pancreatic acinar cells. Protective agents include dietary flavonoids, marine omega-3, vitamin D, fruit, vegetables, and the habit of regular physical activity. The identification of the factors involved in PC initiation and progression could be of help in establishing novel therapeutic approaches by targeting the molecular signaling pathways responsive to these stimuli. Moreover, the identification of these factors could facilitate the development of strategies for an early diagnosis or measures of risk reduction for high-risk people.

  5. Studying the Relative Strengths of Environmental Factors that Influence Echinoderm Body Size Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, A.; Randhawa, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    Body size is often a useful metric in observing how a clade responds to environmental changes. Previous research has uncovered how environmental factors such as carbon dioxide and oxygen levels influence body size evolution. However, we wanted to look into how these natural factors interact and which factors seem to have a stronger relative influence on echinoderm body size. We analyzed carbon dioxide levels, a proxy for paleotemperature, oxygen levels, and sea level. Our research process involved measuring and calculating the volume of Phanerozoic echinoderm fossils recorded in the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, plotting their mean volumes over various natural factors, and using statistical tools such as correlation tests and the PaleoTS statistical analysis software to compare the relative strengths of these factors. Furthermore, we divided our data into the following three subsets to uncover more specific relationships: 1) A set that included all data of the phylum Echinodermata 2) A set that focused on the two classes with the most recorded data, Echinoidea and Crinoidea 3) A set that focused on the crinoid specimens that originated in the Paleozoic and in the post-Paleozoic. In the first subset, echinoderms had the strongest correlation with carbon dioxide, a proxy for temperature, and possessed a weaker correlation with oxygen. In the second subset, we discovered that the echinoid data also possessed a strong correlation with carbon dioxide and a weaker correlation with oxygen. For crinoids, we found that the class as a whole showed no strong correlation with any measured environmental factors. However, when we divided the crinoids based on age, we found that both Paleozoic and post-Paleozoic crinoids individually correlated strongly with sea level. However, some uncertainty with this correlation arose as the comparison of the environmental correlate models suggested that an unbiased random walk was the best fit for the data. This stands as a sharp

  6. Environmental testing of an experimental digital safety channel

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Tanaka, T.J.; Wilson, T.L. Jr.; Wood, R.T.

    1996-09-01

    This document presents the results of environmental stress tests performed on an experimental digital safety channel (EDSC) assembled at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the NRC-sponsored Qualification of Advanced Instrumentation and Controls (W) System program. The objective of this study is to investigate failure modes and vulnerabilities of microprocessor-based technologies when subjected to environmental stressors. The study contributes to the technical basis for environmental qualification of safety-related digital I&C systems. The EDSC employs technologies and digital subsystems representative of those proposed for use in advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs) or for retrofits in existing plants. Subsystems include computers, electrical and optical serial communication links, fiber-optic network links, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters, and multiplexers. The EDSC was subjected to selected stressors that are a potential risk to digital equipment in a mild environment. The selected stressors were electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference (EMYRFI), temperature, humidity, and smoke exposure. The stressors were applied over ranges that were considerably higher than what the channel is likely to experience in a normal nuclear power plant environment. Ranges of stress were selected at a sufficiently high level to induce errors so that failure modes that are characteristic of the technologies employed could be identified.

  7. Allium-test as a tool for toxicity testing of environmental radioactive-chemical mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudalova, A. A.; Geras’kin, S. A.; Dikareva, N. S.; Pyatkova, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    Bioassay-based approaches have been propagated to assess toxicity of unknown mixtures of environmental contaminants, but it was rarely applied in cases of chemicals with radionuclides combinations. Two Allium-test studies were performed to assess environmental impact from potential sources of combined radioactive-chemical pollution. Study sites were located at nuclear waste storage facilities in European and in Far-Eastern parts of Russia. As environmental media under impact, waters from monitor wells and nearby water bodies were tested. Concentrations of some chemicals and radionuclides in the samples collected enhanced the permitted limits. Cytogenetic and cytotoxic effects were used as biological endpoints, namely, frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations and mitotic abnormalities in anatelophase cells as well as mitotic activity in Allium root tips. Sample points were revealed where waters have an enhanced mutagenic potential. The findings obtained could be used to optimize monitoring system and advance decision making on management and rehabilitation of industrial sites. The Allium-test could be recommended and applied as an effective tool for toxicity testing in case of combined contamination of environmental compartments with radionuclides and chemical compounds.

  8. Environmental assessment for double tracks test site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), with appropriate approvals from the U.S. Air Force (USAF), proposes to conduct environmental restoration operations at the Double Tracks test site located on the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in Nye County, Nevada. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the potential environmental consequences of four alternative actions for conducting the restoration operation and of the no action alternative. The EA also identifies mitigation measures, where appropriate, designed to protect natural and cultural resources and reduce impacts to human health and safety. The environmental restoration operation at the Double Tracks test site would serve two primary objectives. First, the proposed work would evaluate the effectiveness of future restoration operations involving contamination over larger areas. The project would implement remediation technology options and evaluate how these technologies could be applied to the larger areas of contaminated soils on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), and the NAFR. Second, the remediation would provide for the removal of plutonium contamination down to or below a predetermined level which would require cleanup of 1 hectare (ha) (2.5 acres), for the most likely case, or up to 3.0 ha (7.4 acres) of contaminated soil, for the upper bounding case.

  9. Interactions between toxic chemicals and natural environmental factors--a meta-analysis and case studies.

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Ryszard; Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Kramarz, Paulina E; Loureiro, Susana; Scheil, Volker; Kudłek, Joanna; Holmstrup, Martin

    2010-08-15

    The paper addresses problems arising from effects of natural environmental factors on toxicity of pollutants to organisms. Most studies on interactions between toxicants and natural factors, including those completed in the EU project NoMiracle (Novel Methods for Integrated Risk Assessment of Cumulative Stressors in Europe) described herein, showed that effects of toxic chemicals on organisms can differ vastly depending purely on external conditions. We compiled data from 61 studies on effects of temperature, moisture and dissolved oxygen on toxicity of a range of chemicals representing pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, plant protection products of bacterial origin and trace metals. In 62.3% cases significant interactions (p< or =0.05 or less) between natural factors and chemicals were found, reaching 100% for the effect of dissolved oxygen on toxicity of waterborne chemicals. The meta-analysis of the 61 studies showed that the null hypothesis assuming no interactions between toxic chemicals and natural environmental factors should be rejected at p=2.7 x 10(-82) (truncated product method probability). In a few cases of more complex experimental designs, also second-order interactions were found, indicating that natural factors can modify interactions among chemicals. Such data emphasize the necessity of including information on natural factors and their variation in time and across geographic regions in ecological risk assessment. This can be done only if appropriate ecotoxicological test designs are used, in which test organisms are exposed to toxicants at a range of environmental conditions. We advocate designing such tests for the second-tier ecological risk assessment procedures.

  10. Influences of Environmental Factors on Leaf Morphology of Chinese Jujubes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Yupeng; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall and temperature are the primary limiting factors for optimum quality and yield of cultivated jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.). Adaptation to arid and cool environments has been and remains an important goal of many jujube improvement programs. This study summarized the survey results of 116 Chinese jujube varieties grown at 33 sites in China. The objective was to identify the environmental factors that influence leaf morphology, and the implications for breeding and introduction of new jujube varieties. Jujube leaf morphological traits were evaluated for their potential relationships with mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP). The results showed that many leaf morphological traits had a strong linear relationship with local precipitation and temperature. Longer veins per unit area (VLA) and reduced leaf area and leaf perimeter were typical of arid areas. VLA was inversely related to MAT and MAP at the centers of origin of jujube. There was a positive relationship between leaf shape (perimeter2/area) and both MAT and MAP. These results indicated that leaf vein traits of Chinese jujubes might have resulted from their adaptation to environmental factors in the course of long-term evolution. Principal component analysis allocated the 116 jujube varieties to three different groups, differentiated on the basis of morphological and physiological leaf characteristics. Jujube varieties from the Hebei, Shandong, Henan, southern Shanxi and central Shaanxi provinces were closely related, as were varieties from northwest Shanxi and northeast Shaanxi provinces, and varieties from the Gansu and Ningxia provinces. These close relationships were partially attributed to the frequent exchanges of varieties within each group. Leaf venation characteristics might be used as reference indices for jujube variety introduction between different locations. PMID:26020971

  11. Environmental test program for superconducting materials and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haertling, Gene; Randolph, Henry; Hsi, Chi-Shiung; Verbelyi, Darren

    1991-01-01

    This report is divided into two parts. The first dealing with work involved with Clemson University and the second with the results from Westinghouse/Savannah River. Both areas of work involved low noise, low thermal conductivity superconducting grounding links used in the NASA-sponsored Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far Infrared Emission (SAFIRE) Project. Clemson prepared the links from YBa2Cu3O(7-x) superconductor tape that was mounted on a printed circuit board and encapsulated with epoxy resin. The Clemson program includes temperature vs. resistance, liquid nitrogen immersion, water immersion, thermal cycling, humidity, and radiation testing. The evaluation of the links under a long term environmental test program is described. The Savannah River program includes gamma irradiation, vibration, and long-term evaluation. The progress made in these evaluations is discussed.

  12. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This is an exterior view of the U.S. Laboratory Module Simulator containing the ECLSS Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) testing facility at MSFC. At the bottom right is the data acquisition and control computers (in the blue equipment racks) that monitor the testing in the facility. The ITCS simulator facility duplicates the function, operation, and troubleshooting problems of the ITCS. The main function of the ITCS is to control the temperature of equipment and hardware installed in a typical ISS Payload Rack.

  13. Modified Whole Effluent Toxicity Test to Assess and Decouple Wastewater Effects from Environmental Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Sauco, Sebastián; Gómez, Julio; Barboza, Francisco R.; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2013-01-01

    Environmental gradients and wastewater discharges produce aggregated effects on marine populations, obscuring the detection of human impact. Classical assessment methods do not include environmental effects in toxicity tests designs, which could lead to incorrect conclusions. We proposed a modified Whole Effluent Toxicity test (mWET) that includes environmental gradients in addition to effluent dilutions, together with the application of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) to assess and decouple those effects. We tested this approach, analyzing the lethal effects of wastewater on a marine sandy beach bivalve affected by an artificial canal freshwater discharge used for rice crops irrigation. To this end, we compared bivalve mortality between canal water dilutions (CWd) and salinity controls (SC: without canal water). CWd were prepared by diluting the water effluent (sampled during the pesticide application period) with artificial marine water. The salinity gradient was included in the design by achieving the same final salinities in both CWd and SC, allowing us to account for the effects of salinity by including this variable as a random factor in the GLMM. Our approach detected significantly higher mortalities in CWd, indicating potential toxic effects of the effluent discharge. mWET represents an improvement over the internationally standardized WET tests, since it considers environmental variability and uses appropriate statistical analyses. PMID:23755304

  14. Unscrambling Cyanobacteria Community Dynamics Related to Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bertos-Fortis, Mireia; Farnelid, Hanna M.; Lindh, Markus V.; Casini, Michele; Andersson, Agneta; Pinhassi, Jarone; Legrand, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Future climate scenarios in the Baltic Sea project an increase of cyanobacterial bloom frequency and duration, attributed to eutrophication and climate change. Some cyanobacteria can be toxic and their impact on ecosystem services is relevant for a sustainable sea. Yet, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms regulating cyanobacterial diversity and biogeography. Here we unravel successional patterns and changes in cyanobacterial community structure using a 2-year monthly time- series during the productive season in a 100 km coastal-offshore transect using microscopy and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 565 cyanobacterial OTUs were found, of which 231 where filamentous/colonial and 334 picocyanobacterial. Spatial differences in community structure between coastal and offshore waters were minor. An “epidemic population structure” (dominance of asingle cluster) was found for Aphanizomenon/Dolichospermum within the filamentous/colonial cyanobacterial community. In summer, this clusters imultaneously occurred with opportunistic clusters/OTUs, e.g., Nodularia spumigena and Pseudanabaena. Picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus/Cyanobium, formeda consistent but highly diverse group. Overall, the potential drivers structuring summer cyanobacterial communities were temperature and salinity. However, the different responses to environmental factors among and within genera suggest high niche specificity for individual OTUs. The recruitment and occurrence of potentially toxic filamentous/colonial clusters was likely related to disturbance such as mixing events and short-term shifts in salinity, and not solely dependent on increasing temperature and nitrogen-limiting conditions. Nutrients did not explain further the changes in cyanobacterial community composition. Novel occurrence patterns were identified as a strong seasonal succession revealing a tight coupling between the emergence of opportunistic picocynobacteria and the bloom

  15. Objective assessment of facial skin aging and the associated environmental factors in Japanese monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Ichibori, Ryoko; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanigawa, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Shigeyuki; Shingaki, Kenta; Torii, Kosuke; Tomita, Koichi; Yano, Kenji; Sakai, Yasuo; Hosokawa, Ko

    2014-06-01

    Twin studies, especially those involving monozygotic (MZ) twins, facilitate the analysis of factors affecting skin aging while controlling for age, gender, and genetic susceptibility. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess various features of facial skin and analyze the effects of environmental factors on these features in MZ twins. At the Osaka Twin Research Center, 67 pairs of MZ twins underwent medical interviews and photographic assessments, using the VISIA(®) Complexion Analysis System. First, the average scores of the right and left cheek skin spots, wrinkles, pores, texture, and erythema were calculated; the differences between the scores were then compared in each pair of twins. Next, using the results of medical interviews and VISIA data, we investigated the effects of environmental factors on skin aging. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The intrapair differences in facial texture scores significantly increased as the age of the twins increased (P = 0.03). Among the twin pairs who provided answers to the questions regarding history differences in medical interviews, the twins who smoked or did not use skin protection showed significantly higher facial texture or wrinkle scores compared with the twins not exposed to cigarettes or protectants (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). The study demonstrated that skin aging among Japanese MZ twins, especially in terms of facial texture, was significantly influenced by environmental factors. In addition, smoking and skin protectant use were important environmental factors influencing skin aging.

  16. Plant community assembly at small scales: Spatial vs. environmental factors in a European grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Sebastian; Hempel, Stefan; Ristow, Michael; Rillig, Matthias C.; Kowarik, Ingo; Caruso, Tancredi

    2015-02-01

    Dispersal limitation and environmental conditions are crucial drivers of plant species distribution and establishment. As these factors operate at different spatial scales, we asked: Do the environmental factors known to determine community assembly at broad scales operate at fine scales (few meters)? How much do these factors account for community variation at fine scales? In which way do biotic and abiotic interactions drive changes in species composition? We surveyed the plant community within a dry grassland along a very steep gradient of soil characteristics like pH and nutrients. We used a spatially explicit sampling design, based on three replicated macroplots of 15 × 15, 12 × 12 and 12 × 12 m in extent. Soil samples were taken to quantify several soil properties (carbon, nitrogen, plant available phosphorus, pH, water content and dehydrogenase activity as a proxy for overall microbial activity). We performed variance partitioning to assess the effect of these variables on plant composition and statistically controlled for spatial autocorrelation via eigenvector mapping. We also applied null model analysis to test for non-random patterns in species co-occurrence using randomization schemes that account for patterns expected under species interactions. At a fine spatial scale, environmental factors explained 18% of variation when controlling for spatial autocorrelation in the distribution of plant species, whereas purely spatial processes accounted for 14% variation. Null model analysis showed that species spatially segregated in a non-random way and these spatial patterns could be due to a combination of environmental filtering and biotic interactions. Our grassland study suggests that environmental factors found to be directly relevant in broad scale studies are present also at small scales, but are supplemented by spatial processes and more direct interactions like competition.

  17. Reliability testing across the Environmental Quality Index and national environmental indices.

    EPA Science Inventory

    One challenge in environmental epidemiology is the exploration of cumulative environmental exposure across multiple domains (e.g. air, water, land). The Environmental Quality Index (EQI), created by the U.S. EPA, uses principle component analyses combining environmental domains (...

  18. Magnetic nanoparticles: essential factors for sustainable environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Tang, Samuel C N; Lo, Irene M C

    2013-05-15

    In recent years, there has been an increasing use of engineered magnetic nanoparticles for remediation and water treatments, leading to elevated public concerns. To this end, it is necessary to enhance the understanding of how these magnetic nanoparticles react with contaminants and interact with the surrounding environment during applications. This review aims to provide a holistic overview of current knowledge of magnetic nanoparticles in environmental applications, emphasizing studies of zero-valent iron (nZVI), magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles. Contaminant removal mechanisms by magnetic nanoparticles are presented, along with factors affecting the ability of contaminant desorption. Factors influencing the recovery of magnetic nanoparticles are outlined, describing the challenges of magnetic particle collection. The aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles is described, and methods for enhancing stability are summarized. Moreover, the toxicological effects owing to magnetic nanoparticles are discussed. It is possible that magnetic nanoparticles can be applied sustainably after detailed consideration of these discussed factors.

  19. Simple Instrumental and Visual Tests for Nonlaboratory Environmental Control

    PubMed Central

    Eksperiandova, L. P.; Khimchenko, S. V.; Stepanenko, N. A.; Shcherbakov, I. B.

    2016-01-01

    Proposed are simple and available techniques that can be used for rapid and reliable environmental control specifically of natural water by means of instrumental and visual tests in outdoor conditions. Developed are the chemical colorimetric modes for fast detection of socially dangerous trace impurities in water such as Co(II), Pd(II), and Rh(III) as well as NO2−-ions and Fe(III) serving as model impurities. Application of portable digital devices and scanner allows estimating the color coordinates and increasing the accuracy and sensitivity of the tests. The combination of complex formation with preconcentration of colored complexes replaces the sensitive but time-consuming and capricious kinetic method that is usually used for this purpose at the more convenient and reliable colorimetric method. As the test tools, the following ones are worked out: polyurethane foam tablets with sorbed colored complexes, the two-layer paper sandwich packaged in slide adapter and saturated by reagents, and polyethylene terephthalate blister with dried reagents. Fast analysis of polyurethane foam tablets is realized using a pocket digital RGB-colorimeter or portable photometer. Express analysis of two-layer paper sandwich or polyethylene terephthalate blister is realized by visual and instrumental tests. The metrological characteristics of the developed visual and instrumental express analysis techniques are estimated. PMID:27247827

  20. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. In this photograph, the life test area on the left of the MSFC ECLSS test facility is where various subsystems and components are tested to determine how long they can operate without failing and to identify components needing improvement. Equipment tested here includes the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA), the Urine Processing Assembly (UPA), the mass spectrometer filament assemblies and sample pumps for the Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA). The Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) simulator facility (in the module in the right) duplicates the function and operation of the ITCS in the ISS U.S. Laboratory Module, Destiny. This facility provides support for Destiny, including troubleshooting problems related to the ITCS.

  1. Misidentifying Factors Underlying Singapore's High Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiskin, Zalman

    2012-01-01

    Singapore students have scored exceedingly well on international tests in mathematics. In response, there has been a desire in the United States--both at the policy level and at the school level--to emulate Singapore. Because what can be identified most easily about Singapore's school mathematics can be gleaned from curriculum documents from the…

  2. High Temperature Environmental Test Facility for Uniaxial Testing under Cyclic Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY ( Leave Blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED March 23, 1998 Final Report (1 Aug 95 to 31 Jul 97) 4 . TITLE...AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS High Temperature Environmental Test Facility For Uniaxial F49620-95- 1-04 70 Testing Under Cyclic Loading 6 . AUTHOR(S...extensometer is rated for 1200 ’C. The system is capable of fatigue testing conventional aluminum and titanium materials and high temperature or single crystal

  3. Factor analysis and predictive validity of microcomputer-based tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Baltzley, D. R.; Turnage, J. J.; Jones, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    11 tests were selected from two microcomputer-based performance test batteries because previously these tests exhibited rapid stability (less than 10 min, of practice) and high retest reliability efficiencies (r greater than 0.707 for each 3 min. of testing). The battery was administered three times to each of 108 college students (48 men and 60 women) and a factor analysis was performed. Two of the three identified factors appear to be related to information processing ("encoding" and "throughput/decoding"), and the third named an "output/speed" factor. The spatial, memory, and verbal tests loaded on the "encoding" factor and included Grammatical Reasoning, Pattern Comparison, Continuous Recall, and Matrix Rotation. The "throughput/decoding" tests included perceptual/numerical tests like Math Processing, Code Substitution, and Pattern Comparison. The output speed factor was identified by Tapping and Reaction Time tests. The Wonderlic Personnel Test was group administered before the first and after the last administration of the performance tests. The multiple Rs in the total sample between combined Wonderlic as a criterion and less than 5 min. of microcomputer testing on Grammatical Reasoning and Math Processing as predictors ranged between 0.41 and 0.52 on the three test administrations. Based on these results, the authors recommend a core battery which, if time permits, would consist of two tests from each factor. Such a battery is now known to permit stable, reliable, and efficient assessment.

  4. Environmental Factors and Bioremediation of Xenobiotics Using White Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Fragoeiro, Silvia; Bastos, Catarina

    2010-01-01

    This review provides background information on the importance of bioremediation approaches. It describes the roles of fungi, specifically white rot fungi, and their extracellular enzymes, laccases, ligninases, and peroxidises, in the degradation of xenobiotic compounds such as single and mixtures of pesticides. We discuss the importance of abiotic factors such as water potential, temperature, and pH stress when considering an environmental screening approach, and examples are provided of the differential effect of white rot fungi on the degradation of single and mixtures of pesticides using fungi such as Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. We also explore the formulation and delivery of fungal bioremedial inoculants to terrestrial ecosystems as well as the use of spent mushroom compost as an approach. Future areas for research and potential exploitation of new techniques are also considered. PMID:23956663

  5. Environmental factors associated with blood lead levels in Venezuelan children.

    PubMed

    Rojas, M; Squillante, G; Medina, E; de Rojas, O; Sarmiento, A

    2000-06-01

    A preliminary study explored the relative contribution of residential sources of lead exposure on mentally challenged children who attend "special education" institutions (GI) compared to a group of age and sex matched school children (G2). We captured descriptive information and analyzed demographic variables, personal and household information, medical effects, environmental exposure factors, and children habits. Home paint, dust, soil, and water sampling was conducted and blood lead (BPb) levels determined. Eighteen G1 and 20 G2 children were studied. The mean G1 BPb was 16.9 +/- 7.9 microg/dl and was significantly higher than that in G2. Fifty percent of G1 children had PbB >20 microg/dl and 72.2% were >10 microg/dl. Low muscular strength, decreased osteotendinose reflexes, fine and gross motricity, deficient equilibrium, and hipotonic muscular tone coincided with >18 microg/dl BPb levels. In 61.1% of G1 homes paint lead levels were higher than permissible levels and 33.3% had dust lead exceeding that level. The high BPb levels in G1 probably resulted from ingestion of household paint, dust, and soil via "hand-to-mouth" activity. Environmental exposure to lead can be an important source of lead intake by infants and children and could affect neurological development. This study provides new insights currently unavailable for these children in Venezuela.

  6. The epidemiology of eating disorders: genetic, environmental, and societal factors

    PubMed Central

    Mitchison, Deborah; Hay, Phillipa J

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this review was to summarize the literature to date regarding the sociodemographic, environmental, and genetic correlates of eating disorders (EDs) in adults. Method A keyword search was entered into Scopus (SciVerse, Elsevier) to identify relevant articles published in English up until June 2013. Articles were assessed against a range of a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results A total of 149 full-text articles were found to be eligible for the review and included 86 articles with data on sociodemographic correlates, 57 on environmental correlates, and 13 on genetic correlates. Female sex, younger age, sexual and physical abuse, participation in esthetic or weight-oriented sports, and heritability were found to be most consistently associated with higher ED prevalence and incidence. Conversely, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, and urbanicity did not appear to have strong associations with ED epidemiology. Conclusion More community-based research, with an equal representation of males, needs to be conducted to confirm the current findings and provide evidence for emerging factors that may be related to EDs. PMID:24728136

  7. Influence of environmental factors on college alcohol drinking patterns.

    PubMed

    Bani, Ridouan; Hameed, Rasheed; Szymanowski, Steve; Greenwood, Priscilla; Kribs-Zaleta, Christopher M; Mubayi, Anuj

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a major problem, especially among students on and around college campuses. We use the mathematical framework of [16] and study the role of environmental factors on the long term dynamics of an alcohol drinking population. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses are carried out on the relevant functions (for example, on the drinking reproduction number and the extinction time of moderate and heavy drinking because of interventions) to understand the impact of environmental interventions on the distributions of drinkers. The reproduction number helps determine whether or not the high-risk alcohol drinking behavior will spread and become persistent in the population, whereas extinction time of high-risk drinking measures the effectiveness of control programs. We found that the reproduction number is most sensitive to social interactions, while the time to extinction of high-risk drinkers is significantly sensitive to the intervention programs that reduce initiation, and the college drop-out rate. The results also suggest that in a population, higher rates of intervention programs in low-risk environments (more than intervention rates in high-risk environments) are needed to reduce heavy drinking in the population.

