Science.gov

Sample records for environmental health practice

  1. Converging paradigms for environmental health theory and practice.

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, Margot; Panelli, Ruth; Weinstein, Philip

    2003-01-01

    Converging themes from the fields of environmental health, ecology and health, and human ecology highlight opportunities for innovation and advancement in environmental health theory and practice. In this commentary we outline the role of research and applied programs that integrate biophysical and social sciences with environmental health practice in order to address deficiencies in each field when taken on its own. New opportunities for environmental health protection and promotion are outlined based on the three converging themes: integrated approaches to research and policy, methodological acknowledgment of the synergies between the social and biophysical environments, and incorporation of core ecosystem principles into research and practice. These converging themes are discussed in relation to their implications for new types of intervention to achieve health gains across different spatial and temporal scales at the interface between biophysical and social environments. PMID:12727592

  2. Environmental Health Promotion Interventions: Considerations for Preparation and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegler, Michelle Crozier; Miner, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Interventions to address current, future, and potential public health dilemmas, such as air pollution, urban sprawl, brown field reclamation, and threats of intentional toxic exposures would benefit from a synergy between the disciplines of environmental health and health education. A comparison between the Protocol for Assessing Community…

  3. Critical complexity in environmental health practice: simplify and complexify

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The magic word ‘complexity’ has been buzzing around in science, policy and society for quite some time now. There seems to be a common feel for a ‘new way’ of doing things, for overcoming the limits of tradition. From the combined perspective of critical complexity thinking and environment and health practice we want to contribute to the development of alternative routines that may help overcome the limitations of traditional environment and health science. On the one hand traditional environment and health science is too self-confident with respect to potential scientific insight in environment and health problems: complexity condemns us to limited and ambiguous knowledge and the need for simplification. A more modest attitude would be more realistic from that point of view. On the other hand from a problem solving perspective more boldness is required. Waiting for Godot (perfect undisputed knowledge) will not help us with respect to the challenges posed to society by environment and health problems. A sense of urgency is legitimate: the paralysis by traditional analysis should be resolved. Nevertheless this sense of urgency should not withhold us from investing in the problem solving quality of our endeavour; quality takes time, fastness from a quality perspective often leads us to a standstill. We propose the concept of critical complexification of environment and health practice that will enable the integration of relevant actors and factors in a pragmatic manner. We will illustrate this with practical examples and especially draw attention to the practical complexities involved, confronting us not only with fundamental questions, but also with fundamental challenges. PMID:22759501

  4. Assessing environmental assets for health promotion program planning: a practical framework for health promotion practitioners.

    PubMed

    Springer, Andrew E; Evans, Alexandra E

    2016-01-01

    Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning. PMID:27579254

  5. Assessing environmental assets for health promotion program planning: a practical framework for health promotion practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Andrew E.; Evans, Alexandra E.

    2016-01-01

    Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning. PMID:27579254

  6. Assessing environmental assets for health promotion program planning: a practical framework for health promotion practitioners.

    PubMed

    Springer, Andrew E; Evans, Alexandra E

    2016-01-01

    Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning.

  7. Environmental justice and health practices: understanding how health inequities arise at the local level.

    PubMed

    Frohlich, Katherine L; Abel, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    While empirical evidence continues to show that people living in low socio-economic status neighbourhoods are less likely to engage in health-enhancing behaviour, our understanding of why this is so remains less than clear. We suggest that two changes could take place to move from description to understanding in this field; (i) a move away from the established concept of individual health behaviour to a contextualised understanding of health practices; and (ii) a switch from focusing on health inequalities in outcomes to health inequities in conditions. We apply Pierre Bourdieu's theory on capital interaction but find it insufficient with regard to the role of agency for structural change. We therefore introduce Amartya Sen's capability approach as a useful link between capital interaction theory and action to reduce social inequities in health-related practices. Sen's capability theory also elucidates the importance of discussing unequal chances in terms of inequity, rather than inequality, in order to underscore the moral nature of inequalities. We draw on the discussion in social geography on environmental injustice, which also underscores the moral nature of the spatial distribution of opportunities. The article ends by applying this approach to the 'Interdisciplinary study of inequalities in smoking' framework. PMID:24372359

  8. Environmental justice and health practices: understanding how health inequities arise at the local level.

    PubMed

    Frohlich, Katherine L; Abel, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    While empirical evidence continues to show that people living in low socio-economic status neighbourhoods are less likely to engage in health-enhancing behaviour, our understanding of why this is so remains less than clear. We suggest that two changes could take place to move from description to understanding in this field; (i) a move away from the established concept of individual health behaviour to a contextualised understanding of health practices; and (ii) a switch from focusing on health inequalities in outcomes to health inequities in conditions. We apply Pierre Bourdieu's theory on capital interaction but find it insufficient with regard to the role of agency for structural change. We therefore introduce Amartya Sen's capability approach as a useful link between capital interaction theory and action to reduce social inequities in health-related practices. Sen's capability theory also elucidates the importance of discussing unequal chances in terms of inequity, rather than inequality, in order to underscore the moral nature of inequalities. We draw on the discussion in social geography on environmental injustice, which also underscores the moral nature of the spatial distribution of opportunities. The article ends by applying this approach to the 'Interdisciplinary study of inequalities in smoking' framework.

  9. Code of Sustainable Practice in Occupational and Environmental Health and Safety for Corporations.

    PubMed

    Castleman, Barry; Allen, Barbara; Barca, Stefania; Bohme, Susanna Rankin; Henry, Emmanuel; Kaur, Amarjit; Massard-Guilbaud, Genvieve; Melling, Joseph; Menendez-Navarro, Alfredo; Renfrew, Daniel; Santiago, Myrna; Sellers, Christopher; Tweedale, Geoffrey; Zalik, Anna; Zavestoski, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    At a conference held at Stony Brook University in December 2007, "Dangerous Trade: Histories of Industrial Hazard across a Globalizing World," participants endorsed a Code of Sustainable Practice in Occupational and Environmental Health and Safety for Corporations. The Code outlines practices that would ensure corporations enact the highest health and environmentally protective measures in all the locations in which they operate. Corporations should observe international guidelines on occupational exposure to air contaminants, plant safety, air and water pollutant releases, hazardous waste disposal practices, remediation of polluted sites, public disclosure of toxic releases, product hazard labeling, sale of products for specific uses, storage and transport of toxic intermediates and products, corporate safety and health auditing, and corporate environmental auditing. Protective measures in all locations should be consonant with the most protective measures applied anywhere in the world, and should apply to the corporations' subsidiaries, contractors, suppliers, distributors, and licensees of technology. Key words: corporations, sustainability, environmental protection, occupational health, code of practice. PMID:18686726

  10. Team Approach Provides Practical Environmental Health Student Training in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartier, Romeo E.; Miller, Joseph T.

    1978-01-01

    Described is a public health student internship program utilizing field experience and an interdisciplinary team approach. Students and professional field training supervisors felt the seven week program was successful. (MA)

  11. Mapping the Future of Environmental Health and Nursing: Strategies for Integrating National Competencies into Nursing Practice

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Laura S.; Butterfield, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Nurses are increasingly the primary contact for clients concerned about health problems related to their environment. In response to the need for nursing expertise in the field of environmental health, the Institute of Medicine (IOM), Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) have designed core competencies for the nursing profession. The IOM competencies focus on four areas: (1) knowledge and concepts; (2) assessment and referral; advocacy, ethics, and risk communication; and (4) legislation and regulation. The competencies establish a baseline of knowledge and awareness in order for nurses to prevent and minimize health problems associated with exposure to environmental agents. To address the known difficulties of incorporating new priorities into established practice, nurses attending an environmental health short course participated in a nominal group process focusing on the question, “What specific actions can we take to bring environmental health into the mainstream of nursing practice?” This exercise was designed to bring the concepts of the national initiatives (IOM, NINR, ATSDR) to the awareness of individual nurses involved in the direct delivery of care. Results include 38 action items nurses identified as improving awareness and utilization of environmental health principles. The top five ideas were: (1) get environmental health listed as a requirement or competency in undergraduate nursing education; (2) improve working relationships with interdepartmental persons—a team approach; (3) strategically place students in essential organizations such as NIOSH, ATSDR, or CDC; (4) educate nurse educators; and (5) create environmental health awards in nursing. The 38 original ideas were also reorganized into a five-tiered conceptual model. The concepts of this model include: (1) developing partnerships; (2) strengthening publications; (3) enhancing continuing education; (4) updating nursing

  12. Engaging academia to advance the science and practice of environmental public health tracking

    PubMed Central

    Strosnider, Heather; Zhou, Ying; Balluz, Lina; Qualters, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Public health agencies at the federal, state, and local level are responsible for implementing actions and policies that address health problems related to environmental hazards. These actions and policies can be informed by integrating or linking data on health, exposure, hazards, and population. The mission of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program (Tracking Program) is to provide information from a nationwide network of integrated health, environmental hazard, and exposure data that drives actions to improve the health of communities. The Tracking Program and federal, state, and local partners collect, integrate, analyze, and disseminate data and information to inform environmental public health actions. However, many challenges exist regarding the availability and quality of data, the application of appropriate methods and tools to link data, and the state of the science needed to link and analyze health and environmental data. The Tracking Program has collaborated with academia to address key challenges in these areas. The collaboration has improved our understanding of the uses and limitations of available data and methods, expanded the use of existing data and methods, and increased our knowledge about the connections between health and environment. Valuable working relationships have been forged in this process, and together we have identified opportunities and improvements for future collaborations to further advance the science and practice of environmental public health tracking. PMID:25038624

  13. Engaging academia to advance the science and practice of environmental public health tracking.

    PubMed

    Strosnider, Heather; Zhou, Ying; Balluz, Lina; Qualters, Judith

    2014-10-01

    Public health agencies at the federal, state, and local level are responsible for implementing actions and policies that address health problems related to environmental hazards. These actions and policies can be informed by integrating or linking data on health, exposure, hazards, and population. The mission of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention׳s National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program (Tracking Program) is to provide information from a nationwide network of integrated health, environmental hazard, and exposure data that drives actions to improve the health of communities. The Tracking Program and federal, state, and local partners collect, integrate, analyze, and disseminate data and information to inform environmental public health actions. However, many challenges exist regarding the availability and quality of data, the application of appropriate methods and tools to link data, and the state of the science needed to link and analyze health and environmental data. The Tracking Program has collaborated with academia to address key challenges in these areas. The collaboration has improved our understanding of the uses and limitations of available data and methods, expanded the use of existing data and methods, and increased our knowledge about the connections between health and environment. Valuable working relationships have been forged in this process, and together we have identified opportunities and improvements for future collaborations to further advance the science and practice of environmental public health tracking.

  14. Implications of leading crop production practices on environmental quality and human health.

    PubMed

    Udeigwe, Theophilus K; Teboh, Jasper M; Eze, Peter N; Stietiya, M Hashem; Kumar, Vipan; Hendrix, James; Mascagni, Henry J; Ying, Teng; Kandakji, Tarek

    2015-03-15

    Globally, much weight is currently being placed on agriculture to provide food for the growing population as well as feedstock for the bioenergy industry. Unfortunately, the intensification of agricultural operations to satisfy these growing needs has been associated with a number of environmental and human health risks. A review of publications on the subject was conducted and emphasis was placed on articles focusing on agriculture, environment, and public health as well as their interactions. Supporting information was also gathered from publications of various agricultural and environmental agencies. Agricultural practices with potential negative implications on the environment and human health were identified broadly as: (a) utilization of biosolids and animal manures, (b) use of agricultural chemicals, (c) management of post-harvest residue, (d) irrigation, and (e) tillage operations. Soil, water, and air contamination by nutrients, heavy metals, pathogens, and pesticides, as well as air contamination by particulate matters, noxious gases, and pathogens were among the leading environmental impacts. Some of the human-health impacts identified included neurological and reproductive defects, cardiovascular risks, cancers and other diseases (of kidney, liver, lung, and skin), skin allergies, gastroenteritis, and methemoglobinemia. Continual awareness on the impacts of the reviewed agricultural practices on environmental quality and human health and the implementation of experimentally-backed best management practices in agricultural systems remain indispensable.

  15. Implications of leading crop production practices on environmental quality and human health.

    PubMed

    Udeigwe, Theophilus K; Teboh, Jasper M; Eze, Peter N; Stietiya, M Hashem; Kumar, Vipan; Hendrix, James; Mascagni, Henry J; Ying, Teng; Kandakji, Tarek

    2015-03-15

    Globally, much weight is currently being placed on agriculture to provide food for the growing population as well as feedstock for the bioenergy industry. Unfortunately, the intensification of agricultural operations to satisfy these growing needs has been associated with a number of environmental and human health risks. A review of publications on the subject was conducted and emphasis was placed on articles focusing on agriculture, environment, and public health as well as their interactions. Supporting information was also gathered from publications of various agricultural and environmental agencies. Agricultural practices with potential negative implications on the environment and human health were identified broadly as: (a) utilization of biosolids and animal manures, (b) use of agricultural chemicals, (c) management of post-harvest residue, (d) irrigation, and (e) tillage operations. Soil, water, and air contamination by nutrients, heavy metals, pathogens, and pesticides, as well as air contamination by particulate matters, noxious gases, and pathogens were among the leading environmental impacts. Some of the human-health impacts identified included neurological and reproductive defects, cardiovascular risks, cancers and other diseases (of kidney, liver, lung, and skin), skin allergies, gastroenteritis, and methemoglobinemia. Continual awareness on the impacts of the reviewed agricultural practices on environmental quality and human health and the implementation of experimentally-backed best management practices in agricultural systems remain indispensable. PMID:25585140

  16. Environmental Factors and WASH Practices in the Perinatal Period in Cambodia: Implications for Newborn Health

    PubMed Central

    Bazzano, Alessandra N.; Oberhelman, Richard A.; Potts, Kaitlin Storck; Gordon, Anastasia; Var, Chivorn

    2015-01-01

    Infection contributes to a significant proportion of neonatal death and disability worldwide, with the major burden occurring in the first week of life. Environmental conditions and gaps in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices may contribute to the risk of infection, particularly in settings where health centers are expanding to meet the growing demand for skilled care at birth and homes do not have adequate access to water and sanitation. A qualitative approach was used to understand the environmental context for infection prevention and control (IPC) and WASH associated behaviors in health centers where women give birth, and in homes of newborns, in a rural Cambodian province. Structured observations and focus group discussions revealed important gaps in optimal practices, and both structural and social barriers to maintaining IPC during delivery and post-partum. Solutions are available to address the issues identified, and tackling these could result in marked environmental improvement for quality of care and neonatal outcomes. Water, sanitation and hygiene in home and health center environments are likely to be important contributors to health and should be addressed in strategies to improve neonatal survival. PMID:25711360

  17. [Between everyday practices and interventions: narrative fragments on environmental degradation and health in Aracaju, Brazil].

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Lázaro Batista; Nobre, Maria Teresa; dos Santos, João José Gomes

    2014-10-01

    The scope of this paper is to describe the relationship between health production, urban growth and environmental degradation in the community of the "Urban Expansion Zone" of Aracaju in the State of Sergipe. It also touches on the impacts on the health of the population due to tourism and real estate speculation associated with the absence of basic services. Based on the assumption that illnesses caused by such changes only appear on the public health care system as a worsening of symptoms, neglecting the complex health-environment relationship, this paper highlights the possibility of pondering the bases upon which urban growth occurs in the light of imminent environmental degradation. The activities of health community agents were monitored duly connecting them to regional growth and environmental degradation. This was done from March 2010 and June 2011 adopting the ethnographic perspective as the method of choice. Other ways of inclusion in the community were mapped: contact with older residents, religious leaderships and the members of the traditional professions, etc. The results show the changes that have been occurring in the region, especially with respect to the extinction of traditional practices, increase in violence, unemployment, loss of community ties and illness.

  18. Use of Spatial Analysis to Support Environmental Health Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Edwards, Sharon E.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in spatial statistics and geographic information systems provide innovative platforms for diagnosing environmental health problems and for developing interventions. This article discusses when and where spatial techniques can most effectively be deployed to address environmental health issues, especially as they relate to environmental justice concerns. PMID:21721500

  19. Community Capacity for Environmental Health Promotion: Determinants and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    The human response to an environmental hazard can either reduce or exacerbate its impact on health. This article reviews determinants of community-level responses to environmental health hazards. The aim is to identify factors that can enhance a community's capacity to protect itself and to suggest public health strategies that can increase such…

  20. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993]. Results of the environmental health activities and needs assessment of the South Carolina statewide family practice system for the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program: EHAP Volume 1, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Musham, C.; Hainer, B.

    1993-05-01

    An activities and needs assessment was conducted to determine what each of the seven family practice residency programs in South Carolina is providing in environmental health education. In addition, this study was designed to determine: what are the barriers to greater emphasis on environmental health in family practice residency programs and, what the basic environmental health educational goals for family practice residency programs should be.

  1. Environmental Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane; James, John; Russo, Dane; Limero, Thomas; Beck, Steve; Groves, Theron

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Health activity for the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was formed to develop an overall strategy for safeguarding crew members from potential airborne hazards anticipated on missions of extended duration. These efforts were necessary because of major modifications to the air revitalization system of the U.S. Space Shuttle and an increased potential for environmental health risks associated with longer space flights. Degradation of air quality in the Shuttle during a space flight mission has the potential to affect the performance of the crew not only during piloting, landing, or egress, but also during space flight. It was anticipated that the risk of significant deterioration in air quality would increase with extended mission lengths and could result from: (1) a major chemical contamination incident, such as a thermodegradation event or toxic leak, (2) continual accumulation of volatile organic compounds to unacceptable levels, (3) excessive levels of airborne particles, (4) excessive levels of microorganisms, or (5) accumulation of airborne pathogens.

  2. A Scoping Review of Maternal and Child Health Clinicians Attitudes, Beliefs, Practice, Training and Perceived Self-Competence in Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Massaquoi, Lamin Daddy; Edwards, Nancy Christine

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians regularly assess, diagnose and manage illnesses which are directly or indirectly linked to environmental exposures. Yet, various studies have identified gaps in environmental assessment in routine clinical practice. This review assessed clinicians’ environmental health practices, attitudes and beliefs, and competencies and training. Relevant articles were sought using a systematic search strategy using five databases, grey literature and a hand search. Search strategies and protocols were developed using tailored mesh terms and keywords. 43 out of 11,291 articles were eligible for inclusion. Clinicians’ attitudes and beliefs towards environmental health and routine clinical practice were generally positive, with most clinicians believing that environmental hazards affect human health. However, with the exception of tobacco smoke exposure, environmental health assessment was infrequently part of routine clinical practice. Clinicians’ self-competence in environmental assessment was reported to be inadequate. Major challenges were the time required to complete an assessment, inadequate training and concerns about negative patients’ responses. Clinicians have strong positive attitudes and beliefs about the importance of environmental health assessments. However, more concerted and robust strategies will be needed to support clinicians in assuming their assessment and counselling roles related to a wider range of environmental hazards. PMID:26690461

  3. Environmental Justice at School: Understanding Research, Policy, and Practice to Improve Our Children's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Background: No overarching federal agencies or policies are responsible for ensuring environmental health at schools in the United States, potentially allowing many inequities for low-income and minority communities to persist. This article examines emergent research, policy, and practice-based efforts that may be used to identify and address…

  4. Health Impact Assessment practice and potential for integration within Environmental Impact and Strategic Environmental Assessments in Italy.

    PubMed

    Linzalone, Nunzia; Assennato, Giorgio; Ballarini, Adele; Cadum, Ennio; Cirillo, Mario; Cori, Liliana; De Maio, Francesca; Musmeci, Loredana; Natali, Marinella; Rieti, Sabrina; Soggiu, Maria Eleonora; Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2014-12-01

    Avoiding or minimizing potential environmental impact is the driving idea behind protecting a population's health via Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs). However, both are often carried out without any systematic approach. This paper describes the findings of a review of HIA, EIA andSEA experiences carried out by the authors, who act as institutional competent subjects at the national and regional levels in Italy. The analysis of how health is tackled in EIA and SEA procedures could support the definition of a protocol for the integration of HIA with EIA and SEA. Although EIA and SEA approaches include the aim of protecting health,significant technical and methodological gaps are present when assessing health systematically, and their basic principles regarding assessment are unsatisfactory for promoting and addressing healthcare concepts stated by the WHO. HIA is still poorly integrated into the decision-making process, screening and monitoring phases are only occasionally implemented, and operational details are not well-defined. The collaborative approach of institutions involved in environment and health is a core element in a systematic advancement toward supporting effective decisions and effective protection ofthe environment and health. At the Italian national level, the definition of guidelines and tools for HIA, also in relation with EIA and SEA, is of great interest.

  5. In Search of Excellence: Practical Strategies for Managing Change in Environmental Health Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veninga, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes three methods intended to assist in assessing the attitudes of environmental health organization employees with regard to change. Focuses on ways to bring about orderly organizational change, how to evaluate whether the changes are effective, and how to diminish resistance to new ideas. (Author/TW)

  6. 2013 environmental health legislation.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, Doug; Ellis, Amy C

    2013-10-01

    The NEHA Government Affairs program has a long and productive association with the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). The organizations have worked together on any number of legislative and policy areas that directly impact the environmental health profession. One of the keys to the successes of the NEHA/NCSL collaboration has been the recognition of the fact that often some of the most significant legislation and policy initiatives related to environmental public health occur in state legislatures. The states have, in a very real sense, been the innovators in developing new programs and practices. In recognition of this fact, we have asked NCSL to provide occasional overviews of state environmental public health legislative activity, covering topics that are of the most pressing public concern. Doug Farquhar, program director for NCSI's Environmental Health Program, has worked with NCSL since 1990. Mr. Farquhar directs development, management, and research for the Environmental Health Program. These projects encompass consultation and policy analysis of state and federal policies and statutes, regulations, and programs regarding environmental and related topics for state legislatures and administrative programs. Amy Ellis is a law clerk for NCSL within the Environment, Energy, and Transportation Group. As a law clerk she has researched a wide variety of environmental health policies. She is expected to obtain her JD from the University of Colorado Law School in 2015.

  7. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  8. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are you healthy? Is your environment healthy for you? What does it mean to be healthy? Does it mean you're not achy, or that you are not visibly sick? The World Health Organization defines health broadly as a state of physical, mental, and social well-being. This means that bei...

  10. Environmental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the environment, like the air, water, or soil become polluted, it can lead to health problems. ... of the natural world, like radon in the soil. Others are the result of human activities, like ...

  11. Environmental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... manmade. Learn More Air Pollution Chemicals Climate Change Water Pollution Next Previous Interested in a trailer of our ...

  12. Health and environmental implications of rural female entrepreneurship practices in osun state Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akinbami, Catherine A O; Momodu, Abiodun S

    2013-09-01

    In rural Nigeria, food processing is mostly engaged in by women and children. Most of these processes are done using outdated technologies that make use of traditional woodstoves. This article presents the health and environmental implications of the rural female entrepreneurs involved in food processing and proffer means of bettering the lot of these women to handle these hazards. A partially structured questionnaire and focus group discussion was used to capture data from respondents. The study revealed that about 73 % of women involved in direct production of garri and palm oil processing could be at risk of early death or disability-adjusted life years from the mentioned diseases. The article concludes that the rural female entrepreneur needs to be better positioned to handle these hazards, for her health, that of her children, as well as for the environment. PMID:23341202

  13. Health and environmental implications of rural female entrepreneurship practices in osun state Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akinbami, Catherine A O; Momodu, Abiodun S

    2013-09-01

    In rural Nigeria, food processing is mostly engaged in by women and children. Most of these processes are done using outdated technologies that make use of traditional woodstoves. This article presents the health and environmental implications of the rural female entrepreneurs involved in food processing and proffer means of bettering the lot of these women to handle these hazards. A partially structured questionnaire and focus group discussion was used to capture data from respondents. The study revealed that about 73 % of women involved in direct production of garri and palm oil processing could be at risk of early death or disability-adjusted life years from the mentioned diseases. The article concludes that the rural female entrepreneur needs to be better positioned to handle these hazards, for her health, that of her children, as well as for the environment.

  14. Is hunting still healthy? Understanding the interrelationships between indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health.

    PubMed

    King, Ursula; Furgal, Christopher

    2014-05-28

    Indigenous participation in land-based practices such as hunting, fishing, ceremony, and land care has a long history. In recent years, researchers and policy makers have advocated the benefits of these practices for both Indigenous people and the places they live. However, there have also been documented risks associated with participation in these activities. Environmental change brought about by shifts in land use, climate changes, and the accumulation of contaminants in the food chain sit alongside equally rapid shifts in social, economic and cultural circumstances, preferences and practices. To date, the literature has not offered a wide-ranging review of the available cross-disciplinary or cross-ecozone evidence for these intersecting benefits and risks, for both human and environmental health and wellbeing. By utilising hunting as a case study, this paper seeks to fill part of that gap through a transdisciplinary meta-analysis of the international literature exploring the ways in which Indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health have been studied, where the current gaps are, and how these findings could be used to inform research and policy. The result is an intriguing summary of disparate research that highlights the patchwork of contradictory understandings, and uneven regional emphasis, that have been documented. A new model was subsequently developed that facilitates a more in-depth consideration of these complex issues within local-global scale considerations. These findings challenge the bounded disciplinary and geographic spaces in which much of this work has occurred to date, and opens a dialogue to consider the importance of approaching these issues holistically.

  15. Is Hunting Still Healthy? Understanding the Interrelationships between Indigenous Participation in Land-Based Practices and Human-Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    King, Ursula; Furgal, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous participation in land-based practices such as hunting, fishing, ceremony, and land care has a long history. In recent years, researchers and policy makers have advocated the benefits of these practices for both Indigenous people and the places they live. However, there have also been documented risks associated with participation in these activities. Environmental change brought about by shifts in land use, climate changes, and the accumulation of contaminants in the food chain sit alongside equally rapid shifts in social, economic and cultural circumstances, preferences and practices. To date, the literature has not offered a wide-ranging review of the available cross-disciplinary or cross-ecozone evidence for these intersecting benefits and risks, for both human and environmental health and wellbeing. By utilising hunting as a case study, this paper seeks to fill part of that gap through a transdisciplinary meta-analysis of the international literature exploring the ways in which Indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health have been studied, where the current gaps are, and how these findings could be used to inform research and policy. The result is an intriguing summary of disparate research that highlights the patchwork of contradictory understandings, and uneven regional emphasis, that have been documented. A new model was subsequently developed that facilitates a more in-depth consideration of these complex issues within local-global scale considerations. These findings challenge the bounded disciplinary and geographic spaces in which much of this work has occurred to date, and opens a dialogue to consider the importance of approaching these issues holistically. PMID:24879487

  16. National Center for Environmental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Asthma Carbon Monoxide Clean Water for Health Climate and Public Health Environmental Noise Exposure and Health ... Overviews Asthma Control Built Environment and Health Initiative Climate and Health Environmental Health Laboratory Environmental Health Services ...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Public Health Indicators (EPHIs), quantitative measures of health factors and environmental influences tracked over time, can be used to identify specific areas and populations for intervention and prevention efforts and to evaluate the outcomes of implemented polic...

  18. Environmental Health Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Alan; Smith, Robert

    1975-01-01

    Describes an environmental health science technology curriculum designed to provide technicians in the areas of air, water and wastewater analyses, treatment plant operators, public health enforcement officers, and pollution inspectors. (GS)

  19. Pediatric environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Bailus

    2005-01-01

    The links between environmental agents, environmental conditions, and disease and disability among children are receiving increasing attention. Evidence abounds that children are more susceptible than adults to the damaging effects of environmental agents and conditions. This evidence is illuminated by the much-publicized and expanding research agenda on the prevention, recognition, diagnosis and treatment of environmentally related disease in the pediatric population. Encouragingly, advances in molecular biology and other sciences are providing important tools to aid pediatricians and other healthcare professionals in meeting the environmental health needs of children. PMID:15712790

  20. Land Use Practices for Sustainable and Healthy Communities: Linking Environmental, Health and Social Sciences to Improve Decisions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land has figured prominently in the history of environmental protection in the United States and in the history of the U.S. EPA. In 1970, the EPA was founded “to protect human health and the environment. . .by safeguarding the air we breathe, water we drink, and land on which we ...

  1. The Environmental Health/Home Safety Education Project: a successful and practical U.S.-Mexico border initiative.

    PubMed

    Forster-Cox, Susan C; Mangadu, Thenral; Jacquez, Benjamín; Fullerton, Lynne

    2010-05-01

    The Environmental Health/Home Safety Education Project (Proyecto de Salud Ambiental y Seguridad en el Hogar) has been developed in response to a wide array of severe and often preventable environmental health issues occurring in and around homes on the U.S.-Mexico border. Utilizing well-trained community members, called promotoras , homes are visited and assessed for potential environmental hazards, including home fire and food safety issues. Data analyzed from project years 2002 to 2005 shows a significant impact in knowledge levels and initial behavior change among targeted participants as it relates to fire and food safety issues. Since the initiation of the project in 1999, hundreds of participants have improved their quality of life by making their homes safer. The project has proven to be sustainable, replicable, flexible, and attractive to funders.

  2. The Environmental Health/Home Safety Education Project: a successful and practical U.S.-Mexico border initiative.

    PubMed

    Forster-Cox, Susan C; Mangadu, Thenral; Jacquez, Benjamín; Fullerton, Lynne

    2010-05-01

    The Environmental Health/Home Safety Education Project (Proyecto de Salud Ambiental y Seguridad en el Hogar) has been developed in response to a wide array of severe and often preventable environmental health issues occurring in and around homes on the U.S.-Mexico border. Utilizing well-trained community members, called promotoras , homes are visited and assessed for potential environmental hazards, including home fire and food safety issues. Data analyzed from project years 2002 to 2005 shows a significant impact in knowledge levels and initial behavior change among targeted participants as it relates to fire and food safety issues. Since the initiation of the project in 1999, hundreds of participants have improved their quality of life by making their homes safer. The project has proven to be sustainable, replicable, flexible, and attractive to funders. PMID:19843700

  3. Economics of children's environmental health.

    PubMed

    Trasande, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Economic analyses are increasingly appearing in the children's environmental-health literature. In this review, an illustrative selection of articles that represent cost analyses, cost-effectiveness analyses, and cost-benefit analyses is analyzed for the relative merits of each approach. Cost analyses remain the dominant approach due to lack of available data. Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses in this area face challenges presented by estimation of costs of environmental interventions, whose costs are likely to decrease with further technological innovation. Benefits are also more difficult to quantify economically and can only be partially alleviated through willingness-to-pay approaches. Nevertheless, economic analyses in children's environmental health are highly informative and important informants to public-health and policy practice. Further attention and training in their appropriate use are needed.

  4. Noteworthy practices as identified by the US Department of Energy environmental, safety, and health first 31 Tiger Team assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Noteworthy Practices are exceptional ways of accomplishing a performance objective or some aspect of it. Other DOE facilities are encouraged to adopt these practices when they are applicable to their operation. Noteworthy Practices included in this report have been drawn from the first 31 Tiger Team Assessments at DOE sites. This report includes all noteworthy practices listed in an earlier tabulation (June 1990) which the Secretary of the US Department of Energy distributed for information on July 31, 1990. This earlier tabulation included noteworthy practices from the first thirteen Tiger Team Assessments. A brief key-word title has been assigned to each Noteworthy Practice. This title provides a brief description of each Noteworthy Practice. The reader may peruse these titles in the table of contents to identify Noteworthy Practices that may be applicable to their site, facility, or operations. A flexible-disk copy of this compilation is also available in ASCII format on personal-computer, DOS-formatted disks from the Office of Special Projects in the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health at the Headquarters of the US Department of Energy. The ASCII file may be used in combination with word processing software for more detailed word and text-string searches.

  5. Standard environmental testing practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, R.; Gregory, E.; Stoker, J.; Vanbiene, F.; Woodbury, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Manual on procedural requirements for performing certain environmental tests on space flight equipment provides information for test equipment designers, quality control and production engineers. Contents of manual are summarized.

  6. Environmental integrity, racism, health.

    PubMed

    Westra, L

    1996-05-17

    Environmental degradation seriously affects human health. Thus, a close relationship exists between the protection of ecosystem integrity and wilderness on one hand, and human health on the other. However, there is an overarching, holistic perspective in laws and regulations--as well as morality--to to maintain a healthy relationship between the two. Problem areas focused on in this paper are: (a) climate change and global warming; (b) food production; and (c) global equity. This paper argues for the principle of integrity, which provides an holistic perspective, suggested as a better approach than that of current regulations to mitigate against associated threats to human health.

  7. Environmental Health Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Health Service (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Aimed at a society which is forced to make decisions relative to their total environment, this pamphlet discusses a few of the problems associated with restoring and maintaining an environmental relationship conducive to the health and well-being of man. The topics covered include: air pollution, noise, solid waste, the urban environment, drinking…

  8. Continuing Environmental Health Education for Environmental Health Personnel, Lesson Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Environmental Health, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents the sixth and final lesson on general environmental health, appearing since January, 1977 in this journal. Twenty-five multiple choice questions appear dealing with environmental health topics such as food sanitation, milk sanitation, vector control, public health housing, institutional environmental health, waste disposal, air pollution,…

  9. Educating Future Environmental Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Knechtges, Paul L; Kelley, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Future environmental health problems will require a new generation of educated and trained professionals. Efforts to enhance the environmental public health workforce have been promoted by several organizations. While progress has been measured by these organizations, many environmental health academic programs are experiencing budget reductions and lower enrollments. One of the reasons for this trend is the so-called higher education crisis. We argue that training is not equivalent to education in the environmental health sciences, albeit the two terms are often used interchangeably. Organizations involved with the education, training, and credentialing of environmental health professionals must work together to ensure the viability and effectiveness of environmental health academic programs. PMID:26617460

  10. Environmental Health: Health Care Reform's Missing Pieces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadope, Cece Modupe; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A series of articles that examine environmental health and discuss health care reform; connections between chlorine, chlorinated pesticides, and dioxins and reproductive disorders and cancers; the rise in asthma; connections between poverty and environmental health problems; and organizations for health care professionals who want to address…

  11. Social Science Collaboration with Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Elizabeth; Renauld, Mia; Edelstein, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Social science research has been central in documenting and analyzing community discovery of environmental exposure and consequential processes. Collaboration with environmental health science through team projects has advanced and improved our understanding of environmental health and justice. Objective We sought to identify diverse methods and topics in which social scientists have expanded environmental health understandings at multiple levels, to examine how transdisciplinary environmental health research fosters better science, and to learn how these partnerships have been able to flourish because of the support from National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). Methods We analyzed various types of social science research to investigate how social science contributes to environmental health. We also examined NIEHS programs that foster social science. In addition, we developed a case study of a community-based participation research project in Akwesasne in order to demonstrate how social science has enhanced environmental health science. Results Social science has informed environmental health science through ethnographic studies of contaminated communities, analysis of spatial distribution of environmental injustice, psychological experience of contamination, social construction of risk and risk perception, and social impacts of disasters. Social science–environmental health team science has altered the way scientists traditionally explore exposure by pressing for cumulative exposure approaches and providing research data for policy applications. Conclusions A transdisciplinary approach for environmental health practice has emerged that engages the social sciences to paint a full picture of the consequences of contamination so that policy makers, regulators, public health officials, and other stakeholders can better ameliorate impacts and prevent future exposure. Citation Hoover E, Renauld M, Edelstein MR, Brown P. 2015. Social

  12. Practice Notes: Strategies in Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Education & Behavior, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article features two exemplary programs in health education practice: (1) Project L.E.A.P (Learning Effective and Applicable Parenting); and (2) A program that uses a pedestrian count tool to measure environmental and health promotion efforts. Project L.E.A.P. was developed by the Atlanta Alliance on Developmental Disabilities to promote…

  13. Practice-based evidence informs environmental health policy and regulation: a case study of residential lead-soil contamination in Rhode Island.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Marcella Remer; Burdon, Andrea; Boekelheide, Kim

    2014-01-15

    development of these environmental health policies and regulations, practice-based evidence did not support their efficacy in context of real world practice.

  14. Environmental and health impacts of household solid waste handling and disposal practices in third world cities: the case of the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boadi, Kwasi Owusu; Kuitunen, Markku

    2005-11-01

    Inadequate provision of solid waste management facilities in Third World cities results in indiscriminate disposal and unsanitary environments, which threatens the health of urban residents. The study reported here examined household-level waste management and disposal practices in the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana. The residents of Accra currently generate large amounts of solid waste, beyond the management capabilities of the existing waste management system. Because the solid waste infrastructure is inadequate, over 80 percent of the population do not have home collection services. Only 13.5 percent of respondents are served with door-to-door collection of solid waste, while the rest dispose of their waste at communal collection points, in open spaces, and in waterways. The majority of households store their waste in open containers and plastic bags in the home. Waste storage in the home is associated with the presence of houseflies in the kitchen (r = .17, p < .0001). The presence of houseflies in the kitchen during cooking is correlated with the incidence of childhood diarrhea (r = .36, p < .0001). Inadequate solid waste facilities result in indiscriminate burning and burying of solid waste. There is an association between waste burning and the incidence of respiratory health symptoms among adults (r = .25, p < .0001) and children (r = .22, p < .05). Poor handling and disposal of waste are major causes of environmental pollution, which creates breeding grounds for pathogenic organisms, and the spread of infectious diseases. Improving access to solid waste collection facilities and services will help achieve sound environmental health in Accra.

  15. Environmental justice: implications for occupational health nurses.

    PubMed

    Postma, Julie

    2006-11-01

    Through the use of innovative tools, such as clinical mnemonics, exercises in risk and asset mapping, and strategic program development, occupational health nurses can incorporate dimensions of environmental justice (EJ) into the workplace. Occupational health nurses who also take on educational roles can use case studies and network with labor and EJ groups to provide clinical experiences for occupational and environmental health nursing students, thereby integrating EJ into occupational and environmental health nursing practice. Occupational health nurses are well positioned to serve as technical experts within community-based participatory research projects. Occupational health nurses must share their knowledge and experience as members of coalitions that represent workers in their fight for worker health and safety.

  16. Fish health and environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Murchelano, R A

    1990-01-01

    Surveys conducted to evaluate the health of marine-bottom fishes have been conducted in the eastern and western North Atlantic for the past 15 years, usually in conjunction with fish stock assessment cruises. The health of the fish sampled was evaluated using certain integumental and skeletal lesions and anomalies as markers to signify compromised health status. The results of these surveys indicate that fish health is poorer in coastal waters that have been anthropogenically degraded. Monitoring programs to determine the status and trends in levels of inorganic and organic contaminants in fish tissue and sediments have disclosed high levels of chemical contaminants in several coastal areas of the northeastern United States. Histopathological examinations of liver tissues of winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, from Boston Harbor, one of the more chemically contaminated sites, has revealed a high prevalence of hepatocarcinoma. PMID:2401261

  17. SNTP environmental, safety, and health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Charles D.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on space nuclear thermal propulsion (SNTP) environmental, safety, and health are presented. Topics covered include: program safety policy; program safety policies; and DEIS public hearing comments.

  18. Environmental health program in NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrazzo, R. M.

    1969-01-01

    The NASA policy on environmental health uses medical and environmental concepts to: (1) Determine the health status of employees; (2) prevent illness and promote good health among employees; and (3) identify and control factors that affect the health of personnel and quality of environment. Evaluation and control of physical, chemical, radiological and biological factors surrounding personnel and which represent physiological and psychological stresses and impairment are considered.

  19. Establishing a community of practice of researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and communities to sustainably manage environmental health risks in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Sustainably Managing Environmental Health Risk in Ecuador project was launched in 2004 as a partnership linking a large Canadian university with leading Cuban and Mexican institutes to strengthen the capacities of four Ecuadorian universities for leading community-based learning and research in areas as diverse as pesticide poisoning, dengue control, water and sanitation, and disaster preparedness. Methods In implementing curriculum and complementary innovations through application of an ecosystem approach to health, our interdisciplinary international team focused on the question: “Can strengthening of institutional capacities to support a community of practice of researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and communities produce positive health outcomes and improved capacities to sustainably translate knowledge?” To assess progress in achieving desired outcomes, we review results associated with the logic framework analysis used to guide the project, focusing on how a community of practice network has strengthened implementation, including follow-up tracking of program trainees and presentation of two specific case studies. Results By 2009, train-the-trainer project initiation involved 27 participatory action research Master’s theses in 15 communities where 1200 community learners participated in the implementation of associated interventions. This led to establishment of innovative Ecuadorian-led master’s and doctoral programs, and a Population Health Observatory on Collective Health, Environment and Society for the Andean region based at the Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar. Building on this network, numerous initiatives were begun, such as an internationally funded research project to strengthen dengue control in the coastal community of Machala, and establishment of a local community eco-health centre focusing on determinants of health near Cuenca. Discussion Strengthening capabilities for producing and applying knowledge through direct

  20. Health and environmental outcomes of traditional and modified practices for abatement of residential lead-based paint

    SciTech Connect

    Farfel, M.R.; Chisolm, J.J. Jr. )

    1990-10-01

    We evaluated traditional and modified practices for abating lead-based paint in homes of children with blood-lead concentrations (PbB) greater than 1.4 mumol/L (greater than 29 micrograms/dl). Traditional abatement resulted in acute increases in: (1) lead contaminated house dust (generally 3 to 6-fold over pre-abatement levels, but at abated sites typically 10 to 100-fold); and (2) the PbBs of nearly half of the occupant children. Modified practices represented modest short-term improvement compared to traditional practices but were also inadequate. By six months, it was clear that neither form of abatement resulted in long-term reductions of PbB or house dust lead levels, leaving children at continued risk of excessive exposure to lead and permanent adverse neurobehavioral effects. Windows were found to be high sources of lead contaminated house dust. Recommendations are made for improved abatement practices including more complete abatement of window units and more effective clean-up to remove lead-bearing dust. Thirteen million US children live in lead-painted dwellings. Research is needed to identify abatement strategies that will be practical and well suited to the current understanding of low-level lead toxicity.

  1. Environmental health and Hispanic children.

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, R; Delgado, J L; Herrell, R

    1995-01-01

    There are numerous indicators that Hispanics face a disproportionate risk of exposure to environmental hazards. Ambient air pollution, worker exposure to chemicals, indoor air pollution, and drinking water quality are among the top four threats to human health and are all areas in which indicators point to elevated risk for Hispanic populations. These data, juxtaposed with data on the health status of Hispanics, tell us that the environmental health status of Hispanics and their children is poor. At the same time, significant inadequacies in the collection of data on Hispanics make it difficult to make improving Hispanic environmental health status a priority. These inadequacies include the failure to use Hispanic identifiers in data collection and failure to collect sample sizes large enough to allow for breakouts of data by Hispanic subgroup. In addressing environmental justice issues, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) should prioritize improving the quantifiability of environmental exposures and risk based on race or ethnicity. However, improving data should not be the prerequisite to significant, affirmative steps by DHHS and U.S. EPA to address environmental and environmental health problems facing Hispanic communities. In particular, a health-based approach to environmental justice should be the priority. PMID:8549482

  2. Green surgical practices for health care.

    PubMed

    Kwakye, Gifty; Brat, Gabriel A; Makary, Martin A

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to identify leading practices to promote environmentally friendly and efficient efforts in the provision of surgical health care. Health care is the second leading contributor to waste in the United States. Despite widespread enthusiasm for "going green" in the US economy, little substantive information is available to the medical community, to our knowledge. We explore safe and efficient strategies for hospitals and providers to protect the environment while delivering high-quality care. We performed a systematic review of the literature using relevant PubMed search terms and surveyed a panel of hospital managers and chief executive officers of health care organizations pursuing green initiatives. Recommendations were itemized and reviewed by a 7-member panel to generate a consensus agreement. We identified 43 published articles and used interview data from the panel. The following 5 green recommendations for surgical practices were identified: operating room waste reduction and segregation, reprocessing of single-use medical devices, environmentally preferable purchasing, energy consumption management, and pharmaceutical waste management. The medical community has a large opportunity to implement green practices in surgical units. These practices can provide significant benefits to the health care community and to the environment. Additional research and advocacy are needed to further explore green practices in health care.

