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Sample records for environmental health-risk assessment

  1. Health risk assessment of petroleum hydrocarbons in environmental media

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, L.R.; Jones, M.K.; Yost, K.J.

    1994-12-31

    Over the past decade, health risk assessment (HRA) has become the preferred decision-making tool for judging whether a site (ex., hazardous waste site) or an activity (ex., facility operation) may be safe or unsafe. Currently, no consensus HRA methodology has evolved for evaluating complex mixtures such as petroleum hydrocarbons, either for assessing baseline health risk or for setting environmental corrective action goals. The most common HRA approach is to evaluate individual compounds, not complex mixtures. Because no consensus approach has been forthcoming, regulatory agencies have adopted widely varying requirements related to environmental remediation programs for petroleum hydrocarbons, particularly total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Corrective action goals for TPH are known to range in degree of conservatism from a concentration equivalent to the practical limit of quantification (PLQ) to ignoring the TPH component altogether. The primary objectives of this paper are two-fold; (1) to review the various methods employed for setting TPH corrective action goals, and (2) to evaluate HRA methodologies applicable to residual TPH in environmental media. This paper will also discuss and evaluate an HRA methodology, herein referred to as a fractionation approach, which the authors believe to be the most scientific and logical approach for assessing risk for petroleum hydrocarbons in environmental media. Rationale for this HRA methodology as opposed to other approaches are discussed.

  2. Environmental health risk assessment and management for global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, P.

    2014-12-01

    This environmental health risk assessment and management approach for atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution is based almost entirely on IPCC AR5 (2014) content, but the IPCC does not make recommendations. Large climate model uncertainties may be large environmental health risks. In accordance with environmental health risk management, we use the standard (IPCC-endorsed) formula of risk as the product of magnitude times probability, with an extremely high standard of precaution. Atmospheric GHG pollution, causing global warming, climate change and ocean acidification, is increasing as fast as ever. Time is of the essence to inform and make recommendations to governments and the public. While the 2ºC target is the only formally agreed-upon policy limit, for the most vulnerable nations, a 1.5ºC limit is being considered by the UNFCCC Secretariat. The Climate Action Network International (2014), representing civil society, recommends that the 1.5ºC limit be kept open and that emissions decline from 2015. James Hansen et al (2013) have argued that 1ºC is the danger limit. Taking into account committed global warming, its millennial duration, multiple large sources of amplifying climate feedbacks and multiple adverse impacts of global warming and climate change on crops, and population health impacts, all the IPCC AR5 scenarios carry extreme environmental health risks to large human populations and to the future of humanity as a whole. Our risk consideration finds that 2ºC carries high risks of many catastrophic impacts, that 1.5ºC carries high risks of many disastrous impacts, and that 1ºC is the danger limit. IPCC AR4 (2007) showed that emissions must be reversed by 2015 for a 2ºC warming limit. For the IPCC AR5 only the best-case scenario RCP2.6, is projected to stay under 2ºC by 2100 but the upper range is just above 2ºC. It calls for emissions to decline by 2020. We recommend that for catastrophic environmental health risk aversion, emissions decline

  3. Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and health risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Jaakkola, M S; Samet, J M

    1999-01-01

    This article addresses concepts of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure assessment relevant for health risk assessment based on human studies. We present issues that should be considered when selecting a method for ETS exposure assessment for the purposes of health risk assessment and review data on ETS exposure levels in the workplace and in home environments. Two types of estimates are needed for a quantitative risk assessment of the health effects resulting from occupational ETS exposure: (italic)a(/italic)) an unbiased estimate of the exposure-effect (or dose-response) relation between ETS and the health effect of interest, and (italic)b(/italic)) estimates of the distribution of ETS exposure in different workplaces. By combining the estimated exposure-effect relation with information on exposure distribution for a population of interest, we can calculate the proportions of disease cases attributable to occupational ETS exposure as well as the excess number of cases due to specified exposure conditions. Several dimensions of the exposure profile should be considered when assessing ETS exposure for estimating the exposure-effect relation, including the magnitude of exposure and the biologically relevant time specificity of exposure. The magnitude of exposure is determined by the ETS source strength, environmental factors modifying concentrations, and duration of exposure. Time specificity considerations include the latency period for each health outcome of interest, the time-exposure profile relevant for different disease mechanisms, and the sensitive age period with regard to health effects. The most appropriate indicator of ETS exposure depends on these factors and on the time period that can be assessed with different methods. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10592138

  4. Environmental Epigenetics: Potential Application in Human Health Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although previous studies have shown a significant involvement of epigenetic dysregulation in human diseases, the applicability of epigenetic data in the current human health risk assessment paradigm is unclear. The goals of this study are to compare the relative sensitivities of...

  5. Educated guesses: health risk assessment in environmental impact statements.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P D

    1990-01-01

    Environmental pollution threatens public health. The search for solutions has advanced the frontiers of science and law. Efforts to protect the environment and public health begin with describing potential adverse consequences of human activities and characterizing the predicted risk. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the preparation of environmental impact statements to describe the effects of proposed federal projects and provide information for agency decisionmakers and the public. Risks to public health are particularly difficult to quantify because of uncertainty about the relation between exposure to environmental contamination and disease. Risk assessment is the current scientific tool to present estimates of risk. The methodology has created controversy, however, when underlying assumptions and uncertainties are not clearly presented. Critics caution that the methodology is vulnerable to bias. This Note evaluates the use of risk assessment in the environmental impact statement process and offers recommendations to ensure informed decisions.

  6. Educated guesses: health risk assessment in environmental impact statements.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P D

    1990-01-01

    Environmental pollution threatens public health. The search for solutions has advanced the frontiers of science and law. Efforts to protect the environment and public health begin with describing potential adverse consequences of human activities and characterizing the predicted risk. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the preparation of environmental impact statements to describe the effects of proposed federal projects and provide information for agency decisionmakers and the public. Risks to public health are particularly difficult to quantify because of uncertainty about the relation between exposure to environmental contamination and disease. Risk assessment is the current scientific tool to present estimates of risk. The methodology has created controversy, however, when underlying assumptions and uncertainties are not clearly presented. Critics caution that the methodology is vulnerable to bias. This Note evaluates the use of risk assessment in the environmental impact statement process and offers recommendations to ensure informed decisions. PMID:2278245

  7. Information resources used in health risk assessment by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Post, G.B.; Baratta, M.; Wolfson, S.; McGeorge, L.

    1990-12-31

    The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection`s responsibilities related to health-based risk assessment are described, including its research projects and its development of health based compound specific standards and guidance levels. The resources used by the agency to support health risk assessment work are outlined.

  8. Evaluation and use of epidemiological evidence for environmental health risk assessment: WHO guideline document.

    PubMed Central

    2000-01-01

    Environmental health risk assessment is increasingly being used in the development of environmental health policies, public health decision making, the establishment of environmental regulations, and research planning. The credibility of risk assessment depends, to a large extent, on the strength of the scientific evidence on which it is based. It is, therefore, imperative that the processes and methods used to evaluate the evidence and estimate health risks are clear, explicit, and based on valid epidemiological theory and practice. Epidemiological Evidence for Environmental Health Risk Assessment is a World Health Organization (WHO) guideline document. The primary target audiences of the guidelines are expert review groups that WHO (or other organizations) might convene in the future to evaluate epidemiological evidence on the health effects of environmental factors. These guidelines identify a set of processes and general approaches to assess available epidemiological information in a clear, consistent, and explicit manner. The guidelines should also help in the evaluation of epidemiological studies with respect to their ability to support risk assessment and, consequently, risk management. Conducting expert reviews according to such explicit guidelines would make health risk assessment and subsequent risk management and risk communication processes more readily understood and likely to be accepted by policymakers and the public. It would also make the conclusions reached by reviews more readily acceptable as a basis for future WHO guidelines and other recommendations, and would provide a more rational basis for setting priorities for future research. PMID:11049823

  9. Evaluation and use of epidemiological evidence for environmental health risk assessment: WHO guideline document.

    PubMed

    2000-10-01

    Environmental health risk assessment is increasingly being used in the development of environmental health policies, public health decision making, the establishment of environmental regulations, and research planning. The credibility of risk assessment depends, to a large extent, on the strength of the scientific evidence on which it is based. It is, therefore, imperative that the processes and methods used to evaluate the evidence and estimate health risks are clear, explicit, and based on valid epidemiological theory and practice. Epidemiological Evidence for Environmental Health Risk Assessment is a World Health Organization (WHO) guideline document. The primary target audiences of the guidelines are expert review groups that WHO (or other organizations) might convene in the future to evaluate epidemiological evidence on the health effects of environmental factors. These guidelines identify a set of processes and general approaches to assess available epidemiological information in a clear, consistent, and explicit manner. The guidelines should also help in the evaluation of epidemiological studies with respect to their ability to support risk assessment and, consequently, risk management. Conducting expert reviews according to such explicit guidelines would make health risk assessment and subsequent risk management and risk communication processes more readily understood and likely to be accepted by policymakers and the public. It would also make the conclusions reached by reviews more readily acceptable as a basis for future WHO guidelines and other recommendations, and would provide a more rational basis for setting priorities for future research. PMID:11049823

  10. A FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING HEALTH RISK OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES TO CHILDREN (FINAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released a final report entitled, A Framework for Assessing Health Risk of Environmental Exposures to Children, which examines the impact of potential exposures during developmental lifestages and subsequent lifestages, while emphasizing the iterative nature of the...

  11. Motivators and barriers to incorporating climate change-related health risks in environmental health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lyle R; Alderman, Katarzyna; Connell, Des; Tong, Shilu

    2013-03-22

    Climate change presents risks to health that must be addressed by both decision-makers and public health researchers. Within the application of Environmental Health Impact Assessment (EHIA), there have been few attempts to incorporate climate change-related health risks as an input to the framework. This study used a focus group design to examine the perceptions of government, industry and academic specialists about the suitability of assessing the health consequences of climate change within an EHIA framework. Practitioners expressed concern over a number of factors relating to the current EHIA methodology and the inclusion of climate change-related health risks. These concerns related to the broad scope of issues that would need to be considered, problems with identifying appropriate health indicators, the lack of relevant qualitative information that is currently incorporated in assessment and persistent issues surrounding stakeholder participation. It was suggested that improvements are needed in data collection processes, particularly in terms of adequate communication between environmental and health practitioners. Concerns were raised surrounding data privacy and usage, and how these could impact on the assessment process. These findings may provide guidance for government and industry bodies to improve the assessment of climate change-related health risks.

  12. Molecular biomarkers to assess health risks due to environmental contaminants exposure.

    PubMed

    Poblete-Naredo, Irais; Albores, Arnulfo

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers, or bioindicators, are metric tools that, when compared with reference values, allow specialists to perform risk assessments and provide objective information to decision makers to design effective strategies to solve health or environmental problems by efficiently using the resources assigned. Health risk assessment is a multidisciplinary exercise, and molecular biology is a discipline that greatly contributes to these evaluations because the genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome could be affected by xenobiotics causing measurable changes that might be useful biomarkers. Such changes may greatly depend on individual genetic background; therefore, the polymorphic distribution of exposed populations becomes an essential feature for adequate data interpretation. The aim of this paper is to offer an up-to-date review of the role of different molecular biomarkers in health risk assessments. PMID:27622493

  13. Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) for Environmental Development and Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Amézquita, Alejandro; Backhaus, Thomas; Borriello, Peter; Brandt, Kristian K.; Collignon, Peter; Coors, Anja; Finley, Rita; Gaze, William H.; Heberer, Thomas; Lawrence, John R.; Larsson, D.G. Joakim; McEwen, Scott A.; Ryan, James J.; Schönfeld, Jens; Silley, Peter; Snape, Jason R.; Van den Eede, Christel; Topp, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Background: Only recently has the environment been clearly implicated in the risk of antibiotic resistance to clinical outcome, but to date there have been few documented approaches to formally assess these risks. Objective: We examined possible approaches and sought to identify research needs to enable human health risk assessments (HHRA) that focus on the role of the environment in the failure of antibiotic treatment caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Methods: The authors participated in a workshop held 4–8 March 2012 in Québec, Canada, to define the scope and objectives of an environmental assessment of antibiotic-resistance risks to human health. We focused on key elements of environmental-resistance-development “hot spots,” exposure assessment (unrelated to food), and dose response to characterize risks that may improve antibiotic-resistance management options. Discussion: Various novel aspects to traditional risk assessments were identified to enable an assessment of environmental antibiotic resistance. These include a) accounting for an added selective pressure on the environmental resistome that, over time, allows for development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB); b) identifying and describing rates of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the relevant environmental “hot spot” compartments; and c) modifying traditional dose–response approaches to address doses of ARB for various health outcomes and pathways. Conclusions: We propose that environmental aspects of antibiotic-resistance development be included in the processes of any HHRA addressing ARB. Because of limited available data, a multicriteria decision analysis approach would be a useful way to undertake an HHRA of environmental antibiotic resistance that informs risk managers. Citation: Ashbolt NJ, Amézquita A, Backhaus T, Borriello P, Brandt KK, Collignon P, Coors A, Finley R, Gaze WH, Heberer T, Lawrence JR, Larsson DG, McEwen SA, Ryan JJ, Schönfeld J, Silley P, Snape JR

  14. Uncertainties in human health risk assessment of environmental contaminants: A review and perspective.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhaomin; Liu, Yanju; Duan, Luchun; Bekele, Dawit; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-12-01

    Addressing uncertainties in human health risk assessment is a critical issue when evaluating the effects of contaminants on public health. A range of uncertainties exist through the source-to-outcome continuum, including exposure assessment, hazard and risk characterisation. While various strategies have been applied to characterising uncertainty, classical approaches largely rely on how to maximise the available resources. Expert judgement, defaults and tools for characterising quantitative uncertainty attempt to fill the gap between data and regulation requirements. The experiences of researching 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) illustrated uncertainty sources and how to maximise available information to determine uncertainties, and thereby provide an 'adequate' protection to contaminant exposure. As regulatory requirements and recurring issues increase, the assessment of complex scenarios involving a large number of chemicals requires more sophisticated tools. Recent advances in exposure and toxicology science provide a large data set for environmental contaminants and public health. In particular, biomonitoring information, in vitro data streams and computational toxicology are the crucial factors in the NexGen risk assessment, as well as uncertainties minimisation. Although in this review we cannot yet predict how the exposure science and modern toxicology will develop in the long-term, current techniques from emerging science can be integrated to improve decision-making. PMID:26386465

  15. Human health risk assessment (HHRA) for environmental development and transfer of antibiotic resistance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective: Here we present possible approaches and identify research needs to enable human health risk assessments that focus on the role the environment plays in antibiotic treatment failure of patients. Methods: The authors participated in a workshop sub-committee to define t...

  16. Health risk assessment of electromagnetic fields: a conflict between the precautionary principle and environmental medicine methodology.

    PubMed

    Dämvik, Mats; Johansson, Olle

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the precautionary principle is that legal requirements are to be made to safeguard against the possible health risks that have not yet been scientifically established. That a risk is not established cannot, therefore, be used as an excuse for not applying the principle. Yet, that rationale is exactly what is happening in the case of the possible health risks from exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). The scientists, representing both the World Health Organization and the European Commission, do not have at all the precautionary principle in mind when they report on health risks. Their starting point is instead to determine whether new research findings have been scientifically established and thus cannot be the basis for an amendment to the existing exposure limits. Uncertain indications of risk are ignored or played down. This approach is in conflict with European Union (EU) law, which requires that the degree of scientific uncertainty should be presented correctly. A thorough examination of the state of research shows many serious indications of possible health risks from exposure very far below existing limits for EMF. Case law, for other types of exposure, also shows that the precautionary principle can be applied on the basis of weaker evidence than that. Our investigation shows that the precautionary principle is not being used for its intended purpose in relation to exposure to EMF. The reason for this position is that decision-makers are being misled by inaccurate risk assessments.

  17. An introductory guide to uncertainty analysis in environmental and health risk assessment. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.O.; Hammonds, J.S.

    1992-10-01

    To compensate for the potential for overly conservative estimates of risk using standard US Environmental Protection Agency methods, an uncertainty analysis should be performed as an integral part of each risk assessment. Uncertainty analyses allow one to obtain quantitative results in the form of confidence intervals that will aid in decision making and will provide guidance for the acquisition of additional data. To perform an uncertainty analysis, one must frequently rely on subjective judgment in the absence of data to estimate the range and a probability distribution describing the extent of uncertainty about a true but unknown value for each parameter of interest. This information is formulated from professional judgment based on an extensive review of literature, analysis of the data, and interviews with experts. Various analytical and numerical techniques are available to allow statistical propagation of the uncertainty in the model parameters to a statement of uncertainty in the risk to a potentially exposed individual. Although analytical methods may be straightforward for relatively simple models, they rapidly become complicated for more involved risk assessments. Because of the tedious efforts required to mathematically derive analytical approaches to propagate uncertainty in complicated risk assessments, numerical methods such as Monte Carlo simulation should be employed. The primary objective of this report is to provide an introductory guide for performing uncertainty analysis in risk assessments being performed for Superfund sites.

  18. An introductory guide to uncertainty analysis in environmental and health risk assessment. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; Bartell, S.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents guidelines for evaluating uncertainty in mathematical equations and computer models applied to assess human health and environmental risk. Uncertainty analyses involve the propagation of uncertainty in model parameters and model structure to obtain confidence statements for the estimate of risk and identify the model components of dominant importance. Uncertainty analyses are required when there is no a priori knowledge about uncertainty in the risk estimate and when there is a chance that the failure to assess uncertainty may affect the selection of wrong options for risk reduction. Uncertainty analyses are effective when they are conducted in an iterative mode. When the uncertainty in the risk estimate is intolerable for decision-making, additional data are acquired for the dominant model components that contribute most to uncertainty. This process is repeated until the level of residual uncertainty can be tolerated. A analytical and numerical methods for error propagation are presented along with methods for identifying the most important contributors to uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation with either Simple Random Sampling (SRS) or Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) is proposed as the most robust method for propagating uncertainty through either simple or complex models. A distinction is made between simulating a stochastically varying assessment endpoint (i.e., the distribution of individual risks in an exposed population) and quantifying uncertainty due to lack of knowledge about a fixed but unknown quantity (e.g., a specific individual, the maximally exposed individual, or the mean, median, or 95%-tile of the distribution of exposed individuals). Emphasis is placed on the need for subjective judgement to quantify uncertainty when relevant data are absent or incomplete.

  19. U.S. Department of Energy worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with environmental restoration and waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.; Travis, C.C.; Simek, M.A.; Sutherland, J.; Scofield, P.A.

    1995-06-01

    This document describes a worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM). The methodology is appropriate for estimating worker risks across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex at both programmatic and site-specific levels. This document supports the worker health risk methodology used to perform the human health risk assessment portion of the DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) although it has applications beyond the PEIS, such as installation-wide worker risk assessments, screening-level assessments, and site-specific assessments.

  20. Environmental Exposure to Cadmium: Health Risk Assessment and its Associations with Hypertension and Impaired Kidney Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haiyun; Liao, Qilin; Chillrud, Steven N.; Yang, Qiang; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Yan, Beizhan

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal. This study was aimed to estimate the potential health risks in a Cd-polluted district in China, and examine the relationship between urinary cadmium(UCd) and hypertension and impaired kidney function at low exposure levels (UCd: GM 1.3 μg/g creatinine). Blood pressure measurement, questionnaires, and collection of urinary samples were conducted from 217 residents. Environmental samples, food, and cigarette samples were collected and detected to estimate the risks posed by Cd and the contribution of inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact pathways to these risks. A logistic regression model was used in examining associations between exposure and hypertension and impaired kidney function. Results show that this population is at high risk. For non-smokers, incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) and hazard quotient (HQ) are 1.74E-04 and 2.96, and for smokers, they are 1.07E-03 and 52.5, respectively. Among all exposure pathways, smoking and foods cause the major increases in ILCR and HQ. UCd is significantly associated with hypertension (odds ratio (OR) = 1.468 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.104, 1.953; P = 0.008) and impaired kidney function (OR = 1.902, 95% CI: 1.054, 3.432; P = 0.033). The results demonstrate that Cd can potentially lead to adverse health effects.

  1. Environmental Exposure to Cadmium: Health Risk Assessment and its Associations with Hypertension and Impaired Kidney Function.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiyun; Liao, Qilin; Chillrud, Steven N; Yang, Qiang; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Yan, Beizhan

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal. This study was aimed to estimate the potential health risks in a Cd-polluted district in China, and examine the relationship between urinary cadmium(UCd) and hypertension and impaired kidney function at low exposure levels (UCd: GM 1.3 μg/g creatinine). Blood pressure measurement, questionnaires, and collection of urinary samples were conducted from 217 residents. Environmental samples, food, and cigarette samples were collected and detected to estimate the risks posed by Cd and the contribution of inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact pathways to these risks. A logistic regression model was used in examining associations between exposure and hypertension and impaired kidney function. Results show that this population is at high risk. For non-smokers, incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) and hazard quotient (HQ) are 1.74E-04 and 2.96, and for smokers, they are 1.07E-03 and 52.5, respectively. Among all exposure pathways, smoking and foods cause the major increases in ILCR and HQ. UCd is significantly associated with hypertension (odds ratio (OR) = 1.468; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.104, 1.953; P = 0.008) and impaired kidney function (OR = 1.902, 95% CI: 1.054, 3.432; P = 0.033). The results demonstrate that Cd can potentially lead to adverse health effects. PMID:27411493

  2. Environmental Exposure to Cadmium: Health Risk Assessment and its Associations with Hypertension and Impaired Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haiyun; Liao, Qilin; Chillrud, Steven N.; Yang, Qiang; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Yan, Beizhan

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal. This study was aimed to estimate the potential health risks in a Cd-polluted district in China, and examine the relationship between urinary cadmium(UCd) and hypertension and impaired kidney function at low exposure levels (UCd: GM 1.3 μg/g creatinine). Blood pressure measurement, questionnaires, and collection of urinary samples were conducted from 217 residents. Environmental samples, food, and cigarette samples were collected and detected to estimate the risks posed by Cd and the contribution of inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact pathways to these risks. A logistic regression model was used in examining associations between exposure and hypertension and impaired kidney function. Results show that this population is at high risk. For non-smokers, incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) and hazard quotient (HQ) are 1.74E-04 and 2.96, and for smokers, they are 1.07E-03 and 52.5, respectively. Among all exposure pathways, smoking and foods cause the major increases in ILCR and HQ. UCd is significantly associated with hypertension (odds ratio (OR) = 1.468; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.104, 1.953; P = 0.008) and impaired kidney function (OR = 1.902, 95% CI: 1.054, 3.432; P = 0.033). The results demonstrate that Cd can potentially lead to adverse health effects. PMID:27411493

  3. [Distribution Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Environmental Samples Around Electroplating Factories and the Health Risk Assessment].

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng-ran; Lei, Yong-qian; Zhou, Qiao-li; Wang, Chang; Pan, Jia-chuan

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the pollution degree and human health risk of heavy metals in soil and air samples around electroplating factories. Soil, air and waste gas samples were collected to measure 8 heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) in two electroplating factories, located in Baiyun district of Guangzhou city. Geoaccumulation index and USEPA Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) were respectively carried out. Results showed that concentrations of Hg and Pb in waste gas and Cr in air samples were higher than limits of the corresponding quality standards, and concentrations of Cd, Hg and Zn in soil samples reached the moderate pollution level. The HQ and HI of exposure by heavy metals in air and soil samples were both lower than 1, indicating that there was no non-carcinogen risk. CRAs and CRCr in soil samples were beyond the maximum acceptable level of carcinogen risk (10(-4)), and the contribution rate of CRCr to TCR was over 81%. CRCr, CRNi and TCR in air samples were in range of 10(-6) - 10(-4), indicating there was possibly carcinogen risk but was acceptable risk. CR values for children were higher than adults in soils, but were higher for adults in air samples. Correlation analysis revealed that concentrations of heavy metals in soils were significantly correlated with these in waste gas samples, and PCA data showed pollution sources of Cd, Hg and Zn in soils were different from other metals.

  4. Environmental and health risk assessment in abandoned mining area, Zlata Idka, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapant, S.; Dietzová, Z.; Cicmanová, S.

    2006-11-01

    The Zlata Idka village is a typical mountainous settlement. As a consequence of more than 500 years of mining activity, its environment has been extensively affected by pollution from potentially toxic elements. This paper presents the results of an environmental-geochemical and health research in the Zlata Idka village, Slovakia. Geochemical analysis indicates that arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) are enriched in soils, groundwater, surface water and stream sediments. The average As and Sb contents are 892 mg/kg and 818 mg/kg in soils, 195 mg/kg and 249 mg/kg in stream sediments, 0.028 mg/l and 0.021 mg/l in groundwater and 0.024 mg/l and 0.034 mg/l in surface water. Arsenic and Sb concentrations exceed upper permissible limits in locally grown vegetables. Within the epidemiological research the As and Sb contents in human tissues and fluids have been observed (blood, urine, nails and hair) in approximately one third of the village’s population (120 respondents). The average As and Sb concentrations were 16.3 μg/l and 3.8 μg/l in blood, 15.8 μg/l and 18.8 μg/l in urine, 3,179 μg/kg and 1,140 μg/kg in nails and 379 μg/kg and 357 μg/kg in hair. These concentrations are comparatively much higher than the average population. Health risk calculations for the ingestion of soil, water, and vegetables indicates a very high carcinogenic risk (>1/1,000) for as content in soil and water. The hazard quotient [HQ=average daily dose (ADD)/reference dose (RfD)] calculation method indicates a HQ>1 for groundwater As and Sb concentrations.

  5. Environmental Health Risk Assessment of Dioxin Exposure through Foods in a Dioxin Hot Spot—Bien Hoa City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Vu-Anh, Le; Ngoc-Bich, Nguyen; Tenkate, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This study used the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the human health risk of dioxin exposure through foods for local residents in two wards of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam. These wards are known hot-spots for dioxin and a range of stakeholders from central government to local levels were involved in this process. Publications on dioxin characteristics and toxicity were reviewed and dioxin concentrations in local soil, mud, foods, milk and blood samples were used as data for this risk assessment. A food frequency survey of 400 randomly selected households in these wards was conducted to provide data for exposure assessment. Results showed that local residents who had consumed locally cultivated foods, especially fresh water fish and bottom-feeding fish, free-ranging chicken, duck, and beef were at a very high risk, with their daily dioxin intake far exceeding the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO. Based on the results of this assessment, a multifaceted risk management program was developed and has been recognized as the first public health program ever to have been implemented in Vietnam to reduce the risks of dioxin exposure at dioxin hot-spots. PMID:20623031

  6. An introductory guide to uncertainty analysis in environmental and health risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.O.; Hammonds, J.S.

    1992-10-01

    To compensate for the potential for overly conservative estimates of risk using standard US Environmental Protection Agency methods, an uncertainty analysis should be performed as an integral part of each risk assessment. Uncertainty analyses allow one to obtain quantitative results in the form of confidence intervals that will aid in decision making and will provide guidance for the acquisition of additional data. To perform an uncertainty analysis, one must frequently rely on subjective judgment in the absence of data to estimate the range and a probability distribution describing the extent of uncertainty about a true but unknown value for each parameter of interest. This information is formulated from professional judgment based on an extensive review of literature, analysis of the data, and interviews with experts. Various analytical and numerical techniques are available to allow statistical propagation of the uncertainty in the model parameters to a statement of uncertainty in the risk to a potentially exposed individual. Although analytical methods may be straightforward for relatively simple models, they rapidly become complicated for more involved risk assessments. Because of the tedious efforts required to mathematically derive analytical approaches to propagate uncertainty in complicated risk assessments, numerical methods such as Monte Carlo simulation should be employed. The primary objective of this report is to provide an introductory guide for performing uncertainty analysis in risk assessments being performed for Superfund sites.

  7. Environmental health-risk assessment for tritium releases from the National Tritium Labeling Facility (NTLF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.; Brand, K.P.

    1994-12-01

    This report is a health risk assessment that addresses continuous releases of tritium to the environment from the National Tritium Labeling Facility (NTLF) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The NTLF contributes approximately 95% of all tritium releases from LBL. Transport and transformation models were used to determine the movement of tritium releases from the NRLF to the air, surface water, soils, and plants and to determine the subsequent doses to humans. These models were calibrated against environmental measurements of tritium levels in the vicinity of the NTLF and in the surrounding community. Risk levels were determined for human populations in each of these zones. Risk levels to both individuals and populations were calculated. In this report population risks and individual risks were calculated for three types of diseases--cancer, heritable genetic effects, and developmental and reproductive effects.

  8. Characterization of the human kinetic adjustment factor for the health risk assessment of environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Valcke, Mathieu; Krishnan, Kannan

    2014-03-01

    A default uncertainty factor of 3.16 (√10) is applied to account for interindividual variability in toxicokinetics when performing non-cancer risk assessments. Using relevant human data for specific chemicals, as WHO/IPCS suggests, it is possible to evaluate, and replace when appropriate, this default factor by quantifying chemical-specific adjustment factors for interindividual variability in toxicokinetics (also referred to as the human kinetic adjustment factor, HKAF). The HKAF has been determined based on the distributions of pharmacokinetic parameters (e.g., half-life, area under the curve, maximum blood concentration) in relevant populations. This article focuses on the current state of knowledge of the use of physiologically based algorithms and models in characterizing the HKAF for environmental contaminants. The recent modeling efforts on the computation of HKAF as a function of the characteristics of the population, chemical and its mode of action (dose metrics), as well as exposure scenario of relevance to the assessment are reviewed here. The results of these studies, taken together, suggest the HKAF varies as a function of the sensitive subpopulation and dose metrics of interest, exposure conditions considered (route, duration, and intensity), metabolic pathways involved and theoretical model underlying its computation. The HKAF seldom exceeded the default value of 3.16, except in very young children (i.e., <≈ 3 months) and when the parent compound is the toxic moiety. Overall, from a public health perspective, the current state of knowledge generally suggest that the default uncertainty factor is sufficient to account for human variability in non-cancer risk assessments of environmental contaminants. PMID:24038072

  9. A review of carbon nanotube toxicity and assessment of potential occupational and environmental health risks.

    PubMed

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T; McCluskey, Richard; Arepalli, Sivaram; Hunter, Robert L

    2006-03-01

    was shown to produce minimal lung responses. The differences in opinions of the investigators about the potential hazards of exposures to CNTs are discussed here. Presented here are also the possible mechanisms of CNT pathogenesis in the lung and the impact of residual metals and other impurities on the toxicological manifestations. The toxicological hazard assessment of potential human exposures to airborne CNTs and occupational exposure limits for these novel compounds are discussed in detail. Environmental fine PM is known to form mainly from combustion of fuels, and has been reported to be a major contributor to the induction of cardiopulmonary diseases by pollutants. Given that manufactured SWCNTs and MWCNTs were found to elicit pathological changes in the lungs, and SWCNTs (administered to the lungs of mice) were further shown to produce respiratory function impairments, retard bacterial clearance after bacterial inoculation, damage the mitochondrial DNA in aorta, increase the percent of aortic plaque, and induce atherosclerotic lesions in the brachiocephalic artery of the heart, it is speculated that exposure to combustion-generated MWCNTs in fine PM may play a significant role in air pollution-related cardiopulmonary diseases. Therefore, CNTs from manufactured and combustion sources in the environment could have adverse effects on human health.

  10. A review of carbon nanotube toxicity and assessment of potential occupational and environmental health risks.

    PubMed

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T; McCluskey, Richard; Arepalli, Sivaram; Hunter, Robert L

    2006-03-01

    was shown to produce minimal lung responses. The differences in opinions of the investigators about the potential hazards of exposures to CNTs are discussed here. Presented here are also the possible mechanisms of CNT pathogenesis in the lung and the impact of residual metals and other impurities on the toxicological manifestations. The toxicological hazard assessment of potential human exposures to airborne CNTs and occupational exposure limits for these novel compounds are discussed in detail. Environmental fine PM is known to form mainly from combustion of fuels, and has been reported to be a major contributor to the induction of cardiopulmonary diseases by pollutants. Given that manufactured SWCNTs and MWCNTs were found to elicit pathological changes in the lungs, and SWCNTs (administered to the lungs of mice) were further shown to produce respiratory function impairments, retard bacterial clearance after bacterial inoculation, damage the mitochondrial DNA in aorta, increase the percent of aortic plaque, and induce atherosclerotic lesions in the brachiocephalic artery of the heart, it is speculated that exposure to combustion-generated MWCNTs in fine PM may play a significant role in air pollution-related cardiopulmonary diseases. Therefore, CNTs from manufactured and combustion sources in the environment could have adverse effects on human health. PMID:16686422

  11. Approaches to advancing quantitative human health risk assessment of environmental chemicals in the post-genomic era

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Euling, Susan Y.; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Subramaniam, Ravi P.

    2013-09-15

    The contribution of genomics and associated technologies to human health risk assessment for environmental chemicals has focused largely on elucidating mechanisms of toxicity, as discussed in other articles in this issue. However, there is interest in moving beyond hazard characterization to making more direct impacts on quantitative risk assessment (QRA) — i.e., the determination of toxicity values for setting exposure standards and cleanup values. We propose that the evolution of QRA of environmental chemicals in the post-genomic era will involve three, somewhat overlapping phases in which different types of approaches begin to mature. The initial focus (in Phase I) has been and continues to be on “augmentation” of weight of evidence — using genomic and related technologies qualitatively to increase the confidence in and scientific basis of the results of QRA. Efforts aimed towards “integration” of these data with traditional animal-based approaches, in particular quantitative predictors, or surrogates, for the in vivo toxicity data to which they have been anchored are just beginning to be explored now (in Phase II). In parallel, there is a recognized need for “expansion” of the use of established biomarkers of susceptibility or risk of human diseases and disorders for QRA, particularly for addressing the issues of cumulative assessment and population risk. Ultimately (in Phase III), substantial further advances could be realized by the development of novel molecular and pathway-based biomarkers and statistical and in silico models that build on anticipated progress in understanding the pathways of human diseases and disorders. Such efforts would facilitate a gradual “reorientation” of QRA towards approaches that more directly link environmental exposures to human outcomes.

  12. Human health risk assessment in relation to environmental pollution of two artificial freshwater lakes in The Netherlands.

    PubMed Central

    Albering, H J; Rila, J P; Moonen, E J; Hoogewerff, J A; Kleinjans, J C

    1999-01-01

    A human health risk assessment has been performed in relation to recreational activities on two artificial freshwater lakes along the river Meuse in The Netherlands. Although the discharges of contaminants into the river Meuse have been reduced in the last decades, which is reflected in decreasing concentrations of pollutants in surface water and suspended matter, the levels in sediments are more persistent. Sediments of the two freshwater lakes appear highly polluted and may pose a health risk in relation to recreational activities. To quantify health risks for carcinogenic (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) as well as noncarcinogenic compounds (e.g., heavy metals), an exposure assessment model was used. First, we used a standard model that solely uses data on sediment pollution as the input parameter, which is the standard procedure in sediment quality assessments in The Netherlands. The highest intake appeared to be associated with the consumption of contaminated fish and resulted in a health risk for Pb and Zn (hazard index exceeded 1). For the other heavy metals and for benzo(a)pyrene, the total averaged exposure levels were below levels of concern. Secondly, input data for a more location-specific calculation procedure were provided via analyses of samples from sediment, surface water, and suspended matter. When these data (concentrations in surface water) were taken into account, the risk due to consumption of contaminated fish decreased by more than two orders of magnitude and appeared to be negligible. In both exposure assessments, many assumptions were made that contribute to a major degree to the uncertainty of this risk assessment. However, this health risk evaluation is useful as a screening methodology for assessing the urgency of sediment remediation actions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9872714

  13. Integration of environmental and human health risk assessment for industries using hazardous materials: a quantitative multi criteria approach for environmental decision makers.

    PubMed

    Topuz, E; Talinli, I; Aydin, E

    2011-02-01

    Environmental management, for which environmental and human health risk assessment is the first stage, is a requirement for industries both before construction and during operation in order to sustain improved quality of life in the ecosystem. Therefore, the aim of this study is to propose an approach that integrates environmental and human health risk assessment for industries using hazardous materials in order to support environmental decision makers with quantitative and directive results. Analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy logic are used as tools to handle problems caused by complexity of environment and uncertain data. When the proposed approach is implemented to a scenario, it was concluded that it is possible to define risk sources with their risk classes and related membership degrees in that classes which enable the decision maker to decide which risk source has priority. In addition, they can easily point out and rank the factors contributing those risk sources owing to priority weights of them. As a result, environmental decision makers can use this approach while they are developing management alternatives for unfounded and on-going industrial plants using hazardous materials. PMID:21111481

  14. Critical Thinking for Environmental Health Risk Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Robin

    1991-01-01

    Proposes an approach for helping school-age children to think critically about environmental health risks. Discusses elements of a school curriculum--defining a decision perspective, making choices under uncertainty, and thinking about consequences--and recommends classroom implementation procedures. (Author/JOW)

  15. A strategic analysis study-based approach to integrated risk assessment: Occupational health risks from environmental restoration and waste management activities at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Mahaffey, J.A.; Doctor, P.G.; Buschbom, R.L.; Glantz, C.S.; Daling, P.M.; Sever, L.E.; Vargo, G.J. Jr.; Strachan, D.M.; Pajunen, A.L.; Hoyt, R.C.; Ludowise, J.D.

    1993-06-01

    The goal of environmental restoration and waste management activities is to reduce public health risks or to delay risks to the future when new technology will be available for improved cleanup solutions. Actions to remediate the wastes on the Hanford Site will entail risks to workers, the public, and the environment that do not currently exist. In some circumstances, remediation activities will create new exposure pathways that are not present without cleanup activities. In addition, cleanup actions will redistribute existing health risks over time and space, and will likely shift health risks to cleanup workers in the short term. This report describes an approach to occupational risk assessment based on the Hanford Strategic Analysis Study and illustrates the approach by comparing worker risks for two options for remediation of N/K fuels, a subcategory of unprocessed irradiated fuels at Hanford.

  16. Environmental and health risk studies at HHWCFs

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, C.

    1995-09-01

    Sanitary Fill Company is proposing to expand San Francisco`s household hazardous waste facility. This paper describes our proposal and discusses the environmental review and public involvement processes that are now required. Planning this expansion has been long and expensive. To my knowledge we are among the first programs to conduct a detailed study of the potential health risks associated with household facilities. I will present a summary of our planning process and compare the process to the outcome.

  17. Rapid assessment of environmental health risks posed by mining operations in low- and middle-income countries: selected case studies.

    PubMed

    Caravanos, Jack; Ericson, Bret; Ponce-Canchihuamán, Johny; Hanrahan, David; Block, Meredith; Susilorini, Budi; Fuller, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies have evaluated associated health risks and human exposure pathways at mining sites. Others have provided estimates of the scale of the issue based in part on surveys. However, a global census of mining-related hazardous waste sites has been lacking. The Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) implemented by Blacksmith Institute (New York, NY, USA) since 2009 is an ongoing effort to catalogue a wide range of chemically contaminated sites with a potential human health risk (Ericson et al., Environ Monit Assess doi:10.1007/s 10661-012-2665-2, 2012). The TSIP utilizes a rapid assessment instrument, the Initial Site Screening (ISS), to quickly and affordably identify key site criteria including human exposure pathways, estimated populations at risk, and sampling information. The resulting ISS allows for comparison between sites exhibiting different contaminants and pollution sources. This paper explores the results of a subset of ISSs completed at 131 artisanal and small-scale gold mining areas and 275 industrial mining and ore processing sites in 45 countries. The authors show that the ISS captures key data points, allowing for prioritization of sites for further investigation or remedial activity.

  18. Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, Steven Arvid; Thomas Wierman

    2003-12-01

    The Environment, Safety and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) models human safety and health risk resulting from waste management and environmental restoration activities. Human safety and health risks include those associated with storing, handling, processing, transporting, and disposing of radionuclides and chemicals. Exposures to these materials, resulting from both accidents and normal, incident-free operation, are modeled. In addition, standard industrial risks (falls, explosions, transportation accidents, etc.) are evaluated. Finally, human safety and health impacts from cleanup of accidental releases of radionuclides and chemicals to the environment are estimated. Unlike environmental impact statements and safety analysis reports, ESHRAP risk predictions are meant to be best estimate, rather than bounding or conservatively high. Typically, ESHRAP studies involve risk predictions covering the entire waste management or environmental restoration program, including such activities as initial storage, handling, processing, interim storage, transportation, and final disposal. ESHRAP can be used to support complex environmental decision-making processes and to track risk reduction as activities progress.

  19. TOXICOPROTEOMICS AND ITS APPLICATION TO HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are exposed to a variety of environmental toxicants, and this together with a large number of interacting factors can contribute to an individual's risk for health. To understand the toxic mechanisms and/or modes of action for human health risk assessment, molecular charac...

  20. Evolution of Public Participation in the Assessment and Management of Environmental Health Risks: A Brief History of Developments in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Significance for public health Risk-based decision making is a core feature of government actions aimed at protecting public health from the adverse effects of environmental hazards. In the past, it has often been an expert-driven, mostly obscure process used by federal agencies to justify and defend regulatory decisions made outside the public arena. But the nature of decision making has changed as it has become apparent that environmental health problems are more complicated, controversial, and costly to solve than originally thought. Meaningful public engagement is now an inherent component of all phases of the risk assessment – risk management paradigm because it promotes stakeholder buy in, taps into unique stakeholder knowledge, and promotes the concept of environmental democracy. In the United States, the risk assessment – risk management paradigm that underpins federal decisions about environmental health risks was first established in 1983. In the beginning, the importance of public participation was not explicitly recognized within the paradigm. Over time, however, it has become evident that not only must risk-based decisions be founded on the best available scientific knowledge and understanding, but also that they must take account of the knowledge, values, and preferences of interested and affected parties, including community members, business people, and environmental advocates. This article examines the gradually expanding role of public participation in risk-based decision making in the United States, and traces its evolution from a peripheral issue labeled as an external pressure to an integral element of the 21st century risk assessment – risk management paradigm. Today, and into the foreseeable future, public participation and stakeholder involvement are intrinsic features of the emerging American regulatory landscape, which emphasizes collaborative approaches for achieving cooperative and cost-effective solutions to complicated and often

  1. Assessment of health risks of policies

    SciTech Connect

    Ádám, Balázs; Molnár, Ágnes; Ádány, Róza; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Bitenc, Katarina; Chereches, Razvan; Cori, Liliana; Fehr, Rainer; Kobza, Joanna; Kollarova, Jana; and others

    2014-09-15

    The assessment of health risks of policies is an inevitable, although challenging prerequisite for the inclusion of health considerations in political decision making. The aim of our project was to develop a so far missing methodological guide for the assessment of the complex impact structure of policies. The guide was developed in a consensual way based on experiences gathered during the assessment of specific national policies selected by the partners of an EU project. Methodological considerations were discussed and summarized in workshops and pilot tested on the EU Health Strategy for finalization. The combined tool, which includes a textual guidance and a checklist, follows the top-down approach, that is, it guides the analysis of causal chains from the policy through related health determinants and risk factors to health outcomes. The tool discusses the most important practical issues of assessment by impact level. It emphasises the transparent identification and prioritisation of factors, the consideration of the feasibility of exposure and outcome assessment with special focus on quantification. The developed guide provides useful methodological instructions for the comprehensive assessment of health risks of policies that can be effectively used in the health impact assessment of policy proposals. - Highlights: • Methodological guide for the assessment of health risks of policies is introduced. • The tool is developed based on the experiences from several case studies. • The combined tool consists of a textual guidance and a checklist. • The top-down approach is followed through the levels of the full impact chain. • The guide provides assistance for the health impact assessment of policy proposals.

  2. Assessing human health risk in the USDA forest service

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, D.R.

    1990-12-31

    This paper identifies the kinds of risk assessments being done by or for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Summaries of data sources currently in use and the pesticide risk assessments completed by the agency or its contractors are discussed. An overview is provided of the agency`s standard operating procedures for the conduct of toxicological, ecological, environmental fate, and human health risk assessments.

  3. Exploration Health Risks: Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer; Charles, John; Hayes, Judith; Wren, Kiley

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of human health on long-duration exploration missions is a primary challenge to mission designers. Indeed, human health risks are currently the largest risk contributors to the risks of evacuation or loss of the crew on long-duration International Space Station missions. We describe a quantitative assessment of the relative probabilities of occurrence of the individual risks to human safety and efficiency during space flight to augment qualitative assessments used in this field to date. Quantitative probabilistic risk assessments will allow program managers to focus resources on those human health risks most likely to occur with undesirable consequences. Truly quantitative assessments are common, even expected, in the engineering and actuarial spheres, but that capability is just emerging in some arenas of life sciences research, such as identifying and minimize the hazards to astronauts during future space exploration missions. Our expectation is that these results can be used to inform NASA mission design trade studies in the near future with the objective of preventing the higher among the human health risks. We identify and discuss statistical techniques to provide this risk quantification based on relevant sets of astronaut biomedical data from short and long duration space flights as well as relevant analog populations. We outline critical assumptions made in the calculations and discuss the rationale for these. Our efforts to date have focussed on quantifying the probabilities of medical risks that are qualitatively perceived as relatively high risks of radiation sickness, cardiac dysrhythmias, medically significant renal stone formation due to increased calcium mobilization, decompression sickness as a result of EVA (extravehicular activity), and bone fracture due to loss of bone mineral density. We present these quantitative probabilities in order-of-magnitude comparison format so that relative risk can be gauged. We address the effects of

  4. Assessing the environmental availability of heavy metals in geogenically contaminated soils of the Sierra de Aracena Natural Park (SW Spain). Is there a health risk?

    PubMed

    Rivera, M B; Giráldez, M I; Fernández-Caliani, J C

    2016-08-01

    Soil developed on mineralised bedrock areas of the Sierra de Aracena Natural Park (SW Spain) is geochemically characterised by naturally high levels of heavy metals and metalloids (notably Zn, Pb, Ag and Cd, but also As, Sb, Cu and Tl). To assess environmental availability, geochemical speciation and potential health risk of such geogenic trace elements, 24 randomly selected soil samples were subjected to one-step extraction procedures (0.01M CaCl2 and 0.05M EDTA), aqueous speciation modelling, and site-specific risk analysis. Metal fraction available for plant uptake or leaching to groundwater was found to be negligible (<1%) due to the low activity of dissolved and exchangeable ions in soil solution, as predicted from the CaCl2 extracts. Based on modelling calculations, free metal ions, primarily Cd(2+) and Zn(2+), were the dominant species in solution over the soil pH range of 5.8 to 7.8. For most metals, the EDTA-extractable fraction generally accounted for <5% suggesting that a limited reservoir of trace elements, mainly bound to Fe oxy-hydroxides, could be potentially available. The results of the health risk assessment for ingestion exposure to groundwater affected by soil leaching revealed that the hazard quotients of heavy metals are within the acceptable risk level. The cumulative hazard index (HI=0.55) fell below the regulatory threshold value of 1.0, even in the worst-case scenario being evaluated, leading to the conclusion that no toxic effects are expected to humans under the conditions and assumptions of the assessment. PMID:27101462

  5. Assessing the environmental availability of heavy metals in geogenically contaminated soils of the Sierra de Aracena Natural Park (SW Spain). Is there a health risk?

    PubMed

    Rivera, M B; Giráldez, M I; Fernández-Caliani, J C

    2016-08-01

    Soil developed on mineralised bedrock areas of the Sierra de Aracena Natural Park (SW Spain) is geochemically characterised by naturally high levels of heavy metals and metalloids (notably Zn, Pb, Ag and Cd, but also As, Sb, Cu and Tl). To assess environmental availability, geochemical speciation and potential health risk of such geogenic trace elements, 24 randomly selected soil samples were subjected to one-step extraction procedures (0.01M CaCl2 and 0.05M EDTA), aqueous speciation modelling, and site-specific risk analysis. Metal fraction available for plant uptake or leaching to groundwater was found to be negligible (<1%) due to the low activity of dissolved and exchangeable ions in soil solution, as predicted from the CaCl2 extracts. Based on modelling calculations, free metal ions, primarily Cd(2+) and Zn(2+), were the dominant species in solution over the soil pH range of 5.8 to 7.8. For most metals, the EDTA-extractable fraction generally accounted for <5% suggesting that a limited reservoir of trace elements, mainly bound to Fe oxy-hydroxides, could be potentially available. The results of the health risk assessment for ingestion exposure to groundwater affected by soil leaching revealed that the hazard quotients of heavy metals are within the acceptable risk level. The cumulative hazard index (HI=0.55) fell below the regulatory threshold value of 1.0, even in the worst-case scenario being evaluated, leading to the conclusion that no toxic effects are expected to humans under the conditions and assumptions of the assessment.

  6. [Tobacco cadmium health risk assessment and reduction techniques: A review].

    PubMed

    Cao, Chen-liang; Ma, Yi-bing; Li, Ju-mei; Wei, Dong-pu; Shi, Yi

    2015-04-01

    Tobacco is one of the cadmium accumulation and tolerance plants. Decreasing cadmium content of tobacco contributes to environmental safety and human health. Three aspects on tobacco cadmium research were reviewed in this paper, i.e. uptake and distribution of cadmium in tobacco, and health risk assessment of cadmium in tobacco and reduction measures. The current situations and existing challenges in the research field were discussed. The cadmium tolerance mechanisms of tobacco were reviewed, the factors on cadmium uptake were analyzed, and the general distribution of cadmium in tobacco was summarized. From the point of health risk assessment, the lack of cadmium limits in tobacco was identified, the recommended formula to calculate cadmium limits of tobacco based on atmosphere cadmium limits and digestion cadmium limits was provided and the cadmium limits of tobacco were estimated using each formula, and suggestions on cadmium limits in tobacco were presented. At last, we put forward several effective reduction measures to lower cadmium level in tobacco leaves.

  7. Environmental and health risks of hydroquinone

    SciTech Connect

    Devillers, J.; Boule, P.; Vasseur, P.; Prevot, P.; Steiman, R.; Seigle-Murandi, F.; Benoit-Guyod, J.L.; Nendza, M.; Grioni, C.; Dive, D. )

    1990-06-01

    Hazard assessment of hydroquinone has been evaluated from bibliographical and original data on the physicochemical properties, the environmental behavior, and the biological effects of this aromatic compound. Hydroquinone, which is produced in large amounts and widely used, must be considered as an environmental contaminant. However, it is not persistent. The ecotoxicity of this molecule, which must be linked to its physicochemical properties, varies from species to species. Its acute and chronic toxicity toward higher terrestrial organisms is moderate. Hydroquinone is estimated to be nonmutagenic by the Ames test but induces chromosome aberrations or karyotypic effects in eucaryotic cells. Carcinogenic and teratogenic potentials have been at present inadequately studied. The study underlines the complementarity of QSAR models and experimental approaches when an attempt is made to obtain ecotoxicological profiles of pollutants.182 references.

  8. Health risk assessment for inhalation exposure to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Fabiánová, E; Hettychová, L; Koppová, K; Hrubá, F; Marko, M; Maroni, M; Grech, G; Bencko, V

    2000-02-01

    Health risk assessment was used as the formal process to estimate the likelihood and magnitude of the health effects occurring in humans as a result of environmental and occupational exposure to polluting agents. This study was focused at estimating the human health risk of the general and working population living in the region polluted by arsenic for more than 40 years, from combustion of coal with high arsenic content in the power plant. The exposure to arsenic from inhalation was under investigation. A study period of 40 years (1973-1993) was chosen. The study period was defined taking into account, besides the availability of data, the temporal patterns of the technological processes and the trends over time of environmental concentrations. The results from the arsenic risk assessment study were used for the evaluation of the health risk for different population groups in the polluted areas and for different professions of workers exposed to As in a power plant. The results are applicable for the evaluation of risk in real conditions, for health surveillance and for remedial changes and a potential suggestion on technological improvement.

  9. A methodology of the assessment of environmental and human health risks from amine emissions from post combustion CO2 capture technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korre, Anna; Manzoor, Saba; Simperler, Alexandra

    2015-04-01

    Post combustion CO2 capture (PCCC) technology in power plants using amines as solvent for CO2 capture, is one of the reduction technologies employed to combat escalating levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, amine solvents used for capturing CO2 produce negative emissions such as, nitrosamines and nitramines, which are suspected to be potent carcinogens. It is therefore essential to assess the atmospheric fate of these amine emissions in the atmosphere by studying their atmospheric chemistry, dispersion and transport pathways away from the source and deposition in the environment, so as to be able to assess accurately the risk posed to human health and the natural environment. An important knowledge gap until recently has been the consideration of the atmospheric chemistry of these amine emissions simultaneously with dispersion and deposition studies so as to perform reliable human health and environmental risk assessments. The authors have developed a methodology to assess the distribution of such emissions away from a post-combustion facility by studying the atmospheric chemistry of monoethanolamine, the most commonly used solvent for CO2 capture, and those of the resulting degradation amines, methylamine and dimethylamine. This was coupled with dispersion modeling calculations (Manzoor, et al., 2014; Manzoor et al,2015). Rate coefficients describing the entire atmospheric chemistry schemes of the amines studied were evaluated employing quantum chemical theoretical and kinetic modeling calculations. These coefficients were used to solve the advection-dispersion-chemical equation using an atmospheric dispersion model, ADMS 5. This methodology is applicable to any size of a power plant and at any geographical location. In this paper, the humman health risk assessment is integrated in the modelling study. The methodology is demonstrated on a case study on the UK's largest capture pilot plant, Ferrybridge CCPilot 100+, to estimate the dispersion, chemical

  10. [Establishment of Method for Health Risk Assessment of Pollutants from Fixed Sources].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Wu, Huan-bo

    2016-05-15

    A health risk assessment method of pollutants from fixed sources was developed by applying AERMOD model in the health risk assessment. The method could directly forecast the health risks of toxic pollutants from source by some exposure pathway. Using the established method, in combination with the data of sources and traditional health risk assessment method as well as the measured data of PAHs in inhalation particle matter (PM₁₀) in Lanzhou, the health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzo [a] pyrene (BaP) in PM₁₀ from the three fire power plants and the health risk of PAHs and BaP in PM₁₀ at the receptor point by inhalation exposure in heating and non-heating seasons was calculated, respectively. Then the contribution rates of the health risk caused by the three fire power plants to the health risk at the receptor point were calculated. The results showed that the contribution rates were not associated with sex and age, but were associated with time period and risk types. The contribution rates in the non-heating seasons were greater than those in heating seasons, and the contribution rates of the carcinogenic risk index were greater than those of the cancer risk value. The reliability of the established method was validated by comparing with the traditional method. This method was applicable to health risk assessment of toxic pollutants from all fixed sources and environmental risk assessment of environmental impact assessment. PMID:27506015

  11. Prioritizing environmental health risks in the UAE.

    PubMed

    Willis, Henry H; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald; Shih, Regina A; Geschwind, Sandra; Olmstead, Sarah; Hu, Jianhui; Curtright, Aimee E; Cecchine, Gary; Moore, Melinda

    2010-12-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative environmental risk-ranking exercise that was conducted in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to inform a strategic planning process led by the Environment Agency-Abu Dhabi (EAD). It represents the first national-level application of a deliberative method for comparative risk ranking first published in this journal. The deliberative method involves a five-stage process that includes quantitative risk assessment by experts and deliberations by groups of stakeholders. The project reported in this article considered 14 categories of environmental risks to health identified through discussions with EAD staff: ambient and indoor air pollution; drinking water contamination; coastal water pollution; soil and groundwater contamination; contamination of fruits, vegetables, and seafood; ambient noise; stratospheric ozone depletion; electromagnetic fields from power lines; health impacts from climate change; and exposure to hazardous substances in industrial, construction, and agricultural work environments. Results from workshops involving 73 stakeholders who met in five separate groups to rank these risks individually and collaboratively indicated strong consensus that outdoor and indoor air pollution are the highest priorities in the UAE. Each of the five groups rated these as being among the highest risks. All groups rated soil and groundwater contamination as being among the lowest risks. In surveys administered after the ranking exercises, participants indicated that the results of the process represented their concerns and approved of using the ranking results to inform policy decisions. The results ultimately shaped a strategic plan that is now being implemented.

  12. Environmental health-risk assessment for tritium releases at the National Tritium Labeling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.; Brand, K.P.; Shan, C.

    1997-04-01

    This risk assessment calculates the probability of experiencing health effects, including cancer incidence due to tritium exposure for three groups of people: (1) LBNL workers near the LBNL facility--Building 75--that uses tritium; (2) other workers at LBNL and nearby neighbors; and (3) people who use the UC Berkeley campus area, and some Berkeley residents. All of these groups share the same probability of health effects from the background radiation from natural sources in the Berkeley area environment, including an increased risk of developing a cancer of 11,000 chances per million. In calculating risk the authors assumed continuous operation in Building 75 for at least a human lifetime. Under this assumption, LBNL workers located near Building 75 have an additional risk of 60 chances out of one million to suffer a cancer; other workers at LBNL and people who live near LBNL have an additional risk of six chances out of one million over a lifetime of exposure; and users of the UC Berkeley campus area and other residents of Berkeley have an additional risk of less than once chance out of one million over a lifetime.

  13. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China.

    PubMed

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60-99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12-30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed.