  8. Measuring physical activity-related environmental factors: reliability and predictive validity of the European environmental questionnaire ALPHA

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A questionnaire to assess physical activity related environmental factors in the European population (a 49-item and an 11-item version) was created as part of the framework of the EU-funded project "Instruments for Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity and fitness (ALPHA)". This paper reports on the development and assessment of the questionnaire's test-retest stability, predictive validity, and applicability to European adults. Methods The first pilot test was conducted in Belgium, France and the UK. In total 190 adults completed both forms of the ALPHA questionnaire twice with a one-week interval. Physical activity was concurrently measured (i) by administration of the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) by interview and (ii) by accelerometry (Actigraph™ device). After adaptations, the second field test took place in Belgium, the UK and Austria; 166 adults completed the adapted questionnaire at two time points, with minimum one-week interval. In both field studies intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and proportion of agreement were computed to assess the stability of the two test scores. Predictive validity was examined in the first field test by correlating the results of the questionnaires with physical activity data from accelerometry and long IPAQ-last 7 days. Results The reliability scores of the ALPHA questionnaire were moderate-to good in the first field testing (ICC range 0.66 - 0.86) and good in the second field testing (ICC range 0.71 - 0.87). The proportion of agreement for the ALPHA short increased significantly from the first (range 50 - 83%) to the second field testing (range 85 - 95%). Environmental scales from both versions of the ALPHA questionnaire were significantly associated with self-reported minutes of transport-related walking, and objectively measured low intensity physical activity levels, particularly in women. Both versions were easily administered with an average completion time

  9. Environmental factors influence lesser scaup migration chronology and population monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, Taylor A.; Afton, Alan D.; Schummer, Michael L.; Petrie, Scott A.; Badzinski, Shannon S.; Johnson, Michael A.; Szymanski, Michael L.; Jacobs, Kevin J.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Mitchell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Identifying environmental metrics specific to lesser scaup (Aythya affinis; scaup) spring migration chronology may help inform development of conservation, management and population monitoring. Our objective was to determine how environmental conditions influence spring migration of lesser scaup to assess the effectiveness of the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey in accurately estimating scaup populations. We first compared peak timing of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and scaup migration from weekly ground surveys in North Dakota, USA because the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey is designed to capture annual mallard migration. As predicted, we detected that peak timing of scaup and mallard migrations differed in 25 of 36 years investigated (1980–2010). We marked scaup with satellite transmitters (n = 78; 7,403 locations) at Long Point, Lake Erie, Ontario, Canada; Pool 19 of the Mississippi River, Iowa and Illinois, USA; and Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie, Pennsylvania, USA. We tested the assumption that our marked scaup were representative of the continental population using the traditional survey area by comparing timing of migration of marked birds and scaup counted in the North Dakota Game and Fish Department survey. We detected a strong positive correlation between marked scaup and the survey data, which indicated that marked scaup were representative of the population. We subsequently used our validated sample of marked scaup to investigate the effects of annual variation in temperature, precipitation, and ice cover on spring migration chronology in the traditional and eastern survey areas of the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey, 2005–2010. We evaluated competing environmental models to explain variation in timing and rate of scaup migration at large-scale and local levels. Spring migration of scaup occurred earlier and faster during springs with warmer temperatures and greater precipitation, variables known

  10. Worker, workplace, and community/environmental risk factors for workplace violence in emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Gordon Lee; Pekar, Bunnany; Byczkowski, Terri L; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2017-03-04

    Workplace violence committed by patients and visitors has high propensity to occur against emergency department employees. This article reports the association of worker, workplace, and community/environmental factors with violence risks. A cross-sectional research design was used with 280 employees from six emergency departments in the Midwest United States. Respondents completed the Survey of Violence Experienced by Staff and a 10-item demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using frequencies, percentages, Chi-square tests, and adjusted relative risks with 95% confidence intervals. Over 80% of respondents experienced at least one type of workplace violence with their current employer and approximately 40% experienced all three types. Risks for workplace violence were significantly higher for registered nurses and hospital-based emergency departments. Workplace violence can impact all employees in the emergency department regardless of worker, workplace, and community/environmental factors.

  11. A Factor Analytic Study of Inductive Reasoning Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, G. Robert

    A set of eight widely used inductive reasoning tests were investigated to determine whether or not they have different factorial structures. The eight inductive tests and three deductive tests, taken from the French Kit of Reference Tests for Cognitive Factors and the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal, were administered to 157 high school…

  12. 21 CFR 118.5 - Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.5 Section 118.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5 Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). (a) Environmental testing when laying...

  13. 21 CFR 118.5 - Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.5 Section 118.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5 Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). (a) Environmental testing when laying...

  14. 21 CFR 118.5 - Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.5 Section 118.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5 Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). (a) Environmental testing when laying...

  15. 21 CFR 118.5 - Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.5 Section 118.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5 Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). (a) Environmental testing when laying...

  16. 21 CFR 118.5 - Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). 118.5 Section 118.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....5 Environmental testing for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). (a) Environmental testing when laying...

  17. Eglin Gulf Test and Training Range: Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-11-01

    Regulations, and Policies APPENDIX B Current and Proposed Operational Considerations and Management Practices APPENDIX C Aircraft Noise in the...NASP Naval Air Station Pensacola NAVOCEANO Naval Oceanographic Office NDBC National Data Buoy Center NEPA National Environmental Policy Act NEW Net...Programmatic Environmental Assessment, is to provide environmental analysis and necessary National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation to

  18. Environmental testing of COTS components for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2009-02-01

    Research and development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) has shown a significant promise for a variety of commercial applications. For example, accelerometers are widely used for air bags in automobiles, MEMS inkjet print heads are used for printers, gyroscopes for guidance and navigation and pressure sensors for various industrial applications. Some of the MEMS devices have potential to become the commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components. Aerospace requires more sophisticated technology development to achieve significant cost savings if they could utilize COTS components in their systems. A miniature gas chromatograph instrument designed as a space station project will provide onorbit detection, identification, and quantification of potentially toxic trace volatile organic compounds in the human-supporting environment. The instrument consists of several commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) valves, pumps and sensors. This paper describes the thermal environmental requirements and protoflight/qualification thermal test results for the COTS parts at cold and hot temperature extremes. The objective of this study is to qualify several COTS components for specific thermal/dynamic environments to assess their reliability. All COTS components life tested were believed to meet the 3x mission operational life requirements. Test results will be presented.

  19. 40 CFR 1045.245 - How do I determine deterioration factors from exhaust durability testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I determine deterioration factors from exhaust durability testing? 1045.245 Section 1045.245 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  20. 40 CFR 1045.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? 1045.520 Section 1045.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  1. 40 CFR 1045.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? 1045.520 Section 1045.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  2. 40 CFR 1045.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? 1045.520 Section 1045.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  3. 40 CFR 1045.245 - How do I determine deterioration factors from exhaust durability testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I determine deterioration factors from exhaust durability testing? 1045.245 Section 1045.245 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  4. 40 CFR 1045.245 - How do I determine deterioration factors from exhaust durability testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I determine deterioration factors from exhaust durability testing? 1045.245 Section 1045.245 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  5. 40 CFR 1045.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? 1045.520 Section 1045.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  6. 40 CFR 1045.245 - How do I determine deterioration factors from exhaust durability testing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I determine deterioration factors from exhaust durability testing? 1045.245 Section 1045.245 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  7. 40 CFR 1045.520 - What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors? 1045.520 Section 1045.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  8. Modulation of the Genome and Epigenome of Individuals Susceptible to Autism by Environmental Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Koufaris, Costas; Sismani, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Diverse environmental factors have been implicated with the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Genetic factors also underlie the differential vulnerability to environmental risk factors of susceptible individuals. Currently the way in which environmental risk factors interact with genetic factors to increase the incidence of ASD is not well understood. A greater understanding of the metabolic, cellular, and biochemical events involved in gene x environment interactions in ASD would have important implications for the prevention and possible treatment of the disorder. In this review we discuss various established and more alternative processes through which environmental factors implicated in ASD can modulate the genome and epigenome of genetically-susceptible individuals. PMID:25903146

  9. The Savannah River Technology Center environmental monitoring field test platform

    SciTech Connect

    Rossabi, J.

    1993-03-05

    Nearly all industrial facilities have been responsible for introducing synthetic chemicals into the environment. The Savannah River Site is no exception. Several areas at the site have been contaminated by chlorinated volatile organic chemicals. Because of the persistence and refractory nature of these contaminants, a complete clean up of the site will take many years. A major focus of the mission of the Environmental Sciences Section of the Savannah River Technology Center is to develop better, faster, and less expensive methods for characterizing, monitoring, and remediating the subsurface. These new methods can then be applied directly at the Savannah River Site and at other contaminated areas in the United States and throughout the world. The Environmental Sciences Section has hosted field testing of many different monitoring technologies over the past two years primarily as a result of the Integrated Demonstration Program sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development. This paper provides an overview of some of the technologies that have been demonstrated at the site and briefly discusses the applicability of these techniques.

  10. 1995 Site environmental report Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, T.; Forston, W.

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories` responsibility for environmental surveillance results extends to those activities performed by Sandia National Laboratories or under its direction. Results from other organizations environmental surveillance activities are included to provide a measure of completeness. Other environmental compliance programs such as the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, environmental permits, and environmental restoration and waste management programs are also included in this report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1.

  11. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This is a view of the ECLSS and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) Test Facility in building 4755, MSFC. In the foreground is the 3-module ECLSS simulator comprised of the U.S. Laboratory Module Simulator, Node 1 Simulator, and Node 3/Habitation Module Simulator. At center left is the ITCS Simulator. The main function of the ITCS is to control the temperature of equipment and hardware installed in a typical ISS Payload Rack.

  12. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This is a view of the ECLSS and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) Test Facility in building 4755, MSFC. In the foreground is the 3-module ECLSS simulator comprised of the U.S. Laboratory Module Simulator, Node 1 Simulator, and Node 3/Habitation Module Simulator. On the left is the ITCS Simulator. The main function of the ITCS is to control the temperature of equipment and hardware installed in a typical ISS Payload Rack.

  13. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This photograph shows the development Water Processor located in two racks in the ECLSS test area at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Actual waste water, simulating Space Station waste, is generated and processed through the hardware to evaluate the performance of technologies in the flight Water Processor design.

  14. [Testing doses? Environmental health stakes associated with nanotechnologies].

    PubMed

    Jouzel, Jean-Noël

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution, we analyse how nanoscience and nanotechnology have given birth to an important environmental health controversy regarding the potential sanitary dangers of engineered nanomaterials. We show how this controversy is part of a larger picture, made of a series of social and scientific disputes about the effects of man made chemicals on the human body. We show how these disputes have contributed throughout the 20th century to the emergence and the transformation of toxicology as a scientific field, and to test the robustness of the dose paradigm that constitues the cornerstone of this discipline. We suggest that the contemporary emergence of a new scientific field known as "nanotoxicolgy" must be interpreted as a successful adaptation of this paradigm to the specific toxicological questions raised by engineered nanomaterials.

  15. Neuropathology and Animal Models of Autism: Genetic and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Gadad, Bharathi S.; Young, Keith A.; German, Dwight C.

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a heterogeneous behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder. It is defined by the presence of marked social deficits, specific language abnormalities, and stereotyped repetitive patterns of behavior. Because of the variability in the behavioral phenotype of the disorder among patients, the term autism spectrum disorder has been established. In the first part of this review, we provide an overview of neuropathological findings from studies of autism postmortem brains and identify the cerebellum as one of the key brain regions that can play a role in the autism phenotype. We review research findings that indicate possible links between the environment and autism including the role of mercury and immune-related factors. Because both genes and environment can alter the structure of the developing brain in different ways, it is not surprising that there is heterogeneity in the behavioral and neuropathological phenotypes of autism spectrum disorders. Finally, we describe animal models of autism that occur following insertion of different autism-related genes and exposure to environmental factors, highlighting those models which exhibit both autism-like behavior and neuropathology. PMID:24151553

  16. Prognostic factors of renal dysfunction induced by environmental cadmium pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Morikawa, Yuko; Tabata, Masaji; Senma, Masami; Kitagawa, Yumiko; Kawano, Shunichi; Ishizaki, Masao ); Sugita, Naomichi; Nishi, Masami )

    1994-02-01

    To assess the influence of environmental cadmium (Cd) exposure on long-term outcome, a follow-up study was conducted from 1981-1982 to March 1991 on 3178 inhabitants living in the Cd-polluted Kakehashi River basin. The standardized mortality ratios of the urinary [beta][sub 2]-microglobulin ([beta]2-MG)-, protein-, and amino acid-positive subjects of both sexes and the urinary glucose-positive female subjects were higher than those of the subjects with urinary-negative findings or the general Japanese population during the observation period. After adjusting for age using Cox's proportional hazards model, significant associations were found between mortality and urinary indices. In multiple comparisons using all of the indices, urinary protein and [beta]2-MG in the women and urinary protein in the men were the factors most contributing to the mortality rates. In the urinary protein-negative female group as well, as significant association was found between urinary [beta]2-MG and mortality. These results suggest that the prognosis of subjects with Cd-induced renal dysfunction is unfavorable, with the mortality rate increasing even in the early stage of proximal tubular dysfunction. Urinary protein and urinary [beta]2-MG are important prognostic factors, with the latter, in particular, considered to be useful as an early index predictive of premature mortality. 30 refs., 6 tabs.

  17. A review on environmental factors regulating arsenic methylation in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, C.-H.

    2009-03-15

    Subjects exposed to arsenic show significant inter-individual variation in urinary patterns of arsenic metabolites but insignificant day-to-day intra-individual variation. The inter-individual variation in arsenic methylation can be partly responsible for the variation in susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. Wide inter-ethnic variation and family correlation in urinary arsenic profile suggest a genetic effect on arsenic metabolism. In this paper the environmental factors affecting arsenic metabolism are reviewed. Methylation capacity might reduce with increasing dosage of arsenic exposure. Furthermore, women, especially at pregnancy, have better methylation capacity than their men counterparts, probably due to the effect of estrogen. Children might have better methylation capacity than adults and age shows inconsistent relevance in adults. Smoking and alcohol consumption might be associated with a poorer methylation capacity. Nutritional status is important in the methylation capacity and folate may facilitate the methylation and excretion of arsenic. Besides, general health conditions and medications might influence the arsenic methylation capacity; and technical problems can cause biased estimates. The consumption of seafood, seaweed, rice and other food with high arsenic contents and the extent of cooking and arsenic-containing water used in food preparation may also interfere with the presentation of the urinary arsenic profile. Future studies are necessary to clarify the effects of the various arsenic metabolites including the trivalent methylated forms on the development of arsenic-induced human diseases with the consideration of the effects of confounding factors and the interactions with other effect modifiers.

  18. Environmental and socio-demographic factors associated to asthma in adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Alves da Cunha, Antônio José Ledo

    2007-03-01

    Although asthma is of frequent occurrence, little is known about the factors associated with this disease in Brazil. We studied the association between asthma, environmental and socio-demographic factors in adolescents in Nova lguacu, Rio de Janeiro State. Cross-sectional study using the questionnaires about asthma and environmental factors from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). We performed bivariate analyses between asthma and the factors studied using prevalence ratio (PR), confidence intervals of 95% (95% Cl) and Chi-squared test. Factors associated to asthma in a bivariate analysis were studied using logistic regression and odds ratio (OR). We included 3,033 students, aged 13-14 yrs, selected from 37 schools. The prevalence of asthma was 13.1%. Being female (OR = 1.40; 95%Cl:1.11-1.77), the presence of a mother who smokes (OR = 1.32; 95%Cl:1.04-1.66), a cat in the domicile (OR = 1.32; 95%Cl:1.04-1.69), being the firstborn (OR = 1.34; 95%Cl:1.07-1.68), frequent use of paracetamol (OR = 1.45; 95%Cl: 1.15-1.84), the presence of rhinitis (OR = 5.15; 95%:3.89-6.82) and eczema (OR = 2.35; 95%Cl:1.73-3.19) were independently associated to asthma. Environmental and socio-demographic factors were associated to asthma in adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, irrespective of the presence of others allergic diseases. Interventions acting on these factors may decrease the occurrence of asthma in this population.

  19. Induction Heating Model of Cermet Fuel Element Environmental Test (CFEET)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, C. F.; Bradley, D. E.; Cavender, D. P.; Mireles, O. R.; Hickman, R. R.

    2013-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse and relatively high thrust to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Nuclear Thermal Rockets (NTR) are capable of producing a high specific impulse by employing heat produced by a fission reactor to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000 K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high-temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements are limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements due to large thermal gradients; therefore, high-melting-point ceramics-metallic matrix composites (cermets) are one of the fuels under consideration as part of the Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Advance Exploration System (AES) technology project at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The purpose of testing and analytical modeling is to determine their ability to survive and maintain thermal performance in a prototypical NTR reactor environment of exposure to hydrogen at very high temperatures and obtain data to assess the properties of the non-nuclear support materials. The fission process and the resulting heating performance are well known and do not require that active fissile material to be integrated in this testing. A small-scale test bed; Compact Fuel Element Environmental Tester (CFEET), designed to heat fuel element samples via induction heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed at MSFC to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without utilizing fissile material. This paper details the analytical approach to help design and optimize the test bed using COMSOL Multiphysics for predicting thermal gradients induced by electromagnetic heating (Induction heating) and Thermal Desktop for radiation calculations.

  20. On the Factor Structure of a Reading Comprehension Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salehi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the construct validly of a section of a high stakes test, an exploratory factor analysis using principal components analysis was employed. The rotation used was varimax with the suppression level of 0.30. Eleven factors were extracted out of 35 reading comprehension items. The fact that these factors emerged speak to the construct…

  1. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Testing Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This photograph shows the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) which utilizes the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) technology. The VCD is used for integrated testing of the entire Water Recovery System (WRS) and development testing of the Urine Processor Assembly. The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. Product water quality is monitored primarily through conductivity measurements. Unacceptable water is sent back through the WPA for reprocessing. Clean water is sent to a storage tank.

  2. Contribution of manipulable and non-manipulable environmental factors to trapping efficiency of invasive sea lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Heather A.; Bravener, Gale; Beaulaurier, Joshua; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Twohey, Michael; McLaughlin, Robert L.; Brenden, Travis O.

    2017-01-01

    We identified aspects of the trapping process that afforded opportunities for improving trap efficiency of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in a Great Lake's tributary. Capturing a sea lamprey requires it to encounter the trap, enter, and be retained until removed. Probabilities of these events depend on the interplay between sea lamprey behavior, environmental conditions, and trap design. We first tested how strongly seasonal patterns in daily trap catches (a measure of trapping success) were related to nightly rates of trap encounter, entry, and retention (outcomes of sea lamprey behavior). We then tested the degree to which variation in rates of trap encounter, entry, and retention were related to environmental features that control agents can manipulate (attractant pheromone addition, discharge) and features agents cannot manipulate (water temperature, season), but could be used as indicators for when to increase trapping effort. Daily trap catch was most strongly associated with rate of encounter. Relative and absolute measures of predictive strength for environmental factors that managers could potentially manipulate were low, suggesting that opportunities to improve trapping success by manipulating factors that affect rates of encounter, entry, and retention are limited. According to results at this trap, more sea lamprey would be captured by increasing trapping effort early in the season when sea lamprey encounter rates with traps are high. The approach used in this study could be applied to trapping of other invasive or valued species.

  3. Activity and impulsive action are controlled by different genetic and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Loos, M; van der Sluis, S; Bochdanovits, Z; van Zutphen, I J; Pattij, T; Stiedl, O; Smit, A B; Spijker, S

    2009-11-01

    Both impulsivity in operant tasks and locomotor activity in a novel open field are known to predict the development of addiction-related behavior in rodents. In this study, we investigated to what extent impulsivity in the five-choice serial reaction time task and various measures of novelty exploration are controlled by shared genetic and environmental factors in 12 different inbred mouse strains. No genetic correlation was observed between the level of impulsivity and levels of activity, a low correlation was observed with traditional measures of anxiety-like behavior (impulsive strains tend to be less anxious) and a highly significant correlation was found between impulsivity and specific aspects of movement. Furthermore, we found that impulsivity and all measures of novelty exploration were under control of different environmental factors. Interestingly, in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, a brain region involved in impulsivity and activity in novelty exploration tests; these behavioral measures correlated with the expression of different genes (respectively, Frzb, Snx5, BC056474 and the previously identified Glo1). Taken together, our study shows that impulsivity and activity in novelty exploration tests are genetically and environmentally distinct, suggesting that mouse models of these behaviors provide complementary insights into the development of substance abuse disorder.

  4. Seasonal variation in environmental DNA in relation to population size and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, Andrew S.; Groombridge, Jim J.; Zakaria, Nurulhuda B.; Griffiths, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Analysing DNA that organisms release into the environment (environmental DNA, or eDNA) has enormous potential for assessing rare and cryptic species. At present the method is only reliably used to assess the presence-absence of species in natural environments, as seasonal influences on eDNA in relation to presence, abundance, life stages and seasonal behaviours are poorly understood. A naturally colonised, replicated pond system was used to show how seasonal changes in eDNA were influenced by abundance of adults and larvae of great crested newts (Triturus cristatus). Peaks in eDNA were observed in early June when adult breeding was coming to an end, and between mid-July and mid-August corresponding to a peak in newt larval abundance. Changes in adult body condition associated with reproduction also influenced eDNA concentrations, as did temperature (but not rainfall or UV). eDNA concentration fell rapidly as larvae metamorphosed and left the ponds. eDNA concentration may therefore reflect relative abundance in different ponds, although environmental factors can affect the concentrations observed. Nevertheless, eDNA surveys may still represent an improvement over unadjusted counts which are widely used in population assessments but have unreliable relationships with population size. PMID:28393885

  5. Underage drinking on saturday nights, sociodemographic and environmental risk factors: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption in underage people is a rising phenomenon. A major proportion of the disease burden and deaths of young people in developed nations is attributable to alcohol abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate social, demographic and environmental factors that may raise the risk of Saturday night drinking and binge drinking among Italian school students. Methods The study was conducted on a sample of 845 Italian underage school students, by means of an anonymous, self-test questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify independent risk factors for alcohol drinking and binge drinking. Ordered logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for harmful drinking patterns. Results The independent variables that confer a higher risk of drinking in underage students are older age classes, male sex, returning home after midnight, belonging to a group with little respect for the rules, or to a group where young people are not seen as leaders. The higher the perception of alcohol consumption by the group, the higher the risk. Spending time in bars or discos coincides with a two-fold or four-fold increase, respectively, in the risk of alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our findings show that certain environmental and social risk factors are associated with underage drinking. The most important role for preventing young people's exposure to these factors lies with the family, because only parents can exert the necessary control and provide a barrier against potentially harmful situations. PMID:21729273

  6. Webinar Presentation: EPA Actions to Reduce Children's Health Risks from Environmental Factors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, EPA Actions to Reduce Children's Health Risks from Environmental Factors, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: The Significance of Children’s Environmental Health Research Through Collaboration.

  7. Management, morphological, and environmental factors influencing Douglas-fir bark furrows in the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheridan, Christopher D.; Puettmann, Klaus J.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Hagar, Joan C.; Falk, Kristen R.

    2013-01-01

    Many land managers in the Pacific Northwest have the goal of increasing late-successional forest structures. Despite the documented importance of Douglas-fir tree bark structure in forested ecosystems, little is known about factors influencing bark development and how foresters can manage development. This study investigated the relative importance of tree size, growth, environmental factors, and thinning on Douglas-fir bark furrow characteristics in the Oregon Coast Range. Bark furrow depth, area, and bark roughness were measured for Douglas-fir trees in young heavily thinned and unthinned sites and compared to older reference sites. We tested models for relationships between bark furrow response and thinning, tree diameter, diameter growth, and environmental factors. Separately, we compared bark responses measured on trees used by bark-foraging birds with trees with no observed usage. Tree diameter and diameter growth were the most important variables in predicting bark characteristics in young trees. Measured environmental variables were not strongly related to bark characteristics. Bark furrow characteristics in old trees were influenced by tree diameter and surrounding tree densities. Young trees used by bark foragers did not have different bark characteristics than unused trees. Efforts to enhance Douglas-fir bark characteristics should emphasize retention of larger diameter trees' growth enhancement.

  8. Combining environmental factors and agriculturalists' observations of environmental changes in the traditional terrace system of the Amalfi coast (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Savo, Valentina; Caneva, Giulia; McClatchey, Will; Reedy, David; Salvati, Luca

    2014-04-01

    Terraces are traditional engineered ecosystems that affect the hydro-geological equilibrium, slope stability, and local communities. The aims of this paper are (i) identifying environmental factors that affect terrace stability in the Amalfi Coast, (ii) defining agriculturalists' observations on environmental changes within that system and (iii) exploring potentiality of these observations to better define conservation strategies. All available data on physical and ecological factors recognized to affect the terrace system were collected and analyzed. Interviews were conducted with agriculturalists to obtain long-term observations on environmental factors that interact with this system. Landslides are more frequent where rainfall is high and during winter. Fires have an uneven annual distribution, with higher frequency during summers. Agriculturalists detailed complex interactions among environmental factors, economic elements, and terraces. These observations represent a valuable resource for defining causes and effects of abandonment and for better addressing conservation strategies.

  9. Environmental risk factors of cancer and their primary prevention.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolski, J W; Smyk, B

    1993-01-01

    The evaluation of the influence of different environmental carcinogenic factors requires interdisciplinary cooperation. Related studies include epidemiological surveys and air, water and soil, chemical, toxicological, and microbiological analyses, supplemented by experimental verification of suspected ecological pathogens and cofactors. A balance of carcinogens and protective agents in the external environment and in the human body is recommended for an ecologically oriented prevention. Toxicological control of the food chain using modern technology (Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), nuclear activation analysis, and induced coupled plasma) should be integrated with microanalyses at the cellular level (by X-ray scanning electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic response, PIXE, and spontaneous and delayed chemiluminescence for balance of free-radicals and their scavengers). A pilot cross-disciplinary study conducted in the area of a "cluster" of human neoplasms and cattle leukemia, in comparison with control villages in Poland, showed an excess in Pb, Hg, Ni, Rb, K, Mn, Cr, and Zn, accompanied by a nutritional deficiency in Mg, Ca, Fe, Co, and Se in the food chain of the "cluster." The living and breeding houses in this area were significantly more contaminated with the toxicogenic molds Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium meleagrinum and by nitrate and nitrite in the drinking water. Our experiments showed that selenium deficiency stimulated the growth of fungi and some bacteria and increased the immunosuppressive and teratogenic effects of aflatoxin B1. New methods of protection of the indoor environment against microbiological contamination and laser-related biotechnology for nutritional prevention of selenium deficiency and associated risk of neoplasms have been introduced. Primary prevention requires a large scale application of highly sensitive methods for early detection of risk factors in the environment, food, water, and at the personal level, as well as

  10. Unscaled Bayes factors for multiple hypothesis testing in microarray experiments.

    PubMed

    Bertolino, Francesco; Cabras, Stefano; Castellanos, Maria Eugenia; Racugno, Walter

    2015-12-01

    Multiple hypothesis testing collects a series of techniques usually based on p-values as a summary of the available evidence from many statistical tests. In hypothesis testing, under a Bayesian perspective, the evidence for a specified hypothesis against an alternative, conditionally on data, is given by the Bayes factor. In this study, we approach multiple hypothesis testing based on both Bayes factors and p-values, regarding multiple hypothesis testing as a multiple model selection problem. To obtain the Bayes factors we assume default priors that are typically improper. In this case, the Bayes factor is usually undetermined due to the ratio of prior pseudo-constants. We show that ignoring prior pseudo-constants leads to unscaled Bayes factor which do not invalidate the inferential procedure in multiple hypothesis testing, because they are used within a comparative scheme. In fact, using partial information from the p-values, we are able to approximate the sampling null distribution of the unscaled Bayes factor and use it within Efron's multiple testing procedure. The simulation study suggests that under normal sampling model and even with small sample sizes, our approach provides false positive and false negative proportions that are less than other common multiple hypothesis testing approaches based only on p-values. The proposed procedure is illustrated in two simulation studies, and the advantages of its use are showed in the analysis of two microarray experiments.