  3. From Theory to Practice: A Path through Imperfection--Lessons from Evaluation of Policy Oriented Environmental Health Research in Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keune, Hans; Morrens, Bert; Loots, Ilse; Springael, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dealing with complex issues per definition bears the burden of imperfection. Whatever comforting theoretical concepts may promise, real life complexity will take its messy toll once travelling from conceptual ambition to real life practice. We specifically reflect on the social scientific contribution to these inter- and…

  4. Communication models in environmental health.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Tee L

    2013-01-01

    Communication models common in environmental health are not well represented in the literature on health communication. Risk communication is a systematic approach to conveying essential information about a specific environmental issue and a framework for thinking about community risk and the alternatives for dealing with it. Crisis communication is intended to provide essential information to people facing an emergency in order to mitigate its effects and to enable them to make appropriate decisions, and it is primarily used in emergency management. Corporate communication is intended to achieve a change in attitude or perception of an organization, and its role in environmental health is usually public relations or to rehabilitate a damaged reputation. Environmental health education is a more didactic approach to science education with respect to health and the environment. Social marketing uses conventional marketing methods to achieve a socially desirable purpose but is more heavily used in health promotion generally. Communication models and styles in environmental health are specialized to serve the needs of the field in communicating with the community. They are highly structured and executed in different ways but have in common a relative lack of emphasis on changing personal or lifestyle behavior compared with health promotion and public health in general and a tendency to emphasize content on specific environmental issues and decision frameworks for protecting oneself or the community through collective action.

  5. Investigating Environmental Health Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Debbie

    2000-01-01

    Discusses environmental hazards, the problems of misinformation and contradictory information, and the problems for children in sorting out fact from hearsay. Includes tips for protecting children from environmental hazards and describes a program at the University of Washington that develops curriculum materials and other teacher resources. (PVD)

  6. Qualitative methods in environmental health research.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Public health researchers increasingly turn to qualitative methods either on their own or in combination with quantitative methods. Qualitative methods are especially important to community environmental health research, as they provide a way to produce community narratives that give voice to individuals and characterize the community in a full and complex fashion. This article first traces the legacy of qualitative research in environmental health, then uses a case study of the author's experiences studying the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster to provide personal and scholarly insights on qualitative approaches. That material then informs a discussion of important components of qualitative methods in environmental health research, including flexible study design, access, trust, empathy, and personal shifts in the researcher's worldview, bias, and the nature of the researcher's roles. A concluding discussion addresses issues in funding policy and research practices. PMID:14594634

  7. Terrestrial gamma radiation dose study to determine the baseline for environmental radiological health practices in Melaka state, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Sahrone, Sallehudin; Wagiran, Husin

    2005-12-01

    Environmental terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates were measured throughout Melaka, Malaysia, over a period of two years, with the objective of establishing baseline data on the background radiation level. Results obtained are shown in tabular, graphic and cartographic form. The values of terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate vary significantly over different soil types and for different underlying geological characteristics present in the study area. The values ranged from 54 +/- 5 to 378 +/- 38 nGy h(-1). The highest terrestrial gamma dose rates were measured over soil types of granitic origin and in areas with underlying geological characteristics of an acid intrusive (undifferentiated) type. An isodose map of terrestrial gamma dose rate in Melaka was drawn by using the GIS application 'Arc View'. This was based on data collected using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector survey meter. The measurements were taken at 542 locations. Three small 'hot spots' were found where the dose rates were more than 350 nGy h(-1). The mean dose rates in the main population areas in the mukims (parishes) of Bukit Katil, Sungai Udang, Batu Berendam, Bukit Baru and Bandar Melaka were 154 +/- 15, 161 +/- 16, 160 +/- 16, 175 +/- 18 and 176 +/- 18 nGy h(-1), respectively. The population-weighted mean dose rate throughout Melaka state is 172 +/- 17 nGy h(-1). This is lower than the geographical mean dose rate of 183 +/- 54 nGy h(-1). The lower value arises from the fact that most of the population lives in the central area of the state where the lithology is dominated by sedimentary rocks consisting of shale, mudstone, phyllite, slate, hornfels, sandstone and schist of Devonian origin which have lower associated dose rates. The mean annual effective dose to the population from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation was estimated to be 0.21 mSv. This value is higher than the world average of 0.07 mSv. PMID:16340071

  8. Terrestrial gamma radiation dose study to determine the baseline for environmental radiological health practices in Melaka state, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Sahrone, Sallehudin; Wagiran, Husin

    2005-12-01

    Environmental terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates were measured throughout Melaka, Malaysia, over a period of two years, with the objective of establishing baseline data on the background radiation level. Results obtained are shown in tabular, graphic and cartographic form. The values of terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate vary significantly over different soil types and for different underlying geological characteristics present in the study area. The values ranged from 54 +/- 5 to 378 +/- 38 nGy h(-1). The highest terrestrial gamma dose rates were measured over soil types of granitic origin and in areas with underlying geological characteristics of an acid intrusive (undifferentiated) type. An isodose map of terrestrial gamma dose rate in Melaka was drawn by using the GIS application 'Arc View'. This was based on data collected using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector survey meter. The measurements were taken at 542 locations. Three small 'hot spots' were found where the dose rates were more than 350 nGy h(-1). The mean dose rates in the main population areas in the mukims (parishes) of Bukit Katil, Sungai Udang, Batu Berendam, Bukit Baru and Bandar Melaka were 154 +/- 15, 161 +/- 16, 160 +/- 16, 175 +/- 18 and 176 +/- 18 nGy h(-1), respectively. The population-weighted mean dose rate throughout Melaka state is 172 +/- 17 nGy h(-1). This is lower than the geographical mean dose rate of 183 +/- 54 nGy h(-1). The lower value arises from the fact that most of the population lives in the central area of the state where the lithology is dominated by sedimentary rocks consisting of shale, mudstone, phyllite, slate, hornfels, sandstone and schist of Devonian origin which have lower associated dose rates. The mean annual effective dose to the population from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation was estimated to be 0.21 mSv. This value is higher than the world average of 0.07 mSv.

  9. Continuing Environmental Health Education: A Course for Environmental Health Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mill, Raymond A.; Walter, William G.

    1979-01-01

    This lesson is the third of a series of six lessons on general environmental health. The series of multiple choice tests covers administration, food sanitation, vector control, housing, radiation, accident prevention, water supplies, waste disposal, air pollution, noise pollution, occupational health, recreation facilities, and water pollution.…

  10. Environmental health program activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergtholdt, C. P.

    1969-01-01

    Activities reported include studies on toxic air contaminants, excessive noise, poor lighting, food sanitation, water pollution, and exposure to nonionizing radiation as health hazards. Formulations for a radiological health manual provide guidance to personnel in the procurement and safe handling of radiation producing equipment and Apollo mission planning. A literature search and development of a water analysis laboratory are outlined to obtain information regarding microbiological problems involving potable water, waste management, and personal hygiene.

  11. Challenges to Environmental Health Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, Morton S.

    1979-01-01

    Those who have chosen environmental health as a career should be prepared to assume leadership roles. New progress in awareness of environmental problems, public commitment to clean environment, and reduced occupational hazards have created the need for dedicated professionals in this field. (RE)

  12. Environmental Lead and Children's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Marie

    This paper discusses the threat to children's health posed by environmental exposure to lead, focusing on public policy issues surrounding lead exposure in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. In Australia, the current blood lead level at which there is a health concern is at or above 25 micrograms per deciliter (ug/dl) of blood for infants and…

  13. [Nurses' practice in health audit].

    PubMed

    Pinto, Karina Araújo; de Melo, Cristina Maria Meira

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this investigation was to identify nurses' practice in heath audit. The hermeneutic-dialectic method was used for the analysis. The study was performed in three loci: the internal audit service of a hospital; the external audit service of a private health service buyer, and the state audit service of the public health system (SUS, acronym in Portuguese for Sistema Unico de Saúde-Unique Health System), in Bahia. Nine audit nurses were interviewed. In the SUS audit, the nurses report being fulfilled with their practice and with the valorization of their professional role. In the private audit--both inside and outside of health organizations--the nurses' activities are focused on meeting the interests of their contractors, and do not get much involved with the care delivered by the nursing team and with the needs of service users.

  14. Environmental Pollution and Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enormous progress has been made in identifying chemicals in the environment that adversely affect human health. The environment is cleaner, and, partly as a result, people are living longer and healthier lives. Major uncertainties remain, however, regarding the enormous number o...

  15. Environmental Practice, the New Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Charles J.; And Others

    Environmental concern and involvement in solving environmental problems are the themes emphasized in this handbook. It offers suggestions for citizen groups who wish to contribute more effectively to a better environment. They are encouraged to start at the local level, where pollution and environmental degradation begin. If they want others to…

  16. Integrating Human Health into Environmental Impact Assessment: An Unrealized Opportunity for Environmental Health and Justice

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Rajiv; Wernham, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The National Environmental Policy Act and related state laws require many public agencies to analyze and disclose potentially significant environmental effects of agency actions, including effects on human health. In this paper we review the purpose and procedures of environmental impact assessment (EIA), existing regulatory requirements for health effects analysis, and potential barriers to and opportunities for improving integration of human health concerns within the EIA process. Data sources We use statutes, regulations, guidelines, court opinions, and empirical research on EIA along with recent case examples of integrated health impact assessment (HIA)/EIA at both the state and federal level. Data synthesis We extract lessons and recommendations for integrated HIA/EIA practice from both existing practices as well as case studies. Conclusions The case studies demonstrate the adequacy, scope, and power of existing statutory requirements for health analysis within EIA. The following support the success of integrated HIA/EIA: a proponent recognizing EIA as an available regulatory strategy for public health; the openness of the agency conducting the EIA; involvement of public health institutions; and complementary objectives among community stakeholders and health practitioners. We recommend greater collaboration among institutions responsible for EIA, public health institutions, and affected stakeholders along with guidance, resources, and training for integrated HIA/EIA practice. PMID:18709140

  17. Environmental Best Management Practices for Aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book “Environmental Best Management Practices for Aquaculture” provides technical guidance to improve the environmental performance of fish and shellfish farming. The book is the only comprehensive guide to mitigation of environmental impacts of aquaculture. Topics include the histiory and use...

  18. Experiences of Environmental Professionals in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bootsma, Margien; Vermeulen, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the labor market position of environmental science graduates and the core competencies of these environmental professionals related to their working practice. Design/methodology/approach: The authors carried out two surveys amongst alumni of the integrated environmental science program of Utrecht…

  19. Environmental health resilience.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The capacity of the Earth's environment to support increasing and expanding human populations has been questioned at least for hundreds of years, but never more than in the mid to late 20th Century and early 21st Century. Global human population now exceeds seven billion and continues to increase at an unprecedented rate. Estimates of future (2050) human populations on Earth range from a low of about 7.4 billion to a high of 10.6 billion ("United Nations World Population to 2300", 2004 accessed at http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/longrange2/WorldPop2300final.pdf). Current human populations already place an extreme burden on global environmental resources, including air, water and food quality as well as increasing challenges related to human waste management and disease prevention, control and treatment. In fact, some have proposed that humans have entered the "anthropocene", an age in which the global environment is dominated by human activities (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/11/121101131609.htm). Climate change and expanding human populations contribute to increased risk of transmission of infectious and non-infectious disease. Developing nations with huge human populations such as China and India are benefitting from increased economic globalization, allowing for increased availability of personal luxuries such as automobiles, which in turn results in increased pollution and further depletion of natural resources such as global oil reserves. Increasing availability to global resources also may contribute to global conflict over environmental resources such as oil, water and food. In the United States, 2013 was the hottest year on record. Average global temperatures are also on the rise, with Australia being another prime example. Globally, 2012 was the tenth hottest year on record since data collection began in 1880 (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/2012/13). Many people are now starting to question the ability of human populations

  20. Environmental Health Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Global Human Populations The capacity of the Earth’s environment to support increasing and expanding human populations has been questioned at least for hundreds of years, but never more than in the mid to late 20th Century and early 21st Century. Global human population now exceeds seven billion and continues to increase at an unprecedented rate. Estimates of future (2050) human populations on Earth range from a low of about 7.4 billion to a high of 10.6 billion (“United Nations World Population to 2300”, 2004 accessed at http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/longrange2/WorldPop2300final.pdf). Current human populations already place an extreme burden on global environmental resources, including air, water and food quality as well as increasing challenges related to human waste management and disease prevention, control and treatment. In fact, some have proposed that humans have entered the “anthropocene”, an age in which the global environment is dominated by human activities (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/11/121101131609.htm). Climate change and expanding human populations contribute to increased risk of transmission of infectious and non-infectious disease. Developing nations with huge human populations such as China and India are benefitting from increased economic globalization, allowing for increased availability of personal luxuries such as automobiles, which in turn results in increased pollution and further depletion of natural resources such as global oil reserves. Increasing availability to global resources also may contribute to global conflict over environmental resources such as oil, water and food. In the United States, 2013 was the hottest year on record. Average global temperatures are also on the rise, with Australia being another prime example. Globally, 2012 was the tenth hottest year on record since data collection began in 1880 (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/2012/13). Many people are now starting to question

  1. Environmental health resilience.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The capacity of the Earth's environment to support increasing and expanding human populations has been questioned at least for hundreds of years, but never more than in the mid to late 20th Century and early 21st Century. Global human population now exceeds seven billion and continues to increase at an unprecedented rate. Estimates of future (2050) human populations on Earth range from a low of about 7.4 billion to a high of 10.6 billion ("United Nations World Population to 2300", 2004 accessed at http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/longrange2/WorldPop2300final.pdf). Current human populations already place an extreme burden on global environmental resources, including air, water and food quality as well as increasing challenges related to human waste management and disease prevention, control and treatment. In fact, some have proposed that humans have entered the "anthropocene", an age in which the global environment is dominated by human activities (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/11/121101131609.htm). Climate change and expanding human populations contribute to increased risk of transmission of infectious and non-infectious disease. Developing nations with huge human populations such as China and India are benefitting from increased economic globalization, allowing for increased availability of personal luxuries such as automobiles, which in turn results in increased pollution and further depletion of natural resources such as global oil reserves. Increasing availability to global resources also may contribute to global conflict over environmental resources such as oil, water and food. In the United States, 2013 was the hottest year on record. Average global temperatures are also on the rise, with Australia being another prime example. Globally, 2012 was the tenth hottest year on record since data collection began in 1880 (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/2012/13). Many people are now starting to question the ability of human populations

  2. Urban environmental health hazards and health equity.

    PubMed

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Friel, Sharon; Dixon, Jane; Corvalan, Carlos; Rehfuess, Eva; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Gore, Fiona; Bartram, Jamie

    2007-05-01

    This paper outlines briefly how the living environment can affect health. It explains the links between social and environmental determinants of health in urban settings. Interventions to improve health equity through the environment include actions and policies that deal with proximal risk factors in deprived urban areas, such as safe drinking water supply, reduced air pollution from household cooking and heating as well as from vehicles and industry, reduced traffic injury hazards and noise, improved working environment, and reduced heat stress because of global climate change. The urban environment involves health hazards with an inequitable distribution of exposures and vulnerabilities, but it also involves opportunities for implementing interventions for health equity. The high population density in many poor urban areas means that interventions at a small scale level can assist many people, and existing infrastructure can sometimes be upgraded to meet health demands. Interventions at higher policy levels that will create more sustainable and equitable living conditions and environments include improved city planning and policies that take health aspects into account in every sector. Health equity also implies policies and actions that improve the global living environment, for instance, limiting greenhouse gas emissions. In a global equity perspective, improving the living environment and health of the poor in developing country cities requires actions to be taken in the most affluent urban areas of the world. This includes making financial and technical resources available from high-income countries to be applied in low-income countries for urgent interventions for health equity. This is an abbreviated version of a paper on "Improving the living environment" prepared for the World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health, Knowledge Network on Urban Settings.

  3. Urban Environmental Health Hazards and Health Equity

    PubMed Central

    Friel, Sharon; Dixon, Jane; Corvalan, Carlos; Rehfuess, Eva; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Gore, Fiona; Bartram, Jamie

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines briefly how the living environment can affect health. It explains the links between social and environmental determinants of health in urban settings. Interventions to improve health equity through the environment include actions and policies that deal with proximal risk factors in deprived urban areas, such as safe drinking water supply, reduced air pollution from household cooking and heating as well as from vehicles and industry, reduced traffic injury hazards and noise, improved working environment, and reduced heat stress because of global climate change. The urban environment involves health hazards with an inequitable distribution of exposures and vulnerabilities, but it also involves opportunities for implementing interventions for health equity. The high population density in many poor urban areas means that interventions at a small scale level can assist many people, and existing infrastructure can sometimes be upgraded to meet health demands. Interventions at higher policy levels that will create more sustainable and equitable living conditions and environments include improved city planning and policies that take health aspects into account in every sector. Health equity also implies policies and actions that improve the global living environment, for instance, limiting greenhouse gas emissions. In a global equity perspective, improving the living environment and health of the poor in developing country cities requires actions to be taken in the most affluent urban areas of the world. This includes making financial and technical resources available from high-income countries to be applied in low-income countries for urgent interventions for health equity. This is an abbreviated version of a paper on “Improving the living environment” prepared for the World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health, Knowledge Network on Urban Settings. PMID:17450427

  4. An Operating Environmental Health Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipana, J. G.; Masters, R. L.; Winter, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Some concepts of an operational program for medical and environmental health are outlined. Medical services of this program are primarily concerned with emergency care, laboratory examinations, advice to private physician with patient permission, medical monitoring activities, and suggestions for treatment or control of the malfunction.

  5. Health Effects of Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This booklet notes that for a long time the American people were willing to pay any price for progress. Now may refuse to accept an environment that menaces their health and lowers their enjoyment of life. They are embracing a new environmental consciousness, a broader vision of reality, a more profound sense of their place in nature. Among the…

  6. Environmental Health Disparities in Housing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The physical infrastructure and housing make human interaction possible and provide shelter. How well that infrastructure performs and which groups it serves have important implications for social equity and health. Populations in inadequate housing are more likely to have environmental diseases and injuries. Substantial disparities in housing have remained largely unchanged. Approximately 2.6 million (7.5%) non-Hispanic Blacks and 5.9 million Whites (2.8%) live in substandard housing. Segregation, lack of housing mobility, and homelessness are all associated with adverse health outcomes. Yet the experience with childhood lead poisoning in the United States has shown that housing-related disparities can be reduced. Effective interventions should be implemented to reduce environmental health disparities related to housing. PMID:21551378

  7. Occupational and environmental health nursing: ethics and professionalism.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Bonnie

    2012-04-01

    This article provides an overview of ethical issues related to the practice of occupational and environmental health nursing and possible strategies for resolution. Also, professionalism related to professional growth and advancing the specialty is discussed.

  8. Biomarkers and pediatric environmental health.

    PubMed

    Lubin, B; Lewis, R

    1995-09-01

    It is now possible to identify biochemical and/or cellular changes in humans due to exposure to an environmental toxin. These changes are called biomarkers and are currently used in research studies to identify individuals exposed to specific toxic substances. Advances in the field of biomarker technology may have important implications for the detection, prevention, and treatment of certain diseases in children. This technology may enable physicians to screen children who have no clinically detectable illness for evidence of exposure to specific toxins. Such information could lead to implementation of preventive measures and development of new therapeutic strategies. However, several important issues, including potential adverse consequences resulting from the widespread use of this technology, must be considered prior to its utilization within a clinical setting. Leaders of the pediatric and public health communities should recognize the paucity of scientific data in the pediatric environmental health area, and new approaches to this important aspect of child health should be developed. This article will address several of the issues involved in pediatric environmental health and consider questions that should be answered as the potential for technology transfer becomes a reality. PMID:8549501

  9. Objectivity and ethics in environmental health science.

    PubMed

    Wing, Steve

    2003-11-01

    During the past several decades, philosophers of science and scientists themselves have become increasingly aware of the complex ways in which scientific knowledge is shaped by its social context. This awareness has called into question traditional notions of objectivity. Working scientists need an understanding of their own practice that avoids the naïve myth that science can become objective by avoiding social influences as well as the reductionist view that its content is determined simply by economic interests. A nuanced perspective on this process can improve research ethics and increase the capacity of science to contribute to equitable public policy, especially in areas such as environmental and occupational health, which have direct implications for profits, regulation, legal responsibility, and social justice. I discuss research into health effects of the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA, as an example of how scientific explanations are shaped by social concepts, norms, and preconceptions. I describe how a scientific practice that developed under the influence of medical and nuclear physics interacted with observations made by exposed community members to affect research questions, the interpretation of evidence, inferences about biological mechanisms in disease causation, and the use of evidence in litigation. By considering the history and philosophy of their disciplines, practicing researchers can increase the rigor, objectivity, and social responsibility of environmental health science. PMID:14594636

  10. Objectivity and ethics in environmental health science.

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Steve

    2003-01-01

    During the past several decades, philosophers of science and scientists themselves have become increasingly aware of the complex ways in which scientific knowledge is shaped by its social context. This awareness has called into question traditional notions of objectivity. Working scientists need an understanding of their own practice that avoids the naïve myth that science can become objective by avoiding social influences as well as the reductionist view that its content is determined simply by economic interests. A nuanced perspective on this process can improve research ethics and increase the capacity of science to contribute to equitable public policy, especially in areas such as environmental and occupational health, which have direct implications for profits, regulation, legal responsibility, and social justice. I discuss research into health effects of the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA, as an example of how scientific explanations are shaped by social concepts, norms, and preconceptions. I describe how a scientific practice that developed under the influence of medical and nuclear physics interacted with observations made by exposed community members to affect research questions, the interpretation of evidence, inferences about biological mechanisms in disease causation, and the use of evidence in litigation. By considering the history and philosophy of their disciplines, practicing researchers can increase the rigor, objectivity, and social responsibility of environmental health science. PMID:14594636

  11. Environmental Health Organisations against Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Mulcahy, Maurice; Evans, David S.; Lahiffe, Blaithin; Goggin, Deirdre; Smyth, Colm; Hastings, Gerard; Byrne, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%). PMID:19440528

  12. A theory of practice for environmental assessment.

    PubMed

    Suter, Glenn W; Cormier, Susan M

    2008-10-01

    Environmental assessmen practices have not been as successful as they should be. We believe that this is in part because environmental assessors lack a clear and useful set of principles-that is, a theory of practice. We propose a theory that derives 19 principles from 3 axioms: (1) assessments inform environmental management decisions, (2) assessments are science based, and (3) management decisions accommodate multiple goals and constraints. The 1st axiom leads to principles that change the focus from good assessments to good decisions. The 2nd focuses assessments on the scientific needs of the decision maker rather than making policy judgments or consensus building. The 3rd axiom leads to integration across disciplines, scales, and types of evidence. This theory of assessment practice implies the need for a new framework for environmental assessment that is more integrative than existing frameworks and more focused on making decisions that resolve environmental problems. We believe that this theory of environmental assessment can lead to clear assessment practices that compel beneficial and confident environmental management.

  13. [Environmental medicine counselling in daily medical practice].

    PubMed

    Steiner, Edith; Aufdereggen, Bernhard; Bhend, Hansjörg; Gilli, Yvonne; Kälin, Peter; Semadeni, Cornelia

    2013-12-01

    Since 2008, the Swiss Society of Doctors for the Environment runs a small interdisciplinary environmental medicine counselling structure for patients with complaints attributed to environmental exposures. The model is embedded in everyday practice with a central coordination and consultation office as well as a network of general practitioners interested in environmental medicine who make environmental medical assessments and consultations based on a standardised protocol in their practices. If necessary, environmental experts are consulted and home investigations are conducted. An evaluation study concluded that this model is feasible and addresses an existing need. The assessment option is experienced as helpful by patients. The interdisciplinary collaboration with environmental experts has proved to be effective. The aim of the assessment is to detect or to rule out common diseases and to analyse the impact of suspected environmental burden on the complaints in order to find individual therapeutic approaches. The progression of common medical and psychiatric illnesses can be negatively affected by environmental influences, too. The main instrument of the assessment is an extensive medical and psycho-social history with an additional environmental history including a systematic questionnaire and environmental key questions. Close collaboration with the family doctor is crucial. Assessment steps can be streamlined and consultation suggestions can be embedded in the family doctors holistic and lasting concept of treatment. Where possible our society gladly provides family doctors with our practical environment-related expertise. It is an important concern for us to make environmental medicine an integral part of primary care, also in the process of informing the patient about the prevention of and precautions against harmful or potentially harmful environmental burdens. We hope that the experiences made in our project will contribute to this goal.

  14. [Harmful practices affecting women's health].

    PubMed

    1990-07-01

    The harmful practices discussed in this article are based on case histories form the Central Maternity in Niamey, yet these practices universally affect women throughout Africa. Nutritional taboos are aimed at certain diseases such as measles, diarrhea, dysentery, malnutrition and anemia and consumption of foods rich in proteins and lipids are forbidden. Children are forbidden from eating eggs; pregnant women are forbidden from eating fruits and vegetables because of the fear of hemorrhaging from the sugar content in the fruit; camel meat is forbidden for fear of extending the pregnancy. Female circumcision, a dangerous practice, especially during childbirth, causes many medical problems that remain permanent. Adolescent pregnancy and marriages are practiced to avoid delinquency among children; yet such practices take place because of arranged marriages for a dowry to young men or to older rich men and these forced marriages to adolescents are the causes of increases in divorce, prostitution and desertion. These young marriages have serious consequences on the health status of the mother and the infant, often leading to maternal and infant death. The high level of fertility in Niger is a response to the social structure of the family. It is a patrilineal system that encourages women to have many children, especially sons. In Niger, pregnancy is surrounded by supernatural and mysterious forces, where a child is the intervention for ancestral spirits. In Islam a child is considered a "Gift of God". A woman is expected to work until the delivery of her baby otherwise she is jeered by her neighbors. During delivery women are not expected to cry or show any pain for fear of dishonoring her family irregardless of any medical compilations she faces. Women in Africa are exploited as free labor, deteriorate and age rapidly, are generally illiterate and are not protected under any laws. PMID:12342832

  15. Educating engineers for environmentally sensitive practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Rosamund Anne

    This thesis addresses the question: "How can we educate undergraduate engineering students for environmentally sensitive practice?" In particular, the thesis explores possibilities for affective (attitude-related) learning goals for environmental education in engineering education. The thesis includes a case study in which an engineering hydrology course was altered to include more information about fish, and an assessment was done to determine whether the students who had used the altered curriculum showed greater awareness of the life-context of hydrology than those who had used the original curriculum. The case study is supported by preparatory research into (a) the expectations articulated by professional engineering associations about environmentally sensitive engineering practice; (b) the factors and players influencing environmental education in engineering education; (c) the literature regarding affective learning goals in environmental education, as it relates to engineering education; and (d) acceptable scholarly standards for evaluation of engineering courses and programs. The thesis findings reveal that expectations of environmentally sensitive engineering practice are high, but the response of the engineering education community is still in the early stages of development. Engineering education research has little overlap with environmental education research; because of the focus in engineering education on "knowledge" goals, the role of affective learning has thus far been neglected as a research area in environmental education in engineering education. The contribution of this civil engineering doctoral thesis on the subject of engineering education is its attempt to bring together ideas and practices from engineering education and the field of educational research in general. Because the doctoral work was based in an engineering school, supervised by engineering professors, and framed as an action research project, it stimulated discussion and

  16. Health practices of critical care nurses.

    PubMed

    Haughey, B P; Kuhn, M A; Dittmar, S S; Wu, Y W

    1992-05-01

    Little is known about the health practices of critical care nurses (CCNs). Because their health behaviors may influence their inclinations to counsel patients, it is important that CCNs engage in a healthy lifestyle and serve as health exemplars. The purpose of this survey was to describe the health practices of 499 CCNs. Data were gathered by questionnaires that elicited information regarding smoking habits, oral health and dietary practices, energy expenditure, seat belt use, alcohol consumption, and health surveillance behaviors. This article is a sequel to a previous manuscript that reported findings relative to the smoking practices of CCNs. Results of the study suggest that the CCNs surveyed were not fulfilling their roles as health exemplars. Although some reported favorable health practices, many indicated habits that were less than desirable. These data document the need to develop strategies for improving the health behaviors of CCNs, thereby protecting their future health. Ultimately, these strategies may benefit their patients.

  17. 20 CFR 638.804 - Environmental health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental health. 638.804 Section 638.804... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Administrative Provisions § 638.804 Environmental health. The Job Corps Director shall provide guidelines for proper environmental health conditions....

  18. 20 CFR 638.804 - Environmental health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental health. 638.804 Section 638.804... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Administrative Provisions § 638.804 Environmental health. The Job Corps Director shall provide guidelines for proper environmental health conditions....

  19. 20 CFR 638.804 - Environmental health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Environmental health. 638.804 Section 638.804... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Administrative Provisions § 638.804 Environmental health. The Job Corps Director shall provide guidelines for proper environmental health conditions....

  20. Environmental conditions and reproductive health outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental exposures range across multiple domains to affect human health. In an effort to learn how environmental factors combine to contribute to health outcomes we constructed a multiple environmental domain index (MEDI) for use in health research. We used principal compone...

  1. Technician Training in Environmental Health Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert G.; Sherman, Alan

    1976-01-01

    The Environmental Health Science Technology Program was initiated by Middlesex County College in 1971 to provide the trained personnel needed by industry and government. Major areas needing environmental health technicians, the environmental health technology curriculum, and the on-the-job-training internship program are discussed. (BT)

  2. Environmental Nutrition: A New Frontier for Public Health.

    PubMed

    Sabaté, Joan; Harwatt, Helen; Soret, Samuel

    2016-05-01

    Food systems must operate within environmental constraints to avoid disastrous consequences for the biosphere. Such constraints must also take into account nutritional quality and health outcomes. Given the intrinsic relationships between the environmental sciences and nutritional sciences, it is imperative that public health embraces environmental nutrition as the new frontier of research and practice and begins a concerted focus on the new discipline of environmental nutrition, which seeks to comprehensively address the sustainability of food systems. We provide an overview to justify our proposition, outline a research and practice agenda for environmental nutrition, and explore how the complex relationships within food systems that affect public health could be better understood through the environmental nutrition model.

  3. Let's Give Priority to Health In Environmental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bailus, Jr.

    1972-01-01

    An exploration of the question of the epidemiological basis for environmental health, and the community health-environmental quality relationship. The need for a re-thinking of resource requirements, with corresponding adjustments in the educational structure, is stressed. (LK)

  4. The Environmental Health of Latino Children

    PubMed Central

    Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Zambrana, Ruth E.; Poppell, Carolyn F.; Logie, Laura A.; Guerrero-Preston, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Representing 1 in 6 children in the United States, Latino children incur disproportionate exposures to air pollutants, pesticides, and toxic industrial chemicals, as well as lead and mercury from candy, traditional folk remedies, religious practices, and other sources. Latino children also have higher rates of asthma, lead and mercury poisoning, behavioral and developmental disorders, and certain cancers. Concurrent exposure to multiple pollutants, pre-existing disease, poor nutrition, substandard housing, limited access to health care, and other factors related to their lower socioeconomic status increase Latino children's susceptibility to environmental contaminants. Targeted research, education, prevention and intervention efforts, and economic development initiatives are needed. PMID:17825728

  5. An Assessment of Environmental Health Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health fundamentally addresses the physical, chemical, and biological risks external to the human body that can impact the health of a person by assessing and controlling these risks in order to generate and maintain a health-supportive environment. In manned spacecraft, environmental health risks are mitigated by a multi-disciplinary effort, employing several measures including active and passive controls, by establishing environmental standards (SMACs, SWEGs, microbial and acoustics limits), and through environmental monitoring. Human Health and Performance (HHP) scientists and Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) engineers consider environmental monitoring a vital component to an environmental health management strategy for maintaining a healthy crew and achieving mission success. ECLS engineers use environmental monitoring data to monitor and confirm the health of ECLS systems, whereas HHP scientists use the data to manage the health of the human system. Because risks can vary between missions and change over time, environmental monitoring is critical. Crew health risks associated with the environment were reviewed by agency experts with the goal of determining risk-based environmental monitoring needs for future NASA manned missions. Once determined, gaps in environmental health knowledge and technology, required to address those risks, were identified for various types of exploration missions. This agency-wide assessment of environmental health needs will help guide the activities/hardware development efforts to close those gaps and advance the knowledge required to meet NASA manned space exploration objectives. Details of the roadmap development and findings are presented in this paper.

  6. Environmental health implications of global climate change.

    PubMed

    Watson, Robert T; Patz, Jonathan; Gubler, Duane J; Parson, Edward A; Vincent, James H

    2005-09-01

    This paper reviews the background that has led to the now almost-universally held opinion in the scientific community that global climate change is occurring and is inescapably linked with anthropogenic activity. The potential implications to human health are considerable and very diverse. These include, for example, the increased direct impacts of heat and of rises in sea level, exacerbated air and water-borne harmful agents, and--associated with all the preceding--the emergence of environmental refugees. Vector-borne diseases, in particular those associated with blood-sucking arthropods such as mosquitoes, may be significantly impacted, including redistribution of some of those diseases to areas not previously affected. Responses to possible impending environmental and public health crises must involve political and socio-economic considerations, adding even greater complexity to what is already a difficult challenge. In some areas, adjustments to national and international public health practices and policies may be effective, at least in the short and medium terms. But in others, more drastic measures will be required. Environmental monitoring, in its widest sense, will play a significant role in the future management of the problem.

  7. Environmental health implications of global climate change.

    PubMed

    Watson, Robert T; Patz, Jonathan; Gubler, Duane J; Parson, Edward A; Vincent, James H

    2005-09-01

    This paper reviews the background that has led to the now almost-universally held opinion in the scientific community that global climate change is occurring and is inescapably linked with anthropogenic activity. The potential implications to human health are considerable and very diverse. These include, for example, the increased direct impacts of heat and of rises in sea level, exacerbated air and water-borne harmful agents, and--associated with all the preceding--the emergence of environmental refugees. Vector-borne diseases, in particular those associated with blood-sucking arthropods such as mosquitoes, may be significantly impacted, including redistribution of some of those diseases to areas not previously affected. Responses to possible impending environmental and public health crises must involve political and socio-economic considerations, adding even greater complexity to what is already a difficult challenge. In some areas, adjustments to national and international public health practices and policies may be effective, at least in the short and medium terms. But in others, more drastic measures will be required. Environmental monitoring, in its widest sense, will play a significant role in the future management of the problem. PMID:16121261

  8. Environmental Health Topics from A to Z

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Lead Mercury Mold Nanomaterials Ozone Perfluorinated Chemicals Pesticides Radon Soy Infant Formula Styrene Water Pollution Environmental ... Occupational Health Ozone Parkinson's Disease Perfluorinated Chemicals (PFCs) Pesticides Radon Reproductive Health Soy Infant Formula Styrene Toxicology ...

  9. Kennedy Space Center Environmental Health Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Joanne W.

    1997-01-01

    Topic considered include: environmental health services; health physics; ionizing radiation; pollution control; contamination investigations; natural resources; surface water; health hazard evaluations; combustion gas; launch support; asbestos; hazardous noise; and ventilation.

  10. School Health Practice. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, C. L.; Creswell, William H.

    This text provides core subject matter relating to health services, health education, and healthful living for teachers, health educators, school nurses, administrators, and any others who have a role in the school health program. Its six parts focus on the what, how, and why of a functional school health program today. To start, the history of…

  11. Healthful School Living: Environmental Health in the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Daryl E.

    1987-01-01

    Environmental health, as it relates to schools, is defined. Site, chemical, biological, and physical health hazards are identified. Recommendations and precautions to help achieve optimal health, safety, and comfort are presented. Resources are noted. (Author/MT)

  12. Effective outcomes management in occupational and environmental health.

    PubMed

    Kosinski, M

    1998-10-01

    In the final analysis, outcomes management is about changing behavior, specifically in the occupational and environmental health practitioner's communication process and practice patterns and in the workers' prevention and compliance behavior. Outcomes management is also about quantifying results, establishing occupational and environmental health performance benchmarks, developing a best practices model and asking even more questions. As health care embraces the use of outcomes in evaluating its effectiveness, similar developments can be anticipated in occupational and environmental health. While occupational and environmental health outcomes management is still in its infancy, nurses in the workplace are well positioned to "shape it" into a useful tool that meets the needs of all the various practice settings. As nurses in the workplace begin to evaluate, report, and benchmark results, measurement tools will be refined, data bases will grow and new, useful benchmarks will be established. Because occupational and environmental health programs usually operate as part of a larger business unit, nurses in the workplace are continually faced with the challenge of ensuring that corporate programs including workers' compensation, health and disability benefit programs, vaccination programs, injury prevention, and health promotion or wellness programs are delivered in an efficient and cost-effective manner and that the expected outcomes are achieved. Effective outcomes management programs are the vehicles to effective goal achievement.

  13. Coal hydrogenation and environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Wadden, R A

    1976-01-01

    Planning of coal hydrogenation processes, such as liquifaction and gasification, requires consideration of public health implications. Commercial plants will require coal quantities greater than or equal to 20,000 tons/day and the large size of these plants calls for careful consideration of the potential health hazards from the wastes and products of such processes. Analysis of pollution potential can roughly be divided into three categories: raw material structure and constituents, process design, and mode of plant operation. Identifiable pollutants include hydrogen cyanide, phenols, cresols, carbonyl and hydrogen sulfides, ammonia, mercaptans, thiocyanides, aniline, arsenic, trace metals and various polycyclic hydrocarbons. One study of workers in a hydrogenation process has revealed an incidence of skin cancer 16-37 times that expected in the chemical industry. In addition, a number of high boiling point liquid products were identified as being carcinogenic, and air concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene up to 18,000 mug/1000 m3 were reported. Health statistics on occupational groups in other coal conversion industries have shown significantly higher lung cancer rates, relative to groups without such occupational exposures. These data suggest that coal hydrogenation plants must be carefully planned and controlled to avoid harm to environmentally and occupationally exposed populations. PMID:789066

  14. Aquaculture: Environmental, toxicological, and health issues.

    PubMed

    Cole, David W; Cole, Richard; Gaydos, Steven J; Gray, Jon; Hyland, Greg; Jacques, Mark L; Powell-Dunford, Nicole; Sawhney, Charu; Au, William W

    2009-07-01

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food-producing sectors, supplying approximately 40% of the world's fish food. Besides such benefit to the society, the industry does have its problems. There are occupational hazards and safety concerns in the aquaculture industry. Some practices have caused environmental degradation. Public perception to farmed fish is that they are "cleaner" than comparable wild fish. However, some farmed fish have much higher body burden of natural and man-made toxic substances, e.g. antibiotics, pesticides, and persistent organic pollutants, than wild fish. These contaminants in fish can pose health concerns to unsuspecting consumers, in particular pregnant or nursing women. Regulations and international oversight for the aquaculture industry are extremely complex, with several agencies regulating aquaculture practices, including site selection, pollution control, water quality, feed supply, and food safety. Since the toxicological, environmental, and health concerns of aquaculture have not been adequately reviewed recently, we are providing an updated review of the topic. Specifically, concerns and recommendations for improving the aquaculture industry, and for protection of the environment and the consumers will be concisely presented.

  15. Environmental Health in the School Setting: The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Bernadette Moran; Bryner, Janet; Chau, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental health is a branch of public health that is concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines environmental health as those aspects of human health and diseases that are determined by factors in the environment. It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing and…

  16. Environmental risks and children's health: what can PRAMS tell us?

    PubMed

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Suter, Barbara J; Cai, Xueya; Brownson, Susan A; Dozier, Ann M

    2014-07-01

    Environmental exposures during pregnancy have a lasting impact on children's health. We combined environmental and maternal risk factor survey data to inform efforts to protect children's health. We made recommendations for future use of such data. A modified version of the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) mail survey was conducted based on weighted sampling design with low-income and non-low income women in Monroe County, NY (1,022 respondents). A series of environmental questions were included in the questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Chi square tests and Poisson loglinear regression model to identify patterns in environmental health risk and sociodemographic characteristics. We identified women who rented their homes, had lower incomes, and lived in inner city zip codes as "high environmental health risk" (HEHR). HEHR respondents were more likely to report that a health care provider talked with them about lead and on average reported more behaviors to protect their children from lead poisoning. Combining environmental and perinatal risk factor data could yield important recommendations for medical practice, health education, and policy development. However, at present PRAMS gathers only limited and inconsistent environmental data. We found that existing PRAMS environmental questions are insufficient. Further work is needed to develop updated and more comprehensive environmental health survey questions and implement them consistently across the country. PMID:23955384

  17. International environmental law and global public health.

    PubMed Central

    Schirnding, Yasmin von; Onzivu, William; Adede, Andronico O.

    2002-01-01

    The environment continues to be a source of ill-health for many people, particularly in developing countries. International environmental law offers a viable strategy for enhancing public health through the promotion of increased awareness of the linkages between health and environment, mobilization of technical and financial resources, strengthening of research and monitoring, enforcement of health-related standards, and promotion of global cooperation. An enhanced capacity to utilize international environmental law could lead to significant worldwide gains in public health. PMID:12571726

  18. International environmental law and global public health.

    PubMed

    Schirnding, Yasmin von; Onzivu, William; Adede, Andronico O

    2002-01-01

    The environment continues to be a source of ill-health for many people, particularly in developing countries. International environmental law offers a viable strategy for enhancing public health through the promotion of increased awareness of the linkages between health and environment, mobilization of technical and financial resources, strengthening of research and monitoring, enforcement of health-related standards, and promotion of global cooperation. An enhanced capacity to utilize international environmental law could lead to significant worldwide gains in public health.

  19. Environmental metrics for community health improvement.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Benjamin; Frumkin, Howard

    2010-07-01

    Environmental factors greatly affect human health. Accordingly, environmental metrics are a key part of the community health information base. We review environmental metrics relevant to community health, including measurements of contaminants in environmental media, such as air, water, and food; measurements of contaminants in people (biomonitoring); measurements of features of the built environment that affect health; and measurements of "upstream" environmental conditions relevant to health. We offer a set of metrics (including unhealthy exposures, such as pollutants, and health-promoting assets, such as parks and green space) selected on the basis of relevance to health outcomes, magnitude of associated health outcomes, corroboration in the peer-reviewed literature, and data availability, especially at the community level, and we recommend ways to use these metrics most effectively.

  20. Environmental health discipline science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in environmental health. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; animal and human subjects; and research and development. This document summarizes the history and current status of the program elements, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies scientific priorities, and defines critical questions in the three disciplines: (1) Barophysiology, (2) Toxicology, and (3) Microbiology. This document contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Officers and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational research and development activities, both intramural and extramural, in this area. The document is divided into sections addressing these three disciplines.

  1. Environmental philosophy: from theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sahotra

    2014-03-01

    Environmental philosophy is a hybrid discipline drawing extensively from epistemology, ethics, and philosophy of science and analyzing disciplines such as conservation biology, restoration ecology, sustainability studies, and political ecology. The book being discussed both provides an overview of environmental philosophy and develops an anthropocentric framework for it. That framework treats natural values as deep cultural values. Tradeoffs between natural values are analyzed using decision theory to the extent possible, leaving many interesting question for philosophical deliberation. This framework is supposed to be applicable in practical contexts.

  2. Social Determinants of Health: Implications for Environmental Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Amy; Northridge, Mary E.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors draw on the disciplines of sociology and environmental and social epidemiology to further understanding of mechanisms through which social factors contribute to disparate environmental exposures and health inequalities. They propose a conceptual framework for environmental health promotion that considers dynamic social…

  3. Practice Notes: Strategies in Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Education & Behavior, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Practice Notes" section is intended to keep readers informed about health education practice around the country. It is an attempt to spread the word about exemplary strategies, initiatives, and programs and share successes in overcoming obstacles or challenges. This article features two new programs on health education: (1) Project FIESTA;…

  4. Selected Health Practices Among Ohio's Rural Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, G. Howard; Pugh, Albert

    Using a stratified random sample of 12 of Ohio's 88 counties, this 1967 study had as its objectives (1) to measure the level of participation in selected health practices by Ohio's rural residents, (2) to compare the level of participation in selected health practices of farm and rural nonfarm residents, and (3) to examine levels of participation…

  5. Application of Health Promotion Theories and Models for Environmental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Edith A.; Baldwin, Grant T.; Israel, Barbara; Salinas, Maria A.