  14. Evaluating uncertainty to strengthen epidemiologic data for use in human health risk assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: There is a recognized need to improve the application of epidemiologic data in human health risk assessment especially for understanding and characterizing risks from environmental and occupational exposures. While most epidemiologic studies result in uncertainty, tec...

  15. Community Health Risk Assessment of Primary Aluminum Smelter Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Larivière, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Primary aluminum production is an industrial process with high potential health risk for workers. We consider in this article how to assess community health risks associated with primary aluminum smelter emissions. Methods: We reviewed the literature on health effects, community exposure data, and dose–response relationships of the principal hazardous agents emitted. Results: On the basis of representative measured community exposure levels, we were able to make rough estimates on health risks associated with specific agents and categorize these as none, low, medium, or high. Conclusions: It is possible to undertake a rough-estimate community Health Risk Assessment for individual smelters on the basis of information available in the epidemiological literature and local community exposure data. PMID:24806724

  16. University of Minnesota Duluth, gasifier health risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, H.R.; O'Donnell, F.R.; Van Hoesen, S.D.; Etnier, E.L.

    1984-09-01

    This document describes an investigation of potential public and occupational health impacts associated with operation of the small, low Btu gasifier at the University of Minnesota, Duluth (UMD). The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify, within the uncertainty limits imposed by the available data, major contributors to such impacts. Consequently, we have estimated potential occupational health impacts and the gasifier's potential for producing certain health endpoints in the general public. Endpoints are specifically noncancer acute and chronic effects (threshold effects), and cancer and SO/sub x/-related mortalities (linear, nonthreshold effects) associated with atmospheric releases (no direct releases to aquatic systems occur at the facility) and subsequent inhalation exposure to representatives of three classes of released materials - metals, organics, and criteria pollutants. Other potential pathways to public exposure (atmospherically-contaminated drinking water, ingestion of locally produced foods, etc.) should not be responsible for a significant fraction of estimated risk, given the high dilution potential of the city's drinking water source (Lake Superior), and the fact that a relatively small quantity of food is grown locally. The report is organized to provide the reader with: (1) discussion and estimation, as feasible, of gasifier worker health risks, (2) source term (release rate) data, environmental transport and population exposure information, and (3) an assessment of the general population health risk based on these exposure estimates. 82 references, 1 figure, 9 tables.

  17. Environmental levels of PCDD/Fs and metals around a cement plant in Catalonia, Spain, before and after alternative fuel implementation. Assessment of human health risks.

    PubMed

    Rovira, Joaquim; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl, V, and Zn, and the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans were determined in samples of soil, vegetation, and air, collected in the vicinity of a cement plant (Catalonia, Spain), before (January 2011 and July 2011) and after (January 2012 and June 2013) alternative fuel partial substitution (fossil fuels by sewage sludge). Seven sampling points were selected at different directions and distances to the facility including two background sampling points. The results were used to assess the health risk assessment for the population living near the facility. Only few significant differences were found before and after alternative fuel partial substitution (Mn in soils and Cd in vegetation). Non-carcinogenic risks were below the safety threshold (HQ<1), while carcinogenic risks were below 10(-5), or exceeding slightly that value, always in the range considered as assumable (10(-6)-10(-4)). PMID:24704963

  18. Assessing the health risks of aluminum.

    PubMed

    Orme, J; Ohanian, E V

    1990-03-01

    Aluminum is a ubiquitous substance with over 4,000 uses. Aluminum, as aluminum sulfate, is commonly used in the United States as a coagulant in the treatment of drinking water. For many years aluminum was not considered to be toxic to humans. However, reports associating aluminum with several skeletal and neurological disorders in humans suggest that exposure to aluminum may pose a health hazard. In 1983 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced plans to regulate a number of substances, including aluminum, in drinking water. Aluminum was considered because of its occurrence and apparent toxicity. Upon further evaluation of the health effects data the EPA proposed not to regulate aluminum as a result of the uncertainty of the toxicity of ingested aluminum. Putative causal associations between aluminum exposure and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease have yet to be substantiated. Although several issues regarding the toxicity of ingested aluminum are unresolved, aluminum has been specified in the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act, as one of 83 substances in drinking water to be regulated by 1989. Additional data are needed before the potential risk of aluminum can be assessed; therefore the EPA has deferred possible regulation until 1991. PMID:24202565

  19. Communication about environmental health risks: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Using the most effective methods and techniques for communicating risk to the public is critical. Understanding the impact that different types of risk communication have played in real and perceived public health risks can provide information about how messages, policies and programs can and should be communicated in order to be most effective. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the effectiveness of communication strategies and factors that impact communication uptake related to environmental health risks. Methods A systematic review of English articles using multiple databases with appropriate search terms. Data sources also included grey literature. Key organization websites and key journals were hand searched for relevant articles. Consultation with experts took place to locate any additional references. Articles had to meet relevance criteria for study design [randomized controlled trials, clinical controlled trials, cohort analytic, cohort, any pre-post, interrupted time series, mixed methods or any qualitative studies), participants (those in community-living, non-clinical populations), interventions (including, but not limited to, any community-based methods or tools such as Internet, telephone, media-based interventions or any combination thereof), and outcomes (reported measurable outcomes such as awareness, knowledge or attitudinal or behavioural change). Articles were assessed for quality and data was extracted using standardized tools by two independent reviewers. Articles were given an overall assessment of strong, moderate or weak quality. Results There were no strong or moderate studies. Meta-analysis was not appropriate to the data. Data for 24 articles were analyzed and reported in a narrative format. The findings suggest that a multi-media approach is more effective than any single media approach. Similarly, printed material that offers a combination of information types (i.e., text and diagrams) is a more effective

  20. Health Risk Assessment of Inhalable Particulate Matter in Beijing Based on the Thermal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lin-Yu; Yin, Hao; Xie, Xiao-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Inhalable particulate matter (PM10) is a primary air pollutant closely related to public health, and an especially serious problem in urban areas. The urban heat island (UHI) effect has made the urban PM10 pollution situation more complex and severe. In this study, we established a health risk assessment system utilizing an epidemiological method taking the thermal environment effects into consideration. We utilized a remote sensing method to retrieve the PM10 concentration, UHI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). With the correlation between difference vegetation index (DVI) and PM10 concentration, we utilized the established model between PM10 and thermal environmental indicators to evaluate the PM10 health risks based on the epidemiological study. Additionally, with the regulation of UHI, NDVI and NDWI, we aimed at regulating the PM10 health risks and thermal environment simultaneously. This study attempted to accomplish concurrent thermal environment regulation and elimination of PM10 health risks through control of UHI intensity. The results indicate that urban Beijing has a higher PM10 health risk than rural areas; PM10 health risk based on the thermal environment is 1.145, which is similar to the health risk calculated (1.144) from the PM10 concentration inversion; according to the regulation results, regulation of UHI and NDVI is effective and helpful for mitigation of PM10 health risk in functional zones. PMID:25464132

  1. Health risk assessment of inhalable particulate matter in Beijing based on the thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin-Yu; Yin, Hao; Xie, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Inhalable particulate matter (PM10) is a primary air pollutant closely related to public health, and an especially serious problem in urban areas. The urban heat island (UHI) effect has made the urban PM10 pollution situation more complex and severe. In this study, we established a health risk assessment system utilizing an epidemiological method taking the thermal environment effects into consideration. We utilized a remote sensing method to retrieve the PM10 concentration, UHI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). With the correlation between difference vegetation index (DVI) and PM10 concentration, we utilized the established model between PM10 and thermal environmental indicators to evaluate the PM10 health risks based on the epidemiological study. Additionally, with the regulation of UHI, NDVI and NDWI, we aimed at regulating the PM10 health risks and thermal environment simultaneously. This study attempted to accomplish concurrent thermal environment regulation and elimination of PM10 health risks through control of UHI intensity. The results indicate that urban Beijing has a higher PM10 health risk than rural areas; PM10 health risk based on the thermal environment is 1.145, which is similar to the health risk calculated (1.144) from the PM10 concentration inversion; according to the regulation results, regulation of UHI and NDVI is effective and helpful for mitigation of PM10 health risk in functional zones.

  2. Propagating uncertainty from hydrology into human health risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siirila, E. R.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Hydro-geologic modeling and uncertainty assessment of flow and transport parameters can be incorporated into human health risk (both cancer and non-cancer) assessment to better understand the associated uncertainties. This interdisciplinary approach is needed now more than ever as societal problems concerning water quality are increasingly interdisciplinary as well. For example, uncertainty can originate from environmental conditions such as a lack of information or measurement error, or can manifest as variability, such as differences in physiological and exposure parameters between individuals. To complicate the matter, traditional risk assessment methodologies are independent of time, virtually neglecting any temporal dependence. Here we present not only how uncertainty and variability can be incorporated into a risk assessment, but also how time dependent risk assessment (TDRA) allows for the calculation of risk as a function of time. The development of TDRA and the inclusion of quantitative risk analysis in this research provide a means to inform decision makers faced with water quality issues and challenges. The stochastic nature of this work also provides a means to address the question of uncertainty in management decisions, a component that is frequently difficult to quantify. To illustrate this new formulation and to investigate hydraulic mechanisms for sensitivity, an example of varying environmental concentration signals resulting from rate dependencies in geochemical reactions is used. Cancer risk is computed and compared using environmental concentration ensembles modeled with sorption as 1) a linear equilibrium assumption and 2) first order kinetics. Results show that the up scaling of these small-scale processes controls the distribution, magnitude, and associated uncertainty of cancer risk.

  3. A 21st century roadmap for human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pastoor, Timothy P; Bachman, Ammie N; Bell, David R; Cohen, Samuel M; Dellarco, Michael; Dewhurst, Ian C; Doe, John E; Doerrer, Nancy G; Embry, Michelle R; Hines, Ronald N; Moretto, Angelo; Phillips, Richard D; Rowlands, J Craig; Tanir, Jennifer Y; Wolf, Douglas C; Boobis, Alan R

    2014-08-01

    The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI)-coordinated Risk Assessment in the 21st Century (RISK21) project was initiated to develop a scientific, transparent, and efficient approach to the evolving world of human health risk assessment, and involved over 120 participants from 12 countries, 15 government institutions, 20 universities, 2 non-governmental organizations, and 12 corporations. This paper provides a brief overview of the tiered RISK21 framework called the roadmap and risk visualization matrix, and articulates the core principles derived by RISK21 participants that guided its development. Subsequent papers describe the roadmap and matrix in greater detail. RISK21 principles include focusing on problem formulation, utilizing existing information, starting with exposure assessment (rather than toxicity), and using a tiered process for data development. Bringing estimates of exposure and toxicity together on a two-dimensional matrix provides a clear rendition of human safety and risk. The value of the roadmap is its capacity to chronicle the stepwise acquisition of scientific information and display it in a clear and concise fashion. Furthermore, the tiered approach and transparent display of information will contribute to greater efficiencies by calling for data only as needed (enough precision to make a decision), thus conserving animals and other resources.

  4. Compounding conservatisms: EPA's health risk assessment methods

    SciTech Connect

    Stackelberg, K. von; Burmaster, D.E. )

    1993-03-01

    Superfund conjures up images of hazardous waste sites, which EPA is spending billions of dollars to remediate. One of the law's most worrisome effects is that it drains enormous economic resources without returning commensurate benefits. In a Sept. 1, 1991, front page article in The New York Times, experts argued that most health dangers at Superfund sites could be eliminated for a fraction of the billions that will be spent cleaning up the 1,200 high-priority sites across the country. Even EPA has suggested that the Superfund program may receive disproportionate resources, compared with other public health programs, such as radon in houses, the diminishing ozone layer and occupational diseases. Public opinion polls over the last decade consistently have mirrored the public's vast fear of hazardous waste sites, a fear as great as that held for nuclear power plants. Fear notwithstanding, the high cost of chosen remedies at given sites may have less to do with public health goals than with the method EPA uses to translate them into acceptable contaminant concentrations in soil, groundwater and other environmental media.

  5. Health risk assessment of irradiated topaz

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.W.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Irradiated topaz gemstones are currently processed for color improvement by subjecting clear stones to neutron or high-energy electron irradiations, which leads to activation of trace elements in the stones. Assessment of the risk to consumers required the identification and quantification of the resultant radionuclides and the attendant exposure. Representative stones from Brazil, India, Nigeria, Sri Lanka were irradiated and analyzed for gamma ray and beta particle emissions, using sodium iodide and germanium spectrometers; and Geiger-Muller, plastic and liquid scintillation, autoradiography, and thermoluminescent-dosimetry measurement techniques. Based on these studies and other information derived from published literature, dose and related risk estimates were made for typical user conditions. New criteria and methods for routine assays for acceptable release, based on gross beta and gross photon emissions from the stones, were also developed.

  6. APPLICATION OF A TIERED SURROGATE APPROACH TO IDENTIFY TOXICITY SURROGATES FOR HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    APPLICATION OF A TIERED SURROGATE APPROACH TO IDENTIFY TOXICITY SURROGATES FOR HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT. P.R. Dodmane1, L.E. Lizarraga1, J.P. Kaiser2, S.C. Wesselkamper2, Q.J. Zhao2. 1ORISE Participant, U.S. EPA, National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA), Cincinnati...

  7. INCORPORATING HUMAN INTERINDIVIDUAL BIOTRANSFORMATION VARIANCE IN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accom...

  8. 75 FR 70009 - Development of Health Risk Assessment Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Development of Health Risk Assessment Guidance AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services...

  9. A 21st Century Roadmap for Human Health Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    For decades human health risk assessment has depended primarily on animal testing to predict adverse effects in humans, but that paradigm has come under question because of calls for more accurate information, less use of animals, and more efficient use of resources. Moreover, t...

  10. State-of-the-Science Workshop Report: Issues and Approaches in Low Dose–Response Extrapolation for Environmental Health Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low-dose extrapolation model selection for evaluating the health effects of environmental pollutants is a key component of the risk assessment process. At a workshop held in Baltimore, MD, on April 23-24, 2007, and sponsored by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Johns...

  11. Health Risk Assessment of Irradiated Topaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Kevin Lyle

    1991-06-01

    Radiation-produced blue topaz, indistinguishable from natural blue topaz, is produced by several different techniques. Published information on radionuclides present, activity levels, equipment necessary to detect activated nuclides and dosimetric assessment is lacking. Using a 60 megawatt nuclear reactor, fifty-one samples of colorless topaz from Nigeria, Sri Lanka, India and Brazil were irradiated with thermal and fast neutron fluences ranging from 1.8 times 10 13 to 9.2 times 1018 neutrons cm^{-2}. Seventeen MeV electrons produced by a linear accelerator were also used to irradiate 36 colorless topaz from the same countries. Gamma ray or positron-emitting nuclides were identified using calibrated well-type NaI or germanium detectors. For germanium detectors having relative efficiencies of approximately 20 percent, an analysis time of one hour or more was needed. Geiger Mueller (G-M) detectors, scintillators (plastic and liquid), gas flow proportional counters, a ZnS detector and autoradiography techniques were used to measure charged particle activity. Isotopes produced from neutron activation included 182Ta, ^ {59}Fe, 46Sc, 51Cr, 54Mn, 124Sb, ^{32 }P, 77As, ^ {183}Ta, 77Ge, 72Ga, and ^{24 }Na. Possible nuclides produced from 17 MeV electron treatment include ^{68 }Ga, 64Cu, ^ {49}Cr, and 18F. Positive identification of the electron activated nuclides was not possible because of the short half-lives involved (<1 day). Of the possible pure beta emitters activated during neutron bombardment, 32P and 35S are the most likely to be produced. The identification of 32P was made using a three point beta absorption analysis with a G-M detector. Skin and breast cancer risk estimates were calculated for various sized topaz containing NRC exempt concentration levels. When compared to a negligible individual risk level (NIRL) of 10^{-7}, the risk of an irradiated topaz in contact with the skin or three inches from breast tissue was a small fraction of the NIRL. At a risk

  12. [Health Risk Assessment of Drinking Water Quality in Tianjin Based on GIS].

    PubMed

    Fu, Gang; Zeng, Qiang; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Yue; Feng, Bao-jia; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yang; Hou, Chang-chun

    2015-12-01

    This study intends to assess the potential health hazards of drinking water quality and explore the application of geographic information system( GIS) in drinking water safety in Tianjin. Eight hundred and fifty water samples from 401 sampling points in Tianjin were measured according to the national drinking water standards. The risk assessment was conducted using the environmental health risk assessment model recommended by US EAP, and GIS was combined to explore the information visualization and risk factors simultaneously. The results showed that the health risks of carcinogens, non-carcinogens were 3.83 x 10⁻⁵, 5.62 x 10⁻⁹ and 3.83 x 10⁻⁵ for total health risk respectively. The rank of health risk was carcinogen > non-carcinogen. The rank of carcinogens health risk was urban > new area > rural area, chromium (VI) > cadmium > arsenic > trichlormethane > carbon tetrachloride. The rank of non-carcinogens health risk was rural area > new area > urban, fluoride > cyanide > lead > nitrate. The total health risk level of drinking water in Tianjin was lower than that of ICRP recommended level (5.0 x 10⁻⁵), while was between US EPA recommended level (1.0 x 10⁻⁴-1.0 x 10⁻⁶). It was at an acceptable level and would not cause obvious health hazards. The main health risks of drinking water came from carcinogens. More attentions should be paid to chromium (VI) for carcinogens and fluoride for non-carcinogens. GIS can accomplish information visualization of drinking water risk assessment and further explore of risk factors.

  13. [Health Risk Assessment of Drinking Water Quality in Tianjin Based on GIS].

    PubMed

    Fu, Gang; Zeng, Qiang; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Yue; Feng, Bao-jia; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yang; Hou, Chang-chun

    2015-12-01

    This study intends to assess the potential health hazards of drinking water quality and explore the application of geographic information system( GIS) in drinking water safety in Tianjin. Eight hundred and fifty water samples from 401 sampling points in Tianjin were measured according to the national drinking water standards. The risk assessment was conducted using the environmental health risk assessment model recommended by US EAP, and GIS was combined to explore the information visualization and risk factors simultaneously. The results showed that the health risks of carcinogens, non-carcinogens were 3.83 x 10⁻⁵, 5.62 x 10⁻⁹ and 3.83 x 10⁻⁵ for total health risk respectively. The rank of health risk was carcinogen > non-carcinogen. The rank of carcinogens health risk was urban > new area > rural area, chromium (VI) > cadmium > arsenic > trichlormethane > carbon tetrachloride. The rank of non-carcinogens health risk was rural area > new area > urban, fluoride > cyanide > lead > nitrate. The total health risk level of drinking water in Tianjin was lower than that of ICRP recommended level (5.0 x 10⁻⁵), while was between US EPA recommended level (1.0 x 10⁻⁴-1.0 x 10⁻⁶). It was at an acceptable level and would not cause obvious health hazards. The main health risks of drinking water came from carcinogens. More attentions should be paid to chromium (VI) for carcinogens and fluoride for non-carcinogens. GIS can accomplish information visualization of drinking water risk assessment and further explore of risk factors. PMID:27011993

  14. A new approach to criteria for health risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Goh, Yang Miang

    2012-01-15

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a developing component of the overall impact assessment process and as such needs access to procedures that can enable more consistent approaches to the stepwise process that is now generally accepted in both EIA and HIA. The guidelines developed during this project provide a structured process, based on risk assessment procedures which use consequences and likelihood, as a way of ranking risks to adverse health outcomes from activities subjected to HIA or HIA as part of EIA. The aim is to assess the potential for both acute and chronic health outcomes. The consequences component also identifies a series of consequences for the health care system, depicted as expressions of financial expenditure and the capacity of the health system. These more specific health risk assessment characteristics should provide for a broader consideration of health consequences and a more consistent estimation of the adverse health risks of a proposed development at both the scoping and risk assessment stages of the HIA process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A more objective approach to health risk assessment is provided. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for the consequences for chronic and acute impacts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for the consequences on the health care system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for event frequency that could impact on health. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The approach presented is currently being trialled in Australia.

  15. Rural Community Leaders’ Perceptions of Environmental Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Laura S.; Butterfield, Patricia; Christopher, Suzanne; Hill, Wade

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative description was used to explore how rural community leaders frame, interpret, and give meaning to environmental health issues affecting their constituents and communities. Six rural community leaders discussed growth, vulnerable families, and the action avoidance strategies they use or see used in lieu of adopting health-promoting behaviors. Findings suggest intervention strategies should be economical, use common sense, be sensitive to regional identity, and use local case studies and “inside leadership.” Occupational health nurses addressing the disparate environmental health risks in rural communities are encouraged to use agenda-neutral, scientifically based risk communication efforts and foster collaborative relationships among nurses, planners, industry, and other community leaders. PMID:16562621

  16. Who comes to a workplace health risk assessment?

    PubMed

    Dobbins, T A; Simpson, J M; Oldenburg, B; Owen, N; Harris, D

    1998-01-01

    Workplace health promotion initiatives have proliferated, but there are difficulties in recruiting employees of lower socioeconomic status and at higher risk of disease. A survey of health behaviors and attitudes was administered in 20 worksites and the opportunity to attend a health risk assessment promoted. Those more likely to attend were women, those of higher occupational prestige, and those from a non-English-speaking background. After adjustment for these variables, the only health behavior associated with attendance was smoking status. Perceived risk of lung cancer was significant, even after adjustment for smoking status. Stage of readiness to change health behaviors was associated with attendance, with those in the preparation stage being more likely to attend than those in the precontemplation stage. However, this association was statistically significant only for fruit and vegetable consumption. There was no relation between attendance and support for health promotion, perceived general health, or other perceived risk of disease. These findings suggest that additional risk communication strategies and environmental support are required to involve those with less prestigious occupations.

  17. [Methods for assessing the potential health risks of traces of pharmaceuticals in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Kozísek, Frantisek; Jeligová, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Increasing consumption of pharmaceuticals leads also to higher release of its non-metabolized residues into environment, mostly hydrosphere. Some of these substances may reach also processed drinking water. Although it is found in traces, it causes public concern as it can represent a non-targeted and unwanted medication. Toxicologists and public health authorities are appealed to assess potential health risks carefully and to communicate the risk adequately to public. As health risks assessment of environmental exposure to pharmaceuticals is a new field of expertise, its methodology has not been unified and standardized yet, but several different procedures have been proposed and used. The paper provides overview of these methods.

  18. Assessment of mercury health risks to adults from coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.; Saroff, L.

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is preparing, for the U.S. Congress, a report evaluating the need to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from electric utilities. This study, to be completed in 1995, will have important health and economic implications. In support of these efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1000 MW{sub e} coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. The approach draws on the extant knowledge in each of the important steps in the calculation chain from emissions to health effects. Estimated results at key points in the chain were compared with actual measurements to help validate the modeled estimates. Two cases were considered: the baseline case (no local impacts), and the impact case (maximum local power-plant impact). The BNL study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Many implicit and explicit sources of uncertainty exist in this analysis. Those that appear to be most in need of improvement include data on doses and responses for potentially sensitive subpopulations (e.g., fetal exposures). Rather than considering hypothetical situations, it would also be preferable to assess the risks associated with actual coal-fired power plants and the nearby sensitive water bodies and susceptible subpopulations. Finally, annual total Hg emissions from coal burning and from other anthropogenic sources are still uncertain; this makes it difficult to estimate the effects of U.S. coal burning on global Hg concentration levels, especially over the long term.

  19. [Health risk assessment of coke oven PAHs emissions].

    PubMed

    Bo, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wen, Rou; Zhao, Chun-Li; Wu, Tie; Li, Shi-Bei

    2014-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced by coke oven are with strong toxicity and carcinogenicity. Taken typical coke oven of iron and steel enterprises as the case study, the dispersion and migration of 13 kinds of PAHs emitted from coke oven were analyzed using AERMOD dispersion model, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks at the receptors within the modeling domain were evaluated using BREEZE Risk Analyst and the Human Health Risk Assessment Protocol for Hazardous Waste Combustion (HHRAP) was followed, the health risks caused by PAHs emission from coke oven were quantitatively evaluated. The results indicated that attention should be paid to the non-carcinogenic risk of naphthalene emission (the maximum value was 0.97). The carcinogenic risks of each single pollutant were all below 1.0E-06, while the maximum value of total carcinogenic risk was 2.65E-06, which may have some influence on the health of local residents.

  20. Clean Slate transportation and human health risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Public concern regarding activities involving radioactive material generally focuses on the human health risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. This report describes the results of a risk analysis conducted to evaluate risk for excavation, handling, and transport of soil contaminated with transuranics at the Clean Slate sites. Transportation risks were estimated for public transport routes from the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to the Envirocore disposal facility or to the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for both radiological risk and risk due to traffic accidents. Human health risks were evaluated for occupational and radiation-related health effects to workers. This report was generated to respond to this public concern, to provide an evaluation of the risk, and to assess feasibility of transport of the contaminated soil for disposal.

  1. Health risk assessment maps for arsenic groundwater content: application of national geochemical databases.

    PubMed

    Rapant, Stanislav; Krcmová, Katarína

    2007-04-01

    This investigation assesses the feasibility of calculating and visualizing health risk estimates from exposure to groundwater contaminated with arsenic (As) using data from national geochemical databases. The potential health risk associated with As-contaminated groundwater was assessed based on an elaboration of existing geochemical data in accordance with accepted methodological procedures established for human health risk assessment (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methodology). A screening analysis approach was used for estimating the contribution of As to the total chronic health risk from exposure to groundwater contaminated with potentially toxic elements, including As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, Se and Zn, and the results indicate that As contributes significantly (>50%) to this total health chronic risk in about 10% of Slovak territory. Based on the calculation of the potential risk level by exposure modelling, increased chronic as well as carcinogenic risk levels (medium to high) were documented in approximately 0.2 and 11% of the total Slovak area, respectively. The areas characterized by high health risk levels are mainly those geogenically contaminated. High and very high carcinogenic risk was determined in 34 of 79 districts and in 528 of 2924 municipalities. PMID:17256097

  2. Health risk assessment maps for arsenic groundwater content: application of national geochemical databases.

    PubMed

    Rapant, Stanislav; Krcmová, Katarína

    2007-04-01

    This investigation assesses the feasibility of calculating and visualizing health risk estimates from exposure to groundwater contaminated with arsenic (As) using data from national geochemical databases. The potential health risk associated with As-contaminated groundwater was assessed based on an elaboration of existing geochemical data in accordance with accepted methodological procedures established for human health risk assessment (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methodology). A screening analysis approach was used for estimating the contribution of As to the total chronic health risk from exposure to groundwater contaminated with potentially toxic elements, including As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, Se and Zn, and the results indicate that As contributes significantly (>50%) to this total health chronic risk in about 10% of Slovak territory. Based on the calculation of the potential risk level by exposure modelling, increased chronic as well as carcinogenic risk levels (medium to high) were documented in approximately 0.2 and 11% of the total Slovak area, respectively. The areas characterized by high health risk levels are mainly those geogenically contaminated. High and very high carcinogenic risk was determined in 34 of 79 districts and in 528 of 2924 municipalities.

  3. Community health risk assessment after a fire with asbestos containing fallout

    PubMed Central

    Bridgman, S

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—A factory fire in Tranmere, Merseyside, England, deposited asbestos containing fallout in an urban area. There was considerable community anxiety for months after the incident. Therefore an assessment of the long term health risks of this acute environmental incident were requested by the local health authority.
METHODS—The facts of the incident were gathered and appraised from unpublished and press reports, involved personnel, and further analysis of material collected at the time of the incident. The literature on the long term health risks of asbestos was reviewed, and combined with evidence on asbestos exposure to estimate community health risk.
RESULTS—Risk was almost entirely from exposure to fire fallout of chrysotile in asbestos bitumen paper covering the factory roof. Amosite was only detected in a few samples and in trace amounts. The number of people who lived in the area of fallout was 16 000 to 48 000. From a non-threshold model with assumptions likely to overestimate risk, the lung cancer risk is estimated to be undetectably small. Risk of mesothelioma from chrysotile exposure, and risks of lung cancer and mesothelioma from amosite exposure were based on observational studies and were estimated to be even lower than that of lung cancer risk from chrysotile exposure. Academically, there are assumptions that while reasonable cannot be proven, for example, the validity of extrapolating observed risk from much higher exposures to lower exposures, estimates of individual exposure, and that there is no threshold for asbestos to cause cancer.
CONCLUSIONS—The author is unaware of a similar study on long term health risks in a community exposed to asbestos in a fire. It is concluded that, using methods that do not underestimate risk, risk is undetectably small. Practical lessons from this methodology and approach to health risk assessment are discussed.


Keywords: asbestos; environmental pollutants; mesothelioma; health risk

  4. Estimated Levels of Environmental Contamination and Health Risk Assessment for Herbicides and Insecticides in Surface Water of Ceará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Anayla S; Duaví, Wersângela C; Cavalcante, Rivelino M; Milhome, Maria Aparecida L; do Nascimento, Ronaldo F

    2016-01-01

    Methodology using solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (SPE-C18/HPLC-DAD) was applied to pesticide determinations in ten water reservoirs in the semidarid region of northeastern Brazil. The validated method was suitable for determination of herbicides and insecticide in surface water. The recovery efficiency of atrazine, methyl-parathion and simazine was approximately 70%. The method also showed good linearity and selectivity with correlation coefficients (R) greater than 0.99. The limits of detection were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by government agencies. Studied reservoirs showed presence of atrazine at mean levels from 7.0 to 15.0 µg/L. Simazine and methyl parathion were not detected during the period. The atrazine levels measured from this semiarid region are of the same magnitude as those found in regions with moderate to high agricultural activity. According to detected atrazine concentrations, the annual health risk to humans was insignificant. However, the control of herbicides is important to maintain the quality of water in the reservoirs of Ceará, Brazil. PMID:26537372

  5. Estimated Levels of Environmental Contamination and Health Risk Assessment for Herbicides and Insecticides in Surface Water of Ceará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Anayla S; Duaví, Wersângela C; Cavalcante, Rivelino M; Milhome, Maria Aparecida L; do Nascimento, Ronaldo F

    2016-01-01

    Methodology using solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (SPE-C18/HPLC-DAD) was applied to pesticide determinations in ten water reservoirs in the semidarid region of northeastern Brazil. The validated method was suitable for determination of herbicides and insecticide in surface water. The recovery efficiency of atrazine, methyl-parathion and simazine was approximately 70%. The method also showed good linearity and selectivity with correlation coefficients (R) greater than 0.99. The limits of detection were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by government agencies. Studied reservoirs showed presence of atrazine at mean levels from 7.0 to 15.0 µg/L. Simazine and methyl parathion were not detected during the period. The atrazine levels measured from this semiarid region are of the same magnitude as those found in regions with moderate to high agricultural activity. According to detected atrazine concentrations, the annual health risk to humans was insignificant. However, the control of herbicides is important to maintain the quality of water in the reservoirs of Ceará, Brazil.

  6. Uncertainties associated with assessing the public health risk from Legionella

    PubMed Central

    Whiley, Harriet; Keegan, Alexandra; Fallowfield, Howard; Ross, Kirstin

    2014-01-01

    Legionella is an opportunistic pathogen of public health concern. Current regulatory and management guidelines for the control of this organism are informed by risk assessments. However, there are many unanswered questions and uncertainties regarding Legionella epidemiology, strain infectivity, infectious dose, and detection methods. This review follows the EnHealth Risk Assessment Framework, to examine the current information available regarding Legionella risk and discuss the uncertainties and assumptions. This review can be used as a tool for understanding the uncertainties associated with Legionella risk assessment. It also serves to highlight the areas of Legionella research that require future focus. Improvement of these uncertainties will provide information to enhance risk management practices for Legionella, potentially improving public health protection and reducing the economic costs by streamlining current management practices. PMID:25309526

  7. Brownfields and health risks--air dispersion modeling and health risk assessment at landfill redevelopment sites.

    PubMed

    Ofungwu, Joseph; Eget, Steven

    2006-07-01

    Redevelopment of landfill sites in the New Jersey-New York metropolitan area for recreational (golf courses), commercial, and even residential purposes seems to be gaining acceptance among municipal planners and developers. Landfill gas generation, which includes methane and potentially toxic nonmethane compounds usually continues long after closure of the landfill exercise phase. It is therefore prudent to evaluate potential health risks associated with exposure to gas emissions before redevelopment of the landfill sites as recreational, commercial, and, especially, residential properties. Unacceptably high health risks would call for risk management measures such as limiting the development to commercial/recreational rather than residential uses, stringent gas control mechanisms, interior air filtration, etc. A methodology is presented for applying existing models to estimate residual landfill hazardous compounds emissions and to quantify associated health risks. Besides the toxic gas constituents of landfill emissions, other risk-related issues concerning buried waste, landfill leachate, and explosive gases were qualitatively evaluated. Five contiguously located landfill sites in New Jersey intended for residential and recreational redevelopment were used to exemplify the approach.

  8. [Human health risk assessment of an abandoned metal smelter site in Shenyang, China].

    PubMed

    Chao, Lei; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Chen, Su; Cui, Shuang

    2007-08-01

    Based on the investigation of heavy metal pollutions on an abandoned metal smelter site in Shenyang, and by using the United States Environmental Protection Agency methodologies for human health risk assessment, the human health risk of the polluted soil on the study site was assessed. For the defined future land use patterns, the industrial (I) and recreational (II) exposure scenarios were assumed and evaluated. The combined hazard index for all the contaminants of potential concern was 2.65 x 10(-2) for Scenario I and 3.67 x 10(-2) for Scenario II. Regarding the potential carcinogenic risk associated with inhalation route, only cadmium was a contributor, with the risk of 4.48 x 10(-9) and 7.30 x 10(-10) for Scenario I and Scenario II, respectively. The hazard indices were less than a unit, and the carcinogenic health risk was negligible. The potential health risks of the study site (for both industrial and recreational scenarios) were mainly associated with the exposure to copper. The risk-based remedial goals calculated for the industrial scenario were lower than the environment quality risk assessment criteria for soil at the manufacturing facilities of China. PMID:17974249

  9. Survey of Ambient Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment Tools.

    PubMed

    Anenberg, Susan C; Belova, Anna; Brandt, Jørgen; Fann, Neal; Greco, Sue; Guttikunda, Sarath; Heroux, Marie-Eve; Hurley, Fintan; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Medina, Sylvia; Miller, Brian; Pandey, Kiran; Roos, Joachim; Van Dingenen, Rita

    2016-09-01

    Designing air quality policies that improve public health can benefit from information about air pollution health risks and impacts, which include respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and premature death. Several computer-based tools help automate air pollution health impact assessments and are being used for a variety of contexts. Expanding information gathered for a May 2014 World Health Organization expert meeting, we survey 12 multinational air pollution health impact assessment tools, categorize them according to key technical and operational characteristics, and identify limitations and challenges. Key characteristics include spatial resolution, pollutants and health effect outcomes evaluated, and method for characterizing population exposure, as well as tool format, accessibility, complexity, and degree of peer review and application in policy contexts. While many of the tools use common data sources for concentration-response associations, population, and baseline mortality rates, they vary in the exposure information source, format, and degree of technical complexity. We find that there is an important tradeoff between technical refinement and accessibility for a broad range of applications. Analysts should apply tools that provide the appropriate geographic scope, resolution, and maximum degree of technical rigor for the intended assessment, within resources constraints. A systematic intercomparison of the tools' inputs, assumptions, calculations, and results would be helpful to determine the appropriateness of each for different types of assessment. Future work would benefit from accounting for multiple uncertainty sources and integrating ambient air pollution health impact assessment tools with those addressing other related health risks (e.g., smoking, indoor pollution, climate change, vehicle accidents, physical activity).

  10. Human health risk assessment from arsenic exposures in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Tijo; Dubey, Brajesh; McBean, Edward A

    2015-09-15

    High arsenic exposures, prevalent through dietary and non-dietary sources in Bangladesh, present a major health risk to the public. A quantitative human health risk assessment is described as a result of arsenic exposure through food and water intake, tea intake, accidental soil ingestion, and chewing of betel quid, while people meet their desirable dietary intake requirements throughout their lifetime. In evaluating the contribution of each intake pathway to average daily arsenic intake, the results show that food and water intake combined, makes up approximately 98% of the daily arsenic intake with the balance contributed to by intake pathways such as tea consumption, soil ingestion, and quid consumption. Under an exposure scenario where arsenic concentration in water is at the WHO guideline (0.01 mg/L), food intake is the major arsenic intake pathway ranging from 67% to 80% of the average daily arsenic intake. However, the contribution from food drops to a range of 29% to 45% for an exposure scenario where arsenic in water is at the Bangladesh standard (0.05 mg/L). The lifetime excess risk of cancer occurrence from chronic arsenic exposure, considering a population of 160 million people, based on an exposure scenario with 85 million people at the WHO guideline value and 75 million people at the Bangladesh standard, and assuming that 35 million people are associated with a heavy activity level, is estimated as 1.15 million cases.

  11. Health risk assessment of kerosene usage in an informal settlement in Durban, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, E.; Diab, R. D.; Binedell, M.; Hounsome, R.

    In Durban, South Africa studies have shown that more than seven out of ten households in low-income metropolitan areas rely on kerosene for domestic purposes, leading to widespread problems of poor indoor air quality. In light of the known health effects of kerosene usage, this study aimed to quantify the health risk for people living in a densely populated informal settlement known as Cato Crest within the Durban metropolitan area. The pollutants investigated included nitrogen dioxide, benzene and toluene. Nitrogen dioxide is known to affect both respiratory and immune systems, benzene is carcinogenic while toluene has a neurological health end point. All three pollutants are harmful when inhaled. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) health risk assessment (HRA) framework was applied. Information on the exposure patterns of residents in Cato Crest were acquired through questionnaires in which data on fuel use, building structure, cooking habits and time-activity patterns were collected. Air quality monitoring of nitrogen dioxide and volatile organic compounds was also conducted in the households. The time-activity pattern survey revealed that the exposure periods of individuals in Cato Crest were far greater than the default exposure periods used by the US EPA. The results of the HRA showed that the residents of Cato Crest may experience significant health risks as a result of kerosene usage in their homes. Exposure to 1-h nitrogen dioxide concentration is not likely to produce adverse health effects, whereas exposure over a 24-h period indicates a potential health risk to sensitive individuals in two of the households when US EPA exposure values are used and in all of the households when locally derived exposure values are used. Benzene poses a health risk to sensitive individuals in 50% of the households when local exposure parameters are used, whereas there is no health risk associated with exposure to toluene.

  12. Lessons learned: Needs for improving human health risk assessment at USDOE Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.; Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1993-09-01

    Realistic health risk assessments were performed in a pilot study of three U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites. These assessments, covering a broad spectrum of data and methods, were used to identify needs for improving future health risk assessments at USDOE sites. Topics receiving specific recommendations for additional research include: choice of distributions for Monte Carlo simulation; estimation of risk reduction; analysis of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Database on food and nutrient intakes; investigations on effects of food processing on contaminant levels; background food and environmental concentrations of contaminants; method for handling exposures to groundwater plumes, methods for analyzing less than lifetime exposure to carcinogens; and improvement of bioaccumulation factors.

  13. Can Public Health Risk Assessment Using Risk Matrices Be Misleading?

    PubMed Central

    Vatanpour, Shabnam; Hrudey, Steve E.; Dinu, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The risk assessment matrix is a widely accepted, semi-quantitative tool for assessing risks, and setting priorities in risk management. Although the method can be useful to promote discussion to distinguish high risks from low risks, a published critique described a problem when the frequency and severity of risks are negatively correlated. A theoretical analysis showed that risk predictions could be misleading. We evaluated a practical public health example because it provided experiential risk data that allowed us to assess the practical implications of the published concern that risk matrices would make predictions that are worse than random. We explored this predicted problem by constructing a risk assessment matrix using a public health risk scenario—Tainted blood transfusion infection risk—That provides negative correlation between harm frequency and severity. We estimated the risk from the experiential data and compared these estimates with those provided by the risk assessment matrix. Although we validated the theoretical concern, for these authentic experiential data, the practical scope of the problem was limited. The risk matrix has been widely used in risk assessment. This method should not be abandoned wholesale, but users must address the source of the problem, apply the risk matrix with a full understanding of this problem and use matrix predictions to inform, but not drive decision-making. PMID:26287224

  14. Comparative analysis of health risk assessments for municipal waste combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, A.; Fratt, D.B.; Leonard, A.; Bruins, R.J.F.; Fradkin, L.

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative health risk assessments have been performed for a number of proposed municipal waste combustor (MWC) facilities over the past several years. The article presents the results of a comparative analysis of a total of 21 risk assessments, focusing on seven of the most comprehensive methodologies. The analysis concentrates on stack emissions of noncriteria pollutants and is comparative rather than critical in nature. Overall, the risk assessment methodologies used were similar whereas the assumptions and input values used varied from study to study. Some of the variability results directly from differences in site-specific characteristics, but much of it is due to absence of data, lack of field validation, lack of specific guidelines from regulatory agencies, and reliance on professional judgment. The results indicate that carcinogenic risks are more significant than chronic non-carcinogenic risks. In most instances polychlorodibenzodioxins, polychlorodibenzofurans, and cadmium contribute more significantly to the total carcinogenic risk from MWC stack emissions than other contaminants. In addition, the contribution to total risk of all indirect routes of exposure (ingestion and dermal contact) exceeds that of the direct inhalation route for most studies reviewed.

  15. Comparative analysis of health risk assessments for municipal waste combustors.

    PubMed

    Levin, A; Fratt, D B; Leonard, A; Bruins, R J; Fradkin, L

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative health risk assessments have been performed for a number of proposed municipal waste combustor (MWC) facilities over the past several years. This article presents the results of a comparative analysis of a total of 21 risk assessments, focusing on seven of the most comprehensive methodologies. The analysis concentrates on stack emissions of noncriteria pollutants and is comparative rather than critical in nature. Overall, the risk assessment methodologies used were similar whereas the assumptions and input values used varied from study to study. Some of this variability results directly from differences in site-specific characteristics, but much of it is due to absence of data, lack of field validation, lack of specific guidelines from regulatory agencies, and reliance on professional judgment. The results indicate that carcinogenic risks are more significant than chronic non-carcinogenic risks. In most instances polychlorodibenzodioxins, polychlorodibenzofurans, and cadmium contribute more significantly to the total carcinogenic risk from MWC stack emissions than other contaminants. In addition, the contribution to total risk of all indirect routes of exposure (ingestion and dermal contact) exceeds that of the direct inhalation route for most studies reviewed.

  16. Comparative analysis of health risk assessments for municipal waste combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, A.; Fratt, D.B.; Leonard, A.; Bruins, R.J.; Fradkin, L. )

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative health risk assessments have been performed for a number of proposed municipal waste combustor (MWC) facilities over the past several years. This article presents the results of a comparative analysis of a total of 21 risk assessments, focusing on seven of the most comprehensive methodologies. The analysis concentrates on stack emissions of noncriteria pollutants and is comparative rather than critical in nature. Overall, the risk assessment methodologies used were similar whereas the assumptions and input values used varied from study to study. Some of this variability results directly from differences in site-specific characteristics, but much of it is due to absence of data, lack of field validation, lack of specific guidelines from regulatory agencies, and reliance on professional judgment. The results indicate that carcinogenic risks are more significant than chronic non-carcinogenic risks. In most instances polychlorodibenzodioxins, polychlorodibenzofurans, and cadmium contribute more significantly to the total carcinogenic risk from MWC stack emissions than other contaminants. In addition, the contribution to total risk of all indirect routes of exposure (ingestion and dermal contact) exceeds that of the direct inhalation route for most studies reviewed. 42 refs.

  17. Phase 1 data summary report for the Clinch River Remedial Investigation: Health risk and ecological risk screening assessment. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R.B.; Adams, S.M.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Bevelhimer, M.S.; Blaylock, B.G.; Brandt, C.C.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Gentry, M.J.; Holladay, S.K.; Hook, L.A.; Levine, D.A.; Longman, R.C.; McGinn, C.W.; Skiles, J.L.; Suter, G.W.; Williams, L.F.

    1992-12-01

    The Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) is designed to address the transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants released from the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. The contaminants released since the early 1940s include a variety of radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of Phase 1 of the CRRI. Phase 1 was designed to (1) obtain high-quality data to confirm existing historical data for contaminant levels in fish, sediment, and water from the CR/WBR; (2) determine the in the range of contaminant concentrations present river-reservoir system; (3) identify specific contaminants of concern; and (4) establish the reference (background) concentrations for those contaminants.

  18. [Health risk assessment of soil heavy metals in residential communities built on brownfields].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing; Ma, Jian-Hua; Li, Xin-Ning; Liu, De-Xin; Li, Yi-Meng

    2014-03-01

    Nine residential communities which were built on different brownfields in a city of Henan Province were chosen to investigate the health risks of heavy metals (As, Hg, Cd, and Pb) in surface soils. Concentrations of soil heavy metals were measured according to the methods described in the national standard. Based on the health risk models recommended by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks of soil heavy metals were assessed. The results showed that compared with the original brownfields, the heavy metal concentrations in soils and their health risks in residential communities built on brownfields were significantly improved, and the concentrations and health risks of soil heavy metals in these communities were all higher than those in non-brownfield residential communities. The HQ and HI values of soil heavy metals in all the residential communities were lower than 1, which indicated that there was no non-carcinogenic risk in these communities. Meanwhile, the values of CR and TCR were slightly higher than the standard suggested by the US EPA, indicating that slight carcinogenic risks in the communities, but these values were lower than the lenient standard proposed by some experts. The HI value of the four metals for children was exactly seven times higher than that for adults. The contribution rate of HQ(As) to HI was about 75%, CR(AS) to TCR was about 80%, and therefore arsenic was the crucial factor for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk in the residential communities of the city.

  19. 77 FR 44613 - Notice of Availability of the External Review Draft of Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... To Inform Decision Making AGENCY: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of... Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making.'' This document was developed as part of an agencywide... health risk assessments that are responsive to the needs of decision making processes at the EPA....

  20. Assessing health risk due to exposure to arsenic in drinking water in Hanam Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Huy, Tung Bui; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Johnston, Richard; Nguyen-Viet, Hung

    2014-07-24

    We assessed health risks related to Arsenic (As) in contaminated drinking water in Hanam, applying the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework, which promotes stakeholder involvement in risk assessments. As concentrations in 300 tube-well water samples, before and after filtration, were analyzed and the water consumption levels in 150 households were estimated. Skin cancer risk was characterized using Cancer Slope Factor index and lifetime average daily dose with a probabilistic approach. The results showed that arsenic concentrations in tube-well water ranged from 8-579 ppb (mean 301 ppb) before filtration and current sand filters used by the households did not meet the standard for As removal. Arsenic daily consumption of 40% of the adults exceeded the level of TDI (Tolerable Daily Intake) at 1 µg/kg/day. The average skin cancer risk in adults due to consuming filtered tube-well water for drinking purpose were 25.3 × 10-5 (using only well water) and 7.6 × 10-5 (using both well and rain water). The skin cancer risk would be 11.5 times higher if the water was not filtered. Improvement of filtration measures or the replacement of the current drinking water sources to minimize the health risks to the local population is urgently needed.

  1. Assessing Health Risk due to Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water in Hanam Province, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Bui Huy, Tung; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Johnston, Richard; Nguyen-Viet, Hung

    2014-01-01

    We assessed health risks related to Arsenic (As) in contaminated drinking water in Hanam, applying the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework, which promotes stakeholder involvement in risk assessments. As concentrations in 300 tube-well water samples, before and after filtration, were analyzed and the water consumption levels in 150 households were estimated. Skin cancer risk was characterized using Cancer Slope Factor index and lifetime average daily dose with a probabilistic approach. The results showed that arsenic concentrations in tube-well water ranged from 8–579 ppb (mean 301 ppb) before filtration and current sand filters used by the households did not meet the standard for As removal. Arsenic daily consumption of 40% of the adults exceeded the level of TDI (Tolerable Daily Intake) at 1 µg/kg/day. The average skin cancer risk in adults due to consuming filtered tube-well water for drinking purpose were 25.3 × 10−5 (using only well water) and 7.6 × 10−5 (using both well and rain water). The skin cancer risk would be 11.5 times higher if the water was not filtered. Improvement of filtration measures or the replacement of the current drinking water sources to minimize the health risks to the local population is urgently needed. PMID:25062276

  2. Assessment of regional human health risks from lead contamination in Yunnan province, southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Cheng, Hongguang; Liu, Xuelian; Xie, Jing; Li, Qian; Zhou, Tan

    2015-01-01

    Identification and management the 'critical risk areas' where hotspot lead exposures are a potential risk to human health, become a major focus of public health efforts in China. But the knowledge of health risk assessment of lead pollution at regional and national scales is still limited in China. In this paper, under the guidance of 'sources-pathways-receptors' framework, regional human health risk assessment model for lead contamination was developed to calculate the population health risk in Yunnan province. And the cluster and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) analysis was taken to classify and calculate regional health risk and the decomposition of the regional health risk in the greatest health risk region, respectively. The results showed that Yunnan province can be divided into three areas. The highest health risk levels, located in northeastern Yunnan, including Kunming, Qujing, Zhaotong region. In those regions, lead is present at high levels in air, food, water and soil, and high population density which pose a high potential population risk to the public. The current study also reveals that most regional health risk was derived from the child receptors (age above 3 years) 4.3 times than the child receptors (age under 3 years), and ingestion of lead-contaminated rice was found to be the most significant contributor to the health risk (accounting for more than 49% health risk of total). This study can provide a framework for regional risk assessment in China and highlighted some indicators and uncertainties. PMID:25893826

  3. Assessment of Regional Human Health Risks from Lead Contamination in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lu; Cheng, Hongguang; Liu, Xuelian; Xie, Jing; Li, Qian; Zhou, Tan

    2015-01-01

    Identification and management the 'critical risk areas' where hotspot lead exposures are a potential risk to human health, become a major focus of public health efforts in China. But the knowledge of health risk assessment of lead pollution at regional and national scales is still limited in China. In this paper, under the guidance of 'sources-pathways-receptors' framework, regional human health risk assessment model for lead contamination was developed to calculate the population health risk in Yunnan province. And the cluster and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) analysis was taken to classify and calculate regional health risk and the decomposition of the regional health risk in the greatest health risk region, respectively. The results showed that Yunnan province can be divided into three areas. The highest health risk levels, located in northeastern Yunnan, including Kunming, Qujing, Zhaotong region. In those regions, lead is present at high levels in air, food, water and soil, and high population density which pose a high potential population risk to the public. The current study also reveals that most regional health risk was derived from the child receptors (age above 3 years) 4.3 times than the child receptors (age under 3years), and ingestion of lead-contaminated rice was found to be the most significant contributor to the health risk (accounting for more than 49 % health risk of total). This study can provide a framework for regional risk assessment in China and highlighted some indicators and uncertainties. PMID:25893826

  4. Important recent advances in the practice of health risk assessment: Implications for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Paustenbach, D.J. )

    1989-12-01

    Health risk assessments have been so widely adopted in the United States that their conclusions are a major factor in many environmental decisions. The procedure by which these assessments are conducted is one which has evolved over the past 10-15 years and a number of short-comings have been widely recognized. Recent significant advances for more accurately estimating the risks posed by environmental chemicals are likely to have a dramatic effect on the regulation of many substances. Each of the four portions of risk assessment (hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization) has undergone significant refinement since 1985. This paper reviews some of the specific changes and explains the likely benefits as well as the implications. Emphasis is placed on the improved techniques for (a) identifying those chemicals which may pose a human cancer or developmental hazard, (b) using statistical approaches which account for the distribution of interindividual biological differences, (c) using lognormal statistics when interpreting environmental data, (d) using physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for estimating delivered dose and for scaling up rodent data, (e) using biologically based cancer models to account for the seven or more apparently different mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis, (f) describing the severity of the public health risks by considering those portions of the population exposed to various concentrations of a contaminant, and (g) reviewing how criteria for acceptable risk have been influenced by the number of exposed persons. The net benefit of these improvements should be a reduction in the uncertainty inherent in current estimates of the health risks posed by low level exposure to carcinogens and developmental toxicants.233 references.

  5. Important recent advances in the practice of health risk assessment: implications for the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Paustenbach, D J

    1989-12-01

    Health risk assessments have been so widely adopted in the United States that their conclusions are a major factor in many environmental decisions. The procedure by which these assessments are conducted is one which has evolved over the past 10-15 years and a number of short-comings have been widely recognized. Unfortunately, improvements in the process have often occurred more slowly than advancements in technology or scientific knowledge. Recent significant advances for more accurately estimating the risks posed by environmental chemicals are likely to have a dramatic effect on the regulation of many substances. Each of the four portions of risk assessment (hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization) has undergone significant refinement since 1985. This paper reviews some of the specific changes and explains the likely benefits as well as the implications. Emphasis is placed on the improved techniques for (a) identifying those chemicals which may pose a human cancer or developmental hazard, (b) using statistical approaches which account for the distribution of interindividual biological differences, (c) using lognormal statistics when interpreting environmental data, (d) using physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for estimating delivered dose and for scaling up rodent data, (e) using biologically based cancer models to account for the seven or more apparently different mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis, (f) describing the severity of the public health risks by considering those portions of the population exposed to various concentrations of a contaminant, and (g) reviewing how criteria for acceptable risk have been influenced by the number of exposed persons. The net benefit of these improvements should be a reduction in the uncertainty inherent in current estimates of the health risks posed by low level exposure to carcinogens and developmental toxicants.

  6. Metals bioaccumulation in two edible bivalves and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    El-Shenawy, Nahla S; Loutfy, Naglaa; Soliman, Maha F M; Tadros, Menerva M; Abd El-Azeez, Ahmed A

    2016-03-01

    Our aim was to quantify the bioaccumulation of 13 metals in two edible bivalves (Ruditapes decussatus and Paphia undulata) in Lake Timsah, Egypt. A potential human health risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the hazards from bivalve consumption. Fe, Al, Zn, and Sr had the highest concentrations in the bivalve samples. The levels of Cd were much lower than the maximum permissible level, while Pb concentrations in the two bivalves were nearly two times the permissible level. The extent of bioaccumulation factor was site- and species-specific. For low and high bivalve-consuming groups, the estimated daily intake of Pb and Cd ranged from 0.01 to 0.76 μg/kg/day. For low and high bivalve-consuming groups, hazard quotients (HQs) for metals were found to be less than 1 for both bivalve species, except for Co in the high-consuming group. In conclusion, even though there was no apparent risk to bivalve consumers from being exposed to single metals, there is a risk from being exposed to the 13 studied metals together, especially for high bivalve-consuming groups such as fishermen.

  7. Health risk assessment of personal inhalation exposure to volatile organic compounds in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; You, Yan; Bai, Zhipeng; Hu, Yandi; Zhang, Jiefeng; Zhang, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) exposure can induce a range of adverse human health effects. To date, however, personal VOCs exposure and residential indoor and outdoor VOCs levels have not been well characterized in the mainland of China, less is known about health risk of personal exposure to VOCs. In this study, personal exposures for 12 participants as well as residential indoor/outdoor, workplace and in vehicle VOCs concentrations were measured simultaneously in Tianjin, China. All VOCs samples were collected using passive samplers for 5 days and were analyzed using Thermal Desorption GC-MS method. U.S. Environmental Protect Agency's Inhalation Unit Risks were used to calculate the inhalation cancer health risk. To assess uncertainty of health risk estimate, Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis were implemented. Personal exposures were greater than residential indoor exposures as expected with the exception of carbon tetrachloride. Exposure assessment showed modeled and measured concentrations are statistically linearly correlated for all VOCs (P<0.01) except chloroform, confirming that estimated personal exposure using time-weighted model can provide reasonable estimate of personal inhalation exposure to VOCs. Indoor smoking and recent renovation were identified as two major factors influencing personal exposure based on the time-activity pattern and factor analysis. According to the cancer risk analysis of personal exposure, benzene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and 1,3-butadiene had median upper-bound lifetime cancer risks that exceeded the U.S. EPA benchmark of 1 per one million, and benzene presented the highest median risks at about 22 per one million population. The median cumulative cancer risk of personal exposure to 5 VOCs was approximately 44 per million, followed by indoor exposure (37 per million) and in vehicle exposure (36 per million). Sensitivity analysis suggested that improving the accuracy of exposure measurement in further

  8. Implementation of health risk assessments with family health history: barriers and benefits.

    PubMed

    Wu, R Ryanne; Orlando, Lori A

    2015-09-01

    Health risk assessments provide an opportunity to emphasise health promotion and disease prevention for individuals and populations at large. A key component of health risk assessments is the detailed collection of family health history information. This information is helpful in determining risk both for common chronic conditions and more rare diseases as well. While the concept of health risk assessments has been around since the Framingham Heart Study was launched in the 1950s, and such assessments are commonly performed in the workplace today, the US healthcare system has been slow to embrace them and the emphasis on prevention that they represent. Before wider implementation of health risk assessments within healthcare can be seen, several concerns must be addressed: (1) provider impact, (2) patient impact, (3) validity of patient-entered data and (4) health outcomes effect. Here, we describe recent developments in health risk assessment design that are helping to address these issues.

  9. [Identification of environmental Actinobacteria representing an occupational health risk].