  11. Determination of Parachute Joint Factors using Seam and Joint Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollmann, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This paper details the methodology for determining the joint factor for all parachute components. This method has been successfully implemented on the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) for the NASA Orion crew module for use in determining the margin of safety for each component under peak loads. Also discussed are concepts behind the joint factor and what drives the loss of material strength at joints. The joint factor is defined as a "loss in joint strength...relative to the basic material strength" that occurs when "textiles are connected to each other or to metals." During the CPAS engineering development phase, a conservative joint factor of 0.80 was assumed for each parachute component. In order to refine this factor and eliminate excess conservatism, a seam and joint testing program was implemented as part of the structural validation. This method split each of the parachute structural joints into discrete tensile tests designed to duplicate the loading of each joint. Breaking strength data collected from destructive pull testing was then used to calculate the joint factor in the form of an efficiency. Joint efficiency is the percentage of the base material strength that remains after degradation due to sewing or interaction with other components; it is used interchangeably with joint factor in this paper. Parachute materials vary in type-mainly cord, tape, webbing, and cloth -which require different test fixtures and joint sample construction methods. This paper defines guidelines for designing and testing samples based on materials and test goals. Using the test methodology and analysis approach detailed in this paper, the minimum joint factor for each parachute component can be formulated. The joint factors can then be used to calculate the design factor and margin of safety for that component, a critical part of the design verification process.

  12. Using partial safety factors in wind turbine design and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.D.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the relationship between wind turbine design and testing in terms of the certification process. An overview of the current status of international certification is given along with a description of limit-state design basics. Wind turbine rotor blades are used to illustrate the principles discussed. These concepts are related to both International Electrotechnical Commission and Germanischer Lloyd design standards, and are covered using schematic representations of statistical load and material strength distributions. Wherever possible, interpretations of the partial safety factors are given with descriptions of their intended meaning. Under some circumstances, the authors` interpretations may be subjective. Next, the test-load factors are described in concept and then related to the design factors. Using technical arguments, it is shown that some of the design factors for both load and materials must be used in the test loading, but some should not be used. In addition, some test factors not used in the design may be necessary for an accurate test of the design. The results show that if the design assumptions do not clearly state the effects and uncertainties that are covered by the design`s partial safety factors, outside parties such as test labs or certification agencies could impose their own meaning on these factors.

  13. Using partial safety factors in wind turbine design and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W D; Butterfield, C

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes the relationship between wind turbine design and testing in terms of the certification process. An overview of the current status of international certification is given along with a description of limit-state design basics. Wind turbine rotor blades are used to illustrate the principles discussed. These concepts are related to both International Electrotechnical Commission and Germanischer Lloyd design standards, and are covered using schematic representations of statistical load and material strength distributions. Wherever possible, interpretations of the partial safety factors are given with descriptions of their intended meaning. Under some circumstances, the authors` interpretations may be subjective. Next, the test-load factors are described in concept and then related to the design factors. Using technical arguments, it is shown that some of the design factors for both load and materials must be used in the test loading, but some should not be used. In addition, some test factors not used in the design may be necessary for an accurate test of the design. The results show that if the design assumptions do not clearly state the effects and uncertainties that are covered by the design`s partial safety factors, outside parties such as test labs or certification agencies could impose their own meaning on these factors.

  14. Influence of Environmental Factors on Vibrio spp. in Coastal Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Crystal N

    2015-06-01

    Various studies have examined the relationships between vibrios and the environmental conditions surrounding them. However, very few reviews have compiled these studies into cohesive points. This may be due to the fact that these studies examine different environmental parameters, use different sampling, detection, and enumeration methodologies, and occur in diverse geographic locations. The current article is one approach to compile these studies into a cohesive work that assesses the importance of environmental determinants on the abundance of vibrios in coastal ecosystems.

  15. 40 CFR 86.163-00 - Spot check correlation procedures for vehicles tested using a simulation of the environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vehicles tested using a simulation of the environmental test cell for air conditioning emission testing. 86... tested using a simulation of the environmental test cell for air conditioning emission testing. This section is applicable for vehicles which are tested using a simulation of the environmental test...

  16. 40 CFR 86.163-00 - Spot check correlation procedures for vehicles tested using a simulation of the environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vehicles tested using a simulation of the environmental test cell for air conditioning emission testing. 86... tested using a simulation of the environmental test cell for air conditioning emission testing. This section is applicable for vehicles which are tested using a simulation of the environmental test...

  17. 40 CFR 86.163-00 - Spot check correlation procedures for vehicles tested using a simulation of the environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vehicles tested using a simulation of the environmental test cell for air conditioning emission testing. 86... tested using a simulation of the environmental test cell for air conditioning emission testing. This section is applicable for vehicles which are tested using a simulation of the environmental test...

  18. 40 CFR 86.163-00 - Spot check correlation procedures for vehicles tested using a simulation of the environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vehicles tested using a simulation of the environmental test cell for air conditioning emission testing. 86... tested using a simulation of the environmental test cell for air conditioning emission testing. This section is applicable for vehicles which are tested using a simulation of the environmental test...

  19. 40 CFR 86.163-00 - Spot check correlation procedures for vehicles tested using a simulation of the environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicles tested using a simulation of the environmental test cell for air conditioning emission testing. 86... tested using a simulation of the environmental test cell for air conditioning emission testing. This section is applicable for vehicles which are tested using a simulation of the environmental test...

  20. Intersection of participation and environmental factors: a complex interactive process.

    PubMed

    Noreau, Luc; Boschen, Kathryn

    2010-09-01

    The objective was to review contemporary and historical rehabilitation-focused literature on conceptualizations of the environment, broadly defined, and environmental measures. Data sources included historical nonempirical American-based literature from 1935 to the present and descriptive and empirical rehabilitation articles worldwide, retrieved from computerized databases predominantly from past 10 years depicting a participation-environment association. Literature selection required relevance to 3 combined topics: physical disability rehabilitation, participation/community integration, and impact of environmental barriers and facilitators. The ultimate focus was on spinal cord injury for recent literature and measures reviewed. Data extraction was based on author-assessed relevance to both participation and environmental considerations. Nonempirical literature from last three quarters of a century suggests an environmental impact on participation, focusing on "person-environment fit." Recent empirical evidence supports environmental contributions to participation, but the magnitude of the contribution is low. Despite the obvious theoretic impact of the environment, scientific demonstration of environmental contribution to participation restriction or facilitation has yet to be achieved. Participation-environment interaction could be illustrated better by (1) taking into account critical elements in environmental measures (eg, comprehensiveness of approach to environment, scales describing spectrum of environmental influence, subjective vs objective perspectives), (2) addressing the concept of participation in a dimension-specific approach, and (3) avoiding environmental features in construction of participation measures.

  1. Environmental factors controlling lake diatom communities: a meta-analysis of published data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, S.

    2014-11-01

    Diatoms play a key role in the development of quantitative methods for environmental reconstruction in lake ecosystems. Diatom-based calibration datasets developed during the last decades allow the inference of past limnological variables such as TP, pH or conductivity and provide information on the autecology and distribution of diatom taxa. However, little is known about the relationships between diatoms and climatic or geographic factors. The response of surface sediment diatom assemblages to abiotic factors is usually examined using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and subsequent forward selection of variables based on Monte Carlo permutation tests that show the set of predictors best explaining the distributions of diatom species. The results reported in 40 previous studies using this methodology in different regions of the world are re-analyzed in this paper. Bi- and multivariate statistics (canonical correlation and two-block partial least-squares) were used to explore the correspondence between physical, chemical and physiographical factors and the variables that explain most of the variance in the diatom datasets. Results show that diatom communities respond mainly to chemical variables (pH, nutrients) with lake depth being the most important physiographical factor. However, the relative importance of certain parameters varied along latitudinal and trophic gradients. Canonical analyses demonstrated a strong concordance with regard to the predictor variables and the amount of variance they captured, suggesting that, on a broad scale, lake diatoms give a robust indication of past and present environmental conditions.

  2. A New Generation of Leaching Tests – The Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Provides an overview of newly released leaching tests that provide a more accurate source term when estimating environmental release of metals and other constituents of potential concern (COPCs). The Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) methods have been (1) develo...

  3. Properties of peatlands in relation to environmental factors in Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship of peatland morphology and distribution to environmental factors was investigated in northern and central Minnesota by field sampling of vegetation, soils, and water, and by remote sensing. Maps of peatlands made by machine classification of Landsat data six classes matched field data in 56% of all cases; maps drawn by hand on 1:80,000 scale aerial photographs were 72% correct. Peatland sites fall into two natural groups: ombrotrophic (bogs; pH less than 4.4) and minerotrophic (fens and swamps: pH 4.4 or more and usually greater than 5.6). The presence of certain common vascular-plant taxa can be used to classify sites into these trophic classes with over 90% accuracy. The structure of peatland vegetation is controlled by the soil-water regime, the disturbance history, and, to a less degree, by trophic conditions. Sites that have relatively well-aerated soils and have not been recently disturbed support dense forests. Vegetation structure is weakly related to the degree of decomposition of peat; hence vegetation is a poor indicator for taxonomic units of organic soils. Peatlands are common in Minnesota on surfaces glaciated during the Wisconsin Stage and where the mean annual potential evapotranspiration roughly equals or exceeds the mean annual precipitation. Bogs occur most often on sites where a high water table can be maintained without groundwater discharge, such as in depressions on low-permeability substrates and near local watershed divides on plains. Fens apparently occur in or below areas of groundwater discharge. Swamps (densely forested minerotrophic peatlands) occur in a wide variety of settings where the soil is aerated during the growing season.

  4. Cellular monitoring systems for the assessment of space environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, C. E.; Arenz, A.; Meier, M. M.; Baumstark-Khan, C.

    Harmful environmental factors - namely ionizing radiation - will continue to influence future manned space missions. The Cellular Biodiagnostic group at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) develops cellular monitoring systems, which include bacterial and mammalian cell systems capable of recognizing DNA damage as a consequence of the presence of genotoxic conditions. Such bioassay or biosensor systems will complement the physical detector systems used in space, insofar as they yield intrinsically biologically weighted measures of cellular responses. Furthermore, synergistic mutagenic and cancerogenic impacts of the radiation environment together with other potentially genotoxic constituents of the space habitat can be quantified using such systems, whose signals are especially relevant for the molecular damage to the DNA or the chromosomes. The experiment Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CERASP) has been selected by NASA to be performed on the International Space Station. It will supply basic information on the cellular response to radiation applied in microgravity. One of the biological end-points under investigation will be survival reflected by radiation-dependent reduction of constitutive expression of the enhanced variant of green fluorescent protein (EGFP), originally isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea victoria. A second end-point will be gene activation by space flight conditions in mammalian cells, based on fluorescent promoter reporter systems using the destabilized EGFP variant (d2EGFP). The promoter element to be investigated will reflect the activity of the NF-kB stress response pathway as an anti-apoptotic radiation response. DNA damage will be measured by fluorescent analysis of DNA unwinding (FADU). The systems have worked properly for terrestrial applications during the first experiments. Experiments using accelerated particles produced at the French heavy ion accelerator GANIL have given insights into cellular mechanisms

  5. Factors Influencing the Desire To Take Environmental Action in Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau, Diane; Chouinard, Omer; Musafiri, Jean-Pierre; IsaBelle, Claire

    In a coastal community, four social groups were chosen to participate in various educational programs designed to promote their desire to take environmental action. At the end of these educational programs, conducted by a scientist and an environmental educator, the participants were invited to get involved in the resolution of an environmental…

  6. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This report presents the environmental problems which may arise with the further development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, one of the eight Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the history and basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are its economic and resource requirements.…

  7. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Fuels from Biomass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental issues associated with the further development of biomass production and biomass conversion systems. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are resource requirements. The potential effects of this…

  8. Environmental factors influencing public health and medicine: policy implications.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Rueben; Walker, Bailus; Nathan, Vincent R.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental health threats are increasing throughout the United States, particularly in low-income populations and in communities of color. Environmental science researchers are investigating plausible associations between the environment and human health. As a result, the role and responsibility of the primary care physicians and other health care providers are changing. This paper highlights selected lines of evidence suggesting that clinicians should now consider interactions between humans and their environment as central to providing effective primary care. Subject areas include: exposure to environmental agents, reproductive toxicity, pulmonary disease, neurobehavioral toxicity, endocrine disruptors, mechanisms of environmental disease, and cultural competence. Concerns about these and other environmentally related issues influence the manner in which primary care is practiced now, and will be practiced in the future. Biomedical technology and community awareness demand that physicians pay more attention to advances in environmental medicine. Ironically, one of the least taught subjects in medical school is environmental medicine. To effectively respond to growing concerns about the role of the environment in human health, clinicians, researchers, educators, public policy officials, and the general public must join together to reduce the risk of environmental health threats and improve quality of life. PMID:11995631

  9. The Factor Content of Bilateral Trade: An Empirical Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Yong-Seok; Krishna, Pravin

    2004-01-01

    The factor proportions model of international trade is one of the most influential theories in international economics. Its central standing in this field has appropriately prompted, particularly recently, intense empirical scrutiny. A substantial and growing body of empirical work has tested the predictions of the theory on the net factor content…

  10. Model Misspecification and Invariance Testing Using Confirmatory Factor Analytic Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Brian F.; Finch, W. Holmes

    2011-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analytic procedures are routinely implemented to provide evidence of measurement invariance. Current lines of research focus on the accuracy of common analytic steps used in confirmatory factor analysis for invariance testing. However, the few studies that have examined this procedure have done so with perfectly or near…

  11. Factor Analysis Studies of the Citizenship Knowledge Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John D.

    1982-01-01

    The Citizenship Knowledge Test contains subtests designed to measure subareas of the overall construct of citizenship knowledge. Two factor analysis studies indicated that the test is construct valid. It can, therefore, be used as a general measure of the construct citizenship knowledge. (Author/RM)

  12. Factors Of Environmental Safety And Environmentally Efficient Technologies Transportation Facilities Gas Transportation Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Bogdan U.

    2017-01-01

    The stable development of the European countries depends on a reliable and efficient operation of the gas transportation system (GTS). With high reliability of GTS it is necessary to ensure its industrial and environmental safety. In this article the major factors influencing on an industrial and ecological safety of GTS are analyzed, sources of GTS safety decreasing is revealed, measures for providing safety are proposed. The article shows that use of gas-turbine engines of gas-compressor units (GCU) results in the following phenomena: emissions of harmful substances in the atmosphere; pollution by toxic waste; harmful noise and vibration; thermal impact on environment; decrease in energy efficiency. It is shown that for the radical problem resolution of an industrial and ecological safety of gas-transmission system it is reasonable to use gas-compressor units driven by electric motors. Their advantages are shown. Perspective technologies of these units and experience of their use in Europe and the USA are given in this article.

  13. The role of environmental factors on the evolution of phenotypic diversity in vesicular stomatitis virus populations

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Tsurkan, Sarah D.; Herr, Roger A.; Khuder, Sadik; Wilke, Claus O.

    2013-01-01

    Virus adaptation to an ever-changing environment requires the availability of variants with phenotypes that can fulfil new requirements for replication. High mutation rates result in the generation of these variants. The factors that contribute to the maintenance or elimination of this diversity, however, are not fully understood. This study used a collection of vesicular stomatitis virus strains generated under different conditions to measure the extent of variation within each population, and tested the effects of several environmental factors on diversity. It was found that the host-cell type used for selection sometimes had an effect on the extent of variation and that there may be different levels of variation over time. Persistent infections promoted higher levels of diversity than acute infections, presumably due to complementation. In contrast, environmental heterogeneity, host breadth and the cell type used for testing (as opposed to the cell type used for selection) did not seem to have an effect on the amount of phenotypic diversity observed. PMID:23239575

  14. Industry efficiency and total factor productivity growth under resources and environmental constraint in China.

    PubMed

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X H

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity.

  15. Environmental testing of a prototypic digital safety channel, Phase I: System design and test methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Turner, G.W.; Mullens, J.A.

    1995-04-01

    A microprocessor-based reactor trip channel has been assembled for environmental testing under an Instrumentation and Control (I&C) Qualification Program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of this program is to establish the technical basis and acceptance criteria for the qualification of advanced I&C systems. The trip channel implemented for this study employs technologies and digital subsystems representative of those proposed for use in some advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs) such as the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). It is expected that these tests will reveal any potential system vulnerabilities for technologies representative of those proposed for use in ALWRs. The experimental channel will be purposely stressed considerably beyond what it is likely to experience in a normal nuclear power plant environment, so that the tests can uncover the worst-case failure modes (i.e., failures that are likely to prevent an entire trip system from performing its safety function when required to do so). Based on information obtained from this study, it may be possible to recommend tests that are likely to indicate the presence of such failure mechanisms. Such recommendations would be helpful in augmenting current qualification guidelines.

  16. Environmental Factors Affecting the Permanence of Library Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessel, Carl J.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews pertinent evidence relating to deterioration originating with air pollution, heat, humidity, light, and biological agents; and suggests how librarians may lengthen the useful life of library materials through environmental controls. (Author/JS)

  17. Influence of Environmental Factors on Feammox Activity in Soil Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    The oxidation of ammonium (NH4+) under iron reducing conditions, referred to as Feammox, has been described in recent years by several investigators. The environmental characteristics in which the Feammox process occurs need to be understood in order to determine its contribution to the nitrogen cycle. In this study, a total of 66 locations were selected covering 4 different types of soils/sediments: wetland soils (W), river sediments (R), forest soils (F), and paddy soils (P) from several locations in central New Jersey, at Tims Branch at Savannah River in South Carolina, both in the Unities States, and at several locations in the Guangdong province in China. Though soil chemical analyses, serial culturing experiments, analysis of microbial communities, and using a canonical correspondence analysis, the occurrence of the Feammox reaction and the presence of Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6, which plays a key role in the Feammox process(1), were found in 17 samples. Analyses showed that the soil pH, as well as its Fe(III) and NH4+ content were the most important factors controlling the distribution of these Feammox microorganisms. Based on the results, soils in the subtropical forests and soils that are near agricultural areas could be Feammox hotspot. Under the conditions that favor the presence and activity of Feammox microorganisms and their oxidation of NH4+, denitrification bacteria were also active. However, the presence of nitrous oxide (N2O) reducers was limited under these conditions, implying that at locations where the Feammox process is active, conditions are favoring a higher ratio of N2O: N2 as the nitrogen (N) end products. Incubations of soils where the presence of Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 was detected, were conducted for 120 days under two different DO levels (DO < 0.02 mg/L and DO = 0.8~1.0 mg/L) showing comparable amounts of NH4+ oxidation. In the incubations with DO < 0.02 mg/L, the proportion of Acidimicrobiaceae bacteria increased and

  18. Environmental and genetic factors affecting cow survival of Israeli Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Weller, J I; Ezra, E

    2015-01-01

    The objectives were to investigate the effects of various environmental factors that may affect herd-life of Israeli Holsteins, including first-calving age and season, calving ease, number of progeny born, and service sire for first calving in complete and truncated records; and to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations between herd-life and the other traits included in the Israeli breeding index. The basic data set consisted of 590,869 cows in milk recording herds with first freshening day between 1985 and at least 8 yr before the cut-off date of September 15, 2013. Herd-life was measured as days from first calving to culling. The phenotypic and genetic trends for herd-life were 5.7 and 16.8d/yr. The genetic trend was almost linear, whereas the phenotypic trend showed 4 peaks and 3 valleys. Cows born in February and March had the shortest herd-life, whereas cows born in September had the longest herd-life. Herd-life was maximal with calving age of 23mo, which is 1mo less than the mean calving age, and minimal at 19 and 31mo of calving age. Dystocia and twinning on first-parity calving reduced herd-life by approximately180 and 120d, but the interaction effect increased herd-life by 140d. Heritability for herd-life was 0.14. Despite the fact that the service sire effect was significant in the fixed model analysis, service sire effect accounted for <0.05% of the total variance. In the analysis of 1,431,938 truncated records, the effects of dystocia and twinning rate were very similar but less than 50% of the effects found in the analysis of complete records. Pregnancy at the truncation date increased expected herd-life by 432d. The correlation between actual herd-life and predicted herd-life based on truncated records was 0.44. Genetic correlations between the truncated records and actual herd-life were 0.75 for records truncated after 6mo but approached unity for records truncated after 3 yr. The genetic correlations of herd-life with first-parity milk

  19. A Report on the Effects of Environmental and Institutional Factors on College and University Enrollments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakower, Jack Y.; Zammuto, Raymond F.

    The effects of five environmental and five institutional factors on college and university enrollments during the period between 1975-1976 and 1980-1981 were studied with a sample of 2,101 institutions. The environmental factors were federal student aid, state student aid, number of 18-year-olds, unemployment, and level of economic wealth as…

  20. Update on environmental risk factors for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Froehlich, Tanya E; Anixt, Julia S; Loe, Irene M; Chirdkiatgumchai, Vilawan; Kuan, Lisa; Gilman, Richard C

    2011-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurobehavioral disorder affecting 5% to 10% of children. Although considered to be a highly familial disorder, ADHD heritability estimates of 60% to 80% highlight the considerable role that environmental factors may still play in disorder susceptibility. Proposed ADHD environmental risk factors include prenatal substance exposures, heavy metal and chemical exposures, nutritional factors, and lifestyle/psychosocial factors. This paper reviews the literature published in 2010 investigating the association between environmental risk factors and ADHD or related symptomatology. Sources of risk factor exposure and the proposed mechanism by which each exposure is linked to ADHD-related neurobehavioral changes are also reported. Methodologic limitations of the current literature are discussed, and guidelines for future study are proposed. An improved understanding of the role that environmental factors play in ADHD etiology is critical to future ADHD prevention efforts.

  1. The impact of selected environmental, behavioral and psychosocial factors on schoolchildren's somatic and mental health.

    PubMed

    Vondrova, Diana; Kapsdorfer, Daniela; Argalasova, Lubica; Hirosova, Katarina; Samohyl, Martin; Sevcikova, Ludmila

    2017-03-01

    Children develop rapidly and many exogenous determinants of health significantly affect their somatic and mental development. There is a subjective perception of cognitive load associated with the educational process. The aim of the study is to assess individual environmental, behavioral and psychosocial factors influencing physical health and to investigate the amount of mental load in children. We investigated 87 schoolchildren (47 girls and 40 boys) aged 10-12 years, who were attending primary school in Bratislava. To assess values of selected factors we used a questionnaire form and personality characteristics were estimated by standardized psycho-diagnostic and IQ tests [range of classic fear, social-situation anxiety and jitters [skala Klasickeho strachu a Socialno-situacnej (in Slovak)] (KSAT), Eyesenck Personality Questionnaire for children (EPQ), Raven's IQ test]. Self-reported perception of mental load was assessed by questionnaire of subjective feelings and states (SFS). Children's body parameters were assessed using anthropometric measurements [height, weight, chest, abdominal and hip girth, Rohrer's index (RI), body mass index (BMI)] and a body fat measurement method (skinfold thickness). The results confirmed a significant relationship between higher parameters of overweight and obesity and irregular breakfast eating (p<0.05), absence of family dining (p<0.05), exposure to tobacco smoke in the family environment (p<0.01) and mother's level of education (p<0.05). Almost 60% of children reported high mental effort and cognitive load associated with the educational process. We note a close relationship between the higher mental load and the score of neuroticism (p<0.01). The physical and mental health of schoolchildren is significantly affected by exogenous factors. Therefore, in terms of protection and promotion of children's health, it is important to evaluate and monitor environmental risk factors and to form their healthy habits.

  2. Brazilian version of the instrument of environmental assessment Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF): translation, cross-cultural adaptation and reliability

    PubMed Central

    Furtado, Sheyla R. C.; Sampaio, Rosana F.; Vaz, Daniela V.; Pinho, Brena A. S.; Nascimento, Isabella O.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Environmental factors are essential for the characterization of human functioning and disability; however, the shortage of standardized instruments to assess environmental factors has limited the design of scientific investigations directed at identifying barriers to and facilitators of social participation of people with disabilities. Objectives : To translate to Brazilian Portuguese, cross-culturally adapt, and verify the reliability of an environmental assessment questionnaire, entitled Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF). Method : The questionnaire was translated to Portuguese, analyzed, translated back to English, and compared with the original version. The final version (CHIEF-BR) was submitted to 47 caregivers of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). The intra-rater reliability was tested using quadratic kappa and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), through interviews of 23 caregivers drawn from the total sample, on two occasions 10 days apart. Results : During submission of the questionnaires, it was observed that examples were needed in order to facilitate the understanding of the questions related to the politics sub-scale. Quadratic kappa showed that test-retest reliability of each question varied from 0.28 to 1.0 for the frequency score and from 0.30 to 0.98 for the magnitude score. Intraclass correlation coefficients for total scores showed high consistency indices (ICC≥0.92) for test-retest. Conclusion : The Brazilian version of the CHIEF was reproducible and applicable to the study sample. It may serve as an instrument to characterize the environmental barriers as well as a way to document the effects of interventions aimed at minimizing the impact of such barriers on the participation of children and adolescents with CP. PMID:25003279

  3. Measuring Several Aspects of Attention in One Test: The Factor Structure of Conners's Continuous Performance Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Jens; Kovalik-Gran, Iwona

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Continuous performance tests are known to typically measure sustained attention but usually also yield parameters that potentially measure other subprocesses of attention. The aim of the present study was to test the factor structure of the Conners's Continuous Performance Test (CCPT) in a heterogeneous clinical sample consisting of…

  4. Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mark L.; Buza, Matthew; Manobianco, John; Merceret, Francis J.

    2007-01-01

    ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS). The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains onboard satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE) that will culminate with limited prototype flights of the system in spring 2007. By leveraging current advances in micro and nanotechnology, the probe mass, size, cost, and complexity can be reduced substantially so that large numbers of probes could be deployed routinely to support ground, launch, and landing operations at KSC and other locations. A full-scale system will improve the data density for the local initialization of high-resolution numerical weather prediction systems by at least an order of magnitude and provide a significantly expanded in situ data base to evaluate launch commit criteria and flight rules. When applied to launch or landing sites, this capability will reduce both weather hazards and weather-related scrubs, thus enhancing both safety and cost-avoidance for vehicles processed by the Shuttle, Launch Services Program, and Constellation Directorates. The GEMSTONE project will conclude with a field experiment in which 10 to 15 probes are released over KSC in east central Florida. The probes will be neutrally buoyant at different altitudes from 500 to 3000 meters and will report their position, speed, heading, temperature, humidity, and

  5. Key systemic and environmental risk factors for implant failure.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Dolphus R; Jasper, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Dental implants are an important treatment option for patients interested in replacing lost or missing teeth. Although a robust body of literature has reviewed risk factors for tooth loss, the evidence for risk factors associated with dental implants is less well defined. This article focuses on key systemic risk factors relating to dental implant failure, as well as on perimucositis and peri-implantitis.