    2004-01-01

    The field of environmental health promotion gained new prominence in recent years as awareness of physical environmental stressors and exposures increased in communities across the country and the world. Although many theories and conceptual models are used routinely to guide health promotion and health education interventions, they are rarely…

  6. Discrepancies between Students' Health Education Knowledge and Health Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afaga, Lorna; And Others

    Although most health education programs have focused on knowledge as the major outcome, there is conflicting information about the impact of knowledge-based programs on health behaviors. This study compared student health knowledge and health practices by administering tests and questionnaires to 1,371 students in grades three and six, and junior…

  7. Public Health Advocacy to Change Corporate Practices: Implications for Health Education Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    Corporate practices, such as advertising, public relations, lobbying, litigation, and sponsoring scientific research, have a significant impact on the health of the people in the United States. Recently, health professionals and advocates have created a new scope of practice that aims to modify corporate practices that harm health. This article…

  8. Practice Notes: Strategies in Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Education & Behavior, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Practice Notes section is intended to keep readers informed about health education practice around the country. It is an attempt to spread the word about exemplary strategies, initiatives, and programs and share successes in overcoming obstacles or challenges. Periodically, articles presenting perspectives on practice-related issues are also…

  9. Health warnings on tobacco products: international practices.

    PubMed

    Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L

    2012-06-01

    Health warnings on tobacco products have emerged as a prominent area of tobacco control policy. Regulatory practice has rapidly evolved over the past decade to the point where health warnings on tobacco products continue to set international precedents for their size and comprehensiveness. The current paper provides a general review of current regulatory practices, including physical design features (such as size and location), message content (pictorial vs. text and content themes), and regulatory considerations such as rotation period and other novel practices.

  10. Faculty internships in environmental health: planning and implementation.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Eliezer

    2005-12-01

    Faculty internships, in which a faculty member works temporarily for a government organization or a private business, are a concept that is becoming popular at universities. This paper discusses how a faculty internship can be developed and implemented, and it reports on the advantages of the internship for academia, the sponsoring institution, and the professor. In addition, suggestions on structuring and implementing the internship are offered. The major objective of the paper is to encourage environmental health educators to seriously consider faculty internships as a means of bridging the gaps between academia and the business world. Faculty internships should be beneficial primarily for two groups of professors. First are those professors who, after earning doctorates, enter the teaching profession without any environmental health practicum experience. Second are those who once worked full time as environmental health practitioners but have been out of the field for a significant number of years with little or no contact with the "real world" of environmental health practice. The information presented is based on the experience of the author, who served as a faculty intern for the environmental health division of a county health department in rural west-central Indiana, Some of the benefits of faculty internships are improved teaching methods, practical experience, community contacts, and increased internship opportunities for students. The experience can enhance classroom theory for students, and the implementation of practice can be clarified for the educator.

  11. Wildlife disease and environmental health in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Hemert, Caroline; Pearce, John; Oakley, Karen; Whalen, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health is defined by connections between the physical environment, ecological health, and human health. Current research within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recognizes the importance of this integrated research philosophy, which includes study of disease and pollutants as they pertain to wildlife and humans. Due to its key geographic location and significant wildlife resources, Alaska is a critical area for future study of environmental health.

  12. Environmental and Community Health. Health Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantzler, Nora J.; Miner, Kathleen R.

    The 10-volume "Health Facts" series is intended to supplement health education curricula and provide a handy reference for individuals who would like additional background information on particular health topics. The emphasis is placed on topics and examples relevant to youth of middle and high school age. This book is divided into two parts: Part…

  13. Public Health Interventions for School Nursing Practice.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Marjorie A; Anderson, Linda J W; Rising, Shannon

    2016-06-01

    School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic survey on their use of public health interventions as defined by the wheel. Although 67% of the participants were not familiar with the Public Health Intervention Wheel, respondents reported conducting activities that were consistent with the Wheel interventions. Screening, referral and follow-up, case management, and health teaching were the most frequently performed interventions. Intervention use varied by educational level, age of nurse, years of practice, and student population. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a relevant and useful framework that provides a language to explain population-based school nursing practice. PMID:26404552

  14. Public Health Interventions for School Nursing Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Marjorie A.; Anderson, Linda J. W.; Rising, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic…

  15. Plastics and environmental health: the road ahead.

    PubMed

    North, Emily J; Halden, Rolf U

    2013-01-01

    Plastics continue to benefit society in innumerable ways, even though recent public focus on plastics has centered mostly on human health and environmental concerns, including their endocrine-disrupting properties and the long-term pollution they represent. The benefits of plastics are particularly apparent in medicine and public health. Plastics are versatile, cost-effective, require less energy to produce than alternative materials like metal or glass, and can be manufactured to have many different properties. Due to these characteristics, polymers are used in diverse health applications like disposable syringes and intravenous bags, sterile packaging for medical instruments as well as in joint replacements, tissue engineering, etc. However, not all current uses of plastics are prudent and sustainable, as illustrated by the widespread, unwanted human exposure to endocrine-disrupting bisphenol A (BPA) and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), problems arising from the large quantities of plastic being disposed of, and depletion of non-renewable petroleum resources as a result of the ever-increasing mass production of plastic consumer articles. Using the health-care sector as example, this review concentrates on the benefits and downsides of plastics and identifies opportunities to change the composition and disposal practices of these invaluable polymers for a more sustainable future consumption. It highlights ongoing efforts to phase out DEHP and BPA in the health-care and food industry and discusses biodegradable options for plastic packaging, opportunities for reducing plastic medical waste, and recycling in medical facilities in the quest to reap a maximum of benefits from polymers without compromising human health or the environment in the process. PMID:23337043

  16. Plastics and environmental health: the road ahead.

    PubMed

    North, Emily J; Halden, Rolf U

    2013-01-01

    Plastics continue to benefit society in innumerable ways, even though recent public focus on plastics has centered mostly on human health and environmental concerns, including their endocrine-disrupting properties and the long-term pollution they represent. The benefits of plastics are particularly apparent in medicine and public health. Plastics are versatile, cost-effective, require less energy to produce than alternative materials like metal or glass, and can be manufactured to have many different properties. Due to these characteristics, polymers are used in diverse health applications like disposable syringes and intravenous bags, sterile packaging for medical instruments as well as in joint replacements, tissue engineering, etc. However, not all current uses of plastics are prudent and sustainable, as illustrated by the widespread, unwanted human exposure to endocrine-disrupting bisphenol A (BPA) and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), problems arising from the large quantities of plastic being disposed of, and depletion of non-renewable petroleum resources as a result of the ever-increasing mass production of plastic consumer articles. Using the health-care sector as example, this review concentrates on the benefits and downsides of plastics and identifies opportunities to change the composition and disposal practices of these invaluable polymers for a more sustainable future consumption. It highlights ongoing efforts to phase out DEHP and BPA in the health-care and food industry and discusses biodegradable options for plastic packaging, opportunities for reducing plastic medical waste, and recycling in medical facilities in the quest to reap a maximum of benefits from polymers without compromising human health or the environment in the process.

  17. Intercultural health care as reflective negotiated practice.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Jeffrey

    2003-11-01

    This interpretive study sought to understand how intercultural health care to immigrants can be practically conceptualized in multicultural populations. Interviews were conducted with 20 Canadian health service informants, and 12 interviews were staged during 31 months with a multicultural coordinator in an Australian teaching hospital. Transcripts of 11 previously conducted group discussions with 34 staff members from this same Australian hospital were also included. Interpretation was based on these data as well as on the literature and the author's own experience. It was concluded that intercultural health care can be practically conceptualized as reflective health worker practice. Through this practice, responsive care can be situationally negotiated between the health worker and the client in a framework of jointly considered needs. For implementation, the barriers to negotiation must be addressed. PMID:14596179

  18. Health promotion: challenges revealed in successful practices

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Kênia Lara; de Sena, Roseni Rosângela; Belga, Stephanie Marques Moura Franco; Silva, Paloma Morais; Rodrigues, Andreza Trevenzoli

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine successful practices of health promotion in health, education, culture, welfare and sport, leisure, identifying the elements of success and challenges in the field. METHODS A qualitative study with data obtained from in-depth analysis that included participant observation, interviews with managers, coordinators, professionals and participants from 29 practices reported as successful for promoting health in six municipalities of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, MG, Southeastern Brazil, in 2011. The variables of the study were concept, dimension, dissemination and ease of access, identified in practices guided by content analysis. RESULTS The results indicate a conceptual and methodological uncertainty about health promotion as evidenced by conflicting objects and contradictory purposes. The practices differ in size, coverage and ease of access, determined by inter-sector coordination and political and financial investment. CONCLUSIONS We identified challenges to health promotion focusing on vulnerable populations, limits to financing and intersectoral partnerships. PMID:24789640

  19. Good practice models for public workplace health promotion projects in Austria: promoting mental health.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Nathalie T; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Großschädl, Franziska; Sprenger, Martin; Rohrauer-Näf, Gerlinde; Ropin, Klaus; Martinel, Evelyn; Dorner, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Promoting mental health is a central public health issue since the Jakarta statement in 1997. In Austria, the nationwide organisation for health promotion is the 'Fonds Gesundes Österreich' (FGÖ), which has been established in 1998. The FGÖ funds and supports workplace health promotion projects; therefore, it co-operates with the Austrian Network on Workplace Health Promotion. In 2011, among others, two Austrian companies were honoured as best practice models for promoting mental health in the project 'Work. In tune with life. Move Europe'. One of their central key success factors are the provision of equal opportunities, engagement, their focus on overall health as well as the implementation of behavioural and environmental preventive measures. Since mental health problems in the population are still rising, public health promotion projects which orientate on the best practice models have to be established in Austria. PMID:24327008

  20. Measuring Environmental Health Perception among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Brown, Stephen L.; Middleton, Wendi K.; Wodika, Alicia B.

    2011-01-01

    One's knowledge, perception, and attitude are fundamental in determining how one behaves regarding environmental hazards. While science has made great strides in promoting environmental health, threats still exist, largely due to individual actions in response to potential health hazards. Undergraduate students (n = 395) enrolled in an…

  1. Environmental Exposures and Children's Health Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrigan, Philip J.

    2005-01-01

    The author looks at the sharp increase in a number of childhood disorders--including asthma, certain cancers, and learning/behavioral disabilities--and the role environmental toxins may play in this increase. He describes the need to train many more health professionals in prenatal and children's environmental health and the national network of…

  2. Cultural Health Practices of Migrant Seasonal Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    McCullagh, Marjorie C.; Sanon, Marie-Ann; Foley, Josephine G.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored culturally related health practices among Hispanic migrant seasonal farmworkers. In this cross-sectional qualitative study, six Hispanic migrant seasonal farmworkers from southeastern Michigan farms were interviewed. Four major themes emerged from the study. Financial and employment limitations, rather than folk health care practices, were more likely to influence use of professional care systems. There was limited use of folk healers and culturally-related practices, primarily due to lack of access. Results may be used to identify needs and develop culturally appropriate programs and services to improve the health of Hispanic migrant seasonal farmworkers. PMID:26245012

  3. Environmental Policy and Children's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrigan, Philip J.; Carlson, Joy E.

    1995-01-01

    Considers how the unique vulnerabilities of children challenge environmental policymaking, particularly as it concerns environmental contamination through manufactured chemicals. Contributions of educational and advocacy efforts are addressed as well as the interests of industry and the problems of environmental equity. A new approach to…

  4. Practical reporting times for environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Bayne, C.K.; Schmoyer, D.D.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1993-02-01

    Preanalytical holding times for environmental samples are specified because chemical and physical characteristics may change between sampling and chemical analysis. For example, the Federal Register prescribes a preanalytical holding time of 14 days for volatile organic compounds in soil stored at 4{degrees}C. The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) uses a more technical definition that the preanalytical holding time is the day when the analyte concentration for an environmental sample falls below the lower 99% confidence interval on the analyte concentration at day zero. This study reviews various holding time definitions and suggest a new preanalytical holding time approach using acceptable error rates for measuring an environmental analyte. This practical reporting time (PRT) approach has been applied to nineteen volatile organic compounds and four explosives in three environmental soil samples. A PRT nomograph of error rates has been developed to estimate the consequences of missing a preanalytical holding time. This nomograph can be applied to a large class of analytes with concentrations that decay linearly or exponentially with time regardless of sample matrices and storage conditions.

  5. Analyzing the outcomes of health promotion practices.

    PubMed

    Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes; Arruda, José Maria; Barroso, Maria Auxiliadora Bessa; Lobato Tavares, Maria de Fátima; Ribeiro Campos, Nora Zamith; Zandonadil, Regina Celi Moreira Basílio; da Rocha, Rosa Maria; Parreira, Clélia Maria de Souza Ferreira; Cohen, Simone Cynamon; Kligerman, Débora Cynamon; Sperandio, Ana Maria Girotti; Correa, Carlos Roberto Silveira; Serrano, Miguel Malo

    2007-01-01

    of social actors in environmental management and housing, supported by the Public Health Technology Development Project of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, was employed as a tool of environmental education and healthy housing. The purpose of this study was to construct an integrated and participatory model of environment management. The methodology included training, research and evaluation of participants, from 21 to 50 years of age, who participated in building Thematic Learning Books and Community Guides about water quality monitoring. Participants'evaluations emphasized the training process, encouraging them to become multiplier agents of environmental education in their communities and to continue learning how to bring together sectors for problems solving. The Potentially Healthy Districts' Network (RMPS) aimed at increasing knowledge and building capacity to develop actions which originate from each of the local units, based on their characteristics and practices. Developed by the Preventive and Social Department of Campinas State University with PAHO/WHO and the Society Special Research Institute (IPES), RMPS's mission was to cooperate in the construction of healthy public policies in a participatory and articulated way through different municipal representatives. The network offered tools to municipal administrations to develop integrated projects that brought together government, managers, technicians, academy and organizations for the construction of public policies aimed at health promotion and quality of life. The methodology is based in the construction of knowledge and action networks by social actors, stimulating trans-sectorial and inter-district actions. The outcome evaluation is based on case studies, focus groups, oral stories, documents and image analyses. PMID:17596094

  6. Exploring Australian health promotion and environmental sustainability initiatives.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Rebecca; Kingsley, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Health promotion practitioners have important roles in applying ecosystem approaches to health and actively promoting environmental sustainability within community-level practice. The present study identified the nature and scope of health promotion activities across Australia that tackle environmental sustainability. Methods A mixed-method approach was used, with 82 participants undertaking a quantitative survey and 11 undertaking a qualitative interview. Purposeful sampling strategies were used to recruit practitioners who were delivering community-level health promotion and sustainability programs in Australia. The data were analysed thematically and interpretation was guided by the principles of triangulation. Results Study participants were at various stages of linking health promotion and environmental sustainability. Initiatives focused on healthy and sustainable food, active transport, energy efficiency, contact with nature and capacity building. Conclusion Capacity building approaches were perceived as essential to strengthening this field of practice. Healthy and sustainable food and active transport were suitable platforms for simultaneously promoting community health and sustainability. There was potential for expansion of programs that emphasise contact with nature and energy issues, as well as interventions that emphasise systems thinking and interdisciplinary approaches. So what? It was promising that Australian health promotion programs have started to address complexity rather than single issues, as evidenced by explicit engagement with environmental sustainability. However, more effort is required to enable a shift towards ecosystem approaches to health. PMID:26650394

  7. Exploring Australian health promotion and environmental sustainability initiatives.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Rebecca; Kingsley, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Health promotion practitioners have important roles in applying ecosystem approaches to health and actively promoting environmental sustainability within community-level practice. The present study identified the nature and scope of health promotion activities across Australia that tackle environmental sustainability. Methods A mixed-method approach was used, with 82 participants undertaking a quantitative survey and 11 undertaking a qualitative interview. Purposeful sampling strategies were used to recruit practitioners who were delivering community-level health promotion and sustainability programs in Australia. The data were analysed thematically and interpretation was guided by the principles of triangulation. Results Study participants were at various stages of linking health promotion and environmental sustainability. Initiatives focused on healthy and sustainable food, active transport, energy efficiency, contact with nature and capacity building. Conclusion Capacity building approaches were perceived as essential to strengthening this field of practice. Healthy and sustainable food and active transport were suitable platforms for simultaneously promoting community health and sustainability. There was potential for expansion of programs that emphasise contact with nature and energy issues, as well as interventions that emphasise systems thinking and interdisciplinary approaches. So what? It was promising that Australian health promotion programs have started to address complexity rather than single issues, as evidenced by explicit engagement with environmental sustainability. However, more effort is required to enable a shift towards ecosystem approaches to health.

  8. Pragmatism: a practical philosophy for environmental scientists.

    PubMed

    Suter, Glenn W; Cormier, Susan M

    2013-04-01

    Challenges to the credibility of the scientific community make it particularly important for environmental scientists to understand the bases for the authority of their science. We argue that pragmatism provides a defensible and effective scientific philosophy. It provides a transparent basis for justifying belief and a set of practices and concepts for inference. It makes the scientific community the author of scientific truth, which has implications for the opening of science in the age of social media and the communication of consensus positions on important issues. We describe how pragmatism acknowledges the social aspect of science without losing the scientific tradition of critical thinking.

  9. 75 FR 65365 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Environmental Health Sciences Review Committee; Research Career... applications. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T....

  10. Environmental pollution, chromosomes, and health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In mid-May, 1980, President Carter declared a state of emergency at the Love Canal area, near Niagara Falls, New York. The reason for this was for the U.S. to underwrite the relocation costs ($3-5 million) of some 2500 residents who, according to a report by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) may have suffered damaged chromosomes. These injuries were apparently caused by contact with toxic wastes that had been dumped in the area in the years prior to development for housing.That the toxic compounds exist in the Love Canal and Niagara Falls subsurface zones, including public water supplies, appears to be established fact. That the residents of the Love Canal area suffered chromosomal damage may be established fact as well. Whether or not these two findings can be linked to ill health of the residents is another matter. Recently, the EPA report has been described as having ‘close to zero scientific significance,’ and has been ‘discredited’(Science, 208, 123a, 1980). The reasons for this disparity go beyond differences of opinion, beyond possible inadequacies of the EPA study, and even beyond problems that probably will arise from future studies, including those now in the planning stages. The problem is that even if victims have easily recognizable injuries from toxic substances (injury that apparently has not occurred to Love Canal residents), medical science usually cannot show a causal relationship. Even chromosomal damage is, at best, difficult to interpret. In ideal studies of significant populations and control groups, the association of toxic chemical to chromosome damage and to cancer and birth defects is indirect and, up to now, has been shown to have little or no significance to an individual member of the exposed population.

  11. Kennedy Space Center environmental health program.

    PubMed

    Marmaro, G M; Cardinale, M A; Summerfield, B R; Tipton, D A

    1992-08-01

    The Kennedy Space Center's environmental health organization is responsible for programs which assure its employees a healthful workplace under diverse and varied working conditions. These programs encompass the disciplines of industrial hygiene, radiation protection (health physics), and environmental sanitation/pollution control. Activities range from the routine, such as normal office work, to the highly specialized, such as the processing of highly toxic and hazardous materials.

  12. Kennedy Space Center environmental health program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marmaro, G. M.; Cardinale, M. A.; Summerfield, B. R.; Tipton, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center's environmental health organization is responsible for programs which assure its employees a healthful workplace under diverse and varied working conditions. These programs encompass the disciplines of industrial hygiene, radiation protection (health physics), and environmental sanitation/pollution control. Activities range from the routine, such as normal office work, to the highly specialized, such as the processing of highly toxic and hazardous materials.

  13. Creating effective messages about environmental health.

    PubMed

    Morrone, Michele; Tres, Alejandra; Aronin, Ruben

    2005-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention supported research coordinated by the Association of Environmental Health Academic Programs (AEHAP) for the purpose of developing effective messages about environmental health. The purpose of these messages would be to increase the visibility of the environmental health profession and improve the public's awareness and understanding of the role played by the profession in protecting the public's health. To accomplish this task, AEHAP first collaborated with a marketing team to develop initial test messages. The core message revolved around five major themes: effects of pollution, susceptible populations, economics and prevention, homeland security, and specific environmental health issues. The draft messages were tested in three focus group settings: 1) policy makers, 2) environmental health professionals, and 3) the general public. This paper reports a finding that there is a perceptual gap among environmental health professionals, policy makers, and the public. This gap is part of why there is a compelling need for the environmental health community to develop and disseminate more effective messages about the profession.

  14. Conceptualizations of health in nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Thomas J; Merlin, Marjolaine Dionne

    2014-04-01

    There are many ways of living health as individuals describe it from unique perspectives. With the intent of serving others, healthcare professionals rely on a specific conceptualization of health consistent with a practice methodology. Hence, for the advancement of innovative scientific knowledge health can be viewed from distinct paradigmatic perspectives and must be founded on a congruent ontological-epistemological-methodological link in professional practice. The purpose of this column is to describe conceptualizations of health with congruent practice methodologies from three distinct nursing paradigmatic perspectives. The authors consider that these distinct paradigmatic nursing perspectives offer diverse disciplinary knowledge of social utility to nursing professional practice for the betterment of the ones being served.

  15. Pesticides (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  16. Ozone (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  17. Plastics (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  18. Mercury (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  19. Public health practice is not research.

    PubMed

    Otto, Jean Lin; Holodniy, Mark; DeFraites, Robert F

    2014-04-01

    Scientific and clinical activities undertaken by public health agencies may be misconstrued as medical research. Most discussions of regulatory and legal oversight of medical research focus on activities involving either patients in clinical practice or volunteers in clinical trials. These discussions often exclude similar activities that constitute or support core functions of public health practice. As a result, public health agencies and practitioners may be held to inappropriate regulatory standards regarding research. Through the lens of the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs, and using several case studies from these departments, we offer a framework for the adjudication of activities common to research and public health practice that could assist public health practitioners, research oversight authorities, and scientific journals in determining whether such activities require regulatory review and approval as research. PMID:24524499

  20. Public Health Practice Is Not Research

    PubMed Central

    Holodniy, Mark; DeFraites, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific and clinical activities undertaken by public health agencies may be misconstrued as medical research. Most discussions of regulatory and legal oversight of medical research focus on activities involving either patients in clinical practice or volunteers in clinical trials. These discussions often exclude similar activities that constitute or support core functions of public health practice. As a result, public health agencies and practitioners may be held to inappropriate regulatory standards regarding research. Through the lens of the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs, and using several case studies from these departments, we offer a framework for the adjudication of activities common to research and public health practice that could assist public health practitioners, research oversight authorities, and scientific journals in determining whether such activities require regulatory review and approval as research. PMID:24524499

  1. Cultural Reflexivity in Health Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Aronowitz, Robert; Deener, Andrew; Keene, Danya; Schnittker, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Recent public health movements have invoked cultural change to improve health and reduce health disparities. We argue that these cultural discourses have sometimes justified and maintained health inequalities when those with power and authority designated their own social practices as legitimate and healthy while labeling the practices of marginalized groups as illegitimate or unhealthy. This “misrecognition,” which creates seemingly objective knowledge without understanding historical and social conditions, sustains unequal power dynamics and obscures the fact that what is deemed legitimate and healthy can be temporally, geographically, and socially relative. We use examples from research across multiple disciplines to illustrate the potential consequences of cultural misrecognition, highlight instances in which culture was invoked in ways that overcame misrecognition, and discuss how cultural reflexivity can be used to improve health research and practice. PMID:25905833

  2. Cultural reflexivity in health research and practice.

    PubMed

    Aronowitz, Robert; Deener, Andrew; Keene, Danya; Schnittker, Jason; Tach, Laura

    2015-07-01

    Recent public health movements have invoked cultural change to improve health and reduce health disparities. We argue that these cultural discourses have sometimes justified and maintained health inequalities when those with power and authority designated their own social practices as legitimate and healthy while labeling the practices of marginalized groups as illegitimate or unhealthy. This "misrecognition," which creates seemingly objective knowledge without understanding historical and social conditions, sustains unequal power dynamics and obscures the fact that what is deemed legitimate and healthy can be temporally, geographically, and socially relative. We use examples from research across multiple disciplines to illustrate the potential consequences of cultural misrecognition, highlight instances in which culture was invoked in ways that overcame misrecognition, and discuss how cultural reflexivity can be used to improve health research and practice.

  3. NLM Web Resources for Environmental Health and Biomedical Research

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, R.

    2010-09-12

    The National Library of Medicine (NLM) is sponsoring this course to increase awareness of the availability and value of NLM’s online environmental health and toxicology information resources that provide invaluable tools to address these issues—for professionals and consumers alike. Participants will receive hands-on practice with selected NLM resources, and demonstrations of other valuable resources will be provided.

  4. Practice Notes: Strategies in Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Education & Behavior, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article is included in the Practice Notes section of this journal, which is intended to keep readers informed about health education practice around the country. It is an attempt to spread the word about exemplary strategies, initiatives, and programs and share successes in overcoming obstacles or challenges. In this article, two programs are…

  5. Environmental practices for biomedical research facilities.

    PubMed Central

    Medlin, E L; Grupenhoff, J T

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment, the Facilities Committee focused its work on the development of best environmental practices at biomedical research facilities at the university and independent research facility level as well as consideration of potential involvement of for-profit companies and government agencies. The designation "facilities" includes all related buildings and grounds, "green auditing" of buildings and programs, purchasing of furnishings and sources, energy efficiency, and engineering services (lighting, heating, air conditioning), among other activities. The committee made a number of recommendations, including development of a national council for environmental stewardship in biomedical research, development of a system of green auditing of such research facilities, and creation of programs for sustainable building and use. In addition, the committee recommended extension of education and training programs for environmental stewardship, in cooperation with facilities managers, for all research administrators and researchers. These programs would focus especially on graduate fellows and other students, as well as on science labs at levels K--12. PMID:11121360

  6. Environmental practices for biomedical research facilities.

    PubMed

    Medlin, E L; Grupenhoff, J T

    2000-12-01

    As a result of the Leadership Conference on Biomedical Research and the Environment, the Facilities Committee focused its work on the development of best environmental practices at biomedical research facilities at the university and independent research facility level as well as consideration of potential involvement of for-profit companies and government agencies. The designation "facilities" includes all related buildings and grounds, "green auditing" of buildings and programs, purchasing of furnishings and sources, energy efficiency, and engineering services (lighting, heating, air conditioning), among other activities. The committee made a number of recommendations, including development of a national council for environmental stewardship in biomedical research, development of a system of green auditing of such research facilities, and creation of programs for sustainable building and use. In addition, the committee recommended extension of education and training programs for environmental stewardship, in cooperation with facilities managers, for all research administrators and researchers. These programs would focus especially on graduate fellows and other students, as well as on science labs at levels K--12.

  7. Merging Environmental Health and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guth, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Community colleges nationwide are retrofitting their campuses to meet best environmental principles, creating comprehensive "living laboratories" where participants have a direct impact on reducing an institution's carbon footprint. Environmental stewardship is a growing priority among millennials, observers say. Sixty-six percent of…

  8. Public Health Nursing Legacy: Historical Practical Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerwekh, Joyce V.

    1992-01-01

    Conveys the practical knowledge shown by public health nurses since the days of Lillian Wald in the 1890s. Public health nurses have had to work with high-risk families--work that often requires a common sense approach. (JOW)

  9. Mental Health Practice Guidelines for Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The guidelines and supporting rationale presented in this paper were developed from the October 2007 "Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare Consensus Conference" sponsored by Casey Family Programs, the Annie E. Casey Foundation and the REACH Institute (REsource for Advancing Children's Health). The purpose of the conference was to…

  10. Developing health promoting practices: a transformative process.

    PubMed

    Hartrick, G

    1998-01-01

    For health care professionals to successfully make the transition from disease care to health promotion requires a reorientation of how such professionals think and behave in their practice. This paper describes a multidisciplinary team's transition from disease care to health promotion. The research was conducted to learn what is involved in developing health promotion practices and the major changes practitioners experience as they shift from disease care to health promotion. A large, acute care institution and public health agency collaborated to address the needs of families and children with asthma, allergies, and eczema, with the goal of changing the focus from inpatient care to ambulatory or community-based care. A team of 5 nurses, 1 physiotherapist, 1 respiratory technologist, and 1 nutritionist was formed to undertake the initiative. PMID:9805341

  11. Plastics and Environmental Health: The Road Ahead

    PubMed Central

    North, Emily J.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2013-01-01

    Plastics continue to benefit society in innumerable ways, even though recent public focus on plastics has centered mostly on human health and environmental concerns, including endocrine-disrupting properties and long-term pollution. The benefits of plastics are particularly apparent in medicine and public health. Plastics are versatile, cost-effective, require less energy to produce than alternative materials – such as metal or glass – and can be manufactured to have many different properties. Due to these characteristics, polymers are used in diverse health applications, such as disposable syringes and intravenous bags, sterile packaging for medical instruments as well as in joint replacements, tissue engineering, etc. However, not all current uses of plastics are prudent and sustainable, as illustrated by widespread, unwanted human exposure to endocrine-disrupting bisphenol-A (BPA) and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), problems arising from the large quantities of plastic being disposed of, and depletion of non-renewable petroleum resources as a result of ever increasing mass-production of plastic consumer articles. By example of the healthcare sector, this review concentrates on benefits and downsides of plastics and identities opportunities to change the composition and disposal practices of these invaluable polymers for a more sustainable future consumption. It highlights ongoing efforts to phase out DEHP and BPA in the healthcare and food industry, and discusses biodegradable options for plastic packaging, opportunities for reducing plastic medical waste, and recycling in medical facilities in the quest to reap a maximum of benefits from polymers without compromising human health or the environment in the process. PMID:23337043

  12. Health warnings on tobacco products: international practices.

    PubMed

    Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L

    2012-06-01

    Health warnings on tobacco products have emerged as a prominent area of tobacco control policy. Regulatory practice has rapidly evolved over the past decade to the point where health warnings on tobacco products continue to set international precedents for their size and comprehensiveness. The current paper provides a general review of current regulatory practices, including physical design features (such as size and location), message content (pictorial vs. text and content themes), and regulatory considerations such as rotation period and other novel practices. PMID:22689165

  13. Boundary Spanning Leadership Practices for Population Health.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R; White-Williams, Connie

    2015-09-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. In this article, the authors discuss boundary spanning leadership practices for achieving the Triple Aim of simultaneously improving the health of populations, improving the patient experience, and reducing per-capita cost of health care. Drawing on experience with an existing population-focused heart failure clinic borne of an academic-practice partnership, the authors discuss boundary spanning leadership practices aimed at achieving the Triple Aim concept and its intended design. PMID:26301546

  14. Using health impact assessment to integrate environmental justice into federal environmental regulatory analysis.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Tina K; Payne-Sturges, Devon C

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory interventions are the first line of action used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to fulfill its mission to protect the environment and health. Although the Agency has prioritized the integration of environmental justice into its activities, uncertainty remains in how these considerations will be incorporated into its regulatory decision-making processes. In this article, we examine the emerging practice of Health Impact Assessment and argue for its use within the regulatory assessment paradigm to help answer policy-relevant environmental justice questions. Through the use of a health lens, Health Impact Assessments can lead to a better characterization of the potential impacts and benefits of a rule by introducing novel assessments of potentially significant health effects that would otherwise be excluded, revealing whether the rule is likely to exacerbate inequities or create new ones. This article proposes a framework to overcome analytic barriers in achieving a more comprehensive, equity-focused regulatory analysis.

  15. Using health impact assessment to integrate environmental justice into federal environmental regulatory analysis.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Tina K; Payne-Sturges, Devon C

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory interventions are the first line of action used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to fulfill its mission to protect the environment and health. Although the agency has prioritized the integration of environmental justice into its activities, uncertainty remains in how these considerations will be incorporated into its regulatory decision-making processes. In this article, we examine the emerging practice of Health Impact Assessment and argue for its use within the regulatory assessment paradigm to help answer policy-relevant environmental justice questions. Through the use of a health lens, Health Impact Assessments can lead to a better characterization of the potential impacts and benefits of a rule by introducing novel assessments of potentially significant health effects that would otherwise be excluded, revealing whether the rule is likely to exacerbate inequities or create new ones. This article proposes a framework to overcome analytic barriers in achieving a more comprehensive, equity-focused regulatory analysis.

  16. Integrating Social Theory Into Public Health Practice

    PubMed Central

    Potvin, Louise; Gendron, Sylvie; Bilodeau, Angèle; Chabot, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The innovative practice that resulted from the Ottawa Charter challenges public health knowledge about programming and evaluation. Specifically, there is a need to formulate program theory that embraces social determinants of health and local actors’ mobilization for social change. Likewise, it is imperative to develop a theory of evaluation that fosters reflexive understanding of public health programs engaged in social change. We believe advances in contemporary social theory that are founded on a critique of modernity and that articulate a coherent theory of practice should be considered when addressing these critical challenges. PMID:15798114

  17. Interoception, contemplative practice, and health

    PubMed Central

    Farb, Norman; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Price, Cynthia J.; Gard, Tim; Kerr, Catherine; Dunn, Barnaby D.; Klein, Anne Carolyn; Paulus, Martin P.; Mehling, Wolf E.

    2015-01-01

    Interoception can be broadly defined as the sense of signals originating within the body. As such, interoception is critical for our sense of embodiment, motivation, and well-being. And yet, despite its importance, interoception remains poorly understood within modern science. This paper reviews interdisciplinary perspectives on interoception, with the goal of presenting a unified perspective from diverse fields such as neuroscience, clinical practice, and contemplative studies. It is hoped that this integrative effort will advance our understanding of how interoception determines well-being, and identify the central challenges to such understanding. To this end, we introduce an expanded taxonomy of interoceptive processes, arguing that many of these processes can be understood through an emerging predictive coding model for mind–body integration. The model, which describes the tension between expected and felt body sensation, parallels contemplative theories, and implicates interoception in a variety of affective and psychosomatic disorders. We conclude that maladaptive construal of bodily sensations may lie at the heart of many contemporary maladies, and that contemplative practices may attenuate these interpretative biases, restoring a person’s sense of presence and agency in the world. PMID:26106345

  18. COORDINATING ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE WITH EPIDEMIOLOGY AND LABORATORY ANALYSIS: A WATERBORNE OUTBREAK OF SNOW MOUNTAIN VIRUS IN THE BIG HORN MOUNTAINS OF WYOMING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In February 2001, the Wyoming Department of Health received reports of acute gastroenteritis among persons who had recently been on a snowmobiling vacation in the Big Horn Mountains. Initial interviews and laboratory testing suggested that exposure to a calicivirus ...

  19. Public health advocacy to change corporate practices: implications for health education practice and research.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2005-06-01

    Corporate practices, such as advertising, public relations, lobbying, litigation, and sponsoring scientific research, have a significant impact on the health of the people in the United States. Recently, health professionals and advocates have created a new scope of practice that aims to modify corporate practices that harm health. This article describes how corporate policies influence health and reviews recent health campaigns aimed at changing corporate behavior in six industries selected for their central role in the U.S. economy and their influence on major causes of mortality and morbidity. These are the alcohol, automobile, food, gun, pharmaceutical, and tobacco industries. The article defines corporate disease promotion and illustrates the range of public health activities that have emerged to counter such corporate behaviors. It analyzes the role of health professionals, government, and advocacy groups in these campaigns and assesses the implications of this domain for health education practice and research.

  20. Efficiency in mental health practice and research.

    PubMed

    Lagomasino, Isabel T; Zatzick, Douglas F; Chambers, David A

    2010-01-01

    Limited financial resources, escalating mental health-related costs and opportunities for capitalizing on advances in health information technologies have brought the theme of efficiency to the forefront of mental health services research and clinical practice. In this introductory article to the journal series stemming from the 20th NIMH Mental Health Services Research Conference, we first delineate the need for a new focus on efficiency in both research and clinical practice. Second, we provide preliminary definitions of efficiency for the field and discuss issues related to measurement. Finally, we explore the interface between efficiency in mental health services research and practice and the NIMH strategic objectives of developing improved interventions for diverse populations and enhancing the public health impact of research. Case examples illustrate how perspectives from dissemination and implementation research may be used to maximize efficiencies in the development and implementation of new service delivery models. Allowing findings from the dissemination and implementation field to permeate and inform clinical practice and research may facilitate more efficient development of interventions and enhance the public health impact of research.

  1. Public health ethics: informing better public health practice.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stacy M; Kerridge, Ian; Sainsbury, Peter; Letts, Julie K

    2012-01-01

    Public health ethics has emerged and grown as an independent discipline over the last decade. It involves using ethical theory and empirical analyses to determine and justify the right thing to do in public health. In this paper, we distinguish public health ethics from clinical ethics, research ethics, public health law and politics. We then discuss issues in public health ethics including: how to weigh up the benefits, harms and costs of intervening; how to ensure that public health interventions produce fair outcomes; the potential for public health to undermine or promote the rights of citizens; and the significance of being transparent and inclusive in public health interventions. We conclude that the explicit and systematic consideration of ethical issues will, and should, become central to every public health worker's daily practice.

  2. Penal Institutions, Environmental Health Regulations and Inspections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, W. W.

    1974-01-01

    The need for better regulations concerning environmental health standards for jails is emphasized. Areas that should be covered by regulations are specified. The form and frequency of inspections, and qualifications of the inspecting personnel, are discussed. (DT)

  3. Community environmental health assessment strengthens environmental public health services in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Brian; Gelting, Richard; Baffigo, Virginia; Sarisky, John

    2005-01-01

    In December 1999, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere, Peru Country Office (CARE Peru), initiated the Urban Environmental Health Project (SAU, in Spanish) to strengthen environmental public health services in urban and periurban settlements in Peru. The project received funding from the Woodruff Foundation as part of the CARE-CDC Health Initiative (CCHI). The "Protocol for Assessing Community Excellence in Environmental Health" (PACE EH) guided the development of a community environmental public health assessment (CEHA) process in Cardozo, a settlement in Iquitos, Peru. The project developed a three-phase process that merged scientific understanding and community perception about local environmental health problems. In phase 1, local environmental health technicians assisted the community in understanding environmental health conditions in Cardozo and selecting priorities. During phase 2, local technicians assessed the community-selected priorities: water and sanitation. Results from recent water quality assessments revealed that 82% (9 of 11) of samples from shallow dug wells, 18% (2 of 11) from deeper drilled wells, and 61% (11/18) from household drinking containers were positive for thermotolerant coliforms. Phase 3 activities produced an action plan and an intervention to mitigate health problems associated with inadequate water and sanitation services in the Cardozo community. As a result of the CEHA process, CARE Peru obtained funding from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to develop and implement an environmental health risk monitoring system and the proposed water and sewage intervention in the settlement. CDC continues to provide technical assistance to the local environmental health services groups in Iquitos through an agreement with CARE Peru as part of the USAID-funded Urban Environmental Health Models Project (MUSA). Technical assistance activities

  4. Global environmental change: what can health care providers and the environmental health community do about it now?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Brian S; Parker, Cindy; Glass, Thomas A; Hu, Howard

    2006-12-01

    The debate about whether global environmental change is real is now over; in its wake is the realization that it is happening more rapidly than predicted. These changes constitute a profound challenge to human health, both as a direct threat and as a promoter of other risks. We call on health care providers to inform themselves about these issues and to become agents of change in their communities. It is our responsibility as clinicians to educate patients and their communities on the connections between regressive policies, unsustainable behaviors, global environmental changes, and threats to health and security. We call on professional organizations to assist in educating their members about these issues, in helping clinicians practice behavior change with their patients, and in adding their voices to this issue in our statehouses and Congress. We call for the development of carbon and other environmental-labeling of consumer products so individuals can make informed choices; we also call for the rapid implementation of policies that provide tangible economic incentives for choosing environmentally sustainable products and services. We urge the environmental health community to take up the challenge of developing a global environmental health index that will incorporate human health into available "planetary health" metrics and that can be used as a policy tool to evaluate the impact of interventions and document spatial and temporal shifts in the healthfulness of local areas. Finally, we urge our political, business, public health, and academic leaders to heed these environmental warnings and quickly develop regulatory and policy solutions so that the health of populations and the integrity of their environments will be ensured for future generations.

  5. Environmental health, climate chaos and resilience.

    PubMed

    Middleton, John

    2008-01-01

    The public health movement has a strong tradition of identifying health problems and tackling these through economic, social and environmental improvements and through advocacy for people's rights and entitlements. Since 9/11, and the floods, fuel crisis and foot and mouth disease in 2000-2001, the UK government has introduced the notion of 'resilience' - the requirement for statutory UK bodies to develop their capacity to respond to all major emergency risks from pandemic flu to terrorism. The new threats of environmental and climate change require public health practitioners to acquire new knowledge about ecology and climate change and to become advocates for equality, new economics, and sustainable development. The best efforts to promote health are also likely to be green, promoting and protective of human and environmental health as well. PMID:18771196

  6. Environmental health, climate chaos and resilience.

    PubMed

    Middleton, John

    2008-01-01

    The public health movement has a strong tradition of identifying health problems and tackling these through economic, social and environmental improvements and through advocacy for people's rights and entitlements. Since 9/11, and the floods, fuel crisis and foot and mouth disease in 2000-2001, the UK government has introduced the notion of 'resilience' - the requirement for statutory UK bodies to develop their capacity to respond to all major emergency risks from pandemic flu to terrorism. The new threats of environmental and climate change require public health practitioners to acquire new knowledge about ecology and climate change and to become advocates for equality, new economics, and sustainable development. The best efforts to promote health are also likely to be green, promoting and protective of human and environmental health as well.

  7. Considerations Before Establishing an Environmental Health Registry

    PubMed Central

    Antao, Vinicius C.; Muravov, Oleg I.; Sapp, James; Larson, Theodore C.; Pallos, L. Laszlo; Sanchez, Marchelle E.; Williamson, G. David; Horton, D. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Public health registries can provide valuable information when health consequences of environmental exposures are uncertain or will likely take long to develop. They can also aid research on diseases that may have environmental causes that are not completely well defined. We discuss factors to consider when deciding whether to create an environmental health registry. Those factors include public health significance, purpose and outcomes, duration and scope of data collection and availability of alternative data sources, timeliness, availability of funding and administrative capabilities, and whether the establishment of a registry can adequately address specific health concerns. We also discuss difficulties, limitations, and benefits of exposure and disease registries, based on the experience of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. PMID:26066912

  8. [Intersectoriality, social and environmental determinants and health promotion].

    PubMed

    Silva, Kênia Lara; Sena, Roseni Rosângela; Akerman, Marco; Belga, Stephanie Marques Moura; Rodrigues, Andreza Trevenzoli

    2014-11-01

    The study seeks to analyze intersectoriality from the socio-environmental perspective on health promotion. Qualitative research was conducted in six municipalities in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The data were obtained from the mapping of health promotion experiences considered successful by municipal managers, interviews with coordinators, professionals and participants and observations of participants of the practices. The data were subjected to thematic content analysis. Intersectoriality was revealed as a premise for the political definition of the majority of the practices. At the normative program level, the social assistance sector has shown greater potential to develop intersectorial practices and centrality in the implementation grid due to its involvement with the social and environmental determinants. The results indicate that there is a gap between the intention to practice intersectoriality, witnessed by the political decisions in the municipalities, and effective intersectorial action in everyday life. The conclusion reached is that there is potential for intersectorial interventions on the social and environmental determinants in favor of health promotion, but the lack of consistency between what occurs in practice and the political aspects reveal a challenge to be overcome.

  9. HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS.

    Robert J. Kavlock, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC USA.

    Over the past several decades a hypothesis has been put forth that a numb...

  10. The EPA Children's Environmental Health Yearbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Children's Health Protection.

    Through their environments, children are exposed to a wide variety of substances that pose a risk to their health. This yearbook provides information to the public on the activities of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to protect children from environmental hazards, including the latest information on the unique threats of environmental…

  11. COORDINATING SYSTEMS-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE WITH EPIDEMIOLOGY AND LABORATORY ANALYSIS: A WATERBORNE OUTBREAK OF NORWALK-LIKE VIRUS IN THE BIG HORN MOUNTAINS OF WYOMING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In February 2001, the Wyoming Department of Health received reports of cases of gastroenteritis among persons who had been snowmobiling in the Big Horn Mountains. Laboratory testing suggested that exposure to a Norwalk-like virus was responsible for the illness.
    ...

  12. Religion and health: public health research and practice.

    PubMed

    Chatters, L M

    2000-01-01

    Research examining the relationships between religion and the health of individuals and populations has become increasingly visible in the social, behavioral, and health sciences. Systematic programs of research investigate religious phenomena within the context of coherent theoretical and conceptual frameworks that describe the causes and consequences of religious involvement for health outcomes. Recent research has validated the multidimensional aspects of religious involvement and investigated how religious factors operate through various biobehavioral and psychosocial constructs to affect health status through proposed mechanisms that link religion and health. Methodological and analytical advances in the field permit the development of more complex models of religion's effects, in keeping with proposed theoretical explanations. Investigations of religion and health have ethical and practical implications that should be addressed by the lay public, health professionals, the research community, and the clergy. Future research directions point to promising new areas of investigation that could bridge the constructs of religion and health.