    PubMed

    Skóra, Justyna; Szponar, Bogumiła; Paściak, Mariola; Gutarowska, Beata

    2013-12-06

    Actinobacteria, the etiologic agents of tuberculosis, actinomycosis, respiratory infections and pathological skin lesions, are also classified as hazardous biological agents at the workplace. An increased number of Actinobacteria primarily occurs at the workplaces in composting plants, agriculture, waste management facilities, libraries and museums. Robust identification of Actinobacteria requires a polyphasic diagnostic strategy including an assessment of morphological, physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic features as well as genotyping. Commercially available diagnostic kits often do not include bacteria isolated from the environment and therefore analyses of chemotaxonomic markers--components of peptidoglycan, fatty acids, polar lipids (phospho- and glycolipids) and isoprenoid quinones are recommended. The paper discusses a comprehensive approach to the isolation and identification of Actinobacteria, with emphasis on chemotaxonomic methods. A diagnostic procedure is exemplified by environmental strains obtained from composting plants and libraries.

  10. A review of soil heavy metal pollution from mines in China: pollution and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyuan; Ma, Zongwei; van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Yuan, Zengwei; Huang, Lei

    2014-01-15

    Heavy metal pollution has pervaded many parts of the world, especially developing countries such as China. This review summarizes available data in the literature (2005-2012) on heavy metal polluted soils originating from mining areas in China. Based on these obtained data, this paper then evaluates the soil pollution levels of these collected mines and quantifies the risks these pollutants pose to human health. To assess these potential threat levels, the geoaccumulation index was applied, along with the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended method for health risk assessment. The results demonstrate not only the severity of heavy metal pollution from the examined mines, but also the high carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks that soil heavy metal pollution poses to the public, especially to children and those living in the vicinity of heavily polluted mining areas. In order to provide key management targets for relevant government agencies, based on the results of the pollution and health risk assessments, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg, As, and Ni are selected as the priority control heavy metals; tungsten, manganese, lead-zinc, and antimony mines are selected as the priority control mine categories; and southern provinces and Liaoning province are selected as the priority control provinces. This review, therefore, provides a comprehensive assessment of soil heavy metal pollution derived from mines in China, while identifying policy recommendations for pollution mitigation and environmental management of these mines.

  11. QUANTITATIVE TOXICOPROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF CARCINOGEN-TREATED ANIMAL TISSUES AND HUMAN CELLS FOR HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are exposed to a variety of environmental toxicants, and this together with a large number of interacting factors can contribute to an individual's risk for health. To understand the toxic mechanisms and/or modes of action for human health risk assessment, molecular charac...

  12. Health-risk assessment of trichlorofluoromethane in California drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, N.R.; Reed, W.; Weir, K.; Beltran, K.; Babapour, R.

    1988-12-22

    Existing literature is reviewed that is pertinent to the health risk posed by the use of Freon-11 contaminated drinking water, an estimation of the Freon-11 exposure for California residents based on the most recent data on Freon-11 concentrations in California drinking-water supplies, and a delineation of the level of Freon-11 that may cause a noncarcinogenic health effect.

  13. Waste management programmatic environmental impact statement methodology for estimating human health risks

    SciTech Connect

    Bergenback, B.; Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.L.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has produced large quantities of radioactive and hazardous waste during years of nuclear weapons production. As a result, a large number of sites across the DOE Complex have become chemically and/or radiologically contaminated. In 1990, the Secretary of Energy charged the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste management (EM) with the task of preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The PEIS should identify and assess the potential environmental impacts of implementing several integrated Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) alternatives. The determination and integration of appropriate remediation activities and sound waste management practices is vital for ensuring the diminution of adverse human health impacts during site cleanup and waste management programs. This report documents the PEIS risk assessment methodology used to evaluate human health risks posed by WM activities. The methodology presents a programmatic cradle to grave risk assessment for EM program activities. A unit dose approach is used to estimate risks posed by WM activities and is the subject of this document.

  14. [Principle for strategic decision based on population health risk in emergence environmental cadmium pollution control].

    PubMed

    Shang, Qi

    2012-05-01

    The principles for strategic decision in emergence environmental pollution control was summarized based on population health risk and features of emergence events of environmental cadmium pollution. Main task and strategies for the events control was suggested in emergency treatment and post-event for water and soil cadmium pollution respectively. The work, monitoring method, key problems for both environment cadmium pollution and human health risk, and main content of health education for cadmium exposure people was proposed in follow-up action, at meanwhile, achievements of study on human health effects caused by environmental cadmium pollution was introduced briefly over recent years.

  15. Health Risk Assessment for Area 514 RCRA Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G M; Hall, L C

    2005-05-26

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a USDOE research and development institution for science and technology applied to national security. The specific area that is the subject of this document, Area 514, was the location of active LLNL waste treatment facilities until November 2003, and the operations there were authorized under interim status. The site is being closed pursuant to the requirements of the Resource Conservation Recovery Act. The DTSC-approved ''Closure Plan for Area 514 Treatment and Storage Facility, LLNL 2004'', states clean closure concentrations for certain organic compounds, metals and metalloids. if all soil samples contained measured concentrations less than these levels, it was agreed that the site would meet the requirements for clean closure. However, if the samples had measured concentrations greater than the clean closure levels, a more detailed risk assessment could be prepared to evaluate the potential effects of the actual measured levels. Soil samples collected from 33 locations in Area 514 were analyzed for 37 constituents of potential concern, as identified by the Closure Plan. Many of these compounds and elements were not detected. However, 10 metals or metalloids were present at levels above the clean closure requirements, and 19 organic compounds were identified as contaminants of potential concern. Following the guidance in the Closure Plan, a health risk assessment is presented in this document to demonstrate the low level of potential health effects from the remaining constituents and to support clean closure of the site. Three types of hypothetical receptors were identified: an intrusive construction worker conducting trenching in the area, a bystander worker in a nearby building, and a future resident. Of the worker receptors, the intrusive construction worker was found to have the greater overall chronic exposure, with a theoretical calculated carcinogenic risk of 4 x 10{sup -8}, a chronic hazard index of 8 x

  16. Heavy metal pollution and health risk assessment in the Wei River in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuefu; Duan, Jinming; Wang, Lei; Li, Wei; Guan, Jianling; Beecham, Simon; Mulcahy, Dennis

    2015-03-01

    From data collected monthly at 26 monitoring cross sections in the Wei River in the Shaanxi Region of China during the period 2008-2012, the temporal pollution characteristics of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cr(VI), Pb, and As) were analyzed based on a heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The monthly HPI values of the five heavy metals in the river fluctuated greatly in 2008 and then declined gradually with time. This general trend of reduction in HPI appears not to have a seasonal variation and most likely resulted from the continued improvement in heavy metal pollution control strategies implemented by local environmental agencies combined with a significant improvement in wastewater treatment capacities. Among the five heavy metals, Cd and Pb were below 0.1 and 3 μg L(-1), respectively, at all the sampling points in the studied areas in the year 2012. The detection rates of As, Hg, and Cr(VI) were in the order of Hg > Cr(VI) > As. Hg, Cr(VI), and As exceeded, in a month of the dry season in 2012, the standard limits for category III surface waters according to the China Environment Quality Standards for Surface Water (CEQSSW). Based on the assessment using the HPI method, the pollution status of these heavy metals in water of the Wei River in the Shaanxi Region was generally at an acceptable level, but exhibited distinctive characteristics between the main stream river and tributaries. Most of the tributaries were more seriously polluted than the main river. A health risk assessment was conducted based on the Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) method recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Apart from As, the health risk for the five heavy metals in the region were at acceptable levels for drinking water sources (hazard quotient (HQ) < 1, carcinogenic risk (CR) ranged from 10(-4)-10(-6)) according to the Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), USEPA. Arsenic was identified as the most important pollutant of concern

  17. [Bioaccessibility of heavy metal in wild Artemisia annua and its health risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang-yun; Yue, Hong; Li, Xuan; Mo, Ge; Kang, Li-ping; Guo, Lan-ping

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we investigate the bioaccessibility of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, As, Cd and Hg) in wild Artemisia annua and use target hazard quotients (THQ) proposed by US Environmental Protection Agency to assess the health risk under the heavy metal exposure. The results showed that the bioaccessibility of Cu, Pb, As, Cd and Hg in A. annua are 0.77, 0.66, 0.46, 0.68 and 0, respectively, and that the value of THQ for adults and children were 0.030 and 0.025 calculated by risk assessment model. The results indicated that the heavy metals in A. annua were not able to be completely absorbed by human body and that their contents were in a safe range. In this study, by combining the bioavailability of heavy metal and health risk assessment, we assessed the security of heavy metals of wild A. annua, which will provide reference for the standard of heavy metals for medicinal materials. PMID:26390645

  18. Human pharmaceuticals in US surface waters: a human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Bradley W; Hayes, Eileen P; Fiori, Janice M; Mastrocco, Frank J; Roden, Nicholas M; Cragin, David; Meyerhoff, Roger D; D'Aco, Vincent J; Anderson, Paul D

    2005-08-01

    The detection of low levels of pharmaceuticals in rivers and streams, drinking water, and groundwater has raised questions as to whether these levels may affect human health. This report presents human health risk assessments for 26 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and/or their metabolites, representing 14 different drug classes, for which environmental monitoring data are available for the United States. Acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) are derived using the considerable data that are available for APIs. The resulting ADIs are designed to protect potentially exposed populations, including sensitive sub-populations. The ADIs are then used to estimate predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) for two sources of potential human exposure: drinking water and fish ingestion. The PNECs are compared to measured environmental concentrations (MECs) from the published literature and to maximum predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) generated using the PhATE model. The PhATE model predictions are made under conservative assumptions of low river flow and no depletion (i.e., no metabolism, no removal during wastewater or drinking water treatment, and no instream depletion). Ratios of MECs to PNECs are typically very low and consistent with PEC to PNEC ratios. For all 26 compounds, these low ratios indicate that no appreciable human health risk exists from the presence of trace concentrations of these APIs in surface water and drinking water.

  19. Assessment of arsenic (As) occurrence in arable soil and its related health risk in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuying; Zhong, Taiyang; Chen, Dongmei; Cheng, Min; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaomin; Li, Xinhui

    2016-06-01

    Arsenic (As) is a major global environmental pollutant due to its high toxicity on human and animal health. This study collected 427 relevant papers to study As concentrations in Chinese arable soil and evaluate the health risk of exposure to As for humans. Results showed that the average of As concentration was 9.46 mg/kg in Chinese arable soil. Soil As concentrations in Hunan Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region posed high carcinogenic and non-cancer risks on human health through diet, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangdong, and Xinjiang provinces had relative high health risks, while As concentrations in the other provinces posed low health risks on humans. The physical factors controlled the spatial pattern of health risk on a provincial scale, but the As-related human activities introduced high health risk on people, particularly the agricultural activities such as sewage irrigation and fertilizer application should be given more attention due to its large area. PMID:26209282

  20. Determination of a risk management primer at petroleum-contaminated sites: developing new human health risk assessment strategy.

    PubMed

    Park, In-Sun; Park, Jae-Woo

    2011-01-30

    Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) is an important environmental contaminant that is toxic to human and environmental receptors. However, human health risk assessment for petroleum, oil, and lubricant (POL)-contaminated sites is especially challenging because TPH is not a single compound, but rather a mixture of numerous substances. To address this concern, this study recommends a new human health risk assessment strategy for POL-contaminated sites. The strategy is based on a newly modified TPH fractionation method and includes an improved analytical protocol. The proposed TPH fractionation method is composed of ten fractions (e.g., aliphatic and aromatic EC8-10, EC10-12, EC12-16, EC16-22 and EC22-40). Physicochemical properties and toxicity values of each fraction were newly defined in this study. The stepwise ultrasonication-based analytical process was established to measure TPH fractions. Analytical results were compared with those from the TPH Criteria Working Group (TPHCWG) Direct Method. Better analytical efficiencies in TPH, aliphatic, and aromatic fractions were achieved when contaminated soil samples were analyzed with the new analytical protocol. Finally, a human health risk assessment was performed based on the developed tiered risk assessment framework. Results showed that a detailed quantitative risk assessment should be conducted to determine scientifically and economically appropriate cleanup target levels, although the phase II process is useful for determining the potency of human health risks posed by POL-contamination.

  1. Health risk assessment of migrant workers' exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in air and dust in an e-waste recycling area in China: Indication for a new wealth gap in environmental rights.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yalin; Hu, Jinxing; Lin, Wei; Wang, Ning; Li, Cheng; Luo, Peng; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Wang, Wenbo; Su, Xiaomei; Chen, Chen; Liu, Yindong; Huang, Ronglang; Shen, Chaofeng

    2016-02-01

    Migrant workers who work and live in polluted environment are a special vulnerable group in the accelerating pace of urbanization and industrialization in China. In the electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area, for example, migrant workers' exposure to pollutants, such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), is the result of an informal e-waste recycling process. A village in an electronic waste recycling area where migrant workers gather was surveyed. The migrant workers' daily routines were simulated according to the three-space transition: work place-on the road-home. Indoor air and dust in the migrant workers' houses and workplaces and the ambient air on the roads were sampled. The PCB levels of the air and dust in the places corresponding to the migrant workers are higher than those for local residents. The migrant workers have health risks from PCBs that are 3.8 times greater than those of local residents. This is not only caused by the exposure at work but also by their activity patterns and the environmental conditions of their dwellings. These results revealed the reason for the health risk difference between the migrant workers and local residents, and it also indicated that lifestyle and economic status are important factors that are often ignored compared to occupational exposure. PMID:26641519

  2. Health risk assessment of migrant workers' exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in air and dust in an e-waste recycling area in China: Indication for a new wealth gap in environmental rights.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yalin; Hu, Jinxing; Lin, Wei; Wang, Ning; Li, Cheng; Luo, Peng; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Wang, Wenbo; Su, Xiaomei; Chen, Chen; Liu, Yindong; Huang, Ronglang; Shen, Chaofeng

    2016-02-01

    Migrant workers who work and live in polluted environment are a special vulnerable group in the accelerating pace of urbanization and industrialization in China. In the electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area, for example, migrant workers' exposure to pollutants, such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), is the result of an informal e-waste recycling process. A village in an electronic waste recycling area where migrant workers gather was surveyed. The migrant workers' daily routines were simulated according to the three-space transition: work place-on the road-home. Indoor air and dust in the migrant workers' houses and workplaces and the ambient air on the roads were sampled. The PCB levels of the air and dust in the places corresponding to the migrant workers are higher than those for local residents. The migrant workers have health risks from PCBs that are 3.8 times greater than those of local residents. This is not only caused by the exposure at work but also by their activity patterns and the environmental conditions of their dwellings. These results revealed the reason for the health risk difference between the migrant workers and local residents, and it also indicated that lifestyle and economic status are important factors that are often ignored compared to occupational exposure.

  3. The impact of pollution from a mercury processing plant in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, on the health of fish-eating communities in the area: an environmental health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Oosthuizen, J; Ehrlich, R

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the human health risk associated with fish consumption in a contaminated area downstream from a mercury processing plant in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study population consisted of fish consumers living in close proximity to the u'Mgeni River and the Inanda Dam downstream from the plant. A control group was selected from the area upstream from the mercury plant as far as the Nagle Dam. Total daily mercury consumption per kilogram body weight per day was calculated for each person included in the study. These data were compared with the tolerable daily intake standard published by the World Health Organization, as well as to the United States Environmental Protection Agency's reference dose. Human hair samples obtained from the study population and a control group were analysed for mercury content. The results of the risk estimation indicated that the study population is at risk. Human hair samples, however, indicated that dangerous levels of mercury had not yet been consumed. Humans in this study area could be subject to an excessive health risk from mercury as a result of their fish consumption. Fish mercury levels in the contaminated area should be monitored closely. PMID:11260786

  4. Health risk assessment for residents exposed to atmospheric diesel exhaust particles in southern region of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chio, Chia-Pin; Liao, Chung-Min; Tsai, Ying-I.; Cheng, Man-Ting; Chou, Wei-Chun

    2014-03-01

    Evidence shows a strong association among air pollution, oxidative stress (OS), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, and diseases. Recent studies indicated that the aging, human neurodegenerative diseases and cancers resulted from mitochondrial dysfunction and OS. The purpose of this study is to provide a probabilistic risk assessment model to quantify the atmospheric diesel exhaust particles (DEP)-induced pre-cancer biomarker response and cancer incidence risk for residents in south Taiwan. We conducted entirely monthly particulate matter sampling data at five sites in Kaohsiung of south Taiwan in the period 2002-2003. Three findings were found: (i) the DEP dose estimates and cancer risk quantification had heterogeneously spatiotemporal difference in south Taiwan, (ii) the pre-cancer DNA damage biomarker and cancer incidence estimates had a positive yet insignificant association, and (iii) all the estimates of cancer incidence in south Taiwan populations fell within and slight lower than the values from previous cancer epidemiological investigations. In this study, we successfully assessed the tumor incidence for residents posed by DEP exposure in south Taiwan compared with the epidemiological approach. Our approach provides a unique way for assessing human health risk for residences exposed to atmospheric DEP depending on specific combinations of local and regional conditions. Our work implicates the importance of incorporating both environmental and health risk impacts into models of air pollution exposure to guide adaptive mitigation strategies.

  5. The Kuwait Oil Fire Health Risk Assessment Biological Surveillance Initiative.

    PubMed

    Deeter, David P

    2011-07-01

    An important environmental concern during the first Gulf War (Operation Desert Storm) was assessing exposures and potential health effects in U.S. forces exposed to the Kuwait oil fires. With only 3 weeks for planning, a Biological Surveillance Initiative (BSI) was developed and implemented for a U.S. Army unit. The BSI included blood and urine collections, questionnaire administration, and other elements during the predeployment, deployment, and post-deployment phases. Many BSI objectives were accomplished. Difficulties encountered included planning failures, loss of data and information, and difficulty in interpreting laboratory results. In order for biological surveillance initiatives to provide useful information for future deployments where environmental exposures may be a concern, meaningful, detailed, and realistic planning and preparation must occur long before the deployment is initiated. PMID:21916331

  6. [Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of atmospheric VOCs in the downtown area of Guangzhou, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Li, Hong; Wang, Xue-Zhong; Zhang, Xin-Min; Wen, Chong

    2013-12-01

    The measurements of 31 kinds of VOCs in the ambient air of a site were carried out in the downtown of Guangzhou by online method from November 5, 2009 to November 9, 2009. The ambient level and composition characteristics, temporal variation characteristics, sources identification, and chemical reactivity of VOCs were studied, and the health risk of VOCs in the ambient air in the study area was assessed by using the international recognized health risk assessment method. Results showed that the mean and the range of the mass concentrations of 31 VOCs were 114.51 microg x m(-3) and 29.42-546.06 microg x m(-3), respectively. The mass concentrations of 31 VOCs, and those of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics all showed a changing trend of higher in the morning and in the evening, and lower at noontime. Vehicular exhaust, gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas evaporates were the main sources of VOCs with the volatilization of paints and solvents being important emission sources. Toluene, trans-2-butene, m/p-xylene, i-butane, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the key reactive species among the 31 VOCs. Vehicular exhaust and gasoline evaporation were the main sources of VOCs leading to the formation of ozone. Health risk assessment showed that n-hexane, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene and o-xylene had no appreciable risk of adverse non-cancer health effect on the exposed population, but 1, 3-butadiene and benzene had potential cancer risk. By comparing the corresponding data about health risk assessment of benzene compounds in some cities in China, it is concluded that benzene can impose relatively high cancer risk to the exposed populations in the ambient air of some cities in China. Therefore, strict countermeasures should be taken to further control the pollution of benzene in the ambient air of cities, and it is imperative to start the related studies and develop the atmospheric environmental health criteria and national ambient air quality

  7. Human Health Risk Assessment Calculator. In: SMARTe20ll, EPA/600/C-10/007

    EPA Science Inventory

    This calculator is aimed at supporting a human health risk assessment. Risk scenarios can be built by combining various health effects, exposure pathways, exposure parameters, and analytes. Scenario risk are calculated for each exposure pathway and analyte combination. The out...

  8. Distribution, sources and health risk assessment of mercury in kindergarten dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guangyi; Li, Zhonggen; Bi, Xiangyang; Chen, Yupeng; Lu, Shuangfang; Yuan, Xin

    2013-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in urban area is a hot issue in environmental research. In this study, the distribution, sources and health risk of Hg in dust from 69 kindergartens in Wuhan, China, were investigated. In comparison with most other cities, the concentrations of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were significantly elevated, ranging from 0.15 to 10.59 mg kg-1 and from 0.64 to 3.88 μg kg-1, respectively. Among the five different urban areas, the educational area had the highest concentrations of THg and MeHg. The GIS mapping was used to identify the hot-spot areas and assess the potential pollution sources of Hg. The emissions of coal-power plants and coking plants were the main sources of THg in the dust, whereas the contributions of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills and iron and steel smelting related industries were not significant. However, the emission of MSW landfills was considered to be an important source of MeHg in the studied area. The result of health risk assessment indicated that there was a high adverse health effect of the kindergarten dust in terms of Hg contamination on the children living in the educational area (Hazard index (HI) = 6.89).

  9. Environmental and human health risks of aerosolized silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Quadros, Marina E; Marr, Linsey C

    2010-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are gaining attention from the academic and regulatory communities, not only because of their antimicrobial effects and subsequent product applications, but also because of their potential health and environmental risks. Whereas AgNPs in the aqueous phase are under intensive study, those in the atmosphere have been largely overlooked, although it is well established that inhalation of nanoparticles is associated with adverse health effects. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning airborne AgNPs to shed light on the possible environmental exposure scenarios that may accompany the production and popularization of silver nanotechnology consumer products. The current understanding of the toxicity of AgNPs points toward a potential threat via the inhalation exposure route. Nanoparticle size, chemical composition, crystal structure, surface area, and the rate of silver ion release are expected to be important variables in determining toxicity. Possible routes of aerosolization of AgNPs from the production, use, and disposal of existing consumer products are presented. It is estimated that approximately 14% of silver nanotechnology products that have been inventoried could potentially release silver particles into the air during use, whether through spraying, dry powder dispersion, or other methods. In laboratory and industrial settings, six methods of aerosolization have been used to produce airborne AgNPs: spray atomization, liquid-flame spray, thermal evaporation-condensation, chemical vaporization, dry powder dispersion, and manual handling. Fundamental uncertainties remain about the fate of AgNPs in the environment, their short- and long-term health effects, and the specific physical and chemical properties of airborne particles that are responsible for health effects. Thus, to better understand the risks associated with silver nanotechnology, it is vital to understand the conditions under which AgNPs could become

  10. Proposals for enhanced health risk assessment and stratification in an integrated care scenario

    PubMed Central

    Dueñas-Espín, Ivan; Vela, Emili; Pauws, Steffen; Bescos, Cristina; Cano, Isaac; Cleries, Montserrat; Contel, Joan Carles; de Manuel Keenoy, Esteban; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Gomez-Cabrero, David; Kaye, Rachelle; Lahr, Maarten M H; Lluch-Ariet, Magí; Moharra, Montserrat; Monterde, David; Mora, Joana; Nalin, Marco; Pavlickova, Andrea; Piera, Jordi; Ponce, Sara; Santaeugenia, Sebastià; Schonenberg, Helen; Störk, Stefan; Tegner, Jesper; Velickovski, Filip; Westerteicher, Christoph; Roca, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Population-based health risk assessment and stratification are considered highly relevant for large-scale implementation of integrated care by facilitating services design and case identification. The principal objective of the study was to analyse five health-risk assessment strategies and health indicators used in the five regions participating in the Advancing Care Coordination and Telehealth Deployment (ACT) programme (http://www.act-programme.eu). The second purpose was to elaborate on strategies toward enhanced health risk predictive modelling in the clinical scenario. Settings The five ACT regions: Scotland (UK), Basque Country (ES), Catalonia (ES), Lombardy (I) and Groningen (NL). Participants Responsible teams for regional data management in the five ACT regions. Primary and secondary outcome measures We characterised and compared risk assessment strategies among ACT regions by analysing operational health risk predictive modelling tools for population-based stratification, as well as available health indicators at regional level. The analysis of the risk assessment tool deployed in Catalonia in 2015 (GMAs, Adjusted Morbidity Groups) was used as a basis to propose how population-based analytics could contribute to clinical risk prediction. Results There was consensus on the need for a population health approach to generate health risk predictive modelling. However, this strategy was fully in place only in two ACT regions: Basque Country and Catalonia. We found marked differences among regions in health risk predictive modelling tools and health indicators, and identified key factors constraining their comparability. The research proposes means to overcome current limitations and the use of population-based health risk prediction for enhanced clinical risk assessment. Conclusions The results indicate the need for further efforts to improve both comparability and flexibility of current population-based health risk predictive modelling approaches

  11. Towards Understanding Environmental/Health Risks of Renewable Diesel (Biodiesel, Non- ester Diesel) in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, K.; Ginn, T. R.; McKone, T. E.; Rice, D. W.

    2007-12-01

    Alternative fuels for internal combustion engines offer considerable benefits as they provide so-called "sustainable" alternatives to mined fossil fuels, reduce the nation's dependence on imported petroleum, and have the potential to reduce harmful pollutants and exhaust emissions. This has been long recognized: the first appearance and demonstration of an oil based diesel fuel was at the Paris Exhibition in 1900. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 required 75 percent of new federal/state vehicles to accomodate alternative fuels. Modern concerns and overpopulation have dramatically raised the current interest. However, since these are relatively new fuels, the risks and uncertainties associated with environmental and human health effects are as yet unaddressed. As required by Section 43830.8 California Health and Safety Code before adopting new fuel specifications the California Air Resources Board (CARB) is required to prepare a relative "multimedia" evaluation of new fuels, not only with regard to engine performance and emission requirements but also with consideration of health and environmental criteria involving airborne toxics and associated health risks, ozone formation potential, hazardous waste generation and management and surface and groundwater contamination resulting from production, distribution, and use. The assessment is relative to a standard reference fuel. As a preliminary to multimedia risk assessment of biodiesel, we report here on: a brief history of biodiesel; production of biodiesel, fuel quality, and feedstocks used; key properties of six different feedstocks for possible large scale biodiesel production; and California's production challenges. Priority characteristics that pertain to environmental fate and transport and human health are described. The longer-term objective of this study is an overall relative examination of the environmental and health effects of biodiesel within the context of a multimedia assessment.

  12. Human Health Risk Assessment of Trichloroethylene from Industrial Complex A

    PubMed Central

    Sin, Saemi

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the human health risks of trichloroethylene from Industrial Complex A. The excessive carcinogenic risks for central tendency exposure were 1.40 × 10?5 for male and female residents in the vicinity of Industrial Complex A. The excessive cancers risk for reasonable maximum exposure were 2.88 × 10?5 and 1.97 × 10?5 for males and females, respectively. These values indicate that there are potential cancer risks for exposure to these concentrations. The hazard index for central tendency exposure to trichloroethylene was 1.71 for male and female residents. The hazard indexes for reasonable maximum exposure were 3.27 and 2.41 for males and females, respectively. These values were over one, which is equivalent to the threshold value. This result showed that adverse cancer and non-cancer health effects may occur and that some risk management of trichloroethylene from Industrial Complex A was needed. PMID:24278607

  13. Human health risk assessment related to contaminated land: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Swartjes, F A

    2015-08-01

    Exposure of humans to contaminants from contaminated land may result in many types of health damage ranging from relatively innocent symptoms such as skin eruption or nausea, on up to cancer or even death. Human health protection is generally considered as a major protection target. State-of-the-art possibilities and limitations of human health risk assessment tools are described in this paper. Human health risk assessment includes two different activities, i.e. the exposure assessment and the hazard assessment. The combination of these is called the risk characterization, which results in an appraisal of the contaminated land. Exposure assessment covers a smart combination of calculations, using exposure models, and measurements in contact media and body liquids and tissue (biomonitoring). Regarding the time frame represented by exposure estimates, biomonitoring generally relates to exposure history, measurements in contact media to actual exposures, while exposure calculations enable a focus on exposure in future situations. The hazard assessment, which is different for contaminants with or without a threshold for effects, results in a critical exposure value. Good human health risk assessment practice accounts for tiered approaches and multiple lines of evidence. Specific attention is given here to phenomena such as the time factor in human health risk assessment, suitability for the local situation, background exposure, combined exposure and harmonization of human health risk assessment tools.

  14. Health Risk Assessment of Groundwater Arsenic Pollution in Southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ching-Ping

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the risk of arsenic (As) exposure to the residents in Pingtung Plain of Taiwan, where more than 50% of people extracts groundwater to meet the drinking purpose and monitoring groundwater shows that a considerable portion of groundwater has an As concentration of more than safe drinking water guideline of 10μg/L-1. Exposure and risk assessment are carried out in accordance with the provisional daily intake (PTDI) recommended by the FAO/WHO as well as hazard quotient and cancer risk standards based on the US Environmental Protection Agency. The variability of body weights and drinking water consumption scenarios are considered in exposure and risk assessment. Results shows that daily intake exceeds 2.1μg day-1 kg-1 BW for 2% of population, HQ level above unity for 20% , and can risk greater than 10-6 for 80%. These results implies that drinking water directly from groundwater will place many people at the risk of exposure and any efforts to supply safe drinking water is imperial for governing in order to protect the human health of inhabitants in Pingtung Plain.

  15. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in cosmetics in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nduka, John K; Odiba; Orisakwe, Orish E; Ukaebgu, Linda D; Sokaibe, Chinwetuto; Udowelle, Nnaemeka A

    2015-01-01

    Forty two different cosmetics were purchased from supermarkets and cosmetic shops within Unitsha Main Market and Eke-Awka markets in Anambra, Nigeria. Of the cosmetics, 16% were locally manufactured in Nigeria while 83.33% were imported into Nigeria. The cosmetics were ashed before digestion and filtration. The filtrates were assayed for lead, cadmium, manganese, nickel, chromium, mercury, and arsenic with atomic absorption spectrophotometry at 205 Å. The health risk assessment methods developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency were employed to explore the potential human health risk of heavy metals in cosmetics. About 61.91% of the cosmetic samples contained lead with concentration in the range of 0.10-42.12 mg/kg. Cadmium levels of the cosmetics ranged from 0.01 to 1.32 mg/kg, manganese from 0.02 to 67.65 mg/kg, nickel from 0.05 to 17.34 mg/kg, chromium from 0.11 to 9.81 mg/kg, mercury from 0.003 to 0.07 mg/kg, and arsenic from 0.002 to 0.005 mg/kg. Although the target hazard quotients and the hazard indices suggest a measure of safety, cosmetics may add to the body burden of potential toxic metals after chronic exposure.

  16. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in cosmetics in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nduka, John K; Odiba; Orisakwe, Orish E; Ukaebgu, Linda D; Sokaibe, Chinwetuto; Udowelle, Nnaemeka A

    2015-01-01

    Forty two different cosmetics were purchased from supermarkets and cosmetic shops within Unitsha Main Market and Eke-Awka markets in Anambra, Nigeria. Of the cosmetics, 16% were locally manufactured in Nigeria while 83.33% were imported into Nigeria. The cosmetics were ashed before digestion and filtration. The filtrates were assayed for lead, cadmium, manganese, nickel, chromium, mercury, and arsenic with atomic absorption spectrophotometry at 205 Å. The health risk assessment methods developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency were employed to explore the potential human health risk of heavy metals in cosmetics. About 61.91% of the cosmetic samples contained lead with concentration in the range of 0.10-42.12 mg/kg. Cadmium levels of the cosmetics ranged from 0.01 to 1.32 mg/kg, manganese from 0.02 to 67.65 mg/kg, nickel from 0.05 to 17.34 mg/kg, chromium from 0.11 to 9.81 mg/kg, mercury from 0.003 to 0.07 mg/kg, and arsenic from 0.002 to 0.005 mg/kg. Although the target hazard quotients and the hazard indices suggest a measure of safety, cosmetics may add to the body burden of potential toxic metals after chronic exposure. PMID:26665979

  17. Cumulative health risk assessment: integrated approaches for multiple contaminants, exposures, and effects

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Glenn; Teuschler, Linda; MacDonel, Margaret; Butler, Jim; Finster, Molly; Hertzberg, Rick; Harou, Lynne

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: As information about environmental contamination has increased in recent years, so has public interest in the combined effects of multiple contaminants. This interest has been highlighted by recent tragedies such as the World Trade Center disaster and hurricane Katrina. In fact, assessing multiple contaminants, exposures, and effects has long been an issue for contaminated sites, including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) legacy waste sites. Local citizens have explicitly asked the federal government to account for cumulative risks, with contaminants moving offsite via groundwater flow, surface runoff, and air dispersal being a common emphasis. Multiple exposures range from ingestion and inhalation to dermal absorption and external gamma irradiation. Three types of concerns can lead to cumulative assessments: (1) specific sources or releases - e.g., industrial facilities or accidental discharges; (2) contaminant levels - in environmental media or human tissues; and (3) elevated rates of disease - e.g., asthma or cancer. The specific initiator frames the assessment strategy, including a determination of appropriate models to be used. Approaches are being developed to better integrate a variety of data, extending from environmental to internal co-location of contaminants and combined effects, to support more practical assessments of cumulative health risks. (authors)

  18. Mitigating the effects of preferentially selected monitoring sites for environmental policy and health risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Shaddick, Gavin; Zidek, James V; Liu, Yi

    2016-08-01

    The potential effects of air pollution are a major concern both in terms of the environment and in relation to human health. In order to support both environmental and health policy there is a need for accurate estimates of the exposures that populations might experience. The information for this typically comes from environmental monitoring networks but often the locations of monitoring sites are preferentially located in order to detect high levels of pollution. Using the information from such networks has the potential to seriously affect the estimates of pollution that are obtained and that might be used in health risk analyses. In this context, we explore the topic of preferential sampling within a long-standing network in the UK that monitored black smoke due to concerns about its effect on public health, the extent of which came to prominence during the famous London fog of 1952. Abatement measures led to a decline in the levels of black smoke and a subsequent reduction in the number of monitoring locations that were thought necessary to provide the information required for policy support. There is evidence of selection bias during this process with sites being kept in the most polluted areas. We assess the potential for this to affect the estimates of risk associated air pollution and show how using Bayesian spatio-temporal exposure models may be used to attempt to mitigate the effects of preferential sampling in this case. PMID:27494959

  19. An assessment of health hazard/health risk appraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, E H; Beery, W L; Schoenbach, V J; Graham, R M

    1982-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review of a widely-used health promotion technique, the health hazard/health risk appraisal (HHA/HRA), was conducted. The review included preparing a 212-item annotated bibliography, compiling an inventory of 217 programs that have used HHA/HRA, holding discussions with HHA/HRA developers and users, conducting formal site visits to 15 HHA/HRA programs, and consultation with experts on epidemiology, biostatistics, and behavioral science as well as developers and users of HHA/HRA. Programs use HHA/HRA primarily as a promotional device, as a tool for structuring education about health-related behaviors, and as a motivational device for stimulating behavioral change. The scientific basis for HHA/HRA risk predictions is problematic, but their arithmetic imprecision is of less concern than insufficiency of the scientific evidence for certain behavioral recommendations, and inaccuracies in client-supplied data. Widely-held beliefs in HHA/HRA's efficacy for motivating behavioral change cannot be substantiated from available evidence, nor can the assumed absence of adverse effects. The importance of this particular health promotion technique appears to have been exaggerated. PMID:7065313

  20. Cumulative health risk assessment of 17 perfluoroalkylated and polyfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in the Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Borg, Daniel; Lund, Bert-Ove; Lindquist, Nils-Gunnar; Håkansson, Helen

    2013-09-01

    Humans are simultaneously exposed to a multitude of chemicals. Human health risk assessment of chemicals is, however, normally performed on single substances, which may underestimate the total risk, thus bringing a need for reliable methods to assess the risk of combined exposure to multiple chemicals. Per- and polyfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) is a large group of chemicals that has emerged as global environmental contaminants. In the Swedish population, 17 PFASs have been measured, of which the vast majority lacks human health risk assessment information. The objective of this study was to for the first time perform a cumulative health risk assessment of the 17 PFASs measured in the Swedish population, individually and in combination, using the Hazard Index (HI) approach. Swedish biomonitoring data (blood/serum concentrations of PFASs) were used and two study populations identified: 1) the general population exposed indirectly via the environment and 2) occupationally exposed professional ski waxers. Hazard data used were publicly available toxicity data for hepatotoxicity and reproductive toxicity as well as other more sensitive toxic effects. The results showed that PFASs concentrations were in the low ng/ml serum range in the general population, reaching high ng/ml and low μg/ml serum concentrations in the occupationally exposed. For those congeners lacking toxicity data with regard to hepatotoxicity and reproductive toxicity read-across extrapolations was performed. Other effects at lower dose levels were observed for some well-studied congeners. The risk characterization showed no concern for hepatotoxicity or reproductive toxicity in the general population except in a subpopulation eating PFOS-contaminated fish, illustrating that high local exposure may be of concern. For the occupationally exposed there was concern for hepatotoxicity by PFOA and all congeners in combination as well as for reproductive toxicity by all congeners in combination, thus a

  1. Access and use of information resources in assessing health risks from chemical exposure: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    Health risk assessment is based on access to comprehensive information about potentially hazardous agents in question. Relevant information is scattered throughout the literature, and often is not readily accessible. To be useful in assessment efforts, emerging scientific findings, risk assess parameters, and associated data must be compiled and evaluated systemically. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are among the federal agencies heavily involved in this effort. This symposium was a direct response by EPA and ORNL to the expressed needs of individuals involved in assessing risks from chemical exposure. In an effort to examine the state of the risk assessment process, the availability of toxicological information, and the future development and transfer of this information, the symposium provided an excellent cadre of speakers and participants from state and federal agencies, academia and research laboratories to address these topics. This stimulating and productive gathering discussed concerns associated with (1) environmental contamination by chemicals; (2) laws regulating chemicals; (3) information needs and resources; (4) applications; (5) challenges and priorities; and (6)future issues. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  2. Public health risk assessment of groundwater contamination in Batman, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Nalbantcilar, M Tahir; Pinarkara, Sukru Yavuz

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a comprehensive analysis of groundwater was performed to assess contamination and phenol content in Batman, Turkey, particularly in residential areas near agriculture, livestock and oil industry facilities. From these areas, where potentially contaminated groundwater used for drinking and irrigation threatens public health, 30 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, NO3, P, Pb, phenol, S, Sb, Se, SO4, Sr, U, and Zn). Compared with the standards of the Environmental Protection Agency, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations in groundwater exceeded secondary drinking water regulations, NO3 concentrations were high for maximum contaminant levels, and As, Pb, and U concentrations exceeded maximum contaminant level goals in all samples. Ni, Sb, and Se concentrations also exceeded limits set by the Turkish Standards Institution. Nearly all samples revealed concentrations of Se, Sb, Hg, and phenol due to nearby petroleum refineries, oil storage plants, and agricultural and livestock areas. The results obtained from this study indicate that the groundwater in Batman contains elements in concentrations that approach or exceed limits and thus threatens public health with increased blood cholesterol, decreased blood sugar, and circulatory problems.

  3. Public health risk assessment of groundwater contamination in Batman, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Nalbantcilar, M Tahir; Pinarkara, Sukru Yavuz

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a comprehensive analysis of groundwater was performed to assess contamination and phenol content in Batman, Turkey, particularly in residential areas near agriculture, livestock and oil industry facilities. From these areas, where potentially contaminated groundwater used for drinking and irrigation threatens public health, 30 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, NO3, P, Pb, phenol, S, Sb, Se, SO4, Sr, U, and Zn). Compared with the standards of the Environmental Protection Agency, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations in groundwater exceeded secondary drinking water regulations, NO3 concentrations were high for maximum contaminant levels, and As, Pb, and U concentrations exceeded maximum contaminant level goals in all samples. Ni, Sb, and Se concentrations also exceeded limits set by the Turkish Standards Institution. Nearly all samples revealed concentrations of Se, Sb, Hg, and phenol due to nearby petroleum refineries, oil storage plants, and agricultural and livestock areas. The results obtained from this study indicate that the groundwater in Batman contains elements in concentrations that approach or exceed limits and thus threatens public health with increased blood cholesterol, decreased blood sugar, and circulatory problems. PMID:27441860

  4. Qualitative and quantitative procedures for health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Lohman, P H

    1999-07-16

    Numerous reactive mutagenic electrophiles are present in the environment or are formed in the human body through metabolizing processes. Those electrophiles can directly react with DNA and are considered to be ultimate carcinogens. In the past decades more than 200 in vitro and in vivo genotoxic tests have been described to identify, monitor and characterize the exposure of humans to such agents. When the responses of such genotoxic tests are quantified by a weight-of-evidence analysis, it is found that the intrinsic potency of electrophiles being mutagens does not differ much for the majority of the agents studied. Considering the fact that under normal environmental circumstances human are exposed to low concentration of about a million electrophiles, the relation between exposure to such agents and adverse health effects (e.g., cancer) will become a 'Pandora's box'. For quantitative risk assessment it will be necessary not only to detect whether the agent is genotoxic, but also understand the mechanism of interaction of the agent with the DNA in target cells needs to be taken into account. Examples are given for a limited group of important environmental and carcinogenic agents for which such an approach is feasible. The groups identified are agents that form cross-links with DNA or are mono-alkylating agents that react with base-moieties in the DNA strands. Quantitative hazard ranking of the mutagenic potency of these groups of chemical can be performed and there is ample evidence that such a ranking corresponds with the individual carcinogenic potency of those agents in rodents. Still, in practice, with the exception of certain occupational or accidental exposure situations, these approaches have not be successful in preventing cancer death in the human population. However, this is not only due to the described 'Pandora's box' situation. At least three other factors are described. Firstly, in the industrial world the medical treatment of cancer in patients

  5. Human health risk assessment of triclosan in land-applied biosolids.

    PubMed

    Verslycke, Tim; Mayfield, David B; Tabony, Jade A; Capdevielle, Marie; Slezak, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Triclosan (5-chloro-2-[2,4-dichlorophenoxy]-phenol) is an antimicrobial agent found in a variety of pharmaceutical and personal care products. Numerous studies have examined the occurrence and environmental fate of triclosan in wastewater, biosolids, biosolids-amended soils, and plants and organisms exposed to biosolid-amended soils. Triclosan has a propensity to adhere to organic carbon in biosolids and biosolid-amended soils. Land application of biosolids containing triclosan has the potential to contribute to multiple direct and indirect human health exposure pathways. To estimate exposures and human health risks from biosolid-borne triclosan, a risk assessment was conducted in general accordance with the methodology incorporated into the US Environmental Protection Agency's Part 503 biosolids rule. Human health exposures to biosolid-borne triclosan were estimated on the basis of published empirical data or modeled using upper-end environmental partitioning estimates. Similarly, a range of published triclosan human health toxicity values was evaluated. Margins of safety were estimated for 10 direct and indirect exposure pathways, both individually and combined. The present risk assessment found large margins of safety (>1000 to >100 000) for potential exposures to all pathways, even under the most conservative exposure and toxicity assumptions considered. The human health exposures and risks from biosolid-borne triclosan are concluded to be de minimis. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2358-2367. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:27552397

  6. An assessment of mercury emissions and health risks from a coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Lipfert, F.; Moskowitz, P.

    1994-12-01

    Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) mandated that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluate the need to regulate mercury emissions from electric utilities. In support of this forthcoming regulatory analysis the U.S. DOE, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the US MeHg is the predominant way of exposure to mercury originated in the atmosphere. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1,000 MW coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. This study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Even at these more elevated exposure levels, the attributable incidence in mild neurological symptoms was estimated to be quite small, especially when compared with the estimated background incidence in the population. The current paper summarizes the basic conclusions of this assessment and highlights issues dealing with emissions control and environmental transport.

  7. Human health risk assessment case study: an abandoned metal smelter site in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wcisło, Eleonora; Ioven, Dawn; Kucharski, Rafal; Szdzuj, Jerzy

    2002-05-01

    United States Environmental Protection Agency methodologies for human health risk assessment (HRA) were applied in a Brownfields Demonstration Project on the Warynski smelter site (WSS), an abandoned industrial site at Piekary Slaskie town, Upper Silesia, Poland. The HRA included the baseline risk assessment (BRA) and the development of risk-based preliminary remedial goals (RBPRGs). The HRA focused on surface area covered with waste materials, which were evaluated with regard to the potential risks they may pose to humans. Cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, and zinc were proposed as the contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at WSS based on archive data on chemical composition of waste located on WSS. For the defined future land use patterns, the industrial (I) and recreational (II) exposure scenarios were assumed and evaluated. The combined hazard index for all COPCs was 3.1E+00 for Scenario I and 3.2E+00 for Scenario II. Regarding potential carcinogenic risks associated with the inhalation route, only cadmium was a contributor, with risks of 1.6E-06 and 2.6E-07 for Scenario I and Scenario II, respectively. The results of the BRA indicated that the potential health risks at WSS were mainly associated with waste material exposure to cadmium (industrial and recreational scenarios) and lead (industrial scenario). RBPRGs calculated under the industrial scenario were 1.17E+03 and 1.62E+03 mg/kg for cadmium and lead, respectively. The RBPRG for cadmium was 1.18E+03 mg/kg under the recreational scenario. The BRA results, as well as RBCs, are comparable for both scenarios, so it is impossible to prioritize land use patterns for WSS based on these results. For choosing a future land use pattern or an appropriate redevelopment option, different factors would be decisive in the decision-making process, e.g., social, market needs, technical feasibility and costs of redevelopment actions or acceptance of local community.

  8. Health risk assessment along the wastewater and faecal sludge management and reuse chain of Kampala, Uganda: a visualization.

    PubMed

    Fuhrimann, Samuel; Winkler, Mirko S; Schneeberger, Pierre H H; Niwagaba, Charles B; Buwule, Joseph; Babu, Mohammed; Medlicott, Kate; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2014-11-01

    Reuse of wastewater in agriculture is a common feature in the developing world. While this strategy might contribute to the livelihood of farming communities, there are health risks associated with the management and reuse of wastewater and faecal sludge. We visualise here an assessment of health risks along the major wastewater channel in Kampala, Uganda. The visualization brings to bear the context of wastewater reuse activities in the Nakivubo wetlands and emphasises interconnections to disease transmission pathways. The contextual features are complemented with findings from environmental sampling and a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in selected exposure groups. Our documentation can serve as a case study for a step-by-step implementation of risk assessment and management as described in the World Health Organization's 2006 guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, greywater and excreta in light of the forthcoming sanitation safety planning approach. PMID:25545942

  9. Methodological challenges in health risk assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-12

    Risk assessment, a major activity of both health and regulatory agencies, is subject to large and unavoidable uncertainties. Thus, different teams of knowledgeable experts can come to different conclusions about risks to human health from various sorts of hazards. This report examines and compares analyses by two or more agencies of ten health hazards or potential hazards: ethylene dibromide, formaldehyde, Tris, dioxin (limited to cancer risks of contaminated soil), lead (reproductive effects), cotton dust, noise (long-term hearing impairment), passive smoking, dietary fat (cancer risks), and the radiation hazards of mammography. Each set of risk assessments is analyzed in depth. The report then turns to cross-cutting analyses of such matters as setting priorities for risk assessment, approaches and methods used to evaluate different kinds of risks, and the relationships between risk assessment and risk management. Overall, the report found large differences among risk assessments of the same hazard, but these differences are often quite appropriate.

  10. Advancing human health risk assessment: integrating recent advisory committee recommendations.

    PubMed

    Dourson, Michael; Becker, Richard A; Haber, Lynne T; Pottenger, Lynn H; Bredfeldt, Tiffany; Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A

    2013-07-01

    Over the last dozen years, many national and international expert groups have considered specific improvements to risk assessment. Many of their stated recommendations are mutually supportive, but others appear conflicting, at least in an initial assessment. This review identifies areas of consensus and difference and recommends a practical, biology-centric course forward, which includes: (1) incorporating a clear problem formulation at the outset of the assessment with a level of complexity that is appropriate for informing the relevant risk management decision; (2) using toxicokinetics and toxicodynamic information to develop Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAF); (3) using mode of action (MOA) information and an understanding of the relevant biology as the key, central organizing principle for the risk assessment; (4) integrating MOA information into dose-response assessments using existing guidelines for non-cancer and cancer assessments; (5) using a tiered, iterative approach developed by the World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety (WHO/IPCS) as a scientifically robust, fit-for-purpose approach for risk assessment of combined exposures (chemical mixtures); and (6) applying all of this knowledge to enable interpretation of human biomonitoring data in a risk context. While scientifically based defaults will remain important and useful when data on CSAF or MOA to refine an assessment are absent or insufficient, assessments should always strive to use these data. The use of available 21st century knowledge of biological processes, clinical findings, chemical interactions, and dose-response at the molecular, cellular, organ and organism levels will minimize the need for extrapolation and reliance on default approaches. PMID:23844697

  11. Advancing human health risk assessment: Integrating recent advisory committee recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Richard A.; Haber, Lynne T.; Pottenger, Lynn H.; Bredfeldt, Tiffany; Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last dozen years, many national and international expert groups have considered specific improvements to risk assessment. Many of their stated recommendations are mutually supportive, but others appear conflicting, at least in an initial assessment. This review identifies areas of consensus and difference and recommends a practical, biology-centric course forward, which includes: (1) incorporating a clear problem formulation at the outset of the assessment with a level of complexity that is appropriate for informing the relevant risk management decision; (2) using toxicokinetics and toxicodynamic information to develop Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAF); (3) using mode of action (MOA) information and an understanding of the relevant biology as the key, central organizing principle for the risk assessment; (4) integrating MOA information into dose–response assessments using existing guidelines for non-cancer and cancer assessments; (5) using a tiered, iterative approach developed by the World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety (WHO/IPCS) as a scientifically robust, fit-for-purpose approach for risk assessment of combined exposures (chemical mixtures); and (6) applying all of this knowledge to enable interpretation of human biomonitoring data in a risk context. While scientifically based defaults will remain important and useful when data on CSAF or MOA to refine an assessment are absent or insufficient, assessments should always strive to use these data. The use of available 21st century knowledge of biological processes, clinical findings, chemical interactions, and dose–response at the molecular, cellular, organ and organism levels will minimize the need for extrapolation and reliance on default approaches. PMID:23844697

  12. Health risks for the population living in the vicinity of an Integrated Waste Management Facility: screening environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L; Rovira, Joaquim; Vilavert, Lolita; Nadal, Martí; Figueras, María J; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2015-06-15

    We performed a screening investigation to assess the human health risks of the Integrated Waste Management Facility (IWMF: mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plant plus municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI); Ecoparc-3) of Barcelona (Spain). Air concentrations of pollutants potentially released by the MBT plant (VOCs and bioaerosols) and the MSWI (trace elements, PCDD/Fs and PCBs) were determined. Trace elements, PCDD/Fs and PCBs were also analyzed in soil samples. The concentrations of trace elements and bioaerosols were similar to those previously reported in other areas of similar characteristics, while formaldehyde was the predominant VOC. Interestingly, PCDD/F concentrations in soil and air were the highest ever reported near a MSWI in Catalonia, being maximum concentrations 10.8 ng WHO-TEQ/kg and 41.3 fg WHO-TEQ/m(3), respectively. In addition, there has not been any reduction in soils, even after the closure of a power plant located adjacently. Human health risks of PCDD/F exposure in the closest urban nucleus located downwind the MSWI are up to 10-times higher than those nearby other MSWIs in Catalonia. Although results must be considered as very preliminary, they are a serious warning for local authorities. We strongly recommend to conduct additional studies to confirm these findings and, if necessary, to implement measures to urgently mitigate the impact of the MSWI on the surrounding environment. We must also state the tremendous importance of an individual evaluation of MSWIs, rather than generalizing their environmental and health risks.

  13. The effect of graphics on environmental health risk beliefs, emotions, behavioral intentions, and recall.

    PubMed

    Severtson, Dolores J; Henriques, Jeffrey B

    2009-11-01

    Lay people have difficulty understanding the meaning of environmental health risk information. Visual images can use features that leverage visual perception capabilities and semiotic conventions to promote meaningful comprehension. Such evidence-based features were employed to develop two images of a color-coded visual scale to convey drinking water test results. The effect of these images and a typical alphanumeric (AN) lab report were explored in a repeated measures randomized trial among 261 undergraduates. Outcome measures included risk beliefs, emotions, personal safety threshold, mitigation intentions, the durability of beliefs and intentions over time, and test result recall. The plain image conveyed the strongest risk message overall, likely due to increased visual salience. The more detailed graded image conveyed a stronger message than the AN format only for females. Images only prompted meaningful risk reduction intentions among participants with optimistically biased safety threshold beliefs. Fuzzy trace theory supported some findings as follow. Images appeared to promote the consolidation of beliefs over time from an initial meaning of safety to an integrated meaning of safety and health risk; emotion potentially shaped this process. Although the AN report fostered more accurate recall, images were related to more appropriate beliefs and intentions at both time points. Findings hinted at the potential for images to prompt appropriate beliefs independent of accurate factual knowledge. Overall, results indicate that images facilitated meaningful comprehension of environmental health risk information and suggest foci for further research.

  14. The Effect of Graphics on Environmental Health Risk Beliefs, Emotions, Behavioral Intentions and Recall

    PubMed Central

    Severtson, Dolores J.; Henriques, Jeffrey B.

    2010-01-01

    Lay people have difficulty understanding the meaning of environmental health risk information. Visual images can use features that leverage visual perception capabilities and semiotic conventions to promote meaningful comprehension. Such evidence-based features were employed to develop two images of a color-coded visual scale to convey drinking water test results. The effect of these images and a typical alphanumeric (AN) lab report were explored in a repeated measures randomized trial among 261 undergraduates. Outcome measures included risk beliefs, emotions, personal safety threshold, mitigation intentions, the durability of beliefs and intentions over time, and test result recall. The plain image conveyed the strongest risk message overall, likely due to increased visual salience. The more detailed graded image conveyed a stronger message than the AN format only for females. Images only prompted meaningful risk reduction intentions among participants with optimistically biased safety threshold beliefs. Fuzzy trace theory supported some findings as follow. Images appeared to promote the consolidation of beliefs over time from an initial meaning of safety to an integrated meaning of safety and health risk; emotion potentially shaped this process. Although the AN report fostered more accurate recall, images were related to more appropriate beliefs and intentions at both time points. Findings hinted at the potential for images to prompt appropriate beliefs independent of accurate factual knowledge. Overall, results indicate that images facilitated meaningful comprehension of environmental health risk information and suggest foci for further research. PMID:19886946

  15. The economic value of reducing environmental health risks: Contingent valuation estimates of the value of information

    SciTech Connect

    Krieger, D.J.; Hoehn, J.P.

    1999-05-01

    Obtaining economically consistent values for changes in low probability health risks continues to be a challenge for contingent valuation (CV) as well as for other valuation methods. One of the cited condition for economic consistency is that estimated values be sensitive to the scope (differences in quantity or quality) of a good described in a CV application. The alleged limitations of CV pose a particular problem for environmental managers who must often make decisions that affect human health risks. This paper demonstrates that a well-designed CV application can elicit scope sensitive values even for programs that provide conceptually complex goods such as risk reduction. Specifically, it finds that the amount sport anglers are willing to pay for information about chemical residues in fish varies systematically with informativeness--a relationship suggested by the theory of information value.

  16. A decision support system for drinking water production integrating health risks assessment.

    PubMed

    Delpla, Ianis; Monteith, Donald T; Freeman, Chris; Haftka, Joris; Hermens, Joop; Jones, Timothy G; Baurès, Estelle; Jung, Aude-Valérie; Thomas, Olivier

    2014-07-01

    The issue of drinking water quality compliance in small and medium scale water services is of paramount importance in relation to the 98/83/CE European Drinking Water Directive (DWD). Additionally, concerns are being expressed over the implementation of the DWD with respect to possible impacts on water quality from forecast changes in European climate with global warming and further anticipated reductions in north European acid emissions. Consequently, we have developed a decision support system (DSS) named ARTEM-WQ (AwaReness Tool for the Evaluation and Mitigation of drinking Water Quality issues resulting from environmental changes) to support decision making by small and medium plant operators and other water stakeholders. ARTEM-WQ is based on a sequential risk analysis approach that includes consideration of catchment characteristics, climatic conditions and treatment operations. It provides a holistic evaluation of the water system, while also assessing human health risks of organic contaminants potentially present in treated waters (steroids, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, bisphenol-a, polychlorobiphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petrochemical hydrocarbons and disinfection by-products; n = 109). Moreover, the system provides recommendations for improvement while supporting decision making in its widest context. The tool has been tested on various European catchments and shows a promising potential to inform water managers of risks and appropriate mitigative actions. Further improvements should include toxicological knowledge advancement, environmental background pollutant concentrations and the assessment of the impact of distribution systems on water quality variation. PMID:25046634

  17. A decision support system for drinking water production integrating health risks assessment.

    PubMed

    Delpla, Ianis; Monteith, Donald T; Freeman, Chris; Haftka, Joris; Hermens, Joop; Jones, Timothy G; Baurès, Estelle; Jung, Aude-Valérie; Thomas, Olivier

    2014-07-18

    The issue of drinking water quality compliance in small and medium scale water services is of paramount importance in relation to the 98/83/CE European Drinking Water Directive (DWD). Additionally, concerns are being expressed over the implementation of the DWD with respect to possible impacts on water quality from forecast changes in European climate with global warming and further anticipated reductions in north European acid emissions. Consequently, we have developed a decision support system (DSS) named ARTEM-WQ (AwaReness Tool for the Evaluation and Mitigation of drinking Water Quality issues resulting from environmental changes) to support decision making by small and medium plant operators and other water stakeholders. ARTEM-WQ is based on a sequential risk analysis approach that includes consideration of catchment characteristics, climatic conditions and treatment operations. It provides a holistic evaluation of the water system, while also assessing human health risks of organic contaminants potentially present in treated waters (steroids, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, bisphenol-a, polychlorobiphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petrochemical hydrocarbons and disinfection by-products; n = 109). Moreover, the system provides recommendations for improvement while supporting decision making in its widest context. The tool has been tested on various European catchments and shows a promising potential to inform water managers of risks and appropriate mitigative actions. Further improvements should include toxicological knowledge advancement, environmental background pollutant concentrations and the assessment of the impact of distribution systems on water quality variation.