  6. On the factor structure of standardized educational achievement tests.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Tim W; Cudeck, Robert; Ferrer, Emilio; Widaman, Keith F

    2010-01-01

    This research analyzed the factor structure at both the item- and subtest-level of California's norm- and criterion-referenced standardized educational achievement tests (SEAT) used in that state's high-stakes educational accountability assessments. It was shown through full information factor analysis and multidimensional IRT models (e.g., TESTFACT and NOHARM) that, at the item-level, SEATs are invariably highly unidimensional (i.e., they appear to tap a unidimensional theta scale) even when items representing such diverse content areas such as English, science, mathematics, and history are analyzed simultaneously as a single measure. These item-level factors also accounted for a relatively small proportion (1/4 to 1/3) of the variance. It was also shown that, when these tests are analyzed using more reliable indicators such as subtests, a much richer factor structure emerged that accounted for a larger portion (about 2/3) of the total common variance. As expected, these factor structure configurations (and underlying dimensionality) were preserved across the item- and subtest-levels. However, the factors emerging from both the item- and subtest-level analyses were highly correlated and produced strong second-order and general factors. The meaning underlying these results was examined, along with their implications with respect to the assumptions underlying modern approaches to test calibration, scaling, and score interpretation.

  7. Environmental statement for the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center and Mississippi Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The environmental impact was investigated for the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, and the Mississippi Test Facility. The installations are described, and the missions, environmental impact, and commitment of resources are discussed. It is concluded that there are negligible adverse environmental effects related to these two installations.

  8. Epidemiology, environmental risk factors and genetics of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Delamarre, Anna; Meissner, Wassilios G

    2017-02-08

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a frequent neurodegenerative disease with a premotor phase that lasts several years. Risk factors that have been linked to PD are tobacco, caffeine, black tea, pesticides and calcium channel blockers. Some risk factors may be due to inverse causality (e.g. changes in personality during the premotor phase). The genetics of PD are complex with a contribution of Mendelian (e.g. SNCA, LRRK2, Parkin, Pink1,…) and non-Mendelian factors (e.g. single nucleotide polymorphisms). Glucocerebrosidase gene mutations (Gaucher disease) are currently the strongest genetic risk factor for PD. Studying risk factors will help to better understand the pathogenesis of PD.

  9. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2006 and Site Description (Volume 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills

    2007-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2006 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of nonradiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, a summary of compliance with environmental regulations, pollution prevention and waste minimization accomplishments, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2006 produced to be a more cost-effective means of distributing information contained in the NTSER to interested DOE stakeholders.

  10. STREAMLINED APPROACH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 116: AREA 25 TEST CELL C FACILITYNEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 116, Area 25 Test Cell C Facility. The Test Cell C Facility is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site approximately 25 miles northwest of Mercury, Nevada.

  11. Impacts Analyses Supporting the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Annette L. Schafer; Lloyd C. Brown; David C. Carathers; Boyd D. Christensen; James J. Dahl; Mark L. Miller; Cathy Ottinger Farnum; Steven Peterson; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Peter V. Subaiya; Daniel M. Wachs; Ruth F. Weiner

    2013-11-01

    Environmental and health impacts are presented for activities associated with transient testing of nuclear fuel and material using two candidate test reactors. Transient testing involves irradiation of nuclear fuel or materials for short time-periods under high neutron flux rates. The transient testing process includes transportation of nuclear fuel or materials inside a robust shipping cask to a hot cell, removal from the shipping cask, pre-irradiation examination of the nuclear materials, assembly of an experiment assembly, transportation of the experiment assembly to the test reactor, irradiation in the test reactor, transport back to the hot cell, and post-irradiation examination of the nuclear fuel or material. The potential for environmental or health consequences during the transportation, examination, and irradiation actions are assessed for normal operations, off-normal (accident) scenarios, and transportation. Impacts to the environment (air, soil, and groundwater), are assessed during each phase of the transient testing process. This report documents the evaluation of potential consequences to the general public. This document supports the Environmental Assessment (EA) required by the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) (42 USC Subsection 4321 et seq.).

  12. Accelerated and environmental module stress testing at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C.R.; Basso, T.S.; del Cueto, J.A.; McMahon, T.J.; Pruett, J.; Trudell, D.

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Module Testing and Technology Validation task at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The extensive module testing capabilities at the Outdoor Test Facility are outlined, emphasizing the test facilities, equipment, and analytical services available. Highlights and results of several recent testing efforts are then presented, followed by a list of the external programs supported by the task. The paper concludes with a brief description of the new testing programs that are planned for the near future. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Environmental assessment of the 40 kilowatt fuel cell system field test operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenbacher, G.

    1982-01-01

    This environmental assessment examines the potential environmental consequences, both adverse and beneficial, of the 40 kW fuel cell system system field test operation. The assessment is of necessity generic in nature since actual test sites were not selected. This assessment provides the basis for determining the need for an environmental impact statement. In addition, this assessment provides siting criteria to avoid or minimize negative environmental impacts and standards for determining candidate test sites, if any, for which site specific assessments may be required.

  14. Social and Environmental Factors Associated with Preschoolers' Nonsedentary Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Addy, Cheryl L.; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The twofold purposes of the investigation were (a) to describe with direct observation data the physical activity behaviors and the accompanying social and environmental events of those behaviors for children in preschools and (b) to determine which contextual conditions were predictors of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and…

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION AND DEVELOPMENT DISABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    A number of environmental agents have been shown to demonstrate neurotoxic effects either in human or laboratory animal studies. Critical windows of vulnerability to the effects of these agents occur both pre- and postnatally. The nervous system is relatively un...

  16. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Solar Total Energy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental, safety, and social/institutional issues associated with the further development of Solar Total Energy Systems (STES). Solar total energy systems represent a specific application of the Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this analysis, the…

  17. Defining criteria for good environmental journalism and testing their applicability: An environmental news review as a first step to more evidence based environmental science reporting.

    PubMed

    Rögener, Wiebke; Wormer, Holger

    2015-08-11

    While the quality of environmental science journalism has been the subject of much debate, a widely accepted benchmark to assess the quality of coverage of environmental topics is missing so far. Therefore, we have developed a set of defined criteria of environmental reporting. This instrument and its applicability are tested in a newly established monitoring project for the assessment of pieces on environmental issues, which refer to scientific sources and therefore can be regarded as a special field of science journalism. The quality is assessed in a kind of journalistic peer review. We describe the systematic development of criteria, which might also be a model procedure for other fields of science reporting. Furthermore, we present results from the monitoring of 50 environmental reports in German media. According to these preliminary data, the lack of context and the deficient elucidation of the evidence pose major problems in environmental reporting.

  18. Impact of environmental factors and poverty on pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Weck, Rebekah L; Paulose, Tessie; Flaws, Jodi A

    2008-06-01

    Studies have indicated that various societal factors such as toxicant exposure, maternal habits, occupational hazards, psychosocial factors, socioeconomic status, racial disparity, chronic stress, and infection may impact pregnancy outcomes. These outcomes include spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, alterations in the development of the fetus, and long-term health of offspring. Although much is known about individual pregnancy outcomes, little is known about the associations between societal factors and pregnancy outcomes. This manuscript reviews some of the literature available on the effects of the above-mentioned societal factors on pregnancy outcomes and examines some potential remedies for preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes in the future.

  19. Prognostic Factors for Distress After Genetic Testing for Hereditary Cancer.

    PubMed

    Voorwinden, Jan S; Jaspers, Jan P C

    2016-06-01

    The psychological impact of an unfavorable genetic test result for counselees at risk for hereditary cancer seems to be limited: only 10-20 % of counselees have psychological problems after testing positive for a known familial mutation. The objective of this study was to find prognostic factors that can predict which counselees are most likely to develop psychological problems after presymptomatic genetic testing. Counselees with a 50 % risk of BRCA1/2 or Lynch syndrome completed questionnaires at three time-points: after receiving a written invitation for a genetic counseling intake (T1), 2-3 days after receiving their DNA test result (T2), and 4-6 weeks later (T3). The psychological impact of the genetic test result was examined shortly and 4-6 weeks after learning their test result. Subsequently, the influence of various potentially prognostic factors on psychological impact were examined in the whole group. Data from 165 counselees were analyzed. Counselees with an unfavorable outcome did not have more emotional distress, but showed significantly more cancer worries 4-6 weeks after learning their test result. Prognostic factors for cancer worries after genetic testing were pre-existing cancer worries, being single, a high risk perception of getting cancer, and an unfavorable test result. Emotional distress was best predicted by pre-existing cancer worries and pre-existing emotional distress. The psychological impact of an unfavorable genetic test result appears considerable if it is measured as "worries about cancer." Genetic counselors should provide additional guidance to counselees with many cancer worries, emotional distress, a high risk perception or a weak social network.

  20. Environmental Assessment for the Construction and Operation of the Constellation Program A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Carolyn D.

    2007-01-01

    This document is an environmental assessment that examines the environmental impacts of a proposed plan to clear land and to construct a test stand for use in testing the J-2X rocket engine at simulated altitude conditions in support of NASA's Constellation Program.

  1. [Individual social factors and their association with environmental socioeconomic factors--a descriptive small-area analysis in the city of Dortmund].

    PubMed

    Neuner, B; Berger, K

    2010-11-01

    Apart from individual resources and individual risk factors, environmental socioeconomic factors are determinants of individual health and illness. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the association of small-area environmental socioeconomic parameters (proportion of 14-year-old and younger population, proportion of married citizens, proportion of unemployed, and the number of private cars per inhabitant) with individual socioeconomic parameters (education, income, unemployment, social class and the country of origin) in Dortmund, a major city in Germany. After splitting the small-area environmental socioeconomic parameters of 62 statistical administration units into quintiles, differences in the distribution of individual social parameters were evaluated using adjusted tests for trend. Overall, 1,312 study participants (mean age 53.6 years, 52.9% women) were included. Independently of age and gender, individual social parameters were unequally distributed across areas with different small-area environmental socioeconomic parameters. A place of birth abroad and social class were significantly associated with all small-area environmental socioeconomic parameters. If the impact of environmental socioeconomic parameters on individual health or illness is determined, the unequal small-area distribution of individual social parameters should be considered.

  2. In silico Testing of Environmental Impact on Embryonic Vascular Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding risks to embryonic development from exposure to environmental chemicals is a significant challenge given the diverse chemical landscape and paucity of data for most of these compounds. EPA’s Virtual Embryo project is building in silico models of morphogenesis to tes...

  3. Common Genetic and Nonshared Environmental Factors Contribute to the Association between Socioemotional Dispositions and the Externalizing Factor in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jeanette; Allan, Nicholas; Mikolajewski, Amy J.; Hart, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Childhood behavioral disorders including conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Prior twin research shows that common sets of genetic and environmental factors are associated with these various disorders and they form a latent factor called…

  4. [Physical factors in human ecology and environmental hygiene].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanin, Iu A

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers the problem while studying various physical factors of the environment. It presents prospects for further investigations of the influence of physical factors on human health and the quality of the environment. The paper also gives a detailed description of advances and promising lines of studies in the area under discussion.

  5. Environmental factors, life events, and trauma in the course of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Aldinger, Fanny; Schulze, Thomas G

    2017-01-01

    The etiology and clinical course of bipolar disorder are considered to be determined by genetic and environmental factors. Although the kindling hypothesis emphasizes the impact of environmental factors on initial onset, their connection to the outcome and clinical course have been poorly established. Hence, there have been numerous research efforts to investigate the impact of environmental factors on the clinical course of illness. Our aim is to outline recent research on the impact of environmental determinants on the clinical course of bipolar disorder. We carried out a computer-aided search to find publications on an association between environmental factors, life events, and the clinical course of bipolar disorder. Publications in the reference lists of suitable papers have also been taken into consideration. We performed a narrative overview on all eligible publications. The available body of data supports an association between environmental factors and the clinical course of bipolar disorder. These factors comprise prenatal, early-life, and entire lifespan aspects. Given varying sample sizes and several methodological limitations, the reported quality and extent of the association between environmental factors and the clinical course of bipolar disorder should be interpreted with utmost caution. Systematic longitudinal long-term follow-up trials are needed to obtain a clearer and more robust picture.

  6. Effect of social and environmental factors on ant aggregation: a general response?

    PubMed

    Depickère, Stéphanie; Fresneau, Dominique; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2008-09-01

    In social species, the interactions that occur between individuals and also between individuals and their environment can lead to various spatial distributions. Our goal was to understand how both factors (social and environmental) can affect such spatial distribution of individuals. Aggregation experiments were conducted on the ant Crematogaster scutellaris: the level of inter-attraction between individuals was characterized and the influence of an environmental factor (light intensity) was studied. Two ethological castes (brood-tenders and foragers) were tested, showing a strong and similar aggregation pattern-although faster for foragers. This difference could be explained by a higher degree of inter-attraction for brood-tenders, resulting in longer interaction time and therefore a slower aggregation rate. We also showed the influence of light conditions by carrying out experiments in total darkness and under red light. C. scutellaris appeared highly sensitive to the red light, aggregating just underneath it. Nevertheless, the level of aggregation is not affected by the luminosity condition. These results are discussed in relation to the ecology of the species, and are compared with results obtained in another ant species, Lasius niger, which exhibits a similar response to aggregation. We propose, therefore, a general link between the level/pattern of aggregation and polyethism in ants.

  7. Social-Environmental Factors and Protective Sexual Behavior Among Sex Workers: The Encontros Intervention in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Donini, Angela; Díaz, Juan; Chinaglia, Magda; Reingold, Arthur; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine the association of social–environmental factors with condom use and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among 420 sex workers participating in an STI/HIV prevention study in Corumbá, Brazil, to inform future intervention efforts. Methods. Participants provided urine samples for polymerase chain reaction testing of chlamydia and gonorrhea and responded to multi-item scales addressing perceived social cohesion, participation in networks, and access to and management of resources. We conducted multivariate log-linear and negative binomial regression analyses of these data. Results. Increased social cohesion was inversely associated with number of unprotected sex acts in the preceding week among women (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.80; P < .01), and there was a marginal association among men (adjusted IRR = 0.41; P = .08). Women's increased participation in social networks was associated with a decrease in frequency of unprotected sex acts (adjusted IRR = 0.83; P = .04), as was men's access to and management of social and material resources (IRR = 0.15; P = .01). Social–environmental factors were not associated with STIs. Conclusions. The social context within which populations negotiate sexual behaviors is associated with condom use. Future efforts to prevent STI/HIV should incorporate strategies to modify the social environment. PMID:19762673

  8. Stationwide environmental baseline survey and related environmental factors, Ontario Air National Guard Station, California

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-26

    This Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS) has been prepared to document the environmental condition of real property at Ontario Air National Guard Station (ANGS), California, resulting from the storage, release, and disposal of hazardous substances and petroleum products and their derivatives over the installations history. This EBS is also used by the Air Force to meet its obligations under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 United States Code Section 9620(h), as amended by the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) (Public Law 102-426). Table ES-1 list all uncontaminated property based on information obtained through a records search, interviews, and visual site inspections at Ontario ANGS. Figure ES-1 depicts their respective locations.

  9. Environmental and NSAID-enteropathy: dysbiosis as a common factor.

    PubMed

    Syer, Stephanie D; Wallace, John L

    2014-03-01

    At first sight, environmental enteropathy and NSAID enteropathy may appear to have little in common. One occurs almost exclusively in poor countries and the other primarily in rich countries. One is the consequence of unhygienic living conditions, while the other is a consequence of use of a drug for relief of pain and inflammation. However, there may be a common pathogenic link between these two conditions, namely a significant alteration in the microbiome (dysbiosis), and this raises the possibility of common approaches to treatment. Correction of the dysbiosis that is central to the intestinal tissue injury and dysfunction observed in environmental and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced enteropathies is a logical approach to bringing about restoration of intestinal function. For both conditions, removal of the trigger for dysbiosis is the simplest approach, but is not always feasible. Correcting the underlying dysbiosis through the use of probiotics or prebiotics may be a viable option.

  10. Bed and toilet height as potential environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Capezuti, Elizabeth; Wagner, Laura; Brush, Barbara L; Boltz, Marie; Renz, Susan; Secic, Michelle

    2008-02-01

    Seat height that is too high (> 120% of lower leg length [LLL]) or too low (< 80% of LLL) can impede safe transfer and result in falls. This study examines the difference between LLL of frail nursing home residents and the height of their toilets and beds in the lowest position, compares the patient or environmental characteristics of those able to transfer from the bed or toilet to those who cannot, and determines the relationship of patient or environmental characteristics to bed-related falls. A retrospective observational design using secondary data from 263 nursing home residents finds that bed height of three fourths of participants was greater than 140% of LLL, whereas toilet height of more than half was 100% to 120% of LLL. Increased fall risk is associated with increased age, shorter length of stay, normal lower extremity range of motion, less cognitive impairment, more behavioral symptoms, and no complaints of pain during exam.

  11. Influence of environmental factors on the onset and course of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Amit Kumar; Chacko, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Numerous environmental factors have been linked with inflammatory bowel disease. These include smoking, diet, hygiene, drugs, geographical and psychosocial factors. These factors may either increase the risk of or protect against developing this condition and can also affect the course of illness in a positive or negative manner. A number of studies have examined the influence of environmental factors on inflammatory bowel diseases as a whole as well as on ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease separately. As there are differences in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, the effect of environmental factors on their onset and course is not always similar. Some factors have shown a consistent association, while reports on others have been conflicting. In this article we discuss the current evidence on the roles of these factors on inflammatory bowel disease, both as causative/protective agents and as modifiers of disease course. PMID:26811649

  12. Influence of environmental factors on the onset and course of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Amit Kumar; Chacko, Ashok

    2016-01-21

    Numerous environmental factors have been linked with inflammatory bowel disease. These include smoking, diet, hygiene, drugs, geographical and psychosocial factors. These factors may either increase the risk of or protect against developing this condition and can also affect the course of illness in a positive or negative manner. A number of studies have examined the influence of environmental factors on inflammatory bowel diseases as a whole as well as on ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease separately. As there are differences in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, the effect of environmental factors on their onset and course is not always similar. Some factors have shown a consistent association, while reports on others have been conflicting. In this article we discuss the current evidence on the roles of these factors on inflammatory bowel disease, both as causative/protective agents and as modifiers of disease course.

  13. Genetic and environmental factors affecting host response to drugs and other chemical compounds in our environment.

    PubMed Central

    Vesell, E S; Passananti, G T

    1977-01-01

    Compared to laboratory animals, humans are extremely heterogenous with respect to the many factors that can influence the distribution and biological effects of toxic chemicals. This heterogeneity can prevent an accurate assessment of the impact of a particular toxic compound on the health of an individual subject. Some of the factors that can significantly modify the host response to certain drugs, which serve in this review as a model for environmental chemicals, are enumerated and discussed. Although the mechanisms by which many of these factors modify the biological effects of certain environmental chemicals and drugs have been determined in some cases, better definition of the nature of interactions between these factors and environmental chemicals in a particular individual is required at a biochemical and molecular level. Recommendations are offered for the further development of our knowledge concerning interactions between environmental chemicals and such factors in a particular individual. PMID:598349

  14. Effect of environmental factors on film badge dosimetry readings of dental office personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, W.K.; Kaugars, G.E.; Broga, D.W. )

    1990-12-01

    Inadvertent exposure of film badges to environmental factors may produce fogging of the film and yield higher radiation exposure readings. Common environmental factors in everyday living were studied to assess their effect on film badge readings. Only heat appeared to have any significant effect, because moisture, chemicals, pressure, cold temperature, and non-work-related electromagnetic radiation did not substantially alter film badge readings. Therefore not all unexplained high readings on personnel film badge reports may be due to heat or other common environmental factors evaluated in this study.

  15. Does extreme environmental severity promote plant facilitation? An experimental field test in a subtropical coastal dune.

    PubMed

    Castanho, Camila T; Oliveira, Alexandre A; Prado, Paulo Inácio K L

    2015-07-01

    The stress gradient hypothesis (SGH) postulates how the balance between plant competition and facilitation shifts along environmental gradients. Early formulations of the SGH predicted that facilitation should increase monotonically with stress. However, a recent theoretical refinement of the SGH postulates stronger facilitation under moderate stress, followed by a decreasing role of facilitation in the most severe environments. We conducted field experiments along the most severe part of a coastal dune gradient in southeast Brazil to test the effect of stress on the intensity and importance of the net interactions between two tree species. First, we compared the performance of distinct life stages of Ternstroemia brasiliensis in the presence and absence of Guapira opposita adults along a beach-to-inland gradient, a gradient of environmental severity. To test the effect of one stress factor in particular, we also manipulated water availability, a limiting resource due to the sandy soils. At the most severe part of the coastal gradient (i.e. closest to the seashore), both intensity and importance of the interaction between G. opposita and T. brasiliensis were negatively related to stress, with a pattern consistent across distinct life stages of the target species. However, the sign of the net interaction depended on the life stage of the target species. Our results provide empirical evidence that the role of facilitation tends to wane, leading to neutral or even negative net interactions between species as stress reaches its maximum, as predicted by the recent refinements of the SGH.

  16. Simulant Selection and Environmental Assessment for Open-Air Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    Qrr- 9 11". 0-’ 20S03 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2 REPORT DATE 3 . REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 1994 March Final, 92 Jun - 92 Jun 4. TITLE AND...users should direct such requests to the National Technical Information Service. .. . ... Fr.... b IA. 1-0 aLV t• 3 Blank CONTENTS Page 1. INTRODUCTION...7 2. SIMULANT SELECTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT 8 ..- 3 . CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER

  17. Environmental factors and the development of disease and injury in the alimentary tract.

    PubMed Central

    Schedl, H P

    1977-01-01

    This review examines interactions between the alimentary tract and environmental agents. In these intera"ctions the alimentary tract is considered as an integrated organ system extending from mouth to anus. The alimentary tract shares with the skin and its appendages and the respiratory system the distinction of being a portal of entry into the human body for environmental agents as well as a target for their action. Food and water-borne environmental agents enter the body via the alimentary tract. By injurying the alimentary tract environmental agents after their portal of entry and thereby modulate their effects on the organism. Such modulation may enhance or depress effects of these agents. Interactions between environmental factors and the alimentary tract depend on (1) factors related to the alimentary tract that are determined by anatomic, physiologic, and biochemical considerations; (2) factors related to the environmental agents; and (3) individually determined factors. The role of these factors in development of disease and injury is considered. Environmental diseases of the alimentary tract and environmental agents acting on the gut are discussed and recommendations are made for future research. PMID:598351

  18. Development and field testing of an adaptive power factor controller

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sharkawi, M.; Venkata, S.S.; Butler, N.G.; Yinger, R.W.

    1987-12-01

    The Adaptive Power Factor Controller (APFC) is a device that switches capacitors electronically to achieve almost unity power factor at the point of installation. It was designed and developed at the University of Washington (UW), and is being tested at the R and D facility of the Southern California Edison Company (SCE). It is particularly intended for loads with dynamically varying reactive power demands such as induction generators in wind power stations, or cyclically changing loads such as induction motors in process industries. It is also ideally suited for improving the power factor profile of a distribution line. The purposes of this paper are two-fold: to explain the most recent design of the 50-kVAR APFC and to report the results of the field testing program on the device after it was installed at the terminals of a 50-kW three-phase induction generator located at the Dever Wind R and D site of SCE.

  19. The Savannah River Environmental Technology Field Test Platform: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Rossabi, J.; Riha, B.D.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.; Pemberton, B.E.; May, C.P.; Jarosch, T.R.; Looney, B.B.; Raymond, R.

    1995-03-14

    The principal goal in the development of new technologies for environmental monitoring and characterization is transferring them to organizations and individuals for use in site assessment and compliance monitoring. The DOE complex has devised several strategies to facilitate this transfer including joint research projects between private industries and government laboratories or universities (CRADAs) and streamlined licensing procedures. One strategy that has been under-utilized is a planned sequence gradually moving from laboratory development and field demonstration to long term evaluation and onsite use. Industrial partnership and commercial production can be initiated at any step based on the performance, market, user needs, and costs associated with the technology. This approach allows use of the technology by onsite groups for compliance monitoring tasks (e.g. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management), while following parallel research and development organizations the opportunity to evaluate the long term performance and to make modifications or improvements to the technology. This probationary period also provides regulatory organizations, potential industrial partners, and potential users with the opportunity to evaluate the technology`s performance and its utility for implementation in environmental characterization and monitoring programs.

  20. Positive Matrix Factorization Model for environmental data analyses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Positive Matrix Factorization is a receptor model developed by EPA to provide scientific support for current ambient air quality standards and implement those standards by identifying and quantifying the relative contributions of air pollution sources.

  1. Is Hypovitaminosis D One of the Environmental Risk Factors for Multiple Sclerosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierrot-Deseilligny, Charles; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The role of hypovitaminosis D as a possible risk factor for multiple sclerosis is reviewed. First, it is emphasized that hypovitaminosis D could be only one of the risk factors for multiple sclerosis and that numerous other environmental and genetic risk factors appear to interact and combine to trigger the disease. Secondly, the classical…

  2. Spacecraft Environmental Testing SMAP (Soil, Moisture, Active, Passive)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Testing a complete full up spacecraft to verify it will survive the environment, in which it will be exposed to during its mission, is a formidable task in itself. However, the ''test like you fly'' philosophy sometimes gets compromised because of cost, design and or time. This paper describes the thermal-vacuum and mass properties testing of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) earth orbiting satellite. SMAP will provide global observations of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state (the hydrosphere state). SMAP hydrosphere state measurements will be used to enhance understanding of processes that link the water, energy, and carbon cycles, and to extend the capabilities of weather and climate prediction models. It will explain the problems encountered, and the solutions developed, which minimized the risk typically associated with such an arduous process. Also discussed, the future of testing on expensive long lead-time spacecraft. Will we ever reach the ''build and shoot" scenario with minimal or no verification testing?