  13. Occupational health nursing 2004 practice analysis report.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Patricia B; Maher, Helen K; Knuth, Georgia; Fabrey, Lawrence J

    2006-01-01

    As a certifying body for occupational health nurses in the United States and Canada, the American Board for Occupational Health Nurses, Inc. (ABOHN) must ensure its certification examinations validly reflect current occupational health nurse practice. This report presents information from the ABOHN 2004 practice analysis. The study's primary purpose was to analyze areas of knowledge, skill, and ability for occupational health nurses as reflected by the tasks they perform to guide refinement of ABOHN's certification examinations. A valid and reliable survey instrument, containing demographic and job-related questions and 172 task statements was developed. A total of 5,586 surveys (4,921 Web-based and 665 paper) were made available to occupational health nurses throughout the United States and Canada. The usable response rate was 23.5% (N = 1,223). Decision rules were used to determine which survey tasks were appropriate for inclusion in Certified Occupational Health Nurse (COHN) and Certified Occupational Health Nurse Specialist (COHN-S) certification examination blueprints. The revised blueprints were used to develop new examinations. Study data also validated the existing ABOHN Case Management (CM) specialty examination blueprint, and verified occupational health nurse roles and responsibilities related to safety programs. Based on analysis of the safety-related items, ABOHN in collaboration with the Board of Certified Safety Professionals, has created a safety management credential (SM) and associated examination that certified occupational health nurses may use to verify their safety role proficiency.

  14. Global Environmental Change: What Can Health Care Providers and the Environmental Health Community Do About It Now?

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Brian S.; Parker, Cindy; Glass, Thomas A.; Hu, Howard

    2006-01-01

    The debate about whether global environmental change is real is now over; in its wake is the realization that it is happening more rapidly than predicted. These changes constitute a profound challenge to human health, both as a direct threat and as a promoter of other risks. We call on health care providers to inform themselves about these issues and to become agents of change in their communities. It is our responsibility as clinicians to educate patients and their communities on the connections between regressive policies, unsustainable behaviors, global environmental changes, and threats to health and security. We call on professional organizations to assist in educating their members about these issues, in helping clinicians practice behavior change with their patients, and in adding their voices to this issue in our statehouses and Congress. We call for the development of carbon- and other environmental-labeling of consumer products so individuals can make informed choices; we also call for the rapid implementation of policies that provide tangible economic incentives for choosing environmentally sustainable products and services. We urge the environmental health community to take up the challenge of developing a global environmental health index that will incorporate human health into available “planetary health” metrics and that can be used as a policy tool to evaluate the impact of interventions and document spatial and temporal shifts in the healthfulness of local areas. Finally, we urge our political, business, public health, and academic leaders to heed these environmental warnings and quickly develop regulatory and policy solutions so that the health of populations and the integrity of their environments will be ensured for future generations. PMID:17185267

  15. The Environmental Science and Health Effects Program

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Gurevich; Doug Lawson; Joe Mauderly

    2000-04-10

    The goal of the Environmental Science and Health Effect Program is to conduct policy-relevant research that will help us understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources.

  16. Health Educators as Environmental Policy Advocates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Kimberly J.; Baker, Judith A.

    1993-01-01

    Health educators must complement individual-level change with communitywide policy and legislative initiatives, focusing on environmental issues such as air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and toxic waste disposal. Recent increases in discomfort and disease related to the physical environment call for immediate action from health professionals…

  17. The EPA Children's Environmental Health Yearbook Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Children's Health Protection.

    Through their environments, children are exposed to a wide variety of substances that provide a risk to children's health. This report provides information to the public on the work of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) related to children's health protection, summarizing initiatives undertaken since the publication of "The EPA Children's…

  18. Multicultural Environmental Education: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marouli, Christina

    2002-01-01

    Explains the importance of cross-cultural communication and gains special significance in the comprehension of environmental degradation and the identification of environmental solutions. Questions multicultural environmental education as a solution to the problems. (Contains 23 references.) (Author/YDS)

  19. Strategy for environmental health research at EPA

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, L.W.; Sexton, K.

    1990-12-01

    Major environmental legislation has given the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) the regulatory tools it needs to protect our environment and public health. Environmental protection, however, requires more than legislative vehicles; appropriate regulatory decisions based on those laws must be founded on scientific data concerning the scope and magnitude of health risks associated with the environmental hazards to which the public is exposed. To address the broad range of environmental contaminants covered under various legislative statutes, HERL research must assist EPA in evaluating the health risks for diverse environmental agents. While the chemical and physical composition of these pollutants differs significantly, the evaluation of their health effects must address a common set of issues: exposure, or the extent to which humans are exposed to pollutants in the environment; dose, or the relationship between the exposure and the dose of the pollutant received at the site(s) of toxic action within the body; and effect, or the health impact from the pollutant dose. These fundamental issues form the risk assessment paradigm that underlies the research needs of all EPA regulatory program areas, and therefore they are central to the entire HERL program.

  20. Dental health practices in Norwegian adults.

    PubMed

    Helöe, L A; Aarö, L E; Sögaard, A J

    1982-12-01

    A nationwide sample of 1511 Norwegian adults were interviewed in 1979-80 concerning health habits, including dental habits. While daily toothbrushing and regular treatment attendance appeared to have become the rule among young and middle aged individuals, use of dental floss and especially of fluoride tablets or rinses, still are the exception. Dental health habits were clustered around the variable treatment attendance with slightly different patterns for men and for women. Measures of sugar consumptions were only slightly correlated with background variables and dental health behavior. While the latter was socially dependent, consumption of sugar probably was attached to personal characteristics or situational factors. The correlations between dental health behavior and other health behavior practices were generally weak, and somewhat different for men and women. Two separate types of motives for preventive behavior were distinguished between: health motives and cosmetic motives.

  1. Space Station Freedom Environmental Health Care Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the environmental planning and monitoring aspects of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health Care Program, which encompasses all phases of the SSF assembly and operation from the first element entry at MB-6 through the Permanent Manned Capability and beyond. Environmental planning involves the definition of acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the radiation dose barothermal parameters and potential contaminants in the SSF air and water and on internal surfaces. Inflight monitoring will be implemented through the Environmental Health System, which consists of five subsystems: Microbiology, Toxicology, Water Quality, Radiation, and Barothermal Physiology. In addition to the environmental data interpretation and analysis conducted after each mission, the new data will be compared to archived data for statistical and long-term trend analysis and determination of risk exposures. Results of these analyses will be used to modify the acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the future.

  2. Environmental health needs and launching of an environmental health protection unit in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Z A; Kazi, B M; Bile, K M; Magan, M; Nasir, J A

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan is seriously confronted by many complex and difficult environmental challenges related to air, water, soil, forests and food including issues such as climate change. The close link between environment and health is neither well understood nor appreciated. The annual cost of environmental degradation in Pakistan has been estimated to be around US $4.0 billion orat least 6% of the country's GDP. Up to 35% of the burden of disease is attributable to environmental hazards and risk factors and most of this burden is preventable. A systematic process for identifying environmental health needs and issues as well as the efforts made by the government of Pakistan and the World Health Organization in establishing and launching an environmental health protection unit are described. Also presented are the mission, functions, structure (operational and logistical) and technical requirements as well as sustainability aspects of the environmental health protection unit.

  3. Anishinabe youth perceptions about community health: toward environmental repossession.

    PubMed

    Big-Canoe, Katie; Richmond, Chantelle A M

    2014-03-01

    This community-based research applied environmental dispossession as a theoretical framework for understanding Anishinabe youth perceptions about health, social relationships and contemporary Anishinabe way of life in Northern Ontario, Canada. Qualitative interviews with 19 youth reveal considerable worry about their community's health. Youth perceive changes in the Anishinabe way of life, including decreased access to their traditional lands, to be central to poor health at the community level. Youth emphasized the importance of social relationships for fostering healthy behaviours and developing community wide initiatives that will provide opportunities for reconnecting to land, and for learning and practicing Indigenous Knowledge. This study builds on the growing body of decolonizing research with Indigenous communities, and it concludes by offering the concept of environmental repossession as a way forward for studies on the Indigenous environment-health interface. PMID:24440804

  4. Health Curriculum Materials: Grades 10, 11, and 12. Strand IV, Environmental and Community Health; Consumer Health. Special Edition for Evaluation and Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hooft, Gordon E.; And Others

    This publication contains curriculum suggestions for teaching Environmental and Community Health - Consumer Health for grades 10, 11 and 12. Emphasis is placed on the psychological dimension of contemporary quackery and pseudo-scientific practices, and sources of health information and health counsel. In general, the grade 10 through 12 materials…

  5. Positioning mental health nursing practice within a positive health paradigm.

    PubMed

    Wand, Timothy

    2013-04-01

    Mental health service provision has traditionally been dominated by biomedical models of illness and disorder, a problem-based orientation, and the assessment and management of risk. While psychotherapeutic approaches are numerous and have been widely utilized, psychotropic medications, either as monotherapy or in conjunction with psychological therapies, remain the mainstay for the 'treatment' of mental health problems. This is despite growing uncertainty over the effectiveness of psychotropic medications (particularly antidepressants), as well as their potential for enduring and debilitating side-effects. This discussion paper outlines the emerging field of positive health, which eschews a psychiatric disorder and illness focus, and is instead oriented towards the identification of strengths, abilities, hopes, and the individual's preferred future. The shift in positive health, from illness towards wellness, aims to build health literacy and the capacity of individuals to make decisions conducive to health, and thereby make more effective the use of health-care services. A positioning of mental health nursing practice within a positive health paradigm is promoted. By illustration, a number of solution-focused mental health assessment questions are tabled to contrast the current format for mental health assessment, which rather than being 'comprehensive', is predominantly concerned only with problem and risk identification, and the search for pathology in the individual.

  6. Environmental health consequences of land mines.

    PubMed

    Newman, R D; Mercer, M A

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the environmental effects of anti-personnel land mines globally. Land mines represent an immediate environmental health problem. Between 60 and 70 million land mines are currently in place in over 70 countries. Designed to kill or main humans, including civilians, they injure an estimated 1, 200 persons and kill another 800 every week. Land-mine injuries tend to be serious; an estimated 300,000 persons worldwide have been disabled by them. The problem, politically very controversial, can be resolved only by preventing the further placement of mines, by demining of areas already mined, and by coping with the personal and environmental devastation that they have already caused. Environmental health personnel should be involved in promoting awareness of the problem, in improving services for land-mine victims, and in promoting political efforts to ban further use of land mines. PMID:10926729

  7. Environmental awareness among physicians: what are environmental health and environmental medicine?

    PubMed

    Kersh, F W; Frank, A L

    1999-10-01

    Increased awareness of environmental health issues by the biomedical community and the general public places higher demands on all health and medical practitioners to understand the key terms and concepts related to environmental health and medicine. We all exist in 3 different environments (home, workplace, and community), each of which has its own array of hazards and means of exposure. Environmental medicine is a discipline that addresses preventive measures and provides assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of persons who experience adverse health effects of environmental exposures. In addition to basic clinical skills, environmental medicine uses specialized tools including biostatistics and epidemiologic studies, the science of toxicology and risk assessment, the discipline of industrial hygiene, and administrative and public policy skills. Examples of environmental issues that are faced by society today include asbestos exposure in public buildings as well as pesticide and other agricultural chemical residues present in various environmental media. PMID:10531804

  8. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Reis, S; Morris, G; Fleming, L E; Beck, S; Taylor, T; White, M; Depledge, M H; Steinle, S; Sabel, C E; Cowie, H; Hurley, F; Dick, J McP; Smith, R I; Austen, M

    2015-10-01

    Scientific investigations have progressively refined our understanding of the influence of the environment on human health, and the many adverse impacts that human activities exert on the environment, from the local to the planetary level. Nonetheless, throughout the modern public health era, health has been pursued as though our lives and lifestyles are disconnected from ecosystems and their component organisms. The inadequacy of the societal and public health response to obesity, health inequities, and especially global environmental and climate change now calls for an ecological approach which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose a new conceptual model, the ecosystems-enriched Drivers, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, Actions or 'eDPSEEA' model, to address this shortcoming. The model recognizes convergence between the concept of ecosystems services which provides a human health and well-being slant to the value of ecosystems while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession. It will require outreach to political and other stakeholders including a currently largely disengaged general public. The need for an effective and robust science-policy interface has

  9. Theory and Practice of Environmental Impact Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Peter F.

    1974-01-01

    Preliminary assessment of Environmental Impact Statements in California indicate that their effectiveness is directly related to the local political structure. Environmental planning is expected to improve as environmental impact reports gain more credence as an information base for city planners. The need for uniform impact guidelines are…

  10. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    America has an abundance of natural resources. We have bountiful clean water, fertile soil, and unrivaled national parks, wildlife refuges, and public lands. These resources enrich our lives and preserve our health and wellbeing. These resources have been maintained because of our history of respect for their value and an enduring commitment to their vigilant protection. Awareness of the social, economic, and personal value of the health of our environment is increasing. The emergence of environmentally driven diseases caused by environmental exposure to contaminants and pathogens is a growing concern worldwide. New health threats and patterns of established threats are affected by both natural and anthropogenic changes to the environment. Human activities are key drivers of emerging (new and re-emerging) health threats. Societal demands for land and natural resources, a better quality of life, improved economic prosperity, and the environmental impacts associated with these demands will continue to increase. Natural earth processes, climate trends, and related climatic events will add to the environmental impact of human activities. These environmental drivers will influence exposure to disease agents, including viral, bacterial, prion, and fungal pathogens, parasites, natural earth materials, toxins and other biogenic compounds, and synthetic chemicals and substances. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defines environmental health science broadly as the interdisciplinary study of relations among the quality of the physical environment, the health of the living environment, and human health. The interactions among these three spheres are driven by human activities, ecological processes, and natural earth processes; the interactions affect exposure to contaminants and pathogens and the severity of environmentally driven diseases in animals and people. This definition provides USGS with a framework for synthesizing natural science information from across the Bureau

  11. Health and environmental effects profile for acrolein

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for acrolein was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented, provided sufficient data are available. Acrolein was determined to be a systemic toxicant. An Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), defined as the amount of a chemical to which humans can be exposed on a daily basis over an extended period of time (usually a lifetime) without suffering a deleterious effect, for acrolein is 1.09 mg/day for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000, or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for acrolein is 10.

  12. Management for School Environmental Health in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kitagaki, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    Some acts such as the Basic Environment Act are aimed at managing environmental health for a productive living environment in Japan. School is not only a place where lessons for a better future are taught but also an environment in which children spend many hours of their day. Therefore, activities involving regular checks are important to maintain and improve the school environment. Article 5 of the School Health and Safety Act states that schools must make plans and carry out regular checks on school environmental health. Article 6 prescribes that the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology establish a "school environmental health standard". This standard involves metrics on the classroom environment (quality of air, illumination, and noise levels), quality of drinking/pool water and so on, and their standard values and evaluation methods. Article 23 prescribes that each school except colleges/universities have a school pharmacist. The school pharmacist plays an important role in maintaining and improving the school's environmental health. However, the current actions taken are not adequate. Therefore, prospects for future activities will be discussed based on the current situations and problems. PMID:27252052

  13. Quality assurance for health and environmental chemistry: 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Gautier, M.A.; Gladney, E.S.; Koski, N.L.; Jones, E.A.; O'Malley, B.T.

    1991-10-01

    This report documents the continuing quality assurance efforts of the Health and Environmental Chemistry Group (HSE-9) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The philosophy, methodology, computing resources, and laboratory information management system used by the quality assurance program to encompass the diversity of analytical chemistry practiced in the group are described. Included in the report are all quality assurance reference materials used, along with their certified or consensus concentrations, and all analytical chemistry quality assurance measurements made by HSE-9 during 1990.

  14. Environmental health aspects of the microelectronics industry.

    PubMed

    Himmelstein, J S; Levy, B S

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews examples of contamination to the surface or groundwater, the ambient air, and soil resulting from the microelectronics industry. The potential effects on human health arising from such environmental contamination are discussed, as well as aspects of their diagnosis, treatment, and related public health implications. Given the high costs of pollution control, the emphasis must be on prevention, which can be facilitated by a high level of suspicion and by the design of safety and pollution control into manufacturing processes.

  15. Agricultural chemical application practices to reduce environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Bode, L E

    1990-01-01

    Current practices of applying agricultural chemicals play a major role in the environmental health concerns of agriculture. Those who mix, load, and handle the concentrated formulations run the greatest risk of exposure but field hands and others can encounter significant levels of pesticides. Drift can be a major source of contamination to residents, wildlife, and water sources. Improved methods of application and ways of reducing the total amount of pesticide applied can help reduce environmental contamination. Chemigation, direct injection, closed system handling, and fertilizer impregnation are examples of technology that affect the efficiency of applying agricultural chemicals. An area of beneficial research is related to leak and spill technology. Current surveys indicate that point sources such as spills, mixing and loading areas, back-siphoning, and direct routes for surface water movement into the ground are often a major cause of pesticides reaching groundwater. The commercial dealer/applicator provides storage, handling, mixing, and loading for large amounts of chemicals and has received limited guidance regarding the products. Education remains an important element of any rural environmental health strategy. With appropriate information about pesticide risks and groundwater, people will be better equipped to address environmental concerns. By design, agricultural chemicals are biologically active and, in most cases, toxic. Thus, they pose potential risks to humans, wildlife, water, and the environment in general. The magnitude of the risks depends to some degree on the methods and techniques used to apply the chemicals. Pesticides are applied by persons possessing a variety of skills, using equipment ranging from hand-operated systems to aircraft.

  16. [Good practice guidelines for health information].

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based health information is distinguished by the provision of an unbiased and trustworthy description of the current state of medical knowledge. It enables people to learn more about health and disease, and to make health-related decisions - on their own or together with others - reflecting their attitudes and lifestyle. To adequately serve this purpose, health information must be evidence-based. A working group from the German Network for Evidence-based Medicine (Deutsches Netzwerk Evidenzbasierte Medizin) has developed a first draft of good practice guidelines for health information (Gute Praxis Gesundheitsinformation) with the aim of providing support for authors and publishers of evidence-based health information. The group included researchers, patient representatives, journalists and developers of health information. The criteria for evidence-based health information were developed and agreed upon within this author group, and then made available for public comment. All submitted comments were documented and assessed regarding the need to revise or amend the draft. Changes were subsequently implemented following approval by the author group. Gute Praxis Gesundheitsinformation calls for a transparent methodological approach in the development of health information. To achieve this, evidence-based information must be based on (a) a systematic literature search, (b) a justified selection of evidence, (c) unbiased reporting of relevant results, (d) appropriate factual and linguistic communication of uncertainties, (e) either avoidance of any direct recommendations or a strict division between the reporting of results and the derivation of recommendations, (f) the consideration of current evidence on the communication of figures, risks and probabilities, and (g) transparent information about the authors and publishers of the health information, including their funding sources. Gute Praxis Gesundheitsinformation lists a total of 16 aspects to be addressed

  17. SAR/QSAR methods in public health practice

    SciTech Connect

    Demchuk, Eugene Ruiz, Patricia; Chou, Selene; Fowler, Bruce A.

    2011-07-15

    Methods of (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationship ((Q)SAR) modeling play an important and active role in ATSDR programs in support of the Agency mission to protect human populations from exposure to environmental contaminants. They are used for cross-chemical extrapolation to complement the traditional toxicological approach when chemical-specific information is unavailable. SAR and QSAR methods are used to investigate adverse health effects and exposure levels, bioavailability, and pharmacokinetic properties of hazardous chemical compounds. They are applied as a part of an integrated systematic approach in the development of Health Guidance Values (HGVs), such as ATSDR Minimal Risk Levels, which are used to protect populations exposed to toxic chemicals at hazardous waste sites. (Q)SAR analyses are incorporated into ATSDR documents (such as the toxicological profiles and chemical-specific health consultations) to support environmental health assessments, prioritization of environmental chemical hazards, and to improve study design, when filling the priority data needs (PDNs) as mandated by Congress, in instances when experimental information is insufficient. These cases are illustrated by several examples, which explain how ATSDR applies (Q)SAR methods in public health practice.

  18. Environmental Quality Index and Childhood Mental Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Childhood mental disorders affect between 13%-20% of children in the United States (US) annually and impact the child, family, and community. Literature suggests associations exist between environmental and children’s mental health such as air pollution with autism and ADHD...

  19. A Guide for Environmental Health Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Gene M.

    1972-01-01

    Outlines objectives and resources to be assessed in a community environmental health plan. Considers: water; liquid waste disposal; housing maintenance; solid waste disposal; air pollution; food and food protection; rodent control; insect control; migrant labor camps; recreation sites; mobile homes - trailer parks; schools, institutions - public…

  20. Career Ladders in Environmental Health (Supplement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erie Community Coll., Buffalo, NY.

    This supplementary document contains career ladders that have been designed to enable post secondary students to prepare for entrance into environmental health occupations at a level commensurate with their abilities where they will be capable of meaningful contributions and can obtain advanced standing in employment. Contents are: (1) Food…

  1. Environmental Health Planning Guide. Revised 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This guide to environmental health planning outlines the process and procedures of bringing together certain fundamental data pertaining to various physical aspects of the environment, including data collection, evaluation, usage, and implementation. The components of such planning programs are listed along with study preparation information.…

  2. Effects of environmental change on wildlife health

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Duffus, Amanda L. J.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental change has negatively affected most biological systems on our planet and is becoming of increasing concern for the well-being and survival of many species. At an organism level, effects encompass not only endocrine disruptions, sex-ratio changes and decreased reproductive parameters, but also include teratogenic and genotoxic effects, immunosuppression and other immune-system impairments that can lead directly to disease or increase the risk of acquiring disease. Living organisms will strive to maintain health by recognizing and resolving abnormal situations, such as the presence of invading microorganisms or harmful peptides, abnormal cell replication and deleterious mutations. However, fast-paced environmental changes may pose additional pressure on immunocompetence and health maintenance, which may seriously impact population viability and persistence. Here, we outline the importance of a functional immune system for survival and examine the effects that exposure to a rapidly changing environment might exert on immunocompetence. We then address the various levels at which anthropogenic environmental change might affect wildlife health and identify potential deficits in reproductive parameters that might arise owing to new immune challenges in the context of a rapidly changing environment. Throughout the paper, a series of examples and case studies are used to illustrate the impact of environmental change on wildlife health. PMID:19833653

  3. Critical Thinking for Environmental Health Risk Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Robin

    1991-01-01

    Proposes an approach for helping school-age children to think critically about environmental health risks. Discusses elements of a school curriculum--defining a decision perspective, making choices under uncertainty, and thinking about consequences--and recommends classroom implementation procedures. (Author/JOW)

  4. Ministry of Health clinical practice guidelines: depression.

    PubMed

    Chua, H C; Chan, L L; Chee, K S; Chen, Y H; Chin, S A; Chua, P L W; Fones, S L C; Fung, D; Khoo, C L; Kwek, S K D; Lim, E C L; Ling, J; Poh, P; Sim, K; Tan, B L; Tan, C H; Tan, L L; Tan, Y H C; Tay, W K; Yeo, C; Su, H C A

    2012-02-01

    The Ministry of Health (MOH) have updated the clinical practice guidelines on Depression to provide doctors and patients in Singapore with evidence-based treatment for depression. This article reproduces the introduction and executive summary (with recommendations from the guidelines) from the MOH clinical practice guidelines on Depression, for the information of readers of the Singapore Medical Journal. Chapters and page numbers mentioned in the reproduced extract refer to the full text of the guidelines, which are available from the Ministry of Health website: http://www.moh.gov.sg/content/moh_web/home/Publications/guidelines/cpg/2012/depression.html. The recommendations should be used with reference to the full text of the guidelines. Following this article are multiple choice questions based on the full text of the guidelines.

  5. Global environmental health and sustainable development: the role at Rio+20.

    PubMed

    Furie, Gregg Lawrence; Balbus, John

    2012-06-01

    The Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development represents a crucial opportunity to place environmental health at the forefront of the sustainable development agenda. Billions of people living in low- and middle-income countries continue to be afflicted by preventable diseases due to modifiable environmental exposures, causing needless suffering and perpetuating a cycle of poverty. Current processes of economic development, while alleviating many social and health problems, are increasingly linked to environmental health threats, ranging from air pollution and physical inactivity to global climate change. Sustainable development practices attempt to reduce environmental impacts and should, in theory, reduce adverse environmental health consequences compared to traditional development. Yet these efforts could also result in unintended harm and impaired economic development if the new "Green Economy" is not carefully assessed for adverse environmental and occupational health impacts. The environmental health community has an essential role to play in underscoring these relationships as international leaders gather to craft sustainable development policies.

  6. Environmental and Occupational Exposures in Immigrant Health

    PubMed Central

    Eamranond, Pracha P.; Hu, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation’s health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status. PMID:21572847

  7. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    America has an abundance of natural resources. We have bountiful clean water, fertile soil, and unrivaled national parks, wildlife refuges, and public lands. These resources enrich our lives and preserve our health and wellbeing. These resources have been maintained because of our history of respect for their value and an enduring commitment to their vigilant protection. Awareness of the social, economic, and personal value of the health of our environment is increasing. The emergence of environmentally driven diseases caused by environmental exposure to contaminants and pathogens is a growing concern worldwide. New health threats and patterns of established threats are affected by both natural and anthropogenic changes to the environment. Human activities are key drivers of emerging (new and re-emerging) health threats. Societal demands for land and natural resources, a better quality of life, improved economic prosperity, and the environmental impacts associated with these demands will continue to increase. Natural earth processes, climate trends, and related climatic events will add to the environmental impact of human activities. These environmental drivers will influence exposure to disease agents, including viral, bacterial, prion, and fungal pathogens, parasites, natural earth materials, toxins and other biogenic compounds, and synthetic chemicals and substances. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defines environmental health science broadly as the interdisciplinary study of relations among the quality of the physical environment, the health of the living environment, and human health. The interactions among these three spheres are driven by human activities, ecological processes, and natural earth processes; the interactions affect exposure to contaminants and pathogens and the severity of environmentally driven diseases in animals and people. This definition provides USGS with a framework for synthesizing natural science information from across the Bureau

  8. A Practical Model for Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loret, John

    1974-01-01

    This article suggests a reorganization of existing school curricula to include a major place for study of the environment and its problems. A Theoretical environmental model is given which incorporates many existing disciplines into a common body of knowledge. It focuses on environmental concerns through a problem solving approach. (LS)

  9. Metro Nature, Environmental Health, and Economic Value

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Alicia S.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nearly 40 years of research provides an extensive body of evidence about human health, well-being, and improved function benefits associated with experiences of nearby nature in cities. Objectives We demonstrate the numerous opportunities for future research efforts that link metro nature, human health and well-being outcomes, and economic values. Methods We reviewed the literature on urban nature-based health and well-being benefits. In this review, we provide a classification schematic and propose potential economic values associated with metro nature services. Discussion Economic valuation of benefits derived from urban green systems has largely been undertaken in the fields of environmental and natural resource economics, but studies have not typically addressed health outcomes. Urban trees, parks, gardens, open spaces, and other nearby nature elements—collectively termed metro nature—generate many positive externalities that have been largely overlooked in urban economics and policy. Here, we present a range of health benefits, including benefit context and beneficiaries. Although the understanding of these benefits is not yet consistently expressed, and although it is likely that attempts to link urban ecosystem services and economic values will not include all expressions of cultural or social value, the development of new interdisciplinary approaches that integrate environmental health and economic disciplines are greatly needed. Conclusions Metro nature provides diverse and substantial benefits to human populations in cities. In this review, we begin to address the need for development of valuation methodologies and new approaches to understanding the potential economic outcomes of these benefits. Citation Wolf KL, Robbins AS. 2015. Metro nature, environmental health, and economic value. Environ Health Perspect 123:390–398; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408216 PMID:25626137

  10. [Ecological studies in environmental health: Beyond epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Becerra, Luis C; Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos E; Idrovo, Álvaro J

    2015-08-01

    Ecological studies provide important and frequent sources of evidence of environmental health, since their unit of analysis is populations. This review summarizes the foundations of ecological studies with the premise that they can be performed using quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods. It presents the logic behind their design, their role in exploring causality, the variables and categories of analysis and the design principles and techniques used to collect data. Examples of ecological studies performed in Latin America are then presented, as well as some common methodological problems and options to address them. Lastly, the relevance of quantitative and qualitative ecological studies to environmental health as a way to overcome the dominance of conceptual and methodological individualism is highlighted, though ecological studies alone do not suffice for studying population health.

  11. [Ecological studies in environmental health: Beyond epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Becerra, Luis C; Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos E; Idrovo, Álvaro J

    2015-08-01

    Ecological studies provide important and frequent sources of evidence of environmental health, since their unit of analysis is populations. This review summarizes the foundations of ecological studies with the premise that they can be performed using quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods. It presents the logic behind their design, their role in exploring causality, the variables and categories of analysis and the design principles and techniques used to collect data. Examples of ecological studies performed in Latin America are then presented, as well as some common methodological problems and options to address them. Lastly, the relevance of quantitative and qualitative ecological studies to environmental health as a way to overcome the dominance of conceptual and methodological individualism is highlighted, though ecological studies alone do not suffice for studying population health. PMID:26535754

  12. Academic health departments: from theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Conte, Christopher; Chang, Carol S; Malcolm, Jan; Russo, Pamela G

    2006-01-01

    In August of 2003, 23 institutions submitted proposals to build closer ties between state and local public health departments and schools of public health in response to a solicitation from the Association of Schools of Public Health supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This article describes the strategies proposed to build collaboration between public health academia and practice. Qualitative analysis discerned five principal approaches: the development of comprehensive planning processes; reform of the way practica are planned and implemented; the identification and nurturing of boundary-spanning individuals in academia and health agencies; the fostering of new approaches to joint research; and workforce development programs. Major themes that emerged included the importance of achieving a balance of power between academic and health department partners; the need to address cultural differences between institutions; a conviction that efforts at institutional change require both strong leadership and the cultivation of boundary spanners farther down the chain of command; and the idea that prospects for success may be improved if faculty and practitioners have tangible incentives to collaborate.

  13. Guidelines for Analysis of Environmental Health Planning in Developing Countries. Volume 2: Environmental Health Planning. International Health Planning Methods Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa

    Intended to assist Agency for International Development (AID) officers, advisors, and health officials in incorporating health planning into national plans for economic development, this second of ten manuals in the International Health Planning Methods Series deals with assessment, planning, and evaluation in the field of environmental health.…

  14. Environmental Health Disparities: A Framework Integrating Psychosocial and Environmental Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Gilbert C.; Payne-Sturges, Devon C.

    2004-01-01

    Although it is often acknowledged that social and environmental factors interact to produce racial and ethnic environmental health disparities, it is still unclear how this occurs. Despite continued controversy, the environmental justice movement has provided some insight by suggesting that disadvantaged communities face greater likelihood of exposure to ambient hazards. The exposure–disease paradigm has long suggested that differential “vulnerability” may modify the effects of toxicants on biological systems. However, relatively little work has been done to specify whether racial and ethnic minorities may have greater vulnerability than do majority populations and, further, what these vulnerabilities may be. We suggest that psychosocial stress may be the vulnerability factor that links social conditions with environmental hazards. Psychosocial stress can lead to acute and chronic changes in the functioning of body systems (e.g., immune) and also lead directly to illness. In this article we present a multidisciplinary framework integrating these ideas. We also argue that residential segregation leads to differential experiences of community stress, exposure to pollutants, and access to community resources. When not counterbalanced by resources, stressors may lead to heightened vulnerability to environmental hazards. PMID:15579407

  15. Ethics and health promotion practice: exploring attitudes and practices in Western Australian health organisations.

    PubMed

    Reilly, T; Crawford, G; Lobo, R; Leavy, J; Jancey, J

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Evidence-informed practice underpinned by ethics is fundamental to developing the science of health promotion. Knowledge and application of ethical principles are competencies required for health promotion practice. However, these competencies are often inconsistently understood and applied. This research explored attitudes, practices, enablers and barriers related to ethics in practice in Western Australian health organisations. Methods Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 health promotion practitioners, purposefully selected to provide a cross-section of government and non-government organisations. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and then themed. Results The majority of participants reported consideration of ethics in their practice; however, only half reported seeking Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) approval for projects in the past 12 months. Enablers identified as supporting ethics in practice and disseminating findings included: support preparing ethics applications; resources and training about ethical practice; ability to access HRECs for ethics approval; and a supportive organisational culture. Barriers included: limited time; insufficient resourcing and capacity; ethics approval not seen as part of core business; and concerns about academic writing. Conclusion The majority of participants were aware of the importance of ethics in practice and the dissemination of findings. However, participants reported barriers to engaging in formal ethics processes and to publishing findings. So what? Alignment of evidence-informed and ethics-based practice is critical. Resources and information about ethics may be required to support practice and encourage dissemination of findings, including in the peer-reviewed literature. Investigating the role of community-based ethics boards may be valuable to bridging the ethics-evidence gap.

  16. Ethics and health promotion practice: exploring attitudes and practices in Western Australian health organisations.

    PubMed

    Reilly, T; Crawford, G; Lobo, R; Leavy, J; Jancey, J

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Evidence-informed practice underpinned by ethics is fundamental to developing the science of health promotion. Knowledge and application of ethical principles are competencies required for health promotion practice. However, these competencies are often inconsistently understood and applied. This research explored attitudes, practices, enablers and barriers related to ethics in practice in Western Australian health organisations. Methods Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 health promotion practitioners, purposefully selected to provide a cross-section of government and non-government organisations. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and then themed. Results The majority of participants reported consideration of ethics in their practice; however, only half reported seeking Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) approval for projects in the past 12 months. Enablers identified as supporting ethics in practice and disseminating findings included: support preparing ethics applications; resources and training about ethical practice; ability to access HRECs for ethics approval; and a supportive organisational culture. Barriers included: limited time; insufficient resourcing and capacity; ethics approval not seen as part of core business; and concerns about academic writing. Conclusion The majority of participants were aware of the importance of ethics in practice and the dissemination of findings. However, participants reported barriers to engaging in formal ethics processes and to publishing findings. So what? Alignment of evidence-informed and ethics-based practice is critical. Resources and information about ethics may be required to support practice and encourage dissemination of findings, including in the peer-reviewed literature. Investigating the role of community-based ethics boards may be valuable to bridging the ethics-evidence gap. PMID:27041127

  17. Environmental health physics-50 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Dade W

    2004-10-01

    Environmental health physics is an interdisciplinary field, involving study of the release, transport, and fate of radioactive material in the environment. Further, it addresses the interaction of humans with radioactive materials within the ambient (outdoor) environment and with the environments associated with modern technology and lifestyles. It also involves both naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides with the former generally being by far the highest source of exposure. In fact, doses from naturally occurring radionuclides are increasingly being used as a benchmark for the establishment of dose rate limits for people. Because of the pioneering work of early environmental health physicists, models exist today that can be used to assess the potential impacts of new nuclear facilities prior to their operation. In fact, these people represent the branch of the health physics profession who conducted environmental monitoring programs and performed the associated research studies that led to the identification of the principal radionuclides of interest, the major pathways and mechanisms through which they expose people, and the doses that may result from radioactive materials in the natural and technologically enhanced environments. One of their most important contributions was the identification and quantification of many of the key parameters that serve as input to such models. Monitoring of nuclear weapons development facilities used during and after World War II was the initial stimulus for the establishment of environmental health physics programs. Thereafter, these programs were expanded both nationally and globally, as a result of the atmospheric weapons testing programs of nations such as France, the People's Republic of China, the former Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Additional stimuli were provided by the development of the commercial nuclear power industry. Current environmental programs, particularly within

  18. Environmental health physics: 50 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Dade W

    2005-06-01

    Environmental health physics is an interdisciplinary field, involving study of the release, transport, and fate of radioactive material in the environment. Further, it addresses the interaction of humans with radioactive materials within the ambient (outdoor) environment and with the environments associated with modern technology and lifestyles. It also involves both naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides with the former generally being by far the highest source of exposure. In fact, doses from naturally occurring radionuclides are increasingly being used as a benchmark for the establishment of dose rate limits for people. Because of the pioneering work of early environmental health physicists, models exist today that can be used to assess the potential impacts of new nuclear facilities prior to their operation. In fact, these people represent the branch of the health physics profession who conducted environmental monitoring programs and performed the associated research studies that led to the identification of the principal radionuclides of interest, the major pathways and mechanisms through which they expose people, and the doses that may result from radioactive materials in the natural and technologically enhanced environments. One of their most important contributions was the identification and quantification of many of the key parameters that serve as input to such models. Monitoring of nuclear weapons development facilities used during and after World War II was the initial stimulus for the establishment of environmental health physics programs. Thereafter, these programs were expanded both nationally and globally, as a result of the atmospheric weapons testing programs of nations such as France, the People's Republic of China, the former Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Additional stimuli were provided by the development of the commercial nuclear power industry. Current environmental programs, particularly within

  19. Strategic Environmental Assessment as catalyst of healthier spatial planning: The Danish guidance and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Kornov, Lone

    2009-01-15

    A wide range of factors within spatial planning can affect health. There is therefore an important scope for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of spatial plans to protect and improve human health. Due to the EU Directive 2001/42/EC on SEA, health has been made explicit in Danish legislation and guidance. This paper examines the inclusion of health as a formal component in impact assessment of spatial plans. Based upon a documentary study of 100 environmental reports, the paper analyses and discusses how health impact considerations are incorporated in SEA practice. It is found that health impacts are included in SEA practice and are being interpreted in a broader sense than what the national guidance exemplifies. The frequent included health aspects are noise, drinking water, air pollution, recreation/outdoor life and traffic safety. The primary determinant for health is transport-whether it is at the overall or local planning level. The main conclusion is that SEA shows a potential to catalyse healthier spatial planning. Despite the broad inclusion of health in SEA practice the examination shows potential improvements, hereunder qualification of assessments by better explaining the nature and significance of impacts and by including the distributional aspects of human health impacts. Inclusion from the health sector is put forward as an important institutional mean to secure cross disciplinarily and higher quality assessment.

  20. The Boston Safe Shops Model: An Integrated Approach to Community Environmental and Occupational Health

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, Paul; Skogstrom, Tiffany; Acevedo, Persio; Kendrick, Jumaane; Nguyen, Nancie

    2010-01-01

    Small, immigrant-owned businesses, such as auto repair shops and nail salons, often face barriers to environmental and occupational health compliance and may be a source of neighborhood pollution complaints. The Boston Public Health Commission established the Safe Shops Project to improve safety and environmental practices in such businesses using a community partnership model that incorporates enforcement inspection findings, worker training, technical assistance, and referral to health care and business resources. This integrated technical assistance approach has led to improved occupational health and environmental conditions, adoption of pollution prevention technologies, novel problem-solving, and dozens of health screenings and insurance referrals for workers and their neighbors. PMID:20147670

  1. The Boston Safe Shops model: an integrated approach to community environmental and occupational health.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Cora; Shoemaker, Paul; Skogstrom, Tiffany; Acevedo, Persio; Kendrick, Jumaane; Nguyen, Nancie

    2010-04-01

    Small, immigrant-owned businesses, such as auto repair shops and nail salons, often face barriers to environmental and occupational health compliance and may be a source of neighborhood pollution complaints. The Boston Public Health Commission established the Safe Shops Project to improve safety and environmental practices in such businesses using a community partnership model that incorporates enforcement inspection findings, worker training, technical assistance, and referral to health care and business resources. This integrated technical assistance approach has led to improved occupational health and environmental conditions, adoption of pollution prevention technologies, novel problem-solving, and dozens of health screenings and insurance referrals for workers and their neighbors. PMID:20147670

  2. [Environmental quality: wellfare, confort and health].

    PubMed

    Vargas Marcos, Francisco; Gallego Pulgarín, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Different ways of interpreting environmental conditions have led to the development of concepts such as the sick building, indoor air quality or indoor environment quality, for understanding the complexity of the pollutants in enclosed environments and the implications thereof on the health. The "Indoor Environment Quality" proposal is an advancement, operative and conceptual, surpassing amply prior ones, given that it orients the actions toward healthy environments without limiting the idea of pollution to the air alone. The aim is identifying the competence to preventing hazards related to exposure to pollutants within the confines of indoor environments and know the legislative framework useful for taking the actions. Optimum conditions within indoor environments must redound in health, well-being and comfort with regard to both working life as well as the environments in which everyday activities outside of work, extracurricular, leisure-time and entertainment activities are carried out. Today's society is demanding safe, clean, well-climatized places, for this is necessary to integrate the inhabitant's perceptions and demands and achieve an optimum balance among social standards, energy use and sustainable development. Legislation is being further expanded upon in the direction of occupational health and safety and the regulation of chemical substances. Environmental Health carries out prevention and control tasks, takes part in the enforcement of international pollution and waste reduction agreements and promotes measures for carrying out the European Environment and Health Strategy. It is considered useful the elaboration of protocols for the evaluation and administration gives the risks associated to the interior pollutants.

  3. Children's environmental health in agricultural settings.

    PubMed

    Karr, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Children residing in rural settings may encounter environmental hazards derived from agricultural production activities. Health consequences of organic dusts, farm chemicals including pesticides, machinery noise, excess sun exposure, and zoonotic infectious agents have been clearly described among farm-working adults. The author reviews the related evidence base on child health with a life-stage perspective on their differential exposure and vulnerabilities. Methemoglobinemia among infants consuming nitrate-contaminated well water, neurodevelopmental health impacts associated with early life exposure to organophosphate pesticides, and diarrheal disease due to zoonotic infectious agents are well-described pediatric concerns. There is suggestive but more limited evidence for respiratory health consequences from air contaminants associated with confined animal feeding operations and hearing deficits for children exposed to machinery-related noise. Many contaminants of concern for children in these environments remain largely understudied-diesel exhaust, biomass burning, solvents, veterinary antibiotics, and silica-containing particulate matter. Overall, the state of knowledge and programmatic activities on agriculturally derived environmental contaminants and child health is immature and much less complete than for working adults. This overview provides a context for research, policy, and programmatic needs. PMID:22490026

  4. Incorporating environmental health into pediatric medical and nursing education.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, Leyla Erk; Roberts, James; Rogers, Bonnie; Love, Rebecca; Etzel, Ruth; Paulson, Jerome; Witherspoon, Nsedu Obot; Dearry, Allen

    2004-12-01

    Pediatric medical and nursing education currently lacks the environmental health content necessary to appropriately prepare pediatric health care professionals to prevent, recognize, manage, and treat environmental-exposure-related disease. Leading health institutions have recognized the need for improvements in health professionals' environmental health education. Parents are seeking answers about the impact of environmental toxicants on their children. Given the biologic, psychological, and social differences between children and adults, there is a need for environmental health education specific to children. The National Environmental Education and Training Foundation, in partnership with the Children's Environmental Health Network, created two working groups, one with expertise in medical education and one with expertise in nursing education. The working groups reviewed the transition from undergraduate student to professional to assess where in those processes pediatric environmental health could be emphasized. The medical education working group recommended increasing education about children's environmental health in the medical school curricula, in residency training, and in continuing medical education. The group also recommended the expansion of fellowship training in children's environmental health. Similarly, the nursing working group recommended increasing children's environmental health content at the undergraduate, graduate, and continuing nursing education levels. Working groups also identified the key medical and nursing organizations that would be important in leveraging these changes. A concerted effort to prioritize pediatric environmental health by governmental organizations and foundations is essential in providing the resources and expertise to set policy and provide the tools for teaching pediatric environmental health to health care providers.

  5. Health and Environmental Research. Summary of Accomplishments

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1984-04-01

    This is a short account of a 40-year-old health and environmental research program performed in national laboratories, universities, and research institutes. Under the sponsorship of the federal agencies that were consecutively responsible for the national energy mission, this research program has contributed to the understanding of the human health and environmental effects of emergining energy technologies. In so doing, it has also evolved several nuclear techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of human ills. The form of this presentation is through examples of significant, tangible accomplishments in each of these areas at certain times to illustrate the role and impact of the research program. The narrative of this research program concludes with a perspective of its past and a prospectus on its future.

  6. Guided-inquiry learning in environmental health.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guang; Bierma, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    The field of environmental health requires the knowledge of many facts and terms, and it also requires mastery of an array of concepts that can be difficult for many students to thoroughly comprehend. Guided-inquiry learning is a process by which students "discover" basic concepts through active investigation. In this article, the authors describe several guided-inquiry learning modules used in their undergraduate environmental health program and their experience in using them. Some modules are used in professional courses while others are used in a general education course. Overall, the authors experienced increased student engagement and interest with guided-inquiry learning. Students are able to comprehend some abstract concepts more quickly and seem to retain the concepts longer.

  7. Health and environmental research. Summary of accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    This is a short account of a 40-year-old health and environmental research program performed in national laboratories, universities, and research institutes. Under the sponsorship of the federal agencies that were consecutively responsible for the national energy mission, this research program has contributed to the understanding of the human health and environmental effects of emergining energy technologies. In so doing, it has also evolved several nuclear techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of human ills. The form of this presentation is through examples of significant, tangible accomplishments in each of these areas at certain times to illustrate the role and impact of the research program. The narrative of this research program concludes with a perspective of its past and a prospectus on its future.