  18. A Decision Support System for Drinking Water Production Integrating Health Risks Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Delpla, Ianis; Monteith, Donald T.; Freeman, Chris; Haftka, Joris; Hermens, Joop; Jones, Timothy G.; Baurès, Estelle; Jung, Aude-Valérie; Thomas, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The issue of drinking water quality compliance in small and medium scale water services is of paramount importance in relation to the 98/83/CE European Drinking Water Directive (DWD). Additionally, concerns are being expressed over the implementation of the DWD with respect to possible impacts on water quality from forecast changes in European climate with global warming and further anticipated reductions in north European acid emissions. Consequently, we have developed a decision support system (DSS) named ARTEM-WQ (AwaReness Tool for the Evaluation and Mitigation of drinking Water Quality issues resulting from environmental changes) to support decision making by small and medium plant operators and other water stakeholders. ARTEM-WQ is based on a sequential risk analysis approach that includes consideration of catchment characteristics, climatic conditions and treatment operations. It provides a holistic evaluation of the water system, while also assessing human health risks of organic contaminants potentially present in treated waters (steroids, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, bisphenol-a, polychlorobiphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petrochemical hydrocarbons and disinfection by-products; n = 109). Moreover, the system provides recommendations for improvement while supporting decision making in its widest context. The tool has been tested on various European catchments and shows a promising potential to inform water managers of risks and appropriate mitigative actions. Further improvements should include toxicological knowledge advancement, environmental background pollutant concentrations and the assessment of the impact of distribution systems on water quality variation. PMID:25046634

  19. Tracking host sources of Cryptosporidium spp. in raw water for improved health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ruecker, Norma J; Braithwaite, Shannon L; Topp, Edward; Edge, Thomas; Lapen, David R; Wilkes, Graham; Robertson, Will; Medeiros, Diane; Sensen, Christoph W; Neumann, Norman F

    2007-06-01

    Recent molecular evidence suggests that different species and/or genotypes of Cryptosporidium display strong host specificity, altering our perceptions regarding the zoonotic potential of this parasite. Molecular forensic profiling of the small-subunit rRNA gene from oocysts enumerated on microscope slides by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 1623 was used to identify the range and prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in the South Nation watershed in Ontario, Canada. Fourteen sites within the watershed were monitored weekly for 10 weeks to assess the occurrence, molecular composition, and host sources of Cryptosporidium parasites impacting water within the region. Cryptosporidium andersoni, Cryptosporidium muskrat genotype II, Cryptosporidium cervine genotype, C. baileyi, C. parvum, Cryptosporidium muskrat genotype I, the Cryptosporidium fox genotype, genotype W1, and genotype W12 were detected in the watershed. The molecular composition of the Cryptosporidium parasites, supported by general land use analysis, indicated that mature cattle were likely the main source of contamination of the watershed. Deer, muskrats, voles, birds, and other wildlife species, in addition to sewage (human or agricultural) may also potentially impact water quality within the study area. Source water protection studies that use land use analysis with molecular genotyping of Cryptosporidium parasites may provide a more robust source-tracking tool to characterize fecal impacts in a watershed. Moreover, the information is vital for assessing environmental and human health risks posed by water contaminated with zoonotic and/or anthroponotic forms of Cryptosporidium. PMID:17483276

  20. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in rice to the population in Zhejiang, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhu; Pan, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Ping-Gu; Han, Jian-Long; Chen, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Environmental pollution with toxic heavy metals can lead to the possible contamination of the rice. Selected metals (As, Cd, Hg and Pb) and their accumulation in rice collected from Zhejiang, China were analyzed to evaluate the potential health risk to the local adults and children. The mean levels found in rice were as follows: As, 0.080 mg/kg; Cd, 0.037 mg/kg; Hg, 0.005 mg/kg; Pb, 0.060 mg/kg. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were calculated in combination of the rice consumption data. The mean intakes of As, Cd, Hg and Pb through rice were estimated to be 0.49, 0.23, 0.03 and 0.37 µg/kg bw/day for adults, and 0.34, 0.29, 0.04 and 0.47 µg/kg bw/day for children. The 97.5th percentile (P97.5) daily intakes of As, Cd, Hg and Pb were 1.02, 0.64, 0.37 and 1.26 µg/kg bw/day for adults, and 0.63, 0.83, 0.47 and 1.63 µg/kg bw/day for children. The risk assessment in mean levels showed that health risk associated with these elements through consumption of rice was absent. However, estimates in P97.5 level of Cd and Pb for children, and Hg for adults have exceeded the respective safe limits. PMID:24040375

  1. An Evaluation of Transplacental Carcinogenesis for Human Health Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessments take into account the sensitivity of the postnatal period to carcinogens through the application of age-dependent adjustment factors (ADAFs) (Barton et al. 2005). The prenatal period is also recognized to be sensitive but is typically not included into risk asse...

  2. An Assessment of Health Risk for First-Year Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, J. Paul

    1997-01-01

    At York University (Ontario), a large, urban commuter university, the self-assessed health of first-year students is lower than that of Canadian undergraduates in general and those in the 18 to 24 age category not enrolled in college. Among first-year students, Chinese females and females who anticipated that family problems would interfere with…

  3. A global human health risk assessment for Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5).

    PubMed

    Franzen, Allison; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Greene, Tracy; Plotzke, Kathy; Gentry, Robinan

    2016-02-01

    Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) is a low-molecular-weight cyclic siloxane used primarily as an intermediate in the production of several widely-used industrial and consumer products and intentionally added to consumer products, personal products and some dry cleaning solvents. The global use requires consideration of consumer use information and risk assessment requirements from various sources and authoritative bodies. A global "harmonized" risk assessment was conducted to meet requirements for substance-specific risk assessments conducted by regulatory agencies such as USEPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), Health Canada and various independent scientific committees of the European Commission, as well as provide guidance for chemical safety assessments under REACH in Europe, and other relevant authoritative bodies. This risk assessment incorporates global exposure information combined with a Monte Carlo analysis to determine the most significant routes of exposure, utilization of a multi-species, multi-route physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to estimate internal dose metrics, benchmark modeling to determine a point of departure (POD), and a margin of safety (MOS) evaluation to compare the estimates of intake with the POD. Because of the specific pharmacokinetic behaviors of D5 including high lipophilicity, high volatility with low blood-to-air partition coefficients and extensive metabolic clearance that regulate tissue dose after exposure, the use of a PBPK model was essential to provide a comparison of a dose metric that reflects these processes. The characterization of the potential for adverse effects after exposure to D5 using a MOS approach based on an internal dose metric removes the subjective application of uncertainty factors that may be applied across various regulatory agencies and allows examination of the differences between internal dose metrics associated with exposure and those associated with adverse effects. PMID

  4. Health Risk Assessment for Cyanobacterial Toxins in Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Mulvenna, Vanora; Dale, Katie; Priestly, Brian; Mueller, Utz; Humpage, Andrew; Shaw, Glen; Allinson, Graeme; Falconer, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are abundant in fresh, brackish and marine waters worldwide. When toxins produced by cyanobacteria are present in the aquatic environment, seafood harvested from these waters may present a health hazard to consumers. Toxicity hazards from seafood have been internationally recognised when the source is from marine algae (dinoflagellates and diatoms), but to date few risk assessments for cyanobacterial toxins in seafood have been presented. This paper estimates risk from seafood contaminated by cyanobacterial toxins, and provides guidelines for safe human consumption. PMID:22690165

  5. Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-12-31

    Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.

  6. Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-01-01

    Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.

  7. Cumulative effects of anti-androgenic chemical mixtures and their relevance to human health risk assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kembra L. Howdeshell and L. Earl Gray, Jr.Toxicological studies of defined chemical mixtures assist human health risk assessment by characterizing the joint action of chemicals. This presentation will review the effects of anti-androgenic chemical mixtures on reproductive tract d...

  8. New Directions in Health Risk Assessment: A REACH for the Future?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health risk assessments have been used to support many decisions in the US to reduce risks from pollutant exposures. These decisions have been highly successful in protecting public health despite uncertainty due to gaps in knowledge and methodological limitations. In recent yea...

  9. The Effect of Genetic Risk Information and Health Risk Assessment on Compliance with Preventive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamberg, Richard; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Results from a study of 82 males provide no statistical support and limited encouragement that genetic risk information may motivate persons to make positive changes in preventive health behaviors. Health risk assessments were used to identify subjects at risk for coronary heart disease or lung cancer because of genetic factors. (IAH)

  10. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in urban stormwater.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yukun; Egodawatta, Prasanna; McGree, James; Liu, An; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-07-01

    Toxic chemical pollutants such as heavy metals (HMs) are commonly present in urban stormwater. These pollutants can pose a significant risk to human health and hence a significant barrier for urban stormwater reuse. The primary aim of this study was to develop an approach for quantitatively assessing the risk to human health due to the presence of HMs in stormwater. This approach will lead to informed decision making in relation to risk management of urban stormwater reuse, enabling efficient implementation of appropriate treatment strategies. In this study, risks to human health from heavy metals were assessed as hazard index (HI) and quantified as a function of traffic and land use related parameters. Traffic and land use are the primary factors influencing heavy metal loads in the urban environment. The risks posed by heavy metals associated with total solids and fine solids (<150μm) were considered to represent the maximum and minimum risk levels, respectively. The study outcomes confirmed that Cr, Mn and Pb pose the highest risks, although these elements are generally present in low concentrations. The study also found that even though the presence of a single heavy metal does not pose a significant risk, the presence of multiple heavy metals could be detrimental to human health. These findings suggest that stormwater guidelines should consider the combined risk from multiple heavy metals rather than the threshold concentration of an individual species. Furthermore, it was found that risk to human health from heavy metals in stormwater is significantly influenced by traffic volume and the risk associated with stormwater from industrial areas is generally higher than that from commercial and residential areas.

  11. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in urban stormwater.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yukun; Egodawatta, Prasanna; McGree, James; Liu, An; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-07-01

    Toxic chemical pollutants such as heavy metals (HMs) are commonly present in urban stormwater. These pollutants can pose a significant risk to human health and hence a significant barrier for urban stormwater reuse. The primary aim of this study was to develop an approach for quantitatively assessing the risk to human health due to the presence of HMs in stormwater. This approach will lead to informed decision making in relation to risk management of urban stormwater reuse, enabling efficient implementation of appropriate treatment strategies. In this study, risks to human health from heavy metals were assessed as hazard index (HI) and quantified as a function of traffic and land use related parameters. Traffic and land use are the primary factors influencing heavy metal loads in the urban environment. The risks posed by heavy metals associated with total solids and fine solids (<150μm) were considered to represent the maximum and minimum risk levels, respectively. The study outcomes confirmed that Cr, Mn and Pb pose the highest risks, although these elements are generally present in low concentrations. The study also found that even though the presence of a single heavy metal does not pose a significant risk, the presence of multiple heavy metals could be detrimental to human health. These findings suggest that stormwater guidelines should consider the combined risk from multiple heavy metals rather than the threshold concentration of an individual species. Furthermore, it was found that risk to human health from heavy metals in stormwater is significantly influenced by traffic volume and the risk associated with stormwater from industrial areas is generally higher than that from commercial and residential areas. PMID:27046140

  12. Introduction to arsenic contamination and health risk assessment with special reference to Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Caussy, Deoraj; Priest, Nicholas D

    2008-01-01

    The problem of arsenic contamination in the Bengal River Basin illustrates a classic conundrum in environmental health, namely, that development projects can have double effects: on one hand development of tube wells eliminated bacterial pathogens and on the other it exposed the population to poisoning from arsenic. Thus, in future development projects the full health risk of a project must be considered during the planning, implementation, and decommissioning phases (Caussy 2003b; Caussy et al. 2003b). If such a holistic approach would have been followed, the mass contamination in the Bengal River Basin, in which millions of people were and are exposed to unsafe levels of arsenic, could have been averted. Although definite knowledge gaps in applying risk assessment steps for arsenic contamination exist, arsenic clearly poses a serious health problem and economic consequences to the affected population of the Bengal River Basin. It is binding on the international community to alleviate the problem through remediation measures to reduce arsenic exposure. One Environmental Sustainability Millennium development goal is to increase the proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source (Bartram et al. 2005). Providing water with safe levels of arsenic to affected communities of the Bengal River Basin will directly contribute to improved community health.

  13. Health risk assessment of PCDD/F emissions from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yu-Qi; Liu, Hong-Mei; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Lu, Sheng-Yong; Chen, Tong; Yan, Jian-Hua

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the environmental impacts of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) emitted from two typical municipal solid-waste incinerators (MSWIs), named M and L, in China. The main differences between the two MSWIs relate to incineration technologies, treatment capacities, emission standards and meteorological conditions. The distribution of PCDD/Fs in the surrounding ambient air and soils of the MWSIs were monitored and compared. In addition, air dispersion models and health risk assessments were combined to determine the behaviour and transport of PCDD/Fs. The results indicated that higher PCDD/F emission levels resulted in higher concentrations in the surrounding environment. The average PCDD/F levels emitted from the M MSWI was about seven times higher than those emitted from the L MSWI and about 10 times and 2 times higher in air and soils, respectively. The simulation results were similar to the trend of the monitored results. Both the observed and the simulation results suggested that the atmospheric pollution by PCDD/F surrounding the M MSWI was relatively serious; the environmental impact of the L MSWI was not significant.

  14. Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M.

    2012-10-01

    The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 ± 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

  15. Exploring Mexican adolescents' perceptions of environmental health risks: a photographic approach to risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Börner, Susanne; Albino, Juan Carlos Torrico; Caraveo, Luz María Nieto; Tejeda, Ana Cristina Cubillas

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore Mexican adolescents' perceptions of environmental health risks in contaminated urban areas, and to test the environmental photography technique as a research tool for engaging adolescents in community-based health research. The study was conducted with 74 adolescents from two communities in the city of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Participants were provided with disposable cameras and asked to take photographs of elements and situations which they believed affected their personal health both at home and outside their homes. They were also asked to describe each photograph in writing. Photographs and written explanations were analyzed by using quantitative and qualitative content analysis. Risk perception plays a crucial role in the development of Risk Communication Programs (RCPs) aimed at the improvement of community health. The photography technique opens up a promising field for environmental health research since it affords a realistic and concise impression of the perceived risks. Adolescents in both communities perceived different environmental health risks as detrimental to their well-being, e.g. waste, air pollution, and lack of hygiene. Yet, some knowledge gaps remain which need to be addressed. PMID:26017963

  16. Exploring Mexican adolescents' perceptions of environmental health risks: a photographic approach to risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Börner, Susanne; Albino, Juan Carlos Torrico; Caraveo, Luz María Nieto; Tejeda, Ana Cristina Cubillas

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore Mexican adolescents' perceptions of environmental health risks in contaminated urban areas, and to test the environmental photography technique as a research tool for engaging adolescents in community-based health research. The study was conducted with 74 adolescents from two communities in the city of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Participants were provided with disposable cameras and asked to take photographs of elements and situations which they believed affected their personal health both at home and outside their homes. They were also asked to describe each photograph in writing. Photographs and written explanations were analyzed by using quantitative and qualitative content analysis. Risk perception plays a crucial role in the development of Risk Communication Programs (RCPs) aimed at the improvement of community health. The photography technique opens up a promising field for environmental health research since it affords a realistic and concise impression of the perceived risks. Adolescents in both communities perceived different environmental health risks as detrimental to their well-being, e.g. waste, air pollution, and lack of hygiene. Yet, some knowledge gaps remain which need to be addressed.

  17. Cumulative health risk assessment of co-occurring mycotoxins of deoxynivalenol and its acetyl derivatives in wheat and maize: case study, Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Han, Zheng; Nie, Dongxia; Ediage, Emmanuel Njumbe; Yang, Xianli; Wang, Jianhua; Chen, Bo; Li, Shuguang; On, Stephen L W; De Saeger, Sarah; Wu, Aibo

    2014-12-01

    Humans are naturally and frequently exposed to a multitude of mycotoxins, but health risk assessments are usually performed on individual mycotoxins, which may underestimate the total risks. In this study, we assessed for the first time the cumulative health risks of concomitant exposure via dietary intake (DI) to multiple mycotoxins, namely deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetyl derivatives of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), based on the concentration addition (CA) concept. A cross-sectional study was conducted in seven districts in Shanghai, China with 1269 participants and 330 wheat and maize samples analyzed. After probabilistic analysis using Monte Carlo simulation, the results showed no health risks to the population in Shanghai considering individual mycotoxins. However, if the cumulative health risks were calculated based on the combined consideration of DON with either 3-ADON or 15-ADON or both, the DI values in 95th percentile were up to 1087 ng/kg body weight/day, exceeding the Provisional Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTDI) of 1000 ng/kg body weight/day and hence representing potential health risks to the population in Shanghai. The integrated study proposed here could be a model strategy for cumulative health risk assessment on the co-occurring hazards in the fields of food safety combined with environmental contaminants.

  18. Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System for Assessing Doses and Health Risks from Atmospheric Releases of Radionuclides.

    1998-11-10

    Version: 00 CRRIS consists of eight fully integrated computer codes which calculate environmental transport of atmospheric releases of radionuclides and resulting doses and health risks to individuals or populations. Each code may be used alone for various assessment applications. Because of its modular structure, CRRIS allows assessments to be tailored to the user's needs. Radionuclides are handled by CRRIS either in terms of the released radionuclides or the exposure radionuclides which consist of both themore » released nuclides and decay products that build up during environmental transport. Atmospheric dispersion calculations are performed by the ANEMOS computer code for distances less than 100 km and by the RETADD-II computer code for regional-scale distances. Both codes estimate annual-average air concentrations and ground deposition rates by location. SUMIT will translate and scale multiple ANEMOS runs onto a master grid. TERRA reads radionuclide air concentrations and deposition rates to estimate concentrations of radionuclides in food and surface soil. Radiologic decay and ingrowth, soil leaching, and transport through the food chain are included in the calculations. MLSOIL computes an effective radionuclide ground-surface concentration to be used in computing external health effects. The five-layer model of radionuclide transport through soil in MLSOIL provides an alternative to the single-layer model used in TERRA. DFSOIL computes dose factors used in MLSOIL to compute doses from the five soil layers and from the ground surface. ANDROS reads environmental concentrations of radionuclides computed by the other CRRIS codes and produces tables of doses and risks to individuals or populations from atmospheric releases of radionuclides.« less

  19. Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System for Assessing Doses and Health Risks from Atmospheric Releases of Radionuclides.

    SciTech Connect

    RAINE, III, DUDLEY A.

    1998-11-10

    Version: 00 CRRIS consists of eight fully integrated computer codes which calculate environmental transport of atmospheric releases of radionuclides and resulting doses and health risks to individuals or populations. Each code may be used alone for various assessment applications. Because of its modular structure, CRRIS allows assessments to be tailored to the user's needs. Radionuclides are handled by CRRIS either in terms of the released radionuclides or the exposure radionuclides which consist of both the released nuclides and decay products that build up during environmental transport. Atmospheric dispersion calculations are performed by the ANEMOS computer code for distances less than 100 km and by the RETADD-II computer code for regional-scale distances. Both codes estimate annual-average air concentrations and ground deposition rates by location. SUMIT will translate and scale multiple ANEMOS runs onto a master grid. TERRA reads radionuclide air concentrations and deposition rates to estimate concentrations of radionuclides in food and surface soil. Radiologic decay and ingrowth, soil leaching, and transport through the food chain are included in the calculations. MLSOIL computes an effective radionuclide ground-surface concentration to be used in computing external health effects. The five-layer model of radionuclide transport through soil in MLSOIL provides an alternative to the single-layer model used in TERRA. DFSOIL computes dose factors used in MLSOIL to compute doses from the five soil layers and from the ground surface. ANDROS reads environmental concentrations of radionuclides computed by the other CRRIS codes and produces tables of doses and risks to individuals or populations from atmospheric releases of radionuclides.

  20. Human health risk assessment in restoring safe and productive use of abandoned contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Wcisło, Eleonora; Bronder, Joachim; Bubak, Anicenta; Rodríguez-Valdés, Eduardo; Gallego, José Luis R

    2016-09-01

    In Europe soil contamination has been recognized as a serious problem. The needs to remediate contaminated sites are not questionable, although the remediation actions are often hindered by their very high financial costs. On the other hand, the abandoned contaminated sites may have the potential for redevelopment and creating conditions appropriate for their productive reuse bringing social, economic and environmental benefits. The main concern associated with the contaminated sites is their potential adverse health impact. Therefore, in the process of contaminated site redevelopment the risk assessment and the subsequent risk management decisions will play a crucial role. The main objective of this study was to illustrate the role of the human health risk assessment (HRA) in supporting site remediation and reuse decisions. To exemplify the significance of the HRA process in this field the Nitrastur site, located in Asturias, Spain was used. Risks resulting from soil contamination with arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) were assessed under three potential future land use patterns: industrial, residential and recreational. The results of the study indicated that soil at the Nitrastur site might pose non-cancer and cancer risks to potential future receptors - industrial workers, residents and recreational users. Arsenic and lead are the main substances responsible for the health risk and the primary drivers of remedial decisions at the site. The highest total cancer risks were observed under the residential scenario, followed in descending order by the recreational and industrial ones. The remedial maps illustrate in which areas remediation activities are required, depending on a given land use pattern. The obtained results may be used to develop, analyse, compare and select the remedial options within the intended land use pattern. They may also be used to support the decisions concerning the

  1. Human health risk assessment in restoring safe and productive use of abandoned contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Wcisło, Eleonora; Bronder, Joachim; Bubak, Anicenta; Rodríguez-Valdés, Eduardo; Gallego, José Luis R

    2016-09-01

    In Europe soil contamination has been recognized as a serious problem. The needs to remediate contaminated sites are not questionable, although the remediation actions are often hindered by their very high financial costs. On the other hand, the abandoned contaminated sites may have the potential for redevelopment and creating conditions appropriate for their productive reuse bringing social, economic and environmental benefits. The main concern associated with the contaminated sites is their potential adverse health impact. Therefore, in the process of contaminated site redevelopment the risk assessment and the subsequent risk management decisions will play a crucial role. The main objective of this study was to illustrate the role of the human health risk assessment (HRA) in supporting site remediation and reuse decisions. To exemplify the significance of the HRA process in this field the Nitrastur site, located in Asturias, Spain was used. Risks resulting from soil contamination with arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) were assessed under three potential future land use patterns: industrial, residential and recreational. The results of the study indicated that soil at the Nitrastur site might pose non-cancer and cancer risks to potential future receptors - industrial workers, residents and recreational users. Arsenic and lead are the main substances responsible for the health risk and the primary drivers of remedial decisions at the site. The highest total cancer risks were observed under the residential scenario, followed in descending order by the recreational and industrial ones. The remedial maps illustrate in which areas remediation activities are required, depending on a given land use pattern. The obtained results may be used to develop, analyse, compare and select the remedial options within the intended land use pattern. They may also be used to support the decisions concerning the

  2. Public Talks and Science Listens: A Community-Based Participatory Approach to Characterizing Environmental Health Risk Perceptions and Assessing Recovery Needs in the Wake of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, J.; Parras, B.; St. Marie, R.; Subra, W.; Petronella, S.; Gorenstein, J.; Fuchs-Young, R.; Santa, R.K.; Chavarria, A.; Ward, J.; Diamond, P.

    2009-01-01

    In response to the human health threats stemming from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, inter-disciplinary working groups representing P30-funded Centers of the National Institute Environmental Health Sciences were created to assess threats posed by mold, harmful alga blooms, chemical toxicants, and various infectious agents at selected sites throughout the hurricane impact zone. Because of proximity to impacted areas, UTMB NIEHS Center in Environmental Toxicology was charged with coordinating direct community outreach efforts, primarily in south Louisiana. In early October 2005, UTMB/NIEHS Center Community Outreach and Education Core, in collaboration with outreach counterparts at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center @ Smithville TX/Center for Research in Environmental Disease sent two groups into southern Louisiana. One group used Lafourche Parish as a base to deliver humanitarian aid and assess local needs for additional supplies during local recovery/reclamation. A second group, ranging through New Iberia, New Orleans, Chalmette, rural Terrebonne, Lafourche and Jefferson Parishes and Baton Rouge met with community environmental leaders, emergency personnel and local citizens to 1) sample public risk perceptions, 2) evaluate the scope and reach of ongoing risk communication efforts, and 3) determine how the NIEHS could best collaborate with local groups in environmental health research and local capacity building efforts. This scoping survey identified specific information gaps limiting efficacy of risk communication, produced a community “wish list” of potential collaborative research projects. The project provided useful heuristics for disaster response and management planning and a platform for future collaborative efforts in environmental health assessment and risk communication with local advocacy groups in south Terrebonne-Lafourche parishes. PMID:20508756

  3. Public talks and science listens: a community-based participatory approach to characterizing environmental health risk perceptions and assessing recovery needs in the wake of hurricanes katrina and rita.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J; Parras, B; St Marie, R; Subra, W; Petronella, S; Gorenstein, J; Fuchs-Young, R; Santa, R K; Chavarria, A; Ward, J; Diamond, P

    2009-01-01

    In response to the human health threats stemming from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, inter-disciplinary working groups representing P30-funded Centers of the National Institute Environmental Health Sciences were created to assess threats posed by mold, harmful alga blooms, chemical toxicants, and various infectious agents at selected sites throughout the hurricane impact zone. Because of proximity to impacted areas, UTMB NIEHS Center in Environmental Toxicology was charged with coordinating direct community outreach efforts, primarily in south Louisiana. In early October 2005, UTMB/NIEHS Center Community Outreach and Education Core, in collaboration with outreach counterparts at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center @ Smithville TX/Center for Research in Environmental Disease sent two groups into southern Louisiana. One group used Lafourche Parish as a base to deliver humanitarian aid and assess local needs for additional supplies during local recovery/reclamation. A second group, ranging through New Iberia, New Orleans, Chalmette, rural Terrebonne, Lafourche and Jefferson Parishes and Baton Rouge met with community environmental leaders, emergency personnel and local citizens to 1) sample public risk perceptions, 2) evaluate the scope and reach of ongoing risk communication efforts, and 3) determine how the NIEHS could best collaborate with local groups in environmental health research and local capacity building efforts. This scoping survey identified specific information gaps limiting efficacy of risk communication, produced a community "wish list" of potential collaborative research projects. The project provided useful heuristics for disaster response and management planning and a platform for future collaborative efforts in environmental health assessment and risk communication with local advocacy groups in south Terrebonne-Lafourche parishes.

  4. Waste area Grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Human health risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Purucker, S.T.; Douthat, D.M.

    1996-06-01

    This report is one of five reports issued in 1996 that provide follow- up information to the Phase 1 Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The five reports address areas of concern that could cause potential human health risk and ecological risk within WAG2 at ORNL. The purpose of this report is to present a summary of the human health risk assessment results based on the data collected for the WAG 2 Phase 1 RI. Estimates of risk are provided based on measured concentrations in the surface water, floodplain soil, and sediment of White Oak Creek, Melton Branch, and their tributaries. The human health risk assessment methodology used in this risk assessment is based on Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS). First, the data for the different media are elevated to determine usability for risk assessment. Second, through the process of selecting chemicals of potential concern (COPCs), contaminants to be considered in the risk assessment are identified for each assessment of exposure potential is performed, and exposure pathways are identified. Subsequently, exposure is estimated quantitatively, and the toxicity of each of the COPCs is determined. The results of these analyses are combined and summarized in a risk characterization.

  5. 76 FR 30705 - Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied Biosolids

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... the public and an independent, external panel of scientific experts (73 FR 54400). Dated: May 18, 2011... AGENCY Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied Biosolids... the availability of a final report titled, ``Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments...

  6. Environmental transport and human exposure: A multimedia approach in health-risk policy

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.

    1992-05-01

    In his treatise Air, Water, and Places, the ancient-Greek physician Hippocrates demonstrated that the appearance of disease in human populations is influenced by the quality of air, water, and food; the topography of the land; and general living habits. This approach is still relevant and, indeed, the conerstone of modem efforts to relate public health to environmental factors. What has changed is the precision with which we can measure and model these long-held relationships. Environmental scientists recognize that plants, animals, and humans encounter environmental contaminants via complex transfers through air, water, and food and use multimedia models to evaluate these transfers. In this report, I explore the use of multimedia models both to examine pollution trends and as a basis for characterizing human health risks and ecological risks. The strengths and weaknesses of the approach are discussed.

  7. A review of soil cadmium contamination in China including a health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Cui, Xiangfen; Cheng, Hongguang; Chen, Fei; Wang, Jiantong; Zhao, Xinyi; Lin, Chunye; Pu, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most serious soil contaminants in China, and it poses an increasing risk to human health as large amounts of Cd are emitted into the environment. However, knowledge about soil Cd concentrations and the human health risks of these concentrations at a national scale is limited. In this study, we conducted a review of 190 articles about soil Cd concentrations during 2001 to 2010. The study involved 146 cities in China, and we quantified the risks to human health according to different regions. The results showed that elevated Cd levels were present compared to the background value of soil in 1990, and the soil Cd concentrations in the Guangxi province exceeded even the class III Soil Environmental Quality standard, which is the limit for the normal growth of plants. The Chinese soil Cd concentrations ranged from 0.003 mg kg(-1) to 9.57 mg kg(-1). The soil Cd concentrations had the following trend: northwest > southwest > south central > east > northeast > north. The sources of soil Cd are mainly from smelting, mining, waste disposal, fertilizer and pesticide application, and vehicle exhaust, etc. but differentiated in various regions. The soil Cd contamination in urban areas was more serious than contamination in the agricultural areas. Currently, there is no significant non-carcinogenic risk in any of the provinces. Regarding the different exposure pathways, the dermal pathway is the primary source of soil Cd exposure, and the risk associated with this pathway is generally hundreds of times higher than the risk for an ingestion pathway. For most of the provinces, the health risk to the urban population was higher than the risk to the rural population. For each population, the carcinogenic risk was less than 10(-6) in most of the provinces, except for the urban population in the Hunan province. If the other exposure pathways are fully considered, then the people in these areas may have a higher carcinogenic risk. This

  8. Community-Wide Health Risk Assessment Using Geographically Resolved Demographic Data: A Synthetic Population Approach

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Jonathan I.; Fabian, Maria Patricia; Peters, Junenette L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluating environmental health risks in communities requires models characterizing geographic and demographic patterns of exposure to multiple stressors. These exposure models can be constructed from multivariable regression analyses using individual-level predictors (microdata), but these microdata are not typically available with sufficient geographic resolution for community risk analyses given privacy concerns. Methods We developed synthetic geographically-resolved microdata for a low-income community (New Bedford, Massachusetts) facing multiple environmental stressors. We first applied probabilistic reweighting using simulated annealing to data from the 2006–2010 American Community Survey, combining 9,135 microdata samples from the New Bedford area with census tract-level constraints for individual and household characteristics. We then evaluated the synthetic microdata using goodness-of-fit tests and by examining spatial patterns of microdata fields not used as constraints. As a demonstration, we developed a multivariable regression model predicting smoking behavior as a function of individual-level microdata fields using New Bedford-specific data from the 2006–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, linking this model with the synthetic microdata to predict demographic and geographic smoking patterns in New Bedford. Results Our simulation produced microdata representing all 94,944 individuals living in New Bedford in 2006–2010. Variables in the synthetic population matched the constraints well at the census tract level (e.g., ancestry, gender, age, education, household income) and reproduced the census-derived spatial patterns of non-constraint microdata. Smoking in New Bedford was significantly associated with numerous demographic variables found in the microdata, with estimated tract-level smoking rates varying from 20% (95% CI: 17%, 22%) to 37% (95% CI: 30%, 45%). Conclusions We used simulation methods to create geographically

  9. A review of soil cadmium contamination in China including a health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Cui, Xiangfen; Cheng, Hongguang; Chen, Fei; Wang, Jiantong; Zhao, Xinyi; Lin, Chunye; Pu, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most serious soil contaminants in China, and it poses an increasing risk to human health as large amounts of Cd are emitted into the environment. However, knowledge about soil Cd concentrations and the human health risks of these concentrations at a national scale is limited. In this study, we conducted a review of 190 articles about soil Cd concentrations during 2001 to 2010. The study involved 146 cities in China, and we quantified the risks to human health according to different regions. The results showed that elevated Cd levels were present compared to the background value of soil in 1990, and the soil Cd concentrations in the Guangxi province exceeded even the class III Soil Environmental Quality standard, which is the limit for the normal growth of plants. The Chinese soil Cd concentrations ranged from 0.003 mg kg(-1) to 9.57 mg kg(-1). The soil Cd concentrations had the following trend: northwest > southwest > south central > east > northeast > north. The sources of soil Cd are mainly from smelting, mining, waste disposal, fertilizer and pesticide application, and vehicle exhaust, etc. but differentiated in various regions. The soil Cd contamination in urban areas was more serious than contamination in the agricultural areas. Currently, there is no significant non-carcinogenic risk in any of the provinces. Regarding the different exposure pathways, the dermal pathway is the primary source of soil Cd exposure, and the risk associated with this pathway is generally hundreds of times higher than the risk for an ingestion pathway. For most of the provinces, the health risk to the urban population was higher than the risk to the rural population. For each population, the carcinogenic risk was less than 10(-6) in most of the provinces, except for the urban population in the Hunan province. If the other exposure pathways are fully considered, then the people in these areas may have a higher carcinogenic risk. This

  10. Assessment of volatile organic compounds and particulate matter in a dental clinic and health risks to clinic personnel.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yu-Jue; Huang, Yen-Ching; Lee, I-Long; Chiang, Che-Ming; Lin, Chitsan; Jeng, Hueiwang Anna

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess (1) levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) in a dental clinic in southern Taiwan and (2) dental care personnel's health risks associated with due to chronic exposure to VOCs. An automatic, continuous sampling system and a multi-gas monitor were employed to quantify the air pollutants, along with environmental comfort factors, including temperature, CO2, and relative humidity at six sampling sites in the clinic over eight days. Specific VOC compounds were identified and their concentrations were quantified. Both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic VOC compounds were assessed based on the US Environmental Protection Agency's Principles of Health Risk Assessment in terms of whether those indoor air pollutants increased health risks for the full-time dental care professionals at the clinic. Increased levels of VOCs were recorded during business hours and exceeded limits recommended by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency. A total of 68 VOC compounds were identified in the study area. Methylene methacrylate (2.8 ppm) and acetone (0.176 ppm) were the only two non-carcinogenic compounds that posed increased risks for human health, yielding hazard indexes of 16.4 and 4.1, respectively. None of the carcinogenic compounds increased cancer risk. All detected PM10 levels ranged from 20 to 150 μg/m(3), which met the Taiwan EPA and international limits. The average PM10 level during business hours was significantly higher than that during non-business hours (P = 0.04). Improved ventilation capacity in the air conditioning system was recommended to reduce VOCs and PM levels. PMID:26301846

  11. Arsenic toxicity, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis--a health risk assessment and management approach.

    PubMed

    Tchounwou, Paul B; Centeno, Jose A; Patlolla, Anita K

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of published data indicates that arsenic exposure induces cardiovascular diseases, developmental abnormalities, neurologic and neurobehavioral disorders, diabetes, hearing loss, hematologic disorders, and various types of cancer. Although exposure may occur via the dermal, and parenteral routes, the main pathways of exposure include ingestion, and inhalation. The severity of adverse health effects is related to the chemical form of arsenic, and is also time- and dose-dependent. Recent reports have pointed out that arsenic poisoning appears to be one of the major public health problems of pandemic nature. Acute and chronic exposure to arsenic has been reported in several countries of the world where a large proportion of drinking water (groundwater) is contaminated with high concentrations of arsenic. Research has also pointed significantly higher standardized mortality rates for cancers of the bladder, kidney, skin, liver, and colon in many areas of arsenic pollution. There is therefore a great need for developing a comprehensive health risk assessment (RA) concept that should be used by public health officials and environmental managers for an effective management of the health effects associated with arsenic exposure. With a special emphasis on arsenic toxicity, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis, this paper is aimed at using the National Academy of Science's RA framework as a guide, for developing a RA paradigm for arsenic based on a comprehensive analysis of the currently available scientific information on its physical and chemical properties, production and use, fate and transport, toxicokinetics, systemic and carcinogenic health effects, regulatory and health guidelines, analytical guidelines and treatment technologies.

  12. Health risk assessment of inhabitants exposed to PAHs particulate matter in air.

    PubMed

    Froehner, Sandro; Maceno, Marcell; Machado, Karina Scurupa; Grube, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs) was investigated in the particulate matter of samples taken at six sampling sites in the city of Curitiba (southern Brazil). The concentrations of suspended particulate matter ranged from 11.02 to 177.27 ng/m(3). The analysis showed that 14 of the 16 PAHs are considered a priority compound by the USEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). The mixture of PAHs was predominantly composed of PAHs with 3 and 4 aromatic rings. Isomer pair ratios show that the main source of PAHs was from burning fossil fuels (gasoline and diesel oil), although other sources may have contributed also. Benzo(a)pyrene, (BaP), regarded one of the most toxic PAHs, was present in all samples, but with concentrations lower than the maximum concentrations defined by some EU Countries. The risk assessment was conducted using the toxic equivalent factor (TEF) considering the toxicity of the individual PAHs compared to BaP. The BaP(eq) for all samples was between 0.42-1.12 ng/m(3). The equivalent BaP(eq) indicated low health risk associated with exposure to the total PAHs content in air. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) model was used to find the risk level for workers close to the emitting pollution sources. Outdoor exposure showed no risk for the amount of PAHs emitted. The acceptable risk is 10(-6); however, all results were lower than this value. PMID:21644163

  13. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dalin; Yang, Jianping; Liu, Yungang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Xiaowu; Wei, Qinzhi; Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-02-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet little is known regarding the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to MTBE in petrol stations. In this study, 97 petrol station attendants (PSAs) in southern China were recruited for an assessment of the health risk associated with inhalation exposure to MTBE. The personal exposure levels of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS, and the demographic characteristics of the PSAs were investigated. Cancer and non-cancer risks were calculated with the methods recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the exposure levels of MTBE in operating workers were much higher than among support staff (p < 0.01) and both were lower than 50 ppm (an occupational threshold limit value). The calculated cancer risks (CRs) at the investigated petrol stations was 0.170 to 0.240 per 10⁶ for operating workers, and 0.026 to 0.049 per 10⁶ for support staff, which are below the typical target range for risk management of 1 × 10(-6) to 1 × 10(-4); The hazard quotients (HQs) for all subjects were <1. In conclusion, our study indicates that the MTBE exposure of PSAs in southern China is in a low range which does not seem to be a significant health risk. PMID:26861375

  14. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dalin; Yang, Jianping; Liu, Yungang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Xiaowu; Wei, Qinzhi; Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-02-06

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet little is known regarding the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to MTBE in petrol stations. In this study, 97 petrol station attendants (PSAs) in southern China were recruited for an assessment of the health risk associated with inhalation exposure to MTBE. The personal exposure levels of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS, and the demographic characteristics of the PSAs were investigated. Cancer and non-cancer risks were calculated with the methods recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the exposure levels of MTBE in operating workers were much higher than among support staff (p < 0.01) and both were lower than 50 ppm (an occupational threshold limit value). The calculated cancer risks (CRs) at the investigated petrol stations was 0.170 to 0.240 per 10⁶ for operating workers, and 0.026 to 0.049 per 10⁶ for support staff, which are below the typical target range for risk management of 1 × 10(-6) to 1 × 10(-4); The hazard quotients (HQs) for all subjects were <1. In conclusion, our study indicates that the MTBE exposure of PSAs in southern China is in a low range which does not seem to be a significant health risk.

  15. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dalin; Yang, Jianping; Liu, Yungang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Xiaowu; Wei, Qinzhi; Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet  little is known regarding the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to MTBE in petrol stations. In this study, 97 petrol station attendants (PSAs) in southern China were recruited for an assessment of the health risk associated with inhalation exposure to MTBE. The personal exposure levels of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS, and the demographic characteristics of the PSAs were investigated. Cancer and non-cancer risks were calculated with the methods recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the exposure levels of MTBE in operating workers were much higher than among support staff (p < 0.01) and both were lower than 50 ppm (an occupational threshold limit value). The calculated cancer risks (CRs) at the investigated petrol stations was 0.170 to 0.240 per 106 for operating workers, and 0.026 to 0.049 per 106 for support staff, which are below the typical target range for risk management of 1 × 10−6 to 1 × 10−4; The hazard quotients (HQs) for all subjects were <1. In conclusion, our study indicates that the MTBE exposure of PSAs in southern China is in a low range which does not seem to be a significant health risk. PMID:26861375

  16. [Application of ICP-mS in the health risk assessment of heavy metals for drinking water sources in reservoirs].

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Huai-Dong; Gao, Ji-Jun; Zou, Xiao-Wen; Yong, Huang

    2014-05-01

    The six heavy metal concentrations (Cr, Cr, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb) in water samples collected from five reservoirs of Liao River Basin were studied. The health risk assessment for heavy metals pollution in reservoirs was conducted based on the environmental health risk assessment model recommended by U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb in five reservoirs of Liao River Basin were 3.36, 1.03, 2. 70, 1.23, 0. 02 and 0. 03 microg L-1, respectively. In fact, these heavy metals concentrations were obviously lower than the Standard of National Drinking Water in China (GB 5749-2006). The results also showed that the metal carcinogenic risk was relatively high in this region. The order of the risk level of carcinogenic metals was Cr>As>Cd. The highest carcinogenic risk was from Cr, with the risk for adults ranging from 4. 50 X 10(-5) approximately 7. 53 X 10(-5) a-1' and the risk for children ranging from 6. 29 X 10(-5) to 1. 05 X 10(-4) a-1. The health risk levels caused by non-carcinogenic metals ranging from 10-13 to 10(-10) a-1 were lower than the acceptable range suggested by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the order of the risk level of non-carcinogenic metals was Cu>Zn>Pb. The total health risk of heavy metals for adults ranging from 1. 07X 10(-4) to 1. 72X 10(-4) a-1 and for children ranging from 1. 49 X 10(-4) to 2. 40 X 10(-4) a-1 exceeded the accepted level of 5 X 10(-5) a-1 as suggested by ICRP. The health risk levels of carcinogenic metals were significantly higher than those of non-carcinogenic metals in the reservoirs for Liao River Basin.

  17. Health risk assessment for splash parks that use rainwater as source water.

    PubMed

    de Man, H; Bouwknegt, M; van Heijnsbergen, E; Leenen, E J T M; van Knapen, F; de Roda Husman, A M

    2014-05-01

    In the Netherlands, rainwater becomes more and more popular as an economic and environmentally sustainable water source for splash parks, however, the associated public health risk and underlying risk factors are unknown. Since splash parks have been associated with outbreaks of infectious diseases, a quantitative microbial risk assessment was performed using Legionella pneumophila as a target pathogen to quantify the risk of infection for exposure due to inhalation and Campylobacter jejuni for ingestion. Data for L. pneumophila and C. jejuni concentrations in rainfall generated surface runoff from streets were extracted from literature. Data for exposure were obtained by observing 604 people at splash parks, of whom 259 were children. Exposure volumes were estimated using data from literature to determine the volume of exposure through inhalation at 0.394 μL/min (95% CI-range 0.0446-1.27 μL/min), hand-to-mouth contact at 22.6 μL/min, (95% CI-range 2.02-81.0 μL/min), ingestion of water droplets at 94.4 μL/min (95% CI-range 5.1-279 μL/min) and ingestion of mouthfuls of water at 21.5·10(3) μL/min (95% CI-range 1.17 ·10(3)-67.0·10(3) μL/min). The corresponding risk of infection for the mean exposure duration of 3.5 min was 9.3·10(-5) (95% CI-range 0-2.4·10(-4)) for inhalation of L. pneumophila and 3.6·10(-2) (95% CI-range 0-5.3·10(-1)) for ingestion of C. jejuni. This study provided a methodology to quantify exposure volumes using observations on site. We estimated that using rainwater as source water for splash parks may pose a health risk, however, further detailed quantitative microbial analysis is required to confirm this finding. Furthermore we give insight into the effect of water quality standards, which may limit infection risks from exposure at splash parks.

  18. A health risk assessment of reclaimed municipal wastewater for industrial and miscellaneous use.

    PubMed

    Wu, W L; Huang, Y D; Hsu, K E; Wang, Y H; Huang, H H; Hsiung, W C; Chen, S M; Chang, H S; Chu, C P; Chung, Y J; Huang, Y T

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the safety of reclaimed water using health risk assessment and biotoxicity tests. The reclaimed water was produced from reverse osmosis and used in industrial and miscellaneous purposes. The health risk assessment was conducted based on the concentrations of detectable pollutants in reclaimed water in a hypothetical scenario. The estimated carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks are lower than the generally accepted level. Biotoxicity evaluation included three genotoxicity tests, a chronic toxicity test using medaka fishes, and a subchronic toxicity test using mice. The reclaimed water is not genetically toxic, and does not cause significant chronic effects on these model organisms. These results confirm the safety of using reclaimed water from municipal wastewater treatment plants. PMID:25116508

  19. Psychophysiological assessment of stress and screening of health risk in peacekeeping operations.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, Rouja; Aleksiev, Lyubomir; Vukov, Mircho

    2007-01-01

    Medical surveillance for military personnel participating in peacekeeping missions (PKMs) is required to define the effect of stress on health status. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of stress on the autonomic cardiovascular control and health risk of 72 Bulgarian peacekeepers participating in a PKM in Kosovo. The assessment of psychophysiological stress and determination of stress characteristics were implemented with analysis of heart rate variability and personal interviews. As a response to the cumulative exposure to the effect of stress on cognitive function, we observed reductions in parasympathetic function and baroreceptor modulation of heart rhythm. The alteration in cardiovascular control was registered as decreases in short-term variability and spectral powers of cardiointervals in the respiratory sinus arrhythmia and Traube-Hering-Mayer bands. The advantage of psychophysiological stress assessment and screening of health risk in PKMs is that results indicate the mechanisms of the effects of stress on cognitive function and health status. PMID:17274265

  20. Health risks for the population living in the vicinity of an Integrated Waste Management Facility: screening environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L; Rovira, Joaquim; Vilavert, Lolita; Nadal, Martí; Figueras, María J; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2015-06-15

    We performed a screening investigation to assess the human health risks of the Integrated Waste Management Facility (IWMF: mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plant plus municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI); Ecoparc-3) of Barcelona (Spain). Air concentrations of pollutants potentially released by the MBT plant (VOCs and bioaerosols) and the MSWI (trace elements, PCDD/Fs and PCBs) were determined. Trace elements, PCDD/Fs and PCBs were also analyzed in soil samples. The concentrations of trace elements and bioaerosols were similar to those previously reported in other areas of similar characteristics, while formaldehyde was the predominant VOC. Interestingly, PCDD/F concentrations in soil and air were the highest ever reported near a MSWI in Catalonia, being maximum concentrations 10.8 ng WHO-TEQ/kg and 41.3 fg WHO-TEQ/m(3), respectively. In addition, there has not been any reduction in soils, even after the closure of a power plant located adjacently. Human health risks of PCDD/F exposure in the closest urban nucleus located downwind the MSWI are up to 10-times higher than those nearby other MSWIs in Catalonia. Although results must be considered as very preliminary, they are a serious warning for local authorities. We strongly recommend to conduct additional studies to confirm these findings and, if necessary, to implement measures to urgently mitigate the impact of the MSWI on the surrounding environment. We must also state the tremendous importance of an individual evaluation of MSWIs, rather than generalizing their environmental and health risks. PMID:25770949

  1. Municipal solid waste management health risk assessment from air emissions for China by applying life cycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Nitivattananon, Vilas; Li, Peng

    2015-05-01

    This study is to quantify and objectively evaluate the extent of environmental health risks from three waste treatment options suggested by the national municipal solid waste management enhancing strategy (No [2011] 9 of the State Council, promulgated on 19 April 2011), which includes sanitary landfill, waste-to-energy incineration and compost, together with the material recovery facility through a case study in Zhangqiu City of China. It addresses potential chronic health risks from air emissions to residential receptors in the impacted area. It combines field survey, analogue survey, design documents and life cycle inventory methods in defining the source strength of chemicals of potential concern. The modelling of life cycle inventory and air dispersion is via integrated waste management(IWM)-2 and Screening Air Dispersion Model (Version 3.0) (SCREEN3). The health risk assessment is in accordance with United States Environmental Protection Agency guidance Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part F, Supplemental Guidance for Inhalation Risk Assessment). The exposure concentration is based on long-term exposure to the maximum ground level contaminant in air under the 'reasonable worst situation' emissions and then directly compared with reference for concentration and unit risk factor/cancer slope factor derived from the national air quality standard (for a conventional pollutant) and toxicological studies (for a specific pollutant). Results from this study suggest that the option of compost with material recovery facility treatment may pose less negative health impacts than other options; the sensitivity analysis shows that the landfill integrated waste management collection rate has a great influence on the impact results. Further investigation is needed to validate or challenge the findings of this study.

  2. Municipal solid waste management health risk assessment from air emissions for China by applying life cycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Nitivattananon, Vilas; Li, Peng

    2015-05-01

    This study is to quantify and objectively evaluate the extent of environmental health risks from three waste treatment options suggested by the national municipal solid waste management enhancing strategy (No [2011] 9 of the State Council, promulgated on 19 April 2011), which includes sanitary landfill, waste-to-energy incineration and compost, together with the material recovery facility through a case study in Zhangqiu City of China. It addresses potential chronic health risks from air emissions to residential receptors in the impacted area. It combines field survey, analogue survey, design documents and life cycle inventory methods in defining the source strength of chemicals of potential concern. The modelling of life cycle inventory and air dispersion is via integrated waste management(IWM)-2 and Screening Air Dispersion Model (Version 3.0) (SCREEN3). The health risk assessment is in accordance with United States Environmental Protection Agency guidance Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part F, Supplemental Guidance for Inhalation Risk Assessment). The exposure concentration is based on long-term exposure to the maximum ground level contaminant in air under the 'reasonable worst situation' emissions and then directly compared with reference for concentration and unit risk factor/cancer slope factor derived from the national air quality standard (for a conventional pollutant) and toxicological studies (for a specific pollutant). Results from this study suggest that the option of compost with material recovery facility treatment may pose less negative health impacts than other options; the sensitivity analysis shows that the landfill integrated waste management collection rate has a great influence on the impact results. Further investigation is needed to validate or challenge the findings of this study. PMID:25908094

  3. Perceptions and experiences of environmental health risks among new mothers: a qualitative study in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Crighton, E. J.; Brown, C.; Baxter, J.; Lemyre, L.; Masuda, J.R.; Ursitti, F.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing awareness and concern in contemporary societies about potential health impacts of environmental contaminants on children. Mothers are traditionally more involved than other family members in managing family health and household decisions and thus targeted by public health campaigns to minimise risks. However little is known about how new mothers perceive and experience environmental health risks to their children. In 2010, we undertook a parallel case study using qualitative, in-depth interviews with new mothers and focus groups with public health key informants in two Public Health Units in Ontario Province, Canada. We found that the concern about environmental hazards among participants ranged from having no concerns to actively incorporating prevention into daily life. Overall, there was a common perception among participants that many risks, particularly in the indoor environment, were controllable and therefore of little concern. But environmental risks that originate outside the home were viewed as less controllable and more threatening. In response to such threats, mothers invoked coping strategies such as relying on the capacity of children's bodies to adapt. Regardless of the strategies adopted, actions (or inactions) were contingent upon active information seeking. We also found an optimistic bias in which new mothers reported that other children were at greater risk despite similar environmental circumstances. The findings suggest that risk communication experts must attend to the social and environmental contexts of risk and coping when designing strategies around risk reducing behaviours. PMID:23805055

  4. Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Airborne Heavy Metals Collected from Beijing Bus Stations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Wenji; Yan, Xing; Shu, Tongtong; Xiong, Qiulin; Chen, Fantao

    2015-08-17

    Airborne dust, which contains high levels of toxic metals, is recognized as one of the most harmful environment component. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals pollution in dustfall from bus stations in Beijing, and to perform a risk assessment analysis for adult passengers. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The spatial distribution, pollution level and potential health risk of heavy metals were analyzed by Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping technology, geo-accumulation index and health risk assessment model, respectively. The results indicate that dust samples have elevated metal concentrations, especially for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The nine metals can be divided into two categories in terms of spatial distribution and pollution level. Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn reach contaminated level and have similar spatial patterns with hotspots distributed within the Fifth Ring Road. While the hot spot areas of Co and V are always out of the Fifth Ring Road. Health risk assessment shows that both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of selected metals were within the safe range.

  5. Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Airborne Heavy Metals Collected from Beijing Bus Stations

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Wenji; Yan, Xing; Shu, Tongtong; Xiong, Qiulin; Chen, Fantao

    2015-01-01

    Airborne dust, which contains high levels of toxic metals, is recognized as one of the most harmful environment component. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals pollution in dustfall from bus stations in Beijing, and to perform a risk assessment analysis for adult passengers. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The spatial distribution, pollution level and potential health risk of heavy metals were analyzed by Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping technology, geo-accumulation index and health risk assessment model, respectively. The results indicate that dust samples have elevated metal concentrations, especially for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The nine metals can be divided into two categories in terms of spatial distribution and pollution level. Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn reach contaminated level and have similar spatial patterns with hotspots distributed within the Fifth Ring Road. While the hot spot areas of Co and V are always out of the Fifth Ring Road. Health risk assessment shows that both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of selected metals were within the safe range. PMID:26287229

  6. Combining spatial distribution with oral bioaccessibility of metals in smelter-impacted soils: implications for human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pelfrêne, Aurélie; Détriché, Sébastien; Douay, Francis

    2015-02-01

    Geostatistical analysis and GIS-based spatial mapping have been widely used for risk assessment of environmental pollution. The objectives of this study were to: (1) investigate the spatial variability of pseudototal concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn; (2) estimate the degree of contamination on the basis of pollution indexes; and (3) combine geostatistical analysis with oral bioaccessibility to better assess the population's exposure to metals in smelter-impacted soils. Implications for human health risks were assessed by considering soil as a contaminant source, a release mechanism of contaminated soil to the hands, ingestion as an exposure route, and metal bioaccessibility. The bioaccessibility data in the gastric (G) and gastrointestinal (GI) phases were integrated into the standard hazard quotient-based risk assessment method. Using pollution indices showed that the entire area studied was highly polluted in terms of soil metal concentrations. However, the spatial pattern of health risk levels did not coincide with the spatial distribution of the degree of soil contamination. Introducing the bioaccessible fraction of metals from soils into the exposure calculations resulted in a substantial decrease in calculated risk (HI, hazard index) and provided a more realistic estimate of exposure to the three metals. For the highly exposed population, 46% of the soils studied provided an HI-G > 1.0 and 15% provided an HI-GI > 1.0, suggesting probable adverse health effects in children. The present study highlights the importance of conducting studies taking into account metal bioaccessible values in risk assessment.

  7. Trace elements contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shao-You; Zhang, Hui-Min; Sojinu, Samuel O; Liu, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Qing; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2015-01-01

    The levels of seven essential trace elements (Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, and Mo) and six non-essential trace elements (Cr, As, Cd, Sb, Hg, and Pb) in a total of 89 drinking water samples collected in Shenzhen, China were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the present study. Both the essential and non-essential trace elements were frequently detectable in the different kinds of drinking waters assessed. Remarkable temporal and spatial variations were observed among most of the trace elements in the tap water collected from two tap water treatment plants. Meanwhile, potential human health risk from these non-essential trace elements in the drinking water for local residents was also assessed. The median values of cancer risks associated with exposure to carcinogenic metals via drinking water consumption were estimated to be 6.1 × 10(-7), 2.1 × 10(-8), and 2.5 × 10(-7) for As, Cd, and Cr, respectively; the median values of incremental lifetime for non-cancer risks were estimated to be 6.1 × 10(-6), 4.4 × 10(-5), and 2.2 × 10(-5) for Hg, Pb, and Sb, respectively. The median value of total incremental lifetime health risk induced by the six non-essential trace elements for the population was 3.5 × 10(-5), indicating that the potential health risks from non-carcinogenic trace elements in drinking water also require some attention. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the most important factor for health risk assessment should be the levels of heavy metal in drinking water.