  3. The influence of environmental factors in chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Jawien, Arkadiusz

    2003-01-01

    The present article focuses on the prevalence and risk factors for varicose veins and the severe stage of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). The evaluation was made by reviewing the results of specific well-designed studies performed on the general population (case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, and large case series). Data from the literature were compared with the results of a recent multicenter cross-sectional study in Poland, in which 40,095 individuals from 803 registers of primary care physicians were clinically examined and assigned a clinical CEAP class. Analysis of the associations between varicose veins or severe CVI prevalence and factors that are usually considered as representing a risk for the development of CVI was performed. In Poland, a prevalence of varicose veins and severe CVI (skin changes, leg ulcer) similar to that observed in the other developed countries was reported. It was more common in women, but female sex was not found to be a strong risk factor. Among the risk factors most closely associated with CVI were age, family history of varicose veins, and constipation, whatever the sex. This is in keeping with findings from recent epidemiologic studies. Obesity and lack of physical activity were strongly associated with CVI in women, more so than in men. The number of pregnancies (more than 2 pregnancies) significantly distinguished between women with and without CVI. Regarding these latter risk factors, the Polish results do not contradict the commonly held beliefs that are found in the literature. A modest association was found with female sex, previous injury in legs (DVT), and remaining in the standing position for a long time, although these parameters are usually among those mostly agreed as being risk factors. The role of the prolonged sitting position was not established. The Polish epidemiologic survey provided updated figures on the prevalence of and risk factors for varicose veins and severe CVI, using clear and

  4. The effects of community environmental factors on obesity among Korean adults: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Nan-He; Kwon, Soonman

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study explored multidimensional factors related to obesity by dividing them into individual and environmental factors, and performed multilevel analysis to investigate community environmental effects. METHODS: Data from the 2011 and 2012 Community Health Surveys were used for the analysis. Community-level variables, constructed from various regional statistics, were included in the model as environmental factors. Respondents with body mass index (BMI)≥25 were defined as obese, and a multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze individual and environmental factors related to obesity. Moreover, a stratified analysis was conducted to compare factors related to obesity between men and women. RESULTS: Of 337,136 samples, 82,887 (24.6%) were obese, with BMI≥25. Sociodemographic characteristics at the individual level were mostly significantly related to obesity; however, while there were more obese men subjects among those with high socioeconomic status, there were more obese women among those with low socioeconomic status. There were fewer obese respondents among those who regularly walked and more obese respondents among those who reported short sleep duration or were highly stressed. At the community level, people living in areas with high socioeconomic status, high satisfaction with safety and public transportation, and high accessibility to sports facilities in their community had lower obesity risks. CONCLUSIONS: Community-level environmental factors affected obesity, especially perceived community environment, more significant than physical environment. Thus, it is necessary to develop effective obesity prevention and management strategies by considering potential community environmental factors that affect obesity. PMID:25666167

  5. Environmental risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis among cattle in high-risk areas

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, B.; Mathews, F.

    2015-01-01

    Our research shows that environmental features are important predictors of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in British cattle herds in high-prevalence regions. Data from 503 case and 808 control farms included in the randomized badger culling trial (RBCT) were analysed. bTB risk increased in larger herds and on farms with greater areas of maize, deciduous woodland and marsh, whereas a higher percentage of boundaries composed of hedgerows decreased the risk. The model was tested on another case–control study outside RBCT areas, and here it had a much smaller predictive power. This suggests that different infection dynamics operate outside high-risk areas, although it is possible that unknown confounding factors may also have played a role. PMID:26559511

  6. Environmental risk factors for haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in a French new epidemic area.

    PubMed

    Viel, J-F; Lefebvre, A; Marianneau, P; Joly, D; Giraudoux, P; Upegui, E; Tordo, N; Hoen, B

    2011-06-01

    In France, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is endemic along the Belgian border. However, this rodent-borne zoonosis caused by the Puumala virus has recently spread south to the Franche-Comté region. We investigated the space-time distribution of HFRS and evaluated the influence of environmental factors that drive the hantavirus reservoir abundance and/or the disease transmission in this area. A scan test clearly indicated space-time clustering, highlighting a single-year (2005) epidemic in the southern part of the region, preceded by a heat-wave 2 years earlier. A Bayesian regression approach showed an association between a variable reflecting biomass (normalized difference vegetation index) and HFRS incidence. The reasons why HFRS cases recently emerged remain largely unknown, and climate parameters alone do not reliably predict outbreaks. Concerted efforts that combine reservoir monitoring, surveillance, and investigation of human cases are warranted to better understand the epidemiological patterns of HFRS in this area.

  7. Environmental risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis among cattle in high-risk areas.

    PubMed

    Winkler, B; Mathews, F

    2015-11-01

    Our research shows that environmental features are important predictors of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in British cattle herds in high-prevalence regions. Data from 503 case and 808 control farms included in the randomized badger culling trial (RBCT) were analysed. bTB risk increased in larger herds and on farms with greater areas of maize, deciduous woodland and marsh, whereas a higher percentage of boundaries composed of hedgerows decreased the risk. The model was tested on another case-control study outside RBCT areas, and here it had a much smaller predictive power. This suggests that different infection dynamics operate outside high-risk areas, although it is possible that unknown confounding factors may also have played a role.

  8. Economical and Environmental Factors in Light Alloys Automotive Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caceres, Carlos H.

    2007-07-01

    The effects of mass reduction through substitution of ferrous components by equivalent Al or Mg alloy components on the vehicle’s cost and CO2 emissions are discussed using M.F. Ashby’s penalty functions and exchange constants method. The viability of substitutions of Al alloys by Mg alloys is also considered. Substitutions of cast components at equal volume and panels and beams at constant stiffness are considered. Substitutions of cast ferrous components are economically the only viable ones in terms of the CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) liability, although the cost penalty can be fully offset by the gasoline savings over the life of the car for most other forms of light alloy substitutions. When primary alloys are used, the gasoline savings over the lifetime of a lighter car offset the CO2 footprint of Al alloys in all cases. Because of their larger CO2 footprint, the environmental feasibility is somewhat restricted for electrolytic Mg, and more so for Mg produced by the Pidgeon process. Due to their high recyclability, Al casting alloys have a significant environmental advantage over all other light alloy applications. Viable substitutions of existing Al components by Mg components are largely restricted to castings of electrolytic Mg.

  9. 2013 Annual Site Environmental Report for Sandia National Laboratories Tonopah Test Range Nevada & Kauai Test Facility Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Stacy Rene; Agogino, Karen; Li, Jun; White, Nancy; Minitrez, Alexandra; Avery, Penny; Bailey-White, Brenda; Bonaguidi, Joseph; Catechis, Christopher; duMond, Michael; Eckstein, Joanna; Evelo, Stacie; Forston, William; Herring, III, Allen; Lantow, Tiffany; Martinez, Reuben; Mauser, Joseph; Miller, Amy; Miller, Mark; Payne, Jennifer; Peek, Dennis; Reiser, Anita; Ricketson, Sherry; Roma, Charles; Salinas, Stephanie; Ullrich, Rebecca

    2014-08-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities managed and operated by Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Field Office (SFO), in Albuquerque, New Mexico, administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at TTR and KTF. Sandia manages and conducts operations at TTR in support of the DOE/NNSA’s Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Navarro Research and Engineering subcontracts to Sandia in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report summarizes data and the compliance status of the sustainability, environmental protection, and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year 2013. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities, and the National Environmental Policy Act. Sandia is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA/Nevada Field Office retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of TTR ER sites. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2012).

  10. Calendar year 2007 annual site environmental report for Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii,

    SciTech Connect

    Agogino, Karen; Sanchez, Rebecca

    2008-09-30

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Offi ce (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at TTR and KTF. Sandia manages and conducts operations at TTR in support of the DOE/NNSA’s Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Washington Group International subcontracts to Sandia in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2007. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA/Nevada Site Offi ce (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2007a) and DOE Manual 231.1-1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting Manual (DOE 2007).

  11. Calendar year 2002 annual site environmental report for Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Katrina; Sanchez, Rebecca V.; Mayeux, Lucie; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2003-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, oversees TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2002. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990) and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 1996).

  12. Lightweight Exoatmospheric Projectile (LEAP) test program. Supplemental environmental assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-06-01

    The proposed action is to modify previously planned Lightweight Exoatmospheric Projectile (LEAP) Test Program activities (LEAP EA, July 1991, Ref 32) at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico; Kwajalein Missile Range (KMR), U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA); and Wake Island. The proposed action includes modifications of flight trajectories for LEAP flights 3, 5, and 6. Two additional flights, LEAP-X and LEAP-7 have been added to the program. LEAP-X is a single rocket test flight from KMR and LEAP-7 is a two-rocket test flight from KMR and Wake Island. Component/assembly ground tests will take place at Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC), Space Data Division (SDD), Chandler, Arizona; Phillips Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base, California; Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International; Boeing Aerospace and Electronics, Kent, Washington; Hughes Aircraft Corporation, Missile Systems Group, Canoga Park California; Aerojet, Sacramento, California; and Thiokol Corporation, Elkton, Maryland.

  13. Results of Lunar Rover Drivetrain TRL-6 Environmental Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visscher, P.; Edmundson, P.; Ghafoor, N.; Jones, H.; Kleinhenz, J.; Picard, M.

    2016-11-01

    Latest results of work performed by Ontario Drive and Gear Ltd., Canadensys Aerospace Corporation, and partners on Canadian lunar rover development activities for the Canadian Space Agency, including "dirty" thermal vacuum testing of drivetrain unit.

  14. Investigating the Influence of Environmental Factors on Pesticide Exposure in Amphibians

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental factors such as temporal weather patterns and soil characterization coupled with pesticide application rates are known to influence exposure and subsequent absorption of these compounds in amphibians. Amphibians are a unique class of vertebrates due to their varied ...

  15. Genes, epigenetic regulation and environmental factors: which is the most relevant in developing autoimmune diseases?

    PubMed

    Costenbader, Karen H; Gay, Steffen; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Iaccarino, Luca; Doria, Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease, have complex pathogeneses and likely multifactorial etiologies. The current paradigm for understanding their development is that the disease is triggered in genetically-susceptible individuals by exposure to environmental factors. Some of these environmental factors have been specifically identified, while others are hypothesized and not yet proven, and it is likely that most have yet to be identified. One interesting hypothesis is that environmental effects on immune responses could be mediated by changes in epigenetic regulation. Major mechanisms of epigenetic gene regulation include DNA methylation and histone modification. In these cases, gene expression is modified without involving changes in DNA sequence. Epigenetics is a new and interesting research field in autoimmune diseases. We review the roles of genetic factors, epigenetic regulation and the most studied environmental risk factors such as cigarette smoke, crystalline silica, Epstein-Barr virus, and reproductive hormones in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease.

  16. Importance of environmental factors on the richness and distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in tropical headwater streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is essential to understand the interactions between local environmental factors (e.g., physical habitat and water quality) and aquatic assemblages to conserve biodiversity in tropical and subtropical headwater streams. Therefore, we evaluated the relative importance of multipl...

  17. The contribution of home, neighbourhood and school environmental factors in explaining physical activity among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Haerens, Leen; Craeynest, Mietje; Deforche, Benedicte; Maes, Lea; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the influence of home, neighbourhood and school environmental factors on adolescents' engagement in self-reported extracurricular physical activity and leisure time sports and on MVPA objectively measured by accelerometers. Environmental factors were assessed using questionnaires. Gender specific hierarchical regression analyses were conducted, with demographic variables entered in the first block, and environmental, psychosocial factors and interactions terms entered in the second block. Participation in extracurricular activities at school was positively related to the number of organized activities and the provision of supervision. Perceived accessibility of neighborhood facilities was not related to engagement in leisure time sports, whereas the availability of sedentary and physical activity equipment was. Findings were generally supportive of ecological theories stating that behaviors are influenced by personal and environmental factors that are constantly interacting.

  18. META-ANALYSIS OF THE LIFE STYLE FACTORS RELEVANT TO ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS FOR THE AGING POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study is to characterize activity patterns, physiological changes, and environmental exposures for the aging population. Meta analysis was performed on more than 2000 reviewed articles to evaluate the lifestyle factors ...

  19. Diversity and Equity in Environmental Organizations: The Salience of These Factors to Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dorceta E.

    2007-01-01

    Diversity in environmental institutions is of increasing concern to scholars and practitioners. The author examined student perceptions of the importance of 20 diversity and equity factors in their decisions to accept a job. A national sample of 1,239 students in 9 environmental disciplines (biological sciences, geosciences, natural resources,…

  20. Physical and biological factors influencing environmental sources of fecal indicator bacteria in surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Przybyla-Kelly, Katarzyna; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the environmental populations of faecal indicator bacteria, and the processes by which these populations become nonpoint sources and influence nearshore water quality. The different possible sources of these indicator bacteria are presented. These include groundwater, springs and seeps, aquatic sediments, beach sand, birds, Cladophora and plant wrack. Also discussed are the environmental factors (moisture, sunlight, temperature and salinity) influencing their survival.

  1. 47 CFR 2.1509 - Environmental and duration tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Salt fog test. Step (1) Place the EPIRB in a salt fog chamber for a period of at least 2 hours at a temperature of 35 °C (±2 °C) before exposing it to salt fog. The EPIRB is to be turned off during this test. Step (2) With the chamber temperature maintained at 35 °C, introduce salt fog at the saturation...

  2. 47 CFR 2.1509 - Environmental and duration tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Salt fog test. Step (1) Place the EPIRB in a salt fog chamber for a period of at least 2 hours at a temperature of 35 °C (±2 °C) before exposing it to salt fog. The EPIRB is to be turned off during this test. Step (2) With the chamber temperature maintained at 35 °C, introduce salt fog at the saturation...

  3. Epiphytic lichen diversity in central European oak forests: assessment of the effects of natural environmental factors and human influences.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, David; Peksa, Ondrej; Veselá, Jana

    2010-03-01

    We investigated lichen diversity in temperate oak forests using standardized protocols. Forty-eight sites were sampled in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. The effects of natural environmental predictors and human influences on lichen diversity (lichen diversity value, species richness) were analysed by means of correlation tests. We found that lichen diversity responded differently to environmental predictors between two regions with different human impact. In the industrial region, air pollution was the strongest factor. In the agricultural to highly forested regions, lichen diversity was strongly influenced by forest age and forest fragmentation. We found that several natural factors can in some cases obscure the effect of human influences. Thus, factors of natural gradient must be considered (both statistically and interpretively) when studying human impact on lichen diversity.

  4. Environmental Domains and Range-Limiting Mechanisms: Testing the Abundant Centre Hypothesis Using Southern African Sandhoppers

    PubMed Central

    Baldanzi, Simone; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Cannicci, Stefano; Porri, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Predicting shifts of species geographical ranges is a fundamental challenge for conservation ecologists given the great complexity of factors involved in setting range limits. Distributional patterns are frequently modelled to “simplify” species responses to the environment, yet the central mechanisms that drive a particular pattern are rarely understood. We evaluated the distributions of two sandhopper species (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae), Talorchestia capensis and Africorchestia quadrispinosa along the Namibian and South African coasts, encompassing three biogeographic regions influenced by two different oceanographic systems, the Benguela and Agulhas currents. We aimed to test whether the Abundant Centre Hypothesis (ACH) can explain the distributions of these species’ abundances, sizes and sex ratios and examined which environmental parameters influence/drive these distributions. Animals were collected during a once-off survey at 29 sites over c.3500 km of coastline. The ACH was tested using a non-parametric constraint space analysis of the goodness of fit of five hypothetical models. Distance Based Linear Modelling (DistLM) was performed to evaluate which environmental traits influenced the distribution data. Abundance, size and sex ratio showed different patterns of distribution. A ramped model fitted the abundance (Ramped North) and size (Ramped South) distribution for A. quadrispinosa. The Inverse Quadratic model fitted the size distribution of T. capensis. Beach slope, salinity, sand temperature and percentage of detritus found on the shore at the time of collection played important roles in driving the abundance of A. quadrispinosa. T. capensis was mainly affected by salinity and the morphodynamic state of the beach. Our results provided only some support for the ACH predictions. The DistLM confirmed that the physical state of the beach is an important factor for sandy beach organisms. The effect of salinity and temperature suggest metabolic

  5. DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS ON OIL SPILLS - IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When a dispersant is applied to an oil slick, its effectiveness in dispersing the spilled oil depends on various factors such as oil properties, wave mixing energy, temperature of both oil and water, and salinity of the water. Estuaries represent water with varying salinities. In...

  6. Organizational, Financial, and Environmental Factors Influencing Deans' Tenure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Rebecca; Bhak, Karyn; Moy, Ernest; Valente, Ernest; Griner, Paul F.

    1998-01-01

    A study of factors influencing tenure of 382 medical school deans from 1985-1994 found that, at the schools that were less healthy financially, were under the same ownership as the primary teaching hospital, and had small faculties, deans tended to have shorter tenures and higher turnover. Possible reasons for these findings and implications for…

  7. Factors Affecting Environmental Knowledge and Attitudes among Lebanese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oweini, Ahmad; Houri, Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study aimed at assessing the variables that would positively affect the knowledge and attitude of a group of Lebanese college students regarding the environment, namely such factors as gender, age, previous hiking experience and living abroad. A purposeful sample of students attending the Lebanese American University, was asked to…

  8. Factors Affecting Use of Environmental Services by the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwigsen, Gail

    The ability to function independently in the later years has been defined as a combination of capability and support. To examine factors affecting older adults' use of services provided in an accommodating environment, 52 physically independent residents of an Arizona apartment complex for the elderly were surveyed. Time spent living in the…

  9. Environmental risk factors for inflammatory bowel diseases: Evidence based literature review

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Ayokunle T; Muhammad, Bashir H; Bhatti, Owais; Ali, Tauseef

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Advances in genetics and immunology have contributed to the current understanding of the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). METHODS: The current opinion on the pathogenesis of IBD suggests that genetically susceptible individuals develop intolerance to dysregulated gut microflora (dysbiosis) and chronic inflammation develops as a result of environmental insults. Environmental exposures are innumerable with varying effects during the life course of individuals with IBD. Studying the relationship between environmental factors and IBD may provide the missing link to increasing our understanding of the etiology and increased incidence of IBD in recent years with implications for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Environmental factors are heterogeneous and genetic predisposition, immune dysregulation, or dysbiosis do not lead to the development of IBD in isolation. RESULTS: Current challenges in the study of environmental factors and IBD are how to effectively translate promising results from experimental studies to humans in order to develop models that incorporate the complex interactions between the environment, genetics, immunology, and gut microbiota, and limited high quality interventional studies assessing the effect of modifying environmental factors on the natural history and patient outcomes in IBD. CONCLUSION: This article critically reviews the current evidence on environmental risk factors for IBD and proposes directions for future research. PMID:27468219

  10. Environmental risk factors in endemic pemphigus foliaceus (Fogo selvagem). "The Cooperative Group on Fogo Selvagem Research".

    PubMed

    Lombardi, C; Borges, P C; Chaul, A; Sampaio, S A; Rivitti, E A; Friedman, H; Martins, C R; Sanches Júnior, J A; Cunha, P R; Hoffmann, R G

    1992-06-01

    Endemic pemphigus foliaceus or Fogo selvagem (FS) is an epidermal organ-specific autoimmune disease mediated by autoantibodies. Individuals at risk are peasants who live and work on farms located in the interior of certain endemic states of Brazil. This case-control study compares a group of 52 FS patients with 52 patients suffering from other dermatoses admitted and followed at the hospital for pemphigus (Hospital do Penfigo) in the city of Goiania, state of Goias. Patients and controls matched 1:1 by age, sex, and occupation were examined by two dermatologists at the time of admission and asked to respond to a prepared questionnaire. This questionnaire concerned current and past (1 and 5 years) exposure to environmental risk factors. The following risk factors were assessed: black fly bites, presence of rodents at home, exposure to cereal dust, exposure to fumes or dust released by tree and shrub removal, and exposure to insecticides. Relative risks were estimated from tabulated data by the odds ratio and tested for significance by the chi-square test. The 95% confidence interval for the odds ratio was also calculated for each of the risk factors. The only risk factor showing an odds ratio significantly different from one was exposure to simuliidae bites (odds ratio 4.7, p less than 0.001). This study reinforces the hypothesis that chronic exposure to black fly antigens may precipitate IgG4 antibody formation in predisposed individuals. These antibodies in turn may cross-react with epidermal antigens and cause acantholysis and the clinical expression of the disease known as FS.

  11. Comprehensive baseline environmental audit of former underground test areas in Colorado, Nevada, and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This report documents the results of the Comprehensive Baseline Environmental Audit of Former Underground Test Areas (FUTAS) in the States of Colorado, Nevada, and New Mexico. DOE and contractor systems for management of environmental protection activities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were not within the scope of the audit. The audit was conducted May 16-May 26, 1994, by the Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). DOE 5482.1 B, {open_quotes}Environment, Safety, and Health Appraisal Program{close_quotes}, establishes the mission of EH-24, which is to provide comprehensive, independent oversight of Department-wide environmental programs on behalf of the Secretary of Energy. The ultimate goal of EH-24 is to enhance environmental protection and minimize risk to public health and the environment. EH-24 accomplishes its mission using systematic and periodic evaluations of DOE`s environmental programs within line organizations and supplemental activities that strengthen self-assessment and oversight functions within program, field, and contractor organizations. These evaluations function as a vehicle through which the Secretary and program managers are apprised of the status and vulnerabilities of Departmental environmental activities and environmental management systems. Several types of evaluations are conducted, including: (1) comprehensive baseline environmental audits; (2) routine environmental audits; (3) environmental management assessments; and (4) special issue reviews.

  12. Environmental safety factors estimation in selection of water treatment technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutenyev, V. V.; Azhgirevich, A. I.; Kiryanova, L. F.; Gutenyeva, Ye. N.

    2003-04-01

    A number of southern regions of Russia are traditionally short of drinking water of good quality, especially in summer period or in the places of counter-terror operations. The multifactor analysis covered not only the quality of environmental waters, consumption structure, but the ability of technology to withstand eco terrorism as well. The research works resulted in prioritization of nonchemical combined technologies based on microfiltration and ultraviolet radiation with the use of various bacteriostatics built on ionic complexes of a number of metals, both fixed and mobile. In special operations held on the territory of Chechen Republic to ensure supply of water of guaranteed quality the efforts are focused on organizational activities on provision of traceability of water delivery process at all transportation stages, as well as on application of bacteriostatics in case of long-term water storage.

  13. Environmental factors influencing mercury speciation in Subarctic and Boreal lakes.

    PubMed

    Braaten, Hans Fredrik V; de Wit, Heleen A; Fjeld, Eirik; Rognerud, Sigurd; Lydersen, Espen; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2014-04-01

    Environmental drivers of total mercury (TotHg) concentrations, methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations, and MeHg fractions (a proxy for methylation potential, expressed as %MeHg) were assessed in a synoptic study of 51 lakes in southeast (Boreal) and northeast (Subarctic) Norway. Concentrations of TotHg and MeHg ranged between 0.5-6.6 ng/L and <0.02-0.70 ng/L, respectively. The lakes span wide ranges of explanatory environmental variables, including water chemistry, catchment characteristics, climate conditions, and atmospheric deposition of Hg, sulphur and nitrogen (N). Dissolved organic matter (DOM), measured as total organic carbon (TOC), was the variable most strongly correlated with TotHg (r(2)=0.76) and MeHg (r(2)=0.64) concentrations. Lakes in the Subarctic region had significantly lower TotHg and MeHg concentrations, and %MeHg than lakes in the Boreal region (p<0.01), implying a lower aquatic food web exposure of aqueous Hg species in Subarctic Norway than in the Boreal lakes. Statistical modelling (partial least squares) using data from the Boreal lakes produced models explaining 82%, 75% and 50% of the spatial variation of TotHg and MeHg concentrations and %MeHg, respectively. After TOC, the most significant explanatory variables were N availability, base cation status, and lake and catchment size. We conclude that a key process driving TotHg concentrations is DOM as a transport vector, while the role of DOM for MeHg and %MeHg is likely related to a combination of transport and DOM as a substrate for methylation. Also, negative correlations between MeHg, and catchment and lake size are consistent with in-lake and in-stream de-methylation processes. The statistical relationship suggests that N availability exerts a positive contribution on concentrations of MeHg and %MeHg.

  14. QoS test traffic influence factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Fei; Cao, Yang

    2004-04-01

    This paper described certain problems when performing QoS active measurement. The term Test Traffic Influence Factor (TTIF), describing quantitatively influence which the test traffic compared to actual traffic on Qos parameters is defined. A kind of ideal model based on the queue theory to study TTIF is build up and a TTIF for delay is discussed. The theoretical analysis results are verified by using network simulation tool-OPNET modeler. Then certain important conclusions and advice about IP network QoS measurement are given and further research direction is directed.

  15. [Interrelationships between soil fauna and soil environmental factors in China: research advance].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wei, Wei; Yang, Xing-zhong; Chen, Li-ding; Yang, Lei

    2010-09-01

    Soil fauna has close relations with various environmental factors in soil ecosystem. To explore the interrelationships between soil fauna and soil environmental factors is of vital importance to deep understand the dynamics of soil ecosystem and to assess the functioning of the ecosystem. The environmental factors affecting soil fauna can be classified as soil properties and soil external environment. The former contains soil basic physical and chemical properties, soil moisture, and soil pollution. The latter includes vegetation, land use type, landform, and climate, etc. From these aspects, this paper summarized the published literatures in China on the interrelationships between soil fauna and soil environmental factors. It was considered that several problems were existed in related studies, e.g., fewer researches were made in integrating soil fauna's bio-indicator function, research methods were needed to be improved, and the studies on the multi-environmental factors and their large scale spatial-temporal variability were in deficiency. Corresponding suggestions were proposed, i.e., more work should be done according to the practical needs, advanced experiences from abroad should be referenced, and comprehensive studies on multi-environmental factors and long-term monitoring should be conducted on large scale areas.

  16. Influence of genetic and environmental factors on oral diseases and function in aged twins.

    PubMed

    Kurushima, Y; Ikebe, K; Matsuda, K; Enoki, K; Ogata, S; Yamashita, M; Murakami, S; Hayakawa, K; Maeda, Y

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to quantify the genetic and environmental contributions to oral disease and function in twins. Participants were middle-aged and old twins, 116 monozygotic and 16 dizygotic pairs whose mean age was 66·1 ± 10·3 (SD) years. Number of teeth, percentage of decayed, filled and missing teeth and periodontal status were recorded as indicators of oral disease. The widths of upper and lower dental arch served as indicators of morphological figures. Furthermore, stimulated salivary flow rate, occlusal force and masticatory performance were measured as indicators of oral function. Univariate genetic analysis with monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs was conducted to detect the fittest structural equation model of each outcome. Both number of teeth and periodontal status fitted the model composed of common environmental factor and unique environmental factor. Decayed, filled and missing teeth, morphological figures and measurements of oral function fitted the model composed of additive genetic factor and unique environmental factor. The model fitting of each measurement suggested that periodontal disease was mainly affected by environmental factors, while morphological figures and oral functions were influenced by both genetic and environmental factors.