  8. Environmental and health risk studies at HHWCFs

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, C.

    1995-09-01

    Sanitary Fill Company is proposing to expand San Francisco`s household hazardous waste facility. This paper describes our proposal and discusses the environmental review and public involvement processes that are now required. Planning this expansion has been long and expensive. To my knowledge we are among the first programs to conduct a detailed study of the potential health risks associated with household facilities. I will present a summary of our planning process and compare the process to the outcome.

  9. Empowerment, Ethics, Environmental Action: A Practical Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, Martin J.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews a teaching exercise that highlights ethical and ecological issues through the systematic critical analysis of a technical land reclamation project. Students are encouraged to examine their own motivation for advocating particular solutions, to consider the value systems implicit in solutions, and to examine environmental actions in…

  10. The Practice of Environmental Quality Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronus, Carol L.; Van Es, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    This research analyses the effects of situational factors, along with environmental quality (EQ) attitudes, in understanding why some people become involved in pollution-abating activities. Findings indicate that closeness to the effects of polluting behavior stimulate more powerful concern and action than closeness to the source of polluted…

  11. 7 CFR 205.238 - Livestock health care practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Livestock health care practice standard. 205.238... Requirements § 205.238 Livestock health care practice standard. (a) The producer must establish and maintain preventive livestock health care practices, including: (1) Selection of species and types of livestock...

  12. 7 CFR 205.238 - Livestock health care practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock health care practice standard. 205.238... Requirements § 205.238 Livestock health care practice standard. (a) The producer must establish and maintain preventive livestock health care practices, including: (1) Selection of species and types of livestock...

  13. 7 CFR 205.238 - Livestock health care practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Livestock health care practice standard. 205.238... Requirements § 205.238 Livestock health care practice standard. (a) The producer must establish and maintain preventive livestock health care practices, including: (1) Selection of species and types of livestock...

  14. Best practices for health technology management.

    PubMed

    2006-12-01

    In 2006, ECRI's Health Devices Group instituted the Health Devices Achievement Award to honor excellence in health technology management. The application process for this award yielded descriptions of many unique and effective technology management initiatives. This Guidance Article presents some of the best practices gleaned from the top award submissions. The following topics are discussed: The role of human factors testing in the technology management process. We describe one facility's approach to solving a particularly vexing problem: slow telemetry-alarm response times. The use of performance-based service contracting to improve inspection and preventive maintenance (IPM) completion rates. The advantages associated with one health system's process for grouping ventilator-dependent patients who are being cared for outside the intensive care unit. The ability of a technology assessment committee to bring a disciplined approach to the adoption of new technologies. The importance of customer satisfaction to a clinical engineering department. We describe how meeting the caregivers' needs contributes to building a patient-safe environment. The successful implementation of a new patient care technology: local anesthetic pumps. PMID:17300103

  15. Patient Perspectives on Improving Oral Health-Care Practices Among People Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Rajabiun, Serena; Fox, Jane E.; McCluskey, Amanda; Guevara, Ernesto; Verdecias, Niko; Jeanty, Yves; DeMayo, Michael; Mofidi, Mahyar

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the impact on oral health-care knowledge, attitudes, and practices among 39 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) participating in a national initiative aimed at increasing access to oral health care. Personal values and childhood dental experiences, beliefs about the importance of oral health in relation to HIV health, and concerns for appearance and self-esteem were found to be determinants of oral health knowledge and practice. Program participation resulted in better hygiene practices, improved self-esteem and appearance, relief of pain, and better physical and emotional health. In-depth exploration of the causes for these changes revealed a desire to continue with dental care due to the dental staff and environmental setting, and a desire to maintain overall HIV health, including oral health. Our findings emphasize the importance of addressing both personal values and contextual factors in providing oral health-care services to PLWHA. PMID:22547879

  16. Toxicology in Australia: a key component of environmental health.

    PubMed

    Priestly, Brian G; Di Marco, Peter; Sim, Malcolm; Moore, Michael R; Langley, Andrew

    2007-10-01

    Managing public concerns relating to chemical exposures can consume substantial public health resources, particularly as the scientific basis around these issues is often contentious. Toxicology remains underrecognized as a public health discipline in Australia, although Australian toxicologists are making significant contributions from academia, government, and the commercial sector toward assessing the level of risk and protecting the community from environmental hazards. Internationally, the growth of environmental toxicology and the promotion of sound science in risk assessment as a basis for making regulatory decisions have been, to some extent, driven by the outcomes of the 1992 UNCED Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio Summit) and its Chapter 19 Agenda 21 activities. The promotion of safe chemical management practices and the need for global strengthening of capabilities in toxicology are among the initiatives of the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS), which was formed after the Rio Summit to manage these programs. This article describes some of the initiatives in capacity building that marked the development of environmental toxicology in Australia since 1992 in response to these international environmental health initiatives. PMID:17763075

  17. The role of the local community in managing environmental health

    SciTech Connect

    Erzen, I.

    1995-11-01

    Rapid development of technology, industrialization, and urbanization have caused intense degradation of the natural environment in Slovenia. Together with certain socio-pathological phenomena, these factors have seriously damaged the health of the population. Whereas it is practically impossible to determine precisely the impact of environmental pollution, it is an incontestable fact that the environment as a whole (including air, water, food, and the environments for working and living) has a great impact on the health status of the population. Some negative consequences are closely linked to environmental conditions -- e.g., congenital malformations, premature births, diseases of the respiratory and digestive systems, cancerous diseases, psychosomatic illnesses, and injuries (WHO 1991). Slovenia also has a falling birth rate, high rate of miscarriage, and a rapidly aging population that is particularly sensitive to environmental pollution. Without proper intervention environmental problems and their associated health problems will grow. It is therefore necessary to boost and link the activities of political organizations, expert institutions, and population, as well as to elaborate an overall program for improvement of the present situation.

  18. Environmental Design: Research and Practice, Volumes One and Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, William J., Ed.

    One hundred and fifty papers deal with the current range of concerns in the emergent field of environmental design research and emphasize the relating of research to practice. The papers focus on (1) original research in the social and behavioral sciences with direct relevance to environmental design, planning, and management; and (2) new methods…

  19. Environmental Adult Educator Training: Suggestions for Effective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugen, Caitlin Secrest

    2006-01-01

    Environmental adult education (EAE) is a viable solution to the world's mounting environmental problems. EAE is a new and emerging field that is faced with constant changes and challenges. While this change presents practitioners with options for dynamic research possibilities, EAE is such that theory and practice in the field face a potential for…

  20. CONSIDERATION OF CHILDREN'S DISTINCTIVE SUSCEPTIBILITY IN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consideration of children's distinctive susceptibility in environmental health studies.
    Pauline Mendola (US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)

    Children are a particularly susceptible subpopulation with ...

  1. Injection practices in Nepal: health policymakers’ perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The unnecessary and unsafe use of injections is common in developing countries like Nepal. Policymakers have an important role in promoting rational and safe injection use. Hence, the present study was carried out to explore the perception of health policymakers regarding safe injection practice in Nepal. Methods An exploratory qualitative study design was used in this study. Key policymakers from both the central and regional level were selected using purposive sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO) was used after modifying the context. Interviews were conducted to clarify doubts and obtain additional information. The data was analyzed manually using deductive content analysis technique. Results In total, eleven policymakers participated. All unanimously agreed that injection safety is a problem and seven participants reported that injections are overused. They shared the opinion that injections are administered by various providers, including formal and informal health providers, and also quacks. Almost half the respondents reported that the National Drug Policy discourages injection overuse, while others reported that the policy contains no provisions regarding injection overuse. Most policymakers stated that only single-use disposable injection equipment is used to provide injection, while others thought that sterilizable glass syringe is also used. More than half of the participants believed that the quality of injection equipment available in the Nepalese market is not regulated by any government institution. Almost two-third of the policymakers stated that syringes and needles are not reused, while the rest thought syringes might be reused without sterilization in some parts of the country. Almost half of the respondents stated that illegal commercialization of used syringes exists in Nepal. Almost all respondents thought that health care institutions have a waste management plan, while more than

  2. Environmental Health: Children׳s Health, a Clinician׳s Dilemma.

    PubMed

    McClafferty, Hilary

    2016-06-01

    Few pediatricians receive training in environmental health, yet accumulating research shows that a disproportionate burden of exposure from environmental toxicants (man-made contaminants) is borne by children, adolescents, and the developing fetus. This is explained in part because of children׳s vulnerability to environmental-toxicants based on socioeconomic status, body surface area, metabolism, and potential transfers via placenta and breast milk. Public concern about toxicants affecting children in air, land, water, food, and beverages places pediatricians in the challenging position of being expected to knowledgably answer questions about environmental exposures while lacking sufficient training in the field. Surveys show pediatricians have high interest in environmental topics, yet feel a low sense of self-efficacy regarding patient education and lack evidence-based treatment guidelines and other effective educational tools. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of selected toxicants relevant to pediatric health, review practical suggestions to reduce or eliminate children's exposures, and introduce resources for taking an environmental health history to better prepare pediatricians and other clinicians caring for children to decrease harmful exposures in infants, children, and adolescents.

  3. Environmental Management of Pediatric Asthma: Guidelines for Health Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, James R.; McCurdy, Leyla Erk

    2005-01-01

    These guidelines are the product of a new Pediatric Asthma Initiative aimed at integrating environmental management of asthma into pediatric health care. This document outlines competencies in environmental health relevant to pediatric asthma that should be mastered by primary health care providers, and outlines the environmental interventions…

  4. [Environmental quality: wellfare, confort and health].

    PubMed

    Vargas Marcos, Francisco; Gallego Pulgarín, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Different ways of interpreting environmental conditions have led to the development of concepts such as the sick building, indoor air quality or indoor environment quality, for understanding the complexity of the pollutants in enclosed environments and the implications thereof on the health. The "Indoor Environment Quality" proposal is an advancement, operative and conceptual, surpassing amply prior ones, given that it orients the actions toward healthy environments without limiting the idea of pollution to the air alone. The aim is identifying the competence to preventing hazards related to exposure to pollutants within the confines of indoor environments and know the legislative framework useful for taking the actions. Optimum conditions within indoor environments must redound in health, well-being and comfort with regard to both working life as well as the environments in which everyday activities outside of work, extracurricular, leisure-time and entertainment activities are carried out. Today's society is demanding safe, clean, well-climatized places, for this is necessary to integrate the inhabitant's perceptions and demands and achieve an optimum balance among social standards, energy use and sustainable development. Legislation is being further expanded upon in the direction of occupational health and safety and the regulation of chemical substances. Environmental Health carries out prevention and control tasks, takes part in the enforcement of international pollution and waste reduction agreements and promotes measures for carrying out the European Environment and Health Strategy. It is considered useful the elaboration of protocols for the evaluation and administration gives the risks associated to the interior pollutants. PMID:15913058

  5. Mechanisms of yogic practices in health, aging, and disease.

    PubMed

    Kuntsevich, Viktoriya; Bushell, William C; Theise, Neil D

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying the modulating effects of yogic cognitive-behavioral practices (eg, meditation, yoga asanas, pranayama breathing, caloric restriction) on human physiology can be classified into 4 transduction pathways: humoral factors, nervous system activity, cell trafficking, and bioelectromagnetism. Here we give examples of these transduction pathways and how, through them, yogic practices might optimize health, delay aging, and ameliorate chronic illness and stress from disability. We also recognize that most studies of these mechanisms remain embedded in a reductionist paradigm, investigating small numbers of elements of only 1 or 2 pathways. Moreover, often, subjects are not long-term practitioners, but recently trained. The models generated from such data are, in turn, often limited, top-down, without the explanatory power to describe beneficial effects of long-term practice or to provide foundations for comparing one practice to another. More flexible and useful models require a systems-biology approach to gathering and analysis of data. Such a paradigm is needed to fully appreciate the deeper mechanisms underlying the ability of yogic practice to optimize health, delay aging, and speed efficient recovery from injury or disease. In this regard, 3 different, not necessarily competing, hypotheses are presented to guide design of future investigations, namely, that yogic practices may: (1) promote restoration of physiologic setpoints to normal after derangements secondary to disease or injury, (2) promote homeostatic negative feedback loops over nonhomeostatic positive feedback loops in molecular and cellular interactions, and (3) quench abnormal "noise" in cellular and molecular signaling networks arising from environmental or internal stresses.

  6. A model for physician education and consultation in pediatric environmental health--the Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Units (PEHSU) program.

    PubMed

    Wilborne-Davis, Paula; Kirkland, Katherine H; Mulloy, Karen B

    2007-02-01

    The unique biologic characteristics and behaviors of children make them vulnerable to environmental toxicants. Physicians and other health professionals are challenged in addressing pediatric environmental health care needs in part because of deficient knowledge and skills in pediatric environmental health. This deficiency seems to stem from inadequate exposure to the field of pediatric environmental health during clinical training. The foundational goal of the PEHSU program is to address the gap in pediatric environmental health knowledge by enhancing the fundamental knowledge and skills of pediatricians, primary care physicians, and other health professionals.

  7. Oil shale health and environmental risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, L.B.

    1983-04-01

    The potential human health and environmental risks of hypothetical one-million-barrels-per-day oil shale industry have been analyzed to serve as an aid in the formulation and management of a program of environmental research. The largest uncertainties for expected fatalities are in the public sector from air pollutants although the occupational sector is estimated to have 60% more expected fatalities than the public sector. Occupational safety and illness have been analyzed for the oil shale fuel cycle from extraction to delivery of products for end use. Pneumoconiosis from the dust environment is the worker disease resulting in the greatest number of fatalities, followed by chronic bronchitis, internal cancer, and skin cancers, respectively. Research recommendations are presented for reducing the uncertainties in the risks analyzed and to fill data gaps to estimate other risks.

  8. Understanding facilitators of and barriers to health promotion practice.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Kerry L; Driedger, Michelle S; Elliott, Susan J; Eyles, John

    2006-10-01

    The health promotion best practices literature is imbued with hope for knowledge mobilization, enhanced practice, and improved population health. Given constrained medical care systems, health promotion is key to reducing the significant burden of chronic disease. However, we have seen little evidence of change. This article investigates facilitators of, and barriers to, three stages of health promotion practice in public health organizations, interagency coalitions, and volunteer committees. The article focuses not on what works but why it does or does not, drawing on five case studies within the Canadian Heart Health Initiative. Results indicate that the presence or absence of appropriately committed and/or skilled people, funds and/or resources, and priority and/or interest are the most common factors affecting all stages of health promotion practice. The article extends the literature on internal and external factors affecting health promotion and highlights strategic influences to consider in support of effective health promotion practice.

  9. 75 FR 45133 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health...

  10. Risk Analysis for Environmental Health Triage

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T

    2005-11-18

    The Homeland Security Act mandates development of a national, risk-based system to support planning for, response to and recovery from emergency situations involving large-scale toxic exposures. To prepare for and manage consequences effectively, planners and responders need not only to identify zones of potentially elevated individual risk, but also to predict expected casualties. Emergency response support systems now define ''consequences'' by mapping areas in which toxic chemical concentrations do or may exceed Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) or similar guidelines. However, because AEGLs do not estimate expected risks, current unqualified claims that such maps support consequence management are misleading. Intentionally protective, AEGLs incorporate various safety/uncertainty factors depending on scope and quality of chemical-specific toxicity data. Some of these factors are irrelevant, and others need to be modified, whenever resource constraints or exposure-scenario complexities require responders to make critical trade-off (triage) decisions in order to minimize expected casualties. AEGL-exceedance zones cannot consistently be aggregated, compared, or used to calculate expected casualties, and so may seriously misguide emergency response triage decisions. Methods and tools well established and readily available to support environmental health protection are not yet developed for chemically related environmental health triage. Effective triage decisions involving chemical risks require a new assessment approach that focuses on best estimates of likely casualties, rather than on upper plausible bounds of individual risk. If risk-based consequence management is to become a reality, federal agencies tasked with supporting emergency response must actively coordinate to foster new methods that can support effective environmental health triage.

  11. Environmental, health and safety assessment of photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, E. C.

    1983-01-01

    The environmental, health, and safety (E, H and S) concerns associated with the fabrication, deployment, and decommissioning of photovoltaic (PV) systems in terrestial applications are identified and assessed. Discussion is limited to crystalline silicon technologies. The primary E, H, and S concerns that arise during collector fabrication are associated with occupational exposure to materials of undetermined toxicity or to materials that are known to be hazardous, but for which process control technology may be inadequate. Stricter exposure standards are anticipated for some materials and may indicate a need for further control technology development. Minimizing electric shock hazards is a significant concern during system construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning.

  12. Using Modules in an Environmental Health Training Program. Module 20. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, is on using modules in an environmental health training program. This informational document describes the prospective student, content and objectives of the modules, and how to select modules for use in an environmental health training…

  13. Public Health Campaigns to Change Industry Practices that Damage Health: An Analysis of 12 Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Picard Bradley, Sarah; Serrano, Monica

    2009-01-01

    Industry practices such as advertising, production of unsafe products, and efforts to defeat health legislation play a major role in current patterns of U.S. ill health. Changing these practices may be a promising strategy to promote health. The authors analyze 12 campaigns designed to modify the health-related practices of U.S. corporations in…

  14. Health risk assessment of petroleum hydrocarbons in environmental media

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, L.R.; Jones, M.K.; Yost, K.J.

    1994-12-31

    Over the past decade, health risk assessment (HRA) has become the preferred decision-making tool for judging whether a site (ex., hazardous waste site) or an activity (ex., facility operation) may be safe or unsafe. Currently, no consensus HRA methodology has evolved for evaluating complex mixtures such as petroleum hydrocarbons, either for assessing baseline health risk or for setting environmental corrective action goals. The most common HRA approach is to evaluate individual compounds, not complex mixtures. Because no consensus approach has been forthcoming, regulatory agencies have adopted widely varying requirements related to environmental remediation programs for petroleum hydrocarbons, particularly total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Corrective action goals for TPH are known to range in degree of conservatism from a concentration equivalent to the practical limit of quantification (PLQ) to ignoring the TPH component altogether. The primary objectives of this paper are two-fold; (1) to review the various methods employed for setting TPH corrective action goals, and (2) to evaluate HRA methodologies applicable to residual TPH in environmental media. This paper will also discuss and evaluate an HRA methodology, herein referred to as a fractionation approach, which the authors believe to be the most scientific and logical approach for assessing risk for petroleum hydrocarbons in environmental media. Rationale for this HRA methodology as opposed to other approaches are discussed.

  15. [Health and environmental governance for sustainable development].

    PubMed

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; Machado, Jorge Mesquita Huet; Gallo, Edmundo; Magalhães, Danielly de Paiva; Setti, Andréia Faraoni Freitas; Franco Netto, Francisco de Abreu; Buss, Daniel Forsin

    2012-06-01

    The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio+20, will address the challenges for sustainable development (SD), 'green economy and poverty eradication' and the 'institutional structure of sustainable development'. Therefore it will address the governance needed to achieve such goals. This paper discusses the structure of global, regional and national governance of and for health and environment in the context of SD. Among other global actions, the Millenium Development Goals were a significant recent political effort, but despite its advances, it fails when ignores the structural causes of production and consumption patterns and the unequal distribution of power, which are responsible for inequities and impede true development. To achieve SD, proposals must avoid reductionism, advancing conceptually and methodologically to face the challenges of the socio-environmental determinants of health through intersectoral action, including social participation and all levels of government. It is paramount to continue the implementation of Agenda 21, to meet the MDGs and to create 'Sustainable Development Goals'. Regarding the health field, Rio+20 Summit must reassure the connection between health and sustainability - as a part of the Social pillar of sustainable development - inspiring politics and actions in multiple levels.

  16. Water Quality and Sustainable Environmental Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setegn, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of adequate safe water, the pollution of the aquatic environment and the mismanagement of resources are major causes of ill-health and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. In order to accommodate more growth, sustainable fresh water resource management will need to be included in future development plans. One of the major environmental issues of concern to policy-makers is the increased vulnerability of ground water quality. The main challenge for the sustainability of water resources is the control of water pollution. To understand the sustainability of the water resources, one needs to understand the impact of future land use and climate changes on the natural resources. Providing safe water and basic sanitation to meet the Millennium Development Goals will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. A balanced approach to water resources exploitation for development, on the one hand, and controls for the protection of health, on the other, is required if the benefits of both are to be realized without avoidable detrimental effects manifesting themselves. Meeting the millennium development goals for water and sanitation in the next decade will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. In addition to providing "improved" water and "basic" sanitation services, we must ensure that these services provide: safe drinking water, adequate quantities of water for health, hygiene, agriculture and development and sustainable sanitation approaches to protect health and the environment.

  17. Public health practice course using Google Plus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Ting; Sung, Tien-Wen

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, mobile device-assisted clinical education has become popular among nursing school students. The introduction of mobile devices saves manpower and reduces errors while enhancing nursing students' professional knowledge and skills. To respond to the demands of various learning strategies and to maintain existing systems of education, the concept of Cloud Learning is gradually being introduced to instructional environments. Cloud computing facilitates learning that is personalized, diverse, and virtual. This study involved assessing the advantages of mobile devices and Cloud Learning in a public health practice course, in which Google+ was used as the learning platform, integrating various application tools. Users could save and access data by using any wireless Internet device. The platform was student centered and based on resource sharing and collaborative learning. With the assistance of highly flexible and convenient technology, certain obstacles in traditional practice training can be resolved. Our findings showed that the students who adopted Google+ were learned more effectively compared with those who were limited to traditional learning systems. Most students and the nurse educator expressed a positive attitude toward and were satisfied with the innovative learning method.

  18. Public health practice course using Google Plus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Ting; Sung, Tien-Wen

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, mobile device-assisted clinical education has become popular among nursing school students. The introduction of mobile devices saves manpower and reduces errors while enhancing nursing students' professional knowledge and skills. To respond to the demands of various learning strategies and to maintain existing systems of education, the concept of Cloud Learning is gradually being introduced to instructional environments. Cloud computing facilitates learning that is personalized, diverse, and virtual. This study involved assessing the advantages of mobile devices and Cloud Learning in a public health practice course, in which Google+ was used as the learning platform, integrating various application tools. Users could save and access data by using any wireless Internet device. The platform was student centered and based on resource sharing and collaborative learning. With the assistance of highly flexible and convenient technology, certain obstacles in traditional practice training can be resolved. Our findings showed that the students who adopted Google+ were learned more effectively compared with those who were limited to traditional learning systems. Most students and the nurse educator expressed a positive attitude toward and were satisfied with the innovative learning method. PMID:24445861

  19. Going for gold: the health promoting general practice.

    PubMed

    Watson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The World Health Organization's Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion has been influential in guiding the development of 'settings' based health promotion. Over the past decade, settings such as schools have flourished and there has been a considerable amount of academic literature produced, including theoretical papers, descriptive studies and evaluations. However, despite its central importance, the health-promoting general practice has received little attention. This paper discusses: the significance of this setting for health promotion; how a health promoting general practice can be created; effective health promotion approaches; the nursing contribution; and some challenges that need to be resolved. In order to become a health promoting general practice, the staff must undertake a commitment to fulfil the following conditions: create a healthy working environment; integrate health promotion into practice activities; and establish alliances with other relevant institutions and groups within the community. The health promoting general practice is the gold standard for health promotion. Settings that have developed have had the support of local, national and European networks. Similar assistance and advocacy will be needed in general practice. This paper recommends that a series of rigorously evaluated, high-quality pilot sites need to be established to identify and address potential difficulties, and to ensure that this innovative approach yields tangible health benefits for local communities. It also suggests that government support is critical to the future development of health promoting general practices. This will be needed both directly and in relation to the capacity and resourcing of public health in general.

  20. Organic foods: health and environmental advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Forman, Joel; Silverstein, Janet

    2012-11-01

    The US market for organic foods has grown from $3.5 billion in 1996 to $28.6 billion in 2010, according to the Organic Trade Association. Organic products are now sold in specialty stores and conventional supermarkets. Organic products contain numerous marketing claims and terms, only some of which are standardized and regulated. In terms of health advantages, organic diets have been convincingly demonstrated to expose consumers to fewer pesticides associated with human disease. Organic farming has been demonstrated to have less environmental impact than conventional approaches. However, current evidence does not support any meaningful nutritional benefits or deficits from eating organic compared with conventionally grown foods, and there are no well-powered human studies that directly demonstrate health benefits or disease protection as a result of consuming an organic diet. Studies also have not demonstrated any detrimental or disease-promoting effects from an organic diet. Although organic foods regularly command a significant price premium, well-designed farming studies demonstrate that costs can be competitive and yields comparable to those of conventional farming techniques. Pediatricians should incorporate this evidence when discussing the health and environmental impact of organic foods and organic farming while continuing to encourage all patients and their families to attain optimal nutrition and dietary variety consistent with the US Department of Agriculture's MyPlate recommendations. This clinical report reviews the health and environmental issues related to organic food production and consumption. It defines the term "organic," reviews organic food-labeling standards, describes organic and conventional farming practices, and explores the cost and environmental implications of organic production techniques. It examines the evidence available on nutritional quality and production contaminants in conventionally produced and organic foods. Finally, this

  1. Health and environmental effects profile for pentachlorophenol

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    This report was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human-health, aquatic-life and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. Pentachlorophenol has been determined to be a systemic toxicant. An Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), defined as the amount of a chemical to which humans can be exposed on a daily basis over an extended period of time (usually a lifetime) without suffering a deleterious effect, for pentachlorophenol is 0.03 mg/kg/day for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for pentachlorophenol is 100.

  2. Prioritizing environmental health risks in the UAE.

    PubMed

    Willis, Henry H; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald; Shih, Regina A; Geschwind, Sandra; Olmstead, Sarah; Hu, Jianhui; Curtright, Aimee E; Cecchine, Gary; Moore, Melinda

    2010-12-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative environmental risk-ranking exercise that was conducted in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to inform a strategic planning process led by the Environment Agency-Abu Dhabi (EAD). It represents the first national-level application of a deliberative method for comparative risk ranking first published in this journal. The deliberative method involves a five-stage process that includes quantitative risk assessment by experts and deliberations by groups of stakeholders. The project reported in this article considered 14 categories of environmental risks to health identified through discussions with EAD staff: ambient and indoor air pollution; drinking water contamination; coastal water pollution; soil and groundwater contamination; contamination of fruits, vegetables, and seafood; ambient noise; stratospheric ozone depletion; electromagnetic fields from power lines; health impacts from climate change; and exposure to hazardous substances in industrial, construction, and agricultural work environments. Results from workshops involving 73 stakeholders who met in five separate groups to rank these risks individually and collaboratively indicated strong consensus that outdoor and indoor air pollution are the highest priorities in the UAE. Each of the five groups rated these as being among the highest risks. All groups rated soil and groundwater contamination as being among the lowest risks. In surveys administered after the ranking exercises, participants indicated that the results of the process represented their concerns and approved of using the ranking results to inform policy decisions. The results ultimately shaped a strategic plan that is now being implemented.

  3. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens.

    PubMed Central

    Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, P; Giwercman, A; Grandjean, P; Guillette, L J; Jégou, B; Jensen, T K; Jouannet, P; Keiding, N; Leffers, H; McLachlan, J A; Meyer, O; Müller, J; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Scheike, T; Sharpe, R; Sumpter, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1996-01-01

    Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest that the adverse changes may be inter-related and have a common origin in fetal life or childhood. Exposure of the male fetus to supranormal levels of estrogens, such as diethlylstilbestrol, can result in the above-mentioned reproductive defects. The growing number of reports demonstrating that common environmental contaminants and natural factors possess estrogenic activity presents the working hypothesis that the adverse trends in male reproductive health may be, at least in part, associated with exposure to estrogenic or other hormonally active (e.g., antiandrogenic) environmental chemicals during fetal and childhood development. An extensive research program is needed to understand the extent of the problem, its underlying etiology, and the development of a strategy for prevention and intervention. Images Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 3. D Figure 3. E Figure 3. F PMID:8880001

  4. Advanced practice nursing in performing arts health care.

    PubMed

    Weslin, Anna T; Silva-Smith, Amy

    2010-06-01

    Performing arts medicine is a growing health care profession specializing in the needs of performing artists. As part of the performing arts venue, the dancer, a combination of athlete and artist, presents with unique health care needs requiring a more collaborative and holistic health care program. Currently there are relatively few advanced practice nurses (APNs) who specialize in performing arts health care. APNs, with focus on collaborative and holistic health care, are ideally suited to join other health care professionals in developing and implementing comprehensive health care programs for the performing artist. This article focuses on the dancer as the client in an APN practice that specializes in performing arts health care.

  5. Navajo Environmental Health Review by the National Environmental Health Association (Window Rock, Arizona, May 24-27, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navajo Health Authority, Window Rock, AZ.

    The Indian Health Committee met with key staff of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Area Office to review the environmental health services provided on the Navajo Reservation and make recommendations for improvement or expansion of current programs, if needed. Recommendations were made regarding environmental health and institutional personnel,…

  6. Use of biomarkers to assess environmental health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugart, Lee R.; Halbrook, Richard S.

    1993-03-01

    Environmental pollution has received considerable coverage in the news media. This has stimulated public interest and generated pressure on private industries and governmental agencies to take corrective action. Because the environmental issues have at times been presented in a simplistic and sensational manner, the corrective response by regulatory agencies and industry is often cursory and narrow. An approach, using biomarkers (biological responses), for assessing the biological and ecological significance of contaminants present in the environment is described. Living organisms integrate exposure to contaminants in their environment and respond in some measurable and predictable way. Responses are observed at several levels of biological organization from the biomolecular level, where pollutants can cause damage to critical cellular macromolecules and elicit defensive strategies such as detoxication and repair mechanisms, to the organismal level, where severe disturbances are manifested as impairment in growth, reproduction, developmental abnormalities, or decreased survival. Biomarkers can provide, not only evidence of exposure to a broad spectrum of anthropogenic chemicals, but also a temporally-integrated measure of bioavailable contaminant levels. A suite of biomarkers are evaluated over time to determine the magnitude of the problem and possible consequences. Pragmatically, the biomarker approach will help to assess the health of the environment, and, in addition, will enable scientists to defend the advice they provide concerning environmental issues.

  7. A Simple Assay to Quantify Metallothionein Helps to Learn about Bioindicators and Environmental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linde, Ana R.; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2006-01-01

    We present a laboratory practice aimed to clarify and discuss the concept of bioindicator molecules in environmental health. It has been implemented as a hands-on laboratory exercise in postgraduate courses in public health (in Brazil) and in a course entitled Biology Applied to Natural Resources Sustainability (in Spain) but can be useful for…

  8. Strand IV Environmental and Community Health, Environmental and Public Health, Grades K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    An awareness of the environment and its relationship to human health and efficiency are the focal points of this prototype curriculum for grades K-3. Assuming responsibility for creating and maintaining safe and healthy surroundings is urged. Specific curriculum content studies: (1) environmental factors (existing environment and effects, control,…

  9. Causes and health consequences of environmental degradation and social injustice.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, Martin

    2003-02-01

    Worldwide the greatest effects on the health of individuals and populations results from environmental degradation and social injustice, operating in consort. This paper describes the national and global causes and health consequences of these phenomena. Causes include overpopulation, pollution, deforestation, global warming, unsustainable agricultural and fishing practices, overconsumption, maldistribution of wealth, the rise of the corporation, the Third World debt crisis, and militarization and wars. Consequences include increased poverty, overcrowding, famine, weather extremes, species loss, acute and chronic medical illnesses, war and human rights abuses, and an increasingly unstable global situation that portends Malthusian chaos and disaster. Because of their scientific training, and due to their privileged socioeconomic status, physicians are in a unique position to recognize these phenomena and to act at all levels, from interactions with their patients, to volunteerism, to service and intervention in areas of great need, to direct political activism and involvement. Specific suggestions for action are discussed. PMID:12570975

  10. Causes and health consequences of environmental degradation and social injustice.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, Martin

    2003-02-01

    Worldwide the greatest effects on the health of individuals and populations results from environmental degradation and social injustice, operating in consort. This paper describes the national and global causes and health consequences of these phenomena. Causes include overpopulation, pollution, deforestation, global warming, unsustainable agricultural and fishing practices, overconsumption, maldistribution of wealth, the rise of the corporation, the Third World debt crisis, and militarization and wars. Consequences include increased poverty, overcrowding, famine, weather extremes, species loss, acute and chronic medical illnesses, war and human rights abuses, and an increasingly unstable global situation that portends Malthusian chaos and disaster. Because of their scientific training, and due to their privileged socioeconomic status, physicians are in a unique position to recognize these phenomena and to act at all levels, from interactions with their patients, to volunteerism, to service and intervention in areas of great need, to direct political activism and involvement. Specific suggestions for action are discussed.

  11. Medicine 'misuse': Implications for health and environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Felicity; Depledge, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Recent decades have witnessed a global rise in the use of medical pharmaceuticals to combat disease. However, estimates suggest that over half of all medicines are prescribed, dispensed or sold inappropriately, and that half of all patients fail to take them as directed. Bringing together research from across the medical, natural and social sciences, this paper considers what we know about the causes, impacts and implications of medicine misuse in relation to health, the sustainable use of pharmaceuticals and their unintended effects in the environment. We suggest that greater insight and understanding of medicine misuse can be gained by integrating the biomedical-focused approaches used in public health with approaches that consider the social and environmental determinants of medical prescribing and consuming practices.

  12. Federal disaster mental health response and compliance with best practices.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Jody; Nelson Goff, Briana S

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the comprehensiveness of disaster mental health state plans and their adherence to published best practices in three states that experienced post-9/11 federally-declared disasters. There were 59 disaster mental health best practices used in this study to assess each state disaster mental plan's compliance with best practices; the states demonstrated a range of adherence to the best practices. This research may serve as a guide for those developing disaster mental health plans and encourage further considerations in disaster mental health response.

  13. Managing practice innovations in prison health care services.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Liz; Freshwater, Dawn

    Prison health care is undergoing significant organisational change. This article highlights the potential for practice development in this setting, giving two examples of ongoing developments undertaken as part of a programme of research and development in mental health.

  14. Developing Effective Educational Materials Using Best Practices in Health Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niebaum, Kelly; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Bellows, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Health literacy is emerging as a leading issue affecting U.S. consumers' health. It has been shown to be a stronger predictor of a person's health than age, income, employment status, education level, or race. To best meet the health literacy needs of consumers, Extension educators can use best practice guidelines for improved health…

  15. Environmental Sustainability Practices in Selected Publicly Supported Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods research study was to examine the environmental sustainability practices used at publicly supported community, junior, and technical college campuses in the eleven states accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools' Commission on Colleges. The Sustainability Assessment Questionnaire was…

  16. Theory versus practice in Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)

    SciTech Connect

    Lobos, Víctor; Partidario, Maria

    2014-09-15

    Could the theory of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) be ahead of its time and decoupled from its practice? This paper evolved in search for this leading research question. Over the years the discourse on SEA experienced a gradual shift from the technocratic and rationalist thinking that supported its origin to more strategic approaches and integrated concepts, suggested since the mid 1990's. In this paper we share the results of our analysis of international thinking and practical experience with SEA. Results reveal that SEA practice changes very slowly when compared to advanced thinking supporting the noted shift. Current SEA practice shows to be still predominantly rooted in the logic of projects' environmental impact assessment (EIA). It is strongly bound to legal and regulatory requirements, and the motivation for its application persists being the delivery of environmental (or final) reports to meet legal obligations. Even though advanced SEA theoretical thinking claim its potential to help decisions to look forward, change mind-sets and the rationale of decision-making to meet sustainability challenges and enhance societal values, we note a weak relationship between the theoretical development of SEA and its practice. Why is this happening? Which factors explain this apparent inertia, resistance to change, in the SEA practice? Results appear to demonstrate the influence of assumptions, understandings, concepts, and beliefs in the use of SEA, which in turn suggest the political sensitivity of the instrument. - Highlights: • Theoretical thinking in SEA is ahead of its time. • SEA international practice reveals inertia to move out of project’ EIA comfort zone. • World current SEA practice show similar understandings of 30 years ago. • 100 world reports and survey of practitioners supported world review. • SEA great challenge is to change paradigms into new scientific complexity theories.

  17. Beyond public health emergency legal preparedness: rethinking best practices.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Jennifer A

    2013-03-01

    The concept of public health legal preparedness grew out of the public health emergency preparedness movement, but was conceptualized more broadly to be utilized to achieve full public health legal preparedness for all types of public health threats. This article analyzes the need to refocus public health legal preparedness to include all areas of public health law and presents a new model for the fourth core element that will aid in the development of legal benchmarks so public health systems can more effectively work towards attaining public health legal preparedness in all areas of public health practice.

  18. HUMAN HEALTH METRICS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS: LESSONS FROM HEALTH ECONOMICS AND DECISION ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Decision makers using environmental decision support tools are often confronted with information that predicts a multitude of different human health effects due to environmental stressors. If these health effects need to be contrasted with costs or compared with alternative scena...

  19. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER DISASTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) created an acute environmental disaster of enormous magnitude. This study characterizes the environmental exposures resulting from destruction of the WTC and assesses their effects on health. Methods include ambient air sampling; analyse...

  20. Creating an Overall Environmental Quality Index to Examine Health Outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interaction between environmental conditions and human health transpire from complex processes. Environmental exposures tend to cluster and disamenities such as landfills or industrial plants are often located in areas with high a percentage of minority and poor residents. Wh...

  1. Health, safety and environmental requirements for composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazer, Kathleen A.

    1994-01-01

    The health, safety and environmental requirements for the production of composite materials are discussed. The areas covered include: (1) chemical identification for each chemical; (2) toxicology; (3) industrial hygiene; (4) fire and safety; (5) environmental aspects; and (6) medical concerns.

  2. Comprehensive Environmental Informatics System (CEIS) Integrating Crew and Vehicle Environmental Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nall, Mark E.

    2006-01-01

    Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) systems have been pursued as highly integrated systems that include smart sensors, diagnostic and prognostics software for assessments of real-time and life-cycle vehicle health information. Inclusive to such a system is the requirement to monitor the environmental health within the vehicle and the occupants of the vehicle. In this regard an enterprise approach to informatics is used to develop a methodology entitled, Comprehensive Environmental Informatics System (CEIS). The hardware and software technologies integrated into this system will be embedded in the vehicle subsystems, and maintenance operations, to provide both real-time and life-cycle health information of the environment within the vehicle cabin and of its occupants. This comprehensive information database will enable informed decision making and logistics management. One key element of the CEIS is interoperability for data acquisition and archive between environment and human system monitoring. With comprehensive components the data acquired in this system will use model based reasoning systems for subsystem and system level managers, advanced on-board and ground-based mission and maintenance planners to assess system functionality. Knowledge databases of the vehicle health state will be continuously updated and reported for critical failure modes, and routinely updated and reported for life cycle condition trending. Sufficient intelligence, including evidence-based engineering practices which are analogous to evidencebased medicine practices, will be included in the CEIS to result in more rapid recognition of off-nominal operation to enable quicker corrective actions. This will result from better information (rather than just data) for improved crew/operator situational awareness, which will produce significant vehicle and crew safety improvements, as well as increasing the chance for mission success, future mission planning as well as training. Other

  3. Children's Environmental Health: 2007 Highlights. Environment, Health, and a Focus on Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created in 1970 to protect human health and the environment. The year 2007 marks 10 years of concerted Federal effort to address children's environmental health risks as mandated by Executive Order 13045, Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. Much of the agency's…

  4. Environmental Research In Practice: Restoration And Protection Of Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is tasked to protect human health and the environment. To carry out this task, the EPA makes use of technical expertise within its Office of Research and Development. Restoration and protection of water resources is one area of tec...

  5. Human health and wellbeing in environmental impact assessment in New South Wales, Australia: Auditing health impacts within environmental assessments of major projects

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Patrick J.; Harris, Elizabeth; Thompson, Susan; Harris-Roxas, Ben; Kemp, Lynn

    2009-09-15

    Internationally the inclusion of health within environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been shown to be limited. While Australian EIA documentation has not been studied empirically to date, deficiencies in practice have been documented. This research developed an audit tool to undertake a qualitative descriptive analysis of 22 Major Project EAs in New South Wales, Australia. Results showed that health and wellbeing impacts were not considered explicitly. They were, however, included indirectly in the identification of traditional public health exposures associated with the physical environment and to a lesser extent the inclusion of social and economic impacts. However, no health data was used to inform any of the assessments, there was no reference to causal pathways between exposures or determinants and physical or mental health effects, and there was no inclusion of the differential distribution of exposures or health impacts on different populations. The results add conceptually and practically to the long standing integration debate, showing that health is in a position to add value to the EIA process as an explicit part of standard environmental, social and economic considerations. However, to overcome the consistently documented barriers to integrating health in EIA, capacity must be developed amongst EIA professionals, led by the health sector, to progress health related knowledge and tools.

  6. Improving the roles of rural women in health and environmental issues.

    PubMed

    Metwally, Ammal M; Ibrahim, Nihad A; Saad, Amal; Abu el-Ela, Manal H

    2006-04-01

    Safe water supply, sanitation facilities and safe environments are the priorities of the communities in the villages of Upper Egypt. However, personal hygienic behaviors need improvement for substantial promotion of family health. This cannot be met without the full participation of women in their various roles in their communities. Accordingly, 375 females belonging to rural villages of Egypt (VHVs) volunteered to have a role in health and sanitation aspects and disseminate hygienic messages to their communities. The objective of this study was to assess and upgrade the levels of awareness, attitude and practice of VHVs towards environmental sanitation, sanitary housing, personal hygiene, safe water, food safety, sanitary sewage and refuse disposals. Implementation of environmental health education courses resulted in significant improvement of VHVs' awareness, attitude and practice towards the majority of the environmental topics that were addressed. Similar extensive courses are recommended for the promotion of environmental sanitation in other communities.

  7. [Environmental health: the evolution of Colombia's current regulatory framework].

    PubMed

    García-Ubaque, Cesar A; García-Ubaque, Juan C; Vaca-Bohórquez, Martha L

    2013-01-01

    This essay presents an analysis of the evolution of environmental health management in Colombia, covering the period from the introduction of the Colombian Healthcare Code (1979) to laws 99 and 100 in 1993 and the introduction of Environmental Health Policy in Bogotá DC (2011). It proposes a conceptual model for environmental health management at three levels: proximal (physical, chemical and biological setting), intermediate (natural and cultural environment) and distal (economic, political and social structures). Relevant aspects of environmental health policy in Bogotá are analysed based on the proposed model.

  8. An Assessment of Environmental Health Needs for Manned Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health fundamentally addresses the physical, chemical, and biological risks external to the human body that can impact the health of a person by assessing and controlling these risks in order to generate and maintain a health-supportive environment. Environmental monitoring coupled with other measures including active and passive controls and the implementation of environmental standards (SMACs, SWEGs, microbial and acoustics limits) are used to ensure environmental health in manned spacecraft. NASA scientists and engineers consider environmental monitoring a vital component to an environmental health management strategy for maintaining a healthy crew and achieving mission success. Environmental monitoring data confirms the health of ECLS systems, in addition to contributing to the management of the health of human systems. Crew health risks associated with the environment were reviewed by agency experts with the goal of determining risk-based environmental monitoring needs for future NASA manned missions. Once determined, gaps in knowledge and technology, required to address those risks, were identified for various types of Exploration missions. This agency-wide assessment of environmental health needs will help guide the activities/hardware development efforts to close those gaps and advance the knowledge required to meet NASA manned space exploration objectives. Details of this assessment and findings are presented in this paper.

  9. Guardians' Knowledge and Husbandry Practices of Feline Environmental Enrichment.

    PubMed

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Pontes, Joana; Pomba, Constança

    2016-01-01

    Feline environmental enrichment can prevent numerous disorders including anxiety, stress, obesity, and feline idiopathic cystitis. Despite its easy implementation and low cost, it has received little attention. The main goal of this study was to assess guardians' knowledge concerning feline environmental enrichment and husbandry practices. A questionnaire was given to 130 companion animal guardians at the Lisbon Veterinary Faculty's Teaching Hospital. The applications of 22 environmental enrichment measures related to food/water, litter box, and space/entertainment areas were evaluated. The majority of the households studied (74.6%) had a moderately enriched environment. Hygiene-related measures were those most adopted by guardians, while those requiring guardians' commitment or previous awareness were the least implemented. A rating scale was proposed and applied to assess feline domestic environmental quality.