  8. The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessment: benzene case study.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Scott M; Angerer, Juergen; Boogaard, Peter J; Hughes, Michael F; O'Lone, Raegan B; Robison, Steven H; Schnatter, A Robert

    2013-02-01

    Abstract A framework of "Common Criteria" (i.e. a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. The data-rich chemical benzene was selected for use in a case study to assess whether refinement of the Common Criteria framework was necessary, and to gain additional perspective on approaches for integrating biomonitoring data into a risk-based context. The available data for benzene satisfied most of the Common Criteria and allowed for a risk-based evaluation of the benzene biomonitoring data. In general, biomarker (blood benzene, urinary benzene and urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid) central tendency (i.e. mean, median and geometric mean) concentrations for non-smokers are at or below the predicted blood or urine concentrations that would correspond to exposure at the US Environmental Protection Agency reference concentration (30 µg/m(3)), but greater than blood or urine concentrations relating to the air concentration at the 1 × 10(-5) excess cancer risk (2.9 µg/m(3)). Smokers clearly have higher levels of benzene exposure, and biomarker levels of benzene for non-smokers are generally consistent with ambient air monitoring results. While some biomarkers of benzene are specific indicators of exposure, the interpretation of benzene biomonitoring levels in a health-risk context are complicated by issues associated with short half-lives and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between the biomarkers and subsequent toxic effects.

  9. The use of biomonitoring data in exposure and human health risk assessment: benzene case study

    PubMed Central

    Angerer, Juergen; Boogaard, Peter J.; Hughes, Michael F.; O’Lone, Raegan B.; Robison, Steven H.; Robert Schnatter, A.

    2013-01-01

    A framework of “Common Criteria” (i.e. a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. The data-rich chemical benzene was selected for use in a case study to assess whether refinement of the Common Criteria framework was necessary, and to gain additional perspective on approaches for integrating biomonitoring data into a risk-based context. The available data for benzene satisfied most of the Common Criteria and allowed for a risk-based evaluation of the benzene biomonitoring data. In general, biomarker (blood benzene, urinary benzene and urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid) central tendency (i.e. mean, median and geometric mean) concentrations for non-smokers are at or below the predicted blood or urine concentrations that would correspond to exposure at the US Environmental Protection Agency reference concentration (30 µg/m3), but greater than blood or urine concentrations relating to the air concentration at the 1 × 10−5 excess cancer risk (2.9 µg/m3). Smokers clearly have higher levels of benzene exposure, and biomarker levels of benzene for non-smokers are generally consistent with ambient air monitoring results. While some biomarkers of benzene are specific indicators of exposure, the interpretation of benzene biomonitoring levels in a health-risk context are complicated by issues associated with short half-lives and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between the biomarkers and subsequent toxic effects. PMID:23346981

  10. Benzothiazole toxicity assessment in support of synthetic turf field human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Gary; Toal, Brian; Kurland, Tara

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic turf fields cushioned with crumb rubber may be a source of chemical exposure to those playing on the fields. Benzothiazole (BZT) may volatilize from crumb rubber and result in inhalation exposure. Benzothiazole has been the primary rubber-related chemical found in synthetic turf studies. However, risks associated with BZT have not been thoroughly assessed, primarily because of gaps in the database. This assessment provides toxicity information for a human health risk assessment involving BZT detected at five fields in Connecticut. BZT exerts acute toxicity and is a respiratory irritant and dermal sensitizer. In a genetic toxicity assay BZT was positive in Salmonella in the presence of metabolic activation. BZT metabolism involves ring-opening and formation of aromatic hydroxylamines, metabolites with mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. A structural analogue 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (2-MBZT) was more widely tested and so is used as a surrogate for some endpoints. 2-MBZT is a rodent carcinogen with rubber industry data supporting an association with human bladder cancer. The following BZT toxicity values were derived: (1) acute air target of 110 μg/m(3) based upon a BZT RD(50) study in mice relative to results for formaldehyde; (2) a chronic noncancer target of 18 μg/m(3) based upon the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) in a subchronic dietary study in rats, dose route extrapolation, and uncertainty factors that combine to 1000; (3) a cancer unit risk of 1.8E-07/μg-m(3) based upon a published oral slope factor for 2-MBZT and dose-route extrapolation. While there are numerous uncertainties in the BZT toxicology database, this assessment enables BZT to be quantitatively assessed in risk assessments involving synthetic turf fields. However, this is only a screening-level assessment, and research that better defines BZT potency is needed.

  11. Integrated frameworks for assessing and managing health risks in the context of managed aquifer recharge with river water.

    PubMed

    Assmuth, Timo; Simola, Antti; Pitkänen, Tarja; Lyytimäki, Jari; Huttula, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Integrated assessment and management of water resources for the supply of potable water is increasingly important in light of projected water scarcity in many parts of the world. This article develops frameworks for regional-level waterborne human health risk assessment of chemical and microbiological contamination to aid water management, incorporating economic aspects of health risks. Managed aquifer recharge with surface water from a river in Southern Finland is used as an illustrative case. With a starting point in watershed governance, stakeholder concerns, and value-at-risk concepts, we merge common methods for integrative health risk analysis of contaminants to describe risks and impacts dynamically and broadly. This involves structuring analyses along the risk chain: sources-releases-environmental transport and fate-exposures-health effects-socio-economic impacts-management responses. Risks attributed to contaminants are embedded in other risks, such as contaminants from other sources, and related to benefits from improved water quality. A set of models along this risk chain in the case is presented. Fundamental issues in the assessment are identified, including 1) framing of risks, scenarios, and choices; 2) interaction of models and empirical information; 3) time dimension; 4) distributions of risks and benefits; and 5) uncertainties about risks and controls. We find that all these combine objective and subjective aspects, and involve value judgments and policy choices. We conclude with proposals for overcoming conceptual and functional divides and lock-ins to improve modeling, assessment, and management of complex water supply schemes, especially by reflective solution-oriented interdisciplinary and multi-actor deliberation. PMID:25953621

  12. Integrated frameworks for assessing and managing health risks in the context of managed aquifer recharge with river water.

    PubMed

    Assmuth, Timo; Simola, Antti; Pitkänen, Tarja; Lyytimäki, Jari; Huttula, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Integrated assessment and management of water resources for the supply of potable water is increasingly important in light of projected water scarcity in many parts of the world. This article develops frameworks for regional-level waterborne human health risk assessment of chemical and microbiological contamination to aid water management, incorporating economic aspects of health risks. Managed aquifer recharge with surface water from a river in Southern Finland is used as an illustrative case. With a starting point in watershed governance, stakeholder concerns, and value-at-risk concepts, we merge common methods for integrative health risk analysis of contaminants to describe risks and impacts dynamically and broadly. This involves structuring analyses along the risk chain: sources-releases-environmental transport and fate-exposures-health effects-socio-economic impacts-management responses. Risks attributed to contaminants are embedded in other risks, such as contaminants from other sources, and related to benefits from improved water quality. A set of models along this risk chain in the case is presented. Fundamental issues in the assessment are identified, including 1) framing of risks, scenarios, and choices; 2) interaction of models and empirical information; 3) time dimension; 4) distributions of risks and benefits; and 5) uncertainties about risks and controls. We find that all these combine objective and subjective aspects, and involve value judgments and policy choices. We conclude with proposals for overcoming conceptual and functional divides and lock-ins to improve modeling, assessment, and management of complex water supply schemes, especially by reflective solution-oriented interdisciplinary and multi-actor deliberation.

  13. Acrylamide in Romanian food using HPLC-UV and a health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Oroian, Mircea; Amariei, Sonia; Gutt, Gheorghe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of acrylamide from coffee, potato chips and French fries in Romanian food. According to the European Food Safety Authority, coffee beans, potato chips and French fries have the highest levels of acrylamide. For this survey, 50 samples of coffee beans, 50 samples of potato chips and 25 samples of French fries were purchased from different producers from the Romanian market. Acrylamide levels have been quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method, using water as mobile phase. Health risk assessment was achieved by computing the average daily intake, hazard quotient, cumulative risk, carcinogenic risk and cancer risk. For coffee, potato chips and French fries, acrylamide was not shown to pose a health risk in Romanian food. PMID:25753750

  14. Acrylamide in Romanian food using HPLC-UV and a health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Oroian, Mircea; Amariei, Sonia; Gutt, Gheorghe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of acrylamide from coffee, potato chips and French fries in Romanian food. According to the European Food Safety Authority, coffee beans, potato chips and French fries have the highest levels of acrylamide. For this survey, 50 samples of coffee beans, 50 samples of potato chips and 25 samples of French fries were purchased from different producers from the Romanian market. Acrylamide levels have been quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method, using water as mobile phase. Health risk assessment was achieved by computing the average daily intake, hazard quotient, cumulative risk, carcinogenic risk and cancer risk. For coffee, potato chips and French fries, acrylamide was not shown to pose a health risk in Romanian food.

  15. Diagnostic health risk assessment of electronic waste on the general population in developing countries' scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Frazzoli, Chiara; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Dragone, Roberto; Mantovani, Alberto

    2010-11-15

    E-waste is the generic name for technological waste. Even though aspects related to e-waste environmental pollution and human exposure are known, scientific assessments are missing so far on the actual risks for health sustainability of the general population exposed to e-waste scenarios, such as illicit dumping, crude recycling and improper treatment and disposal. In fact, further to occupational and direct local exposure, e-waste scenarios may impact on the environment-to-food chain, thus eliciting a widespread and repeated exposure of the general population to mixtures of toxicants, mainly toxic chemical elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants. In the absence of any clear policy on e-waste flow management, the situation in the e-waste receiver countries may become quite scary; accordingly, here we address a diagnostic risk assessment of health issues potentially elicited by e-waste related mixtures of toxicants. Scientific evidence available so far (mainly from China) is discussed with special attention to the concept of health sustainability, i.e. the poor health burden heritage perpetuated through the mother-to-child dyad. Endocrine disruption and neurotoxicity are specifically considered as examples of main health burden issues relevant to perpetuation through life cycle and across generations; toxicological information are considered along with available data on environmental and food contamination and human internal exposure. The risk from exposure to e-waste related mixtures of toxicants of vulnerable subpopulation like breast-fed infants is given special attention. The diagnostic risk assessment demonstrates how e-waste exposure poses an actual public health emergency, as it may entrain significant health risks also for generations to come. Exposure scenarios as well as specific chemicals of major concern may vary in different contexts; for instance, only limited information is available on e-waste related exposures in

  16. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hang; Yang, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Li; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Wang, Wen-Lei; Zou, Jia-Ling; Tian, Tao; Peng, Pei-Qin; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As). The target hazard quotient (THQ) method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables) were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables) were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion. PMID:26959043

  17. Source apportionment and health risk assessment of trace metals in surface soils of Beijing metropolitan, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Wu, Jin; Wang, Jinsheng

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the exposure risks of trace metals in contamination soils and apportioning their sources are the basic preconditions for soil pollution prevention and control. In this study, a detailed investigation was conducted to assess the health risks of trace metals in surface soils of Beijing which is one of the most populated cities in the world and to apportion their potential sources. The data set of metals for 12 elements in 240 soil samples was collected. Pollution index and enrichment factor were used to identify the general contamination characteristic of soil metals. The probabilistic risk model was employed for health risk assessment, and a chemometrics technique, multivariate curve resolution-weighted alternating least squares (MCR-WALS), was applied to apportion sources. Results suggested that the soils in Beijing metropolitan region were contaminated by Hg, Cd, Cu, As, and Pb in varying degree, lying in the moderate pollution level. As a whole, the health risks posed by soil metals were acceptable or close to tolerable. Comparatively speaking, children and adult females were the relatively vulnerable populations for the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks, respectively. Atmospheric deposition, fertilizers and agrochemicals, and natural source were apportioned as the potential sources determining the contents of trace metals in soils of Beijing area with contributions of 15.5%-16.4%, 5.9%-7.7% and 76.0%-78.6%, respectively.

  18. Source apportionment and health risk assessment of trace metals in surface soils of Beijing metropolitan, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Wu, Jin; Wang, Jinsheng

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the exposure risks of trace metals in contamination soils and apportioning their sources are the basic preconditions for soil pollution prevention and control. In this study, a detailed investigation was conducted to assess the health risks of trace metals in surface soils of Beijing which is one of the most populated cities in the world and to apportion their potential sources. The data set of metals for 12 elements in 240 soil samples was collected. Pollution index and enrichment factor were used to identify the general contamination characteristic of soil metals. The probabilistic risk model was employed for health risk assessment, and a chemometrics technique, multivariate curve resolution-weighted alternating least squares (MCR-WALS), was applied to apportion sources. Results suggested that the soils in Beijing metropolitan region were contaminated by Hg, Cd, Cu, As, and Pb in varying degree, lying in the moderate pollution level. As a whole, the health risks posed by soil metals were acceptable or close to tolerable. Comparatively speaking, children and adult females were the relatively vulnerable populations for the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks, respectively. Atmospheric deposition, fertilizers and agrochemicals, and natural source were apportioned as the potential sources determining the contents of trace metals in soils of Beijing area with contributions of 15.5%-16.4%, 5.9%-7.7% and 76.0%-78.6%, respectively. PMID:26439517

  19. Characterization of heavy-metal-contaminated sediment by using unsupervised multivariate techniques and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yeuh-Bin; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Wang, Sheng-Wei

    2015-03-01

    This study characterized the sediment quality of the severely contaminated Erjen River in Taiwan by using multivariate analysis methods-including factor analysis (FA), self-organizing maps (SOMs), and positive matrix factorization (PMF)-and health risk assessment. The SOMs classified the dataset with similar heavy-metal-contaminated sediment into five groups. FA extracted three major factors-traditional electroplating and metal-surface processing factor, nontraditional heavy-metal-industry factor, and natural geological factor-which accounted for 80.8% of the variance. The SOMs and FA revealed the heavy-metal-contaminated-sediment hotspots in the middle and upper reaches of the major tributary in the dry season. The hazardous index value for health risk via ingestion was 0.302. PMF further qualified the source apportionment, indicating that traditional electroplating and metal-surface-processing industries comprised 47% of the health risk posed by heavy-metal-contaminated sediment. Contaminants discharged from traditional electroplating and metal-surface-processing industries in the middle and upper reaches of the major tributary must be eliminated first to improve the sediment quality in Erjen River. The proposed assessment framework for heavy-metal-contaminated sediment can be applied to contaminated-sediment river sites in other regions.

  20. [Preliminary health risk assessment of heavy metals in drinking waters in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Gao, Ji-jun; Zhang, Li-ping; Huang, Sheng-biao; Ma, Mei; Wang, Zi-jian

    2004-03-01

    Concentrations distribution of the Cu, Hg, Cd, As in drinking water in the 8 city districts and 10 counties in Beijing was studied based on a total of 120 random samples. Health risks associated with 4 metals in drinking water were assessed using USEPA health risk assessment model. The results showed that the concentrations of the heavy metals in drinking water in Beijing ranged from 0.81 to 6.96 micrograms.L-1 for Cu, 0.34-0.82 microgram.L-1 for Cd, 0.10-0.74 microgram.L-1 for Hg and 0.19-3.02 micrograms.L-1 for As. Among the health risks caused by the carcinogens in drinking water, the largest risk associated with As should be in Tongzhou County (2.0 x 10(-5).a-1) and that with Cd should be in Changping County (2.3 x 10(-6).a-1), while both were significantly lower than the maximum allowance levels recommended by ICRP(5 x 10(-5).a-1). Among the non-carcinogenic risks in drinking water, the largest risk was the risk associated with Hg, followed by Cu. The non-carcinogenic risks levels ranged from 10(-8) to 10(-9), much lower than the maximum allowance levels recommended by ICRP. PMID:15202233

  1. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hang; Yang, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Li; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Wang, Wen-Lei; Zou, Jia-Ling; Tian, Tao; Peng, Pei-Qin; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-03-04

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As). The target hazard quotient (THQ) method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables) were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables) were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion.

  2. Chemical speciation of trace metals emitted from Indonesian peat fires for health risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betha, Raghu; Pradani, Maharani; Lestari, Puji; Joshi, Umid Man; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2013-03-01

    Regional smoke-induced haze in Southeast Asia, caused by uncontrolled forest and peat fires in Indonesia, is of major environmental and health concern. In this study, we estimated carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risk due to exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) as emitted from peat fires at Kalimantan, Indonesia. For the health risk analysis, chemical speciation (exchangeable, reducible, oxidizable, and residual fractions) of 12 trace metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn) in PM2.5 was studied. Results indicate that Al, Fe and Ti together accounted for a major fraction of total metal concentrations (~ 83%) in PM2.5 emissions in the immediate vicinity of peat fires. Chemical speciation reveals that a major proportion of most of the metals, with the exception of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni and Cd, was present in the residual fraction. The exchangeable fraction of metals, which represents their bioavailability, could play a major role in inducing human health effects of PM2.5. This fraction contained carcinogenic metals such as Cd (39.2 ng m- 3) and Ni (249.3 ng m- 3) that exceeded their WHO guideline values by several factors. Health risk estimates suggest that exposure to PM2.5 emissions in the vicinity of peat fires poses serious health threats.

  3. Rapid health-risk assessment of effluent irrigation on an Australian university campus.

    PubMed

    Derry, Chris; Attwater, Roger; Booth, Sandy

    2006-03-01

    Rapid health-risk assessment of chlorinated sewage-effluent irrigation of lawns, fields and crops adjacent to populated areas at the University of Western Sydney was carried out in response to warnings from the supplying authority of deteriorating bacteriological quality of the water. Irrigation with low-quality effluent offered potential for the contamination of a range of foodstuffs and the exposure of staff, students and visitors. The need for early investigation was emphasised by eutrophication presenting as sudden algal bloom in one of the campus dams and an odour suggestive of anaerobic proteolysis on irrigation. No baseline data existed regarding improvement or deterioration in water quality with passage through the dams, or relating to potential for direct or indirect exposure. The assessment design incorporated three methodologies to generate biophysical, environmental and social data. Environmental and social data were used to augment short-term data for biophysical indicators in the estimation of risk. Where required qualitative information was converted to quantitative data using categorical ranking tables, and risk evaluation was carried out using ranked risk and uncertainty values. Results for biophysical indicators showed a steady improvement in water quality with passage through campus dams, emphasising a need to regard the impoundments as part of a treatment chain, rather than as passive storage units. Effluent quality at most irrigation sites marginally exceeded regional action thresholds for relevant crop types, suggesting a need for risk management through revised irrigation practice, system design, distribution management and risk communication. Problems requiring urgent intervention included the concentration of contaminants of bovine faecal origin in one dam as the result of a closed loop within the reticulation. Also of concern was the exposure of certain most susceptible individuals including crèche children who visited pasture land and

  4. [The methods of assessment of health risk from exposure to radon and radon daughters].

    PubMed

    Demin, V F; Zhukovskiy, M V; Kiselev, S M

    2014-01-01

    The critical analysis of existing models of the relationship dose-effect (RDE) for radon exposure on human health has been performed. Conclusion about the necessity and possibility of improving these models has been made. A new improved version ofthe RDE has been developed. A technique for assessing the human health risk of exposure to radon, including the method for estimating of exposure doses of radon, an improved model of RDE, proper methodology risk assessment has been described. Methodology is proposed for the use in the territory of Russia.

  5. Association between Aluminum and Silicon Concentrations in Isfahan Drinking Water and Their Health Risk Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Pourgheysari, Hajar; Hajizadeh, Yaghoub; Tarrahi, Mohammad Javad; Ebrahimi, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    Background: High concentrations of elements such as aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) in drinking water can affect human health. It is suggested that high daily intake of Al is associated with increased risk of neurodegenerative disorders. Si, as an antidote of Al, may decrease Al bioavailability. The study was conducted to estimate Al and Si concentration and correlation in water and evaluate their health risk. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, water samples were collected from 20 points of water distribution system and the water treatment plant of Isfahan in spring and summer. Samples were analyzed using DR-5000. The health risk was evaluated via calculating chronic daily intake (CDI) and hazard index (HI). Results: Significant negative correlation was documented between Al and Si (R = −0.482, P = 0.037 in spring, and R = −0.452, P = 0.049 in summer). These values were approximately similar in all types of Al and Si. The amounts of CDI for Al in spring and summer were 6.67E-04 and 0.002 mg/kg/day, respectively. The Al HI values were below 1 in both seasons. Conclusions: The significant correlation between Al and Si concentrations suggests that Si can eliminate Al in water, and probably it might do the same in the body. The health risk of Al intake from tap water was negligible, it was assessed in an acceptable range with an HI value of less than the standard levels. The health risk of Si remained unknown due to lack of information regarding its toxicity and adverse health effects. PMID:26682032

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in multimedia environment of Heshan coal district, Guangxi: distribution, source diagnosis and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huan-Fang; Xing, Xin-Li; Zhang, Ze-Zhou; Qi, Shi-Hua; Yang, Dan; Yuen, Dave A; Sandy, Edward H; Zhou, Ai-Guo; Li, Xiao-Qian

    2016-10-01

    Mining activities are among the major culprits of the wide occurrences of soil and water pollution by PAHs in coal district, which have resulted in ecological fragilities and health risk for local residents. Sixteen PAHs in multimedia environment from the Heshan coal district of Guangxi, South China, were measured, aiming to investigate the contamination level, distribution and possible sources and to estimate the potential health risks of PAHs. The average concentrations of 16 PAHs in the coal, coal gangue, soil, surface water and groundwater were 5114.56, 4551.10, 1280.12 ng g(-1), 426.98 and 381.20 ng L(-1), respectively. Additionally, higher soil and water PAH concentrations were detected in the vicinities of coal or coal gangue dump. Composition analysis, isomeric ratio, Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis were performed to diagnose the potential sources of PAHs in different environmental matrices, suggesting the dominant inputs of PAHs from coal/coal combustion and coal gangue in the soil and water. Soil and water guidelines and the incremental lifetime risk (ICLR) were used to assess the health risk, showing that soil and water were heavily contaminated by PAHs, and mean ICLRcoal/coal-gangue and mean ICLRsoil were both significantly higher than the acceptable levels (1 × 10(-4)), posing high potential carcinogenic risk to residents, especially coal workers. This study highlights the environmental pollution problems and public health concerns of coal mining, particularly the potential occupational health hazards of coal miners exposed in Heshan.

  7. From Cancer to Diarrhea: The Moving Target of Public Concern about Environmental Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Morrone, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Public concern about the environment can be unpredictable because it is influenced by numerous factors. Environmental health issues often emerge as important because the public is worried about their health especially when it comes to cancer. Public fear of cancer from environmental exposures is reinforced by many of the US regulations that set pollutant limits based on reducing the risk of cancers rather than other health outcomes. While fear of cancer will never dissipate, recent foodborne outbreaks are contributing to raising public awareness of the health effects from microbes. This paper adds to the dialogue about the challenges of enhancing public understanding of environmental health issues. Internal factors, such as worry, that contribute to public outrage are sometimes more important than external factors such as the media. In addition, relying on the media to inform the public about imminent public health risks may be an ineffective approach to enhancing understanding. In the end, scientists and risk communicators are forced to compete with politicians who are often very effective at manipulating public understanding of risk. PMID:22174587

  8. [Application and benefit evaluation of tiered health risk assessment approach on site contaminated by benzene].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lin; Zhong, Mao-Sheng; Liang, Jin; Yao, Jue-Jun; Xia, Tian-Xiang; Fan, Yan-Ling; Li, Jing-Dong; Tang, Zheng-Qiang

    2013-03-01

    The procedures of implementing tiered health risk assessment approach were introduced in detail, and took a large-scale site polluted by benzene in Beijing as an example, the difference on the remediation target of benzene in soil, as well as the corresponding soil remediation volume and costs, were compared. The results indicate that the benzene concentration in soil within 1.5 m in depth and the one below should be remediated to 0.26 mg x kg(-1) and 0.15 mg x kg(-1), respectively, in order to keep the cumulative carcinogenic health risk below 1 x 10(-6) based on tiered II assessment. However, according to tiered III assessment result, which is based on the benzene in soil gas within the contaminated areas in the investigated site, the soil in the corresponding depth should only be remediated to 2.6 mg x kg(-1) and 1.5 mg x kg(-1), respectively. That means the soil remediation volume delimited on tiered III assessment result is less than the one on tiered II by 139 537 m3 and the corresponding remediation costs will be reduced by 57 million Yuan, meaning the enormous economic benefits compared to the costs (around 100 thousands Yuan) spent to carry out tiered III assessment in the site.

  9. Health risk assessment of heavy metals and metalloid in drinking water from communities near gold mines in Tarkwa, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Akoto, Osei; Baidoo, Elvis; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-07-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals and metalloid in borehole drinking water from 18 communities in Tarkwa, Ghana, were measured to assess the health risk associated with its consumption. Mean concentrations of heavy metals (μg/L) exceeded recommended values in some communities. If we take into consideration the additive effect of heavy metals and metalloid, then oral hazard index (HI) results raise concerns about the noncarcinogenic adverse health effects of drinking groundwater in Huniso. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) guidelines, HI values indicating noncarcinogenic health risk for adults and children in Huniso were 0.781 (low risk) and 1.08 (medium risk), respectively. The cancer risk due to cadmium (Cd) exposure in adults and children in the sampled communities was very low. However, the average risk values of arsenic (As) for adults and children through drinking borehole water in the communities indicated medium cancer risk, but high cancer risk in some communities such as Samahu and Mile 7. Based on the USEPA assessment, the average cancer risk values of As for adults (3.65E-05) and children (5.08E-05) indicated three (adults) and five (children) cases of neoplasm in a hundred thousand inhabitants. The results of this study showed that residents in Tarkwa who use and drink water from boreholes could be at serious risk from exposure to these heavy metals and metalloid.

  10. Environmental assessment.

    PubMed

    Narayan, M C; Tennant, J

    1997-11-01

    The significance, standard elements, components, and documentation of an environmental assessment in home care are discussed. This assessment is delineated within Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and from a functional perspective. An Environmental Assessment Form that can be used as a documentation tool is included.

  11. Health-risk assessment of chemical contamination in Puget Sound seafood. Final report 1985-1988

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, L.

    1988-09-01

    This report provides resource management and health agencies with a general indication of the magnitude of potential human health risks associated with consumption of recreationally harvested seafoods from Puget Sound. Data collection and evaluation focused on a variety of metal and organic contaminants in fish, shellfish and edible seaweeds from 22 locations in the Sound. EPA risk assessment techniques were used to characterize risks to average and high consumer groups for both carcinogens and noncarcinogens. Theoretical risks associated with consumption of both average and high quantities of Puget Sound seafood appear to be comparable to or substantially less than those for fish and shellfish from other locations in the United States.

  12. Breaking Patterns of Environmentally Influenced Disease for Health Risk Reduction: Immune Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Dietert, Rodney R.; DeWitt, Jamie C.; Germolec, Dori R.; Zelikoff, Judith T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Diseases rarely, if ever, occur in isolation. Instead, most represent part of a more complex web or “pattern” of conditions that are connected via underlying biological mechanisms and processes, emerge across a lifetime, and have been identified with the aid of large medical databases. Objective We have described how an understanding of patterns of disease may be used to develop new strategies for reducing the prevalence and risk of major immune-based illnesses and diseases influenced by environmental stimuli. Findings Examples of recently defined patterns of diseases that begin in childhood include not only metabolic syndrome, with its characteristics of inflammatory dysregulation, but also allergic, autoimmune, recurrent infection, and other inflammatory patterns of disease. The recent identification of major immune-based disease patterns beginning in childhood suggests that the immune system may play an even more important role in determining health status and health care needs across a lifetime than was previously understood. Conclusions Focusing on patterns of disease, as opposed to individual conditions, offers two important venues for environmental health risk reduction. First, prevention of developmental immunotoxicity and pediatric immune dysfunction can be used to act against multiple diseases. Second, pattern-based treatment of entryway diseases can be tailored with the aim of disrupting the entire disease pattern and reducing the risk of later-life illnesses connected to underlying immune dysfunction. Disease-pattern–based evaluation, prevention, and treatment will require a change from the current approach for both immune safety testing and pediatric disease management. PMID:20483701

  13. Guidelines for Exposure Assessment in Health Risk Studies Following a Nuclear Reactor Accident

    PubMed Central

    Bouville, André; Linet, Martha S.; Hatch, Maureen; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2013-01-01

    Background: Worldwide concerns regarding health effects after the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear power plant accidents indicate a clear need to identify short- and long-term health impacts that might result from accidents in the future. Fundamental to addressing this problem are reliable and accurate radiation dose estimates for the affected populations. The available guidance for activities following nuclear accidents is limited with regard to strategies for dose assessment in health risk studies. Objectives: Here we propose a comprehensive systematic approach to estimating radiation doses for the evaluation of health risks resulting from a nuclear power plant accident, reflected in a set of seven guidelines. Discussion: Four major nuclear reactor accidents have occurred during the history of nuclear power production. The circumstances leading to these accidents were varied, as were the magnitude of the releases of radioactive materials, the pathways by which persons were exposed, the data collected afterward, and the lifestyle factors and dietary consumption that played an important role in the associated radiation exposure of the affected populations. Accidents involving nuclear reactors may occur in the future under a variety of conditions. The guidelines we recommend here are intended to facilitate obtaining reliable dose estimations for a range of different exposure conditions. We recognize that full implementation of the proposed approach may not always be feasible because of other priorities during the nuclear accident emergency and because of limited resources in manpower and equipment. Conclusions: The proposed approach can serve as a basis to optimize the value of radiation dose reconstruction following a nuclear reactor accident. Citation: Bouville A, Linet MS, Hatch M, Mabuchi K, Simon SL. 2014. Guidelines for exposure assessment in health risk studies following a nuclear reactor accident. Environ Health Perspect 122:1–5; http://dx.doi.org/10

  14. [Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in pesticide factory].

    PubMed

    Tan, Bing; Wang, Tie-Yu; Pang, Bo; Zhu, Zhao-Yun; Wang, Dao-Han; Lü, Yong-Long

    2013-12-01

    A method for determining volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air by summa canister collecting and gas chromatography/ mass spectroscopy detecting was adopted. Pollution condition and characteristics of VOCs were discussed in three representative pesticide factories in Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province. Meanwhile, an internationally recognized four-step evaluation model of health risk assessment was applied to preliminarily assess the health risk caused by atmospheric VOCs in different exposure ways, inhalation and dermal exposure. Results showed that serious total VOCs pollution existed in all factories. Concentrations of n-hexane (6161.90-6910.00 microg x m(-3)), benzene (126.00-179.30 microg x m(-3)) and 1,3-butadiene (115.00-177.30 microg x m(-3)) exceeded the Chronic Inhalation Reference Concentrations recommended by USEPA, corresponding to 700, 30 and 2 microg x m(-3), respectively. Concentration of dichloromethane (724.00 microg x m(-3)) in factory B was also higher than the reference concentration (600 microg x m(-3)). Results of health risk assessment indicated that non-carcinogenic risk indexes of VOCs ranged from 1.00E-04 to 1.00E + 00 by inhalation exposure, and 1.00E-09 to 1.00E-05 by dermal exposure. Risk indexes of n-hexane and dichloromethane by inhalation exposure in all factories exceeded 1, and risk index of benzene by inhalation in factory B was also higher than 1. Carcinogenic risk indexes exposed to VOCs ranged from 1.00E-08 to 1.00E-03 by inhalation exposure and 1. oo00E -13 to 1.00E-08 by dermal exposure. Cancer risk of 1,3-butadiene by inhalation exceeded 1.0E-04, which lead to definite risk, and those of benzene by inhalation also exceeded the maximum allowable level recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (5.0E-05). The risks of dermal exposure presented the same trend as inhalation exposure, but the level was much lower than that of inhalation exposure. Thus, inhalation exposure of atmospheric VOCs was the

  15. Reconsidering brownfield redevelopment strategy in China's old industrial zone: a health risk assessment of heavy metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wanxia; Geng, Yong; Ma, Zhixiao; Sun, Lina; Xue, Bing; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2015-02-01

    Urban environmental quality in brownfield redevelopment sites is of vital importance after most of former industrial areas were replanned or changed into residential and recreational areas. Hence, it is necessary to rethink if those brownfield redevelopment sites have been cleaned up so that there will be no negative health impacts to local residents. Under such a circumstance, this paper aims to evaluate the contamination level of heavy metals within a brownfield redevelopment site in China, namely, the Tiexi old industrial zone in Shenyang. Surface soil and dust samples were collected from local industrial sites, residential/commercial sites, traffic sites, and recreational sites, respectively. Our analysis results revealed that although the soils in the brownfield redevelopment sites had been treated and remediated, heavy metal pollution still exists in certain sites, especially in the current industrial sites that will be planned into residential/commercial or recreational zones, and the current residential sites where the former industrial sites located, showing that past industrial activities did and will continue to influence the soil quality. Further health risk assessment indicates that As and Pb generated from industrial sites and traffic sites has a potential to pose serious health risks to local residents, especially children. The hotspots with more serious health risks to children are mainly concentrated in the areas close to the former Shenyang Smelting Plant. After one decade of redevelopment, the Tiexi old industrial zone has become a new urban area which is not suitable for large-scaled soil remediation efforts. Thus, the phytoremediation by trees or herbs in heavy-metal-contaminated land is more appropriate and should be embedded into urban green land planning. This study provides innovative policy insights on urban brownfield redevelopment to both governmental officials and related stakeholders so that they can make appropriate remediation

  16. Reconsidering brownfield redevelopment strategy in China's old industrial zone: a health risk assessment of heavy metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wanxia; Geng, Yong; Ma, Zhixiao; Sun, Lina; Xue, Bing; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2015-02-01

    Urban environmental quality in brownfield redevelopment sites is of vital importance after most of former industrial areas were replanned or changed into residential and recreational areas. Hence, it is necessary to rethink if those brownfield redevelopment sites have been cleaned up so that there will be no negative health impacts to local residents. Under such a circumstance, this paper aims to evaluate the contamination level of heavy metals within a brownfield redevelopment site in China, namely, the Tiexi old industrial zone in Shenyang. Surface soil and dust samples were collected from local industrial sites, residential/commercial sites, traffic sites, and recreational sites, respectively. Our analysis results revealed that although the soils in the brownfield redevelopment sites had been treated and remediated, heavy metal pollution still exists in certain sites, especially in the current industrial sites that will be planned into residential/commercial or recreational zones, and the current residential sites where the former industrial sites located, showing that past industrial activities did and will continue to influence the soil quality. Further health risk assessment indicates that As and Pb generated from industrial sites and traffic sites has a potential to pose serious health risks to local residents, especially children. The hotspots with more serious health risks to children are mainly concentrated in the areas close to the former Shenyang Smelting Plant. After one decade of redevelopment, the Tiexi old industrial zone has become a new urban area which is not suitable for large-scaled soil remediation efforts. Thus, the phytoremediation by trees or herbs in heavy-metal-contaminated land is more appropriate and should be embedded into urban green land planning. This study provides innovative policy insights on urban brownfield redevelopment to both governmental officials and related stakeholders so that they can make appropriate remediation

  17. A tiered assessment framework to evaluate human health risk of contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Ben K; Melwani, Aroon R; Bay, Steven M

    2015-07-01

    For sediment contaminated with bioaccumulative pollutants (e.g., PCBs and organochorine pesticides), human consumption of seafood that contain bioaccumulated sediment-derived contaminants is a well-established exposure pathway. Historically, regulation and management of this bioaccumulation pathway has focused on site-specific risk assessment. The state of California (United States) is supporting the development of a consistent and quantitative sediment assessment framework to aid in interpreting a narrative objective to protect human health. The conceptual basis of this framework focuses on 2 key questions: 1) do observed pollutant concentrations in seafood from a given site pose unacceptable health risks to human consumers? and 2) is sediment contamination at a site a significant contributor to seafood contamination? The first question is evaluated by interpreting seafood tissue concentrations at the site, based on health risk calculations. The second question is evaluated by interpreting site-specific sediment chemistry data using a food web bioaccumulation model. The assessment framework includes 3 tiers (screening assessment, site assessment, and refined site assessment), which enables the assessment to match variations in data availability, site complexity, and study objectives. The second and third tiers use a stochastic simulation approach, incorporating information on variability and uncertainty of key parameters, such as seafood contaminant concentration and consumption rate by humans. The framework incorporates site-specific values for sensitive parameters and statewide values for difficult to obtain or less sensitive parameters. The proposed approach advances risk assessment policy by incorporating local data into a consistent region-wide problem formulation, applying best available science in a streamlined fashion. PMID:25641876

  18. A tiered assessment framework to evaluate human health risk of contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Ben K; Melwani, Aroon R; Bay, Steven M

    2015-07-01

    For sediment contaminated with bioaccumulative pollutants (e.g., PCBs and organochorine pesticides), human consumption of seafood that contain bioaccumulated sediment-derived contaminants is a well-established exposure pathway. Historically, regulation and management of this bioaccumulation pathway has focused on site-specific risk assessment. The state of California (United States) is supporting the development of a consistent and quantitative sediment assessment framework to aid in interpreting a narrative objective to protect human health. The conceptual basis of this framework focuses on 2 key questions: 1) do observed pollutant concentrations in seafood from a given site pose unacceptable health risks to human consumers? and 2) is sediment contamination at a site a significant contributor to seafood contamination? The first question is evaluated by interpreting seafood tissue concentrations at the site, based on health risk calculations. The second question is evaluated by interpreting site-specific sediment chemistry data using a food web bioaccumulation model. The assessment framework includes 3 tiers (screening assessment, site assessment, and refined site assessment), which enables the assessment to match variations in data availability, site complexity, and study objectives. The second and third tiers use a stochastic simulation approach, incorporating information on variability and uncertainty of key parameters, such as seafood contaminant concentration and consumption rate by humans. The framework incorporates site-specific values for sensitive parameters and statewide values for difficult to obtain or less sensitive parameters. The proposed approach advances risk assessment policy by incorporating local data into a consistent region-wide problem formulation, applying best available science in a streamlined fashion.

  19. The impact of behavioral and mental health risk assessments on goal setting in primary care.

    PubMed

    Krist, Alex H; Glasgow, Russell E; Heurtin-Roberts, Suzanne; Sabo, Roy T; Roby, Dylan H; Gorin, Sherri N Sheinfeld; Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Estabrooks, Paul A; Ory, Marcia G; Glenn, Beth A; Phillips, Siobhan M; Kessler, Rodger; Johnson, Sallie Beth; Rohweder, Catherine L; Fernandez, Maria E

    2016-06-01

    Patient-centered health risk assessments (HRAs) that screen for unhealthy behaviors, prioritize concerns, and provide feedback may improve counseling, goal setting, and health. To evaluate the effectiveness of routinely administering a patient-centered HRA, My Own Health Report, for diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol, drug use, stress, depression, anxiety, and sleep, 18 primary care practices were randomized to ask patients to complete My Own Health Report (MOHR) before an office visit (intervention) or continue usual care (control). Intervention practice patients were more likely than control practice patients to be asked about each of eight risks (range of differences 5.3-15.8 %, p < 0.001), set goals for six risks (range of differences 3.8-16.6 %, p < 0.01), and improve five risks (range of differences 5.4-13.6 %, p < 0.01). Compared to controls, intervention patients felt clinicians cared more for them and showed more interest in their concerns. Patient-centered health risk assessments improve screening and goal setting.Trial RegistrationClinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01825746. PMID:27356991

  20. Site contamination health risk assessment case study involving tenant relocation from a former gasworks site.

    PubMed

    Turczynowicz, Len; Fitzgerald, D James; Nitschke, Monika; Mangas, Sam; McLean, Angela

    2007-10-01

    An Adelaide suburban public-housing residential site with 16 apartments was investigated after complaints of odor in some yard areas. A distinct 0.5-m layer of dark, odorous (tarry), contaminant material, which in some areas had been covered with plastic sheeting, was subsequently found beneath the topsoil across most of the site. This material appeared to extend beneath the apartments. Analysis indicated high levels of cyanide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), consistent with gasworks waste. Historical investigation revealed that the site was originally owned by a gas company and that a large gasometer (gas-storage tank) existed in one corner of the site. This finding of significant soil contamination precipitated a decision by the health and housing authorities to notify tenants immediately and to plan for their relocation. In addition to tending to the consequent personal disruption and logistical difficulties this posed, a detailed risk assessment process was developed. Urine samples were collected before and after relocation and analyzed for 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), a biomarker for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure. In addition, samples of tap water, indoor and outdoor air, indoor and ceiling dust, carpets, and soil from tillage areas were analyzed for PAHs. Data indicated a low health risk associated with tenancy on the site. This report presents details of the health risk assessment process undertaken and discusses vindicative reasons for tenant relocation. PMID:17763082

  1. The impact of behavioral and mental health risk assessments on goal setting in primary care.

    PubMed

    Krist, Alex H; Glasgow, Russell E; Heurtin-Roberts, Suzanne; Sabo, Roy T; Roby, Dylan H; Gorin, Sherri N Sheinfeld; Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Estabrooks, Paul A; Ory, Marcia G; Glenn, Beth A; Phillips, Siobhan M; Kessler, Rodger; Johnson, Sallie Beth; Rohweder, Catherine L; Fernandez, Maria E

    2016-06-01

    Patient-centered health risk assessments (HRAs) that screen for unhealthy behaviors, prioritize concerns, and provide feedback may improve counseling, goal setting, and health. To evaluate the effectiveness of routinely administering a patient-centered HRA, My Own Health Report, for diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol, drug use, stress, depression, anxiety, and sleep, 18 primary care practices were randomized to ask patients to complete My Own Health Report (MOHR) before an office visit (intervention) or continue usual care (control). Intervention practice patients were more likely than control practice patients to be asked about each of eight risks (range of differences 5.3-15.8 %, p < 0.001), set goals for six risks (range of differences 3.8-16.6 %, p < 0.01), and improve five risks (range of differences 5.4-13.6 %, p < 0.01). Compared to controls, intervention patients felt clinicians cared more for them and showed more interest in their concerns. Patient-centered health risk assessments improve screening and goal setting.Trial RegistrationClinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01825746.

  2. Health Risk Assessment Research on Heavy Metals Ingestion Through Groundwater Drinking Pathway for the Residents in Baotou, China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Liping; Wang, Yeyao; Guo, Yongli; Zhou, Youya; Liu, Li; Yan, Zengguang; Li, Fasheng; Xie, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Drinking groundwater is a significant pathway for human exposure to heavy metals. To evaluate the health effect of some heavy metals ingestion through the groundwater drinking pathway, the authors collected 35 groundwater samples from the drinking water wells of local residents and the exploitation wells of waterworks in Baotou, China. The monitoring results indicate that the groundwater had been polluted by heavy metals in some regions of the study area. A health risk assessment model derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was used to determine the noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic effects to residents who drink groundwater. All the respondents in the study area were at potential risk of carcinogenic health effects from arsenic when using the lowest safe standard for carcinogenic risk (1E-06). The hazard quotient values for noncarcinogenic health risk of arsenic exceeded 1 in 14.3% of the sampling wells in the study area. The research results could provide baseline data for groundwater utilization and supervision in the Baotou plain area. PMID:26867296

  3. Health risk assessment of air emissions from a municipal solid waste incineration plant--a case study.

    PubMed

    Cangialosi, Federico; Intini, Gianluca; Liberti, Lorenzo; Notarnicola, Michele; Stellacci, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    A health risk assessment of long-term emissions of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic air pollutants has been carried out for the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) of the city of Taranto, Italy. Ground level air concentrations and soil deposition of carcinogenic (Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins/Furans and Cd) and non-carcinogenic (Pb and Hg) pollutants have been estimated using a well documented atmospheric dispersion model. Health risk values for air inhalation, dermal contact, soil and food ingestion have been calculated based on a combination of these concentrations and a matrix of environmental exposure factors. Exposure of the surrounding population has been addressed for different release scenarios based on four pollutants, four exposure pathways and two receptor groups (children and adults). Spatial risk distribution and cancer excess cases projected from plant emissions have been compared with background mortality records. Estimated results based on the MSWI emissions show: (1) individual risks well below maximum acceptable levels, (2) very small incremental cancer risk compared with background level. PMID:17611096

  4. Health risk assessment of air emissions from a municipal solid waste incineration plant--a case study.

    PubMed

    Cangialosi, Federico; Intini, Gianluca; Liberti, Lorenzo; Notarnicola, Michele; Stellacci, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    A health risk assessment of long-term emissions of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic air pollutants has been carried out for the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) of the city of Taranto, Italy. Ground level air concentrations and soil deposition of carcinogenic (Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins/Furans and Cd) and non-carcinogenic (Pb and Hg) pollutants have been estimated using a well documented atmospheric dispersion model. Health risk values for air inhalation, dermal contact, soil and food ingestion have been calculated based on a combination of these concentrations and a matrix of environmental exposure factors. Exposure of the surrounding population has been addressed for different release scenarios based on four pollutants, four exposure pathways and two receptor groups (children and adults). Spatial risk distribution and cancer excess cases projected from plant emissions have been compared with background mortality records. Estimated results based on the MSWI emissions show: (1) individual risks well below maximum acceptable levels, (2) very small incremental cancer risk compared with background level.

  5. Health Risk Assessment Research on Heavy Metals Ingestion Through Groundwater Drinking Pathway for the Residents in Baotou, China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Liping; Wang, Yeyao; Guo, Yongli; Zhou, Youya; Liu, Li; Yan, Zengguang; Li, Fasheng; Xie, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Drinking groundwater is a significant pathway for human exposure to heavy metals. To evaluate the health effect of some heavy metals ingestion through the groundwater drinking pathway, the authors collected 35 groundwater samples from the drinking water wells of local residents and the exploitation wells of waterworks in Baotou, China. The monitoring results indicate that the groundwater had been polluted by heavy metals in some regions of the study area. A health risk assessment model derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was used to determine the noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic effects to residents who drink groundwater. All the respondents in the study area were at potential risk of carcinogenic health effects from arsenic when using the lowest safe standard for carcinogenic risk (1E-06). The hazard quotient values for noncarcinogenic health risk of arsenic exceeded 1 in 14.3% of the sampling wells in the study area. The research results could provide baseline data for groundwater utilization and supervision in the Baotou plain area.

  6. Screening-level human health risk assessment of toluene and dibutyl phthalate in nail lacquers.

    PubMed

    Kopelovich, Luda; Perez, Angela L; Jacobs, Neva; Mendelsohn, Emma; Keenan, James J

    2015-07-01

    Toluene and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) are found in many consumer products, including cosmetics, synthetic fragrances, and nail polish. In 2012, the California Environmental Protection Agency evaluated 25 nail products and found that 83% of the products that claimed to be toluene-free contained toluene at concentrations ranging up to 190,000 ppm, and 14% of the products that claimed to be DBP-free contained DBP at concentrations ranging up to 88,000 ppm. We conducted a preliminary, screening-level analysis of the potential toluene and DBP-related health risks to consumers and professionals based on the medium and maximum concentrations of toluene and DBP presented in the 2012 report and evaluated dermal and inhalation exposure to a salon patron, nail technician, and home user. We concluded that the maximum toluene concentration for the technician and home user scenarios exceeded the California MADL, but the estimated air concentrations did not exceed the Federal or Cal OSHA PEL. The MADL for DBP was exceeded for all user scenarios at both the median and maximum concentrations. Using these highly conservative assumptions, exposures above regulatory limits could possibly occur during routine use of nail products; further research is needed in order to evaluate potential human health risks. PMID:25865937

  7. Environmental impact and health risks associated with greywater irrigation: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gross, A; Azulai, N; Oron, G; Ronen, Z; Arnold, M; Nejidat, A

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing trend to use greywater for irrigation in households. This is partly due to the notion that greywater is of better quality than wastewater and therefore does not need extensive treatment beyond addressing public health issues. The aim of the study was to evaluate the environmental impact and health risks associated with the use of greywater for irrigation on a small private farm. Over a three-year period, each of three plots on a farm was irrigated with either freshwater, fertilized water, or greywater. Irrigation water and soil from the plots were analyzed for a wide range of chemical and microbial variables. Results suggest that greywater may be of similar quality to wastewater in several parameters such as BOD and faecal coliforms. For some other variables such as boron and surfactants, greywater may even be of worse quality than wastewater. Long-term irrigation of arid loess soil with greywater may result in accumulation of salts, surfactants and boron in the soil, causing changes in soil properties and toxicity to plants. Faecal coliforms did not survive in the soil. Treating greywater before using it for irrigation is recommended, even in places where this is not a requirement. PMID:16312963

  8. Environmental impact and health risks associated with greywater irrigation: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gross, A; Azulai, N; Oron, G; Ronen, Z; Arnold, M; Nejidat, A

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing trend to use greywater for irrigation in households. This is partly due to the notion that greywater is of better quality than wastewater and therefore does not need extensive treatment beyond addressing public health issues. The aim of the study was to evaluate the environmental impact and health risks associated with the use of greywater for irrigation on a small private farm. Over a three-year period, each of three plots on a farm was irrigated with either freshwater, fertilized water, or greywater. Irrigation water and soil from the plots were analyzed for a wide range of chemical and microbial variables. Results suggest that greywater may be of similar quality to wastewater in several parameters such as BOD and faecal coliforms. For some other variables such as boron and surfactants, greywater may even be of worse quality than wastewater. Long-term irrigation of arid loess soil with greywater may result in accumulation of salts, surfactants and boron in the soil, causing changes in soil properties and toxicity to plants. Faecal coliforms did not survive in the soil. Treating greywater before using it for irrigation is recommended, even in places where this is not a requirement.

  9. Health Risk Assessment using in vitro digestion model in assessing bioavailability of heavy metal in rice: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Omar, N A; Praveena, S M; Aris, A Z; Hashim, Z

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the bioavailability of heavy metal contamination and its health risks after rice ingestion. This study aimed to determine bioavailability of heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Co, Al, Fe, Zn and Pb) concentrations in cooked rice and human Health Risk Assessment (HRA). The results found Zn was the highest (4.3±0.1 mg/kg), whereas As showed the lowest (0.015±0.001 mg/kg) bioavailability of heavy metal concentration in 22 varieties of cooked rice. For single heavy metal exposure, no potential of non carcinogenic health risks was found, while carcinogenic health risks were found only for As. Combined heavy metal exposures found that total Hazard Quotient (HQtotal) values for adult were higher than the acceptable range (HQTotal<1), whereas total Lifetime Cancer Risk (LCRTotal) values were higher than the acceptable range (LCRTotal values >1×10(-4)) for both adult and children. This study is done to understand that the inclusion of bioavailability heavy metal into HRA produces a more realistic estimation of human heavy metal exposure.

  10. Probabilistic Human Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures: Hydro-Toxicological Interactions and Controlling Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henri, C.; Fernandez-Garcia, D.; de Barros, F.

    2014-12-01

    Improper disposals of hazardous wastes in most industrial countries give rise to severe groundwater contamination problems that can lead to adverse health effects in humans. Therefore risk assessment methods play an important role in population protection by (1) quantifying the impact on human health of an aquifer contamination and (2) aiding the decision making process of to better manage our groundwater resources. Many reactive components such as chlorinated solvent or nitrate potentially experience attenuation processes under common geochemical conditions. Based on this, monitored natural attenuation has become nowadays an attractive remediation solution. However, in some cases, intermediate degradation products can constitute noxious chemical compounds before reaching a harmless chemical form. In these cases, the joint effect of advection-dispersion transport and the species-dependent kinetic reactions and toxicity will dictate the relative importance of the degradation byproducts to the total risk. This renders the interpretation of risk a non-trivial task. In this presentation, we quantify, through a probabilistic framework, the human health risk posed by a chemical mixture in a heterogeneous aquifer. This work focuses on a Perchloroethylene contamination problem followed by the first-order production/biodegradation of its daughter species Trichloroethylene, Dichloroethylene and Vinyl Chlorine that is known to be highly toxic. Uncertainty on the hydraulic conductivity field is considered through a Monte Carlo scheme. A comparative description of human health risk metrics as a function of aquifer heterogeneity and contaminant injection mode is provided by means of a spatial characterization of the lower-order statistical moments and empirical probability density functions of both individual and total risks. Interestingly, we show that the human health risk of a chemical mixture is mainly controlled by a modified Damköhler number that express the joint effect

  11. Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.J.; Wood, R.A.; Haszeldine, R.S.

    2011-10-04

    Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO2 stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO2 degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/ flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO2 poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO2 seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO2 flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO2 seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less than Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized.

  12. Health risk assessment linked to filling coastal quarries with treated dredged seaport sediments.

    PubMed

    Perrodin, Yves; Donguy, Gilles; Emmanuel, Evens; Winiarski, Thierry

    2014-07-01

    Dredged seaport sediments raise complex management problems since it is no longer possible to discharge them into the sea. Traditional waste treatments are poorly adapted for these materials in terms of absorbable volumes and cost. In this context, filling quarries with treated sediments appears interesting but its safety regarding human health must be demonstrated. To achieve this, a specific methodology for assessing health risks has been developed and tested on three seaport sediments. This methodology includes the development of a conceptual model of the global scenario studied and the definition of specific protocols for each of its major steps. The approach proposed includes in particular the use of metrological and experimental tools that are new in this context: (i) an experimental lysimeter for characterizing the deposit emissions, and (ii) a geological radar for identifying potential preferential pathways between the sediment deposit and the groundwater. The application of this approach on the three sediments tested for the scenario studied showed the absence of health risk associated with the consumption of groundwater for substances having a "threshold effect" (risk quotient <1), and an acceptable risk for substances having a "non-threshold effect", with the notable exception of arsenic (individual risk equal to 3.10(-6)).

  13. Concentrations and health risk assessment of trace elements in animal-derived food in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaketon; Zhang, Huimin; Liu, Guihua; Zhang, Jianqing; Wang, Jizhong; Yu, Yingxin; Lu, Shaoyou

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the levels of trace elements in animal-derived food in Shenzhen, Southern China. The concentrations of 14 trace elements (Cd, Hg, Pb, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Mo, Ni, Co, Se and Ti) in a total of 220 meat samples, collected from the local markets of Shenzhen were determined. Cu, Fe and Zn were the major elements, with concentrations approximately 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than those of other elements. However, the daily intakes of Cu, Fe and Zn merely via the consumption of the meat products were lower than the recommended nutrient intake values provided by the 2013 Chinese Dietary Guide. Among the non-essential trace elements, Cd was accumulated in animal viscera, and the concentration ratios of chicken gizzard/chicken, chicken liver/chicken, pig kidney/pork and pig liver/pork were 41.6, 55.2, 863 and 177, respectively. In addition, high concentrations of As were found in aquatic products, especially in marine fish. The concentration of As in marine fish was slightly higher than the limits recommended by China, USA and Croatia. The health risk assessment of trace elements through the consumption of meat products by adult residents in Shenzhen was evaluated by using the target hazard quotient (THQ) method. The total THQ was greater than 1, implying a potential health risk. Approximately 66% of total THQ values, mainly from As, were from the consumption of aquatic products.

  14. Heavy metals bioconcentration from soil to vegetables and assessment of health risk caused by their ingestion.

    PubMed

    Garg, V K; Yadav, Poonam; Mor, Suman; Singh, Balvinder; Pulhani, Vandana

    2014-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the non-carcinogenic human health risk of heavy metals through the ingestion of locally grown and commonly used vegetables viz. Raphanus sativus (root vegetable), Daucus carota (root vegetable), Benincasa hispida (fruit vegetable) and Brassica campestris leaves (leafy vegetable) in a semi-urbanized area of Haryana state, India. Heavy metal quantification of soil and vegetable samples was done using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Lead, cadmium and nickel concentration in vegetable samples varied in range of 0.12-6.54 mg kg(-1), 0.02-0.67 mg kg(-1) and <0.05-0.41 mg kg(-1), respectively. Cadmium and lead concentration in some vegetable samples exceeded maximum permissible limit given by World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization and Indian standards. Much higher concentrations of Pb (40-190.5 mg kg(-1)), Cd (0.56-9.85 mg kg(-1)) and Ni (3.21-45.87 mg kg(-1)) were reported in corresponding vegetable fields' soils. Correlation analysis revealed the formation of three primary clusters, i.e. Cu-Cd, Cd-Pb and Ni-Zn in vegetable fields' soils further supported by cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Bioconcentration factor revealed that heavy metals' uptake was more by leafy vegetable than root and fruit vegetables. Hazard index of all the vegetables was less than unity; thus, the ingestion of these vegetables is unlikely to pose health risks to the target population.

  15. Multipathway human health risk assessment concerning air emissions from combustion of Orimulsion fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Teaf, C.M.; Coleman, R.M.; Manning, M.J.; Covert, D.J.; Phelps, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    A multipathway human health risk assessment was conducted concerning air emissions from the combustion of Orimulsion. Exposure was considered for nearby residents who might be exposed by oral, dermal or inhalation pathways, including ingestion of analytes that may be present in meat and agricultural products from nearby areas. Occupational exposure were evaluated via the same intake pathways, except for potential ingestion of food products. Pathways included airborne exposures, deposition on crops, exposures to soils, and uptake by livestock and plants. Livestock intake included ingestion of analytes retained by plants and inhalation of soil-bound particulates. Analytes of potential concern included compounds identified as combustion products of the orimulsion fuel. Air concentrations of analytes, and the areal distribution of these concentrations resulting from stack emissions, were predicted using transport and deposition models. A worst cast scenario for air and cumulative soil concentrations was considered to represent the entire facility project lifetime (20 years) for dry deposition as well as predicted air concentrations occurring at continuous 100% facility operating capacity. Potential exposures to sulfuric acid mist and lead were shown to be much less than levels protective of human populations. Based upon the airborne emissions estimates and the deposition estimates for other constituents of interest, as well as the strongly conservative estimates of the potential for human intake, local health risks contributed from the combustion of Orimulsion fuel at the facility were judged to be negligible.