  17. Space Station Freedom environmental database system (FEDS) for MSFC testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Story, Gail S.; Williams, Wendy; Chiu, Charles

    1991-01-01

    The Water Recovery Test (WRT) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the first demonstration of integrated water recovery systems for potable and hygiene water reuse as envisioned for Space Station Freedom (SSF). In order to satisfy the safety and health requirements placed on the SSF program and facilitate test data assessment, an extensive laboratory analysis database was established to provide a central archive and data retrieval function. The database is required to store analysis results for physical, chemical, and microbial parameters measured from water, air and surface samples collected at various locations throughout the test facility. The Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) was utilized to implement a secured on-line information system with the ECLSS WRT program as the foundation for this system. The database is supported on a VAX/VMS 8810 series mainframe and is accessible from the Marshall Information Network System (MINS). This paper summarizes the database requirements, system design, interfaces, and future enhancements.

  18. Manufacture, Installation, and Testing of New Environmentally Friendly Hydropower Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Dotson, C. L.; T. J. Dresser, Jr.; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2007-01-02

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Hydro Turbine Program, the Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County (Grant PUD) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) shared in the Advanced Hydro Turbine (AHT) design, production support, field testing, and maintenance evaluation. Based on concerns about the ongoing reliability of the Wanapum turbines, Grant PUD explored replacing the Wanapum turbines with AHTs to increase hydraulic efficiency, improve power output, increase hydraulic capacity, achieve equal or better survival of juvenile salmon passage, and improve water quality by reducing spill during periods of high river flows. In February 2005, under DE-FC36-02ID14410, Grant PUD upgraded Unit No. 8 at the Wanapum development of the Priest Rapids Hydroelectric Project (FERC No. 2114) with the installation of an AHT, the first of ten scheduled turbine upgrades at the Wanapum development. In accordance with the July 23, 2004 FERC Order Modifying and Approving Amendment of License Application and consistent with the December 16, 2004 FERC Order Amending License to incorporate the National Marine Fisheries Service’s Biological Opinion issued May 3, 2004, Grant PUD was required to conduct biological testing on the first installed AHT, proving that the AHT met the specified performance criteria for juvenile salmon passage survival. This report summarizes the results of that biological testing, along with the AHT commissioning testing; Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations used to gain further insight into the results of biological testing; Sensor Fish Device data acquisition of pressure, acceleration, and rotations changes experienced by migrating fish in severe hydraulic environments; and additional biological (C-start behavior) testing.

  19. Flight electronics for vibration cancellation in cryogenic refrigerators: performance and environmental testing results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burriesci, Lawrence G.; Cook, Eric I.; Hackett, John P.; Drummond, James R.; Mand, Gurpreet S.

    1996-10-01

    Space flight optical instruments and their support hardware must reliably operate in stressing environments for the duration of their mission. They must also survive the mechanical and thermal stresses of transportation, storage and launch. It is necessary to qualify the hardware design through environmental testing and to verify the hardware's ability to perform properly during and/or after some selected environmental tests on the ground. As a rule, flight electronics are subjected to thermal, mechanical and electromagnetic environmental testing. Thermal testing takes the form of temperature cycling over a temperature difference range (Delta) T of up to 100 degrees C for a minimum of six cycles, with additional performance verification testing at the hot and cold extremes. Mechanical testing takes the form of exposure to random vibration, sine sweep vibration, shock spectra and static loading on a centrifuge or by sine burst on a vibration table. A standard series of electromagnetic interference and electromagnetic compatibility testing is also performed.

  20. An environmental testing facility for Space Station Freedom power management and distribution hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackola, Arthur S.; Hartjen, Gary L.

    1992-11-01

    The plans for a new test facility, including new environmental test systems, which are presently under construction, and the major environmental Test Support Equipment (TSE) used therein are addressed. This all-new Rocketdyne facility will perform space simulation environmental tests on Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) hardware to Space Station Freedom (SSF) at the Engineering Model, Qualification Model, and Flight Model levels of fidelity. Testing will include Random Vibration in three axes - Thermal Vacuum, Thermal Cycling and Thermal Burn-in - as well as numerous electrical functional tests. The facility is designed to support a relatively high throughput of hardware under test, while maintaining the high standards required for a man-rated space program.

  1. Family and environmental factors of drug addiction among young recruits.

    PubMed

    Jedrzejczak, Marian

    2005-08-01

    Drug addiction in a family results from three factors: (1) effect of pathological families on young people's behavior, (2) easy access to drugs, and (3) influence of groups of people of the same age. In the present study, it was investigated to what extent individual factors related to family and environment affect the extent of drug addiction among recruits. The study included 559 subjects. The results proved direct interdependence between the family condition and the extent of narcomania. Drug addicts came mostly from incomplete and pathological families. The main family factors of drug addiction, according to the results obtained, are family atmosphere, strength of family ties, sense of family happiness, structure of authority in the family, and alcoholism. In families where there is warmth and love, children do not or rarely take drugs. Drug addicts come from families where there is ill will and hostility (p < 0.05). Drug addicts have weaker family ties than do those who do not take drugs (w2 = 0.26, p < 0.05). In families where there was contact with drugs, authority belonged to the mother to a greater degree (54.4%) than to the father (23.6%). In 46.3% of the studied drug addicts' families, alcohol was drunk. The results of the investigations approximate results of other studies conducted among young people in Poland and elsewhere in the world.

  2. Rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors: the state-of-the-art - part two.

    PubMed

    Niklas, Karolina; Niklas, Arkadiusz A; Majewski, Dominik; Puszczewicz, Mariusz J

    2016-01-01

    The majority of rheumatic diseases belong to the group of autoimmune diseases and are associated with autoantibody production. Their etiology is not fully understood. Certain medications and environmental factors may have an influence on the occurrence of rheumatic diseases. Establishing a cause-effect relationship between a certain factor and disease induction is not always simple. It is important to administer the drug continuously or monitor exposure to a given factor in the period preceding the onset of symptoms. The lack of early diagnosed autoimmune disease, or finally the lack of symptoms within a few weeks/months after discontinuation of the drug/cessation of exposure, is also important. The most frequently mentioned rheumatic diseases caused by drugs and environmental factors include systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), scleroderma, systemic vasculitis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and Sjögren's syndrome. The objective of this study is to summarize current knowledge on rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors.

  3. Rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors: the state-of-the-art - part one.

    PubMed

    Niklas, Karolina; Niklas, Arkadiusz A; Majewski, Dominik; Puszczewicz, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The majority of rheumatic diseases belong to the group of autoimmune diseases and are associated with autoantibody production. Their etiology is not fully understood. Certain medications and environmental factors may have an influence on the occurrence of rheumatic diseases. Establishing a cause-effect relationship between a certain factor and disease induction is not always simple. It is important to administer the drug continuously or monitor exposure to a given factor in the period preceding the onset of symptoms. The lack of previously diagnosed autoimmune disease, or finally the lack of symptoms within a few weeks/months after discontinuation of the drug/cessation of exposure, is also important. The most frequently mentioned rheumatic diseases caused by drugs and environmental factors include systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, systemic vasculitis, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and Sjögren's syndrome. The objective of this study is to summarize current knowledge on rheumatic diseases induced by drugs and environmental factors.

  4. Alternate Boost Vehicle (ABV) Verification Tests. Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    stickleback, or the threatened California red-legged frog. Although the noise level for the ABV is expected to be within the range, or less, of...are anticipated. ABV launches would be performed under existing agreements between Vandenberg AFB and park/beach authorities. The California ...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE UNCLASSIFIED EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ABV Verification Tests EA es-1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Introduction

  5. Nuclear weapons tests and environmental consequences: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Prăvălie, Remus

    2014-10-01

    The beginning of the atomic age marked the outset of nuclear weapons testing, which is responsible for the radioactive contamination of a large number of sites worldwide. The paper aims to analyze nuclear weapons tests conducted in the second half of the twentieth century, highlighting the impact of radioactive pollution on the atmospheric, aquatic, and underground environments. Special attention was given to the concentration of main radioactive isotopes which were released, such as ¹⁴C, ¹³⁷Cs, and ⁹⁰Sr, generally stored in the atmosphere and marine environment. In addition, an attempt was made to trace the spatial delimitation of the most heavily contaminated sites worldwide, and to note the human exposure which has caused a significantly increased incidence of thyroidal cancer locally and regionally. The United States is one of the important examples of assessing the correlation between the increase in the thyroid cancer incidence rate and the continental-scale radioactive contamination with ¹³¹I, a radioactive isotope which was released in large amounts during the nuclear tests carried out in the main test site, Nevada.

  6. 1990 Environmental monitoring report, Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, A.; Phelan, J.; Wolff, T.; Yeager, G.; Dionne, D.; West, G.; Girard, C.

    1991-05-01

    There is no routine radioactive emission from Sandia National Laboratories, Tonopah Test Range (SNL, TTR). However, based on the types of test activities such as air drops, gun firings, ground- launched rockets, air-launched rockets, and other explosive tests, possibilities exist that small amounts of depleted uranium (DU) (as part of weapon components) may be released to the air or to the ground because of unusual circumstances (failures) during testing. Four major monitoring programs were used in 1990 to assess radiological impact on the public. The EPA Air Surveillance Network (ASN) found that the only gamma ({gamma}) emitting radionuclide on the prefilters was beryllium-7 ({sup 7}Be), a naturally-occurring spallation product formed by the interaction of cosmic radiation with atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen. The weighted average results were consistent with the area background concentrations. The EPA Thermoluminescent Dosimetry (TLD) Network and Pressurized Ion Chamber (PIC) reported normal results. In the EPA Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program (LTHMP), analytical results for tritium ({sup 3}H) in well water were reported and were well below DOE-derived concentration guides (DCGs). In the Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company (REECo) Drinking Water Sampling Program, analytical results for {sup 3}H, gross alpha ({alpha}), beta ({beta}), and {gamma} scan, strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr) and plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) were within the EPA's primary drinking water standards. 29 refs., 5 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Is climate change an unforeseen, irresistible and external factor - A force majeure in marine environmental law?

    PubMed

    Saul, Roxanne; Barnes, Richard; Elliott, Michael

    2016-12-15

    Several environmental laws include provisions on natural causes or force majeure, which except States from their commitments if it can be proven that the failure to meet the commitment is due to factors outside their control. The European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) has a pivotal role in managing EU marine waters. This paper analyses natural causes and force majeure provisions of the MFSD and other marine legislation, and addresses their interaction with climate change and its consequences, especially the effect on the obligation of ensuring seas are in Good Environmental Status. Climate change is an exogenic unmanaged pressure in that it emanates from outside the area being managed but in which the management authority has to respond to the consequences of climate change, such as sea level rise and temperature elevation, rather than its causes. It is suggested that a defence by a Member State of force majeure may be accepted if an event was proven to be due to an externality of control, irresistible and unforeseeable. The analysis contends that countering such a legal defence would centre on the fact that climate change is a well-accepted phenomenon, is foreseen with an accepted level of confidence and probability and is due to human actions. However, as yet, this has not been legally tested.

  8. 78 FR 29698 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing a Canine Lymphoma Vaccine, DNA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... a Canine Lymphoma Vaccine, DNA AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... testing, and then to field test, an unlicensed Canine Lymphoma Vaccine, DNA. The environmental assessment... vaccine and related information, examines the potential effects that field testing this veterinary...

  9. The development of an Infrared Environmental System for TOPEX Solar Panel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noller, E.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental testing and flight qualification of the TOPEX/POSEIDON spacecraft solar panels were performed with infrared (IR) lamps and a control system that were newly designed and integrated. The basic goal was more rigorous testing of the costly panels' new composite-structure design without jeopardizing their safety. The technique greatly reduces the costs and high risks of testing flight solar panels.

  10. Factors affecting the environmental carrying capacity of a freshwater tropical lake system.

    PubMed

    Mullakkezhil Reghunathan, Vishnuprasad; Joseph, Sabu; Warrier, C Unnikrishnan; Hameed, A Shahul; Albert Moses, Sheela

    2016-11-01

    Environmental carrying capacity is a measure of competence of a lake to accommodate pollution inputs without degrading water quality. In the research reported here, we identified the factors influencing the environmental carrying capacity of Vellayani Lake or VL (a typical tropical freshwater lake), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala State, India. R-mode factor analysis is used to identify the factors controlling the carrying capacity of the lake, whereas hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) helped to classify the lake. The carrying capacity of the lake is low with respect to alkalinity, due to ion deficiency, and is potentially reactive to sudden changes in pH. Eutrophic condition exists in the entire lake system. Acidic factor, mineralization factor, fertilizer factor (P & K), evaporation factor and organic pollution factor are the controllers of VL water quality during the pre-monsoon period. The same factors (but not evaporation factor) and an additional runoff factor control the water quality during monsoon. In the post-monsoon, the aforesaid factors (other than runoff, alkalinity) and soil erosion factor influence the water quality. Hence, managers of the lake system need to also focus on combating acidic factor during pre- and post-monsoons and runoff during monsoon. Smaller areal extent and shallow depth of VL, reduced outflow from it, less rainfall, presence of lateritic rock and soil and absence of limestone strata in the catchment are the chief elements affecting the acidic factor of Vellayani Lake.

  11. Environmental factors that influence prescribed burning in the Northern Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kruse, A.D.; Higgins, K.F.; Piehl, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Several environmental conditions were recorded and analyzed for 192 prescribed burns in the Northern Great Plains. The purpose of these burns was to improve wildlife habitat and manipulate native prairie vegetation. All of the fires occurred in grassland and shrubsteppe vegetation types. Fuels were predominantly grasses and forbs intermixed with patches of shrubs. Nearly all of the fuels were 0.05 cm/h, do not burn. However, these are good conditions to burn stockpiles of unwanted fuels that are usually high risk elements during regular prescribed burns.2) Produce partial burns. Partial burns are defined as those where fire is discontinuous and patches of standing and lodged vegetation are left unburned. Partial burns occur most often when fine fuels feel moist when handled, where less than 2 days have passed since the last measurable precipitation, and when cloud cover is complete. Other conditions associated with partial burns are relative humidities >50 percent, temperatures 32 km/h, relative humidities 35 deg.C. These conditions occur most often in July, August, and September, but can occur anytime from April through October.

  12. Plankton composition and environmental factors contribute to Vibrio seasonality.

    PubMed

    Turner, Jeffrey W; Good, Brooks; Cole, Dana; Lipp, Erin K

    2009-09-01

    Plankton represent a nutrient-rich reservoir capable of enriching Vibrio species, which can include human pathogens, at higher densities than the surrounding water column. To better understand the relationship between vibrios and plankton, the partitioning of culturable vibrios, on TCBS, between free living and plankton associated (63-200- and >200-microm-size fractions) was monitored over a 1-year period in coastal waters of Georgia, USA. Seasonal changes in the total Vibrio concentration were then compared with changes in environmental parameters as well as changes in the relative composition of the plankton community. Using univariate analyses, Vibrio concentrations were strongly associated with temperature, especially when those vibrios were plankton associated (R(2)=0.69 and 0.88 for the water and both plankton fractions; respectively) (P<0.01). Multivariate general linear models revealed that Vibrio concentrations in the plankton fractions were also correlated to shifts in the relative abundance of specific plankton taxa. In the 63-200-micro fraction, Vibrio concentrations were inversely associated with copepods, cyanobacteria and diatoms. In the >200-micro fraction, Vibrio concentrations were positively associated with copepods and negatively associated with decapod larvae. Our results confirm the role of temperature in Vibrio seasonality and highlight an important and independent role for plankton composition in explaining seasonal changes in Vibrio concentration.

  13. [Environmental and occupational risk factors in keratosis of the larynx].

    PubMed

    de Vincentiis, M; Gallo, A; Boccia, M M; Diletti, G; Simonelli, M; Della Rocca, C

    1993-01-01

    Laryngeal keratosis may frequently precede the appearance of carcinoma of the larynx which might well indicate that these diseases have a common denominator. A retrospective study of 120 subjects with laryngeal keratosis was examined. The intention of the Authors was to verify whether the principle risk factors involved in the appearance of laryngeal carcinoma were the same as those implicated in laryngeal keratosis formation. Sex age, work activity, cigarette smoke, alcohol consumption and vocal chord abuse were considered. Laryngeal keratosis takes keratosis with dysplasia as well as keratosis without. A link between these two types of keratosis and cancer was sought. In particular, the possibility that a persistent action of the mentioned risk factors could cause laryngeal dysplasia-free keratosis to change into dysplastic lesions and subsequently into cancer was investigated. A case-control study was performed in order to analyze the importance of work activity. Results were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The Cramer V2 calculation demonstrated a clear correlation between the number of cigarettes smoked and the appearance of dysplasia (V2 = 0.117; P < 0.005). Results showed a clearly different behaviour between sexes. The number of males was much higher than females as was the age at which keratosis appeared greater in males. The fact that the average age in which keratosis appeared preceded the appearance of laryngeal cancer by ten years indicates that this interrum is sufficient for keratosis with dysplasia to be transformed into cancer (due to the continued action of the mentioned etiologic factors, mainly referred to cigarette smoke). In our data analysis, no correlation was demonstrated between keratosis without dysplasia and cancer.

  14. 78 FR 49287 - Environmental Assessment for Potential Lease Issuance and Marine Hydrokinetic Technology Testing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... Hydrokinetic Technology Testing Offshore Florida AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior... Impact. SUMMARY: BOEM has prepared a revised environmental assessment (EA) considering the environmental impacts and socioeconomic effects of issuing a lease in Official Protraction Diagram NG 17-06, Blocks...

  15. In Vitro Screening of Environmental Chemicals for Targeted Testing Prioritization: The ToxCast Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical toxicity testing is being transformed by advances in biology and computer modeling, concerns over animal use, and the thousands of environmental chemicals lacking toxicity data. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s ToxCast program aims to address these concerns by ...

  16. Unimorph deformable mirror for space telescopes: environmental testing.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Peter; Verpoort, Sven; Wittrock, Ulrich

    2016-01-25

    We have developed and manufactured a unimorph deformable mirror for space telescopes based on piezoelectric actuation. The mirror features 44 actuators, has an aperture of 50 mm, and is designed to reproduce low-order Zernike modes with a stroke of several tens of μm. We assessed the space compliance by operating the mirror in thermal vacuum, and exposing it to random and sinusoidal vibrations, as well as to ionizing irradiation. Additionally, the operational life time and the laser power handling capability were tested. The mirror was successfully operated in thermal vacuum at 100 K. We report on the conducted tests and the methods used to evaluate the mirror's performance, and discuss the compliance with the demanded requirements.

  17. Cold Regions - Environmental Testing of Individual Soldier Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-17

    D. PERSONAL HISTORY FORM .......................................................... D-1 E. REFERENCES...hectopascal (hPa), ± 0.15 hpa Wind velocity Digital anemometer 0-100 knots, ± 2 knots Wind direction Digital anemometer 0-360, ± 5% Precipitation...conditions at test site. (5) Complete the Personal History Form (Appendix D). TOP 10-2-512 17 October 2011 14 4.3.4 Individual Load Carrying

  18. Shock Testing the SEAWOLF Submarine, Final Environmental Impact Statement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    that would settle to the seafloor would be the top plate and crossbar, which together weigh 204 kg (450 lb). After detonation, the test array would be...but would have no significant impact on bottom structure or form. The largest possible fragment from the explosion is the top plate and crossbar...is the top plate and crossbar, which together weigh 204 kg (450 lb). Due to low oxygen levels in bottom sediments, the steel fragments would likely

  19. Joint Test Protocol: Environmentally Friendly Zirconium Oxide Pretreatment Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    down time, refer to 4.3.6 of the test method. 12 Figure 1. GMW 14872 (7) cycle description. Actual or simulated steel components shall be used for...including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing...SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12 . DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13

  20. Maintaining data quality in an environmental testing laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Roy J.

    2001-03-05

    In today's competitive and highly litigious world, it is critical that any laboratory generating data for the environmental and allied industries have a world-class Quality Assurance Program. This Plan must conform to the requirements of every agency and client with whom the lab does business. The goal of such a program is data defensibility; i.e., data validity. Data (usually qualitative analyte [compound or element] identifications and quantitative numerical results) are the end results of nearly all analytical laboratory processes, and the source of revenue. Clients pay for results. The clients expect the results to be accurate, precise, and repeatable. If their data has to go to court, the laboratory will be called upon to defend the accuracy and precision of their work. Without a strong QA program, this will be impossible. The potential implications and repercussions of non-defensible lab data are far-reaching and very costly in terms of loss of future revenues and in legal judgments.

  1. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Testing Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This photograph shows the fifth generation Urine Processor Development Hardware. The Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) is a part of the Water Recovery System (WRS) on the ISS. It uses a chase change process called vapor compression distillation technology to remove contaminants from urine. The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. Product water quality is monitored primarily through conductivity measurements. Unacceptable water is sent back through the WPA for reprocessing. Clean water is sent to a storage tank.

  2. Smart licensing and environmental flows: Modeling framework and sensitivity testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilby, R. L.; Fenn, C. R.; Wood, P. J.; Timlett, R.; Lequesne, T.

    2011-12-01

    Adapting to climate change is just one among many challenges facing river managers. The response will involve balancing the long-term water demands of society with the changing needs of the environment in sustainable and cost effective ways. This paper describes a modeling framework for evaluating the sensitivity of low river flows to different configurations of abstraction licensing under both historical climate variability and expected climate change. A rainfall-runoff model is used to quantify trade-offs among environmental flow (e-flow) requirements, potential surface and groundwater abstraction volumes, and the frequency of harmful low-flow conditions. Using the River Itchen in southern England as a case study it is shown that the abstraction volume is more sensitive to uncertainty in the regional climate change projection than to the e-flow target. It is also found that "smarter" licensing arrangements (involving a mix of hands off flows and "rising block" abstraction rules) could achieve e-flow targets more frequently than conventional seasonal abstraction limits, with only modest reductions in average annual yield, even under a hotter, drier climate change scenario.

  3. Environmental Factors and Myopia: Paradoxes and Prospects for Prevention.

    PubMed

    Rose, Kathryn Ailsa; French, Amanda Nicole; Morgan, Ian George

    The prevalence of myopia in developed countries in East and Southeast Asia has increased to more than 80% in children completing schooling, whereas that of high myopia has increased to 10%-20%. This poses significant challenges for correction of refractive errors and the management of pathological high myopia. Prevention is therefore an important priority. Myopia is etiologically heterogeneous, with a low level of myopia of clearly genetic origins that appears without exposure to risk factors. The big increases have occurred in school myopia, driven by increasing educational pressures in combination with limited amounts of time spent outdoors. The rise in prevalence of high myopia has an unusual pattern of development, with increases in prevalence first appearing at approximately age 11. This pattern suggests that the increasing prevalence of high myopia is because of progression of myopia in children who became myopic at approximately age 6 or 7 because age-specific progression rates typical of East Asia will take these children to the threshold for high myopia in 5 to 6 years. This high myopia seems to be acquired, having an association with educational parameters, whereas high myopia in previous generations tended to be genetic in origin. Increased time outdoors can counter the effects of increased nearwork and reduce the impact of parental myopia, reducing the onset of myopia, and this approach has been validated in 3 randomized controlled trials. Other proposed risk factors need further work to demonstrate that they are independent and can be modified to reduce the onset of myopia.

  4. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  5. Environmental factors predicting nephritis in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    McAlindon, T; Giannotta, L; Taub, N; D'Cruz, D; Hughes, G

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To evaluate social class, ethnic origin, and various endocrine variables as potential risk factors in the development of nephritis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS--A cross-sectional survey was carried out of all outpatients with SLE attending the lupus Clinic of St Thomas's Hospital from March to October 1992 using retrospective survival data. The main outcome measure was the duration of SLE before the onset of nephritis. RESULTS--Two hundred and ninety six women and 11 men were studied; the male patients were excluded from the analysis. Univariate analysis showed an increased risk of nephritis in patients with SLE of West Indian origin with 54 v 19% with nephritis at five years, in patients of lower social class, in patients who did not drink alcohol, and in those with a history of fetal loss after the onset of lupus. No significant effect of the age of onset of SLE, use of oral contraceptives, normal pregnancy, or smoking was seen. Multivariate analysis showed that ethnic origin did not influence the risk of nephritis independently of social class. CONCLUSIONS--Factors associated with socioeconomic deprivation may increase disease severity in patients with SLE. PMID:8257208

  6. Identifying environmental risk factors of cholera in a coastal area with geospatial technologies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Cao, Chunxiang; Wang, Duochun; Kan, Biao

    2014-12-29

    Satellites contribute significantly to environmental quality and public health. Environmental factors are important indicators for the prediction of disease outbreaks. This study reveals the environmental factors associated with cholera in Zhejiang, a coastal province of China, using both Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic information System (GIS). The analysis validated the correlation between the indirect satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH) and ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC) and the local cholera magnitude based on a ten-year monthly data from the year 1999 to 2008. Cholera magnitude has been strongly affected by the concurrent variables of SST and SSH, while OCC has a one-month time lag effect. A cholera prediction model has been established based on the sea environmental factors. The results of hot spot analysis showed the local cholera magnitude in counties significantly associated with the estuaries and rivers.

  7. Identifying Environmental Risk Factors of Cholera in a Coastal Area with Geospatial Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min; Cao, Chunxiang; Wang, Duochun; Kan, Biao

    2014-01-01

    Satellites contribute significantly to environmental quality and public health. Environmental factors are important indicators for the prediction of disease outbreaks. This study reveals the environmental factors associated with cholera in Zhejiang, a coastal province of China, using both Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic information System (GIS). The analysis validated the correlation between the indirect satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH) and ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC) and the local cholera magnitude based on a ten-year monthly data from the year 1999 to 2008. Cholera magnitude has been strongly affected by the concurrent variables of SST and SSH, while OCC has a one-month time lag effect. A cholera prediction model has been established based on the sea environmental factors. The results of hot spot analysis showed the local cholera magnitude in counties significantly associated with the estuaries and rivers. PMID:25551518

  8. Environmental assessment of SP-100 ground engineering system test site: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to modify an existing reactor containment building (decommissioned Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) 309 Building) to provide ground test capability for the prototype SP-100 reactor. The 309 Building (Figure 1.1) is located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site in Washington State. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that Federal agencies assess the potential impacts that their actions may have on the environment. This Environmental Assessment describes the consideration given to environmental impacts during reactor concept and test site selection, examines the environmental effects of the DOE proposal to ground test the nuclear subsystem, describes alternatives to the proposed action, and examines radiological risks of potential SP-100 use in space. 73 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Considerations of Environmentally Relevant Test Conditions for Improved Evaluation of Ecological Hazards of Engineered Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly entering the environment with uncertain consequences including potential ecological effects. Various research communities view differently whether ecotoxicological testing of ENMs should be conducted using environmentally relevant ...