  10. Guardians' Knowledge and Husbandry Practices of Feline Environmental Enrichment.

    PubMed

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Pontes, Joana; Pomba, Constança

    2016-01-01

    Feline environmental enrichment can prevent numerous disorders including anxiety, stress, obesity, and feline idiopathic cystitis. Despite its easy implementation and low cost, it has received little attention. The main goal of this study was to assess guardians' knowledge concerning feline environmental enrichment and husbandry practices. A questionnaire was given to 130 companion animal guardians at the Lisbon Veterinary Faculty's Teaching Hospital. The applications of 22 environmental enrichment measures related to food/water, litter box, and space/entertainment areas were evaluated. The majority of the households studied (74.6%) had a moderately enriched environment. Hygiene-related measures were those most adopted by guardians, while those requiring guardians' commitment or previous awareness were the least implemented. A rating scale was proposed and applied to assess feline domestic environmental quality. PMID:26756929

  11. A Practical Method of Monitoring the Results of Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Daugharty, G. D.

    1979-01-01

    To meet our goal of improving health care through more productive use of the data we are collecting about the delivery of health care we need to define our concepts of health and quality. The WHO definition of health allows the design of useful functional outcome criteria which give us measurable standards for the outcome of the health care. By recording, retrieving, and reviewing pertinent information from the structure and the process of health care for a valid comparison with its outcome, the most effective and efficient health care is identified. A practical system is presented which identifies the better methods of management and produces the motivation for change that results in improved care. The successful use of this system in a private practice supports its universal adaptability for health care providers. The initial encouraging results suggest that future trials in other types of practices will be even more encouraging.

  12. Health impact assessments are needed in decision making about environmental and land-use policy.

    PubMed

    Wernham, Aaron

    2011-05-01

    The importance to public health of environmental decisions-including those about land use, transportation, power generation, agriculture, and environmental regulation-is increasingly well documented. Yet many decision makers in fields not traditionally focused on health continue to pay little if any attention to the important health effects of their work. This article examines the emerging practice of health impact assessment and offers real-world examples of its effective implementation, including studying the impact of nearby highways-a major source of air pollution-on proposed new housing for seniors. The article argues that officials at the federal, state, and local levels should consult health experts and consider using health impact assessments when their decisions on such issues as urban planning, land use, and environmental regulation have the potential to directly affect the conditions in which people live and work. PMID:21555479

  13. Health impact assessments are needed in decision making about environmental and land-use policy.

    PubMed

    Wernham, Aaron

    2011-05-01

    The importance to public health of environmental decisions-including those about land use, transportation, power generation, agriculture, and environmental regulation-is increasingly well documented. Yet many decision makers in fields not traditionally focused on health continue to pay little if any attention to the important health effects of their work. This article examines the emerging practice of health impact assessment and offers real-world examples of its effective implementation, including studying the impact of nearby highways-a major source of air pollution-on proposed new housing for seniors. The article argues that officials at the federal, state, and local levels should consult health experts and consider using health impact assessments when their decisions on such issues as urban planning, land use, and environmental regulation have the potential to directly affect the conditions in which people live and work.

  14. (Public) Health and Human Rights in Practice.

    PubMed

    Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K

    2016-02-01

    Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing.

  15. Political Science Theory for Public Health Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…

  16. Dual practice in the health sector: review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ferrinho, Paulo; Van Lerberghe, Wim; Fronteira, Inês; Hipólito, Fátima; Biscaia, André

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on income generation practices among civil servants in the health sector, with a particular emphasis on dual practice. It first approaches the subject of public–private overlap. Thereafter it focuses on coping strategies in general and then on dual practice in particular. To compensate for unrealistically low salaries, health workers rely on individual coping strategies. Many clinicians combine salaried, public-sector clinical work with a fee-for-service private clientele. This dual practice is often a means by which health workers try to meet their survival needs, reflecting the inability of health ministries to ensure adequate salaries and working conditions. Dual practice may be considered present in most countries, if not all. Nevertheless, there is surprisingly little hard evidence about the extent to which health workers resort to dual practice, about the balance of economic and other motives for doing so, or about the consequences for the proper use of the scarce public resources dedicated to health. In this paper dual practice is approached from six different perspectives: (1) conceptual, regarding what is meant by dual practice; (2) descriptive, trying to develop a typology of dual practices; (3) quantitative, trying to determine its prevalence; (4) impact on personal income, the health care system and health status; (5) qualitative, looking at the reasons why practitioners so frequently remain in public practice while also working in the private sector and at contextual, personal life, institutional and professional factors that make it easier or more difficult to have dual practices; and (6) possible interventions to deal with dual practice. PMID:15509305

  17. Managing the complexity of best practice health care.

    PubMed

    Brown, S J

    2001-01-01

    Best Practice Health Care is a designed product. Various types of evidence must be accessed, interpreted, and integrated into care design. This integration requires thoughtful organizational planning. The Best Practice Health Care Map provides a model for managing the characteristics of quality clinical care within the framework of multi-disciplinary professional practice. The model incorporates the contributions of various forms of evidence into pre-specification design and point-of-care design.

  18. Workplace health education. Principles in practice.

    PubMed

    Vojtecky, M A

    1985-01-01

    The application of psychological principles that lead to the acquisition of skills, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors for improving safety and health conditions in the work environment is illustrated by case examples. The emergent pattern of successful occupational health education can be described as a process consisting of instruction, psychological reinforcement, and establishment of new norms of safe behavior for workers. To realize maximum effect from education programs, occupational physicians and other occupational health professionals should upgrade and expand their understanding of health education as well as their health education skills.

  19. The Navigation Guide Systematic Review Methodology: A Rigorous and Transparent Method for Translating Environmental Health Science into Better Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Background: Synthesizing what is known about the environmental drivers of health is instrumental to taking prevention-oriented action. Methods of research synthesis commonly used in environmental health lag behind systematic review methods developed in the clinical sciences over the past 20 years. Objectives: We sought to develop a proof of concept of the “Navigation Guide,” a systematic and transparent method of research synthesis in environmental health. Discussion: The Navigation Guide methodology builds on best practices in research synthesis in evidence-based medicine and environmental health. Key points of departure from current methods of expert-based narrative review prevalent in environmental health include a prespecified protocol, standardized and transparent documentation including expert judgment, a comprehensive search strategy, assessment of “risk of bias,” and separation of the science from values and preferences. Key points of departure from evidence-based medicine include assigning a “moderate” quality rating to human observational studies and combining diverse evidence streams. Conclusions: The Navigation Guide methodology is a systematic and rigorous approach to research synthesis that has been developed to reduce bias and maximize transparency in the evaluation of environmental health information. Although novel aspects of the method will require further development and validation, our findings demonstrated that improved methods of research synthesis under development at the National Toxicology Program and under consideration by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are fully achievable. The institutionalization of robust methods of systematic and transparent review would provide a concrete mechanism for linking science to timely action to prevent harm. Citation: Woodruff TJ, Sutton P. 2014. The Navigation Guide systematic review methodology: a rigorous and transparent method for translating environmental health science into

  20. Environmental Health Promotion: Progress and Future Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Shobha; Dearry, Allen

    2004-01-01

    Health promotion seeks to provide practitioners of medicine and public health as well as members of the public with the information, resources, and tools that they can use to improve health and well-being. This goal is consonant with that of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), namely, to improve public health outcomes via research,…

  1. Environmental health science at the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Bright, Patricia R.

    2013-01-01

    USGS environmental health science focuses on the environment-health interface. Research characterizes the processes that affect the interaction among the physical environment, the living environment, and people, as well as the factors that affect ecological and human exposure to disease agents and the resulting toxicologic or infectious disease. The mission of USGS in environmental health science is to contribute scientific information to environmental, natural resource, agricultural, and public-health managers, who use that information to support sound decisionmaking. Coordination with partners and stakeholders will enable USGS to focus on the highest priority environmental health issues, to make relevant, timely, and useable contributions, and to become a “partner of first choice” for environmental health science.

  2. Guidelines for Psychological Practice in Health Care Delivery Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Psychologists practice in an increasingly diverse range of health care delivery systems. The following guidelines are intended to assist psychologists, other health care providers, administrators in health care delivery systems, and the public to conceptualize the roles and responsibilities of psychologists in these diverse contexts. These…

  3. Exploring data availability for the Environmental Quality Index to assess environmental health disparities

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interaction between environmental insults and human health is complex. Environmental exposures tend to cluster, with disamenities (e.g., landfills, industrial plants) often located in high-minority and largely poor neighborhoods, while wealthier neighborhoods contain amenitie...

  4. Development of an Environmental Quality Index to assess environmental public health disparities - What data are available?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing exposure to environmental insults and human health outcomes is complex. Environmental exposures tend to cluster spatially, with disamenities (e.g., landfills, industrial plants) often located in high-minority and largely poor neighborhoods, while wealthier neighborhoods...

  5. [Health policy and practice towards equity].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Renilson Rehem

    2007-12-01

    The article discusses the concepts of equality and equity in the health area in Brazilian scenario, which means under the Unified Health System (UHS). The author shows the principles of UHS, emphasizing the principles of Universality and Integrality. Also reviews briefly the history of UHS and its construction process. It shows singularity of present issues such as technological advances and its consequences to the quality of health attention, both reflecting to the costs of the health care. It analyses some advances that were possible in Brazilian health attention and especially in São Paulo State. In conclusion, he explains a brief analyze about UHS news challenges: the increasing of accessibility to the health services, increasing of needs and the limited resources. PMID:20608374

  6. The environmental health practitioner: new evidence-based roles in housing, public health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jill; Bourn, Camilla

    2013-11-01

    Since the Victorian public health acts, the now named environmental health practitioner (EHP) (previously public health inspector or environmental health officer) has been pivotal in providing healthier housing through a range of policy initiatives and legislative requirements. The role of the practitioner has changed substantially in the past decade, particularly as the public health and well-being agendas have brought focus to the socio-economic determinants of health, including housing, with a renewed vision of tackling the most acute health inequalities through evidence-based practice and taking a population-based approach. The now established Housing Health and Safety Rating System has enabled a far greater focus on evidence than previously. However, for many households on low incomes living in owner-occupied and privately rented housing the situation is inequitable and, for many, has negative health effects. The private-sector housing renewal budget has been discontinued and the allied housing and social care resource has been cut. As a result, EHPs and colleagues need to promote the importance of their work at every opportunity as Public Health England came into being in 2013 and public health has been transferred from the National Health Service to local authorities. This presents both opportunities and challenges in demonstrating the effectiveness of housing strategies and interventions by fine-tuning arguments for securing greater resources through joint strategic needs assessments presented to health and well-being boards.

  7. One Health and EcoHealth in Ontario: a qualitative study exploring how holistic and integrative approaches are shaping public health practice in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a growing recognition that many public health issues are complex and can be best understood by examining the relationship between human health and the health of the ecosystems in which people live. Two approaches, One Health and Ecosystem Approaches to Health (EcoHealth), can help us to better understand these intricate and complex connections, and appear to hold great promise for tackling many modern public health dilemmas. Although both One Health and EcoHealth have garnered recognition from numerous health bodies in Canada and abroad, there is still a need to better understand how these approaches are shaping the practice of public health in Ontario. The purpose of this study was to characterize how public health actors in Ontario are influenced by the holistic principles which underlie One Health and EcoHealth, and to identify important lessons from their experiences. Methods Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten participants from the public health sphere in Ontario. Participants encompassed diverse perspectives including infectious disease, food systems, urban agriculture, and environmental health. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis to identify major themes and patterns. Results Four major themes emerged from the interviews: the importance of connecting human health with the environment; the role of governance in promoting these ideas; the value of partnerships and collaborations in public health practice; and the challenge of operationalizing holistic approaches to public health. Overall study participants were found to be heavily influenced by concepts couched in EcoHealth and One Health literature, despite a lack of familiarity with these fields. Conclusions Although One Health and EcoHealth are lesser known approaches in the public health sphere, their holistic and systems-based principles were found to influence the thoughts, values and experiences of public health

  8. Environmental pediatrics and its impact on government health policy.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Lynn; Falk, Henry; Landrigan, Philip J; Balk, Sophie J; Reigart, J Routt; Etzel, Ruth A

    2004-04-01

    Recent public recognition that children are different from adults in their exposures and susceptibilities to environmental contaminants has its roots in work that began >46 years ago, when the American Academy of Pediatrics (APA) established a standing committee to focus on children's radiation exposures. We summarize the history of that important committee, now the AAP Committee on Environmental Health, including its statements and the 1999 publication of the AAP Handbook of Pediatric Environmental Health, and describe the recent emergence of federal and state legislative and executive actions to evaluate explicitly environmental health risks to children. As a result in large part of these efforts, numerous knowledge gaps about children's health and the environment are currently being addressed. Government efforts began in the 1970s to reduce childhood lead poisoning and to monitor birth defects and cancer. In the 1990s, federal efforts accelerated with the Food Quality Protection Act, an executive order on children's environmental health, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry/Environmental Protection Agency Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Units, and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/Environmental Protection Agency Centers of Excellence in Research in Children's Environmental Health. In this decade, the Children's Environmental Health Act authorized the National Children's Study, which has the potential to address a number of critical questions about children's exposure and health. The federal government has expanded efforts in control and prevention of childhood asthma and in tracking of asthma, birth defects, and other diseases that are linked to the environment. Efforts continue on familiar problems such as the eradication of lead poisoning, but new issues, such as prevention of childhood exposure to carcinogens and neurotoxins other than lead, and emerging issues, such as endocrine disruptors and pediatric drug

  9. Environmental Scanning as a Public Health Tool: Kentucky’s Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Project

    PubMed Central

    Wilburn, Amanda; Knight, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    Borrowing from business, quality improvement programs, and strategic planning principles, environmental scanning is gaining popularity in public health practice and research and is advocated as an assessment and data collection tool by federal funding agencies and other health-related organizations. Applicable to a range of current and emerging health topics, environmental scans — through various methods — assess multiple facets of an issue by engaging stakeholders who can ask or answer research questions, exploring related policy, critiquing published and gray literature, collecting and analyzing qualitative and quantitative data in both primary and secondary forms, disseminating findings to internal and external stakeholders, and informing subsequent planning and decision making. To illustrate the environmental scanning process in a public health setting and showcase its value to practitioners in the field, we describe a federally funded environmental scan for a human papillomavirus vaccination project in Kentucky. PMID:27536901

  10. Environmental Scanning as a Public Health Tool: Kentucky's Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Project.

    PubMed

    Wilburn, Amanda; Vanderpool, Robin C; Knight, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    Borrowing from business, quality improvement programs, and strategic planning principles, environmental scanning is gaining popularity in public health practice and research and is advocated as an assessment and data collection tool by federal funding agencies and other health-related organizations. Applicable to a range of current and emerging health topics, environmental scans - through various methods - assess multiple facets of an issue by engaging stakeholders who can ask or answer research questions, exploring related policy, critiquing published and gray literature, collecting and analyzing qualitative and quantitative data in both primary and secondary forms, disseminating findings to internal and external stakeholders, and informing subsequent planning and decision making. To illustrate the environmental scanning process in a public health setting and showcase its value to practitioners in the field, we describe a federally funded environmental scan for a human papillomavirus vaccination project in Kentucky. PMID:27536901

  11. Earth Day plus 30 years: public concern and support for environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, M

    2001-01-01

    A clear majority of Americans are concerned about environmental threats to public health and do not want to weaken antipollution regulations. The strongest supporters for maintaining environmental regulations are affluent mainstream White suburban populations who are thriving economically, but support is also strong in every other major segment of the population. Overt attempts to weaken the basic regulations are unlikely, barring an obvious economic downturn that would cause a large proportion of the public to consider loosening standards in the belief that such changes would increase the number of available jobs. Given this context, environmental health was and will continue to be a core topic in the Journal. We will emphasize the nexus of environmental health and policy by publishing research, exemplary public health practice, and the views of key decision makers. PMID:11291364

  12. Earth Day plus 30 years: public concern and support for environmental health.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M

    2001-04-01

    A clear majority of Americans are concerned about environmental threats to public health and do not want to weaken antipollution regulations. The strongest supporters for maintaining environmental regulations are affluent mainstream White suburban populations who are thriving economically, but support is also strong in every other major segment of the population. Overt attempts to weaken the basic regulations are unlikely, barring an obvious economic downturn that would cause a large proportion of the public to consider loosening standards in the belief that such changes would increase the number of available jobs. Given this context, environmental health was and will continue to be a core topic in the Journal. We will emphasize the nexus of environmental health and policy by publishing research, exemplary public health practice, and the views of key decision makers. PMID:11291364

  13. [Health status and health needs assessment--state of the art of the public health practice in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Vuletić, Silvije; Sogorić, Selma; Malatestinić, Dulija; Bozicević, Ivana

    2010-12-01

    Public health practice performance is measured through its three core functions, i.e. assessment, policy development and assurance. We describe the existing health status and health care needs assessment practices in the Republic of Croatia. Health care needs assessment in Croatia includes mortality and morbidity information available through vital records but does not include community input (opinion and attitude) and participation. Health needs are not analyzed in order to determine the causes of health problems. Analysis of health needs of the population groups at highest risk also does not exist. Resources assessment is not part of the process, so we do not know how adequate the existing health resources are. In the Croatian health care system practice, the assessment function is limited through the almost exclusive use of the routine health and demographic statistics. Academic public health has introduced other kinds of more participative, subgroups oriented, qualitative methodologies but in daily routine, these methods are hardly used. Since health needs assessment is one of the core public health functions, in the future its practice has to be reoriented from pure monitoring towards identifying and solving community health problems. Partnership with community has to be a cornerstone for more efficient health needs assessment practice. In the light of previous statement, we present and discuss new trends in the assessment practice in Croatia, i.e. revision of routine health data collection, ways of performing intervention aimed health surveys, naturalistic approach in health needs assessment, and health needs research of population groups at highest risk.

  14. Health and safety inspection of hairdressing and nail salons by local authority environmental health practitioners.

    PubMed

    Harris-Roberts, Joanne; Bowen, Jo; Sumner, Jade; Fishwick, David

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study described in this article was to provide environmental health practitioners (EHPs) with an evaluation of the levels of understanding of, and compliance with, health and safety legislation in hairdressing and nail salons. EHPs carried out a series of inspections of 205 salons in a large British city, consisting of a site assessment and an assessment of employee knowledge of relevant regulations, including those relating to control of exposure to hazardous substances. Two-fifths of senior salon employees understood Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) assessments and could provide evidence of their completion. Most employees had been trained and made aware of the health hazards associated with carrying out their work and took suitable precautions to protect themselves and their clients. The results suggest that senior employees within the salons sampled, have knowledge of the risks to health and have been taking measures to control these risks. Initiatives such as the Health and Safety Executive's (in collaboration with local authorities and the hairdressing industry) "Bad Hand Day?" campaign and sector-specific COSHH essentials guidance help raise awareness levels and aim to support good control practice in salons. PMID:23397656

  15. Professional Equipment for a University Environmental Health Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iglar, Albert F.; Morgan, Monroe T.

    1972-01-01

    A rather thorough description of the professional equipment utilized in the Environmental Health Program at East Tennessee State University. Describes equipment and apparatus employed in the General Environmental, Occupational Health and Safety, and the Air and Water Pollution Control Areas. Table of recommended basic professional equipment…

  16. Evaluating the Environmental Health Work Force. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine Associates, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This report contains all materials pertinent to an intensive evaluation of the environmental health work force conducted in 1986 and 1987. The materials relate to a workshop that was one of the key tools used in conducting the study to estimate environmental health personnel supply, demand, and need. The report begins with an overview and…

  17. ANIMALS AS SENTINELS OF HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environmnet," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxi...

  18. RELATING AIR QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH TRACKING DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Initiated in February 2004, the Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) Project is a multi-disciplinary collaboration between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and three Environmental Public Health Track...

  19. Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2008-07-14

    This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.

  20. Health worker awareness of cultural health attitudes and practices in rural Colombia.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, J

    1986-01-01

    Health workers' awareness and understanding of clients' attitudes and practices regarding "health" is an important but insufficiently studied factor in planning health promotion programs. A group of thirty-seven rural Colombian campesino (peasant) women were interviewed to determine their health beliefs and practices. Following interviews and observation, the health workers (doctors, nurses, and nursing assistants) who worked with these women and their families, were interviewed regarding their perceptions and awareness of the campesinos' health attitudes and practices. The results show that the women had both western and "popular" (traditional) health practices. The health workers' awareness of their clients' beliefs and practices varied greatly and was influenced by various factors including: professional level, type of illness, local conditions, and experience. In general, however, the health workers were largely unaware of the more subtle health attitudes and practices-those attitudes which may strongly influence health seeking and health maintenance behavior. Concerted efforts must be made to determine the health beliefs and practices of a client or community in order for health promotion programs to be successful.

  1. Health worker awareness of cultural health attitudes and practices in rural Colombia.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, J

    1986-01-01

    Health workers' awareness and understanding of clients' attitudes and practices regarding "health" is an important but insufficiently studied factor in planning health promotion programs. A group of thirty-seven rural Colombian campesino (peasant) women were interviewed to determine their health beliefs and practices. Following interviews and observation, the health workers (doctors, nurses, and nursing assistants) who worked with these women and their families, were interviewed regarding their perceptions and awareness of the campesinos' health attitudes and practices. The results show that the women had both western and "popular" (traditional) health practices. The health workers' awareness of their clients' beliefs and practices varied greatly and was influenced by various factors including: professional level, type of illness, local conditions, and experience. In general, however, the health workers were largely unaware of the more subtle health attitudes and practices-those attitudes which may strongly influence health seeking and health maintenance behavior. Concerted efforts must be made to determine the health beliefs and practices of a client or community in order for health promotion programs to be successful. PMID:20841168

  2. Perceptions of infection control practices among health professionals.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Rochelle E; Wynaden, Dianne; Hart, Linda; Landsborough, Ian; McGowan, Sunita; Speed, Gaye; Orb, Angelica; Henderson, Saras; Wilson, Sally; Calnan, Wendy

    2006-07-01

    Infection control practice is a cornerstone of modern health care. However, there is minimal research into health professionals' perception of infection control practices and how those perceptions influence staff compliance with recommended protocols. The objective of this study was to explore health care professionals' perceptions of infection control practices in relation to the management of infectious diseases. A grounded theory approach was used as the research framework. Semi-structured interviews were completed with a sample of 16 nurses and doctors working at hospitals in Western Australia. Four major categories emerged from the data. These were: knowledge, culture, conflict, and risk assessment. The findings indicate the importance of both individual and organisational factors in determining clinicians' levels of compliance with recommended infection control practices. Identification of the factors that influence health professionals' level of compliance can be used to develop strategies to support long-term compliance with infection control practices. PMID:16863418

  3. Sensitizing nurses for a changing environmental health role.

    PubMed

    Tiedje, L B; Wood, J

    1995-12-01

    This paper traces the evolution of a broader environmental health role for nursing by focusing on the health effects of exposure to environmental pollutants and of global environmental change. This evolving role is reviewed through the examination of selected community health nursing texts published during the last several decades. Key role strategies based on this expanded and evolving environmental role are proposed. Finally, a survey is described that is intended to heighten awareness of personal and professional attitudes and behaviors related to the environment.

  4. Ethical perspectives for public and environmental health: fostering autonomy and the right to know.

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Timothy William; Soskolne, Colin L; Bergum, Vangie; Howell, James; Dossetor, John B

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we develop an ethical perspective for public and environmental health practice in consideration of the "right to know" by contrasting consequential and deontological perspectives with relational ethics grounded in the concept of fostering autonomy. From the consequential perspective, disclosure of public and environmental health risks to the public depends on the expected or possible consequences. We discuss three major concerns with this perspective: respect for persons, justice, and ignorance. From a deontological perspective, the "right to know" means that there is a "duty" to communicate about all public health risks and consideration of the principles of prevention, precaution, and environmental justice. Relational ethics develops from consideration of a mutual limitation of the traditional perspectives. Relational ethics is grounded in the relationship between the public and public/environmental health providers. In this paper we develop a model for this relationship, which we call "fostering autonomy through mutually respectful relationships." Fostering autonomy is both an end in public health practice and a means to promote the principles of prevention, precaution, and environmental justice. We discuss these principles as they relate to practical issues of major disasters and contaminants in food, such as DDT, toxaphene, chlordane, and mercury. PMID:12573894

  5. AN OVERVIEW OF COASTAL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussions of the coastal environment and its health can be improved by more precise use of terms and clarification of the relationship, if any, between the health of ecosystems and the risks to human health. Ecosystem health is seldom defined and, in any case, has to be regarde...

  6. Facilitating Health Data Sharing Across Diverse Practices and Communities

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Ping; Black, Robert A.; LaPlante, Jay; Keppel, Gina A.; Tuzzio, Leah; Berg, Alfred O.; Whitener, Ron J.; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Fishman, Paul A.; Greene, Sarah M.; Gennari, John H.; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Stephens, Kari A.

    2010-01-01

    Health data sharing with and among practices is a method for engaging rural and underserved populations, often with strong histories of marginalization, in health research. The Institute of Translational Health Sciences, funded by a National Institutes of Health Clinical and Translational Science Award, is engaged in the LC Data QUEST project to build practice and community based research networks with the ability to share semantically aligned electronic health data. We visited ten practices and communities to assess the feasibility of and barriers to developing data sharing networks. We found that these sites had very different approaches and expectations for data sharing. In order to support practices and communities and foster the acceptance of data sharing in these settings, informaticists must take these diverse views into account. Based on these findings, we discuss system design implications and the need for flexibility in the development of community-based data sharing networks. PMID:21347138

  7. Facilitating health data sharing across diverse practices and communities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Ping; Black, Robert A; Laplante, Jay; Keppel, Gina A; Tuzzio, Leah; Berg, Alfred O; Whitener, Ron J; Buchwald, Dedra S; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Fishman, Paul A; Greene, Sarah M; Gennari, John H; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Stephens, Kari A

    2010-03-01

    Health data sharing with and among practices is a method for engaging rural and underserved populations, often with strong histories of marginalization, in health research. The Institute of Translational Health Sciences, funded by a National Institutes of Health Clinical and Translational Science Award, is engaged in the LC Data QUEST project to build practice and community based research networks with the ability to share semantically aligned electronic health data. We visited ten practices and communities to assess the feasibility of and barriers to developing data sharing networks. We found that these sites had very different approaches and expectations for data sharing. In order to support practices and communities and foster the acceptance of data sharing in these settings, informaticists must take these diverse views into account. Based on these findings, we discuss system design implications and the need for flexibility in the development of community-based data sharing networks.

  8. Strategic Environmental Assessment in Germany - Practice and open questions

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, Ulrike

    2010-04-15

    Eight years after the enactment of the EU Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive (2001/42/EC) () it is time to investigate where and how SEA are being implemented in Germany in order to find out open questions and research needs. In this study, we analysed in which planning types SEA are common practice, and where can deficits be identified, and to what extent differences occur between spatial and sectoral planning with respect to carrying out SEA. Pressing challenges in performing SEA as well as open questions are addressed such as the handling of cumulative effects and the interrelationships between the environmental factors, and how the monitoring of environmental effects is considered by the practitioners. The results show that SEA is well implemented in local land-use planning, regional planning, and in local landscape planning, while the implementation in sectoral planning varies widely. The SEA in clean air planning is looked at in more detail, because this is discussed controversially in the specialist field, and obstacles against SEA are identified in this field. Finally some new topics are addressed for which solutions in spatial and environmental planning including SEA must be found, e.g. the consideration of biological diversity and the potential role of SEA in climate change. A European study on the identified open questions and their handling in different contexts and countries may allow for a qualitative amendment in practice.

  9. Southeast Asian Health Beliefs and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Sandra L.

    This paper explores the health behaviors and health beliefs of Vietnamese, Cambodians, Laotians, (and the Chinese components of these populations), and the Mien and Hmong of Laos. Included is a description of the major medical systems in each country, local practitioners, and some of the uniquely recognized diseases and cures of each area.…

  10. Psychology and Health: Research, Practice, and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Norine G.

    2003-01-01

    Since World War II, American psychology's role in health care has significantly expanded. This was formally recognized in 2001 when the membership of the American Psychological Association (APA) approved a bylaw change in its mission statement to include the word health. An accumulating body of research demonstrates and recent reviews conclude…

  11. Teaching Practical Public Health Evaluation Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mary V.

    2006-01-01

    Human service fields, and more specifically public health, are increasingly requiring evaluations to prove the worth of funded programs. Many public health practitioners, however, lack the required background and skills to conduct useful, appropriate evaluations. In the late 1990s, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) created the…

  12. Development of the Space Station Freedom Environmental Health System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Health System (EHS), a subsystem of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Crew Health Care System, was established to ensure that crewmembers will have a safe and healthy environment in which to live and work. EHS is comprised of six subsystems: Microbiology, Toxicology, Water Quality, Radiological Health, Vibroacoustics, and Barothermal Physiology. Each subsystem contributes to the overall functions of the EHS including environmental planning, environmental monitoring, environmental monitoring, environmental health assessments, and operations support. The EHS will provide hardware for monitoring the air, water, and internal surfaces of Freedom, including capabilities for inflight sample collection, processing, and analysis. The closed environment of SSF, and its dependence on recycled air and water, will necessitate a reliable monitoring system to alert crewmembers if contamination levels exceed the maximum allowable limits established to ensure crew health and safety. This paper describes the functions and hardware design status of the EHS.

  13. Introducing the practice of statistics: are we environmentally friendly?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Jane M.; English, Lyn D.

    2015-12-01

    The practice of statistics is the focus of the world in which professional statisticians live. To understand meaningfully what this practice is about, students need to engage in it themselves. Acknowledging the limitations of a genuine classroom setting, this study attempted to expose four classes of year 5 students ( n = 91) to an authentic experience of the practice of statistics. Setting an overall context of people's habits that are considered environmentally friendly, the students sampled their class and set criteria for being environmentally friendly based on questions from the Australian Bureau of Statistics CensusAtSchool site. They then analysed the data and made decisions, acknowledging their degree of certainty, about three populations based on their criteria: their class, year 5 students in their school and year 5 students in Australia. The next step was to collect a random sample the size of their class from an Australian Bureau of Statistics `population', analyse it and again make a decision about Australian year 5 students. At the end, they suggested what further research they might do. The analysis of students' responses gives insight into primary students' capacity to appreciate and understand decision-making, and to participate in the practice of statistics, a topic that has received very little attention in the literature. Based on the total possible score of 23 from student workbook entries, 80 % of students achieved at least a score of 11.

  14. Health promotion overview: evidence-based strategies for occupational health nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Dombrowski, Jill J; Snelling, Anastasia M; Kalicki, Michelle

    2014-08-01

    Health promotion practice has evolved over the past four decades in response to the rising rates of chronic disease. The focus of health promotion is attaining wellness by managing modifiable risk factors, such as smoking, diet, or physical activity. Occupational health nurses are often asked to conduct worksite health promotion programs for individuals or groups, yet may be unfamiliar with evidence-based strategies. Occupational health nurses should lead interprofessional groups in designing and implementing worksite health promotion programs. This article introduces occupational health nurses to health promotion concepts and discusses evidence-based theories and planning models that can be easily introduced into practice.

  15. Photovoltaic energy technologies: Health and environmental effects document

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskowitz, P. D.; Hamilton, L. D.; Morris, S. C.; Rowe, M. D.

    1980-09-01

    The potential health and environmental consequences of producing electricity by photovoltaic energy systems was analyzed. Potential health and environmental risks are identified in representative fuel and material supply cycles including extraction, processing, refining, fabrication, installation, operation, and isposal for four photovoltaic energy systems (silicon N/P single crystal, silicon metal/insulator/semiconductor (MIS) cell, cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide backwall cell, and gallium arsenide heterojunction cell) delivering equal amounts of useful energy. Each step of the fuel and material supply cycles, materials demands, byproducts, public health, occupational health, and environmental hazards is identified.

  16. A Comprehensive Health Group Practice Model.

    PubMed

    Pihlstrom, Daniel; White, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Permanente Dental Associates includes 17 offices in the Pacific Northwest. Among the distinguishing characteristics of this model are a predominantly HMO structure and integration of care in a general medical program. Staff dentists are on salary and are largely relieved of the business details of practice. Ultimate control of the system is vested in a group of shareholders--the dentists who practice chairside. One of the shareholder-practitioners discusses his perspective on this system.

  17. Investigating Environmental Concerns and Health Issues in Clarksville, Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Shirley A.; Jones, Robert Emmet

    2005-01-01

    Environmental degradation is a serious problem for millions of people who are unjustly exposed to environmental conditions that threaten their everyday survival. A growing body of research shows race and class as significant predictors to exposure to environmental hazards and associated health problems. Presented are perceptions of environmental…

  18. Construction of an environmental quality index for public health research

    EPA Science Inventory

    A more comprehensive estimate of environmental quality would improve our understanding of the relationship between environmental conditions and human health. An environmental quality index (EQI) for all counties in the U.S. was developed. The EQI was developed in four parts: doma...

  19. Occupational health, mercury exposure, and environmental justice: learning from experiences in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Samuel J

    2009-11-01

    Mercury is a potent neurotoxin that is used by poverty-driven miners to extract gold in more than 50 countries. This article examines efforts of the United Nations to address occupational health and environmental justice amid these challenges, focusing on a 3-year campaign in one of the fastest-growing mining communities in Tanzania. By providing an integrative analysis of environmental health risks, labor practices, public health policies, and drivers of social inequity and marginalization, this study highlights the need for interdisciplinary public health approaches that support community development by strengthening local capacities. It illustrates why, to ensure that the needs of vulnerable populations are met, environmental justice and public health paradigms have to expand beyond the conventionally narrow attention paid to toxic exposure and emissions issues.

  20. Occupational Health, Mercury Exposure, and Environmental Justice: Learning From Experiences in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Mercury is a potent neurotoxin that is used by poverty-driven miners to extract gold in more than 50 countries. This article examines efforts of the United Nations to address occupational health and environmental justice amid these challenges, focusing on a 3-year campaign in one of the fastest-growing mining communities in Tanzania. By providing an integrative analysis of environmental health risks, labor practices, public health policies, and drivers of social inequity and marginalization, this study highlights the need for interdisciplinary public health approaches that support community development by strengthening local capacities. It illustrates why, to ensure that the needs of vulnerable populations are met, environmental justice and public health paradigms have to expand beyond the conventionally narrow attention paid to toxic exposure and emissions issues. PMID:19890157

  1. [Nursing and the environmental question: proposal of a theoretical model for the professional practice].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, M C; Bertolozzi, M R

    1999-01-01

    Considering the side effects of environmental changes over the population's health, a theoretical model is proposed in this study in order to incorporate ecologic matters into the nursing practices. The reference for this work is the eco-socialist-marxist theory. The model is based on the analysis of the capitalist economic process, its production technologies and consumption. It is known that this economic model generates ecoinequalities and anthropogenic impacts that rebound on the health-disease profile of the population. The nursing action, permeated by ecological awareness, can prevent and also combat ecoinequalities and destructive human actions on the environment. PMID:12138633

  2. 78 FR 26793 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences,...

  3. 75 FR 7487 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-02-19

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  4. 76 FR 26311 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  5. 78 FR 59042 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

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  6. 78 FR 7794 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  7. 77 FR 61771 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  9. 76 FR 27653 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  10. 78 FR 18359 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  11. 77 FR 40076 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

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  12. 78 FR 42968 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  13. 77 FR 33472 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  14. 78 FR 59944 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  15. 77 FR 22793 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  16. 77 FR 26300 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

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  17. 77 FR 60448 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meeting

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  1. 76 FR 52672 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-08-23

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  2. 77 FR 12602 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  3. 77 FR 16844 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  4. 78 FR 26643 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

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  5. 75 FR 10293 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  6. 78 FR 32672 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); Notice of Meeting

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  7. Implementing an oral health program in a group prenatal practice.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Joanne; Iida, Hiroko; Ingersoll, Gail

    2007-01-01

    The Rochester Adolescent Maternity Program (RAMP) has incorporated evidence-based oral health guidelines into its prenatal care. These guidelines focus on tracking oral health services, screening and triaging prenatal patients, and providing patient and staff with the education needed to decrease oral health risks to mother, fetus, and baby. The RAMP process serves as a model for promoting quality oral health practices in pregnant teenagers and their babies.

  8. Interprofessional Collaborative Practice: An Oral Health Paradigm for Women.

    PubMed

    Farmer-Dixon, Cherae; Thompson, Machelle Fleming; Young, Daphne; McClure, Stephanie; Halpern, Leslie R

    2016-10-01

    Interprofessional collaborative practice (IPC) is paramount to the future of oral health education. As such, it is critical that today's health care education continues to expand its curriculum to promote oral health as an essential component in the IPC approach to women's health. This article explores models that can be implemented using an IPC framework to foster better approaches in the delivery of care to female patients.

  9. Interprofessional Collaborative Practice: An Oral Health Paradigm for Women.

    PubMed

    Farmer-Dixon, Cherae; Thompson, Machelle Fleming; Young, Daphne; McClure, Stephanie; Halpern, Leslie R

    2016-10-01

    Interprofessional collaborative practice (IPC) is paramount to the future of oral health education. As such, it is critical that today's health care education continues to expand its curriculum to promote oral health as an essential component in the IPC approach to women's health. This article explores models that can be implemented using an IPC framework to foster better approaches in the delivery of care to female patients. PMID:27671958

  10. Who's in charge of children's environmental health at school?

    PubMed

    Paulson, Jerome; Barnett, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Children spend many hours each week in and around school buildings. Their short- and long-term health outcomes and ability to learn are affected by numerous environmental factors related to the school buildings, the school grounds, the school transportation system, and the use of various products and materials in and around the school. Many school buildings are old, and they-and even newer buildings-can contain multiple environmental health hazards. While some districts self-report they have environmental health policies in place, no independent verification of these policies or their quality exists. Teachers and other staff, but not children who are more vulnerable to hazards than adults, are afforded some protections from hazards by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations, by their employment contracts, or through adult occupational health services. Major environmental problems include: indoor air quality, lighting, pests and pesticides, heavy metals and chemical management issues, renovation of occupied buildings, noise, and cleaning processes and products. No agency at the federal or state levels is charged with ensuring children's health and safety in and around school buildings. No systematic means exists for collecting data about exposures which occur in the school setting. Recommendations are made for dealing with issues of data collection, federal actions, state and local actions, and for building the capacity of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-designated and funded Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Units (PEHSU) in responding to and evaluating risks to children's environmental health in schools.

  11. Environmental audit of the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report documents the results of the environmental audit conducted at the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, Environmental Restoration (LEHR-ER) Project at University of California-Davis (UCD), Davis, California. The scope of the audit at the LEHR-ER was comprehensive, addressing environmental activities in the technical areas of air; surface water/drinking water; groundwater and soils/sediment/biota; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; inactive waste sites; radiation; quality assurance; and environmental management. Specifically assessed was the compliance of LEHR-ER operations and activities with Federal, state, and local regulations; DOE Orders; and best management practices (BMPs).

  12. Health-promoting prisons: theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Baybutt, Michelle; Chemlal, Khadoudja

    2016-03-01

    As a setting, prisons offer a unique opportunity to invest in the health of disadvantaged and marginalised populations and address health inequalities and social exclusion - thereby achieving sustainable improvements in well-being for offenders and their families and in turn, helping to reduce rates of re-offending. This article draws on English and French experiences and doctoral research to advocate a shift from a pathogenic model towards a salutogenic model of health as a helpful way to address inequalities and thus, by promoting joined-up working across justice and wider systems, impact positively beyond 'health' for the effective resettlement of prisoners. The paper utilises examples from horticulture to further argue the powerful role of nature in the prison setting in mediating aspects of culture particularly relating to processes of socialisation. Critical success lies in bridging across systems and a commitment to joined-up working at all levels across and beyond prison.

  13. Health-promoting prisons: theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Baybutt, Michelle; Chemlal, Khadoudja

    2016-03-01

    As a setting, prisons offer a unique opportunity to invest in the health of disadvantaged and marginalised populations and address health inequalities and social exclusion - thereby achieving sustainable improvements in well-being for offenders and their families and in turn, helping to reduce rates of re-offending. This article draws on English and French experiences and doctoral research to advocate a shift from a pathogenic model towards a salutogenic model of health as a helpful way to address inequalities and thus, by promoting joined-up working across justice and wider systems, impact positively beyond 'health' for the effective resettlement of prisoners. The paper utilises examples from horticulture to further argue the powerful role of nature in the prison setting in mediating aspects of culture particularly relating to processes of socialisation. Critical success lies in bridging across systems and a commitment to joined-up working at all levels across and beyond prison. PMID:27199019

  14. Environmental ethics and professional practice: A case study of an environmental challenge for century 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, C.

    1995-12-01

    Objective resolution of environmental issues involves questions of facts and values, and, for environmental issues to be resolved ethically, a proper synthesis of environmental facts with questions of ethics must occur. In this case study, the proposal by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to use the Yucca Mountain site in southwest Nevada as a deep geologic repository for the permanent disposal of the nation`s high-level nuclear waste is examined in part in the context of the {open_quotes}Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice for Environmental Professionals{close_quotes} adopted by the National Association of Environmental Professionals (NAEP). Current plans are that a repository at the Yucca Mountain site would begin functioning in 2010 and would be sealed after about 150 years. The requirement that a geologic repository must isolate nuclear waste from the environment for at least 10,000 years poses unique challenges to environmental professionals. This case study also analyzes the challenges in terms of the implications of a new federal Executive Order on Ecosystem Management and corresponding internal orders within all federal agencies to conform to the Executive Order. The imposition of the principles and practices of ecosystem-based resource management on federal agencies provides an opportunity to also address, in the context of the DOE Yucca Mountain Project, (1) the ecosystem approach to environmental management, (2) concepts of holistic resource management planning, and (3) the concepts of sustainability and biodiversity. Within this framework there are important implications for environmental ethics and professional practice that must remain at the forefront of concerns of the NAEP over the next two decades.

  15. [Environmental sustainability and health indicators in the Legal Amazonia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Carlos Machado de; Giatti, Leandro Luiz

    2009-06-01

    One of the challenges for public health is to build systems of indicators that allow monitoring current conditions and trends in environmental and health sustainability. This article focuses on the Legal Amazonia macro-region, which has undergone profound socioeconomic, environmental, and health changes since the mid-20th century. The conceptual framework adopted here was the model entitled Driving Forces, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, and Action (DPSEEA) proposed by the World Health Organization and adopted for environmental health surveillance by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The results show that numerous motor forces and pressures have contributed to the growth of the economy and the population, as well as to improvements in some traditional health indicators (a reduction in infant mortality and an increase in life expectancy), alongside major social and economic inequalities and heterogeneity in environmental health impacts. This same process has been accompanied by environmental changes that indicate an unsustainable development model for present and future generations, demanding comprehensive action by public health and environmental institutions.

  16. Health Literacy Practices and Educational Competencies for Health Professionals: A Consensus Study

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Clifford A.; Hudson, Stan; Maine, Lucinda L.