  16. Assessment of Multiple Health Risks in a Single Obstructive Sleep Apnea Population

    PubMed Central

    Hudgel, David W.; Lamerato, Lois E.; Jacobsen, Gordon R.; Drake, Christopher L.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: In order to provide a comprehensive estimate of the health risks for OSA patients, we analyzed multiple outcomes and independent predictors of these outcomes in an OSA population evaluated and followed at one sleep center. Methods: Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used in an 8-year follow-up analysis of consecutive OSA patients (N = 1025) and non-apneic snorers (apnea-hypopnea index < 5, N = 494). Results: In our fully adjusted model, independent variables predictive of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, cerebral vascular accident, and pulmonary embolus were: older age, male gender, and history of cardiovascular diseases or procedures. In examining subgroups based on age and gender, severe OSA (AHI ≥ 30) was one of the independent predictors of mortality in males and in patients < 50 years old. Severe OSA interacted with maleness, age, and hypertension to predict mortality and myocardial infarction. CPAP use ≥ 4 h/night was associated with lower mortality rates in males and those ≥ 50 years old with severe OSA. Conclusions: Mortality and cardiovascular event outcomes were predicted by demographics and cardiovascular disease history more commonly than by OSA severity. OSA severity was an important predictor of mortality in male and young OSA patients. CPAP use appeared protective in older and male severe OSA patients. Citation: Hudgel DW; Lamerato LE; Jacobsen GR; Drake CL. Assessment of multiple health risks in a single obstructive sleep apnea population. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(1):9-18. PMID:22334803

  17. Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jennifer J; Wood, Rachel A; Haszeldine, R Stuart

    2011-10-01

    Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO(2) onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO(2) leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO(2) seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO(2) stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO(2) degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO(2) poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO(2) seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO(2) flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO(2) seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less that Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized. PMID:21911398

  18. Health risk assessment of organic micropollutants in greywater for potable reuse.

    PubMed

    Etchepare, Ramiro; van der Hoek, Jan Peter

    2015-04-01

    In light of the increasing interest in development of sustainable potable reuse systems, additional research is needed to elucidate the risks of producing drinking water from new raw water sources. This article investigates the presence and potential health risks of organic micropollutants in greywater, a potential new source for potable water production introduced in this work. An extensive literature survey reveals that almost 280 organic micropollutants have been detected in greywater. A three-tiered approach is applied for the preliminary health risk assessment of these chemicals. Benchmark values are derived from established drinking water standards for compounds grouped in Tier 1, from literature toxicological data for compounds in Tier 2, and from a Threshold of Toxicological Concern approach for compounds in Tier 3. A risk quotient is estimated by comparing the maximum concentration levels reported in greywater to the benchmark values. The results show that for the majority of compounds, risk quotient values were below 0.2, which suggests they would not pose appreciable concern to human health over a lifetime exposure to potable water. Fourteen compounds were identified with risk quotients above 0.2 which may warrant further investigation if greywater is used as a source for potable reuse. The present findings are helpful in prioritizing upcoming greywater quality monitoring and defining the goals of multiple barriers treatment in future water reclamation plants for potable water production. PMID:25472689

  19. Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Jennifer J.; Wood, Rachel A.; Haszeldine, R. Stuart

    2011-10-01

    Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO2 stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO2 degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO2 poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO2 seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO2 flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO2 seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less that Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized.

  20. Emission and Dispersion of Bioaerosols from Dairy Manure Application Sites: Human Health Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Jahne, Michael A; Rogers, Shane W; Holsen, Thomas M; Grimberg, Stefan J; Ramler, Ivan P

    2015-08-18

    In this study, we report the human health risk of gastrointestinal infection associated with inhalation exposure to airborne zoonotic pathogens emitted following application of dairy cattle manure to land. Inverse dispersion modeling with the USEPA's AERMOD dispersion model was used to determine bioaerosol emission rates based on edge-of-field bioaerosol and source material samples analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Bioaerosol emissions and transport simulated with AERMOD, previously reported viable manure pathogen contents, relevant exposure pathways, and pathogen-specific dose-response relationships were then used to estimate potential downwind risks with a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) approach. Median 8-h infection risks decreased exponentially with distance from a median of 1:2700 at edge-of-field to 1:13 000 at 100 m and 1:200 000 at 1000 m; peak risks were considerably greater (1:33, 1:170, and 1:2500, respectively). These results indicate that bioaerosols emitted from manure application sites following manure application may present significant public health risks to downwind receptors. Manure management practices should consider improved controls for bioaerosols in order to reduce the risk of disease transmission.

  1. Health risk assessment of organic micropollutants in greywater for potable reuse.

    PubMed

    Etchepare, Ramiro; van der Hoek, Jan Peter

    2015-04-01

    In light of the increasing interest in development of sustainable potable reuse systems, additional research is needed to elucidate the risks of producing drinking water from new raw water sources. This article investigates the presence and potential health risks of organic micropollutants in greywater, a potential new source for potable water production introduced in this work. An extensive literature survey reveals that almost 280 organic micropollutants have been detected in greywater. A three-tiered approach is applied for the preliminary health risk assessment of these chemicals. Benchmark values are derived from established drinking water standards for compounds grouped in Tier 1, from literature toxicological data for compounds in Tier 2, and from a Threshold of Toxicological Concern approach for compounds in Tier 3. A risk quotient is estimated by comparing the maximum concentration levels reported in greywater to the benchmark values. The results show that for the majority of compounds, risk quotient values were below 0.2, which suggests they would not pose appreciable concern to human health over a lifetime exposure to potable water. Fourteen compounds were identified with risk quotients above 0.2 which may warrant further investigation if greywater is used as a source for potable reuse. The present findings are helpful in prioritizing upcoming greywater quality monitoring and defining the goals of multiple barriers treatment in future water reclamation plants for potable water production.

  2. Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jennifer J.; Wood, Rachel A.; Haszeldine, R. Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO2 stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO2 degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO2 poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO2 seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO2 flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO2 seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less that Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized. PMID:21911398

  3. Assessment of health risk from heavy metal contamination of shellfish from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Raissy, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    The present study assessed the risk of consumption of shrimp and lobster contaminated with mercury, arsenic, cadmium, and lead from the Persian Gulf. The concentrations of mercury, arsenic, lead, and cadmium in shrimp was 62.5, 178.2, 325.2, and 193.5 μg kg(-1) and in lobsters was 53.2, 103.9, 640.6, and 163.1 μg kg(-1), respectively. The maximum daily consumption of shrimp and lobster was calculated to estimate health risks associated with their consumption. The results showed that the maximum allowable consumption of shrimp and lobster was 18-140 g/day for mercury, 33-214 g/day for arsenic, 59-454 g/day for cadmium, and 72-916 g/day for lead. The concentration of metals was within recommended limits for human consumption with the exception of lead, which was found to be above acceptable levels and represents a health risk. PMID:26703978

  4. A quantitative approach for integrating multiple lines of evidence for the evaluation of environmental health risks

    PubMed Central

    Schleier III, Jerome J.; Marshall, Lucy A.; Davis, Ryan S.

    2015-01-01

    Decision analysis often considers multiple lines of evidence during the decision making process. Researchers and government agencies have advocated for quantitative weight-of-evidence approaches in which multiple lines of evidence can be considered when estimating risk. Therefore, we utilized Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo to integrate several human-health risk assessment, biomonitoring, and epidemiology studies that have been conducted for two common insecticides (malathion and permethrin) used for adult mosquito management to generate an overall estimate of risk quotient (RQ). The utility of the Bayesian inference for risk management is that the estimated risk represents a probability distribution from which the probability of exceeding a threshold can be estimated. The mean RQs after all studies were incorporated were 0.4386, with a variance of 0.0163 for malathion and 0.3281 with a variance of 0.0083 for permethrin. After taking into account all of the evidence available on the risks of ULV insecticides, the probability that malathion or permethrin would exceed a level of concern was less than 0.0001. Bayesian estimates can substantially improve decisions by allowing decision makers to estimate the probability that a risk will exceed a level of concern by considering seemingly disparate lines of evidence. PMID:25648367

  5. A human health risk assessment of boron (boric acid and borax) in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Murray, F J

    1995-12-01

    A human health risk assessment was conducted to derive an appropriate safe exposure level in drinking water of inorganic boron-containing compounds (boric acid and borax). Several regulatory agencies have set or plan to set drinking water guidelines or standards for boron (B). Recent publication of reproductive and developmental toxicity studies by the National Toxicology Program prompted this risk assessment, along with the understanding that boron may be nutritionally essential. A rat developmental toxicity study with a NOAEL of 9.6 mg B/kg/day was selected as the pivotal study on which to base this risk assessment, since it represents the most sensitive endpoint of toxicity. A detailed evaluation of these and other studies allowed modifications of the default values for uncertainty factors to account for the pharmacokinetic similarities among species, the lack of metabolism of inorganic boron-containing compounds, the similarity of the toxicity profile across species, the quality of the toxicological database, and other factors according to the approach described by Renwick previously. Benchmark dose calculations were performed, and the results were in close agreement with the NOAEL selected for this risk assessment. The Reference Dose was calculated to be 0.3 mg B/kg/day, resulting in an acceptable daily intake of 18 mg B/day. Considering that the U.S. average dietary intake of boron is 1.5 mg B/day, 16.5 mg B/day could be available for drinking water or other exposures, if any. A preliminary review of boron data in the National Inorganic Radionuclide Survey by the EPA indicates the median boron level in U.S. drinking water supplies to be 0.031 mg B/liter, and most exposures are less than 2.44 mg B/liter (99th percentile). It is concluded that boron in U.S. drinking water would not be expected to pose any health risk to the public.

  6. Environmental impact and site-specific human health risks of chromium in the vicinity of a ferro-alloy manufactory, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-xing; Chen, Jian-qun; Chai, Li-yuan; Yang, Zhi-hui; Huang, Shun-hong; Zheng, Yu

    2011-06-15

    Previous studies often neglected the direct exposure to soil heavy metals in human health risk assessment. The purpose of this study was to assess the environmental impact and site-specific health risks of chromium (Cr) by both direct and indirect exposure assessment method. Results suggested that total Cr was shown a substantial buildup with a significant increase in the industrial and cultivated soils (averaged 1910 and 986 mg kg(-1), respectively). The Cr contents of vegetables exceeded the maximum permissible concentration by more than four times in every case. Human exposure to Cr was mainly due to dietary food intake in farming locations and due to soil ingestion in both industrial and residential sites. Soil ingestion was the main contributor pathway for direct exposure, followed by inhalation, and then dermal contact. The highest risks of vegetable ingestion were associated with consumption of Chinese cabbage. The results also indicated that plant tissues are able to convert the potentially toxic Cr (VI) species into the non-toxic Cr (III) species. The analyses of human health risks indicated that an important portion of the population is at risk, especially in the industrial site.

  7. EPHECT III: Health risk assessment of exposure to household consumer products.

    PubMed

    Trantallidi, M; Dimitroulopoulou, C; Wolkoff, P; Kephalopoulos, S; Carrer, P

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of the EU EPHECT project (Emissions, Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products in the EU), irritative and respiratory effects were assessed in relation to acute (30-min) and long-term (24-h) inhalation exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. A detailed Health Risk Assessment (HRA) was performed for five selected pollutants of respiratory health relevance, namely acrolein, formaldehyde, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene. For each pollutant, the Critical Exposure Limit (CEL) was compared to indoor air concentrations and exposure estimates for the use of 15 selected consumer products by two population groups (housekeepers and retired people) in the four geographical regions of Europe (North, West, South, East), which were derived previously based on microenvironmental modelling. For the present HRA, health-based CELs were derived for certain compounds in case indoor air quality guidelines were not available by the World Health Organization for end-points relevant to the current study. For each pollutant, the highest indoor air concentrations in each microenvironment and exposure estimates across home microenvironments during the day were lower than the corresponding acute and long-term CELs. However, considerable contributions, especially to acute exposures, were obtained in some cases, such as formaldehyde emissions resulting from single product use of a floor cleaning agent (82% CEL), a candle (10% CEL) and an electric air freshener (17% CEL). Regarding multiple product use, the case of 30-min formaldehyde exposure reaching 34% CEL when eight product classes were used across home microenvironments, i.e. all-purpose/kitchen/floor cleaning agents, furniture/floor polish, combustible/electric air fresheners, and perfume, needs to be highlighted. Such estimated values should be evaluated with caution, as these may be attributed to the exposure scenarios

  8. EPHECT III: Health risk assessment of exposure to household consumer products.

    PubMed

    Trantallidi, M; Dimitroulopoulou, C; Wolkoff, P; Kephalopoulos, S; Carrer, P

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of the EU EPHECT project (Emissions, Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products in the EU), irritative and respiratory effects were assessed in relation to acute (30-min) and long-term (24-h) inhalation exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. A detailed Health Risk Assessment (HRA) was performed for five selected pollutants of respiratory health relevance, namely acrolein, formaldehyde, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene. For each pollutant, the Critical Exposure Limit (CEL) was compared to indoor air concentrations and exposure estimates for the use of 15 selected consumer products by two population groups (housekeepers and retired people) in the four geographical regions of Europe (North, West, South, East), which were derived previously based on microenvironmental modelling. For the present HRA, health-based CELs were derived for certain compounds in case indoor air quality guidelines were not available by the World Health Organization for end-points relevant to the current study. For each pollutant, the highest indoor air concentrations in each microenvironment and exposure estimates across home microenvironments during the day were lower than the corresponding acute and long-term CELs. However, considerable contributions, especially to acute exposures, were obtained in some cases, such as formaldehyde emissions resulting from single product use of a floor cleaning agent (82% CEL), a candle (10% CEL) and an electric air freshener (17% CEL). Regarding multiple product use, the case of 30-min formaldehyde exposure reaching 34% CEL when eight product classes were used across home microenvironments, i.e. all-purpose/kitchen/floor cleaning agents, furniture/floor polish, combustible/electric air fresheners, and perfume, needs to be highlighted. Such estimated values should be evaluated with caution, as these may be attributed to the exposure scenarios

  9. Bioaccessibility and health risk assessment of arsenic in arsenic-enriched soils, Central India.

    PubMed

    Das, Suvendu; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Kar, Sandeep

    2013-06-01

    Incidental soil ingestion is expected to be a significant exposure route to arsenic for children because of the potentially high arsenic contents found in certain soils. Therefore, it is prudent to get information on oral bioaccessibility of arsenic following incidental soil ingestion and its relevance in health risk assessment for future remediation strategies. Soil samples were collected from eight villages of Ambagarh Chauki block, Chhattisgarh, Central India. The soils from seven villages had total arsenic content more than the background level of 10mgkg(-1) (ranged from 16 to 417mgkg(-1)), whereas the total arsenic content of soil from Hauditola was 7mgkg(-1). Bioaccessible arsenic assessed by the simplified bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET) ranged from 5.7 to 46.3%. Arsenic bioaccessibility was significantly influenced by clay content (R(2)=0.53, p<0.05, n=8), TOC (R(2)=0.50, p<0.05, n=8), Fe content (R(2)=0.47, p<0.05, n=8) and soil pH (R(2)=0.75, p<0.01, n=8). Risk assessment of the study sites showed that hazard index of arsenic under incidental soil ingestion was below 1 in all the study sites, except Kaudikasa. However, carcinogenic risk probability for arsenic to children from the villages Meregaon, Thailitola, Joratarai and Kaudikasa was below acceptable level (<1×10(-4)), suggesting potential health risk for children from these sites could not be overlooked. With high carcinogenic risk value (3.8E-05) and HI index (>1) for arsenic in soils of Kaudikasa, attention should be paid for development of remediation measure. PMID:23523002

  10. Origin and assessment of groundwater pollution and associated health risk: a case study in an industrial park, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyue; Wu, Jianhua; Qian, Hui; Lyu, Xinsheng; Liu, Hongwei

    2014-08-01

    Groundwater quality which relates closely to human health has become as important as its quantity due to the demand for safe water. In the present study, an entropy-weighted fuzzy water quality index (WQI) has been proposed for performing groundwater quality assessment in and around an industrial park, northwest China, where domestic water requirements are solely met by groundwater. The human health risk was assessed with the model recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, the sources of major ions and main contaminants were also analyzed. The study shows that groundwater in the study area has been contaminated conjunctively by natural processes and industrial and agricultural activities. Nitrate, manganese (Mn), fluoride, total dissolved solids, total hardness and sulfate are major contaminants influencing groundwater quality. Nitrate and heavy metals such as Mn are mainly affected by human agricultural activities and industrial production, while other contaminants are mainly originated from mineral weathering and water-rock interactions. The results of water quality assessment suggest that half of the groundwater samples collected are of medium quality thus require pretreatment before human consumption. The mean health risk caused by the consumption of contaminated groundwater in the area is 8.42 × 10(-5) per year which surpasses the maximum acceptable level (5 × 10(-5) per year) recommended by the International Commission on Radiologic Protection. The entropy-weighted fuzzy WQI proposed in this study can not only assign proper weights to parameters but also treat uncertainties associated with water quality classification. This study will be of interest to international environmentalists and hydrogeologists. It will also be useful in regional groundwater management and protection.

  11. Health risk equations and risk assessment of airborne benzene homologues exposure to drivers and passengers in taxi cabins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaokai; Feng, Lili; Luo, Huilong; Cheng, Heming

    2016-03-01

    Interior air environment and health problems of vehicles have attracted increasing attention, and benzene homologues (BHs) including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and styrene are primary hazardous gases in vehicular cabins. The BHs impact on the health of passengers and drivers in 38 taxis is assessed, and health risk equations of in-car BHs to different drivers and passengers are induced. The health risk of in-car BHs for male drivers is the highest among all different receptors and is 1.04, 6.67, and 6.94 times more than ones for female drivers, male passengers, and female passengers, respectively. In-car BHs could not lead to the non-cancer health risk to all passengers and drivers as for the maximal value of non-cancer indices is 0.41 and is less than the unacceptable value (1.00) of non-cancer health risk from USEPA. However, in-car BHs lead to cancer health risk to drivers as for the average value of cancer indices is 1.21E-04 which is 1.21 times more than the unacceptable value (1.00E-04) of cancer health risk from USEPA. Finally, for in-car airborne benzene concentration (X, μg/m(3)) to male drivers, female drivers, male passengers, and female passengers, the cancer health risk equations are Y = 1.48E-06X, Y = 1.42E-06X, Y = 2.22E-07X, and Y = 2.13E-07X, respectively, and the non-cancer health risk equations are Y = 1.70E-03X, Y = 1.63E-03X, Y = 2.55E-04X, and Y = 2.45E-04X, respectively.

  12. Assessing the health risk of reuse of bottom ash in road paving.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsiu-ching; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2011-03-01

    Although the reuse of bottom ash has been favored gradually, reflected on regulations and researches, the associated risk is still an issue of great concern. This study quantified the health risks from multimedia transport and multi-pathway exposure to the concerned chemicals as a result of reusing bottom ash in road paving with consideration of various application scenarios. In particular, the using duration of the pavement was taken into consideration because movement of chemicals in the soils and groundwater would affect the subsequent exposure and risk. By using soil and groundwater transport modeling linked to food chain exposure assessment and incorporating the Monte Carlo method, the study identified Cr as the crucial toxicant and ingestion of drinking water and vegetables as the key exposure pathways. Furthermore, control of the using duration of road pavement is an essential factor of management and regulations to minimize the leaching of the hazardous constituents into the groundwater and subsequent contamination of food chain. PMID:21190715

  13. Method of assessing a lipid-related health risk based on ion mobility analysis of lipoproteins

    DOEpatents

    Benner, W. Henry; Krauss, Ronald M.; Blanche, Patricia J.

    2010-12-14

    A medical diagnostic method and instrumentation system for analyzing noncovalently bonded agglomerated biological particles is described. The method and system comprises: a method of preparation for the biological particles; an electrospray generator; an alpha particle radiation source; a differential mobility analyzer; a particle counter; and data acquisition and analysis means. The medical device is useful for the assessment of human diseases, such as cardiac disease risk and hyperlipidemia, by rapid quantitative analysis of lipoprotein fraction densities. Initially, purification procedures are described to reduce an initial blood sample to an analytical input to the instrument. The measured sizes from the analytical sample are correlated with densities, resulting in a spectrum of lipoprotein densities. The lipoprotein density distribution can then be used to characterize cardiac and other lipid-related health risks.

  14. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in a water supply system and related human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    de Jesus Gaffney, Vanessa; Almeida, Cristina M M; Rodrigues, Alexandre; Ferreira, Elisabete; Benoliel, Maria João; Cardoso, Vitor Vale

    2015-04-01

    A monitoring study of 31 pharmaceuticals along Lisbon's drinking water supply system was implemented, which comprised the analysis of 250 samples including raw water (surface water and groundwater), and drinking water. Of the 31 pharmaceutical compounds, only sixteen were quantified in the analyzed samples, with levels ranging from 0.005 to 46 ng/L in raw water samples and 0.09-46 ng/L in drinking water samples. The human health risk assessment performed showed that appreciable risks to the consumer's health arising from exposure to trace levels of pharmaceuticals in drinking water are extremely unlikely, as RQs values were all below 0.001. Also, pharmaceuticals were selected as indicators to be used as a tool to control the quality of raw water and the treatment efficiency in the drinking water treatment plants.

  15. Assessing the health risk of reuse of bottom ash in road paving.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsiu-ching; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2011-03-01

    Although the reuse of bottom ash has been favored gradually, reflected on regulations and researches, the associated risk is still an issue of great concern. This study quantified the health risks from multimedia transport and multi-pathway exposure to the concerned chemicals as a result of reusing bottom ash in road paving with consideration of various application scenarios. In particular, the using duration of the pavement was taken into consideration because movement of chemicals in the soils and groundwater would affect the subsequent exposure and risk. By using soil and groundwater transport modeling linked to food chain exposure assessment and incorporating the Monte Carlo method, the study identified Cr as the crucial toxicant and ingestion of drinking water and vegetables as the key exposure pathways. Furthermore, control of the using duration of road pavement is an essential factor of management and regulations to minimize the leaching of the hazardous constituents into the groundwater and subsequent contamination of food chain.

  16. Health risk assessment: WTE (waste-to-energy) vs. peanut butter

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, R.A. )

    1988-10-01

    The degree to which society will come to accept potential health risks associated with municipal waste-to-energy plants depends on three factors: the reliability with which exposure and adverse health effects associated with facility emissions can be described, quantified, and gradually reduced; the relative magnitude of the risks compared with those of other waste management options, especially landfilling and recycling; and the relative magnitude of the risks compared with those of more familiar activities, such as driving, flying, smoking, and eating peanut butter sandwiches. Progress in risk assessment has already improved quantification of human exposure to emissions through the food chain, as well as through other pathways within the general categories of inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact. Where does this progress leave municipal refuse incineration relative to other risks This article explores that issue.

  17. Health risk-based assessment and management of heavy metals-contaminated soil sites in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Chen, Ting-Chien; Chen, Bo-Ching; Guo, Horng-Yuh; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2010-10-01

    Risk-based assessment is a way to evaluate the potential hazards of contaminated sites and is based on considering linkages between pollution sources, pathways, and receptors. These linkages can be broken by source reduction, pathway management, and modifying exposure of the receptors. In Taiwan, the Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act (SGWPR Act) uses one target regulation to evaluate the contamination status of soil and groundwater pollution. More than 600 sites contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) have been remediated and the costs of this process are always high. Besides using soil remediation techniques to remove contaminants from these sites, the selection of possible remediation methods to obtain rapid risk reduction is permissible and of increasing interest. This paper discusses previous soil remediation techniques applied to different sites in Taiwan and also clarified the differences of risk assessment before and after soil remediation obtained by applying different risk assessment models. This paper also includes many case studies on: (1) food safety risk assessment for brown rice growing in a HMs-contaminated site; (2) a tiered approach to health risk assessment for a contaminated site; (3) risk assessment for phytoremediation techniques applied in HMs-contaminated sites; and (4) soil remediation cost analysis for contaminated sites in Taiwan.

  18. Probabilistic health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in urban soils from a tropical city of India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bhupander; Verma, Virendra Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Chandra Shekhar

    2013-01-01

    Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in urban soils, and their risk for humans was evaluated and presented in this article. The average concentration of ∑16PAHs, ∑carcinogenic PAHs, ∑28PCBs and ∑dioxin-like PCBs was 631.6 ± 244.5 μg kg(-1), 568.8 ± 238.8 μg kg(-1), 11.57 ± 2.00 μg kg(-1) and 2.58 ± 0.34 μg kg(-1), respectively. Environmental and human health risk assessment parameters such as benzo(a)pyrene total potency equivalent (BaP TPE), index of additive cancer risk (IACR), life time average daily dose (LADD) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) have been estimated and discussed. The average benzo(a)pyrene total potency equivalent (BaP TPE) estimate was 0.194 mg kg(-1) and ranging between 8.9×10(-4) to 0.87 mg kg(-1). The incremental life time cancer risk (ILCR) of PAHs through soil ingestion for adults and children was estimated as 8.1×10(-6) and 4.2×10(-5), respectively. However, the cancer risk (ILCR) from non-dioxin-like PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs for adults and children ranged between 3.31×10(-8) to 1.741×10(-7) and 1.46×10(-5) to 7.56×10(-5), respectively. These estimated risks were lower than acceptable limits, based on incremental cancer risk from soil exposure. Overall, index of additive cancer risk (IACR) and hazard quotient (HQ) for PAHs and PCBs was lower than safe limit of 1, indicating no environmental and human health risk from PAHs and PCBs in this area of study. PMID:23647116

  19. Assessment of health risks due to arsenic from iron ore lumps in a beach setting.

    PubMed

    Swartjes, Frank A; Janssen, Paul J C M

    2016-09-01

    In 2011, an artificial hook-shaped peninsula of 128ha beach area was created along the Dutch coast, containing thousands of iron ore lumps, which include arsenic from natural origin. Elemental arsenic and inorganic arsenic induce a range of toxicological effects and has been classified as proven human carcinogens. The combination of easy access to the beach and the presence of arsenic raised concern about possible human health effects by the local authorities. The objective of this study is therefore to investigate human health risks from the presence of arsenic-containing iron ore lumps in a beach setting. The exposure scenarios underlying the human health-based risk limits for contaminated land in The Netherlands, based on soil material ingestion and a residential setting, are not appropriate. Two specific exposure scenarios related to the playing with iron ore lumps on the beach ('sandcastle building') are developed on the basis of expert judgement, relating to children in the age of 2 to 12years, i.e., a worst case exposure scenario and a precautionary scenario. Subsequently, exposure is calculated by the quantification of the following factors: hand loading, soil-mouth transfer effectivity, hand-mouth contact frequency, contact surface, body weight and the relative oral bioavailability factor. By lack of consensus on a universal reference dose for arsenic for use in the stage of risk characterization, three different types of assessments have been evaluated: on the basis of the current Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTWI), on the basis of the Benchmark Dose Lower limit (BMDL), and by a comparison of exposure from the iron ore lumps with background exposure. It is concluded, certainly from the perspective of the conservative exposure assessment, that unacceptable human health risks due to exposure to arsenic from the iron ore lumps are unlikely and there is no need for risk management actions.

  20. [Pollution evaluation and health risk assessment of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou].

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Xue, Su-Yin; Wang, Sheng-Li; Nan, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    In order to evaluate the contamination and health risk of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou, samples of atmospheric deposition were collected from 11 sampling sites respectively and their concentrations of heavy metals were determined. The results showed that the average contents of Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn and Mn were 82.22, 130.31, 4.34, 88.73, 40.64, 369.23 and 501.49 mg x kg(-1), respectively. There was great difference among different functional areas for all elements except Mn. According to the results, the enrichment factor score of Mn was close to 1, while the enrichment of Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr was more serious, and Pb and Cd were extremely enriched. The assessment results of geoaccumulation index of potential ecological risk indicated that the pollution of Cd in the atmospheric deposition of Lanzhou should be classified as extreme degree, and that of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb as between slight and extreme degrees, and Cr as practically uncontaminated. Contaminations of atmospheric dust by heavy metals in October to the next March were more serious than those from April to August. Health risk assessment indicated that the heavy metals in atmospheric deposition were mainly ingested by human bodies through hand-mouth ingestion. The non-cancer risk was higher for children than for adults. The order of non-cancer hazard indexes of heavy metals was Pb > Cr > Cd > Cu > Ni > Zn. The non-cancer hazard indexes and carcinogen risks of heavy metals were both lower than their threshold values, suggesting that they will not harm the health.

  1. A Human-Health Risk Assessment for West Nile Virus and Insecticides Used in Mosquito Management

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Robert K.D.; Macedo, Paula A.; Davis, Ryan S.

    2006-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has been a major public health concern in North America since 1999, when the first outbreak in the Western Hemisphere occurred in New York City. As a result of this ongoing disease outbreak, management of mosquitoes that vector WNV throughout the United States and Canada has necessitated using insecticides in areas where they traditionally have not been used or have been used less frequently. This has resulted in concerns by the public about the risks from insecticide use. The objective of this study was to use reasonable worst-case risk assessment methodologies to evaluate human-health risks for WNV and the insecticides most commonly used to control adult mosquitoes. We evaluated documented health effects from WNV infection and determined potential population risks based on reported frequencies. We determined potential acute (1-day) and subchronic (90-day) multiroute residential exposures from each insecticide for several human subgroups during a WNV disease outbreak scenario. We then compared potential insecticide exposures to toxicologic and regulatory effect levels. Risk quotients (RQs, the ratio of exposure to toxicologic effect) were < 1.0 for all subgroups. Acute RQs ranged from 0.0004 to 0.4726, and subchronic RQs ranged from 0.00014 to 0.2074. Results from our risk assessment and the current weight of scientific evidence indicate that human-health risks from residential exposure to mosquito insecticides are low and are not likely to exceed levels of concern. Further, our results indicate that, based on human-health criteria, the risks from WNV exceed the risks from exposure to mosquito insecticides. PMID:16507459

  2. Pharmaceuticals in Tap Water: Human Health Risk Assessment and Proposed Monitoring Framework in China

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ho Wing; Jin, Ling; Wei, Si; Tsui, Mirabelle Mei Po; Zhou, Bingsheng; Jiao, Liping; Cheung, Pak Chuen; Chun, Yiu Kan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pharmaceuticals are known to contaminate tap water worldwide, but the relevant human health risks have not been assessed in China. Objectives: We monitored 32 pharmaceuticals in Chinese tap water and evaluated the life-long human health risks of exposure in order to provide information for future prioritization and risk management. Methods: We analyzed samples (n = 113) from 13 cities and compared detected concentrations with existing or newly-derived safety levels for assessing risk quotients (RQs) at different life stages, excluding the prenatal stage. Results: We detected 17 pharmaceuticals in 89% of samples, with most detectable concentrations (92%) at < 50 ng/L. Caffeine (median–maximum, nanograms per liter: 24.4–564), metronidazole (1.8–19.3), salicylic acid (16.6–41.2), clofibric acid (1.2–3.3), carbamazepine (1.3–6.7), and dimetridazole (6.9–14.7) were found in ≥ 20% of samples. Cities within the Yangtze River region and Guangzhou were regarded as contamination hot spots because of elevated levels and frequent positive detections. Of the 17 pharmaceuticals detected, 13 showed very low risk levels, but 4 (i.e., dimetridazole, thiamphenicol, sulfamethazine, and clarithromycin) were found to have at least one life-stage RQ ≥ 0.01, especially for the infant and child life stages, and should be considered of high priority for management. We propose an indicator-based monitoring framework for providing information for source identification, water treatment effectiveness, and water safety management in China. Conclusion: Chinese tap water is an additional route of human exposure to pharmaceuticals, particularly for dimetridazole, although the risk to human health is low based on current toxicity data. Pharmaceutical detection and application of the proposed monitoring framework can be used for water source protection and risk management in China and elsewhere. PMID:23665928

  3. [Determination of Trace Elements in Marine Cetaceans by ICP-MS and Health Risk Assessment].

    PubMed

    Ding, Yu-long; Ning, Xi; Gui, Duan; Mo, Hui; Li, Yu-sen; Wu, Yu-ping

    2015-09-01

    The liver, kidney and muscle samples from seven cetaceans were digested by microwave digestion, and trace elements amounts of V, Cd, Cu, Zn, As, Cr, Ni, Mn, Se, Hg and Pb were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the health risk assessment for Zn, Cu, Cd, Hg, Se in the liver was conducted. The results of international lobster hepatopancreas standard (TORT-2) showed acceptable agreement with the certified values, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of eleven kinds of trace elements were less than 3.54%, showing that the method is suitable for the determination of trace elements in cetaceans. The experimental results indicated that different tissues and organs of the dolphins had different trace elements, presenting the tissue specificity. There is a certain inter-species difference among different dolphins about the bioaccumulation ability of the trace elements. The distribution of trace elements in whales presented a certain regularity: the contents of most elements in liver, kidney were much higher than the contents of muscle tissues, Cu, Mn, Hg, Se, and Zn exhibit the higher concentrations in liver, while Cd was mainly accumulated in kidney. And according to the health risk assessment in liver, the exceeding standardrate of selenium and copper in seven kinds of whales was 100%, suggesting that these whales were suffering the contamination of trace elements. The experimental results is instructive to the study of trace elements in cetaceans, while this is the first report for the concentrations in organs of Striped dolphin, Bottlenose dolphin, Fraser's Dolphin and Risso's dolphin in China, it may provide us valuable data for the conservation of cetaceans.

  4. Assessment of health risks due to arsenic from iron ore lumps in a beach setting.

    PubMed

    Swartjes, Frank A; Janssen, Paul J C M

    2016-09-01

    In 2011, an artificial hook-shaped peninsula of 128ha beach area was created along the Dutch coast, containing thousands of iron ore lumps, which include arsenic from natural origin. Elemental arsenic and inorganic arsenic induce a range of toxicological effects and has been classified as proven human carcinogens. The combination of easy access to the beach and the presence of arsenic raised concern about possible human health effects by the local authorities. The objective of this study is therefore to investigate human health risks from the presence of arsenic-containing iron ore lumps in a beach setting. The exposure scenarios underlying the human health-based risk limits for contaminated land in The Netherlands, based on soil material ingestion and a residential setting, are not appropriate. Two specific exposure scenarios related to the playing with iron ore lumps on the beach ('sandcastle building') are developed on the basis of expert judgement, relating to children in the age of 2 to 12years, i.e., a worst case exposure scenario and a precautionary scenario. Subsequently, exposure is calculated by the quantification of the following factors: hand loading, soil-mouth transfer effectivity, hand-mouth contact frequency, contact surface, body weight and the relative oral bioavailability factor. By lack of consensus on a universal reference dose for arsenic for use in the stage of risk characterization, three different types of assessments have been evaluated: on the basis of the current Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTWI), on the basis of the Benchmark Dose Lower limit (BMDL), and by a comparison of exposure from the iron ore lumps with background exposure. It is concluded, certainly from the perspective of the conservative exposure assessment, that unacceptable human health risks due to exposure to arsenic from the iron ore lumps are unlikely and there is no need for risk management actions. PMID:27145491

  5. [Determination of Trace Elements in Marine Cetaceans by ICP-MS and Health Risk Assessment].

    PubMed

    Ding, Yu-long; Ning, Xi; Gui, Duan; Mo, Hui; Li, Yu-sen; Wu, Yu-ping

    2015-09-01

    The liver, kidney and muscle samples from seven cetaceans were digested by microwave digestion, and trace elements amounts of V, Cd, Cu, Zn, As, Cr, Ni, Mn, Se, Hg and Pb were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the health risk assessment for Zn, Cu, Cd, Hg, Se in the liver was conducted. The results of international lobster hepatopancreas standard (TORT-2) showed acceptable agreement with the certified values, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of eleven kinds of trace elements were less than 3.54%, showing that the method is suitable for the determination of trace elements in cetaceans. The experimental results indicated that different tissues and organs of the dolphins had different trace elements, presenting the tissue specificity. There is a certain inter-species difference among different dolphins about the bioaccumulation ability of the trace elements. The distribution of trace elements in whales presented a certain regularity: the contents of most elements in liver, kidney were much higher than the contents of muscle tissues, Cu, Mn, Hg, Se, and Zn exhibit the higher concentrations in liver, while Cd was mainly accumulated in kidney. And according to the health risk assessment in liver, the exceeding standardrate of selenium and copper in seven kinds of whales was 100%, suggesting that these whales were suffering the contamination of trace elements. The experimental results is instructive to the study of trace elements in cetaceans, while this is the first report for the concentrations in organs of Striped dolphin, Bottlenose dolphin, Fraser's Dolphin and Risso's dolphin in China, it may provide us valuable data for the conservation of cetaceans. PMID:26669139

  6. Seafood consumption among Chinese coastal residents and health risk assessment of heavy metals in seafood.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ran; Yan, Shuangshuang; Liu, Min; Wang, Bi; Hu, Dong; Guo, Dongbei; Wang, Juan; Xu, Wanting; Fan, Chun

    2016-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to obtain the seafood dietary patterns of coastal residents, to determine the concentrations of heavy metals, and to evaluate the possible health risks caused by seafood intake. The daily food intakes of 24 types of seafood were collected from 738 participants from Xiamen, a southern Chinese coastal city, using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and dietary history method. One hundred and fifty-six samples of 14 types of highest intake seafood were collected from local markets for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) determination. Health risks via seafood consumption were evaluated by calculating the target hazard quotient (THQ) and the total hazard index (HI) for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the seafood daily intake of Xiamen residents was 61.5 (2.14, 115) g/day. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg, and As in seafood were ND-0.45 mg/kg, ND-0.19 mg/kg, ND-0.80 mg/kg, ND-0.70 mg/kg, and 0.32-16.9 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of Cd and As in some samples were higher than national limitation standards. Consumption of 14 common types of seafood would not pose non-carcinogenic risk. However, some types, such as sparuslatus, oyster, and porphyra tenera, would form a carcinogenic risk. Regardless of a carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic risk, As posed the highest risk on humans. The observed HI value for non-carcinogenic effect of all metals in all seafood reached 0.69-2.20, and the metal orders of risk can be listed as As > Hg > Cr > Cd > Pb, reiterating the risk of As is a matter of concern in seafood from Xiamen markets.

  7. A health risk assessment of Arabian incense (Bakhour) smoke in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Dalibalta, Sarah; Elsayed, Yehya; Alqtaishat, Fareedah; Gomes, Ioline; Fernandes, Nagelle

    2015-04-01

    Burning Arabian incense (Bakhour) is a common practice in the Middle East and Arabian Gulf. Although the incense generates large amounts of chemicals and air pollutants, little is known with regard to the nature of these chemicals and their potential health risks. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive characterization of the chemical constituents emitted in Bakhour smoke, and subsequently to examine the associated health implications of these components. Thermo-gravimetric analysis was used to investigate the presence and the thermal profile of volatile organic compounds in three different samples of Bakhour smoke. Thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was then applied to isolate all the volatile and semi-volatile compounds present in the Bakhour smoke samples. Using a spectral library and an extensive literature search, all organic compounds detected were analyzed for potential health risks. A total of 859 compounds were emitted from burning the different Bakhour samples. The novel finding of this research shows that 42 detected compounds are suspected/known carcinogens, 20 are known to have toxic effects, and at least 200 compounds are known irritants to the eyes, skin, respiratory and digestive tracts, as reported in human and/or animal studies. Our study suggests that inhaled Bakhour smoke contains a substantial number of adverse compounds, which are known to be detrimental to human health. Moreover, the evidence presented shows that incense burning is a significant source of environmental pollution; with the potential of significant health concerns particularly with long term exposure. As the majority of the compounds detected have no reported clinical data, there is an urgent need for significant research in this field.

  8. Human health risk and exposure assessment of chromium (VI) in tap water.

    PubMed

    Paustenbach, Dennis J; Finley, Brent L; Mowat, Fionna S; Kerger, Brent D

    2003-07-25

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] has been detected in groundwater across the United States due to industrial and military operations, including plating, painting, cooling-tower water, and chromate production. Because inhalation of Cr(VI) can cause lung cancer in some persons exposed to a sufficient airborne concentration, questions have been raised about the possible hazards associated with exposure to Cr(VI) in tap water via ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Although ingested Cr(VI) is generally known to be converted to Cr(III) in the stomach following ingestion, prior to the mid-1980s a quantitative analysis of the reduction capacity of the human stomach had not been conducted. Thus, risk assessments of the human health hazard posed by contaminated drinking water contained some degree of uncertainty. This article presents the results of nine studies, including seven dose reconstruction or simulation studies involving human volunteers, that quantitatively characterize the absorbed dose of Cr(VI) following contact with tap water via all routes of exposure. The methodology used here illustrates an approach that permits one to understand, within a very narrow range, the possible intake of Cr(VI) and the associated health risks for situations where little is known about historical concentrations of Cr(VI). Using red blood cell uptake and sequestration of chromium as an in vivo metric of Cr(VI) absorption, the primary conclusions of these studies were that: (1) oral exposure to concentrations of Cr(VI) in water up to 10 mg/L (ppm) does not overwhelm the reductive capacity of the stomach and blood, (2) the inhaled dose of Cr(VI) associated with showering at concentrations up to 10 mg/L is so small as to pose a de minimis cancer hazard, and (3) dermal exposures to Cr(VI) in water at concentrations as high as 22 mg/L do not overwhelm the reductive capacity of the skin or blood. Because Cr(VI) in water appears yellow at approximately 1-2 mg/L, the studies represent

  9. Including the urban heat island in spatial heat health risk assessment strategies: a case study for Birmingham, UK

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Heatwaves present a significant health risk and the hazard is likely to escalate with the increased future temperatures presently predicted by climate change models. The impact of heatwaves is often felt strongest in towns and cities where populations are concentrated and where the climate is often unintentionally modified to produce an urban heat island effect; where urban areas can be significantly warmer than surrounding rural areas. The purpose of this interdisciplinary study is to integrate remotely sensed urban heat island data alongside commercial social segmentation data via a spatial risk assessment methodology in order to highlight potential heat health risk areas and build the foundations for a climate change risk assessment. This paper uses the city of Birmingham, UK as a case study area. Results When looking at vulnerable sections of the population, the analysis identifies a concentration of "very high" risk areas within the city centre, and a number of pockets of "high risk" areas scattered throughout the conurbation. Further analysis looks at household level data which yields a complicated picture with a considerable range of vulnerabilities at a neighbourhood scale. Conclusions The results illustrate that a concentration of "very high" risk people live within the urban heat island, and this should be taken into account by urban planners and city centre environmental managers when considering climate change adaptation strategies or heatwave alert schemes. The methodology has been designed to be transparent and to make use of powerful and readily available datasets so that it can be easily replicated in other urban areas. PMID:21682872

  10. An exploration of spatial human health risk assessment of soil toxic metals under different land uses using sequential indicator simulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin-Hui; Liu, Wen-Chu; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Li, Fei; Huang, Xiao-Long; Gu, Yan-Ling; Shi, Li-Xiu; Shi, Ya-Hui; Wan, Jia

    2016-07-01

    A modified method was proposed which integrates the spatial patterns of toxic metals simulated by sequential indicator simulation, different exposure models and local current land uses extracted by remote-sensing software into a dose-response model for human health risk assessment of toxic metals. A total of 156 soil samples with a various land uses containing farm land (F1-F25), forest land (W1-W12) and residential land (U1-U15) were collected in a grid pattern throughout Xiandao District (XDD), Hunan Province, China. The total Cr and Pb in topsoil were analyzed. Compared with Hunan soil background values, the elevated concentrations of Cr were mainly located in the east of XDD, and the elevated concentrations of Pb were scattered in the areas around F1, F6, F8, F13, F14, U5, U14, W2 and W11. For non-carcinogenic effects, the hazard index (HI) of Cr and Pb overall the XDD did not exceed the accepted level to adults. While to children, Cr and Pb exhibited HI higher than the accepted level around some areas. The assessment results indicated Cr and Pb should be regarded as the priority pollutants of concern in XDD. The first priority areas of concern were identified in region A with a high probability (>0.95) of risk in excess of the accepted level for Cr and Pb. The areas with probability of risk between 0.85 and 0.95 in region A were identified to be the secondary priority areas for Cr and Pb. The modified method was proved useful due to its improvement on previous studies and calculating a more realistic human health risk, thus reducing the probability of excessive environmental management. PMID:27045920

  11. Human health risk assessment with spatial analysis: study of a population chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Navoni, J A; De Pietri, D; Olmos, V; Gimenez, C; Bovi Mitre, G; de Titto, E; Villaamil Lepori, E C

    2014-11-15

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element widely distributed in the environment. This metalloid has proven carcinogenic action in man. The aim of this work was to assess the health risk related to As exposure through drinking water in an Argentinean population, applying spatial analytical techniques in addition to conventional approaches. The study involved 650 inhabitants from Chaco and Santiago del Estero provinces. Arsenic in drinking water (Asw) and urine (UAs) was measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Average daily dose (ADD), hazard quotient (HQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR) were estimated, geo-referenced and integrated with demographical data by a health composite index (HI) applying geographic information system (GIS) analysis. Asw covered a wide range of concentration: from non-detectable (ND) to 2000 μg/L. More than 90% of the population was exposed to As, with UAs levels above the intervention level of 100 μg/g creatinine. GIS analysis described an expected level of exposure lower than the observed, indicating possible additional source/s of exposure to inorganic arsenic. In 68% of the locations, the population had a HQ greater than 1, and the CR ranged between 5·10(-5) and 2,1·10(-2). An environmental exposure area through ADD geo-referencing defined a baseline scenario for space-time risk assessment. The time of residence, the demographic density and the potential health considered outcomes helped characterize the health risk in the region. The geospatial analysis contributed to delimitate and analyze the change tendencies of risk in the region, broadening the scopes of the results for a decision-making process.

  12. Human health risk assessment with spatial analysis: study of a population chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Navoni, J A; De Pietri, D; Olmos, V; Gimenez, C; Bovi Mitre, G; de Titto, E; Villaamil Lepori, E C

    2014-11-15

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element widely distributed in the environment. This metalloid has proven carcinogenic action in man. The aim of this work was to assess the health risk related to As exposure through drinking water in an Argentinean population, applying spatial analytical techniques in addition to conventional approaches. The study involved 650 inhabitants from Chaco and Santiago del Estero provinces. Arsenic in drinking water (Asw) and urine (UAs) was measured by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Average daily dose (ADD), hazard quotient (HQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR) were estimated, geo-referenced and integrated with demographical data by a health composite index (HI) applying geographic information system (GIS) analysis. Asw covered a wide range of concentration: from non-detectable (ND) to 2000 μg/L. More than 90% of the population was exposed to As, with UAs levels above the intervention level of 100 μg/g creatinine. GIS analysis described an expected level of exposure lower than the observed, indicating possible additional source/s of exposure to inorganic arsenic. In 68% of the locations, the population had a HQ greater than 1, and the CR ranged between 5·10(-5) and 2,1·10(-2). An environmental exposure area through ADD geo-referencing defined a baseline scenario for space-time risk assessment. The time of residence, the demographic density and the potential health considered outcomes helped characterize the health risk in the region. The geospatial analysis contributed to delimitate and analyze the change tendencies of risk in the region, broadening the scopes of the results for a decision-making process. PMID:25181048

  13. Health risks of climate change: An assessment of uncertainties and its implications for adaptation policies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Projections of health risks of climate change are surrounded with uncertainties in knowledge. Understanding of these uncertainties will help the selection of appropriate adaptation policies. Methods We made an inventory of conceivable health impacts of climate change, explored the type and level of uncertainty for each impact, and discussed its implications for adaptation policy. A questionnaire-based expert elicitation was performed using an ordinal scoring scale. Experts were asked to indicate the level of precision with which health risks can be estimated, given the present state of knowledge. We assessed the individual scores, the expertise-weighted descriptive statistics, and the argumentation given for each score. Suggestions were made for how dealing with uncertainties could be taken into account in climate change adaptation policy strategies. Results The results showed that the direction of change could be indicated for most anticipated health effects. For several potential effects, too little knowledge exists to indicate whether any impact will occur, or whether the impact will be positive or negative. For several effects, rough ‘order-of-magnitude’ estimates were considered possible. Factors limiting health impact quantification include: lack of data, multi-causality, unknown impacts considering a high-quality health system, complex cause-effect relations leading to multi-directional impacts, possible changes of present-day response-relations, and difficulties in predicting local climate impacts. Participants considered heat-related mortality and non-endemic vector-borne diseases particularly relevant for climate change adaptation. Conclusions For possible climate related health impacts characterised by ignorance, adaptation policies that focus on enhancing the health system’s and society’s capability of dealing with possible future changes, uncertainties and surprises (e.g. through resilience, flexibility, and adaptive capacity) are

  14. Health risk assessment of major accidents with toxic chemicals for disaster preparedness and response

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Torn, P.

    1991-01-01

    Health risks of major accidents with toxic chemicals need to be defined by: (i) nature, (ii) number and (iii) severity. (ad i) Health effects are conveniently categorized by nature into local (L)/systemic (S) and immediate (1)/delayed (2) (health effects). (ad ii) Derivation of population responses generally is unfeasible, instead exposure bands can be specified by effect-level. (ad iii) The continuum of health effects should be described in a global disability scale. The 4 D'-scale seems most appropriate: death (D{sub 1}), disability (D{sub 2}), discomfort (D{sub 3}), detectability (D{sub 4}). For use in disaster response health risk specifications should furthermore be: (1) transparent, (2) in line with the overall situational analysis and (3) congruent with mitigation. (-ad 1) Transparency can be improved by selecting one main sign/symptom by effect level for field instructions. (-ad 2) Situational analysis initially involves the source-area (what effect levels are found near the source ) and the outer limits of the effect area (feedback from telephone complaints mostly D{sub 4}). Otherwise, knowledge is needed of the ratio of exposures that lead to consecutive effect levels to assess the overall health impact by interpolation. Finally, the need to recognize high risk situations is emphasized: e.g. data bases with distributions of dispersion constraints (urban areas), penetration potentials into the housing-stock, concentrations of groups at high-risk (over time). (-ad 3) Mitigation is divided into: (a) protection of the public in a threatened area and (b) medical assistance.

  15. Rapid assessment response (RAR) study: drug use and health risk - Pretoria, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Within a ten year period South Africa has developed a substantial illicit drug market. Data on HIV risk among drug using populations clearly indicate high levels of HIV risk behaviour due to the sharing of injecting equipment and/or drug-related unprotected sex. While there is international evidence on and experience with adequate responses, limited responses addressing drug use and drug-use-related HIV and other health risks are witnessed in South Africa. This study aimed to explore the emerging problem of drug-related HIV transmission and to stimulate the development of adequate health services for the drug users, by linking international expertise and local research. Methods A Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR) methodology was adopted for the study. For individual and focus group interviews a semi-structured questionnaire was utilised that addressed key issues. Interviews were conducted with a total of 84 key informant (KI) participants, 63 drug user KI participants (49 males, 14 females) and 21 KI service providers (8 male, 13 female). Results and Discussion Adverse living conditions and poor education levels were cited as making access to treatment harder, especially for those living in disadvantaged areas. Heroin was found to be the substance most available and used in a problematic way within the Pretoria area. Participants were not fully aware of the concrete health risks involved in drug use, and the vague ideas held appear not to allow for concrete measures to protect themselves. Knowledge with regards to substance related HIV/AIDS transmission is not yet widespread, with some information sources disseminating incorrect or unspecific information. Conclusions The implementation of pragmatic harm-reduction and other evidence-based public health care policies that are designed to reduce the harmful consequences associated with substance use and HIV/AIDS should be considered. HIV testing and treatment services also need to be made available in

  16. Neighborhood level health risk assessment of lead paint removal activities from elevated steel bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, R.F.; Cohen, J.T.; Bowers, T.

    1999-07-01

    The New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) has adopted strict containment and monitoring procedures during paint removal activities on its bridges because of the increasing awareness about lead poisoning in children in urban environments and the potential risk of lead-based paint releases during those activities. NYCDOT owns nearly 800 bridges scattered throughout New York City. Before undertaking paint removal activities as part of its ongoing preventive maintenance and rehabilitation program, NYCDOT recently conducted an analysis to determine the public health risk posed to children living near them. The analysis the first of its kind to assess the actual public health risk potential during both routine operations and upset conditions, or accidental releases evaluated the total and incremental blood lead levels from paint removal activities on more than 5,000 children from 6 months to 6 years old. Increases in baseline blood lead levels were estimated using several models, including EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model. This model estimates steady-state blood lead levels in children, reflecting exposure to lead in multiple media over an extended period of time. Increases in lead exposure from paint removal activities in the area surrounding the bridges was estimated using EPA's Industrial Source Complex (ISC3) model to calculate ambient air and deposition levels. Potential releases from the containment and ancillary equipment used in the paint removal process were modeled based on different release scenarios ranging from routine operations to complete failure of containment. To estimate the paint removal activities' contribution to long-term exterior dust lead levels (and its related interior component), a stochastic simulation model was developed for each block in the study area.

  17. [The socio-hygienic monitoring as an integral system for health risk assessment and risk management at the regional level].

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, S V; Gurvich, V B; Dikonskaya, O V; Malykh, O L; Yarushin, S V; Romanov, S V; Kornilkov, A S

    2013-01-01

    The information and analytical framework for the introduction of health risk assessment and risk management methodologies in the Sverdlovsk Region is the system of socio-hygienic monitoring. Techniques of risk management that take into account the choice of most cost-effective and efficient actions for improvement of the sanitary and epidemiologic situation at the level of the region, municipality, or a business entity of the Russian Federation, have been developed and proposed. To assess the efficiency of planning and activities for health risk management common method approaches and economic methods of "cost-effectiveness" and "cost-benefit" analyses provided in method recommendations and introduced in the Russian Federation are applied.

  18. Ecohealth approach to urban waste management: exposure to environmental pollutants and health risks in Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Kouamé, Parfait K; Dongo, Kouassi; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Zurbrügg, Christian; Lüthi, Christoph; Hattendorf, Jan; Utzinger, Jürg; Biémi, Jean; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2014-10-02

    Poor waste management is a key driver of ill-health in urban settlements of developing countries. The current study aimed at assessing environmental and human health risks related to urban waste management in Yamoussoukro, the political capital of Côte d'Ivoire. We undertook trans-disciplinary research within an Ecohealth approach, comprised of a participatory workshop with stakeholders and mapping of exposure patterns. A total of 492 randomly selected households participated in a cross-sectional survey. Waste deposit sites were characterised and 108 wastewater samples were subjected to laboratory examinations. The physico-chemical parameters of the surface water (temperature, pH, conductivity, potential oxidise reduction, BOD5, COD, dissolved oxygen, nitrates, ammonia and total Kendal nitrogen) did not comply with World Health Organization standards of surface water quality. Questionnaire results showed that malaria was the most commonly reported disease. Diarrhoea and malaria were associated with poor sanitation. Households having dry latrines had a higher risk of diarrhoea (odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.7) compared to latrines with septic tanks and also a higher risk for malaria (OR = 1.9, 95% (CI) 1.1-3.3). Our research showed that combining health and environmental assessments enables a deeper understanding of environmental threats and disease burdens linked to poor waste management. Further study should investigate the sanitation strategy aspects that could reduce the environmental and health risks in the study area.

  19. Ecohealth Approach to Urban Waste Management: Exposure to Environmental Pollutants and Health Risks in Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Kouamé, Parfait K.; Dongo, Kouassi; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Zurbrügg, Christian; Lüthi, Christoph; Hattendorf, Jan; Utzinger, Jürg; Biémi, Jean; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2014-01-01

    Poor waste management is a key driver of ill-health in urban settlements of developing countries. The current study aimed at assessing environmental and human health risks related to urban waste management in Yamoussoukro, the political capital of Côte d’Ivoire. We undertook trans-disciplinary research within an Ecohealth approach, comprised of a participatory workshop with stakeholders and mapping of exposure patterns. A total of 492 randomly selected households participated in a cross-sectional survey. Waste deposit sites were characterised and 108 wastewater samples were subjected to laboratory examinations. The physico-chemical parameters of the surface water (temperature, pH, conductivity, potential oxidise reduction, BOD5, COD, dissolved oxygen, nitrates, ammonia and total Kendal nitrogen) did not comply with World Health Organization standards of surface water quality. Questionnaire results showed that malaria was the most commonly reported disease. Diarrhoea and malaria were associated with poor sanitation. Households having dry latrines had a higher risk of diarrhoea (odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2–2.7) compared to latrines with septic tanks and also a higher risk for malaria (OR = 1.9, 95% (CI) 1.1–3.3). Our research showed that combining health and environmental assessments enables a deeper understanding of environmental threats and disease burdens linked to poor waste management. Further study should investigate the sanitation strategy aspects that could reduce the environmental and health risks in the study area. PMID:25279545

  20. Estimating exposure and dose to characterize health risks: the role of human tissue monitoring in exposure assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, K; Callahan, M A; Bryan, E F

    1995-01-01

    Exposure assessment is an integral part of health risk characterization. Exposure assessments typically address three critical aspects of exposure: the number of people exposed to the environmental toxicant, at specific concentrations, for the time period of interest; the resulting dose; and the relative contribution of important sources and pathways to exposure/dose. Because historically both "point-of-contact" measurements and information about dose and related pharmacokinetic processes have been lacking, exposure assessments have had to rely on construction of "scenarios" to estimate exposure and dose. This could change, however, as advances in development of biologic markers of exposure and dose make it possible to measure and interpret toxicant concentrations in accessible human tissues. The increasing availability of "biomarkers," coupled with improvements in pharmacokinetic understanding, present opportunities to estimate ("reconstruct") exposure from measurements of dose and knowledge of intake and uptake parameters. Human tissue monitoring, however, is not a substitute for more traditional methods of measuring exposure, but rather a complementary approach. A combination of exposure measurements and dose measurements provides the most credible scientific basis for exposure assessment. PMID:7635107

  1. Implications of global climate change for the assessment and management of human health risks of chemicals in the natural environment.