  10. Environmental factors controlling methane emissions for peatlands in Northern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Dise, N.B.; Gorham, E.; Verry, E.S.

    1993-06-20

    Controls on methane emission from peatlands in northern Minnesota were investigated by correlation to environmental variables and by field manipulations. From September 1988 through September 1990, methane flux measurements were made at weekly to monthly intervals at six sites in the Marcell Experimental Forest, northern Minnesota (two open bog sites, two forested bog sites, a poor fen, and a fen lagg). Flux was related to water table position and peat temperature with simple correlations at individual sites and multiple regression on all sites together. The effect of water table was also investigated experimentally in {open_quotes}bog corrals{close_quotes} (open-ended metal enclosures set in the peat) in which water table was artificially raised to the surface in the driest peatland. Temperature largely controlled variation in flux within individual ecosystems at Marcell, but hydrology distinguished between-site variation. Water table position, peat temperature, and degree of peat humification explained 91% of the variance in log CH{sub 4} flux, predicted annual methane emission from individual wetlands successfully, and predicted the change in flux due to the water table manipulation. Raising the water table in the bog corrals by an average of 6 cm in autumn 1989 and 10 cm in summer 1990 increased emission by 2.5x and 2.2x, respectively. Just as expanding the scale of investigation from a single habitat in a wetland to several wetlands necessitates incorporation of additional variables to explain flux (water table, peat characteristics), modeling flux from several wetland regions, if possible, will require the addition of climate parameters. 30 refs., 8 figs., 21 tabs.

  11. Special environmental control and life support equipment test analyses and hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, David M.

    1995-01-01

    This final report summarizes NAS8-38250 contract events, 'Special Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Analysis and Hardware'. This report is technical and includes programmatic development. Key to the success of this contract was the evaluation of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) test results via sophisticated laboratory analysis capabilities. The history of the contract, including all subcontracts, is followed by the support and development of each Task.

  12. Family environmental factors influencing the developing behavioral controls of food intake and childhood overweight.

    PubMed

    Birch, L L; Davison, K K

    2001-08-01

    . Practical advice for parents includes how to foster children's preferences for healthy foods and how to promote acceptance of new foods by children. Parents need to understand the costs of coercive feeding practices and be given alternatives to restricting food and pressuring children to eat. Providing parents with easy-to-use information regarding appropriate portion sizes for children is also essential as are suggestions on the timing and frequency of meals and snacks. Especially during early and middle childhood, family environments are the key contents for the development of food preferences, patterns of food intake, eating styles, and the development of activity preferences and patterns that shape children's developing weight status. Designing effective prevention programs will, however, require more complete knowledge than currently available regarding behavioral intermediaries that foster overweight, including the family factors that shape activity patterns, meals taken away from home, the impact of stress on family members' eating styles, food intake, activity patterns, and weight gain. The research presented here provides an example of how ideas regarding the effects of environmental factors and behavioral mediators on childhood overweight can be investigated. Such research requires the development of reliable and valid measures of environmental variables and behaviors. Because childhood overweight is a multifactorial problem, additional research is needed to develop and test theoretic models describing how a wide range of environmental factors and behavioral intermediaries can work in concert with genetic predispositions to promote the development of childhood overweight. The crucial test of these theoretic models will be in preventive interventions.

  13. Perinatal and Early Childhood Environmental Factors Influencing Allergic Asthma Immunopathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the past several decades. While hereditary factors are highly important, the rapid rise outstrips the pace of genomic variation. Great emphasis has been placed on potential modifiable early life exposures leading to childhood asthma. Methods We reviewed the recent medical literature for important studies discussing the role of the perinatal and early childhood exposures and the inception of childhood asthma. Results and Discussion Early life exposure to allergens (House dust mite (HDM), furred pets, cockroach, rodent and mold)air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and particulate matter (PM)) and viral respiratory tract infections (Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (hRV)) have been implicated in the development of asthma in high risk children. Conversely, exposure to microbial diversity in the perinatal period may diminish the development of atopy and asthma symptoms. PMID:24952205

  14. A Secreted Factor Coordinates Environmental Quality with Bacillus Development

    PubMed Central

    Ababneh, Qutaiba O.; Tindall, Amanda J.; Herman, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Entry into sporulation is governed by the master regulator Spo0A. Spo0A accumulates in its active form, Spo0A-P, as cells enter stationary phase. Prior reports have shown that the acute induction of constitutively active Spo0A during exponential growth does not result in sporulation. However, a subsequent study also found that a gradual increase in Spo0A-P, mediated through artificial expression of the kinase, KinA, during exponential growth, is sufficient to trigger sporulation. We report here that sporulation via KinA induction depends on the presence of an extracellular factor or factors (FacX) that only accumulates to active levels during post-exponential growth. FacX is retained by dialysis with a cutoff smaller than 500 Dalton, can be concentrated, and is susceptible to proteinase K digestion, similar to described quorum-sensing peptides shown to be involved in promoting sporulation. However, unlike previously characterized peptides, FacX activity does not require the Opp or App oligopeptide transporter systems. In addition, FacX activity does not depend on SigH, Spo0A, or ComX. Importantly, we find that in the presence of FacX, B. subtilis can be induced to sporulate following the artificial induction of constitutively active Spo0A. These results indicate that there is no formal requirement for gradual Spo0A-P accumulation and instead support the idea that sporulation requires both sufficient levels of active Spo0A and at least one other signal or condition. PMID:26657919

  15. Comparison of Journal Citation Reports and Scopus Impact Factors for Ecology and Environmental Sciences Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Edward; Hodkinson, Sarah Z.

    2008-01-01

    Impact factors for journals listed under the subject categories "ecology" and "environmental sciences" in the Journal Citation Reports database were calculated using citation data from the Scopus database. The journals were then ranked by their Scopus impact factor and compared to the ranked lists of the same journals derived from Journal…

  16. To open or to close: species-specific stomatal responses to simultaneously applied opposing environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Merilo, Ebe; Jõesaar, Indrek; Brosché, Mikael; Kollist, Hannes

    2014-04-01

    Plant stomatal responses to single environmental factors are well studied; however, responses to a change in two (or more) factors - a common situation in nature - have been less frequently addressed. We studied the stomatal responses to a simultaneous application of opposing environmental factors in six evolutionarily distant mono- and dicotyledonous herbs representing different life strategies (ruderals, competitors and stress-tolerators) to clarify whether the crosstalk between opening- and closure-inducing pathways leading to stomatal response is universal or species-specific. Custom-made gas exchange devices were used to study the stomatal responses to a simultaneous application of two opposing factors: decreased/increased CO2 concentration and light availability or reduced air humidity. The studied species responded similarly to changes in single environmental factors, but showed species-specific and nonadditive responses to two simultaneously applied opposing factors. The stomata of the ruderals Arabidopsis thaliana and Thellungiella salsuginea (previously Thellungiella halophila) always opened, whereas those of competitor-ruderals either closed in all two-factor combinations (Triticum aestivum), remained relatively unchanged (Nicotiana tabacum) or showed a response dominated by reduced air humidity (Hordeum vulgare). Our results, indicating that in changing environmental conditions species-specific stomatal responses are evident that cannot be predicted from studying one factor at a time, might be interesting for stomatal modellers, too.

  17. The Role of Environmental Factors in Beginning Teachers' Professional Learning Related to Differentiated Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Neve, Debbie; Devos, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Little research has investigated factors that facilitate beginning teachers' participation in professional learning activities related to differentiated instruction (DI). This study examines environmental factors for DI learning activities in a sample of 272 beginning teachers from 72 primary schools. Multilevel analyses show that teacher…

  18. Intrinsic Motivation and Environmental Factors Affecting Research of Social Work Faculty on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Janice G.; Short, Glenda F. Lester

    2010-01-01

    Within the context of Self-determination Theory, this research identifies intrinsic motivation and environmental factors that support social-work-faculty research in aging. Intrinsic factors include faculty's interest in gerontology as a field of practice, the desire to advance knowledge in the field of gerontology, including producing…

  19. Space Environmental Testing of the Electrodynamic Dust Shield Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Carlos I.; Mackey, P. J.; Hogue, M. D.; Johansen, M .R.; Yim, H.; Delaune, P. B.; Clements, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's exploration missions to Mars and the moon may be jeopardized by dust that will adhere to surfaces of (a) Optical systems, viewports and solar panels, (b) Thermal radiators, (c) Instrumentation, and (d) Spacesuits. We have developed an active dust mitigation technology, the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, a multilayer coating that can remove dust and also prevents its accumulation Extensive testing in simulated laboratory environments and on a reduced gravity flight shows that high dust removal performance can be achieved Long duration exposure to the space environment as part of the MISSE-X payload will validate the technology for lunar missions.

  20. Genetic and environmental factors in conjunctival UV autofluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Yazar, Seyhan; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; McKnight, Charlotte M; Quach-Thanissorn, Piriya; Mountain, Jenny A; Coroneo, Minas T; Pennell, Craig E; Hewitt, Alex W; MacGregor, Stuart; Mackey, David A

    2016-01-01

    8. Gene-based analysis did not improve our power to detect association with other genes. Conclusion Our findings confirm that while there is a large environmental component to CUVAF (= sun exposure), genes also play a significant role. We identified a SNP (rs1060043) as being significantly associated with CUVAF; replication of this finding in future studies is warranted. PMID:25590795

  1. Genetic and environmental risk factors for childhood eczema development and allergic sensitization in the CCAAPS cohort.

    PubMed

    Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M; Wang, Ning; LeMasters, Grace K; Bernstein, David I; Epstein, Tolly G; Lindsey, Mark A; Ericksen, Mark B; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Ryan, Patrick H; Villareal, Manuel S; Burkle, Jeff W; Lockey, James E; Reponen, Tiina; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K

    2010-02-01

    Eczema is very common and increasing in prevalence. Prospective studies investigating environmental and genetic risk factors for eczema in a birth cohort are lacking. We evaluated risk factors that may promote development of childhood eczema in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) birth cohort (n=762) of infants with at least one atopic parent. Objective environmental exposure data were available for each participant. At annual physical examinations, children underwent skin prick tests (SPTs), eczema was diagnosed by a clinician, and DNA was collected. Among Caucasian children, 39% developed eczema by age 3. Children with a pet dog were significantly less likely to have eczema at age one (odds ratio (OR)=0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.40-0.97) or at both ages 2 and 3 (OR=0.54, 95% CI: 0.30-0.97). This finding was most significant among children carrying the CD14-159C/T CC genotype. Carriers of the CD14-159C/T and IL4Ralpha I75V single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) had an increased risk of eczema at both ages 2 and 3 (OR=3.44, 95% CI: 1.56-7.57), especially among children who were SPT+. These results provide new insights into the pathogenesis of eczema in high-risk children and support a protective role for early exposure to dog, especially among those carrying the CD14-159C/T SNP. The results also demonstrate a susceptibility effect of the combination of CD14 and IL4Ralpha SNPs with eczema.

  2. Regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in beta cells by environmental factors: heavy metals.

    PubMed Central

    Eckhardt, W; Bellmann, K; Kolb, H

    1999-01-01

    The expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in pancreatic islet beta cells modulates endocrine cell functions and, at very high levels of NO production causes beta-cell death. We tested the hypothesis that environmental factors such as heavy-metal salts modulate iNOS expression in beta cells. A rat beta-cell line (insulinoma RINm5F) was cultured in the presence of low-dose interleukin (IL)-1beta for suboptimal induction of iNOS. PbCl2 (0. 1-10 microM) dose-dependently increased NO (measured as nitrite) formation (P<0.001). In contrast, HgCl2 suppressed nitrite production (0.1-10 microM, P<0.05). Measurements of iNOS activity by determining citrulline levels confirmed the potentiating effect of PbCl2 (P<0.05). There was a narrow time window of heavy-metal actions, ranging from -24 h (Hg2+) or -3 h (Pb2+) to +2 h, relative to the addition of IL-1beta. By semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR, enhanced levels of iNOS mRNA were found in the presence of Pb2+ (P<0.05) and decreased levels in the presence of Hg2+. The amount of iNOS protein as determined by Western blotting was increased in the presence of Pb2+. We conclude that Pb2+ upregulates and Hg2+ suppresses iNOS gene expression at the level of transcription, probably by acting on the signalling pathway. These observations may have important implications for understanding pathological effects of environmental factors on endocrine organ functions. PMID:10051441

  3. Theater Missile Defense Extended Test Range Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement - Eglin Gulf Test Range. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    DOD Department of Defense DRMO Defense Reutilization Marketing Office EA Environmental Assessment ECAC Electronic Compatibility Analysis Center...natural attractions (kayaking, birdwatching , hiking, participating in cultural events); responsible travel to natural areas which conserves the

  4. [CCA of water beetles' distribution and environmental factors in lentic samples of north Changbai Mountain].

    PubMed

    We, Yulian; Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Miao; Zhao, Min

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between 28 species water beetles in 12 lentic samples and environmental factors of North Chang-bai Mountain was studied by Cononical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). The results showed that degree of underwater humus and altitude are the major factors correlated with beetles distribution, and the correlation coefficients of environmental factors and axes of CCA were 0.8371 and 0.7206 respectively, while water temperature and plant density also had certain effects. Under the influence of environmental factors, the water beetles' populations were different in different habitat. Coelambus impressopunctatus, Colymbetes magnus, Helophorus browni, Haliplus spp. distributed in deep water pool. Water temperature was not important for those beetles. Ilybius sp. and Limnebius glabriventris correlated with altitude and humus.

  5. [Discuss on effect of physical environmental factors on nature of Chinese materia medica].

    PubMed

    Tang, Shihuan; Yang, Hongjun; Huang, Luqi

    2010-01-01

    Nature of Chinese materia medica is the nucleus in the theory of Chinese material medica, according to the recognition of Traditional Chinese Medicine, which is the character of the drug related on curative effect. Nature and efficacy of a drug is through the medical material, then, physical environment, including the temperature, humidity, atmospheric water, wind, topography, soil, micro-organism, and so on, influence the growth and development of the medical meterial. In this paper, we researched the explanation on nature of Chinese materia medica in the medical books of past dynasties, combined with the modem research, analyzed the relationship between generative reception and physical environmental factors, and discussed the effect of physical environmental factors on nature of Chinese materia medica. We indicated that the formation of Chinese materia medical nature is that the drug receptive the change of physical environmental factors, and resulted by the synthetic action of the factors, such as climate, soil, biology, topography, etc.

  6. FACTORS IN THE TESTING AND APPLICATION OF ALGICIDES.

    PubMed

    FITZGERALD, G P

    1964-05-01

    A review is presented of some of the factors affecting the laboratory testing and practical applications of chemicals toxic to algae. The basic factor demonstrated is that the amount of chemical required to inhibit the growth of algae is dependent on the amount of algae present and not on the volume of water in which the algae are dispersed. It is shown how a chemical can be tested for algistatic or algicidal properties, thus enabling one to decide how best to apply a particular chemical. The selectivity of chemicals and the development of resistance in algae towards certain chemicals is demonstrated. Also, it is shown how certain algae can appear to be resistant to chemical treatments because of their growth habit or their production of extracellular products which affect the toxicity of added chemicals. With a better understanding of how various factors can influence the effectiveness of toxic chemicals, it is hoped that the selection of a chemical and method of application to a particular problem will be more successful.

  7. The Relationships between Environmental Factors and Violent Behaviors in Adolescent Students of Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Omidi, Razieh; Heidari, Kamal; Davari, Hossein; Espanani, Morteza; Poursalehi, Mojtaba; Naeini, Shokooh Eghtedari; Rastkerdar, Zeinabsadat; Azizi, Amir; Zakizadeh, Mohammadreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Violence is a global issue that has received considerable attention during recent years. Available research has suggested various factors, mostly family and social factors, to possibly affect violence. As previous studies have not examined the relationship between these factors and violent behaviors in adolescents, this study aimed to assess the relationship between environmental factors and violence in adolescents. Methods: This descriptive, correlational research used cluster sampling to select 5500 adolescent students from Isfahan Province (Iran). Data were collected through a 21-item researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was modified according to the relevant experts’ opinions and had Cronbach's alpha of 0.82. The collected data were analyzed by applying multiple regression analysis in SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Most participants (89.1%) lived in urban areas and about half (49.8%) of them were female. Linear regression test showed violent behaviors to have significant, inverse relationships with love and affection in the family (β = −0.097; P < 0.001) and watching drama and comedy movies (β = −0.128; P < 0.001 and β = −0.032; P = 0.030, respectively). There were significant, direct relationships between violent behaviors in adolescents and aggressive behaviors in the family (β =0.099; P < 0.001) and watching crime, police, and action movies (β =0.129; P < 0.001, detective movies β =0.043; P < 0.001, and β =0.061; P < 0.001, respectively). However, the incidence of violent behaviors was not significantly related with the effects of peers and presence of sports facilities. Conclusions: Our findings confirmed love and affection and healthy pastime (e.g. watching comedy and drama movies) in the family to reduce violent behaviors in adolescents. In contrast, aggressive behaviors in the family, watching crime, police, and action movies were found to increase violent behaviors in adolescents. PMID:26157573

  8. Test-retest reliability and factor stability of the behavioral evaluation for epidemiology studies test battery.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, Diana; Heyer, Nicholas J; Bittner, Alvan C; Rohlman, Diane; Woods, James S

    2002-12-01

    The Behavioral Evaluation for Epidemiology Studies test battery uses touch-screen technology and novel methodologies to enhance neurobehavioral assessment. Scores generally show differential stability from the first trial with individual test reliabilities at or above .80 when normalized to a 3-min. administration. Six highly reliable (r > or = .87) factors were identified that cover functions known to be sensitive to neurotoxicants and physical exposures. These results strongly support recommendation of the new test battery for use in repeated-measures epidemiologic studies where first trial stability is desired.

  9. Examination of Substance Use, Risk Factors, and Protective Factors on Student Academic Test Score Performance

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Michael W.; Brown, Eric C.; Briney, John S.; Hawkins, J. David; Abbott, Robert D.; Catalano, Richard F.; Becker, Linda; Langer, Michael; Mueller, Martin T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND School administrators and teachers face difficult decisions about how best to use school resources in order to meet academic achievement goals. Many are hesitant to adopt prevention curricula that are not focused directly on academic achievement. Yet, some have hypothesized that prevention curricula can remove barriers to learning and, thus, promote achievement. This study examined relationships between school levels of student substance use and risk and protective factors that predict adolescent problem behaviors and achievement test performance in Washington State. METHODS Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models were used to examine predictive associations between school-averaged levels of substance use and risk and protective factors and Washington State students’ likelihood of meeting achievement test standards on the Washington Assessment of Student Learning, statistically controlling for demographic and economic factors known to be associated with achievement. RESULTS Results indicate that levels of substance use and risk/protective factors predicted the academic test score performance of students. Many of these effects remained significant even after controlling for model covariates. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that implementing prevention programs that target empirically identified risk and protective factors have the potential to positively affect students’ academic achievement. PMID:26149305

  10. Personal and social factors that influence pro-environmental concern and behaviour: a review.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Robert; Nilsson, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    We review the personal and social influences on pro-environmental concern and behaviour, with an emphasis on recent research. The number of these influences suggests that understanding pro-environmental concern and behaviour is far more complex than previously thought. The influences are grouped into 18 personal and social factors. The personal factors include childhood experience, knowledge and education, personality and self-construal, sense of control, values, political and world views, goals, felt responsibility, cognitive biases, place attachment, age, gender and chosen activities. The social factors include religion, urban-rural differences, norms, social class, proximity to problematic environmental sites and cultural and ethnic variations We also recognize that pro-environmental behaviour often is undertaken based on none of the above influences, but because individuals have non-environmental goals such as to save money or to improve their health. Finally, environmental outcomes that are a result of these influences undoubtedly are determined by combinations of the 18 categories. Therefore, a primary goal of researchers now should be to learn more about how these many influences moderate and mediate one another to determine pro-environmental behaviour.

  11. Factors influencing uptake of familial long QT syndrome genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Burns, Charlotte; McGaughran, Julie; Davis, Andrew; Semsarian, Christopher; Ingles, Jodie

    2016-02-01

    Ongoing challenges of clinical assessment of long QT syndrome (LQTS) highlight the importance of genetic testing in the diagnosis of asymptomatic at-risk family members. Effective access, uptake, and communication of genetic testing are critical for comprehensive cascade family screening and prevention of disease complications such as sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study was to describe factors influencing uptake of LQTS genetic testing, including those relating to access and family communication. We show those who access genetic testing are overrepresented by the socioeconomically advantaged, and that although overall family communication is good, there are some important barriers to be addressed. There were 75 participants (aged 18 years or more, with a clinical and/or genetic diagnosis of LQTS; response rate 71%) who completed a survey including a number of validated scales; demographics; and questions about access, uptake, and communication. Mean age of participants was 46 ± 16 years, 20 (27%) were males and 60 (80%) had genetic testing with a causative gene mutation in 42 (70%). Overall uptake of cascade testing within families was 60% after 4 years from proband genetic diagnosis. All participants reported at least one first-degree relative had been informed of their risk, whereas six (10%) reported at least one first-degree relative had not been informed. Those who were anxious or depressed were more likely to perceive barriers to communicating. Genetic testing is a key aspect of care in LQTS families and intervention strategies that aim to improve equity in access and facilitate effective family communication are needed.

  12. Environmental tests of thermographic phosphors for turbine-engine temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, B. W.; Bibby, M. C.; Borella, H. M.; Woodruff, S. E.; Hudson, C. L.

    1989-07-01

    A method that uses thermographic phosphors (TPs) for remote temperature measurements in hostile environments was developed. Based on the results of environmental tests, the potential for applying the TP method to measuring blade and vane temperatures in operating turbine engines was evaluated. Heat/water-quench tests, burner-rig tests, and a test in an experimental-engine hot section demonstrated that the TPs can be durably bonded to blade and vane surfaces, yet still exhibit usable luminescence after the test. A spin-pit test showed that it was possible to measure the temperature reliably on a heated rotating turbine disk. These tests and their results are described.

  13. Design, Development, Testing, and Evaluation: Human Factors Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelstein, Bernard; Hobbs, Alan; OHara, John; Null, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    While human-system interaction occurs in all phases of system development and operation, this chapter on Human Factors in the DDT&E for Reliable Spacecraft Systems is restricted to the elements that involve "direct contact" with spacecraft systems. Such interactions will encompass all phases of human activity during the design, fabrication, testing, operation, and maintenance phases of the spacecraft lifespan. This section will therefore consider practices that would accommodate and promote effective, safe, reliable, and robust human interaction with spacecraft systems. By restricting this chapter to what the team terms "direct contact" with the spacecraft, "remote" factors not directly involved in the development and operation of the vehicle, such as management and organizational issues, have been purposely excluded. However, the design of vehicle elements that enable and promote ground control activities such as monitoring, feedback, correction and reversal (override) of on-board human and automation process are considered as per NPR8705.2A, Section 3.3.

  14. Impacts Analyses Supporting the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Annette L. Schafer; LLoyd C. Brown; David C. Carathers; Boyd D. Christensen; James J. Dahl; Mark L. Miller; Cathy Ottinger Farnum; Steven Peterson; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Peter V. Subaiya; Daniel M. Wachs; Ruth F. Weiner

    2014-02-01

    This document contains the analysis details and summary of analyses conducted to evaluate the environmental impacts for the Resumption of Transient Fuel and Materials Testing Program. It provides an assessment of the impacts for the two action alternatives being evaluated in the environmental assessment. These alternatives are (1) resumption of transient testing using the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and (2) conducting transient testing using the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico (SNL/NM). Analyses are provided for radiologic emissions, other air emissions, soil contamination, and groundwater contamination that could occur (1) during normal operations, (2) as a result of accidents in one of the facilities, and (3) during transport. It does not include an assessment of the biotic, cultural resources, waste generation, or other impacts that could result from the resumption of transient testing. Analyses were conducted by technical professionals at INL and SNL/NM as noted throughout this report. The analyses are based on bounding radionuclide inventories, with the same inventories used for test materials by both alternatives and different inventories for the TREAT Reactor and ACRR. An upper value on the number of tests was assumed, with a test frequency determined by the realistic turn-around times required between experiments. The estimates provided for impacts during normal operations are based on historical emission rates and projected usage rates; therefore, they are bounding. Estimated doses for members of the public, collocated workers, and facility workers that could be incurred as a result of an accident are very conservative. They do not credit safety systems or administrative procedures (such as evacuation plans or use of personal protective equipment) that could be used to limit worker doses. Doses estimated for transportation are conservative and are based on

  15. Effects of genetic and environmental factors on trait network predictions from quantitative trait locus data.

    PubMed

    Remington, David L

    2009-03-01

    The use of high-throughput genomic techniques to map gene expression quantitative trait loci has spurred the development of path analysis approaches for predicting functional networks linking genes and natural trait variation. The goal of this study was to test whether potentially confounding factors, including effects of common environment and genes not included in path models, affect predictions of cause-effect relationships among traits generated by QTL path analyses. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test simple QTL-trait networks under different regulatory scenarios involving direct and indirect effects. SEM identified the correct models under simple scenarios, but when common-environment effects were simulated in conjunction with direct QTL effects on traits, they were poorly distinguished from indirect effects, leading to false support for indirect models. Application of SEM to loblolly pine QTL data provided support for biologically plausible a priori hypotheses of QTL mechanisms affecting height and diameter growth. However, some biologically implausible models were also well supported. The results emphasize the need to include any available functional information, including predictions for genetic and environmental correlations, to develop plausible models if biologically useful trait network predictions are to be made.

  16. [Relationships between characteristics of ground bryophyte communities and environmental factors in urban area of Chongqing, China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Pi, Chun-yan; Tian, Shang

    2015-10-01

    The present study focused on bryophyte species composition, species diversity and the relationship between bryophyte communities and environmental factors in urban area of Chongqing City, by using biodiversity indices and the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), based on the data of 44 plots. The results revealed that 86 species belonging to 43 genera and 25 families were found in saxicolous bryophyte communities, while 46 species belonging to 28 genera and 22 families were found in terricolous ones. The diversity indices of both saxicolous and terricolous bryophyte communities from campuses were higher than those of parks, natural scenic resorts, Jinyunshan National Nature Reserve. TWINSPAN classified saxicolous and terricolous bryophyte communities into three and two groups, respectively. CCA results showed canopy density was the major environmental factor of saxicolous bryophyte communities influencing bryophyte distribution in parks and campuses, whereas altitude, relative humidity and human disturbance were the major environmental factors in natural scenic resorts and nature reserve. Soil pH, canopy density and human disturbance were the major environmental factors in terricolous bryophyte communities in parks and campuses, whereas altitude, relative humidity and water content of the soil were the major environmental factors in those of natural scenic resorts and nature reserve.