    2013-01-01

    Health care professionals often lack adequate knowledge about health literacy and the skills needed to address low health literacy among patients and their caregivers. Many promising practices for mitigating the effects of low health literacy are not used consistently. Improving health literacy training for health care professionals has received increasing emphasis in recent years. The development and evaluation of curricula for health professionals has been limited by the lack of agreed-upon educational competencies in this area. This study aimed to identify a set of health literacy educational competencies and target behaviors, or practices, relevant to the training of all health care professionals. The authors conducted a thorough literature review to identify a comprehensive list of potential health literacy competencies and practices, which they categorized into 1 or more educational domains (i.e., knowledge, skills, attitudes) or a practice domain. The authors stated each item in operationalized language following Bloom's Taxonomy. The authors then used a modified Delphi method to identify consensus among a group of 23 health professions education experts representing 11 fields in the health professions. Participants rated their level of agreement as to whether a competency or practice was both appropriate and important for all health professions students. A predetermined threshold of 70% agreement was used to define consensus. After 4 rounds of ratings and modifications, consensus agreement was reached on 62 out of 64 potential educational competencies (24 knowledge items, 27 skill items, and 11 attitude items), and 32 out of 33 potential practices. This study is the first known attempt to develop consensus on a list of health literacy practices and to translate recommended health literacy practices into an agreed-upon set of measurable educational competencies for health professionals. Further work is needed to prioritize the competencies and practices in

  17. Health literacy practices and educational competencies for health professionals: a consensus study.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Clifford A; Hudson, Stan; Maine, Lucinda L

    2013-01-01

    Health care professionals often lack adequate knowledge about health literacy and the skills needed to address low health literacy among patients and their caregivers. Many promising practices for mitigating the effects of low health literacy are not used consistently. Improving health literacy training for health care professionals has received increasing emphasis in recent years. The development and evaluation of curricula for health professionals has been limited by the lack of agreed-upon educational competencies in this area. This study aimed to identify a set of health literacy educational competencies and target behaviors, or practices, relevant to the training of all health care professionals. The authors conducted a thorough literature review to identify a comprehensive list of potential health literacy competencies and practices, which they categorized into 1 or more educational domains (i.e., knowledge, skills, attitudes) or a practice domain. The authors stated each item in operationalized language following Bloom's Taxonomy. The authors then used a modified Delphi method to identify consensus among a group of 23 health professions education experts representing 11 fields in the health professions. Participants rated their level of agreement as to whether a competency or practice was both appropriate and important for all health professions students. A predetermined threshold of 70% agreement was used to define consensus. After 4 rounds of ratings and modifications, consensus agreement was reached on 62 out of 64 potential educational competencies (24 knowledge items, 27 skill items, and 11 attitude items), and 32 out of 33 potential practices. This study is the first known attempt to develop consensus on a list of health literacy practices and to translate recommended health literacy practices into an agreed-upon set of measurable educational competencies for health professionals. Further work is needed to prioritize the competencies and practices in

  18. Volatile Organic Compunds (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  19. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  20. Particulate Matter (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  1. Unmet health care needs for persons with environmental sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Pamela Reed; Kovach, Shannon; Lupfer, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Studies of unmet health care needs have shown that women, people with poor health, and people with lower socioeconomic status are more likely to report having unmet health care needs. In this study, we examined the types of and reasons for unmet health care needs in 465 people with environmental sensitivities. A second area of inquiry involved negative reactions to general anesthesia. Results showed that the most common barriers to receiving care were the inability to find a provider who understands environmental sensitivities and a lack of accessibility due to chemical and electromagnetic exposures in health care environments. Lower income and poorer health (longer illness, a worsening or fluctuating course of illness, and a higher level of disability) were significantly correlated with the total number of reported unmet health care needs. Some people with environmental sensitivities reported having negative reactions to anesthesia of long duration; most common were nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and reduced cognitive ability. PMID:25670904

  2. Children’s Cancer and Environmental Exposures: Professional Attitudes and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Zachek, Christine M.; Hsu, Christopher; Schiffman, Joshua D.; Sallan, Stephen; Metayer, Catherine; Dahl, Gary V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies worldwide have provided substantial evidence of the contributions of environmental exposures to the development of childhood cancer, yet this knowledge has not been integrated into the routine practice of clinicians who care for children with this disease. To identify the basis of this deficit, we sought to assess the environmental history-taking behavior and perceptions of environmental health among pediatric hematologists and oncologists. Procedure: A web-based survey was sent from June to October 2012 to 427 pediatric oncologists, fellows, and nurse practitioners from 20 US institutions, with an overall response rate of 45%. Results: Survey responses indicated that environmental exposures are of concern to clinicians. The vast majority of respondents (88%) reported receiving questions from families about the relationship between certain environmental exposures and the cancers they regularly treat. However, a lack of comfort with these topics seems to have limited their discussions with families about the role of environmental exposures in childhood cancer pathogenesis. Although 77% of respondents suspected that some of the cases they saw had an environmental origin, their methods of taking environmental histories varied widely. Over 90% of respondents believed that more knowledge of the associations between environmental exposures and childhood cancer would be helpful in addressing these issues with patients. Conclusions: Although limited in size and representativeness of participating institutions, the results of this survey indicate a need for increased training for hematology/oncology clinicians about environmental health exposures related to cancer and prompt translation of emerging research findings in biomedical journals that clinicians read. PMID:26334434

  3. Identifying environmental safety and health requirements for the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Beckman, W.H.; Cossel, S.C.; Alhadeff, N.; Porco, D.J.; Lindamood, S.B.; Beers, J.A.

    1994-01-14

    This presentation will describe the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation`s (FERMCO) Standards/Requirements Identification Documents (S/RlDs) Program, the unique process used to implement it, and the status of the program. We will also discuss the lessons learned as the program was implemented. The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Fernald site to produce uranium metals for the nation`s defense programs in 1953. In 1989, DOE suspended production and, in 1991, the mission of the site was formally changed to one of environmental cleanup and restoration. The site was renamed the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). FERMCO`s mission is to provide safe, early, and least-cost final clean-up of the site in compliance with all regulations and commitments. DOE has managed nuclear facilities primarily through its oversight of Management and Operating contractors. Comprehensive nuclear industry standards were absent when most DOE sites were first established, Management and Operating contractors had to apply existing non-nuclear industry standards and, in many cases, formulate new technical standards. Because it was satisfied with the operation of its facilities, DOE did not incorporate modern practices and standards as they became available. In March 1990, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 90-2, which called for DOE to identify relevant standards and requirements, conduct adequacy assessments of requirements in protecting environmental, public, and worker health and safety, and determine the extent to which the requirements are being implemented. The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of DOE embraced the recommendation for facilities under its control. Strict accountability requirements made it essential that FERMCO and DOE clearly identify applicable requirements necessary, determine the requirements` adequacy, and assess FERMCO`s level of compliance.

  4. Practical Nursing, Volume I. Health Occupations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Helen W.; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides teachers with up-to-date information and skill-related applications needed by the practical nurse. The volume contains three sections and 24 instructional units: Personal Vocational Relationships (6 units), Nutrition (3 units), and Basic Nursing Principles and Applied Skills (15 units covering such topics as…

  5. Evaluation and use of epidemiological evidence for environmental health risk assessment: WHO guideline document.

    PubMed Central

    2000-01-01

    Environmental health risk assessment is increasingly being used in the development of environmental health policies, public health decision making, the establishment of environmental regulations, and research planning. The credibility of risk assessment depends, to a large extent, on the strength of the scientific evidence on which it is based. It is, therefore, imperative that the processes and methods used to evaluate the evidence and estimate health risks are clear, explicit, and based on valid epidemiological theory and practice. Epidemiological Evidence for Environmental Health Risk Assessment is a World Health Organization (WHO) guideline document. The primary target audiences of the guidelines are expert review groups that WHO (or other organizations) might convene in the future to evaluate epidemiological evidence on the health effects of environmental factors. These guidelines identify a set of processes and general approaches to assess available epidemiological information in a clear, consistent, and explicit manner. The guidelines should also help in the evaluation of epidemiological studies with respect to their ability to support risk assessment and, consequently, risk management. Conducting expert reviews according to such explicit guidelines would make health risk assessment and subsequent risk management and risk communication processes more readily understood and likely to be accepted by policymakers and the public. It would also make the conclusions reached by reviews more readily acceptable as a basis for future WHO guidelines and other recommendations, and would provide a more rational basis for setting priorities for future research. PMID:11049823

  6. Evaluation and use of epidemiological evidence for environmental health risk assessment: WHO guideline document.

    PubMed

    2000-10-01

    Environmental health risk assessment is increasingly being used in the development of environmental health policies, public health decision making, the establishment of environmental regulations, and research planning. The credibility of risk assessment depends, to a large extent, on the strength of the scientific evidence on which it is based. It is, therefore, imperative that the processes and methods used to evaluate the evidence and estimate health risks are clear, explicit, and based on valid epidemiological theory and practice. Epidemiological Evidence for Environmental Health Risk Assessment is a World Health Organization (WHO) guideline document. The primary target audiences of the guidelines are expert review groups that WHO (or other organizations) might convene in the future to evaluate epidemiological evidence on the health effects of environmental factors. These guidelines identify a set of processes and general approaches to assess available epidemiological information in a clear, consistent, and explicit manner. The guidelines should also help in the evaluation of epidemiological studies with respect to their ability to support risk assessment and, consequently, risk management. Conducting expert reviews according to such explicit guidelines would make health risk assessment and subsequent risk management and risk communication processes more readily understood and likely to be accepted by policymakers and the public. It would also make the conclusions reached by reviews more readily acceptable as a basis for future WHO guidelines and other recommendations, and would provide a more rational basis for setting priorities for future research. PMID:11049823

  7. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for maleic anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for maleic anhydride was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human-health, aquatic-life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Maleic anhydride has been determined to be a systemic toxicant. An Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), for maleic anhydride is 0.10 mg/kg/day for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value for maleic anhydride is 100.

  8. Mental health triage: towards a model for nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Sands, N

    2007-05-01

    Mental health triage/duty services play a pivotal role in the current framework for mental health service delivery in Victoria and other states of Australia. Australia is not alone in its increasing reliance on mental health triage as a model of psychiatric service provision; at a global level, there appears to be an emerging trend to utilize mental health triage services staffed by nurses as a cost-effective means of providing mental health care to large populations. At present, nurses comprise the greater proportion of the mental health triage workforce in Victoria and, as such, are performing the majority of point-of-entry mental health assessment across the state. Although mental health triage/duty services have been operational for nearly a decade in some regional healthcare sectors of Victoria, there is little local or international research on the topic, and therefore a paucity of established theory to inform and guide mental health triage practice and professional development. The discussion in this paper draws on the findings and recommendations of PhD research into mental health triage nursing in Victoria, to raise discussion on the need to develop theoretical models to inform and guide nursing practice. The paper concludes by presenting a provisional model for mental health triage nursing practice.

  9. Redesigning Health Care Practices to Address Childhood Poverty.

    PubMed

    Fierman, Arthur H; Beck, Andrew F; Chung, Esther K; Tschudy, Megan M; Coker, Tumaini R; Mistry, Kamila B; Siegel, Benjamin; Chamberlain, Lisa J; Conroy, Kathleen; Federico, Steven G; Flanagan, Patricia J; Garg, Arvin; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Grace, Aimee M; Gross, Rachel S; Hole, Michael K; Klass, Perri; Kraft, Colleen; Kuo, Alice; Lewis, Gena; Lobach, Katherine S; Long, Dayna; Ma, Christine T; Messito, Mary; Navsaria, Dipesh; Northrip, Kimberley R; Osman, Cynthia; Sadof, Matthew D; Schickedanz, Adam B; Cox, Joanne

    2016-04-01

    Child poverty in the United States is widespread and has serious negative effects on the health and well-being of children throughout their life course. Child health providers are considering ways to redesign their practices in order to mitigate the negative effects of poverty on children and support the efforts of families to lift themselves out of poverty. To do so, practices need to adopt effective methods to identify poverty-related social determinants of health and provide effective interventions to address them. Identification of needs can be accomplished with a variety of established screening tools. Interventions may include resource directories, best maintained in collaboration with local/regional public health, community, and/or professional organizations; programs embedded in the practice (eg, Reach Out and Read, Healthy Steps for Young Children, Medical-Legal Partnership, Health Leads); and collaboration with home visiting programs. Changes to health care financing are needed to support the delivery of these enhanced services, and active advocacy by child health providers continues to be important in effecting change. We highlight the ongoing work of the Health Care Delivery Subcommittee of the Academic Pediatric Association Task Force on Child Poverty in defining the ways in which child health care practice can be adapted to improve the approach to addressing child poverty.

  10. Redesigning Health Care Practices to Address Childhood Poverty.

    PubMed

    Fierman, Arthur H; Beck, Andrew F; Chung, Esther K; Tschudy, Megan M; Coker, Tumaini R; Mistry, Kamila B; Siegel, Benjamin; Chamberlain, Lisa J; Conroy, Kathleen; Federico, Steven G; Flanagan, Patricia J; Garg, Arvin; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Grace, Aimee M; Gross, Rachel S; Hole, Michael K; Klass, Perri; Kraft, Colleen; Kuo, Alice; Lewis, Gena; Lobach, Katherine S; Long, Dayna; Ma, Christine T; Messito, Mary; Navsaria, Dipesh; Northrip, Kimberley R; Osman, Cynthia; Sadof, Matthew D; Schickedanz, Adam B; Cox, Joanne

    2016-04-01

    Child poverty in the United States is widespread and has serious negative effects on the health and well-being of children throughout their life course. Child health providers are considering ways to redesign their practices in order to mitigate the negative effects of poverty on children and support the efforts of families to lift themselves out of poverty. To do so, practices need to adopt effective methods to identify poverty-related social determinants of health and provide effective interventions to address them. Identification of needs can be accomplished with a variety of established screening tools. Interventions may include resource directories, best maintained in collaboration with local/regional public health, community, and/or professional organizations; programs embedded in the practice (eg, Reach Out and Read, Healthy Steps for Young Children, Medical-Legal Partnership, Health Leads); and collaboration with home visiting programs. Changes to health care financing are needed to support the delivery of these enhanced services, and active advocacy by child health providers continues to be important in effecting change. We highlight the ongoing work of the Health Care Delivery Subcommittee of the Academic Pediatric Association Task Force on Child Poverty in defining the ways in which child health care practice can be adapted to improve the approach to addressing child poverty. PMID:27044692

  11. Canadian community pharmacists’ use of digital health technologies in practice

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Valerie; Tharmalingam, Sukirtha; Cooper, Janet; Charlebois, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Background: In 2010, a pan-Canadian study on the current state and benefits of provincial drug information systems (DIS) found that substantial benefits were being realized and that pharmacists perceived DIS to be a valuable tool in the evolving models of pharmacy practice. To understand changes in digital health and the impact on practice since that time, a survey of community pharmacists in Canada was conducted. Methods: In 2014, Canada Health Infoway (Infoway) and the Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA) invited community pharmacists to participate in a Web-based survey to understand their use and perceived benefits of digital health in practice. The survey was open from April 15 to May 12, 2014. Results: Of the 447 survey responses, almost all used some form of digital health in practice. Those with access to DIS and provincial laboratory information systems (LIS) reported increased productivity and better quality of care. Those without access to these systems would overwhelmingly like access. Discussion: There have been significant advances in digital health and community pharmacy practice over the past several years. In addition to digital health benefits in the areas of productivity and quality of care, pharmacists are also experiencing substantial benefits in areas related to recently expanded scope of practice activities such as ordering lab tests. Conclusion: Community pharmacists frequently use digital health in practice and recognize the benefits of these technologies. Digital health is, and will continue to be, a key enabler for practice transformation and improved quality of care. Can Pharm J (Ott) 2016;149:xx-xx. PMID:26798376

  12. Beyond the sick role: situating community health nursing practice.

    PubMed

    St John, W

    1999-01-01

    This grounded theory research into the role of the community health nurse in Australia identified that moving from the comfort and structure of an institutional setting to the client's turf results in profound changes to the purpose of nursing practice. Data were collected from 17 'excellent' community health nurses practising in a range of community health settings in three states of Australia. Data included transcripts from in-depth interviews, questionnaires, group discussions with participants, job descriptions, agency documentation, professional organisation documentation and focus groups. Data were analysed using constant comparative techniques. In community health nursing practice, the client's role changes from a sick role to a well role and there is a shift in responsibility for outcomes from the nurse to the client. The central purpose of the community health nursing role is to facilitate Situated Health Competence, which the client achieves within the context of going about their everyday life, including work, recreation, relationships and role responsibilities. Situated Health Competence requires families, groups and communities to address their own illnesses, health problems, health issues and health behaviours; have enough knowledge and power to make their own decisions; question matters that impact on their health; and seek out and access appropriate health resources on an ongoing basis. The findings of this study make the intangible motivations of the community health nurse more explicit. The aim of facilitating Situated Health Competence results in an expanded view of the boundaries of nursing practice. The traditional foci of nursing practice are still present, but are incorporated within a broader 'situated' role.

  13. Efficacy of Environmental Health E-Training for Journalists

    PubMed Central

    Parin, Megan L.; Yancey, Elissa; Beidler, Caroline; Haynes, Erin N.

    2015-01-01

    Communities report a low level of trust in environmental health media coverage. In order to support risk communication objectives, the goals of the research study were to identify whether or not there is a gap in environmental reporting training for journalists, to outline journalists’ methods for gathering environmental health news, to observe journalists’ attitudes toward environmental health training and communication, and to determine if electronic training (online/e-training) can effectively train journalists in environmental health topics. The results indicated that environmental journalists have very little to no formal environmental journalism training. In addition, a significant percentage of journalists do not have any formal journalism education. Respondents most preferred to receive continuing environmental journalism training online. Online instruction was also perceived as effective in increasing knowledge and providing necessary reporting tools, even among participants adverse to online instructional methods. Our findings highlight the changing media climate’s need for an increase in electronic journalism education opportunities to support environmental health journalism competencies among working professional journalists. PMID:26998499

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH INDICATORS AT UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has recently published two different indicators reports, America's Children and the Environment (ACE) and the Draft Report on the Environment (see: http://www.epa.gov/indicators/ and http://www.epa.gov/envirohealth/children/). ACE...

  15. Scientific advances provide opportunities to improve pediatric environmental health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.; Reddy, Micaela B.; Reddy, Carol F.

    2004-01-01

    The health consequences of contaminants in the environment, with respect to the health of children and infants, recently have been dramatically brought to public attention by the motion pictures Erin Brockovich and A Civil Action. These productions focused public attention on the potential link between water contaminants and pediatric health, a continuing subject of public concern. As a consequence of the increasing production of new commercial chemicals, many chemicals have appeared in the scientific and public awareness as potential threats to health. These new or novel compounds eventually distribute in the environment and often are termed emerging contaminants. Gitterman and Bearer stated, "Children may serve as unwitting sentinels for society; they are often the youngest exposed to many environmental toxicants and may become the youngest in age to manifest adverse responses." The discipline of pediatric environmental health is still in its adolescence, but it will be increasingly important as new chemicals are generated and as more is learned about the health effects of chemicals already in commerce. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in biomonitoring and environmental monitoring of environmental contaminants including emerging contaminants. Our purpose in writing this commentary is to make pediatricians aware of the current resources available for learning about pediatric environmental health and of ongoing research initiatives that provide opportunities to improve pediatric environmental health.

  16. The challenges of communicating research evidence in practice: perspectives from UK health visitors and practice nurses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health practitioners play a pivotal role in providing patients with up-to-date evidence and health information. Evidence-based practice and patient-centred care are transforming the delivery of healthcare in the UK. Health practitioners are increasingly balancing the need to provide evidence-based information against that of facilitating patient choice, which may not always concur with the evidence base. There is limited research exploring how health practitioners working in the UK, and particularly those more autonomous practitioners such as health visitors and practice nurses working in community practice settings, negotiate this challenge. This research provides a descriptive account of how health visitors and practice nurses negotiate the challenges of communicating health information and research evidence in practice. Methods A total of eighteen in-depth telephone interviews were conducted in the UK between September 2008 and May 2009. The participants comprised nine health visitors and nine practice nurses, recruited via adverts on a nursing website, posters at a practitioner conference and through recommendation. Thematic analysis, with a focus on constant comparative method, was used to analyse the data. Results The data were grouped into three main themes: communicating evidence to the critically-minded patient; confidence in communicating evidence; and maintaining the integrity of the patient-practitioner relationship. These findings highlight some of the daily challenges that health visitors and practice nurses face with regard to the complex and dynamic nature of evidence and the changing attitudes and expectations of patients. The findings also highlight the tensions that exist between differing philosophies of evidence-based practice and patient-centred care, which can make communicating about evidence a daunting task. Conclusions If health practitioners are to be effective at communicating research evidence, we suggest that more research

  17. Health Education 2.0: The Next Generation of Health Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Jonathan E.

    2013-01-01

    Social, physical, and economic environments are the greatest determinants of our individual and collective health. Inadequate or substandard environments of all types present barriers to health. Addressing these broader determinants will be the quintessential core in the next era of public health practice. The framework for health improvement is…

  18. Secondary Education Through Health -- environmental health curriculum: A Superfund science literacy outreach project

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, L.R.

    1996-12-31

    Inner-city high school students are disproportionately affected by health problems that stem from environmental conditions. Also, they are not adequately prepared in Science -- especially in the concepts, methods, and procedures of environmental-health science research -- and are generally unaware of the career opportunities in this field. A Superfund program was developed to increase Science literacy and expand career knowledge in environmental health among a cohort of minority high school students from New York City. The year-round program features lectures, laboratory tours, seminars, investigations, and research taught by faculty and Superfund investigators at Mount Sinai`s Environmental Health Sciences Center. The students made remarkable progress in terms of gaining environmental health knowledge, laboratory and scientific research skills, and awareness of environmental health careers.

  19. Meditation practice as related to occupational stress, health and productivity.

    PubMed

    Delmonte, M M

    1984-10-01

    This article reviews three studies giving evidence on the effects of meditation practice on employees' health in the work setting. Although there may be a beneficial role for meditation, unfortunately, these findings await further replication so it would be premature to conclude that meditation practice reduces occupational stress.

  20. 7 CFR 205.238 - Livestock health care practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Livestock health care practice standard. 205.238 Section 205.238 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  1. 7 CFR 205.238 - Livestock health care practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Livestock health care practice standard. 205.238 Section 205.238 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  2. Health Effects of Climate Change (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  3. Returning to health visiting practice: completing the circle.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Stephen; Anto-Awuakye, Sandra; Bryar, Rosamund; Trivedi, Seema G

    2012-09-01

    One strategic health authority, NHS London, initiated a pilot return to health visiting/nursing practice scheme in London in 2010. This paper reports on the experiences of the first three cohorts of returnees on the City University London programme, one of the London programmes, and the adaptations that have been made to the programme to help provide returnees with the theory base and practice experience to equip them to work in today's health visiting. Written evaluation forms were completed by the returnees and information gathered from their application forms. This information was supplemented for Cohort 1 with some interviews with practice teachers and lecturers and a mid-stage questionnaire to the returnees. Of the 54 students in the three cohorts over half were still on one or both Nursing and Midwifery Council registers, which had not been anticipated at the start of the programme and led to modifications to the programme after Cohort 1 with an increase in the health visiting specific content. The returnees had a wide range of experience to bring back to health visiting reflecting the fact that a large number had been out of health visiting for more than 11 years. The evaluation shows that providing support by the university to the practice placement areas; ensuring that the taught element is current and useful to health visiting practice and having a relevant but not too onerous assessment process are critical.

  4. Returning to health visiting practice: completing the circle.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Stephen; Anto-Awuakye, Sandra; Bryar, Rosamund; Trivedi, Seema G

    2012-09-01

    One strategic health authority, NHS London, initiated a pilot return to health visiting/nursing practice scheme in London in 2010. This paper reports on the experiences of the first three cohorts of returnees on the City University London programme, one of the London programmes, and the adaptations that have been made to the programme to help provide returnees with the theory base and practice experience to equip them to work in today's health visiting. Written evaluation forms were completed by the returnees and information gathered from their application forms. This information was supplemented for Cohort 1 with some interviews with practice teachers and lecturers and a mid-stage questionnaire to the returnees. Of the 54 students in the three cohorts over half were still on one or both Nursing and Midwifery Council registers, which had not been anticipated at the start of the programme and led to modifications to the programme after Cohort 1 with an increase in the health visiting specific content. The returnees had a wide range of experience to bring back to health visiting reflecting the fact that a large number had been out of health visiting for more than 11 years. The evaluation shows that providing support by the university to the practice placement areas; ensuring that the taught element is current and useful to health visiting practice and having a relevant but not too onerous assessment process are critical. PMID:23029774

  5. Environmental Effects on Public Health: An Economic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Remoundou, Kyriaki; Koundouri, Phoebe

    2009-01-01

    In this article we critically review the economic literature on the effects of environmental changes on public health, in both the developed and the developing world. We first focus on the economic methodologies that are available for the evaluation of the effects (social costs and benefits) of environmental changes (degradation/preservation) on public health. Then, we explain how the monetary valuations of these effects can feed back in the construction of economic policy for creating agent-specific incentives for more efficient public health management, which is also equitable and environmentally sustainable. Our exposition is accompanied by a synthesis of the available quantitative empirical results. PMID:19742153

  6. Integrating mental health and social development in theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Plagerson, Sophie

    2015-03-01

    In many low and middle income countries, attention to mental illness remains compartmentalized and consigned as a matter for specialist policy. Despite great advances in global mental health, mental health policy and practice dovetail only to a limited degree with social development efforts. They often lag behind broader approaches to health and development. This gap ignores the small but growing evidence that social development unavoidably impacts the mental health of those affected, and that this influence can be both positive and negative. This article examines the theoretical and practical challenges that need to be overcome for a more effective integration of social development and mental health policy. From a theoretical perspective, this article demonstrates compatibility between social development and mental health paradigms. In particular, the capability approach is shown to provide a strong framework for integrating mental health and development. Yet, capability-oriented critiques on 'happiness' have recently been applied to mental health with potentially detrimental outcomes. With regard to policy and practice, horizontal and vertical integration strategies are suggested. Horizontal strategies require stronger devolution of mental health care to the primary care level, more unified messages regarding mental health care provision and the gradual expansion of mental health packages of care. Vertical integration refers to the alignment of mental health with related policy domains (particularly the social, economic and political domains). Evidence from mental health research reinforces aspects of social development theory in a way that can have tangible implications on practice. First, it encourages a focus on avoiding exclusion of those affected by or at risk of mental illness. Secondly, it underscores the importance of the process of implementation as an integral component of successful policies. Finally, by retaining a focus on the individual, it seeks to

  7. Is universal health coverage the practical expression of the right to health care?

    PubMed

    Ooms, Gorik; Latif, Laila A; Waris, Attiya; Brolan, Claire E; Hammonds, Rachel; Friedman, Eric A; Mulumba, Moses; Forman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The present Millennium Development Goals are set to expire in 2015 and their next iteration is now being discussed within the international community. With regards to health, the World Health Organization proposes universal health coverage as a 'single overarching health goal' for the next iteration of the Millennium Development Goals.The present Millennium Development Goals have been criticised for being 'duplicative' or even 'competing alternatives' to international human rights law. The question then arises, if universal health coverage would indeed become the single overarching health goal, replacing the present health-related Millennium Development Goals, would that be more consistent with the right to health? The World Health Organization seems to have anticipated the question, as it labels universal health coverage as "by definition, a practical expression of the concern for health equity and the right to health".Rather than waiting for the negotiations to unfold, we thought it would be useful to verify this contention, using a comparative normative analysis. We found that--to be a practical expression of the right to health--at least one element is missing in present authoritative definitions of universal health coverage: a straightforward confirmation that international assistance is essential, not optional.But universal health coverage is a 'work in progress'. A recent proposal by the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network proposed universal health coverage with a set of targets, including a target for international assistance, which would turn universal health coverage into a practical expression of the right to health care. PMID:24559232

  8. The TERRA framework: conceptualizing rural environmental health inequities through an environmental justice lens.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Patricia; Postma, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The deleterious consequences of environmentally associated diseases are expressed differentially by income, race, and geography. Scientists are just beginning to understand the consequences of environmental exposures under conditions of poverty, marginalization, and geographic isolation. In this context, we developed the TERRA (translational environmental research in rural areas) framework to explicate environmental health risks experienced by the rural poor. Central to the TERRA framework is the premise that risks exist within physical-spatial, economic-resources, and cultural-ideologic contexts. In the face of scientific and political uncertainty, a precautionary risk reduction approach has the greatest potential to protect health. Conceptual and technical advances will both be needed to achieve environmental justice.

  9. Environmental Public Health Applications Using Remotely Sensed Data

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Crosson, William L.; Economou, Sigrid A.; Estes, Maurice G.; Estes, Sue M.; Hemmings, Sarah N.; Kent, Shia T.; Puckett, Mark; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Wade, Gina M.; McClure, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a remote sensing and GIS-based study that has three objectives: (1) characterize fine particulate matter (PM2.5), insolation and land surface temperature using NASA satellite observations, EPA ground-level monitor data and North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data products on a national scale; (2) link these data with public health data from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline, stroke and other health outcomes; and (3) disseminate the environmental datasets and public health linkage analyses to end users for decision-making through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system. This study directly addresses a public health focus of the NASA Applied Sciences Program, utilization of Earth Sciences products, by addressing issues of environmental health to enhance public health decision-making. PMID:24910505

  10. Environmental Public Health Applications Using Remotely Sensed Data.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z; Crosson, William L; Economou, Sigrid A; Estes, Maurice G; Estes, Sue M; Hemmings, Sarah N; Kent, Shia T; Puckett, Mark; Quattrochi, Dale A; Rickman, Douglas L; Wade, Gina M; McClure, Leslie A

    2014-01-01

    We describe a remote sensing and GIS-based study that has three objectives: (1) characterize fine particulate matter (PM2.5), insolation and land surface temperature using NASA satellite observations, EPA ground-level monitor data and North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data products on a national scale; (2) link these data with public health data from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline, stroke and other health outcomes; and (3) disseminate the environmental datasets and public health linkage analyses to end users for decision-making through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system. This study directly addresses a public health focus of the NASA Applied Sciences Program, utilization of Earth Sciences products, by addressing issues of environmental health to enhance public health decision-making. PMID:24910505

  11. Ethics for environmental health research: the case of the U.S. Nuclear weapons industry.

    PubMed

    Wing, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Exploitation of workers and communities based on class and race has profoundly influenced occupational and environmental health. During production and testing of nuclear weapons in the United States, class and race have affected exposures to radiation and other hazards as well as protection programs and monitoring of exposures. This situation has contributed to health disparities and has hindered advancement of research into the health effects of ionizing radiation and other exposures from nuclear weapons production. Organizing by workers and affected communities can bring about a better understanding of the health effects of ionizing radiation as well as more ethical research practices.

  12. Environmental assessment and exposure reduction of cockroaches: a practice parameter.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, Jay; Chew, Ginger L; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Williams, P Brock; Grimes, Carl; Kennedy, Kevin; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Miller, J David; Bernstein, David; Blessing-Moore, Joann; Cox, Linda; Khan, David; Lang, David; Nicklas, Richard; Oppenheimer, John; Randolph, Christopher; Schuller, Diane; Spector, Sheldon; Tilles, Stephen A; Wallace, Dana; Seltzer, James; Sublett, James

    2013-10-01

    This parameter was developed by the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters, representing the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI); the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI); and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. The AAAAI and the ACAAI have jointly accepted responsibility for establishing "Environmental assessment and remediation: a practice parameter." This is a complete and comprehensive document at the current time. The medical environment is a changing environment, and not all recommendations will be appropriate for all patients. Because this document incorporated the efforts of many participants, no single person, including those who served on the Joint Task Force, is authorized to provide an official AAAAI or ACAAI interpretation of these practice parameters. Any request for information about or an interpretation of these practice parameters by the AAAAI or ACAAI should be directed to the Executive Offices of the AAAAI, the ACAAI, and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. These parameters are not designed for use by pharmaceutical companies in drug promotion. The findings and conclusions in this manuscript are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

  13. Environmental assessment and exposure reduction of cockroaches: A practice parameter

    PubMed Central

    Portnoy, Jay; Chew, Ginger L.; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Williams, P. Brock; Grimes, Carl; Kennedy, Kevin; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Miller, J. David; Bernstein, David; Blessing-Moore, Joann; Cox, Linda; Khan, David; Lang, David; Nicklas, Richard; Oppenheimer, John; Randolph, Christopher; Schuller, Diane; Spector, Sheldon; Tilles, Stephen A.; Wallace, Dana; Seltzer, James; Sublett, James

    2013-01-01

    This parameter was developed by the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters, representing the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI); the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI); and the joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. The AAAAI and the ACAAI have jointly accepted responsibility for establishing “Environmental assessment and remediation: a practice parameter.” This is a complete and comprehensive document at the current time. The medical environment is a changing environment, and not all recommendations will be appropriate for all patients. Because this document incorporated the efforts of many participants, no single person, including those who served on the Joint Task Force, is authorized to provide an official AAAAI or ACAAI interpretation of these practice parameters. Any request for information about or an interpretation of these practice parameters by the AAAAI or ACAAI should be directed to the Executive Offices of the AAAAI, the ACAAI, and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. These parameters are not designed for use by pharmaceutical companies in drug promotion. The findings and conclusions in this manuscript are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PMID:23938214

  14. Urban ecosystem health assessment: perspectives and Chinese practice.

    PubMed

    Su, Meirong; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Gengyuan; Xu, Linyu; Zhang, Lixiao; Yang, Zhifeng

    2013-11-06

    The concept of ecosystem health is a way to assess the holistic operations and development potential of urban ecosystems. Accelerated by the practical need for integrated ecosystem management, assessment of urban ecosystem health has been greatly developed and extensively applied in urban planning and management. Development is aimed at comprehensively evaluating the performance of urban ecosystems, identifying the limiting factors, and providing suggestions for urban regulation. The time has come for reviewing and establishing an instructional framework for urban ecosystem health assessment to shed light on certain essential issues of urban ecosystem health. Based on literature reviews and series of practice, a holistic framework of urban ecosystem health assessment is proposed. The framework covers the essential elements of urban ecosystem health and integrates three dimensions: theoretical foundation, assessment method, and practical application. Concrete assessment methods are also established, focusing on both external performance and internal metabolic processes. The practice of urban ecosystem health assessment in China is illustrated to briefly demonstrate the application of the established framework and methods. Some prospects are discussed for urban ecosystem health assessment and its application in urban planning and management.

  15. Licensed Practical Nurses in Occupational Health. An Initial Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jane A.; And Others

    The study, conducted in 1971, assessed characteristics of licensed practical nurses (LPN's) who worked in occupational health nursing. The survey instrument, a questionnaire, was returned by 591 LPN's in occupational health and provided data related to: personal characteristics, work and setting, administrative and professional functioning,…

  16. Urban Ecosystem Health Assessment: Perspectives and Chinese Practice

    PubMed Central

    Su, Meirong; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Gengyuan; Xu, Linyu; Zhang, Lixiao; Yang, Zhifeng

    2013-01-01

    The concept of ecosystem health is a way to assess the holistic operations and development potential of urban ecosystems. Accelerated by the practical need for integrated ecosystem management, assessment of urban ecosystem health has been greatly developed and extensively applied in urban planning and management. Development is aimed at comprehensively evaluating the performance of urban ecosystems, identifying the limiting factors, and providing suggestions for urban regulation. The time has come for reviewing and establishing an instructional framework for urban ecosystem health assessment to shed light on certain essential issues of urban ecosystem health. Based on literature reviews and series of practice, a holistic framework of urban ecosystem health assessment is proposed. The framework covers the essential elements of urban ecosystem health and integrates three dimensions: theoretical foundation, assessment method, and practical application. Concrete assessment methods are also established, focusing on both external performance and internal metabolic processes. The practice of urban ecosystem health assessment in China is illustrated to briefly demonstrate the application of the established framework and methods. Some prospects are discussed for urban ecosystem health assessment and its application in urban planning and management. PMID:24201094

  17. Realities of mental health nursing practice in rural Australia.

    PubMed

    John Crowther, Andrew; Theresa Ragusa, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Mental health nursing as a distinct speciality has been in decline in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, for two decades. Arguably, this decline has worsened both consumer outcomes and the workplace experiences of mental health nurses. This article reports on a study designed to ascertain the nature of contemporary mental health nursing practice in New South Wales. The study utilised focus group research methodology, with participants recounting the realities of their day-to-day professional practice and perceptions of their professional identity. The findings indicate a contracting, if not moribund, profession; a decrease in the value attached to mental health nursing; and a pattern of persistent underfunding by successive governments of mental health services. An analysis of present and historical trends reveals there is a pressing need for a restructure and re-formation of mental health nursing in rural areas. This article links the shortage of mental health nurses in NSW to the closure of the mental health nursing register, a shift to comprehensive/generalist nurse education models, a perceived lack of nurses' professional standing, and natural attrition without suitably qualified replacements. Mental health nurses in this study perceived that they were not valued by other health professionals or by their own managers. Participants in this study reported mental health nursing in rural areas was an unattractive career choice. These findings are important to the understanding of recruitment and retention issues in rural mental health nursing in Australia.

  18. Realities of mental health nursing practice in rural Australia.

    PubMed

    John Crowther, Andrew; Theresa Ragusa, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Mental health nursing as a distinct speciality has been in decline in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, for two decades. Arguably, this decline has worsened both consumer outcomes and the workplace experiences of mental health nurses. This article reports on a study designed to ascertain the nature of contemporary mental health nursing practice in New South Wales. The study utilised focus group research methodology, with participants recounting the realities of their day-to-day professional practice and perceptions of their professional identity. The findings indicate a contracting, if not moribund, profession; a decrease in the value attached to mental health nursing; and a pattern of persistent underfunding by successive governments of mental health services. An analysis of present and historical trends reveals there is a pressing need for a restructure and re-formation of mental health nursing in rural areas. This article links the shortage of mental health nurses in NSW to the closure of the mental health nursing register, a shift to comprehensive/generalist nurse education models, a perceived lack of nurses' professional standing, and natural attrition without suitably qualified replacements. Mental health nurses in this study perceived that they were not valued by other health professionals or by their own managers. Participants in this study reported mental health nursing in rural areas was an unattractive career choice. These findings are important to the understanding of recruitment and retention issues in rural mental health nursing in Australia. PMID:21767253

  19. Addressing environmental health concerns near Trecatti landfill site, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Fielder, H M; Palmer, S R; Poon-King, C; Moss, N; Coleman, G

    2001-01-01

    Residents near the Trecatti landfill site located in South Wales, United Kingdom, expressed concern about odors and health effects they attributed to site emissions. The authors compared routinely collected, population-based, health data from potentially exposed electoral wards (i.e., United Kingdom electoral tracts) with data from both wards nearby, matched for socioeconomic deprivation scores, and with wards where residents were likely to attend the same hospital. Mortality rates were higher for all causes and neoplastic diseases (but not respiratory disease) in the exposed wards, but there was no change in rates after the site opened. Hospital data revealed a transient increase in admissions for asthma during the 3 yr that preceded the peak in odor complaints. The birth prevalence of congenital malformations was raised in the exposed wards, but the authors could not exclude a possible artifact resulting from differences in reporting practices between hospitals. The absence of environmental monitoring in the community during the period of public concern was a significant weakness of this study. PMID:11958553

  20. Addressing environmental health concerns near Trecatti landfill site, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Fielder, H M; Palmer, S R; Poon-King, C; Moss, N; Coleman, G

    2001-01-01

    Residents near the Trecatti landfill site located in South Wales, United Kingdom, expressed concern about odors and health effects they attributed to site emissions. The authors compared routinely collected, population-based, health data from potentially exposed electoral wards (i.e., United Kingdom electoral tracts) with data from both wards nearby, matched for socioeconomic deprivation scores, and with wards where residents were likely to attend the same hospital. Mortality rates were higher for all causes and neoplastic diseases (but not respiratory disease) in the exposed wards, but there was no change in rates after the site opened. Hospital data revealed a transient increase in admissions for asthma during the 3 yr that preceded the peak in odor complaints. The birth prevalence of congenital malformations was raised in the exposed wards, but the authors could not exclude a possible artifact resulting from differences in reporting practices between hospitals. The absence of environmental monitoring in the community during the period of public concern was a significant weakness of this study.

  1. [Students awareness of health teaching: evaluation of "health education" course and the occupational health nursing practice].

    PubMed

    Horikawa, Junko; Majima, Yukie; Ishihara, Itsuko

    2003-09-01

    The "health education" course is an important part of the baccalaureate curriculum in nursing. It is essential to teach students effective health education in a client oriented way. In order to improve the quality and content of this course, we extracted students descriptions from records of 44 students who had carried out group health education during nursing practice for the occupational health nursing course. We then analyzed students written sentences on their views concerning health teaching. After sentence analysis, we categorized these concepts into groups and titled them. The results of clarification of categories showed that the most common student awareness was in regard to technical and instructional skills, such as precise and suitable language selection for laymen, and utilization of teaching devices or mediums, during implementation of health teaching(43.6%). Secondly, assessment of health needs for a certain working population(10.3%), and effective teaching types such as instructional participant volunteers and full participation(9.2%) were deemed important. Thirdly, identification of the role of the occupational nurse(7.7%), and lastly the necessity of evaluation(2.3%) were considered necessary. Over all, in this study we found that students were most concerned about the instructional skills during the presentation of health education. Also, these results suggest that development of contents in the "health education" course to reinforce students assessment and evaluative abilities should be incorporated into the course. Furthermore, faculties who teach a "health education" course should provide a large variety of teaching materials and creative instructional methods for the students.

  2. Important interactional strategies for everyday public health nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Porr, Caroline J

    2015-01-01

    This Clinical Concepts article concerns the relational tools required by public health nurses to establish relationships with single mothers living on public assistance, mothers who are vulnerable and often stigmatized. The implications of stigmatization for relationship building are highlighted based on previous research investigating how public health nurses working in Canadian jurisdictions establish professional caring relationships with this cohort of mothers. Public health nurses employed interactional strategies including engaging in a positive manner and offering verbal commendations which served as effective relational tools to break through mothers' walls of defensiveness and to resume the dynamic process of relationship building. Building Relationship is a key practice standard for public health nurses and is instrumental to their work at both individual and community levels to improve social determinants of health. The author concludes with recommendations to facilitate building relationships during everyday public health nursing practice.

  3. Migration, environmental hazards, and health outcomes in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Chen, Shuo; Landry, Pierre F

    2013-03-01

    China's rapid economic growth has had a serious impact on the environment. Environmental hazards are major sources of health risk factors. The migration of over 200 million people to heavily polluted urban areas is likely to be significantly detrimental to health. Based on data from the 2009 national household survey "Chinese Attitudes toward Inequality and Distributive Injustice" (N = 2866) and various county-level and municipal indicators, we investigate the disparities in subjective exposure to environmental hazards and associated health outcomes in China. This study focuses particularly on migration-residency status and county-level socio-economic development. We employ multiple regressions that account for the complex multi-stage survey design to assess the associations between perceived environmental hazards and individual and county-level indicators and between perceived environmental hazards and health outcomes, controlling for physical and social environments at multiple levels. We find that perceived environmental hazards are associated with county-level industrialization and economic development: respondents living in more industrialized counties report greater exposure to environmental hazards. Rural-to-urban migrants are exposed to more water pollution and a higher measure of overall environmental hazard. Perceived environmental risk factors severely affect the physical and mental health of the respondents. The negative effects of perceived overall environmental hazard on physical health are more detrimental for rural-to-urban migrants than for urban residents. The research findings call for restructuring the household registration system in order to equalize access to public services and mitigate adverse environmental health effects, particularly among the migrant population.

  4. Public Health Information Systems: Priorities and Practices for Successful Deployments.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A fast paced workshop designed for senior public health decision makers and clinical leaders implementing information systems to support delivery of public health programs. The tutorial will introduce public health information systems and provide best practices for implementing solutions related to immunization, communicable disease case management and outbreak management. Using a combination of formats, the tutorial will: • Highlight key functionality of public health information systems. • Review global crises currently exposing gaps and deficiencies in public health information. • Examine governance, planning, and implementation priorities. • Highlight considerations supporting implementations nationally and in special populations. • Provide real, actionable lessons learned to take away and apply in the real world. PMID:27332303

  5. Advancing the Practice of Health Coaching: Differentiation From Wellness Coaching.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Melinda H

    2016-09-01

    The increasing demand for health coaches and wellness coaches in worksite health promotion and the marketplace has resulted in a plethora of training programs with wide variations in coaching definitions, content, attributes, and eligibility of those who may train. It is in the interest of public awareness and safety that those in clinical practice take the lead in this discussion and offer a reasonable contrast and comparison focusing on the risks and responsibilities of health coaching in particular. With the endorsement of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAOHN), the National Society of Health Coaches, whose membership is primarily nurses, discusses the issue and states its position here. PMID:27174131

  6. Advancing the Practice of Health Coaching: Differentiation From Wellness Coaching.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Melinda H

    2016-09-01

    The increasing demand for health coaches and wellness coaches in worksite health promotion and the marketplace has resulted in a plethora of training programs with wide variations in coaching definitions, content, attributes, and eligibility of those who may train. It is in the interest of public awareness and safety that those in clinical practice take the lead in this discussion and offer a reasonable contrast and comparison focusing on the risks and responsibilities of health coaching in particular. With the endorsement of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAOHN), the National Society of Health Coaches, whose membership is primarily nurses, discusses the issue and states its position here.

  7. Effect of an environmental health educational programme for paediatricians in an Egyptian University Hospital: before and after study

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Reem A; Alghobashy, Ashgan A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To study the effect of an educational intervention on paediatricians' knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding children's environmental health and to identify the sources of information and common environmental history taking constrains. Design Before and after study. Setting Zagazig University Paediatric Hospital. Participants Practising paediatricians from all specialty units. Main outcome measures The outcome of a specifically designed educational programme about paediatric environmental health was assessed using structured pre- and post-test questionnaires. Results Nearly half the participants were aware about most of the paediatric environmental health-related topics. Textbooks/guidelines (85.7%) and the Internet (64.3%) were the main sources of information. The participants demonstrated relatively strong positive attitudes towards the importance of children's environmental health. However, less than half of them (44.6%) reported environmental history taking as a routine practice; where lack of time (94.6%), wide range of hazardous exposures (91.1%) and lack of expertise and training (91.1%) were the main constrains. Significant improvement in participants' knowledge, attitudes and practices was revealed after the educational programme. Conclusions There is a demand for continuous medical education about environmental health in paediatric practice, particularly environmental and occupational history taking. PMID:23476728

  8. [Environmental health in Mexico: current situation and future prospects].