    PubMed

    Balbus, John M; Boxall, Alistair B A; Fenske, Richard A; McKone, Thomas E; Zeise, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change (GCC) is likely to alter the degree of human exposure to pollutants and the response of human populations to these exposures, meaning that risks of pollutants could change in the future. The present study, therefore, explores how GCC might affect the different steps in the pathway from a chemical source in the environment through to impacts on human health and evaluates the implications for existing risk-assessment and management practices. In certain parts of the world, GCC is predicted to increase the level of exposure of many environmental pollutants due to direct and indirect effects on the use patterns and transport and fate of chemicals. Changes in human behavior will also affect how humans come into contact with contaminated air, water, and food. Dietary changes, psychosocial stress, and coexposure to stressors such as high temperatures are likely to increase the vulnerability of humans to chemicals. These changes are likely to have significant implications for current practices for chemical assessment. Assumptions used in current exposure-assessment models may no longer apply, and existing monitoring methods may not be robust enough to detect adverse episodic changes in exposures. Organizations responsible for the assessment and management of health risks of chemicals therefore need to be more proactive and consider the implications of GCC for their procedures and processes. PMID:23147420

  2. Implications of global climate change for the assessment and management of human health risks of chemicals in the natural environment.

    PubMed

    Balbus, John M; Boxall, Alistair B A; Fenske, Richard A; McKone, Thomas E; Zeise, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change (GCC) is likely to alter the degree of human exposure to pollutants and the response of human populations to these exposures, meaning that risks of pollutants could change in the future. The present study, therefore, explores how GCC might affect the different steps in the pathway from a chemical source in the environment through to impacts on human health and evaluates the implications for existing risk-assessment and management practices. In certain parts of the world, GCC is predicted to increase the level of exposure of many environmental pollutants due to direct and indirect effects on the use patterns and transport and fate of chemicals. Changes in human behavior will also affect how humans come into contact with contaminated air, water, and food. Dietary changes, psychosocial stress, and coexposure to stressors such as high temperatures are likely to increase the vulnerability of humans to chemicals. These changes are likely to have significant implications for current practices for chemical assessment. Assumptions used in current exposure-assessment models may no longer apply, and existing monitoring methods may not be robust enough to detect adverse episodic changes in exposures. Organizations responsible for the assessment and management of health risks of chemicals therefore need to be more proactive and consider the implications of GCC for their procedures and processes.

  3. IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE FOR THE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF HUMAN HEALTH RISKS OF CHEMICALS IN THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

    PubMed Central

    Balbus, John M; Boxall, Alistair BA; Fenske, Richard A; McKone, Thomas E; Zeise, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change (GCC) is likely to alter the degree of human exposure to pollutants and the response of human populations to these exposures, meaning that risks of pollutants could change in the future. The present study, therefore, explores how GCC might affect the different steps in the pathway from a chemical source in the environment through to impacts on human health and evaluates the implications for existing risk-assessment and management practices. In certain parts of the world, GCC is predicted to increase the level of exposure of many environmental pollutants due to direct and indirect effects on the use patterns and transport and fate of chemicals. Changes in human behavior will also affect how humans come into contact with contaminated air, water, and food. Dietary changes, psychosocial stress, and coexposure to stressors such as high temperatures are likely to increase the vulnerability of humans to chemicals. These changes are likely to have significant implications for current practices for chemical assessment. Assumptions used in current exposure-assessment models may no longer apply, and existing monitoring methods may not be robust enough to detect adverse episodic changes in exposures. Organizations responsible for the assessment and management of health risks of chemicals therefore need to be more proactive and consider the implications of GCC for their procedures and processes. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2013;32:62–78. © 2012 SETAC PMID:23147420

  4. Community, environmental, and occupational health risks associated with fossil fuel energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Mark A.

    Short-term and long-term health risks associated with fossil fuel power production can be grouped into three broad categories: risks to the surrounding community, the natural environment and to plant workers. The results of three studies examining the primary short-term or long-term impacts of fossil fuel power plants are presented within this dissertation. The first study estimates the plausible community health effects associated with peak SO2 emissions from three coal-fired power plants in the Baltimore, Maryland area. Concentrations from mobile and stationary air monitoring were compared to human clinical studies that demonstrated respiratory morbidity. Results indicate that exposure concentrations are below levels associated with respiratory symptoms. A single measurement at one monitoring site, however, may indicate risk of asymptomatic lung function decrement for SO2-sensitive asthmatics. The second study estimates the relationship between operational, environmental and temporal factors at a Texas coastal power plant and fish and shellfish impingement. Impingement is a long-term risk to fish populations near power plants. When large quantities of water are withdrawn from water bodies for cooling, fish and shellfish may be harmed if impinged against screens intended to remove debris. In this study, impingement of fish and shellfish was best explained by dissolved oxygen concentration, sampling month and sampling time. When examined separately, temperature and sampling month were most important in explaining fish impingement, while for shellfish, sampling month and sampling time were most important. Operational factors were not significant predictors of impingement. The third study examines whether the number of worker similar exposure groups classified using observation methods was the same as groups classified using personal exposure monitoring. Using observational techniques and personal monitoring, power plant workers were grouped according to exposure

  5. Application of GIS and modelling in health risk assessment for urban road mobility.

    PubMed

    Vu, Van-Hieu; Le, Xuan-Quynh; Pham, Ngoc-Ho; Hens, Luc

    2013-08-01

    Transport is an essential sector in modern societies. It connects economic sectors and industries. Next to its contribution to economic development and social interconnection, it also causes adverse impacts on the environment and results in health hazards. Transport is a major source of ground air pollution, especially in urban areas, and therefore contributes to the health problems, such as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, cancer and physical injuries. This paper presents the results of a health risk assessment that quantifies the mortality and the diseases associated with particulate matter pollution resulting from urban road transport in Haiphong City, Vietnam. The focus is on the integration of modelling and geographic information system approaches in the exposure analysis to increase the accuracy of the assessment and to produce timely and consistent assessment results. The modelling was done to estimate traffic conditions and concentrations of particulate matters based on geo-referenced data. The study shows that health burdens due to particulate matter in Haiphong include 1,200 extra deaths for the situation in 2007. This figure can double by 2020 as the result of the fast economic development the city pursues. In addition, 51,000 extra hospital admissions and more than 850,000 restricted activity days are expected by 2020.

  6. Application of data fusion in human health risk assessment for hydrocarbon mixtures on contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Roberta; Islam, M Shafiqul; Zargar, Amin; Mohapatra, Asish; Sadiq, Rehan

    2013-11-16

    The exposure and toxicological data used in human health risk assessment are obtained from diverse and heterogeneous sources. Complex mixtures found on contaminated sites can pose a significant challenge to effectively assess the toxicity potential of the combined chemical exposure and to manage the associated risks. A data fusion framework has been proposed to integrate data from disparate sources to estimate potential risk for various public health issues. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed data fusion framework, an illustrative example for a hydrocarbon mixture is presented. The Joint Directors of Laboratories Data Fusion architecture was selected as the data fusion architecture and Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) was chosen as the technique for data fusion. For neurotoxicity response analysis, neurotoxic metabolites toxicological data were fused with predictive toxicological data and then probability-boxes (p-boxes) were developed to represent the toxicity of each compound. The neurotoxic response was given a rating of "low", "medium" or "high". These responses were then weighted by the percent composition in the illustrative F1 hydrocarbon mixture. The resulting p-boxes were fused according to DST's mixture rule of combination. The fused p-boxes were fused again with toxicity data for n-hexane. The case study for F1 hydrocarbons illustrates how data fusion can help in the assessment of the health effects for complex mixtures with limited available data. PMID:23219588

  7. Application of GIS and modelling in health risk assessment for urban road mobility.

    PubMed

    Vu, Van-Hieu; Le, Xuan-Quynh; Pham, Ngoc-Ho; Hens, Luc

    2013-08-01

    Transport is an essential sector in modern societies. It connects economic sectors and industries. Next to its contribution to economic development and social interconnection, it also causes adverse impacts on the environment and results in health hazards. Transport is a major source of ground air pollution, especially in urban areas, and therefore contributes to the health problems, such as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, cancer and physical injuries. This paper presents the results of a health risk assessment that quantifies the mortality and the diseases associated with particulate matter pollution resulting from urban road transport in Haiphong City, Vietnam. The focus is on the integration of modelling and geographic information system approaches in the exposure analysis to increase the accuracy of the assessment and to produce timely and consistent assessment results. The modelling was done to estimate traffic conditions and concentrations of particulate matters based on geo-referenced data. The study shows that health burdens due to particulate matter in Haiphong include 1,200 extra deaths for the situation in 2007. This figure can double by 2020 as the result of the fast economic development the city pursues. In addition, 51,000 extra hospital admissions and more than 850,000 restricted activity days are expected by 2020. PMID:23354617

  8. The influence of spatial resolution on human health risk co-benefit estimates for global climate policy assessments.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsiu-Ching; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2015-03-15

    Assessment of the ability of climate policies to produce desired improvements in public health through co-benefits of air pollution reduction can consume resources in both time and research funds. These resources increase significantly as the spatial resolution of models increases. In addition, the level of spatial detail available in macroeconomic models at the heart of climate policy assessments is much lower than that available in traditional human health risk modeling. It is therefore important to determine whether increasing spatial resolution considerably affects risk-based decisions; which kinds of decisions might be affected; and under what conditions they will be affected. Human health risk co-benefits from carbon emissions reductions that bring about concurrent reductions in Particulate Matter (PM10) emissions is therefore examined here at four levels of spatial resolution (Uniform Nation, Uniform Region, Uniform County/city, Health Risk Assessment) in a case study of Taiwan as one of the geographic regions of a global macroeceonomic model, with results that are representative of small, industrialized nations within that global model. A metric of human health risk mortality (YOLL, years of life lost in life expectancy) is compared under assessments ranging from a "uniform simulation" in which there is no spatial resolution of changes in ambient air concentration under a policy to a "highly spatially resolved simulation" (called here Health Risk Assessment). PM10 is chosen in this study as the indicator of air pollution for which risks are assessed due to its significance as a co-benefit of carbon emissions reductions within climate mitigation policy. For the policy examined, the four estimates of mortality in the entirety of Taiwan are 747 YOLL, 834 YOLL, 984 YOLL and 916 YOLL, under Uniform Taiwan, Uniform Region, Uniform County and Health Risk Assessment respectively; or differences of 18%, 9%, 7% if the HRA methodology is taken as the baseline. While

  9. The influence of spatial resolution on human health risk co-benefit estimates for global climate policy assessments.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsiu-Ching; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2015-03-15

    Assessment of the ability of climate policies to produce desired improvements in public health through co-benefits of air pollution reduction can consume resources in both time and research funds. These resources increase significantly as the spatial resolution of models increases. In addition, the level of spatial detail available in macroeconomic models at the heart of climate policy assessments is much lower than that available in traditional human health risk modeling. It is therefore important to determine whether increasing spatial resolution considerably affects risk-based decisions; which kinds of decisions might be affected; and under what conditions they will be affected. Human health risk co-benefits from carbon emissions reductions that bring about concurrent reductions in Particulate Matter (PM10) emissions is therefore examined here at four levels of spatial resolution (Uniform Nation, Uniform Region, Uniform County/city, Health Risk Assessment) in a case study of Taiwan as one of the geographic regions of a global macroeceonomic model, with results that are representative of small, industrialized nations within that global model. A metric of human health risk mortality (YOLL, years of life lost in life expectancy) is compared under assessments ranging from a "uniform simulation" in which there is no spatial resolution of changes in ambient air concentration under a policy to a "highly spatially resolved simulation" (called here Health Risk Assessment). PM10 is chosen in this study as the indicator of air pollution for which risks are assessed due to its significance as a co-benefit of carbon emissions reductions within climate mitigation policy. For the policy examined, the four estimates of mortality in the entirety of Taiwan are 747 YOLL, 834 YOLL, 984 YOLL and 916 YOLL, under Uniform Taiwan, Uniform Region, Uniform County and Health Risk Assessment respectively; or differences of 18%, 9%, 7% if the HRA methodology is taken as the baseline. While

  10. Aggregate human health risk assessment from dust of daily life in the urban environment of Beijing.

    PubMed

    Xu, L Y; Shu, X

    2014-04-01

    Because of the high emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into the environment by the increasing number of vehicles in Beijing and the absorption of these PAHs onto particulates, the performance of a preliminary health risk assessment of the aggregate exposure to PAHs of urban citizens in daily life is very important. Urban dust can be used to examine the aggregation of atmospheric particulates from local pollution sources over a long time period and the direct exposure of the urban human population. The environment's correlative with clothing, dining, residing, and traveling in urban daily life was assessed using exposure-receptor-oriented analysis. The multipathway exposure model was used to simulate the lifetime exposure of a female citizen to PAHs in dust. All of the PAH concentrations in dust for each behavior and its correlative environment in Beijing were acceptable because all of the carcinogenic risks of PAHs in the dust were approximately 1.0 × 10(-6). The dominant induced carcinogenic risks in the dust were Benzo(a)pyrene and Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene. The main carcinogenic risk routes for humans were dermal contact and oral intake, which contributed on average 99.78% of the risk. Indoor risk is especially important, as the decoration and height within the building were important impact factors for carcinogenic risk induced by indoor PAHs. For people living in an urban area, a healthy lifestyle includes less decoration per room, living on a low floor, wearing a respirator, and reducing exposed skin area when traveling.

  11. A Signal-to-Noise Crossover Dose as the Point of Departure for Health Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Portier, Christopher J.; Krewski, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background: The U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) cancer bioassay database provides an opportunity to compare both existing and new approaches to determining points of departure (PoDs) for establishing reference doses (RfDs). Objectives: The aims of this study were a) to investigate the risk associated with the traditional PoD used in human health risk assessment [the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL)]; b) to present a new approach based on the signal-to-noise crossover dose (SNCD); and c) to compare the SNCD and SNCD-based RfD with PoDs and RfDs based on the NOAEL and benchmark dose (BMD) approaches. Methods: The complete NTP database was used as the basis for these analyses, which were performed using the Hill model. We determined NOAELs and estimated corresponding extra risks. Lower 95% confidence bounds on the BMD (BMDLs) corresponding to extra risks of 1%, 5%, and 10% (BMDL01, BMDL05, and BMDL10, respectively) were also estimated. We introduce the SNCD as a new PoD, defined as the dose where the additional risk is equal to the “background noise” (the difference between the upper and lower bounds of the two-sided 90% confidence interval on absolute risk) or a specified fraction thereof. Results: The median risk at the NOAEL was approximately 10%, and the default uncertainty factor (UF = 100) was considered most applicable to the BMDL10. Therefore, we chose a target risk of 1/1,000 (0.1/100) to derive an SNCD-based RfD by linear extrapolation. At the median, this approach provided the same RfD as the BMDL10 divided by the default UF. Conclusions: Under a standard BMD approach, the BMDL10 is considered to be the most appropriate PoD. The SNCD approach, which is based on the lowest dose at which the signal can be reliably detected, warrants further development as a PoD for human health risk assessment. PMID:21813365

  12. Health risk assessment of inorganic arsenic intake of Cambodia residents through groundwater drinking pathway.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Wong, Ming Hung; Sao, Vibol; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2010-11-01

    In order to compare the magnitudes and health impacts of arsenic and other toxic trace elements in well water, groundwater and hair samples were collected from three areas with different arsenic exposure scenarios in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. Ampil commune in Kampong Cham province was selected as an uncontaminated area, Khsarch Andaet commune in Kratie province was selected as a moderately contaminated area, and Kampong Kong commune in Kandal Province was selected as an extremely contaminated area. Results of ICP-MS analyses of the groundwater samples revealed that As, Mn, Fe and Ba concentrations were significantly different among the three study areas (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). Out of 46 observed wells in the Kandal province study area, 100% detected As > 50 μg L(-1) and Fe > 300 μg L(-1); 52.17% had Mn > 400 μg L(-1) and 73.91% found Ba > 700 μg L(-1). In the Kratie province study area (n = 12), 25% of wells showed elevated arsenic levels above 10 μg L(-1) and 25% had Mn > 400 μg L(-1), whereas samples from Kampong Cham province study area (n = 18) were relatively clean, with As < 10 μg L(-1). A health risk assessment model derived from the USEPA was applied to calculate individual risks resulting from drinking groundwater. Computational results indicated that residents from Kandal Province study area (n = 297) confronted significantly higher non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks than those in Kratie (n = 89) and Kampong Cham (n = 184) province study areas (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). 98.65% of respondents from the Kandal province study area were at risk for the potential non-cancer effect and an average cancer risk index was found to be 5 in 1000 exposure. The calculations also indicated that, in the Kratie province study area, 13.48% of respondents were affected by non-cancer health risks and 33.71% were threatened by cancer, whereas none of respondents in the Kampong Cham province study area appeared to have non

  13. Assessments of levels, potential ecological risk, and human health risk of heavy metals in the soils from a typical county in Shanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Libo; Ma, Jin; Hu, Yu; Su, Benying; Fang, Guangling; Wang, Yue; Wang, Zhanshan; Wang, Lei; Xiang, Bao

    2016-10-01

    A total of 128 surface soil samples were collected, and eight heavy metals, including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn, and Hg, were analyzed for their concentrations, potential ecological risks, and human health risks. The mean concentrations of these eight metals were lower than the soil environmental quality standards in China, while they were slightly higher than the background values in Shanxi Province. The enrichment factor, coefficient variation, and potential ecological risk index were used to assess the pollution and eco-risk level of heavy metals, among which, Cd and Hg showed higher pollution levels and potential risks than the others in the studied area. Moreover, multivariate geostatistical analysis suggested that Hg originated mainly from point sources such as industrial emissions, while agricultural activity is the predominant factor for Cd. The human health risk assessment indicated that non-carcinogenic values were below the threshold values. The total carcinogenic risks due to As, Cr, and Ni were within the acceptable range for adults, while for children, they were higher than the threshold value (1.0E-04), indicating that children are facing higher threat to heavy metals in soils. These results provide basic information on heavy metal pollution control and human health risk assessment management in the study regions. PMID:27370534

  14. Assessment of inhalation exposure to indoor air pollutants: Screening for health risks of multiple pollutants in Japanese dwellings.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Kenichi; Uchiyama, Iwao; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Kunugita, Naoki

    2016-02-01

    Over the past few decades, multiple low level indoor pollutants have been found in domestic dwellings. The types and concentrations of these indoor pollutants have not been consistent over time and have changed with alterations in lifestyle, the development of novel products used in housing, and the development of new measurement technologies. To clarify the highest risk pollutants for which health risks should be reduced, we conducted a health risk assessment of 49 indoor air pollutants measured in 602 houses during winter and summer from 2012 to 2014. Inhalation reference concentrations were determined, and the margins of exposure were estimated for each indoor pollutant from measured indoor air concentrations. Health risks due to ammonia and acidic gases, including formic acid, acetic acid, and hydrogen chloride, were also assessed. Overall, during both winter and summer, the highest risk pollutants were acrolein, nitrogen dioxide, benzene, formic acid, and hydrogen chloride. The health risks of propanal, acetaldehyde, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene were also high. Principal component analysis (PCA) suggested an independent principal component for 1,4-dichlorobenzene. The primary source of exposure to 1,4-dichlorobenzene in Japan is an indoor household insect repellent. The improvement of individual lifestyle and housing may be appropriate targets for reducing the risk associated with this compound. The provision of further information on the risk to consumers and promotion of changes in consumer consciousness are needed. PCA suggested that the health risks of indoor air pollutants are amalgamated into similar chemical families, such as aldehydes, aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, or acetic esters. Our results suggest that health-based guidelines or source control measures, based on these chemical families and similar health endpoints, are appropriate for reducing total health risk due to multiple low level indoor pollutants.

  15. Assessment of inhalation exposure to indoor air pollutants: Screening for health risks of multiple pollutants in Japanese dwellings.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Kenichi; Uchiyama, Iwao; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Kunugita, Naoki

    2016-02-01

    Over the past few decades, multiple low level indoor pollutants have been found in domestic dwellings. The types and concentrations of these indoor pollutants have not been consistent over time and have changed with alterations in lifestyle, the development of novel products used in housing, and the development of new measurement technologies. To clarify the highest risk pollutants for which health risks should be reduced, we conducted a health risk assessment of 49 indoor air pollutants measured in 602 houses during winter and summer from 2012 to 2014. Inhalation reference concentrations were determined, and the margins of exposure were estimated for each indoor pollutant from measured indoor air concentrations. Health risks due to ammonia and acidic gases, including formic acid, acetic acid, and hydrogen chloride, were also assessed. Overall, during both winter and summer, the highest risk pollutants were acrolein, nitrogen dioxide, benzene, formic acid, and hydrogen chloride. The health risks of propanal, acetaldehyde, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene were also high. Principal component analysis (PCA) suggested an independent principal component for 1,4-dichlorobenzene. The primary source of exposure to 1,4-dichlorobenzene in Japan is an indoor household insect repellent. The improvement of individual lifestyle and housing may be appropriate targets for reducing the risk associated with this compound. The provision of further information on the risk to consumers and promotion of changes in consumer consciousness are needed. PCA suggested that the health risks of indoor air pollutants are amalgamated into similar chemical families, such as aldehydes, aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, or acetic esters. Our results suggest that health-based guidelines or source control measures, based on these chemical families and similar health endpoints, are appropriate for reducing total health risk due to multiple low level indoor pollutants. PMID:26618504

  16. Supplemental risk-assessment guidance for the Superfund program. Part 1. Guidance for Public-Health Risk Assessments. Part 2. Guidance for ecological Risk Assessments. Draft report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    This guidance manual was developed to address the practical aspects and issues pertaining to the Superfund risk-assessment process for both public health and environment concerns. Part 1, Guidance for Public Health Risk Assessments, supplements the Superfund Public Health Evaluation Manual and Superfund Exposure Assessment Manual and the Endangerment Assessment Handbook. Explicit guidance on technical matters which should be followed in developing public health risk assessments for EPA Region 1. The guidance addresses hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, risk characterization, and uncertainty/limitations. Part 2 of the manual, Guidance for Ecological Risk Assessments, addresses the collection of site-specific data needed to support an ecological risk assessment, describes a framework for conducting the assessments, and provides several specific approaches for assessing risks to systems exposed to chemical contamination in different media.

  17. [The urgent problems of the improvement of the environment management system based on the analysis of health risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Avaliani, S L; Novikov, S M; Shashina, T A; Dodina, N S; Kislitsin, V A; Mishina, A L

    2014-01-01

    The lack of adequate legislative and regulatory framework for ensuring minimization of the health risks in the field of environmental protection is the obstacle for the application of the risk analysis methodology as a leading tool for administrative activity in Russia. "Principles of the state policy in the sphere of ensuring chemical and biological safety of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2025 and beyond", approved by the President of the Russian Federation on 01 November 2013, No PR-25 73, are aimed at the legal support for the health risk analysis methodology. In the article there have been supposed the main stages of the operative control of the environmental quality, which lead to the reduction of the health risk to the acceptable level. The further improvement of the health risk analysis methodology in Russia should contribute to the implementation of the state policy in the sphere of chemical and biological safety through the introduction of complex measures on neutralization of chemical and biological threats to the human health and the environment, as well as evaluation of the economic effectiveness of these measures. The primary step should be the legislative securing of the quantitative value for the term: "acceptable risk".

  18. Shellfish and residual chemical contaminants: hazards, monitoring, and health risk assessment along French coasts.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Marielle; Amiard, Jean-Claude; Arnich, Nathalie; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Claisse, Didier; Guérin, Thierry; Vernoux, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    in similarly semi-enclosed waters elsewhere (bays, estuaries, and harbors).However, the mean concentrations of cadmium, mercury, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene,in transplanted mussels, were below the regulatory limits.In 2007, the mean daily consumption of shellfish in the general French population was estimated to be 4.5 g in adults; however, a wide variation occurs by region and season (INCA 2 study). Tabulated as a proportion of the diet, shellfish consumption represents only 0.16% of overall solid food intake. However, the INCA 2 survey was not well suited to estimating shellfish consumption because of the small number of shellfish consumers sampled. In contrast, the mean consumption rate of bivalve mollusks among adult high consumers of fish and seafood products, i.e., adults who eat fish or seafood at least twice a week, was estimated to be 153 g week-1 (8 kg yr-1). The highest mean consumption is for king scallops (39 g week-1), followed by oysters (34 g week-1) and mussels (22 g week-1). Thus, for high seafood consumers, the contribution of shellfish to inorganic contaminant levels is 1-10% TWI or PTWI for Cd, MeHg, and Sn (up to 19% for Sn), and the arsenic body burden is higher for 22% of individuals studied.The human health risks associated with consuming chemical contaminants in shellfish are difficult to assess for several reasons: effects may only surface after long-term exposure (chronic risk), exposures may be discontinuous, and contamination may derive from multiple sources (food, air, occupational exposure, etc.).Therefore, it is not possible to attribute a high body burden specifically to shellfish consumption even if seafood is a major dietary contributor of any contaminant, e.g.,arsenic and mercury.The data assembled in this review provide the arguments for maintaining the chemical contaminant monitoring programs for shellfish. Moreover, the results presented herein suggest that monitoring programs should be extended to other chemicals that are

  19. Environmental and human health risks of antimicrobials used in Fenneropenaeus chinensis aquaculture production in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming; Chang, Zhiqiang; Van den Brink, Paul J; Li, Jian; Zhao, Fazhen; Rico, Andreu

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to quantify the environmental fate of antimicrobials applied in Fenneropenaeus chinensis aquaculture production in China and to assess their potential risks for surrounding aquatic ecosystems, for the promotion of antimicrobial resistance in target and non-target bacteria and for consumers eating shrimp products that contain antimicrobial residues. For this, we first used the results of an environmental monitoring study performed with the antimicrobial sulfamethazine to parameterize and calibrate the ERA-AQUA model, a mass balance model suited to perform risk assessments of veterinary medicines applied in aquaculture ponds. Next, a scenario representing F. chinensis production in China was built and used to perform risk assessments for 21 antimicrobials which are regulated for aquaculture in China. Results of the model calibration showed a good correspondence between the predicted and the measured sulfamethazine concentrations, with differences within an order of magnitude. Results of the ecological risk assessment showed that four antimicrobials (levofloxacin, sarafloxacin, ampicillin, sulfadiazine) are expected to have adverse effects on primary producers, while no short-term risks were predicted for invertebrates and fish exposed to farm wastewater effluents containing antimicrobial residues. Half of the evaluated antimicrobials showed potential to contribute to antimicrobial resistance in bacteria exposed to pond water and farm effluents. A withdrawal period of three weeks is recommended for antimicrobials applied via oral administration to F. chinensis in order to comply with the current national and international toxicological food safety standards. The results of this study indicate the need to improve the current regulatory framework for the registration of aquaculture antimicrobials in China and suggest compounds that should be targeted in future aquaculture risk assessments and environmental monitoring studies. PMID:27137193

  20. Environmental and human health risks of antimicrobials used in Fenneropenaeus chinensis aquaculture production in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming; Chang, Zhiqiang; Van den Brink, Paul J; Li, Jian; Zhao, Fazhen; Rico, Andreu

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to quantify the environmental fate of antimicrobials applied in Fenneropenaeus chinensis aquaculture production in China and to assess their potential risks for surrounding aquatic ecosystems, for the promotion of antimicrobial resistance in target and non-target bacteria and for consumers eating shrimp products that contain antimicrobial residues. For this, we first used the results of an environmental monitoring study performed with the antimicrobial sulfamethazine to parameterize and calibrate the ERA-AQUA model, a mass balance model suited to perform risk assessments of veterinary medicines applied in aquaculture ponds. Next, a scenario representing F. chinensis production in China was built and used to perform risk assessments for 21 antimicrobials which are regulated for aquaculture in China. Results of the model calibration showed a good correspondence between the predicted and the measured sulfamethazine concentrations, with differences within an order of magnitude. Results of the ecological risk assessment showed that four antimicrobials (levofloxacin, sarafloxacin, ampicillin, sulfadiazine) are expected to have adverse effects on primary producers, while no short-term risks were predicted for invertebrates and fish exposed to farm wastewater effluents containing antimicrobial residues. Half of the evaluated antimicrobials showed potential to contribute to antimicrobial resistance in bacteria exposed to pond water and farm effluents. A withdrawal period of three weeks is recommended for antimicrobials applied via oral administration to F. chinensis in order to comply with the current national and international toxicological food safety standards. The results of this study indicate the need to improve the current regulatory framework for the registration of aquaculture antimicrobials in China and suggest compounds that should be targeted in future aquaculture risk assessments and environmental monitoring studies.

  1. Health risk assessment after decontamination of the beaches polluted by the wrecked ERIKA tanker.

    PubMed

    Dor, Frédéric; Bonnard, Roseline; Gourier-Fréry, Claire; Cicolella, André; Dujardin, Roland; Zmirou, Denis

    2003-12-01

    Following the wreck of the oil tanker ERIKA off the north-west coast of France in December 1999, cleaning up of the beaches involved considerable work, which in any case could not be perfect. This raised the question of the short- and long-term health risks for the future bathers related to the toxicity of the remaining oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This risk assessment study was conducted to help health authorities plan risk management policies and inform the public. Thirty-six beaches were selected, representing a sample of the most frequently encountered topographic and beach usage situations; seven "control" beaches, unspoiled by ERIKA, were also investigated. Samples of water and sand were taken from each site, as well as from the surface of rocks. The 16 PAHs selected by the U.S. EPA were quantified in each environment. Several scenarios of exposure were contemplated: (1) a child between 2 and 4 years accidentally ingesting a small ball of fuel, (2) a child daily exposed throughout his holiday-time stay, (3) an adult (including a pregnant woman) spending his/her holidays on the coast, (4) an adult working on the beach, (5) and an adult practicing water sports. Among the available and significant toxicological values, the most conservative ones were selected for computing risks. The sand and water, after decontamination, were slightly polluted (respectively, 7.8 microg/kg and 23.3 ng/l of total 16 PAHs), with values similar to those found in the control beaches. By contrast, the rocky areas in some places were still highly polluted (up to 23 mg/kg on the surface layer). No lethal risk was found for a young child who had accidentally ingested a small ball of fuel. The life-long excess risks for skin cancer and for all other cancers were about 10-5 in scenarios including contact with the polluted rocks. In all other cases, excess risks were considerably lower. The hazard quotient for teratogenic effects was very small, except in scenarios where

  2. Dust-Metal Sources in an Urbanized Arid Zone: Implications for Health-Risk Assessments.

    PubMed

    García-Rico, Leticia; Meza-Figueroa, Diana; Gandolfi, A Jay; Del Río-Salas, Rafael; Romero, Francisco M; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes

    2016-04-01

    The available information concerning metal pollution in different dust sources and the health effects in children remains limited in Mexico. This study focuses on Hermosillo, which is an urbanized area located in the Sonoran Desert in which soil resuspension and dust emission processes are common. The metal content of arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), and lead (Pb) were determined in three dust sources (playgrounds, roofs, and roads), each representing different exposure media (EM) for these elements. The metal levels in dust were found in the order of Mn > Cr > Pb > As with the highest metal content found in road dust. Despite the similar average metal distributions, principal component analysis shows a clear separation of the three EM with playground dust related to Cr and Mn and road dust to As and Pb. However, the geoaccumulation index results indicate that dust samples are uncontaminated to moderately polluted, except for Pb in road dust, which is considerably high. In addition, the enrichment factor suggests an anthropogenic origin for all of the studied metals except for Mn. In this context, the hazard index (HI) for noncarcinogenic risk is >1 in this population and thus represents a potential health risk. The spatial distribution for each metal on EM and the HI related to the marginality index could represent a more accurate decision-making tool in risk assessment studies.

  3. Mercury speciation in fish muscles from major Czech rivers and assessment of health risks.

    PubMed

    Sedláčková, Lenka; Kružíková, Kamila; Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the mercury and methylmercury content in muscle tissue of chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.), to assess the health risks of eating the fish and to determine the number of fish meat servings that are suitable for weekly consumption. Total mercury concentrations were determined using a single-purpose atomic absorption spectrophotometer AMA 254. Methylmercury concentrations were determined by gas chromatography. The location where the highest total mercury concentrations in fish muscle tissues were found was the Vltava - Vraňany (0.236±0.1001mg/kg(-1)), and the highest methylmercury concentration was found at the Labe - Obříství (0.231±0.1056mg/kg(-1)). The conclusion based on the data ascertained is that the locations from which the lowest number of fish meat servings can be eaten are the Vltava - Vraňany and the Labe - Obříství. The results of this study helped evaluate contamination levels of rivers that flow out of the Czech Republic.

  4. TPH-contaminated Mexican refinery soil: health risk assessment and the first year of changes.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Rosa M; Flores, Carlos R; Torres, Luis G

    2004-02-01

    The soil of a coastal Mexican refinery is quite contaminated, especially by hydrocarbons, with detected concentrations up to 130000 mg kg(-1) as TPHs (total petroleum hydrocarbons). The main sources of contamination are pipelines, valves, and old storage tanks, besides the land disposal of untreated hydrocarbon sediments derived from the cleaning of storage tanks. A health risk assessment (HRA) was carried out in order to measure the risk hazard indexes and clean-up standards for the refinery soil. HRA suggested the following actions to be taken: benzene concentrations must be reduced in eight of the 16 studied refinery zones to 0.0074-0.0078 mg kg(-1). Also, vanadium concentration must be reduced in two zones up to a concentration of 100 mg kg(-1). In only one of all of the studied zones, benzo(a)pyrene concentration must be reduced to 0.1 mg kg(-1). After 1 yr, TPHs showed a diminution of about 52%. Even though TPHs concentrations were variable, during 1999 the average concentrations were as much as 15.5 times the goal concentration. For year 2000, TPHs concentrations were only 7.4-fold the proposed value. For the 1999-2000 period, PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) concentrations decreased by 82%. Some PAHs with 2, 3, 4, and 5 aromatic rings were removed up to 100% values.

  5. Assessing the distribution and human health risk of organochlorine pesticide residues in sediments from selected rivers.

    PubMed

    Ogbeide, Ozekeke; Tongo, Isioma; Ezemonye, Lawrence

    2016-02-01

    Sediment samples from major agricultural producing areas in Edo state Nigeria were analysed for α-HCH, γ-HCH, β-HCH and ∑DDT with the aim of elucidating contamination profiles, distribution characteristics, carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk of these compounds in these regions. Analysis was done using a gas chromatography (GC) equipped with electron capture detector (ECD), while health risk assessment was carried out using the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) and the chronic daily intake (CDI). Results showed varying concentrations of α-HCH, γ-HCH, β-HCH and ∑DDT pesticides in sediment samples with hexachlorocyclohexane (∑HCHs) (4.6 µg/g/dw) being the dominant contaminants as it was widely detected in all samples and stations. Source identification revealed that the current levels of HCHs and DDT in sediments were attributed to both historical use and fresh usage of these pesticides. Risk estimates using ILCR and CDI showed that the risk of cancer and non-cancer effects was highest when exposure route was through ingestion. Furthermore, model projections highlights children as high risk population groups for non-dietary exposure to OCPs. These findings suggests the need for increased monitoring programmes, with a wider scope for both currently used pesticides and legacy/banned pesticides.

  6. Informativeness of the threshold adaptation and fatigue for assessment of the auditory health risk.

    PubMed

    Tzaneva, L

    1997-09-01

    The management and control of modern automated productions evidence the elevated role of the auditory system as one of the distant sensor communication systems. The present study informs about the auditory adaptation and fatigue at the end of the working shift of 385 operators at control boards in "Kremikovtzi" State Company. The results of the monitoring of the dynamic changes show significant changes, expressed in aggravation of the auditory fatigue manifestation by moderate to significant disturbance of the adaptation-recovery processes. The analysis established a significant positive correlation between the changes in auditory fatigue and the duration of service. The frequencies of the speech range are preserved for a long time. The elevated auditory fatigue is observed in the injured hearing band 4,000 Hz, followed by 6,000 Hz and continuous dissemination to the middle frequencies of the speech band-2,000 and 1,000 Hz. The results of the study of the adaptation-recovery processes are characterised by statistically significant reliability, single direction and reproducibility and can be applied as informative criteria for assessment of the auditory health risk.

  7. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in a replaced urban industrial area of Qingdao, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhongshuo; Li, Jinjun; Pan, Yuying; Chai, Xiaoli

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was risk characterization of a replaced urban industrial land located north of Qingdao, in relation to heavy metals values. Soil concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, and Zn were analyzed. It was observed that the components of Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, and Zn are about 2.22, 8.07, 4.70, 6.81, 2.65, and 3.0-folds, respectively, when compared with the local natural background values in Qingdao. The spatial distribution of heavy metals indicated that these hotspots for Cr and Zn located in the southwestern part, Ni and Cd in the middle of the south area, Pb in the northwest, and Cu in the middle of the east area. The values of pollution index and Nemerow integrated pollution index revealed that 100 % of soil samples were moderately or heavily contaminated by six heavy metals. From these results, human health risk assessment for sensitive population was performed according to two different land uses. For non-carcinogenic risk, the direct oral ingestion appeared to be the main exposure pathway followed by dermal and inhalation absorption. The HI values of Pb and Cr characterized for children were larger than 1, while HI values of each metal for adults in two scenarios were lower than 1. Besides, carcinogenic risk from inhalation exposure to Cr for children and adults in two scenarios all exceeded the safety limit. PMID:26984566

  8. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in a replaced urban industrial area of Qingdao, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhongshuo; Li, Jinjun; Pan, Yuying; Chai, Xiaoli

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was risk characterization of a replaced urban industrial land located north of Qingdao, in relation to heavy metals values. Soil concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, and Zn were analyzed. It was observed that the components of Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, and Zn are about 2.22, 8.07, 4.70, 6.81, 2.65, and 3.0-folds, respectively, when compared with the local natural background values in Qingdao. The spatial distribution of heavy metals indicated that these hotspots for Cr and Zn located in the southwestern part, Ni and Cd in the middle of the south area, Pb in the northwest, and Cu in the middle of the east area. The values of pollution index and Nemerow integrated pollution index revealed that 100 % of soil samples were moderately or heavily contaminated by six heavy metals. From these results, human health risk assessment for sensitive population was performed according to two different land uses. For non-carcinogenic risk, the direct oral ingestion appeared to be the main exposure pathway followed by dermal and inhalation absorption. The HI values of Pb and Cr characterized for children were larger than 1, while HI values of each metal for adults in two scenarios were lower than 1. Besides, carcinogenic risk from inhalation exposure to Cr for children and adults in two scenarios all exceeded the safety limit.

  9. TPH-contaminated Mexican refinery soil: health risk assessment and the first year of changes.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Rosa M; Flores, Carlos R; Torres, Luis G

    2004-02-01

    The soil of a coastal Mexican refinery is quite contaminated, especially by hydrocarbons, with detected concentrations up to 130000 mg kg(-1) as TPHs (total petroleum hydrocarbons). The main sources of contamination are pipelines, valves, and old storage tanks, besides the land disposal of untreated hydrocarbon sediments derived from the cleaning of storage tanks. A health risk assessment (HRA) was carried out in order to measure the risk hazard indexes and clean-up standards for the refinery soil. HRA suggested the following actions to be taken: benzene concentrations must be reduced in eight of the 16 studied refinery zones to 0.0074-0.0078 mg kg(-1). Also, vanadium concentration must be reduced in two zones up to a concentration of 100 mg kg(-1). In only one of all of the studied zones, benzo(a)pyrene concentration must be reduced to 0.1 mg kg(-1). After 1 yr, TPHs showed a diminution of about 52%. Even though TPHs concentrations were variable, during 1999 the average concentrations were as much as 15.5 times the goal concentration. For year 2000, TPHs concentrations were only 7.4-fold the proposed value. For the 1999-2000 period, PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) concentrations decreased by 82%. Some PAHs with 2, 3, 4, and 5 aromatic rings were removed up to 100% values. PMID:14969447

  10. A probabilistic model for silver bioaccumulation in aquatic systems and assessment of human health risks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warila, James; Batterman, Stuart; Passino-Reader, Dora R.

    2001-01-01

    Silver (Ag) is discharged in wastewater effluents and is also a component in a proposed secondary water disinfectant. A steady-state model was developed to simulate bioaccumulation in aquatic biota and assess ecological and human health risks. Trophic levels included phytoplankton, invertebrates, brown trout, and common carp. Uptake routes included water, food, or sediment. Based on an extensive review of the literature, distributions were derived for most inputs for use in Monte Carlo simulations. Three scenarios represented ranges of dilution and turbidity. Compared with the limited field data available, median estimates of Ag in carp (0.07-2.1 Iμg/g dry weight) were 0.5 to 9 times measured values, and all measurements were within the predicted interquartile range. Median Ag concentrations in biota were ranked invertebrates > phytoplankton > trout > carp. Biotic concentrations were highest for conditions of low dilution and low turbidity. Critical variables included Ag assimilation eficiency, specific feeding rate, and the phytoplankton bioconcentration factor. Bioaccumulation of Ag seems unlikely to result in txicity to aquatic biota and humans consuming fish. Although the highest predicted Ag concentrations in water (>200 ng/L) may pose chronic risks to early survival and development of salmonids and risks of argyria to subsistence fishers, these results occur under highly conservative conditions.

  11. Mercury speciation in fish muscles from major Czech rivers and assessment of health risks.

    PubMed

    Sedláčková, Lenka; Kružíková, Kamila; Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the mercury and methylmercury content in muscle tissue of chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.), to assess the health risks of eating the fish and to determine the number of fish meat servings that are suitable for weekly consumption. Total mercury concentrations were determined using a single-purpose atomic absorption spectrophotometer AMA 254. Methylmercury concentrations were determined by gas chromatography. The location where the highest total mercury concentrations in fish muscle tissues were found was the Vltava - Vraňany (0.236±0.1001mg/kg(-1)), and the highest methylmercury concentration was found at the Labe - Obříství (0.231±0.1056mg/kg(-1)). The conclusion based on the data ascertained is that the locations from which the lowest number of fish meat servings can be eaten are the Vltava - Vraňany and the Labe - Obříství. The results of this study helped evaluate contamination levels of rivers that flow out of the Czech Republic. PMID:24360463

  12. Life cycle and human health risk assessments as tools for decision making in the design and implementation of nanofiltration in drinking water treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Ribera, G; Clarens, F; Martínez-Lladó, X; Jubany, I; V Martí; Rovira, M

    2014-01-01

    A combined methodology using life cycle assessment (LCA) and human health risk assessment (HHR) is proposed in order to select the percentage of water in drinking water treatment plants (DWTP) that should be nanofiltered (NF). The methodological approach presented here takes into account environmental and social benefit criteria evaluating the implementation of new processes into conventional ones. The inclusion of NF process improves drinking water quality, reduces HHR but, in turn, increases environmental impacts as a result of energy and material demand. Results from this study lead to balance the increase of the impact in various environmental categories with the reduction in human health risk as a consequence of the respective drinking water production and consumption. From an environmental point of view, the inclusion of NF and recommended pretreatments to produce 43% of the final drinking water means that the environmental impact is nearly doubled in comparison with conventional plant in impact categories severely related with electricity production, like climate change. On the other hand, the carcinogenic risk (HHR) associated to trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) decreases with the increase in NF percentage use. Results show a reduction of one order of magnitude for the carcinogenic risk index when 100% of drinking water is produced by NF.

  13. Reproducibility and Transparency of Omics Research - Impacts on Human Health Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Omics technologies are becoming more widely used in toxicology, necessitating their consideration in human health hazard and risk assessment programs. Today, risk assessors in the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Toxicologi...

  14. A GIS-based human health risk assessment for urban green space planning--an example from Grugliasco (Italy).

    PubMed

    Poggio, Laura; Vrscaj, Borut

    2009-11-15

    The need to develop approaches for risk-based management of soil contamination, as well as the integration of the assessment of the human health risk (HHR) due to the soil contamination in the urban planning procedures has been the subject of recent attention of scientific literature and policy makers. The spatial analysis of environmental data offers multiple advantages for studying soil contamination and HHR assessment, facilitating the decision making process. The aim of this study was to explore the possibilities and benefits of spatial implementation of a quantitative HHR assessment methodology for a planning case in a typical urban environment where the soil is contaminated. The study area is located in the city of Grugliasco a part of the Turin (Italy) metropolitan area. The soils data were derived from a site specific soil survey and the land-use data from secondary sources. In the first step the soil contamination data were geo-statistically analysed and a spatial soil contamination data risk modelling procedure designed. In order to spatially assess the HHR computer routines were developed using GIS raster tools. The risk was evaluated for several different land uses for the planned naturalistic park area. The HHR assessment indicated that the contamination of soils with heavy metals in the area is not sufficient to induce considerable health problems due to typical human behaviour within the variety of urban land uses. An exception is the possibility of direct ingestion of contaminated soil which commonly occurs in playgrounds. The HHR evaluation in a planning case in the Grugliasco Municipality confirms the suitability of the selected planning option. The construction of the naturalistic park presents one solution for reducing the impacts of soil contamination on the health of citizens. The spatial HHR evaluation using GIS techniques is a diagnostic procedure for assessing the impacts of urban soil contamination, with which one can verify planning

  15. A new dose model for assessment of health risk due to contaminants in air.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, T; Guesgen, H W; Robinson, S; Fisher, G W

    2000-01-01

    The problem of making quantitative assessments of the risks associated with human exposure to toxic contaminants in the environment is a pressing one. This study demonstrates the capability of a new computational technique involving the use of fuzzy logic and neural networks to produce realistic risk assessments. The systematic analysis of human exposure involves the use of measurements and models, the results of which are sometimes used in regulatory decisions or in the drafting of legislation. Because of limited scientific understanding, however, interpretation of models often involves substantial uncertainty. Extensive measurement programs can be very expensive. The high complexity and inherent heterogeneity of exposure analysis is still a major challenge. The approach to this challenge tested here is to use a new model incorporating sophisticated artificial intelligence algorithms. Exposure assessment often requires that a number of factors be evaluated, including exposure concentrations, intake rates, exposure times, and frequencies. These factors are incorporated into a system that can "learn" the relevant relationships based on a known data set. The results can then be applied to new data sets and thus be applied widely without the need for extensive measurements. In this analysis, an example is developed for human health risk through inhalation exposure to benzene from vehicular emissions in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand. Risk factors considered were inhaled contaminant concentration, age, body weight, and activity patterns of humans. Three major variables affecting the inhaled contaminant concentration were emissions (mainly from motor vehicles), meteorology (wind speed, temperature, and atmospheric stability), and site factors (hilly, flat, etc.). The results are preliminary and used principally to demonstrate the technique, but they are very encouraging.

  16. A rapid assessment scorecard to identify informal settlements at higher maternal and child health risk in Mumbai.

    PubMed

    Osrin, David; Das, Sushmita; Bapat, Ujwala; Alcock, Glyn A; Joshi, Wasundhara; More, Neena Shah

    2011-10-01

    The communities who live in urban informal settlements are diverse, as are their environmental conditions. Characteristics include inadequate access to safe water and sanitation, poor quality of housing, overcrowding, and insecure residential status. Interventions to improve health should be equity-driven and target those at higher risk, but it is not clear how to prioritise informal settlements for health action. In implementing a maternal and child health programme in Mumbai, India, we had conducted a detailed vulnerability assessment which, though important, was time-consuming and may have included collection of redundant information. Subsequent data collection allowed us to examine three issues: whether community environmental characteristics were associated with maternal and newborn healthcare and outcomes; whether it was possible to develop a triage scorecard to rank the health vulnerability of informal settlements based on a few rapidly observable characteristics; and whether the scorecard might be useful for future prioritisation. The City Initiative for Newborn Health documented births in 48 urban slum areas over 2 years. Information was collected on maternal and newborn care and mortality, and also on household and community environment. We selected three outcomes-less than three antenatal care visits, home delivery, and neonatal mortality-and used logistic regression and classification and regression tree analysis to test their association with rapidly observable environmental characteristics. We developed a simple triage scorecard and tested its utility as a means of assessing maternal and newborn health risk. In analyses on a sample of 10,754 births, we found associations of health vulnerability with inadequate access to water, toilets, and electricity; non-durable housing; hazardous location; and rental tenancy. A simple scorecard based on these had limited sensitivity and positive predictive value, but relatively high specificity and negative

  17. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Dorne, J.L.C.M.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ► Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ► Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ► Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ► Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment.

  18. Occurrence and health risk assessment of selected metals in drinking water from two typical remote areas in China.

    PubMed

    Geng, Menghan; Qi, Hongjuan; Liu, Xuelin; Gao, Bo; Yang, Zhan; Lu, Wei; Sun, Rubao

    2016-05-01

    The potential contaminations of 16 trace elements (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Ba, Pb, Co, Be, V, Ti, Tl, Al) in drinking water collected in two remote areas in China were analyzed. The average levels of the trace elements were lower than the allowable concentrations set by national agencies, except for several elements (As, Sb, Mn, and Be) in individual samples. A health risk assessment model was conducted and carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks were evaluated separately. The results indicated that the total carcinogenic risks were higher than the maximum allowed risk level set by most organizations (1 × 10(-6)). Residents in both study areas were at risk of carcinogenic effects from exposure to Cr, which accounted for 80-90 % of the total carcinogenic risks. The non-carcinogenic risks (Cu, Zn, Ni) were lower than the maximum allowance levels. Among the four population groups, infants incurred the highest health risks and required special attention. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive associations among most trace elements, indicating the likelihood of a common source. The results of probabilistic health risk assessment of Cr based on Monte-Carlo simulation revealed that the uncertainty of system parameters does not affect the decision making of pollution prevention and control. Sensitivity analysis revealed that ingestion rate of water and concentration of Cr showed relatively high sensitivity to the health risks.

  19. Occurrence and health risk assessment of selected metals in drinking water from two typical remote areas in China.

    PubMed

    Geng, Menghan; Qi, Hongjuan; Liu, Xuelin; Gao, Bo; Yang, Zhan; Lu, Wei; Sun, Rubao

    2016-05-01

    The potential contaminations of 16 trace elements (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Ba, Pb, Co, Be, V, Ti, Tl, Al) in drinking water collected in two remote areas in China were analyzed. The average levels of the trace elements were lower than the allowable concentrations set by national agencies, except for several elements (As, Sb, Mn, and Be) in individual samples. A health risk assessment model was conducted and carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks were evaluated separately. The results indicated that the total carcinogenic risks were higher than the maximum allowed risk level set by most organizations (1 × 10(-6)). Residents in both study areas were at risk of carcinogenic effects from exposure to Cr, which accounted for 80-90 % of the total carcinogenic risks. The non-carcinogenic risks (Cu, Zn, Ni) were lower than the maximum allowance levels. Among the four population groups, infants incurred the highest health risks and required special attention. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive associations among most trace elements, indicating the likelihood of a common source. The results of probabilistic health risk assessment of Cr based on Monte-Carlo simulation revealed that the uncertainty of system parameters does not affect the decision making of pollution prevention and control. Sensitivity analysis revealed that ingestion rate of water and concentration of Cr showed relatively high sensitivity to the health risks. PMID:26782326

  20. Modeling environmental and human health risks of veterinary medicinal products applied in pond aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Rico, Andreu; Geng, Yue; Focks, Andreas; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2013-04-01

    A model called ERA-AQUA was developed to assess the risks posed by the use of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) applied in aquaculture ponds for the targeted produce, surrounding aquatic ecosystems, consumers, and trade of the aquaculture produce. The model calculates risks by following a risk quotient approach, calculating predicted exposure concentrations (exposure assessment) and predicted no-effect concentrations (effect assessment) for the endpoint under study. The exposure assessment is performed by combining information on the environmental characteristics of the aquaculture pond, characteristics of the cultured species, aquaculture management practices, and physicochemical properties of the compound under study. The model predicts concentrations of VMPs in the pond water, pond sediment, cultured species, and watercourse receiving pond effluent discharges by mass balance equations. The effect assessment is performed by combining (eco)toxicological information and food safety threshold concentrations for the studied compound. In the present study, the scientific background, strengths, and limitations of the ERA-AQUA model are presented together with a sensitivity analysis and an example showing its potential applications.

  1. Health risk assessment related to waterborne pathogens from the river to the tap.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Pauline; Henry, Annabelle; Meheut, Gaëlle; Charni-Ben-Tabassi, Nadine; Ingrand, Valérie; Helmi, Karim

    2015-03-10

    A two-year monitoring program of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, Giardia duodenalis cysts, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens spores and adenovirus was conducted in three large rivers in France used for recreational activities and as a resource for drinking water production. Fifty-liter river water and one thousand-liter tap water samples were concentrated using hollow-fiber ultrafiltration and analyzed by molecular biology or laser-scanning cytometry. In order to evaluate watershed land use influence on microorganism concentration changes, occurrence and seasonality of microorganisms were studied. The highest concentrations of protozoan parasites and C. perfringens were found for one of the three sites, showing a high proportion of agricultural territories, forests and semi-natural environments, which may be partly attributable to soil leaching due to rainfall events. On the contrary, the highest concentrations of adenoviruses were found at the two other sites, probably due to strong urban activities. Health risk assessment was evaluated for each waterborne pathogen regarding exposure during recreational activities (for a single or five bathing events during the summer). The calculated risk was lower than 0.5% for parasites and varied from 1% to 42% for adenovirus. A theoretical assessment of microorganism removal during the drinking water treatment process was also performed, and it showed that an absence of microorganisms could be expected in finished drinking water. This hypothesis was confirmed since all tested tap water samples were negative for each studied microorganism, resulting in a risk for drinking water consumption lower than 0.01% for parasites and lower than 0.5% for adenovirus.

  2. Health Risk Assessment Related to Waterborne Pathogens from the River to the Tap

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Pauline; Henry, Annabelle; Meheut, Gaëlle; Charni-Ben-Tabassi, Nadine; Ingrand, Valérie; Helmi, Karim

    2015-01-01

    A two-year monitoring program of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, Giardia duodenalis cysts, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens spores and adenovirus was conducted in three large rivers in France used for recreational activities and as a resource for drinking water production. Fifty-liter river water and one thousand-liter tap water samples were concentrated using hollow-fiber ultrafiltration and analyzed by molecular biology or laser-scanning cytometry. In order to evaluate watershed land use influence on microorganism concentration changes, occurrence and seasonality of microorganisms were studied. The highest concentrations of protozoan parasites and C. perfringens were found for one of the three sites, showing a high proportion of agricultural territories, forests and semi-natural environments, which may be partly attributable to soil leaching due to rainfall events. On the contrary, the highest concentrations of adenoviruses were found at the two other sites, probably due to strong urban activities. Health risk assessment was evaluated for each waterborne pathogen regarding exposure during recreational activities (for a single or five bathing events during the summer). The calculated risk was lower than 0.5% for parasites and varied from 1% to 42% for adenovirus. A theoretical assessment of microorganism removal during the drinking water treatment process was also performed, and it showed that an absence of microorganisms could be expected in finished drinking water. This hypothesis was confirmed since all tested tap water samples were negative for each studied microorganism, resulting in a risk for drinking water consumption lower than 0.01% for parasites and lower than 0.5% for adenovirus. PMID:25764059

  3. Assessing nitrate contamination and its potential health risk to Kinmen residents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen-Wuing; Lin, Chun-Nan; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Ling, Min-Pei; Tsai, Jeng-Wei

    2011-10-01

    Kinmen is located in the southwest of Mainland China. Groundwater supplies 50% of the domestic water use on the island. Residents of Kinmen drink groundwater over the long term because surface water resources are limited. Nitrate-N pollution is found and distributed primarily in the western part of groundwater aquifer whereas saline groundwater is distributed to the northeastern Kinmen. This work applied the DRASTIC model to construct the vulnerability map of Kinmen groundwater. MT3D was then used to evaluate the contamination potential of nitrate-N. The health risk associated with the ingestion of nitrate-N contaminated groundwater is also assessed. The results from DRASTIC model showed that the upland crop and grass land have high contamination potential, whereas the forest, reservoir and housing land have low contamination potential. The calibrated MT3D model inversely determined the high strength sources (0.09-2.74 kg/m(2)/year) of nitrate contaminant located in the west to the north west area and required 2-5 years travel time to reach the monitoring wells. Simulated results of MT3D also showed that both the continuous and instantaneous contaminant sources of nitrate-N release may cause serious to moderate nitrate contamination in the western Kinmen and jeopardize the domestic use of groundwater. The chronic health hazard quotient (HQ) associated with the potential non-carcinogenic risk of drinking nitrate-N contaminated groundwater showed that the assessed 95th percentile of HQ is 2.74, indicating that exposure to waterborne nitrate poses a potential non-cancer risk to the residents of the island. Corrective measures, including protecting groundwater recharge zones and reducing the number of agricultural and non-agricultural nitrogen sources that enters the aquifer, should be implemented especially in the western part of Kinmen to assure a sustainable use of groundwater resources.