  17. Shift-work disorder and sleep-related environmental factors in the manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Taniyama, Yukari; Nakamura, Arisa; Yamauchi, Takenori; Takeuchi, Shouhei; Kuroda, Yoshiki

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between shift-work disorder (SWD) and environmental and somatic factors related to falling asleep among rapidly rotating shift workers in a manufacturing industry.A total of 556 male workers were recruited to complete a self-administered questionnaire regarding age, shift work experience, lifestyle, and family structure; the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS); the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI); and the Horne and Ostberg questionnaire, a questionnaire for environmental and somatic factors related to falling asleep. We classified workers according to having SWD or not, and compared workers with SWD with those without this disorder in terms of all items covered in the aforementioned questionnaires. A total of 208 workers (62.8%) working rapidly rotating shifts were diagnosed with SWD. The ESS and PSQI scores and scores for environmental and somatic factors were significantly higher in workers with SWD than in those without this disorder. The ESS scores and scores for environmental and somatic factors were also associated with SWD in the logistic regression analyses. We suggest that susceptibility to SWD in the manufacturing industry may be associated with environmental and somatic factors related to falling asleep.

  18. Literature on the aetiology of hypospadias in the last 5 years: molecular mechanism and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Q; Qu, W Y; Yang, L; Wang, K; Tu, H Y; Wang, J

    2014-08-01

    Year-by-year, there has been an increasing number of literature on hypospadias, and most of them are mainly focused on two aspects, namely surgical techniques and aetiology, including the molecular mechanism and associated environmental factors. Surgical techniques and nursing levels are being continuously improved. However, in stark contrast, the study of aetiology still lags behind. Up to now, there is still no consensus on the aetiology of hypospadias, including the molecular mechanism and associated environmental factors. To obtain an overall and latest result on the aetiology, we reviewed published literature regarding the aetiology of hypospadias including the molecular mechanism and associated environmental factors in PubMed in the last 5 years. Thirty-seven studies on the aetiology of hypospadias including molecular mechanism and associated environmental factors were found, of which 25 were about associated environmental factors, and they were described according to the aspects of chemicals, parental characteristics, nutrition and hormones. The remaining studies were about the hormone-dependent phase of molecular mechanism, namely androgen-related genes and oestrogen-related genes. Furthermore, the various points of view were classified and discussed in detail.

  19. Life on the boundary: Environmental factors as drivers of habitat distribution in the littoral zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cefalì, Maria Elena; Cebrian, Emma; Chappuis, Eglantine; Pinedo, Susana; Terradas, Marc; Mariani, Simone; Ballesteros, Enric

    2016-04-01

    The boundary between land and sea, i.e. the littoral zone, is home to a large number of habitats whose distribution is primarily driven by the distance to the sea level but also by other environmental factors such as littoral's geomorphological features, wave exposure, water temperature or orientation. Here we explore the relative importance of those major environmental factors that drive the presence of littoral rocky habitats along 1100 Km of Catalonia's shoreline (Spain, NW Mediterranean) by using Geographic Information Systems and Generalized Linear Models. The distribution of mediolittoral and upper infralittoral habitats responded to different environmental factors. Mediolittoral habitats showed regional differences drawn by sea-water temperature and substrate type. Wave exposure (hydrodynamism), slope and geological features were only relevant to those mediolittoral habitats with specific environmental needs. We did not find any regional pattern of distribution in upper infralittoral habitats, and selected factors only played a moderate role in habitat distribution at the local scale. This study shows for the first time that environmental factors determining habitat distribution differ within the mediolittoral and the upper infralittoral zones and provides the basis for further development of models oriented at predicting the distribution of littoral marine habitats.

  20. Environmental and nutritional factors affecting geosmin synthesis by Anabaena sp.

    PubMed

    Saadoun, I M; Schrader, K K; Blevins, W T

    2001-04-01

    A cyanobacterium isolated from a source-water reservoir during a spring odor and taste episode and identified as Anabaena sp. consistently produced geosmin during laboratory culture on modified BG-11 liquid medium. Maximal geosmin/biomass occurred at 20 degrees C and a light intensity of 17 microE/m2/s; geosmin/chla values directly correlated with increasing light intensity (r2 = 0.95, P < 0.01). It was concluded that at 20 degrees C, increasing light intensity favors less chla synthesis and higher geosmin synthesis; at 17 microE/m2/s, increasing temperature stimulates chla production (to 25 degrees C) while repressing geosmin synthesis (above 20 degrees C). Nutritional factors promoting biomass, chla, and geosmin synthesis by Anabaena sp. were also investigated. For cultures grown at 17 microE/m2/s and 20 degrees C for 20 days, both ammonium-N and nitrate-N generally enhanced the growth of Anabaena sp. Nitrate-N promoted more chla production (r2 = 0.99) than ammonium-N. Geosmin synthesis was directly correlated with ammonium-N concentrations (r2 = 0.89), with low nitrate-N (123.5 micrograms/l) favoring maximal geosmin production (2.8 micrograms/l). Increasing nitrate-N concentrations promoted a three-fold increase in chla content with geosmin synthesis decreased by two-fold. Geosmin/mg biomass was directly related to ammonium-N concentration; high nitrate-N levels suppressed geosmin production. No geosmin was detected at or below 118 micrograms phosphate-phosphorus/l. Geosmin, dry weight biomass, and chla production were correlated with increasing phosphorus (P) concentration (r2 = 0.76, 0.96 and 0.98, respectively). No geosmin was detected when copper was present in growth media at or above 6.92 micrograms Cu2+/l (CuSO4.5H2O). Dry weight biomass and chla production were negatively correlated with Cu2+ ion concentrations.

  1. Characterization and testing of a new environmental chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskinen, A.; Yli-Pirilä, P.; Kuuspalo, K.; Sippula, O.; Jalava, P.; Hirvonen, M.-R.; Jokiniemi, J.; Virtanen, A.; Komppula, M.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.

    2015-06-01

    A 29 m3 Teflon chamber, designed for studies on the aging of combustion aerosols, at the University of Eastern Finland is described and characterized. The chamber is part of a research facility, called Ilmari, where small-scale combustion devices, a dynamometer for vehicle exhaust studies, dilution systems, the chamber, and cell and animal exposure devices are located side by side under the same roof. The small surface-to-volume ratio of the chamber enables reasonably long experiment times, with particle wall loss rate constants of 0.088, 0.080, 0.045, and 0.040 h-1 for polydisperse, 50, 100, and 200 nm monodisperse aerosols, respectively. The NO2 photolysis rate can be adjusted from 0 to 0.62 min-1. The irradiance spectrum is centered at either 350 or 365 nm, and the maximum irradiance, produced by up to 160 blacklight lamps, is 29.7 W m-2, which corresponds to the ultraviolet (UV) irradiance in Central Finland at noon on a sunny day in the midsummer. The temperature inside the chamber is uniform and can be kept at 25±1 °C. The chamber is kept in an overpressure with a moving top frame, which reduces sample dilution and entrance of contamination during an experiment. The functionality of the chamber was tested with oxidation experiments of toluene, resulting in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields of 12-42%, depending on the initial conditions, such as NOx concentration and UV irradiation. The highest gaseous oxidation product yields of 12.4-19.5% and 5.8-19.5% were detected with ions corresponding to methyl glyoxal (m/z 73.029) and 4-oxo-2-pentenal (m/z 99.044), respectively. Overall, reasonable yields of SOA and gaseous reaction products, comparable to those obtained in other laboratories, were obtained.

  2. Effects of environmental factors on genetic diversity of Caragana microphylla in Horqin Sandy Land, northeast China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenda; Zhao, Xueyong; Zhao, Xin; Li, Yulin; Lian, Jie

    2016-11-01

    Caragana microphylla (Leguminosae) is a dominant climax semishrub species in northern China. We evaluated genetic variation within and among populations sampled from three different environmental gradients in Horqin Sandy Land in northern China using intersimple sequence repeats markers and investigated the possible existence of relationships between genetic diversity and environmental factors. The results showed that C. microphylla have high genetic diversity, and environmental gradients affected genetic diversity of C. microphylla populations. Genetic diversity of all populations was affected by many environmental factors and as well correlated with warm index and soil Olsen phosphorus (SOP) concentration. These results have important implications for restoration and management of these degraded ecosystems in arid and semi-arid areas.

  3. The Dependability of General-Factor Loadings: The Effects of Factor-Extraction Methods, Test Battery Composition, Test Battery Size, and Their Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Shands, Elizabeth I.; Rafael, Fawziya A.; Bergeron, Renee; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2009-01-01

    To understand the extent to which the general-factor loadings of tests are inherent in their characteristics or due to the sampling of tests, the number of tests in the correlation matrix, and the factor-extraction methods used to obtain them, test scores from a large sample of young adults were inserted into independent and overlapping batteries…

  4. Human factors in environmental management: New directions from the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, J.A.; Savage, S.F.

    1992-10-01

    Environmental management is the general term given to modern attempts to seek technological solutions to certain constrained environmental problems. it involves developing and applying new technologies that respond to changes in environmental policy. It does not eliminate the need for environmental ethics'' in society. Nor does it substitute for the fundamental changes in political and social structures that are needed for dealing with large-scale environmental issues. The scope of these issues can be illustrated by looking at the Hanford Site. Since 1943, the 560-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state has been the production source of much of the nuclear weapons-grade radioactive materials for the United States. The legacy of 50 years of producing fissile materials has been an environmental cleanup problem of impressive proportions. In 1989, with the Cold War winding down, Secretary of Energy James Watkins established a new vision for Hanford as the flagship for waste management research.'' As plans and preparations for cleanup work proceed at the Hanford Site and around the world, the need for well-orchestrated environmental management methodologies has become increasingly apparent. In 1990, a Human Factors Engineering Group was established in the Technology Planning and Analysis Center at PNL to provide appropriate support for the Laboratory's research efforts. At an ever-increasing rate, these research efforts require integrating human performance into complex environmental technology systems. The endeavor of responding to the Laboratory's research needs has provided innovative opportunities for the application of the concept of Human Factors. Discussed are some of the major applications of Human Factors to environmental management.

  5. Analysis of Environmental Stress Factors Using an Artificial Growth System and Plant Fitness Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meonghun; Yoe, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The environment promotes evolution. Evolutionary processes represent environmental adaptations over long time scales; evolution of crop genomes is not inducible within the relatively short time span of a human generation. Extreme environmental conditions can accelerate evolution, but such conditions are often stress inducing and disruptive. Artificial growth systems can be used to induce and select genomic variation by changing external environmental conditions, thus, accelerating evolution. By using cloud computing and big-data analysis, we analyzed environmental stress factors for Pleurotus ostreatus by assessing, evaluating, and predicting information of the growth environment. Through the indexing of environmental stress, the growth environment can be precisely controlled and developed into a technology for improving crop quality and production. PMID:25874206

  6. Indigenous health and environmental risk factors: an Australian problem with global analogues?

    PubMed

    Knibbs, Luke D; Sly, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous people experience poorer health than non-Indigenous people, and this well-described inequality has been observed in many countries. The contribution of different risk factors to the health 'gap' has understandably focussed on those factors for which there are sufficient data. However, this has precluded environmental risk factors - those present in air, water, food, and soil - due to a lack of data describing exposures and outcomes. These risk factors are demonstrably important at the global scale, as highlighted by the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study. Here, we describe how a greater focus on environmental risk factors is required in order to define their role in the Indigenous health gap. We use the Australian context as a case study of an issue we feel has global analogues and relevance. Suggestions for how and why this situation should be remedied are presented and discussed.

  7. REGENT: a risk assessment and classification algorithm for genetic and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Crouch, Daniel JM; Goddard, Graham HM; Lewis, Cathryn M

    2013-01-01

    The identification of environmental and genetic factors that contribute to disease risk requires appropriate statistical methods and software that can integrate different sources of risk, provide statistical assessment of combined risk factors, and facilitate interpretation of this risk. We have developed an R package, REGENT, to calculate risks conferred by genetic factors and multilevel environmental factors. This is performed at a population level, with the option to also analyse individual-level data. REGENT incorporates variability in risk factors to calculate confidence intervals for risk estimates and to classify the population into different categories of risk based on significant differences from the baseline average member of the population. REGENT is an R package available from CRAN: http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/REGENT. It will be of value to genetic researchers exploring the utility of the variants detected for their disorder, and to clinical researchers interested in genetic risk studies. PMID:22669417

  8. Indigenous health and environmental risk factors: an Australian problem with global analogues?

    PubMed Central

    Knibbs, Luke D.; Sly, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous people experience poorer health than non-Indigenous people, and this well-described inequality has been observed in many countries. The contribution of different risk factors to the health ‘gap’ has understandably focussed on those factors for which there are sufficient data. However, this has precluded environmental risk factors – those present in air, water, food, and soil – due to a lack of data describing exposures and outcomes. These risk factors are demonstrably important at the global scale, as highlighted by the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study. Here, we describe how a greater focus on environmental risk factors is required in order to define their role in the Indigenous health gap. We use the Australian context as a case study of an issue we feel has global analogues and relevance. Suggestions for how and why this situation should be remedied are presented and discussed. PMID:24802385

  9. Critical Environmental Factors for Transportation Cycling in Children: A Qualitative Study Using Bike-Along Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Ghekiere, Ariane; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; de Geus, Bas; Clarys, Peter; Cardon, Greet; Salmon, Jo; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-01-01

    Background Environmental factors are found to influence transport-related physical activity, but have rarely been studied in relation with cycling for transport to various destinations in 10–12 yr old children. The current qualitative study used ‘bike-along interviews’ with children and parents to allow discussion of detailed environmental factors that may influence children's cycling for transport, while cycling in the participant's neighborhood. Methods Purposeful convenience sampling was used to recruit 35 children and one of their parents residing in (semi-) urban areas. Bike-along interviews were conducted to and from a randomly chosen destination (e.g. library) within a 15 minutes' cycle trip in the participant's neighborhood. Participants wore a GoPro camera to objectively assess environmental elements, which were subsequently discussed with participants. Content analysis and arising themes were derived using a grounded theory approach. Results The discussed environmental factors were categorized under traffic, urban design, cycling facilities, road design, facilities at destination, aesthetics, topography, weather, social control, stranger danger and familiar environment. Across these categories many environmental factors were (in)directly linked to road safety. This was illustrated by detailed discussions of the children's visibility, familiarity with specific traffic situations, and degree of separation, width and legibility of cycle facilities. Conclusion Road safety is of major concern in this 10–12 yr old study population. Bike-along interviews were able to identify new, detailed and context-specific physical environmental factors which could inform policy makers to promote children's cycling for transport. However, future studies should investigate whether hypothetical changes to such micro environmental features influence perceptions of safety and if this in turn could lead to changes in children's cycling for transport. PMID:25250738

  10. Environmental Factors Influencing White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Exposure to Livestock Pathogens in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Bryant; Mahoney, Kathleen; Norton, Andrew; Patnayak, Devi; Van Deelen, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are commonly exposed to disease agents that affect livestock but environmental factors that predispose deer to exposure are unknown for many pathogens. We trapped deer during winter months on two study areas (Northern Forest and Eastern Farmland) in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2013. Deer were tested for exposure to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, bratislava, pomona, and hardjo), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR), and parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3). We used logistic regression to model potential intrinsic (e.g., age, sex) and extrinsic (e.g., land type, study site, year, exposure to multiple pathogens) variables we considered biologically meaningful to exposure of deer to livestock pathogens. Deer sampled in 2010–2011 did not demonstrate exposure to BVDV, so we did not test for BVDV in subsequent years. Deer had evidence of exposure to PI3 (24.7%), IBR (7.9%), Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona (11.7%), L. i. bratislava (1.0%), L. i. grippotyphosa (2.5%) and L. i. hardjo (0.3%). Deer did not demonstrate exposure to L. interrogans serovars canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae. For PI3, we found that capture site and year influenced exposure. Fawns (n = 119) were not exposed to L. i. pomona, but land type was an important predictor of exposure to L. i. pomona for older deer. Our results serve as baseline exposure levels of Wisconsin white-tailed deer to livestock pathogens, and helped to identify important factors that explain deer exposure to livestock pathogens. PMID:26030150

  11. Environmental Factors Influencing White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Exposure to Livestock Pathogens in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Dubay, Shelli; Jacques, Christopher; Golden, Nigel; Kern, Bryant; Mahoney, Kathleen; Norton, Andrew; Patnayak, Devi; Van Deelen, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are commonly exposed to disease agents that affect livestock but environmental factors that predispose deer to exposure are unknown for many pathogens. We trapped deer during winter months on two study areas (Northern Forest and Eastern Farmland) in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2013. Deer were tested for exposure to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, bratislava, pomona, and hardjo), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR), and parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3). We used logistic regression to model potential intrinsic (e.g., age, sex) and extrinsic (e.g., land type, study site, year, exposure to multiple pathogens) variables we considered biologically meaningful to exposure of deer to livestock pathogens. Deer sampled in 2010-2011 did not demonstrate exposure to BVDV, so we did not test for BVDV in subsequent years. Deer had evidence of exposure to PI3 (24.7%), IBR (7.9%), Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona (11.7%), L. i. bratislava (1.0%), L. i. grippotyphosa (2.5%) and L. i. hardjo (0.3%). Deer did not demonstrate exposure to L. interrogans serovars canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae. For PI3, we found that capture site and year influenced exposure. Fawns (n = 119) were not exposed to L. i. pomona, but land type was an important predictor of exposure to L. i. pomona for older deer. Our results serve as baseline exposure levels of Wisconsin white-tailed deer to livestock pathogens, and helped to identify important factors that explain deer exposure to livestock pathogens.

  12. 76 FR 81467 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Swine Influenza Vaccine, RNA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... Swine Influenza Vaccine, RNA AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... test, an unlicensed Swine Influenza Vaccine, RNA. The environmental assessment, which is based on a risk analysis prepared to assess the risks associated with the field testing of this vaccine,...

  13. Development and Test of a Rocket Engine Using Environmentally Friendly Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, Kristi

    2009-01-01

    Develop and test a rocket engine that operates on environmentally friendly propellants; Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Liquid Methane (LCH4). Due to modifications the rocket engine designed last summer (KJ_REX) is not the same rocket thruster tested this summer, but very similar. The new modified rocket thruster was built for NASA by Orion Propulsion Inc. (OPI), Huntsville, AL.

  14. Environmental Technology Verification--Baghouse Filtration Products: GE Energy QG061 Filtration Media (Tested September 2008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report reviews the filtration and pressure drop performance of GE Energy's QG061 filtration media. Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) testing of this technology/product was conducted during a series of tests in September 2008. The objective of the ETV Program is to ...

  15. [Effects of environmental factors on litter decomposition in arid and semi-arid regions: A review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Yuan; Zhao, Xue-Yong; Li, Yu-Lin; Lian, Jie; Qu, Hao; Yue, Xiang-Fei

    2013-11-01

    Litter decomposition is one of the important biochemical processes in arid and semi-arid regions, and a key component of regional nutrient turnover and carbon cycling, which is mainly affected by climate, litter quality, and decomposer community. In order to deeply understand the relationships between litter decomposition and environmental factors in arid and semi-arid regions, this paper summarized the research progress in the effects of abiotic factors (soil temperature, precipitation, and ultraviolet-B radiation) and biotic factors (litter quality, soil microbial and animal composition and community structure) on the litter decomposition in these regions. Among the factors, precipitation and ultraviolet-B radiation are considered to be the main limiting factors of litter decomposition. In arid and semi-arid regions, precipitation can significantly increase the litter decomposition rate in a short term, while the photo-degradation induced by ultraviolet-B radiation, due to the strong and long-term radiation, can increase the decomposition rate of terrestrial litter. Litter quality, soil microbial and animal composition and community structure are mainly affected by the type of ecosystems in a long term. However, the affecting mechanisms of these environmental factors on litter decomposition are still not very clear. It was suggested that the future litter ecological research should be paid more attention to the interaction of environmental factors under climate change, the variations of litter decomposition at different spatial scales, and the establishment of litter decomposition models in relation to the synergistic interactions of multiple factors.

  16. Association between adolescent tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use and individual and environmental resilience protective factors

    PubMed Central

    Hodder, Rebecca Kate; Freund, Megan; Bowman, Jenny; Gillham, Karen; Dray, Julia; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research suggests that individual and environmental resilience protective factors may be associated with adolescent substance use; however, the associations between a broad range of such factors and use of various types of substances have not been examined. The study aimed to determine the association between a comprehensive range of adolescent individual and environmental resilience protective factors and measures of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting 32 Australian secondary schools. Participants Grade 7–10 students (aged 11–17 years). Measures Data regarding 14 student individual and environmental resilience protective factors and seven substance use measures (tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, other illicit drug use) were obtained via an online self-report survey. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression analyses examined the association between all student resilience protective factors and seven substance use measures. Results Inverse univariate associations were found for 94 of 98 relationships examined (n=10 092). Multivariate analyses found: consistent inverse associations between 2 of 14 protective factors and all substance use measures (‘goals and aspirations’, ‘prosocial peers’); inverse associations between 4 protective factors with multiple substance use measures (‘home support’ (5 of 7), ‘school support’ (3 of 7), ‘self-awareness’ (2 of 7), ‘community meaningful participation’ (2 of 7)); positive associations between 2 resilience protective factors with multiple measures of substance use (‘community support’ (3 of 7), ‘peer caring relationships’ (5 of 7)) and 6 protective factors not to be associated with any substance use measure. Conclusions Despite individual relationships between the majority of resilience protective factors and substance use types, the protective benefit of such factors for adolescent substance use was limited to only a small number of

  17. Occupational and environmental exposures as risk factors for systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Glinda S; Parks, Christine G

    2004-10-01

    Although genetic susceptibility plays a strong role in the etiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), recent research has provided new evidence of the potential influence of environmental factors in the risk for this disease. This paper describes epidemiologic and experimental research pertaining to occupational and environmental sources of exposure to respirable crystalline silica, solvents and pesticides, and two "lifestyle" factors (smoking and hair dye use). As has been seen with other systemic autoimmune diseases (eg, systemic sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis), a series of epidemiologic studies, using different designs in different settings, have demonstrated relatively strong and consistent associations between occupational silica exposure and SLE. The type and quality of exposure assessment is an important consideration in evaluating these studies. Recent experimental studies examined the effect of trichloroethylene exposure in MRL+/+ mice, but to date there have been few epidemiologic studies of solvents and SLE. There are numerous avenues with respect to environmental factors in SLE that need additional research.

  18. The demographic evolution of human populations: the role of selection and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Demetrius, L

    1989-08-01

    Selection (genetic and cultural) and environmental variation are the principal mechanisms determining patterns of demographic change in human populations. Conditions exist under which the nature and intensity of these forces can be inferred from temporal trends in the demographic variables. These conditions, which can be expressed in terms of relations between the Malthusian parameter and population entropy, provide a means for evaluating the effect of selective and nonselective factors on demographic trends in human populations. The distinction between the roles of selection and environmental factors is illustrated by a study of the demographic transition in Sweden (1778-1965). This study shows that demographic changes during the pre- and posttransitional phases are determined mainly by environmental factors, whereas the changes during the transitional phase are mainly due to cultural selection. This analysis provides, for all three phases of the demographic transition, quantitative measures of the intensity of the forces (selective and nonselective) acting on both mortality and fecundity distributions.

  19. Environmentally Relevant Inoculum Concentrations Improve the Reliability of Persistent Assessments in Biodegradation Screening Tests.

    PubMed

    Martin, Timothy J; Snape, Jason R; Bartram, Abigail; Robson, Aidan; Acharya, Kishor; Davenport, Russell J

    2017-03-07

    Standard OECD biodegradation screening tests (BSTs) have not evolved at the same rate as regulatory concerns, which now place an increased emphasis on environmental persistence. Consequently, many chemicals are falsely assigned as being potentially persistent based on results from BSTs. The present study increased test duration and increased inoculum concentrations to more environmentally relevant levels to assess their impact on biodegradation outcome and intratest replicate variability for chemicals with known environmental persistence. Chemicals were assigned to potential persistence categories based on existing degradation data. These more environmentally relevant BSTs (erBSTs) improved the reliability of persistence assignment by reducing the high variability associated with these tests and the occurrence of failures at low inoculum concentrations due to the exclusion of specific degraders. Environmental fate was determined using a reference set of (14)C-labeled compounds with a range of potential environmental persistences, and full mass balance data were collated. The erBST correctly assigned five reference chemicals of known biodegradabilities to their appropriate persistence category in contrast to a standard OECD Ready Biodegradation Test (RBTs, P < 0.05). The erBST was significantly more reproducible than an OECD RBT (ANOVA, P < 0.05), with more consistent rates and extent of biodegradation observed in the erBST.

  20. Use of the Oslo-Potsdam Solution to test the effect of an environmental education model on tangible measures of environmental protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Philip Craig

    The fundamental goals of environmental education include the creation of an environmentally literate citizenry possessing the knowledge, skills, and motivation to objectively analyze environmental issues and engage in responsible behaviors leading to issue resolution and improved or maintained environmental quality. No existing research, however, has linked educational practices and environmental protection. In an original attempt to quantify the pedagogy - environmental protection relationship, both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to investigate local environmental records and environmental quality indices that reflected the results of student actions. The data were analyzed using an educational adaptation of the "Oslo-Potsdam Solution for International Environmental Regime Effectiveness." The new model, termed the Environmental Education Performance Indicator (EEPI), was developed and evaluated as a quantitative tool for testing and fairly comparing the efficacy of student-initiated environmental projects in terms of environmental quality measures. Five case studies were developed from descriptions of student actions and environmental impacts as revealed by surveys and interviews with environmental education teachers using the IEEIA (Investigating and Evaluating Environmental Issues and Actions) curriculum, former students, community members, and agency officials. Archival information was also used to triangulate the data. In addition to evaluating case study data on the basis of the EEPI model, an expert panel of evaluators consisting of professionals from environmental education, natural sciences, environmental policy, and environmental advocacy provided subjective assessments on the effectiveness of each case study. The results from this study suggest that environmental education interventions can equip and empower students to act on their own conclusions in a manner that leads to improved or maintained environmental conditions. The EEPI model