    PubMed

    Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Schilmann, Astrid; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Finkelman, Jacobo

    2013-12-01

    Environmental health has been established in Mexico as a discipline since the early nineties resuming the sanitarian tradition developed over the past century and incorporating new knowledge generated by environmental toxicology and epidemiology. During the last decade there has been some progress in reviewing and updating the regulations, designing programs and policies to reduce exposure to pollutants and consolidating research groups and teaching in the area. However, the most prevalent problems previously diagnosed still remain and new risks have emerged due to environmental degradation (air pollution, toxics exposure and climate change among others) have been incorporated. If this trend persists, the environmental risks will continue to increase and multiply. The environmental health governance in Mexico has to be redesigned involving a transectoral approach. Future proposals might include: establishment of a National Environmental Health Program, update the situational diagnosis at national and regional level, strengthening teaching and graduate programs in environmental health as well as increase support for research in the area and development of an integrated environmental health surveillance system.

  9. 75 FR 54627 - Best Management Practices for Unused Pharmaceuticals at Health Care Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... AGENCY Best Management Practices for Unused Pharmaceuticals at Health Care Facilities AGENCY... guidance document entitled, Best Management Practices for Unused Pharmaceuticals at Health Care Facilities... been studying unused pharmaceutical disposal practices at health care facilities, prompted by...

  10. Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    During the past century, environmental hazards have become a major concern, not only to public health professionals, but also to the society at large because of their tremendous health, socio-cultural and economic impacts. Various anthropogenic or natural factors have been implicated in the alteration of ecosystem integrity, as well as in the development of a wide variety of acute and/or chronic diseases in humans. It has also been demonstrated that many environmental agents, acting either independently or in combination with other toxins, may induce a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the role played by the environment in the etiology of human diseases is critical to designing cost-effective control/prevention measures. This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health includes the proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium provided an excellent opportunity to discuss the scientific advances in biomedical, environmental, and public health research that addresses global environmental health issues. PMID:27153079

  11. Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research.

    PubMed

    Tchounwou, Paul B

    2016-05-04

    During the past century, environmental hazards have become a major concern, not only to public health professionals, but also to the society at large because of their tremendous health, socio-cultural and economic impacts. Various anthropogenic or natural factors have been implicated in the alteration of ecosystem integrity, as well as in the development of a wide variety of acute and/or chronic diseases in humans. It has also been demonstrated that many environmental agents, acting either independently or in combination with other toxins, may induce a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the role played by the environment in the etiology of human diseases is critical to designing cost-effective control/prevention measures. This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health includes the proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium provided an excellent opportunity to discuss the scientific advances in biomedical, environmental, and public health research that addresses global environmental health issues.

  12. Environmental Risk to Health of the Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anopchenko, Tatiana Y.; Murzin, Anton D.; Kandrashina, Elena A.; Kosyakova, Inessa V.; Surnina, Olga E.

    2016-01-01

    Researches of the last years in the field of ecological epidemiology and the analysis of risk for health allow to claim with confidence that the polluted environment is one of the important factors defining changes of a state of health of the population. Expert opinions on the scale of this influence differ considerably now. These estimations vary…

  13. Integrating mitochondriomics in children’s environmental health

    PubMed Central

    Brunst, Kelly J.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of scientific research linking environmental exposures and childhood health outcomes continues to grow; yet few studies have teased out the mechanisms involved in environmentally-induced diseases. Cells can respond to environmental stressors in many ways: inducing oxidative stress/inflammation, changes in energy production and epigenetic alterations. Mitochondria, tiny organelles that each retains their own DNA, are exquisitely sensitive to environmental insults and are thought to be central players in these pathways. While it is intuitive that mitochondria play an important role in disease processes, given that every cell of our body is dependent on energy metabolism, it is less clear how environmental exposures impact mitochondrial mechanisms that may lead to enhanced risk of disease. Many of the effects of the environment are initiated in utero and integrating mitochondriomics into children’s environmental health studies is a critical priority. This review will highlight (i) the importance of exploring environmental mitochondriomics in children’s environmental health, (ii) why environmental mitochondriomics is well suited to biomarker development in this context, and (iii) how molecular and epigenetic changes in mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may reflect exposures linked to childhood health outcomes. PMID:26046650

  14. [The Free Trade Agreement and environmental health in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Peña, P; Gutiérrez-Zúñiga, C; Zurutuza-Fernández, R; Jiménez-González, O

    1993-01-01

    This work offers an overview of the state of the art and future state of environmental health in our country from a viewpoint of the impact of the commercial opening established in the Free Trade Agreement among Mexico, the USA, and Canada. In the first section of this work, we analyze the expected economic changes resulting from the implementation of the FTA and foretells the way in which those changes will influence the present environmental and epidemiologic profiles of this country in the medium and long term. The main changes predicted by the analysis are, in the epidemiologic context, the acceleration of the transference of occupational, consumption, environmental and population risks, characteristic of industrialized countries, to the country's polarized epidemiologic profile; and, in the environmental context, a transition consisting of a broadening and composition of the spectrum of pollutants, including and important lagging of bacteriologic control. The second section offers an analysis of the predicted response capacity facing the new environmental risk dynamics in the country, encompassing regulation, normativeness and enforcement of environmental and consumer protection, as well as obstacles found in health services to the implementation of surveillance, detection and treatment of health damages caused by environmental factors. The analysis of the organized social response to these problems discloses a relative flexibility of the normativeness and enforcement functions in comparison with our northern neighbors, a paramount factor for the possible transference of environmental risks, as well as the informational and research deficiency about environmental issues, basic elements for sustaining environmental health in the country, aiming at speeding up the development and transference of technologies for prevention, detection and management of environmental risks in the country, drawing upon the systematization of our experience and that of our neighbors

  15. Identification of sentinel health events as indicators of environmental contamination.

    PubMed Central

    Rothwell, C J; Hamilton, C B; Leaverton, P E

    1991-01-01

    The consensus process was applied to addressing a public health topic; this was a novel endeavor. The following question was addressed: What role, if any, should sentinel health events play in the decision-making process for identifying the effects of environmental exposure? The panel developed three levels of sentinel health events lists: those that are clearly identifiable, those that are potential signs, and those that are indicators of body burdens. Additionally, the panel developed several salient statements regarding the principles of environmental health surveillance and, especially, recommendations for future research. PMID:1683284

  16. Our environment, our health: a community-based participatory environmental health survey in Richmond, California.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alison; Lopez, Andrea; Malloy, Nile; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2012-04-01

    This study presents a health survey conducted by a community-based participatory research partnership between academic researchers and community organizers to consider environmental health and environmental justice issues in four neighborhoods of Richmond, California, a low-income community of color living along the fence line of a major oil refinery and near other industrial and mobile sources of pollution. The Richmond health survey aimed to assess local concerns and perceptions of neighborhood conditions, health problems, mobile and stationary hazards, access to health care, and other issues affecting residents of Richmond. Although respondents thought their neighborhoods were good places to live, they expressed concerns about neighborhood stressors and particular sources of pollution, and identified elevated asthma rates for children and long-time Richmond residents. The Richmond health survey offers a holistic, community-centered perspective to understanding local environmental health issues, and can inform future environmental health research and organizing efforts for community-university collaboratives.

  17. Resilient Practices in Maintaining Safety of Health Information Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Joan S.; Sittig, Dean F.; Singh, Hardeep

    2014-01-01

    Electronic health record systems (EHRs) can improve safety and reliability of health care, but they can also introduce new vulnerabilities by failing to accommodate changes within a dynamic EHR-enabled health care system. Continuous assessment and improvement is thus essential for achieving resilience in EHR-enabled health care systems. Given the rapid adoption of EHRs by many organizations that are still early in their experiences with EHR safety, it is important to understand practices for maintaining resilience used by organizations with a track record of success in EHR use. We conducted interviews about safety practices with 56 key informants (including information technology managers, chief medical information officers, physicians, and patient safety officers) at two large health care systems recognized as leaders in EHR use. We identified 156 references to resilience-related practices from 41 informants. Framework analysis generated five categories of resilient practices: (a) sensitivity to dynamics and interdependencies affecting risks, (b) basic monitoring and responding practices, (c) management of practices and resources for monitoring and responding, (d) sensitivity to risks beyond the horizon, and (e) reflecting on risks with the safety and quality control process itself. The categories reflect three functions that facilitate resilience: reflection, transcending boundaries, and involving sharp-end practitioners in safety management. PMID:25866492

  18. Selected Bibliographies and State-of-the-Art Review for Environmental Health. Volume 2: Environmental Health References. International Health Planning Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa

    Intended as a companion piece to volume 2 in the Method Series, Environmental Health Planning (CE 024 230), this second of six volumes in the International Health Planning Reference Series is a combined literature review and annotated bibliography dealing with environmental factors in health planning for developing countries. The review identifies…

  19. [Relationship between health practices and depressive mood among industrial workers].

    PubMed

    Kawakami, N; Haratani, T; Kaneko, T; Koizumi, A

    1987-01-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between health practices and depressive mood, a survey was made by mail questionnaire on 3,987 industrial workers, which included items on 8 health practices and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (Zung SDS). A total of 3,160 or 79.3% responded to the questionnaire. Multivariate analysis was employed to control the effects of possible confounders, such as demographic, job- and health-related variables. As the results, the following four health practices were found to be significantly related to low depressive score in male cases (N = 2,779): eating breakfast regularly, habitual physical activity, moderate alcohol consumption, and obesity not less than -10%. The following three health practices were found in female cases (N = 381) to be significantly related to low depression score: sleeping regularly 7-8 h per night, habitual physical activity, and non-smoker. It is considered that these health practices might decrease depressive mood, but further analysis is needed to determine their causal relationships because of the cross-sectional design of the present study.

  20. Educated guesses: health risk assessment in environmental impact statements.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P D

    1990-01-01

    Environmental pollution threatens public health. The search for solutions has advanced the frontiers of science and law. Efforts to protect the environment and public health begin with describing potential adverse consequences of human activities and characterizing the predicted risk. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the preparation of environmental impact statements to describe the effects of proposed federal projects and provide information for agency decisionmakers and the public. Risks to public health are particularly difficult to quantify because of uncertainty about the relation between exposure to environmental contamination and disease. Risk assessment is the current scientific tool to present estimates of risk. The methodology has created controversy, however, when underlying assumptions and uncertainties are not clearly presented. Critics caution that the methodology is vulnerable to bias. This Note evaluates the use of risk assessment in the environmental impact statement process and offers recommendations to ensure informed decisions.

  1. Educated guesses: health risk assessment in environmental impact statements.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P D

    1990-01-01

    Environmental pollution threatens public health. The search for solutions has advanced the frontiers of science and law. Efforts to protect the environment and public health begin with describing potential adverse consequences of human activities and characterizing the predicted risk. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the preparation of environmental impact statements to describe the effects of proposed federal projects and provide information for agency decisionmakers and the public. Risks to public health are particularly difficult to quantify because of uncertainty about the relation between exposure to environmental contamination and disease. Risk assessment is the current scientific tool to present estimates of risk. The methodology has created controversy, however, when underlying assumptions and uncertainties are not clearly presented. Critics caution that the methodology is vulnerable to bias. This Note evaluates the use of risk assessment in the environmental impact statement process and offers recommendations to ensure informed decisions. PMID:2278245

  2. Understanding sex differences in environmental health: a thought leaders' roundtable.

    PubMed

    Keitt, Sarah K; Fagan, Thomas F; Marts, Sherry A

    2004-04-01

    Under the auspices of the Society for Women's Health Research, a thought leaders' roundtable was convened at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in October 2002 to discuss recent advances in environmental health research, particularly those findings that explain sex differences in response to environmental exposures. Researchers discussed the latest findings on the interaction between sex and environmental exposures on health. Participants concluded that a greater focus on interdisciplinary, hypothesis-driven research is essential to advancing the field. To understand fully the potential effect of chronic exposures, researchers need to develop models to explore not only physiologic sex differences but also behavioral responses to low-dose and multiple chemical exposures. Future research should examine sex differences from the cell line to behaviors and should track these differences across multiple generations. Federal agencies should support such research in their awards of investigator-initiated grants.

  3. Understanding sex differences in environmental health: a thought leaders' roundtable.

    PubMed Central

    Keitt, Sarah K; Fagan, Thomas F; Marts, Sherry A

    2004-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Society for Women's Health Research, a thought leaders' roundtable was convened at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in October 2002 to discuss recent advances in environmental health research, particularly those findings that explain sex differences in response to environmental exposures. Researchers discussed the latest findings on the interaction between sex and environmental exposures on health. Participants concluded that a greater focus on interdisciplinary, hypothesis-driven research is essential to advancing the field. To understand fully the potential effect of chronic exposures, researchers need to develop models to explore not only physiologic sex differences but also behavioral responses to low-dose and multiple chemical exposures. Future research should examine sex differences from the cell line to behaviors and should track these differences across multiple generations. Federal agencies should support such research in their awards of investigator-initiated grants. PMID:15064168

  4. COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY: NEW APPROACHES TO IMPROVE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is to safeguard public health and the environment from harmful effects that may be caused by exposure to pollutants in the air, water, soil and food.

  5. Environmental and Health Consideration for Mass Gatherings at Football Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fodero, Severio D.

    1976-01-01

    University health services along with local and state agencies have the responsibility through a coordinated effort to insure that acceptable environmental sanitation standards are maintained during mass gatherings at athletic events. (MB)

  6. Randomized controlled trials in environmental health research: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2008-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are becoming increasingly common in environmental health research. Like all studies involving human subjects, environmental health RCTs raise many ethical challenges, ranging from obtaining informed consent to minimizing risks to protecting privacy and confidentiality. One of the most important issues raised by these studies is whether it is ethical to withhold effective environmental health interventions from research subjects in order to satisfy scientific objectives. Although environmental health investigators usually do not have professional obligations to provide medical care to research subjects, they have ethical obligations to avoid exploiting them. Withholding interventions from research subjects can be ethical, provided that it does not lead to exploitation of individuals or groups. To avoid exploiting individuals or groups, investigators should ensure that research subjects and study populations receive a fair share of the benefits of research.

  7. USE OF FOCUS GROUPS FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCHER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Qualitative research techniques are often under-utilized by the environmental health researcher. Focus groups, one such qualitative method, can provide rich data sets for study planning and implementation, risk perception, program and policy research, and exploration into future...

  8. [The contribution of health professionals in the integration of health and environmental protection].

    PubMed

    Faggioli, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This article first illustrates the EU and national regulatory frameworks related to policies and integrated actions for health and environmental protection, with particular reference to evaluation of the impact of the environment on health, then provides definitions of "evaluation of health impact" and of "environmental epidemiology" and provides synthetic proposals on procedures and operational levels (national, regional and local). Finally, the responsibilities of regional and local government bodies in supporting ARPA, Departments of Prevention of local health departments and physicians. PMID:26722828

  9. Adolescent confidentiality: Understanding and practices of health care providers

    PubMed Central

    Wadman, Ruth; Thul, Deborah; Elliott, April S; Kennedy, Andrea Pritchard; Mitchell, Ian; Pinzon, Jorge L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescent confidentiality may present practice challenges for health care providers related to family, medical, ethical, legal, social and bureaucratic processes. It is unclear how health care providers understand and practice confidentiality with adolescents in Canada. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knowledge and practice of health care providers at Alberta Children’s Hospital (Calgary, Alberta), and to inform practice about the adolescent’s right to confidentiality. METHODS: The present study was a voluntary, anonymous online survey. Invitations to participate were sent through the paediatric facility’s electronic mailing list to all currently employed health care providers who potentially engaged in caregiving interactions with adolescents. The survey consisted of 15 closed items and seven open comment items. Closed items were analyzed using descriptive statistics and open comments were analyzed using manifest thematic coding. RESULTS: A total of 389 responses were received, representing health care providers in many disciplines. A variety of practices related to adolescent confidentiality and widespread misunderstanding of this issue were apparent. Respondents’ comments revealed individual and team knowledge gaps regarding adolescent and parent/guardian rights, and the difference between the constructs of consent to treatment and the provision of confidential health care for adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: While health care providers regard confidentiality as paramount, the present survey revealed a wide variation in understanding and practices regarding confidential care for adolescents. This was revealed in both the qualitative and quantitative data. The authors’ recommended strategies to improve the understanding and practice of adolescent confidentiality include: encouraging individuals’ examination of beliefs; postsecondary instruction; knowledge-translation strategies within programs; and institution-directed guidelines and policy. PMID

  10. Public, animal, and environmental health implications of aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Garrett, E S; dos Santos, C L; Jahncke, M L

    1997-01-01

    Aquaculture is important to the United States and the world's fishery system. Both import and export markets for aquaculture products will expand and increase as research begins to remove physiologic and other animal husbandry barriers. Overfishing of wild stock will necessitate supplementation and replenishment through aquaculture. The aquaculture industry must have a better understanding of the impact of the "shrouded" public and animal health issues: technology ignorance, abuse, and neglect. Cross-pollination and cross-training of public health and aquaculture personnel in the effect of public health, animal health, and environmental health on aquaculture are also needed. Future aquaculture development programs require an integrated Gestalt public health approach to ensure that aquaculture does not cause unacceptable risks to public or environmental health and negate the potential economic and nutritional benefits of aquaculture.

  11. Interdisciplinary Environmental-health Science Throughout Disaster Lifecycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.; Hoefen, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Potential human health effects from exposures to hazardous disaster materials and environmental contamination are common concerns following disasters. Using several examples from US Geological Survey environmental disaster responses (e.g., 2001 World Trade Center, mine tailings spills, 2005 Hurricane Katrina, 2007-2013 wildfires, 2011 Gulf oil spill, 2012 Hurricane Sandy, 2013 Colorado floods) and disaster scenarios (2011 ARkStorm, 2013 SAFRR tsunami) this presentation will illustrate the role for collaborative earth, environmental, and health science throughout disaster lifecycles. Pre-disaster environmental baseline measurements are needed to help understand environmental influences on pre-disaster health baselines, and to constrain the magnitude of a disaster's impacts. During and following disasters, there is a need for interdisciplinary rapid-response and longer-term assessments that: sample and characterize the physical, chemical, and microbial makeup of complex materials generated by the disasters; fingerprint material sources; monitor, map, and model dispersal and evolution of disaster materials in the environment; help understand how the materials are modified by environmental processes; and, identify key characteristics and processes that influence the exposures and toxicity of disaster materials to humans and the living environment. This information helps emergency responders, public health experts, and cleanup managers: 1) identify short- and long-term exposures to disaster materials that may affect health; 2) prioritize areas for cleanup; and 3) develop appropriate disposal solutions or restoration uses for disaster materials. By integrating lessons learned from past disasters with geospatial information on vulnerable sources of natural or anthropogenic contaminants, the environmental health implications of looming disasters or disaster scenarios can be better anticipated, which helps enhance preparedness and resilience. Understanding economic costs of

  12. Aberdeen Area Indian Health Service Environmental Health Program Review Conducted by: Indian Health Committee of the National Environmental Health Association (Aberdeen, South Dakota, May 23-27, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Aberdeen, SD. Aberdeen Area Office.

    The Indian Health Committee met in Aberdeen, South Dakota, during the week of May 23, 1977 to (1) review the environmental health services provided to the tribal units on the 15 Indian reservations located in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Iowa, and (2) make recommendations for improvement or expansion of current programs, if needed. The…

  13. The federal environmental health workforce in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, K; Perlin, S A

    1990-01-01

    This paper summarizes existing data on the size and composition of the federal environmental health workforce, delineates the major categories of activities carried out by its members, identifies current and emerging issues that are likely to affect workforce activities, and makes qualitative inferences about future trends and directions. Findings suggest that there is a current and future need for more and better qualified professionals in the federal environmental health workforce. PMID:2368849

  14. Environmental public health tracking: piloting methods for surveillance of environmentally related diseases in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Patrick; Mohammed, Mohammed A

    2009-04-01

    An effective environmental public health tracking system integrates data and intelligence on environmental hazards, exposures, and health outcomes to focus interventions on reducing the impact of environmental contamination on public health. Most work in this area in the UK has focused on assessing data on hazards that are relatively easy to obtain. However, most hazards will present no actual risk and information on exposure is required to make an effective risk assessment. Obtaining exposure data is technically challenging, expensive, and potentially raises ethical concerns. Consequently, the Health Protection Agency is exploring methods for targeting geographical zones for efficient detailed environmental assessment (including exposure assessment). This paper describes and assesses three methods (indirect standardization, statistical process control (SPC) and kernel density contouring) for the surveillance of potentially environmentally related diseases for this purpose. While the evaluation demonstrates the utility of the three methods, particularly SPC, the comparison was limited due to ethical approval issues. PMID:18982414

  15. Promoting global population health while constraining the environmental footprint.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J; Butler, C D

    2011-01-01

    Populations today face increasing health risks from human-induced regional and global environmental changes and resultant ecological nonsustainability. Localized environmental degradation that has long accompanied population growth, industrialization, and rising consumerism has now acquired a global and often systemic dimension (e.g., climate change, disrupted nitrogen cycling, biodiversity loss). Thus, the economic intensification and technological advances that previously contributed to health gains have now expanded such that humanity's environmental (and ecological) footprint jeopardizes global population health. International data show, in general, a positive correlation of a population's health with level of affluence and size of per-person footprint. Yet, beyond a modest threshold, larger footprints afford negligible health gain and may impair health (e.g., via the rise of obesity). Furthermore, some lower-income countries have attained high levels of health. Many changes now needed to promote ecological (and social) sustainability will benefit local health. Continued improvement of global health could thus coexist with an equitably shared global environmental footprint.

  16. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

    MedlinePlus

    ... for New Grants Microphysiological Systems (MPS) for Disease Modeling and Efficacy Testing (UG3/UH3) TR-16-017 ... Health National Toxicology Program Staff Directory Freedom of Information Act Office of Inspector General Web Policies & Notices ...

  17. Natural Disasters (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home Water Pollution Natural Disasters Print this Page Air Pollution Air ...

  18. Issues in environmental epidemiological research: the example of environmental lead and health.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J

    1989-01-01

    Modern environmental epidemiology encompasses the "traditional" area of physico-chemical hazards, along with health hazards in the societal environment (e.g. noise, stress, social organisation), and, increasingly, supranational problems (e.g. ozone depletion, global warming). As governments undertake environmental management, improved quantitative estimates of environmental risks to health are needed. Methodological difficulties of environmental epidemiological research include problems of exposure measurement, of estimating exposure at the level of the individual, and of detecting relatively small effects (particularly at low exposure levels). The health hazards of occupational lead exposure are well documented. The health hazards of environmental exposure to lead, within the general population, remain a focus of continuing epidemiological research. Indeed, the reported adverse effects upon the developing central nervous system of young children are now central to public health debate about environmental lead exposure standards. Recent evidence from cohort studies in several countries indicates adverse effects of environmental lead exposure upon early childhood mental development. In South Australia, a cohort study of children born in a lead smelter community, Port Pirie, has revealed evidence of such an effect. After controlling for many potential confounding factors (social, behavioural, family, and medical), cumulative postnatal lead exposure was found to be weakly associated with an adverse effect upon mental development at age two years and, more strongly, at age four years. The relations between environmental epidemiological research and public health policy are discussed. PMID:2803846

  19. Issues in environmental epidemiological research: the example of environmental lead and health.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J

    1989-01-01

    Modern environmental epidemiology encompasses the "traditional" area of physico-chemical hazards, along with health hazards in the societal environment (e.g. noise, stress, social organisation), and, increasingly, supranational problems (e.g. ozone depletion, global warming). As governments undertake environmental management, improved quantitative estimates of environmental risks to health are needed. Methodological difficulties of environmental epidemiological research include problems of exposure measurement, of estimating exposure at the level of the individual, and of detecting relatively small effects (particularly at low exposure levels). The health hazards of occupational lead exposure are well documented. The health hazards of environmental exposure to lead, within the general population, remain a focus of continuing epidemiological research. Indeed, the reported adverse effects upon the developing central nervous system of young children are now central to public health debate about environmental lead exposure standards. Recent evidence from cohort studies in several countries indicates adverse effects of environmental lead exposure upon early childhood mental development. In South Australia, a cohort study of children born in a lead smelter community, Port Pirie, has revealed evidence of such an effect. After controlling for many potential confounding factors (social, behavioural, family, and medical), cumulative postnatal lead exposure was found to be weakly associated with an adverse effect upon mental development at age two years and, more strongly, at age four years. The relations between environmental epidemiological research and public health policy are discussed.

  20. Risk management frameworks for human health and environmental risks.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Cindy; Hrudey, Steve; Shortreed, John; Craig, Lorraine; Krewski, Daniel; Furgal, Chris; McColl, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical review of the risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication approaches currently being undertaken by key national, provincial/state, territorial, and international agencies was conducted. The information acquired for review was used to identify the differences, commonalities, strengths, and weaknesses among the various approaches, and to identify elements that should be included in an effective, current, and comprehensive approach applicable to environmental, human health and occupational health risks. More than 80 agencies, organizations, and advisory councils, encompassing more than 100 risk documents, were examined during the period from February 2000 until November 2002. An overview was made of the most important general frameworks for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication for human health and ecological risk, and for occupational health risk. In addition, frameworks for specific applications were reviewed and summarized, including those for (1)contaminated sites; (2) northern contaminants; (3) priority substances; (4) standards development; (5) food safety; (6) medical devices; (7) prescription drug use; (8) emergency response; (9) transportation; (10) risk communication. Twelve frameworks were selected for more extensive review on the basis of representation of the areas of human health, ecological, and occupational health risk; relevance to Canadian risk management needs; representation of comprehensive and well-defined approaches; generalizability with their risk areas; representation of "state of the art" in Canada, the United States, and/or internationally; and extent of usage of potential usage within Canada. These 12 frameworks were: 1. Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management (US Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, 1997). 2. Health Risk Determination: The Challenge of Health Protection (Health and Welfare Canada, 1990). 3. Health Canada Decision

  1. Mapping environmental injustices: pitfalls and potential of geographic information systems in assessing environmental health and equity.

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, Juliana

    2002-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used increasingly to map instances of environmental injustice, the disproportionate exposure of certain populations to environmental hazards. Some of the technical and analytic difficulties of mapping environmental injustice are outlined in this article, along with suggestions for using GIS to better assess and predict environmental health and equity. I examine 13 GIS-based environmental equity studies conducted within the past decade and use a study of noxious land use locations in the Bronx, New York, to illustrate and evaluate the differences in two common methods of determining exposure extent and the characteristics of proximate populations. Unresolved issues in mapping environmental equity and health include lack of comprehensive hazards databases; the inadequacy of current exposure indices; the need to develop realistic methodologies for determining the geographic extent of exposure and the characteristics of the affected populations; and the paucity and insufficiency of health assessment data. GIS have great potential to help us understand the spatial relationship between pollution and health. Refinements in exposure indices; the use of dispersion modeling and advanced proximity analysis; the application of neighborhood-scale analysis; and the consideration of other factors such as zoning and planning policies will enable more conclusive findings. The environmental equity studies reviewed in this article found a disproportionate environmental burden based on race and/or income. It is critical now to demonstrate correspondence between environmental burdens and adverse health impacts--to show the disproportionate effects of pollution rather than just the disproportionate distribution of pollution sources. PMID:11929725

  2. Protecting confidentiality in small population health and environmental statistics.

    PubMed

    Cox, L H

    Public policy decisions are fuelled by information. Often, this information is in the form of statistical data. Questions stemming from public health and environmental concerns often arise or are studied within small subgroups of a population. Continuing improvements in the performance and availability of computing resources, including geographic information systems, and the need to better understand environmental exposures and consequent health effects create increasing demand for small population health and environmental data. These demands are at odds with the need to preserve the privacy and data confidentiality of persons, groups or organizations covered by the data. Although confidentiality issues for demographic and economic data are well-studied and are gaining maturity for health data, these issues are only beginning to emerge for environmental data and combined environmental-health data. The aim of this paper is to provide a framework for that examination. Herein we examine confidentiality problems posed by small population health and environmental data, summarize available statistical methods, and propose avenues for the solution of new problems.

  3. Environmental health citation patterns: mapping the literature 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    Rethlefsen, Melissa L

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This research seeks to understand the publication types and ages cited most often in environmental health literature and the most commonly cited journal titles. Methods: From the 43,896 items cited in Environmental Health Perspectives and the Journal of Environmental Health during 2008–2010, 2 random samples were drawn: First, 1,042 items representing all citations were analyzed with respect to publication type, age, and Internet link. Second, the cited journal name and citation age were recorded for 1,038 items culled from only citations to journal articles. All journal titles were classified into Bradford zones and assigned subject disciplines. Results: Journal articles (n = 891, 85.5%) were the most heavily cited publication type. Cited items' publication years ranged from 1951 to 2010. Close to half (49.1%) of all cited items were published 5 or fewer years previous. Sixteen journal titles (3.9%) accounted for 32.5% of all cited journal articles. The 3 most common subject disciplines—“Public, Environmental & Occupational Health,” “Environmental Sciences,” and “Toxicology”—accounted for 21.6% of all unique journal titles and 45.3% of all citations. Conclusions: Environmental health citation patterns differ from other public health disciplines in terms of cited publication types, cited journals, and age of citations. PMID:23405046

  4. Children's Environmental Health: Beyond National Boundaries.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark D; Marty, Melanie A; Landrigan, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Children are especially vulnerable to environmental pollution, a major cause of disease, death, and disability in countries at every level of development. This article reviews threats to children, including air and water pollution, toxic industrial chemicals, pesticides, heavy metals, and hazardous wastes. Global climate change is expected to exacerbate many of these issues. Examples of innovative nongovernmental organizations and governmental programs that address the impacts of environmental hazards on children are included. International travel, adoption, migration, and movement of goods and pollutants worldwide make these conditions concerns for all pediatricians.

  5. Children's Environmental Health: Beyond National Boundaries.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark D; Marty, Melanie A; Landrigan, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Children are especially vulnerable to environmental pollution, a major cause of disease, death, and disability in countries at every level of development. This article reviews threats to children, including air and water pollution, toxic industrial chemicals, pesticides, heavy metals, and hazardous wastes. Global climate change is expected to exacerbate many of these issues. Examples of innovative nongovernmental organizations and governmental programs that address the impacts of environmental hazards on children are included. International travel, adoption, migration, and movement of goods and pollutants worldwide make these conditions concerns for all pediatricians. PMID:26613694

  6. Minnows as a Classroom Model for Human Environmental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Daniel N.; Hesselbach, Renee; Kane, Andrew S.; Petering, David H.; Petering, Louise; Berg, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding human environmental health is difficult for high school students, as is the process of scientific investigation. This module provides a framework to address both concerns through an inquiry-based approach using a hypothesis-driven set of experiments that draws upon a real-life concern, environmental exposures to lead (Pb2+). Students…

  7. The Picture of Health. Environmental Sources of Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckholm, Erik P.

    This book deals comprehensively with many of the environmental factors that endanger the attainment and maintenance of health, a condition defined as being a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. The author, taking a qlobal view of community life and culture, environmental factors and economic realities, examines the…

  8. Biomass energy systems: Status of environmental, health and safety investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walinchus, R. J.

    1982-05-01

    A synthesis of information and environmental data relevant to biomass energy is presented. Biomass resources and conversion processes are discussed. The environmental impacts from biomass resources are discussed. Land impact, water impact, wetlands impacts, control technology, and occupational health and safety are discussed.

  9. Environmental justice and health: a study of multiple environmental deprivation and geographical inequalities in health in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Jamie R; Richardson, Elizabeth A; Mitchell, Richard J; Shortt, Niamh K

    2011-08-01

    There is an increasing interest in the unequal socio-spatial distribution of environmental 'goods' and 'bads' and the associated implications for geographical inequalities in health. Until recently, research in this area has focused on solitary environmental characteristics and has been hindered by the absence of geographically-specific measures that recognise the multifactorial nature of the physical environment. However, recent work in the United Kingdom has developed an area-level multivariate index of health-related physical environmental deprivation that captures both pathogenic and salutogenic environmental characteristics. Applications of this index have demonstrated that, at the national level, multiple environmental deprivation increased as the degree of income deprivation rose. Further, after adjusting for key confounders, there was a significant association between multiple environmental deprivation and the health outcomes of local residents. In the current study we tested the methods developed in the UK to create the New Zealand Multiple Environmental Deprivation Index (NZ-MEDIx) for small areas across the country (n = 1860). We considered whether socially disadvantaged places in New Zealand had higher levels of multiple environmental deprivation, and if environmental disadvantage exerted an influence on health after adjustment for key confounders such as socioeconomic status. We found that although neighbourhoods with higher levels of multiple environmental deprivation tended to have greater social disadvantage, this association was not linear. Further, multiple environmental deprivation tended to exert a modest effect on health that was independent of the age, sex and socioeconomic structure of the population. These findings demonstrate that it is possible to develop an index of multiple environmental deprivation in an alternative national context which has utility in epidemiological investigations.

  10. Global Climate Change and Environmental Health: Proceedings of the 1997 Annual Conference of the Society for Occupational and Environmental Health

    SciTech Connect

    Kovats, Sari; Patz, Jonathan A.; Dobbins, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the conference was to bring together a diverse group of occupational and environmental health experts to address the potential effects of climate change and ozone depletion on the current and future incidence of disease, heat stress, food and water supplies, and air pollution; to discuss initial strategies for improving R&D, global health surveillance systems, disease prevention, medical and public health community education, international cooperation, and public outreach; to address this international occupational and environmental health problem; and to explore international challenges and opportunities for collaborative projects in addressing these potential effects.

  11. Oral Health Inequalities: Relationships between Environmental and Individual Factors.

    PubMed

    Gupta, E; Robinson, P G; Marya, C M; Baker, S R

    2015-10-01

    Recent research has emphasized the relationships between environmental and individual factors that may influence population oral health and lead to health inequalities. However, little is known about the effect of interactions between environmental and individual factors on inequalities in clinical (e.g., decayed teeth) and subjective oral health outcomes (e.g., oral health-related quality of life [OHQoL]). This cohort study aimed to explore the direct and mediated longitudinal interrelationships between key environmental and individual factors on clinical and subjective oral health outcomes in adults. Self-reported measures of OHQoL and individual (sense of coherence [SOC], social support, stress, oral health beliefs, dental behaviors, and subjective socioeconomic status [SES]) and environmental factors (SES and social network) were collected at baseline and 3-mo follow-up, together with a baseline clinical examination of 495 adult employees of an automobile parts manufacturer in India. Lagged structural equation modeling was guided by the adapted Wilson and Cleary/Brunner and Marmot model linking clinical, individual, and environmental variables to quality of life. The study provides tentative evidence that SES may influence levels of resources such as social support and SOC, which mediate stress and in turn may influence subjective oral health outcomes. Accordingly, the present findings and the adapted Wilson and Cleary/Brunner and Marmot model on which they are predicted provide support for the psychosocial pathway being key in the SES-oral health relationship. The pathways through which environmental factors interact with individual factors to impact subjective oral health outcomes identified here may bring opportunities for more targeted oral health promotion strategies. PMID:26130261

  12. Oral Health Inequalities: Relationships between Environmental and Individual Factors.

    PubMed

    Gupta, E; Robinson, P G; Marya, C M; Baker, S R

    2015-10-01

    Recent research has emphasized the relationships between environmental and individual factors that may influence population oral health and lead to health inequalities. However, little is known about the effect of interactions between environmental and individual factors on inequalities in clinical (e.g., decayed teeth) and subjective oral health outcomes (e.g., oral health-related quality of life [OHQoL]). This cohort study aimed to explore the direct and mediated longitudinal interrelationships between key environmental and individual factors on clinical and subjective oral health outcomes in adults. Self-reported measures of OHQoL and individual (sense of coherence [SOC], social support, stress, oral health beliefs, dental behaviors, and subjective socioeconomic status [SES]) and environmental factors (SES and social network) were collected at baseline and 3-mo follow-up, together with a baseline clinical examination of 495 adult employees of an automobile parts manufacturer in India. Lagged structural equation modeling was guided by the adapted Wilson and Cleary/Brunner and Marmot model linking clinical, individual, and environmental variables to quality of life. The study provides tentative evidence that SES may influence levels of resources such as social support and SOC, which mediate stress and in turn may influence subjective oral health outcomes. Accordingly, the present findings and the adapted Wilson and Cleary/Brunner and Marmot model on which they are predicted provide support for the psychosocial pathway being key in the SES-oral health relationship. The pathways through which environmental factors interact with individual factors to impact subjective oral health outcomes identified here may bring opportunities for more targeted oral health promotion strategies.

  13. Evidence-based practices in community mental health: outcome evaluation.

    PubMed

    Painter, Kirstin

    2012-10-01

    In 2003, questions were being raised relating to the lack of evidence-based treatments available in public mental health and whether the use of treatments found effective in research settings would be equally effective in real world situations. In response, one state passed a bill mandating a disease management model of service delivery and the use of evidence-based practices designed to obtain better clinical and functional outcomes, and to maximize the possibility for recovery for adults experiencing a serious mental illness. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the re-engineered public mental health system and report on findings of a longitudinal time-series study of the redesigned community mental health system. Findings of the study suggest using evidence-based practices and following a disease management model of mental health service delivery can be effective in real world settings for adults experiencing serious mental health symptoms and functional impairment.

  14. Ethical Issues in Public Health Practice in Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Gollust, Sarah E.; Goold, Susan D.; Jacobson, Peter D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to ascertain the types of ethical challenges public health practitioners face in practice and to identify approaches used to resolve such challenges. Methods. We conducted 45 semistructured interviews with public health practitioners across a range of occupations (e.g., health officers, medical directors, sanitarians, nurses) at 13 health departments in Michigan. Results. Through qualitative analysis, we identified 5 broad categories of ethical issues common across occupations and locations: (1) determining appropriate use of public health authority, (2) making decisions related to resource allocation, (3) negotiating political interference in public health practice, (4) ensuring standards of quality of care, and (5) questioning the role or scope of public health. Participants cited a variety of values guiding their decision-making that did not coalesce around core values often associated with public health, such as social justice or utilitarianism. Public health practitioners relied on consultations with colleagues to resolve challenges, infrequently using frameworks for decision-making. Conclusions. Public health practitioners showed a nuanced understanding of ethical issues and navigated ethical challenges with minimal formal assistance. Decision-making guides that are empirically informed and tailored for practitioners might have some value. PMID:19059850

  15. Environmentally Related Health Hazards in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, James B.; Neuroth, Richard

    The quality of air inside the schoolhouses of America may have a profound effect on students' ability to concentrate on their lessons. The environmental hazards that influence the quality of the indoor air (IAQ) of our schools have not been well understood. Research evidence suggests that school age children and youth (especially those under the…

  16. Environmental and health aspects of lighting: Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Clear, R.; Berman, S.

    1993-07-01

    Most discharge lamps, including fluorescent lamps, metal halide lamps, and high pressure sodium lamps, contain Mercury, a toxic chemical. Lighting professionals need to be able to respond to questions about the direct hazards of Mercury from accidentally breaking lamps, and the potential environmental hazards of lamp operation and disposal. We calculated the exposures that could occur from an accidental breakage of lamps. Acute poisoning appears almost impossible. Under some circumstances a sealed environment, such as a space station, could be contaminated enough to make it unhealthy for long-term occupation. Mercury becomes a potential environmental hazard after it becomes methylated. Mercury is methylated in aquatic environments, where it may accumulate in fish, eventually rendering them toxic to people and other animals. Lighting causes Mercury to enter the environment directly from lamp disposal, and indirectly from power plant emissions. The environmental tradeoffs between incandescent and discharge lamps depend upon the amounts released by these two sources, their local concentrations, and their probabilities of being methylated. Indirect environmental effects of lighting also include the release of other heavy metals (Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic), and other air pollutants and carbon dioxide that are emitted by fossil fuel power plants. For a given light output, the level of power plant emissions depends upon the efficacy of the light source, and is thus much larger for incandescent lamps than for fluorescent or discharge lamps. As disposal and control technologies change the relative direct and indirect emissions from discharge and incandescent lamps will change.

  17. Curriculum review of an environmental health program: an international nursing experience.

    PubMed

    Profit, Sheila; Bailey, Judy

    2013-06-01

    Two nursing professors from a small Canadian university provided a leadership role in a curriculum review of an environmental health technology program in Zambia. The combined health and education experience of these two professionals was the optimal fit to help guide and facilitate the curriculum review. This review was part of a larger project that had the ultimate goal of improving environmental management in rural and peri-urban communities in order to reduce infant and under-five mortality rates, thereby addressing three of the UN Millennium Development Goals. Participants from two post-secondary educational institutions in Zambia and a non-governmental organization spent five days together reviewing the theoretical and practical components of the program. Theoretical content, practice opportunities and demonstrable student competencies were updated within existing resources. The collegiality and respect among the participants from many disciplines provided the basis for a positive experience in intersectoral collaboration and global health.

  18. Public health accreditation and metrics for ethics: a case study on environmental health and community engagement.

    PubMed

    Bernheim, Ruth Gaare; Stefanak, Matthew; Brandenburg, Terry; Pannone, Aaron; Melnick, Alan

    2013-01-01

    As public health departments around the country undergo accreditation using the Public Health Accreditation Board standards, the process provides a new opportunity to integrate ethics metrics into day-to-day public health practice. While the accreditation standards do not explicitly address ethics, ethical tools and considerations can enrich the accreditation process by helping health departments and their communities understand what ethical principles underlie the accreditation standards and how to use metrics based on these ethical principles to support decision making in public health practice. We provide a crosswalk between a public health essential service, Public Health Accreditation Board community engagement domain standards, and the relevant ethical principles in the Public Health Code of Ethics (Code). A case study illustrates how the accreditation standards and the ethical principles in the Code together can enhance the practice of engaging the community in decision making in the local health department.

  19. Lessons from traditional medical and health practices.

    PubMed

    Oyeka, I C

    1981-01-01

    Unlike hospital-oriented western medical practice, traditional medical science and technology include aspects of botany, anatomy, psychology, psychiatry, and sociology. Indigenous medical treatment has been successful in extensive comminuted fractures, psychosomatic disorders, and frantic manic psychosis. Traditional practitioners also work to prevent disease. They often advise against marriages that might perpetuate diseases. Traditional birth attendants and doctors in Africa, Asia, and Latin America routinely perform external cephalic versions on women with breach birth presentations thereby avoiding the need for often risky and undesirable cesarean sections. In many cultures, traditional birth attendants and female advisors from within and outside immediate families are among the regular local services available to mothers during gestation and early child care periods. Breastfeeding, which has been discouraged in industrialized countries, is nutritious and partially serves as a form of contraceptive to aid in child spacing, especially if lactation is prolonged. In most hospitals in developing countries, in contrast to western hospitals, the mother is encouraged to stay with her sick child to provide psychological support and assist with feeding and some aspects of care and treatment. Family organizations and extended families help in child bearing, care and nurturing and continues into socialization and adolescence.

  20. Elaborating on systems thinking in health promotion practice.

    PubMed

    Naaldenberg, Jenneken; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Koelen, Maria; Wagemakers, Anne-Marie; Saan, Hans; de Hoog, Kees

    2009-03-01

    Health and well-being are the result of a series of complex processes in which an individual interacts with other people and the environment. A systematic approach ensures incorporation of individual, ecological, social and political factors. However, interactions between these factors can be overlooked within a systematical approach. A systemic approach can provide additional information by incorporating interactions and communication. The opportunities of a systems thinking perspective for health promotion were investigated for this paper. Although others have also made attempts to explore systems thinking in the field of health promotion, the implications of systems thinking in practice need attention. Other fields such as agricultural extension studies, organizational studies and development studies provide useful experiences with the use of a systems thinking perspective in practice. Building on experiences from these fields, we give a theoretical background in which processes of social learning and innovation play an important role. From this background, we derive an overview of important concepts for the practical application of a systems thinking perspective. These concepts are the structure of the system, meanings attached to actions, and power relations between actors. To make these concepts more explicit and reduce the theoretical character of systems thinking, we use an illustration to elaborate on these concepts in practice. For this purpose, we describe a health promotion partnership in The Netherlands using the concepts structure, meaning and power relations. We show how a systems perspective increases insight in the functioning of a partnership and how this can facilitate processes of social learning and innovation. This article concludes by identifying future opportunities and challenges in adopting systems thinking for health promotion practice. A systems perspective towards health promotion can help projects reaching a more integral and