  4. PS2-6: Using Health Risk Assessments to Understand Older Adult Sedentary Time

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Dori; Grothaus, Louis; Gell, Nancy; Renz, Anne; Arterburn, David

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Sedentary time (ST) is independently associated with cardio-metabolic conditions and mortality. Older adults have the highest levels of ST of all age groups. Little is known about how ST relates to BMI, health conditions, and health costs in older adults. Our aim was to use electronic health records (EHR) to better explore these relationships. Methods We extracted health risk assessment data (HRA), outpatient visit diagnosis codes, and total healthcare costs from the EHR of a large health plan in WA State (Group Health). All members aged 65–99 who completed an HRA in 2011 and were continuously enrolled for 2 years, did not reside in long-term care, or have a terminal health condition were included (N = 3967; ~10% of all eligible members). ST was assessed by the International Physical Activity (PA) Questionnaire sitting item. BMI was calculated using most recent weight and height from the EHR. Cardiovascular disease and diabetes were identified using ICD-9 codes. We used regression analysis to determine how mean ST varied with factors such as diabetes, while controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity, BMI, diet, and hours of PA per week. Results Age and PA were strongly related to ST. Obese participants (BMI >30 (24% of the sample) had significantly higher mean ST (6.75 hours/day, P <.001) compared to overweight (6.06) and normal weight (5.67) older adults. Those with diabetes (14% of the sample), had significantly higher ST (6.42 hours/day) than those without (6 hours/day; P = .01). Total healthcare costs increase on average $139 for each additional hour of sitting (P = .03). Conclusions After adjusting for demographic, health behaviors, and health conditions, older adults with a higher BMI, diabetes, and higher total healthcare costs had greater self-reported ST. These patterns indicate that ST may be an important health behavior to target for intervention as people age.

  5. Health risk assessment related to waterborne pathogens from the river to the tap.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Pauline; Henry, Annabelle; Meheut, Gaëlle; Charni-Ben-Tabassi, Nadine; Ingrand, Valérie; Helmi, Karim

    2015-03-01

    A two-year monitoring program of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, Giardia duodenalis cysts, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens spores and adenovirus was conducted in three large rivers in France used for recreational activities and as a resource for drinking water production. Fifty-liter river water and one thousand-liter tap water samples were concentrated using hollow-fiber ultrafiltration and analyzed by molecular biology or laser-scanning cytometry. In order to evaluate watershed land use influence on microorganism concentration changes, occurrence and seasonality of microorganisms were studied. The highest concentrations of protozoan parasites and C. perfringens were found for one of the three sites, showing a high proportion of agricultural territories, forests and semi-natural environments, which may be partly attributable to soil leaching due to rainfall events. On the contrary, the highest concentrations of adenoviruses were found at the two other sites, probably due to strong urban activities. Health risk assessment was evaluated for each waterborne pathogen regarding exposure during recreational activities (for a single or five bathing events during the summer). The calculated risk was lower than 0.5% for parasites and varied from 1% to 42% for adenovirus. A theoretical assessment of microorganism removal during the drinking water treatment process was also performed, and it showed that an absence of microorganisms could be expected in finished drinking water. This hypothesis was confirmed since all tested tap water samples were negative for each studied microorganism, resulting in a risk for drinking water consumption lower than 0.01% for parasites and lower than 0.5% for adenovirus. PMID:25764059

  6. The Relation between Adolescent Self Assessment of Health and Risk Behaviours: Could a Global Measure of Health Provide Indications of Health Risk Exposures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Walker, Ashley Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Self-rated health (SRH) has become a key organizing construct for assessing multiple dimensions of populations' physical and psychosocial health functioning. However, it is unclear how adolescents' subjective self assessment of health reflects health risk exposures, co-occurring health risks (problem behaviours) and other pre-existing…

  7. Health risk assessment on residents exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbons contaminated in groundwater of a hazardous waste site.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lukas Jyuhn-hsiarn; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Chung, Chih-Wen; Ma, Yee-Chung; Wang, Gan-Shuh; Wang, Jung-Der

    2002-02-01

    We conducted this study to estimate residents' chronic hazard and carcinogenic risk in a groundwater-contaminated community after on-site remediation in Taiwan during 1999-2000. We followed guidelines for assessing hazardous waste sites of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and used empirically measured contaminant levels and exposure parameters to perform health risk assessment on seven chlorinated hydrocarbons. We measured groundwater concentrations of vinyl chloride, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, and 1,1-dichloroethane in 49 off-site residential wells by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Exposure parameters were mainly derived from our field survey of 382 residents, and partially from U.S. EPA default values. Total exposure dose estimation included routes of inhalation during showering and dermal absorption of showers and other activities involved with hand-water contacts. The ingestion route of water was not included because most residents drank boiled water with negligible contaminants. We calculated a hazard index (HI) for all seven chlorinated hydrocarbons and carcinogenic risks for known human carcinogen of vinyl chloride and probable human carcinogens of tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene, which had the same target organ, the liver. The HI values for reasonable maximal exposure (RME) and average exposure were 14.3 and 0.2, respectively. The cancer risks based on RME and average exposure (in parentheses) for vinyl chloride, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene were 8.4 x 10(-6) (7.3 x 10(-9)), 1.9 x 10(-4) (1.3 x 10(-7)), and 1.4 x 10(-4) (1.2 x 10(-6)), respectively. We applied Monte Carlo simulations to the sensitivity analysis, which showed that the contaminant levels, exposure duration, and time for showers were major determinants of health risks. We concluded that the contaminated groundwater was still unsafe for use even after the contaminated

  8. Phase 1 Data Summary Report for the Clinch River Remedial Investigation: Health Risk and Ecological Risk Screening Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) is designed to address The transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. The contaminants released since the early 1940s include a variety of radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds. Primary areas of investigation are Melton Hill Reservoir, the Clinch River from Melton Hill Dam to its confluence with the Tennessee River, Poplar Creek, and Watts Bar Reservoir. The receiving river-reservoir system encompasses 140 river miles in length and 44,000 acres in surface area and is used for municipal water supply, sport fishing, navigation, boating, swimming, tourism, and residential development. The contaminants identified in the Clinch River/Watts Bar Reservoir (CR/WBR) downstream of the ORR are those associated with the water, suspended particles, deposited sediments, aquatic organisms, and wildlife feeding on aquatic organisms. A phased remedial investigation of the CR/WBR system is underway to (1) define the nature and extent of the off-site contamination, (2) evaluate associated environmental and human health risks, and (3) preliminarily identify and evaluate potential remediation alternatives. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of Phase 1 of the CRRI.

  9. Heart Rate Variability: New Perspectives on Physiological Mechanisms, Assessment of Self-regulatory Capacity, and Health risk.

    PubMed

    McCraty, Rollin; Shaffer, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability, the change in the time intervals between adjacent heartbeats, is an emergent property of interdependent regulatory systems that operates on different time scales to adapt to environmental and psychological challenges. This article briefly reviews neural regulation of the heart and offers some new perspectives on mechanisms underlying the very low frequency rhythm of heart rate variability. Interpretation of heart rate variability rhythms in the context of health risk and physiological and psychological self-regulatory capacity assessment is discussed. The cardiovascular regulatory centers in the spinal cord and medulla integrate inputs from higher brain centers with afferent cardiovascular system inputs to adjust heart rate and blood pressure via sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent pathways. We also discuss the intrinsic cardiac nervous system and the heart-brain connection pathways, through which afferent information can influence activity in the subcortical, frontocortical, and motor cortex areas. In addition, the use of real-time HRV feedback to increase self-regulatory capacity is reviewed. We conclude that the heart's rhythms are characterized by both complexity and stability over longer time scales that reflect both physiological and psychological functional status of these internal self-regulatory systems.

  10. Heart Rate Variability: New Perspectives on Physiological Mechanisms, Assessment of Self-regulatory Capacity, and Health risk

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability, the change in the time intervals between adjacent heartbeats, is an emergent property of interdependent regulatory systems that operates on different time scales to adapt to environmental and psychological challenges. This article briefly reviews neural regulation of the heart and offers some new perspectives on mechanisms underlying the very low frequency rhythm of heart rate variability. Interpretation of heart rate variability rhythms in the context of health risk and physiological and psychological self-regulatory capacity assessment is discussed. The cardiovascular regulatory centers in the spinal cord and medulla integrate inputs from higher brain centers with afferent cardiovascular system inputs to adjust heart rate and blood pressure via sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent pathways. We also discuss the intrinsic cardiac nervous system and the heart-brain connection pathways, through which afferent information can influence activity in the subcortical, frontocortical, and motor cortex areas. In addition, the use of real-time HRV feedback to increase self-regulatory capacity is reviewed. We conclude that the heart's rhythms are characterized by both complexity and stability over longer time scales that reflect both physiological and psychological functional status of these internal self-regulatory systems. PMID:25694852

  11. Site specific risk assessment of an energy-from-waste thermal treatment facility in Durham Region, Ontario, Canada. Part A: Human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ollson, Christopher A; Knopper, Loren D; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Jayasinghe, Ruwan

    2014-01-01

    The regions of Durham and York in Ontario, Canada have partnered to construct an energy-from-waste thermal treatment facility as part of a long term strategy for the management of their municipal solid waste. This paper presents the results of a comprehensive human health risk assessment for this facility. This assessment was based on extensive sampling of baseline environmental conditions (e.g., collection and analysis of air, soil, water, and biota samples) as well as detailed site specific modeling to predict facility-related emissions of 87 identified contaminants of potential concern. Emissions were estimated for both the approved initial operating design capacity of the facility (140,000 tonnes per year) and for the maximum design capacity (400,000 tonnes per year). For the 140,000 tonnes per year scenario, this assessment indicated that facility-related emissions are unlikely to cause adverse health risks to local residents, farmers, or other receptors (e.g., recreational users). For the 400,000 tonnes per year scenarios, slightly elevated risks were noted with respect to inhalation (hydrogen chloride) and infant consumption of breast milk (dioxins and furans), but only during predicted 'upset conditions' (i.e. facility start-up, shutdown, and loss of air pollution control) that represent unusual and/or transient occurrences. However, current provincial regulations require that additional environmental screening would be mandatory prior to expansion of the facility beyond the initial approved capacity (140,000 tonnes per year). Therefore, the potential risks due to upset conditions for the 400,000 tonnes per year scenario should be more closely investigated if future expansion is pursued. PMID:23911923

  12. Site specific risk assessment of an energy-from-waste thermal treatment facility in Durham Region, Ontario, Canada. Part A: Human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ollson, Christopher A; Knopper, Loren D; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Jayasinghe, Ruwan

    2014-01-01

    The regions of Durham and York in Ontario, Canada have partnered to construct an energy-from-waste thermal treatment facility as part of a long term strategy for the management of their municipal solid waste. This paper presents the results of a comprehensive human health risk assessment for this facility. This assessment was based on extensive sampling of baseline environmental conditions (e.g., collection and analysis of air, soil, water, and biota samples) as well as detailed site specific modeling to predict facility-related emissions of 87 identified contaminants of potential concern. Emissions were estimated for both the approved initial operating design capacity of the facility (140,000 tonnes per year) and for the maximum design capacity (400,000 tonnes per year). For the 140,000 tonnes per year scenario, this assessment indicated that facility-related emissions are unlikely to cause adverse health risks to local residents, farmers, or other receptors (e.g., recreational users). For the 400,000 tonnes per year scenarios, slightly elevated risks were noted with respect to inhalation (hydrogen chloride) and infant consumption of breast milk (dioxins and furans), but only during predicted 'upset conditions' (i.e. facility start-up, shutdown, and loss of air pollution control) that represent unusual and/or transient occurrences. However, current provincial regulations require that additional environmental screening would be mandatory prior to expansion of the facility beyond the initial approved capacity (140,000 tonnes per year). Therefore, the potential risks due to upset conditions for the 400,000 tonnes per year scenario should be more closely investigated if future expansion is pursued.

  13. Bioaccumulation of Antimony and Arsenic in Vegetables and Health Risk Assessment in the Superlarge Antimony-Mining Area, China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Defang; Zhou, Saijun; Ren, Bozhi; Chen, Tengshu

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution in soils caused by mining and smelting has attracted worldwide attention for its potential health risks to residents. This paper studies the concentrations and accumulations of Sb and As in both soils and vegetables and the human health risks of Sb and As in vegetables from Xikuangshan (XKS) Sb mine, Hunan, China. Results showed that the soils were severely polluted by Sb and As; Sb and As have significant positive correlation. Sb and As concentrations in vegetables were quite different: Coriandrum sativum L. was the highest in Sb, Allium fistulosum L. was the highest in As, and Brassica pekinensis L. was the lowest in both Sb and As; Daucus carota L. and Coriandrum sativum L. showed advantage in accumulating Sb and As; Coriandrum sativum L. had higher capacity of redistributing Sb and As within the plant. Health risk assessment results showed that the hazard quotient (HQ) values of Sb and As in vegetables were in the ranges of 1.61–3.33 and 0.09–0.39, respectively; the chronic daily intake (CDI) and hazard quotient (HQ) values of Sb were over the safe limit recommended by FAO and WHO, indicating that long-term consumption of vegetables from the surrounding soils of XKS mine may bring health risks to residents. PMID:26442167

  14. Bioaccumulation of Antimony and Arsenic in Vegetables and Health Risk Assessment in the Superlarge Antimony-Mining Area, China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Defang; Zhou, Saijun; Ren, Bozhi; Chen, Tengshu

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution in soils caused by mining and smelting has attracted worldwide attention for its potential health risks to residents. This paper studies the concentrations and accumulations of Sb and As in both soils and vegetables and the human health risks of Sb and As in vegetables from Xikuangshan (XKS) Sb mine, Hunan, China. Results showed that the soils were severely polluted by Sb and As; Sb and As have significant positive correlation. Sb and As concentrations in vegetables were quite different: Coriandrum sativum L. was the highest in Sb, Allium fistulosum L. was the highest in As, and Brassica pekinensis L. was the lowest in both Sb and As; Daucus carota L. and Coriandrum sativum L. showed advantage in accumulating Sb and As; Coriandrum sativum L. had higher capacity of redistributing Sb and As within the plant. Health risk assessment results showed that the hazard quotient (HQ) values of Sb and As in vegetables were in the ranges of 1.61-3.33 and 0.09-0.39, respectively; the chronic daily intake (CDI) and hazard quotient (HQ) values of Sb were over the safe limit recommended by FAO and WHO, indicating that long-term consumption of vegetables from the surrounding soils of XKS mine may bring health risks to residents. PMID:26442167

  15. [Health risk assessment of VOCs from a furniture mall in Tianjin].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Wang, Xiu-Yan; Gao, Shuang

    2013-12-01

    In order to understand the indoor air pollution of volatile organic compounds in furniture mall and to perform health risk assessment of chronic exposure to its workers, in this study, the air samples in a furniture mall in Tianjin were sampled in summer (June) and autumn (October) in 2011 and 2012, and the compositions of VOCs were investigated by using the method of reconcentration-GC-MS. The results showed that the indoor concentration of total pollutants was about 1.9 times higher than that of outdoor; the characterized odorous substances were dichloromethane, toluene, and alpha-pinene; aromatic compounds and halogenated alkane were detected in large amounts in furniture mall, and terpenes also occupied a certain proportion. The concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene were significantly lower than the indoor air quality standards. There was a potential cancer risk of benzene and dichloromethane, the Lifetime Cancer Risks (LCR) of which were 1.24 x 10(-5) and 2.50 x 10(-5), respectively. The noncarcinogenic hazard index (HI) of TVOC was below 1, which was within the acceptable range. The health effects analysis showed that there was no partial correlation between the working seniority and heart rate, and pulmonary ventilation function. The biological monitoring and analysis of S-PMA and 8-OHdG in urine for the exposed group and control group showed that in the low-exposure conditions, smoking was an important factor affecting the concentration of S-PMA, but under conditions of higher-exposure, its influence was weakened; there was a positive correlation between S-PMA and 8-OHdG, there was also a correlation between S-PMA and sex, smoking and age; besides, there may be a correlation between S-PMA and the working seniority. PMID:24640891

  16. Assessment of the human health risks posed by exposure to chromium-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, P.J.; Meyer, D.M.; Sauer, M.M.; Paustenbach, D.J. )

    1991-02-01

    Millions of tons of chromite-ore processing residue have been used as fill in various locations in northern New Jersey and elsewhere in the United States. The primary toxicants in the residue are trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). The hazard posed by Cr(III) is negligible due to its low acute and chronic toxicity. In contrast, Cr(VI) is a human carcinogen following inhalation of high concentrations. It can also cause allergic contact dermatitis. This evaluation addresses a residential site where the arithmetic mean (x) and geometric mean (gm) concentrations of Cr(III) in soil were 2879 and 1212 mg/kg (ppm). The mean concentrations of Cr(VI) were 180 and 4 mg/kg, respectively. The uptake (absorbed dose) of Cr(III) via soil ingestion, consumption of homegrown vegetables, and ingestion of inspired particles was determined. The uptake of Cr(VI) via dermal absorption from contact with surface soil and building wall surfaces, as well as inhalation, was also evaluated. The techniques used in this assessment are applicable for evaluating the human health risks posed by any residential site having contaminated soil. The potential for both sensitized and unsensitized persons to develop allergic contact dermatitis due to exposure to soil contaminated at these levels was found to be negligible. The estimated average daily dose (ADD) via ingestion and dermal absorption for the maximally exposed individual (MEI) was about 1500- and 40-fold below the EPA reference dose (RfD) for Cr(III) and Cr(VI), respectively. It was shown that for residential sites, the most important route of exposure to Cr(III) was incidental soil ingestion. Although not relevant to these sites specifically, if garden vegetables could be successfully grown in these soils, then they would probably be the predominant source of uptake of Cr(III). 163 refs.

  17. Health risk assessment for exposure to nitrate in drinking water from village wells in Semarang, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Ross; Maetam, Brooke; Edokpolo, Benjamin; Connell, Des; Yu, Jimmy; Stewart, Donald; Park, M-J; Gray, Darren; Laksono, Budi

    2016-09-01

    The levels of nitrate in 52 drinking water wells in rural Central Java, Indonesia were evaluated in April 2014, and the results were used for a health risk assessment for the local populations by using probabilistic techniques. The concentrations of nitrate in drinking water had a range of 0.01-84 mg/L, a mean of 20 mg/L and a medium of 14 mg/L. Only two of the 52 samples exceeded the WHO guideline values of 50 mg/L for infant methaemoglobinaemia. The hazard quotient values as evaluated against the WHO guideline value at the 50 and 95 percentile points were HQ50 at 0.42 and HQ95 at 1.2, respectively. These indicated a low risk of infant methaemoglobinaemia for the whole population, but some risk for the sensitive portion of the population. The HQ50 and HQ95 values based on WHO acceptable daily intake dose for adult male and female were 0.35 and 1.0, respectively, indicating a generally a low level of risk. A risk characterisation linking birth defects to nitrate levels in water consumed during the first three months of pregnancy resulted in a HQ50/50 values of 1.5 and a HQ95/5 value of 65. These HQ values indicated an elevated risk for birth defects, in particular for the more sensitive population. A sanitation improvement program in the study area had a positive effect in reducing nitrate levels in wells and the corresponding risk for public health. For example, the birth defect HQ50/50 values for a subset of wells surveyed in both 2014 and 2015 was reduced from 1.1 to 0.71.

  18. Assessment of public health risk associated with viral contamination in harvested urban stormwater for domestic applications.

    PubMed

    Lim, Keah-Ying; Hamilton, Andrew J; Jiang, Sunny C

    2015-08-01

    Capturing stormwater is becoming a new standard for sustainable urban stormwater management, which can be used to supplement water supply portfolios in water-stressed cities. The key advantage of harvesting stormwater is to use low impact development (LID) systems for treatment to meet water quality requirement for non-potable uses. However, the lack of scientific studies to validate the safety of such practice has limited its adoption. Microbial hazards in stormwater, especially human viruses, represent the primary public health threat. Using adenovirus and norovirus as target pathogens, we investigated the viral health risk associated with a generic scenario of urban stormwater harvesting practice and its application for three non-potable uses: 1) toilet flushing, 2) showering, and 3) food-crop irrigation. The Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) results showed that food-crop irrigation has the highest annual viral infection risk (median range: 6.8×10(-4)-9.7×10(-1) per-person-per-year or pppy), followed by showering (3.6×10(-7)-4.3×10(-2)pppy), and toilet flushing (1.1×10(-7)-1.3×10(-4)pppy). Disease burden of each stormwater use was ranked in the same order as its viral infection risk: food-crop irrigation>showering>toilet flushing. The median and 95th percentile risk values of toilet-flushing using treated stormwater are below U.S. EPA annual risk benchmark of ≤10(-4)pppy, whereas the disease burdens of both toilet-flushing and showering are within the WHO recommended disease burdens of ≤10(-6)DALYspppy. However, the acceptability of showering risk interpreted based on the U.S. EPA and WHO benchmarks is in disagreement. These results confirm the safety of stormwater application in toilet flushing, but call for further research to fill the data gaps in risk modeling as well as risk benchmarks.

  19. [Health risk assessment of VOCs from a furniture mall in Tianjin].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Wang, Xiu-Yan; Gao, Shuang

    2013-12-01

    In order to understand the indoor air pollution of volatile organic compounds in furniture mall and to perform health risk assessment of chronic exposure to its workers, in this study, the air samples in a furniture mall in Tianjin were sampled in summer (June) and autumn (October) in 2011 and 2012, and the compositions of VOCs were investigated by using the method of reconcentration-GC-MS. The results showed that the indoor concentration of total pollutants was about 1.9 times higher than that of outdoor; the characterized odorous substances were dichloromethane, toluene, and alpha-pinene; aromatic compounds and halogenated alkane were detected in large amounts in furniture mall, and terpenes also occupied a certain proportion. The concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene were significantly lower than the indoor air quality standards. There was a potential cancer risk of benzene and dichloromethane, the Lifetime Cancer Risks (LCR) of which were 1.24 x 10(-5) and 2.50 x 10(-5), respectively. The noncarcinogenic hazard index (HI) of TVOC was below 1, which was within the acceptable range. The health effects analysis showed that there was no partial correlation between the working seniority and heart rate, and pulmonary ventilation function. The biological monitoring and analysis of S-PMA and 8-OHdG in urine for the exposed group and control group showed that in the low-exposure conditions, smoking was an important factor affecting the concentration of S-PMA, but under conditions of higher-exposure, its influence was weakened; there was a positive correlation between S-PMA and 8-OHdG, there was also a correlation between S-PMA and sex, smoking and age; besides, there may be a correlation between S-PMA and the working seniority.

  20. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease heterogeneity: challenges for health risk assessment, stratification and management

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and hypothesis Heterogeneity in clinical manifestations and disease progression in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) lead to consequences for patient health risk assessment, stratification and management. Implicit with the classical "spill over" hypothesis is that COPD heterogeneity is driven by the pulmonary events of the disease. Alternatively, we hypothesized that COPD heterogeneities result from the interplay of mechanisms governing three conceptually different phenomena: 1) pulmonary disease, 2) systemic effects of COPD and 3) co-morbidity clustering, each of them with their own dynamics. Objective and method To explore the potential of a systems analysis of COPD heterogeneity focused on skeletal muscle dysfunction and on co-morbidity clustering aiming at generating predictive modeling with impact on patient management. To this end, strategies combining deterministic modeling and network medicine analyses of the Biobridge dataset were used to investigate the mechanisms of skeletal muscle dysfunction. An independent data driven analysis of co-morbidity clustering examining associated genes and pathways was performed using a large dataset (ICD9-CM data from Medicare, 13 million people). Finally, a targeted network analysis using the outcomes of the two approaches (skeletal muscle dysfunction and co-morbidity clustering) explored shared pathways between these phenomena. Results (1) Evidence of abnormal regulation of skeletal muscle bioenergetics and skeletal muscle remodeling showing a significant association with nitroso-redox disequilibrium was observed in COPD; (2) COPD patients presented higher risk for co-morbidity clustering than non-COPD patients increasing with ageing; and, (3) the on-going targeted network analyses suggests shared pathways between skeletal muscle dysfunction and co-morbidity clustering. Conclusions The results indicate the high potential of a systems approach to address COPD heterogeneity. Significant knowledge gaps

  1. Drinking water quality in villages of southwestern Haryana, India: assessing human health risks associated with hydrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Vinod K.; Suthar, Surindra; Singh, Sushma; Sheoran, Aleenjeet; Garima; Meenakshi; Jain, Sandeep

    2009-09-01

    The chemical quality of groundwater of western Haryana, India was assessed for its suitability for drinking purposes. A total of 275 water samples were collected from deep aquifer based hand-pumps situated in 37 different villages/towns of Bhiwani region. The water samples were analyzed for different physico-chemical properties, e.g., pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total harness (TH), total alkalinity (TA), calcium, magnesium, carbonate, bicarbonate, sulphate, chloride and fluoride concentrations. In this study, the average TDS content was greater ranging 1,692 (Bhiwani block) to 2,560 mg l-1 (Siwani block), and other important parameters of water, e.g., TA (442-1,232 mg l-1), TH (437-864 mg l-1) and bicarbonate (554-672 mg l-1), were also higher than maximum permissible limit by WHO or BIS. The fluoride appeared as a major problem of safe drinking water in this region. We recorded greater fluoride concentration, i.e., 86.0 mg l-1 from Motipura village that is highest fluoride level ever recorded for Haryana state. The average fluoride concentration ranged between 7.1 and 0.8 mg l-1 in different blocks of western Haryana. On the basis of fluoride concentration, Siwani block showed the maximum number of water samples (84% of total collected samples) unsuitable for drinking purposes (containing fluoride >1.5 mg l-1) followed by Charki Dadri block (58%), Bhiwani block (52%), Bawani Khera block (33%) and Loharu block (14%). This study clearly suggest that some health deteriorating chemicals in drinking water were at dangerous level and; therefore, water quality could be a major health threat for local residents of western Haryana. The high fluoride level in drinking water has posed some serious dental health risks in local residents.

  2. Health risk assessment of chlorobenzenes in the air of residential houses using probabilistic techniques.

    PubMed

    Djohan, Djohan; Yu, Jimmy; Connell, Des; Christensen, Elizabeth

    2007-10-01

    A human health risk assessment was performed to evaluate the risks due to chlorobenzenes in the air of residential houses. Chlorobenzenes found in the air in the toilets, rooms, and outdoors of three houses in Brisbane, Australia, were sampled by trapping on Tenax TA and analyzed using an automated thermal desorption (ATD)-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method. Concentrations of 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) in the rooms, toilets, and outdoors were used as the exposure concentrations (E), while those in the toilets (microg/m3) were used as the high-exposure concentrations (HE). The exposure concentrations were transformed into exposure doses (EXD(E) and EXD(HE)). Dose-response data from the literature for a range of adverse effects in animals were obtained and exposure doses were expressed as human equivalent dose (HED). The HED values were higher than the EXD(E) and EXD(HE) values for all adverse effects, and a hazard quotient was calculated that indicated a low level of risk with the high-exposure environment. The lifetime average daily doses (LADDs) for a wide range of adverse effects observed in human case studies were estimated and compared to the doses in the high-exposure (HE) situation. Using the Monte Carlo simulation technique the probabilities of risk quotients higher than unity ranged from 0.02 to 0.26. This evaluation indicated that 1,4-DCB posed low risks to general residents; however, for individuals with susceptible characteristics and exposure to elevated 1,4-DCB, the probability of adverse responses was moderate to high.

  3. Human health risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in water: an uncertainty analysis for meprobamate, carbamazepine, and phenytoin.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Xagoraraki, Irene

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a step-wise development of a quantitative pharmaceutical risk assessment (QPhRA, hereafter) framework, including Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis for meprobamate, carbamazepine, and phenytoin during (1) accidental exposures of stream water and fish consumption and (2) direct ingestion of finished drinking water for children and adults. Average hazard quotients of these pharmaceuticals (i.e., the ratio of values of chronic daily intake to acceptable daily intake) were found to lie between 1x10(-10) and 3x10(-5) and 99 th percentile values of hazard quotients were found to be less than 1x10(-4) for both sub-populations, indicating no potential risks of adverse effects due to pharmaceuticals exposures. In addition, pharmaceutical concentrations were also observed to be lower than their respective calculated acceptable daily intake-equivalent drinking water levels, indicating no potential human health risks. To the authors' knowledge, for the first time in QPhRA studies, this study has attempted to characterize and quantify effects of factors, such as considerations for sensitive sub-populations using subpopulation-specific toxic endpoints and use of pharmaceutical concentrations in stream and finished drinking waters on risk estimates. Acceptable daily intake was observed to be the primary contributor (>93% variance contribution) in the overall uncertainties of estimates of hazard quotients, followed by fish consumptions and pharmaceutical concentrations in water. Further research efforts are required to standardize use of acceptable daily intake values to reduce large variability in estimation of hazard quotients. PMID:20152876

  4. Health risk assessment for exposure to nitrate in drinking water from village wells in Semarang, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Ross; Maetam, Brooke; Edokpolo, Benjamin; Connell, Des; Yu, Jimmy; Stewart, Donald; Park, M-J; Gray, Darren; Laksono, Budi

    2016-09-01

    The levels of nitrate in 52 drinking water wells in rural Central Java, Indonesia were evaluated in April 2014, and the results were used for a health risk assessment for the local populations by using probabilistic techniques. The concentrations of nitrate in drinking water had a range of 0.01-84 mg/L, a mean of 20 mg/L and a medium of 14 mg/L. Only two of the 52 samples exceeded the WHO guideline values of 50 mg/L for infant methaemoglobinaemia. The hazard quotient values as evaluated against the WHO guideline value at the 50 and 95 percentile points were HQ50 at 0.42 and HQ95 at 1.2, respectively. These indicated a low risk of infant methaemoglobinaemia for the whole population, but some risk for the sensitive portion of the population. The HQ50 and HQ95 values based on WHO acceptable daily intake dose for adult male and female were 0.35 and 1.0, respectively, indicating a generally a low level of risk. A risk characterisation linking birth defects to nitrate levels in water consumed during the first three months of pregnancy resulted in a HQ50/50 values of 1.5 and a HQ95/5 value of 65. These HQ values indicated an elevated risk for birth defects, in particular for the more sensitive population. A sanitation improvement program in the study area had a positive effect in reducing nitrate levels in wells and the corresponding risk for public health. For example, the birth defect HQ50/50 values for a subset of wells surveyed in both 2014 and 2015 was reduced from 1.1 to 0.71. PMID:27400904

  5. [Assessment of health risk in view of changes in labor code and methods used for protecting the environment].

    PubMed

    Indulski, J A; Rolecki, R

    1994-01-01

    In view of the present and proposed amendments to the Labor Code as well as bearing in mind anticipated harmonization of regulations in this area with those of EEC, the authors emphasize the need for well developed methodology for assessing chemical safety in an occupational environment with special reference to health effects in people exposed to chemicals. Methods for assessing health risk induced by work under conditions of exposure to chemicals were divided into: methods for assessing technological/processing risk, and methods for assessing health risk related to the toxic effect of chemicals. The need for developing means of risk communication in order to secure proper risk perception among people exposed to chemicals and risk managers responsible for prevention against chemical hazards was also stressed. It is suggested to establish a centre for chemical substances in order to settle down all issues pertaining to human exposure to chemicals. The centre would be responsible, under the provisions of the Chemical Substances Act, for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the present situation and for the development of guidelines on assessment of health risk among persons exposed to chemicals.

  6. Environmental- and health-risk-induced remediation design for benzene-contaminated groundwater under parameter uncertainty: a case study in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Fan, X; He, L; Lu, H W; Li, J

    2014-09-01

    This study proposes an environmental- and health-risk-induced remediation design approach for benzene-contaminated groundwater. It involves exposure frequency and intake rates that are important but difficult to be exactly quantified as breakthrough point. Flexible health-risk control is considered in the simulation and optimization work. The proposed approach is then applied to a petroleum-contaminated site in western Canada. Different situations about remediation durations, public concerns, and satisfactory degrees are addressed by the approach. The relationship between environmental standards and health-risk limits is analyzed, in association with their effect on remediation costs. Insights of three uncertain factors (i.e. exposure frequency, intake rate and health-risk threshold) for the remediation system are also explored, on a basis of understanding their impacts on health risk as well as their importance order. The case study results show that (1) nature attenuation plays a more important role in long-term remediation scheme than the pump-and-treat system; (2) carcinogenic risks have greater impact on total pumping rates than environmental standards for long-term remediation; (3) intake rates are the second important factor affecting the remediation system's performance, followed by exposure frequency; (4) the 10-year remediation scheme is the most robust choice when environmental and health-risk concerns are not well quantified.

  7. Environmental- and health-risk-induced remediation design for benzene-contaminated groundwater under parameter uncertainty: a case study in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Fan, X; He, L; Lu, H W; Li, J

    2014-09-01

    This study proposes an environmental- and health-risk-induced remediation design approach for benzene-contaminated groundwater. It involves exposure frequency and intake rates that are important but difficult to be exactly quantified as breakthrough point. Flexible health-risk control is considered in the simulation and optimization work. The proposed approach is then applied to a petroleum-contaminated site in western Canada. Different situations about remediation durations, public concerns, and satisfactory degrees are addressed by the approach. The relationship between environmental standards and health-risk limits is analyzed, in association with their effect on remediation costs. Insights of three uncertain factors (i.e. exposure frequency, intake rate and health-risk threshold) for the remediation system are also explored, on a basis of understanding their impacts on health risk as well as their importance order. The case study results show that (1) nature attenuation plays a more important role in long-term remediation scheme than the pump-and-treat system; (2) carcinogenic risks have greater impact on total pumping rates than environmental standards for long-term remediation; (3) intake rates are the second important factor affecting the remediation system's performance, followed by exposure frequency; (4) the 10-year remediation scheme is the most robust choice when environmental and health-risk concerns are not well quantified. PMID:24997972

  8. Environmental health risks associated with off-campus student-tenant housing.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Erin; Cole, Eugene C; Merrill, Ray

    2009-01-01

    While previous studies have established an association between poor housing conditions and adverse health effects, none has specifically addressed health and safety risks to the college student population in rental housing. A needs-assessment survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of adverse health and safety conditions in off-campus student housing associated with a large university in the western United States. Results from 1959 student-tenant surveys revealed problems with installed appliances (39.6%); visible mold (39.3%); heating/cooling systems (31.9%); indoor dampness/water damage (24.9%); security locks (23.4%); ants (17.1%); electrical wiring (11.3%); malfunctioning or missing smoke alarms (11.2%); broken steps/handrails (7.8%); and mice (4.8%), among other problems. Reported health effects associated with housing included headaches, coughing, sneezing, nausea, and dizziness, and these effects were found to significantly correlate with increased environmental problems. The results of this study indicate a need to inform college students about environmental health and safety problems in leased housing, to promote responsibility of landlords to provide safe and healthful environments, and to raise awareness of this issue for public health and housing officials in university communities across the country. PMID:19192743

  9. Review of various approaches for assessing public health risks in regulatory decision making: choosing the right approach for the problem.

    PubMed

    Dearfield, Kerry L; Hoelzer, Karin; Kause, Janell R

    2014-08-01

    Stakeholders in the public health risk analysis community can possess differing opinions about what is meant by "conduct a risk assessment." In reality, there is no one-size-fits-all risk assessment that can address all public health issues, problems, and regulatory needs. Although several international and national organizations (e.g., Codex Alimentarius Commission, Office International des Epizooties, Food and Agricultural Organization, World Health Organization, National Research Council, and European Food Safety Authority) have addressed this issue, confusion remains. The type and complexity of a risk assessment must reflect the risk management needs to appropriately inform a regulatory or nonregulatory decision, i.e., a risk assessment is ideally "fit for purpose" and directly applicable to risk management issues of concern. Frequently however, there is a lack of understanding by those not completely familiar with risk assessment regarding the specific utility of different approaches for assessing public health risks. This unfamiliarity can unduly hamper the acceptance of risk assessment results by risk managers and may reduce the usefulness of such results for guiding public health policies, practices, and operations. Differences in interpretation of risk assessment terminology further complicate effective communication among risk assessors, risk managers, and stakeholders. This article provides an overview of the types of risk assessments commonly conducted, with examples primarily from the food and agricultural sectors, and a discussion of the utility and limitations of these specific approaches for assessing public health risks. Clarification of the risk management issues and corresponding risk assessment design needs during the formative stages of the risk analysis process is a key step for ensuring that the most appropriate assessment of risk is developed and used to guide risk management decisions. PMID:25198609

  10. Human and animal health risk assessment of metal contamination in soil and plants from Ait Ammar abandoned iron mine, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Mohamed; Haddioui, Abdelmajid

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate metal pollution in food chain and assess the resulting health risks to native citizens in Ait Ammar village. The results showed that cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and copper (Cu) concentrations in animal organs were above the metal concentration safety limit. Nevertheless, soils and plants from mining area were contaminated with iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), and Cr, Cu, Zn respectively. Cd concentrations in almost animal organs were higher than the acceptable daily upper limit, suggesting human consumption of this livestock meat and offal may pose a health risk. The estimated intake of Pb and Cd for Ait Ammar population could be a cause of concern because it exceeded the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) proposed by Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in this area. Thus, conducting regular periodic studies to assess the dietary intake of mentioned elements are recommended. PMID:26631396

  11. Human and animal health risk assessment of metal contamination in soil and plants from Ait Ammar abandoned iron mine, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Mohamed; Haddioui, Abdelmajid

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate metal pollution in food chain and assess the resulting health risks to native citizens in Ait Ammar village. The results showed that cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and copper (Cu) concentrations in animal organs were above the metal concentration safety limit. Nevertheless, soils and plants from mining area were contaminated with iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), and Cr, Cu, Zn respectively. Cd concentrations in almost animal organs were higher than the acceptable daily upper limit, suggesting human consumption of this livestock meat and offal may pose a health risk. The estimated intake of Pb and Cd for Ait Ammar population could be a cause of concern because it exceeded the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) proposed by Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in this area. Thus, conducting regular periodic studies to assess the dietary intake of mentioned elements are recommended.

  12. Human health risk assessment due to global warming--a case study of the Gulf countries.

    PubMed

    Husain, Tahir; Chaudhary, Junaid Rafi

    2008-12-01

    Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to rising sea levels, low lying coastal regions will be flooded, farmlands will be threatened and scarcity of fresh water resources will be aggravated. This will in turn cause increased human suffering in different parts of the world. Spread of disease vectors will contribute towards high mortality, along with the heat related deaths. Arid and hot climatic regions will face devastating effects risking survival of the fragile plant species, wild animals, and other desert ecosystems. The paper presents future changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity and their direct and indirect potential impacts on human health in the coastal regions of the Gulf countries including Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The analysis is based on the long-term changes in the values of temperature, precipitation and humidity as predicted by the global climatic simulation models under different scenarios of GHG emission levels. Monthly data on temperature, precipitation, and humidity were retrieved from IPCC databases for longitude 41.25 degrees E to 61.875 degrees E and latitude 9.278 degrees N to 27.833 degrees N. Using an average of 1970 to 2000 values as baseline, the changes in the humidity, temperature and precipitation were predicted for the period 2020 to 2050 and 2070 to 2099. Based on epidemiological studies on various diseases associated with the change in temperature, humidity and precipitation in arid and hot regions, empirical models were developed to assess human health risk in the Gulf region to predict elevated levels of diseases and mortality rates under different emission scenarios as developed by the IPCC.The preliminary assessment indicates

  13. Health risk assessment of toxic VOCs species for the coal fire well drillers.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yulong; Peng, Lin; Cheng, Na; Bai, Huiling; Mu, Ling

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the health risk of toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) species for well drillers, working at an exposure site around a well of underground coal fire site, was presented in a case of Shanxi province. The samples were collected by Teflon sampling bags and measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that isopropyl alcohol was the most abundant compound of VOCs, with the geometric mean concentrations of 1700.38 μg/m(3). The geometric mean concentrations of individual BTEX compounds obtained in all of the sampling campaign were 131.64, 10.15, 15.53, and 25.38 μg/m(3) for benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylenes, respectively. Relative proportion of BTEX averaged as 8.5:0.7:1:1.6. High B/T ratio (13.0) and low T/E ratio (0.7) was observed in this study. For non-cancer risk in this study, the hazardous quotient (HQ) of 1,2-dibromoethane, 1,3-butadiene, and benzene was 17.91, 1.71, and 43.88, respectively, mean their non-cancer risk was at the level of definite concern. The HQ sum of 20 VOCs was 64.94, much higher than 1. The cancer risk values of benzene (7.01E-04), 1,2-dibromoethane (1.91E-04), carbon tetrachloride (1.55E-04), and 1,3-butadiene (1.09E-04) were greater than 10(-4), indicating that they were all definite risk. The total cancer risk of all VOCs species was 1.39E-03, almost 14 times more than the level of definite risk. The stochastic exposure assessment of all VOCs species total cancer risk using the Monte Carlo simulation analysis shows that 5 and 95 % cancer risks were predicted to be 7.60E-04 and 2.75E-03, respectively. The cancer risk for all VOCs species is unacceptable. The results of sensitivity analysis show that benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and 1,3-butadiene exposure account for more than 98 % contributions to the estimated risk for drillers, indicating that those VOCs species exposure has greater impact than other species on risk assessment. Both combined effects and independent effects

  14. Human health risk assessment due to global warming--a case study of the Gulf countries.

    PubMed

    Husain, Tahir; Chaudhary, Junaid Rafi

    2008-12-01

    Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to rising sea levels, low lying coastal regions will be flooded, farmlands will be threatened and scarcity of fresh water resources will be aggravated. This will in turn cause increased human suffering in different parts of the world. Spread of disease vectors will contribute towards high mortality, along with the heat related deaths. Arid and hot climatic regions will face devastating effects risking survival of the fragile plant species, wild animals, and other desert ecosystems. The paper presents future changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity and their direct and indirect potential impacts on human health in the coastal regions of the Gulf countries including Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The analysis is based on the long-term changes in the values of temperature, precipitation and humidity as predicted by the global climatic simulation models under different scenarios of GHG emission levels. Monthly data on temperature, precipitation, and humidity were retrieved from IPCC databases for longitude 41.25 degrees E to 61.875 degrees E and latitude 9.278 degrees N to 27.833 degrees N. Using an average of 1970 to 2000 values as baseline, the changes in the humidity, temperature and precipitation were predicted for the period 2020 to 2050 and 2070 to 2099. Based on epidemiological studies on various diseases associated with the change in temperature, humidity and precipitation in arid and hot regions, empirical models were developed to assess human health risk in the Gulf region to predict elevated levels of diseases and mortality rates under different emission scenarios as developed by the IPCC.The preliminary assessment indicates

  15. Assessment of cancer and noncancer health risks from exposure to PAHs in street dust in the Tamale Metropolis, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obiri, Samuel; Cobbina, Samuel J; Armah, Frederick A; Luginaah, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    This study is part of a broader initiative to characterize, quantify and assess the human health risk associated with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust along the Trans-ECOWAS highway in West Africa. In the first part, PAHs were characterized and quantified in low- and high-traffic zones. In this study, cancer and noncancer human health risks from exposure to (PAHs) in street dust in the Tamale metropolis, Ghana were assessed in accordance with the USEPA risk assessment guidelines. The results of the study as obtained from inhalation of benzo [a] anthracene (BaA), benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), benzo [k] fluoranthene (BkF) and chrysene via central tendency exposure parameters (CTE) by trespassers (street hawkers including children and adults) in street dust within low traffic zones in the Tamale metropolis are 1.6E-02, 4.7E-02, 1.8E-03, and 1.6E-04 respectively. For reasonable maximum exposure parameters (RME), risk values of 1.2E-01, 3.5E-01, 1.3E-02 and 1.2E-03 respectively were obtained for benzo [a] anthracene, benzo [a] pyrene, benzo [k] fluoranthene and chrysene. Hazard index for acenaphthene, anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorine, naphthalene and pyrene in the CTE and RME scenarios were 2.2, 3.E-01, 2.6, 2.6, 100, 38 and 12, 1.7,15, 14, 550, 210 respectively. Generally, the cancer health risk associated with inhalation of benzo [a] anthracene, benzo [a] pyrene, benzo [k] fluoranthene and chrysene revealed that resident adults and children in the Tamale metropolis are at risk from exposure to these chemicals. The results of this preliminary assessment that quantified PAH related health risks along this part of the Trans-ECOWAS highway revealed that, there is the need for regulatory agencies to put in comprehensive measures to mitigate the risks posed to these categories of human receptors.

  16. Assessment of cancer and noncancer health risks from exposure to PAHs in street dust in the Tamale Metropolis, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obiri, Samuel; Cobbina, Samuel J; Armah, Frederick A; Luginaah, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    This study is part of a broader initiative to characterize, quantify and assess the human health risk associated with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust along the Trans-ECOWAS highway in West Africa. In the first part, PAHs were characterized and quantified in low- and high-traffic zones. In this study, cancer and noncancer human health risks from exposure to (PAHs) in street dust in the Tamale metropolis, Ghana were assessed in accordance with the USEPA risk assessment guidelines. The results of the study as obtained from inhalation of benzo [a] anthracene (BaA), benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), benzo [k] fluoranthene (BkF) and chrysene via central tendency exposure parameters (CTE) by trespassers (street hawkers including children and adults) in street dust within low traffic zones in the Tamale metropolis are 1.6E-02, 4.7E-02, 1.8E-03, and 1.6E-04 respectively. For reasonable maximum exposure parameters (RME), risk values of 1.2E-01, 3.5E-01, 1.3E-02 and 1.2E-03 respectively were obtained for benzo [a] anthracene, benzo [a] pyrene, benzo [k] fluoranthene and chrysene. Hazard index for acenaphthene, anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorine, naphthalene and pyrene in the CTE and RME scenarios were 2.2, 3.E-01, 2.6, 2.6, 100, 38 and 12, 1.7,15, 14, 550, 210 respectively. Generally, the cancer health risk associated with inhalation of benzo [a] anthracene, benzo [a] pyrene, benzo [k] fluoranthene and chrysene revealed that resident adults and children in the Tamale metropolis are at risk from exposure to these chemicals. The results of this preliminary assessment that quantified PAH related health risks along this part of the Trans-ECOWAS highway revealed that, there is the need for regulatory agencies to put in comprehensive measures to mitigate the risks posed to these categories of human receptors. PMID:23379945

  17. Fine particulate matter in the tropical environment: monsoonal effects, source apportionment, and health risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. F.; Latif, M. T.; Saw, W. H.; Amil, N.; Nadzir, M. S. M.; Sahani, M.; Tahir, N. M.; Chung, J. X.

    2016-01-01

    The health implications of PM2.5 in the tropical region of Southeast Asia (SEA) are significant as PM2.5 can pose serious health concerns. PM2.5 concentration and sources here are strongly influenced by changes in the monsoon regime from the south-west quadrant to the north-east quadrant in the region. In this work, PM2.5 samples were collected at a semi-urban area using a high-volume air sampler at different seasons on 24 h basis. Analysis of trace elements and water-soluble ions was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), respectively. Apportionment analysis of PM2.5 was carried out using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) positive matrix factorization (PMF) 5.0 and a mass closure model. We quantitatively characterized the health risks posed to human populations through the inhalation of selected heavy metals in PM2.5. 48 % of the samples collected exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) 24 h PM2.5 guideline but only 19 % of the samples exceeded 24 h US EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). The PM2.5 concentration was slightly higher during the north-east monsoon compared to south-west monsoon. The main trace metals identified were As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, V, and Cr while the main ions were SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, and Na. The mass closure model identified four major sources of PM2.5 that account for 55 % of total mass balance. The four sources are mineral matter (MIN) (35 %), secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) (11 %), sea salt (SS) (7 %), and trace elements (TE) (2 %). PMF 5.0 elucidated five potential sources: motor vehicle emissions coupled with biomass burning (31 %) were the most dominant, followed by marine/sulfate aerosol (20 %), coal burning (19 %), nitrate aerosol (17 %), and mineral/road dust (13 %). The hazard quotient (HQ) for four selected metals (Pb, As, Cd, and Ni) in PM2.5 mass was highest in PM2.5 mass from the coal burning source and least in PM2.5 mass

  18. Neurotoxicity may be an overlooked consequence of benzo[a]pyrene exposure that is relevant to human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Chepelev, Nikolai L; Moffat, Ivy D; Bowers, Wayne J; Yauk, Carole L

    2015-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a well-studied environmental compound that requires metabolic activation to have a carcinogenic effect. The neurotoxicity of BaP has received considerably less attention than its carcinogenicity. Environmental exposure to BaP correlates with impaired learning and memory in adults, and poor neurodevelopment in children. We carried out a comprehensive literature review to examine the neurotoxicity of BaP. The data were used to identify potential point of departure (POD) values for cancer and neurotoxicity endpoints using benchmark dose (BMD) modelling to compare the utility of both endpoints in the risk assessment of BaP. The POD for neurotoxicity in rodents, based on a standard behavioural test (Morris water maze), was 0.025 mg BaP/kg-bw-day compared to 0.54 mg BaP/kg-bw-day for rodent forestomach carcinogenicity, suggesting that neurotoxic endpoints are more sensitive than cancer endpoints for health risks associated with BaP exposure. Using the limited number of published studies on this topic, we propose a preliminary mode of action (MOA) to explain BaP-induced neurotoxicity in rodents. The MOA includes: (1) BaP binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR); (2) AHR-dependent modulation of the transcription of N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) subunits; (3) NMDAR-mediated loss of neuronal activity and decreased long-term potentiation; and (4) compromised learning and memory. More data are needed to explore the proposed neurotoxic MOA. In addition, we consider alternative MOAs, including the hypothesis that BaP-mediated DNA damage may lead to either carcinogenicity or neurotoxicity, depending on the tissue. Our proposed MOA is intended to serve as a basis for hypothesis testing in future studies. We emphasise that further studies are needed to validate the proposed MOA, to evaluate its human relevance, and to explore other potential mechanisms of BaP neurotoxicity. PMID:26041267

  19. Online tailored weight management in the worksite: does it make a difference in biennial health risk assessment data?

    PubMed

    McHugh, Janice; Suggs, L Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are directly associated with heart disease, cancer, and diabetes and pose a serious cost-related challenge to employers. As most of the rise in health care spending is traced to the rise in population risk factors, maintaining or reducing the prevalence of disease represents a strategy with large potential payoffs. Tailored communication is a promising communication strategy for influencing health behavior change, including behaviors for weight management. Much of the tailored communication research is based on communication developed for research purposes, yet access to commercially available tailored health programs for worksites is growing. As health risk assessments are increasingly used for setting health programming and insurance priorities in U.S. workplaces and worksites have opportunities to purchase tailored programs, it is important to understand the effect of tailored communication on health risk assessment data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of a commercially available web-based tailored weight management program on employee weight, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose. The authors compared health risk assessment data at baseline and 2 years later from 101 overweight and obese employees who participated in the tailored weight management program and 137 overweight and obese employees who did not participate in the program. Results show that there were significant mean differences in systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, and blood sugar levels, but each in a clinically undesirable direction. More research is needed to understand the effect of tailored programs used in worksite health promotion.

  20. Analysis of indoor air pollutants checklist using environmetric technique for health risk assessment of sick building complaint in nonindustrial workplace

    PubMed Central

    Syazwan, AI; Rafee, B Mohd; Juahir, Hafizan; Azman, AZF; Nizar, AM; Izwyn, Z; Syahidatussyakirah, K; Muhaimin, AA; Yunos, MA Syafiq; Anita, AR; Hanafiah, J Muhamad; Shaharuddin, MS; Ibthisham, A Mohd; Hasmadi, I Mohd; Azhar, MN Mohamad; Azizan, HS; Zulfadhli, I; Othman, J; Rozalini, M; Kamarul, FT

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To analyze and characterize a multidisciplinary, integrated indoor air quality checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants in a nonindustrial workplace setting. Design A cross-sectional study based on a participatory occupational health program conducted by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (Malaysia) and Universiti Putra Malaysia. Method A modified version of the indoor environmental checklist published by the Department of Occupational Health and Safety, based on the literature and discussion with occupational health and safety professionals, was used in the evaluation process. Summated scores were given according to the cluster analysis and principal component analysis in the characterization of risk. Environmetric techniques was used to classify the risk of variables in the checklist. Identification of the possible source of item pollutants was also evaluated from a semiquantitative approach. Result Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis resulted in the grouping of factorial components into three clusters (high complaint, moderate-high complaint, moderate complaint), which were further analyzed by discriminant analysis. From this, 15 major variables that influence indoor air quality were determined. Principal component analysis of each cluster revealed that the main factors influencing the high complaint group were fungal-related problems, chemical indoor dispersion, detergent, renovation, thermal comfort, and location of fresh air intake. The moderate-high complaint group showed significant high loading on ventilation, air filters, and smoking-related activities. The moderate complaint group showed high loading on dampness, odor, and thermal comfort. Conclusion This semiquantitative assessment, which graded risk from low to high based on the intensity of the problem, shows promising and reliable results. It should be used as an important tool in the preliminary assessment of indoor air quality and as a

  1. Assessment of potential health risk for inhabitants living near a former lead smelter. Part 2: site-specific human health risk assessment of Cd and Pb contamination in kitchen gardens.

    PubMed

    Pelfrêne, Aurélie; Douay, Francis; Richard, Antoine; Roussel, Hélène; Girondelot, Bertrand

    2013-04-01

    Metal contamination of urban soils and homegrown products has caused major concern. In Part 1, we investigated the long-term effects of a former smelter on the degree of kitchen garden-soil contamination and the quality of the homegrown vegetables from these gardens. The results showed that the soils retained a high level of contamination and that a large proportion of the vegetables produced did not comply with the legislation on the levels of metals allowed for human consumption. The present study aims to assess the associated potential health risk to local inhabitants through consumption of homegrown vegetables and ingestion of soil particles using a land use-based approach. For lead (Pb), the standard hazard quotient (HQ)-based risk assessment method was used to determine the HQ. For cadmium (Cd), the approach consisted of calculating the HQs and then deriving site-specific assessment criteria (SSAC) using the SNIFFER method. The results suggested that the exposure pathways considered should not engender any form of deleterious health effects for adults. For children, Pb was the main concern and induced a relatively high health risk through soil particle ingestion, and most total soil Cd concentrations exceeded the derived SSAC, in particular, through consumption of vegetables. The metal bioaccessibility in soils was incorporated into the methods to establish more realistic risk assessment measures. This study proposes an approach to integrate different human health risk assessment methods. Further investigations should complete the assessment to improve risk determination, e.g., the determination of metal bioaccessibility in vegetables.

  2. Air pollution ranks as largest health risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that 7 million people died in 2012 from air-pollution-related sicknesses, marking air pollution as the single largest environmental health risk. This finding, a result of better knowledge and assessment of the diseases, is more than double previous estimates of the risk of death from air pollution.

  3. Health risks of dietary intake of environmental pollutants by elite sportsmen and sportswomen.

    PubMed

    Falcó, G; Bocio, A; Llobet, J M; Domingo, J L

    2005-12-01

    The dietary intake of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) by elite sportsmen and sportswomen of Catalonia, Spain, was assessed. In 2000, food samples were randomly acquired in various cities of Catalonia. Analysis of the above pollutants were determined according to the appropriate analytical techniques (ICP-MS, HRGC/HRMS, HPLC). In general terms, elite sportsmen and sportswomen showed a higher intake of Cd, Hg, Pb, HCB, PCNs, PCDD/Fs and PAHs than the general population, while it was lower for PCDEs (both sexes), and PCBs and PBDEs (women). According to the FAO/WHO provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for metals, the WHO tolerable daily intake (TDI) for HCB, and the US EPA's reference dose (RfD) for PAHs, the dietary intakes of environmental pollutants should not mean a potential toxic hazard. However, the WHO-TDI for PCDD/Fs and "dioxin-like" PCBs is exceeded in sportsmen. The current results indicate that the consumption of those food groups showing the highest contribution to the intake of these pollutants should be diminished. In relation to this, the reduction of the consumption of dairy products and cereals would be important.

  4. Health risk assessment of heavy metals and bacterial contamination in drinking water sources: a case study of Malakand Agency, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Ali, Sharafat; Sher, Hassan; Rahman, Ziaur; Khan, Kifayatullah; Tang, Jianfeng; Ahmad, Aziz

    2016-05-01

    Human beings are frequently exposed to pathogens and heavy metals through ingestion of contaminated drinking water throughout the world particularly in developing countries. The present study aimed to assess the quality of water used for drinking purposes in Malakand Agency, Pakistan. Water samples were collected from different sources (dug wells, bore wells, tube wells, springs, and hand pumps) and analyzed for different physico-chemical parameters and bacterial pathogens (fecal coliform bacteria) using standard methods, while heavy metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS-PEA-700). In the study area, 70 % of water sources were contaminated with F. coliform representing high bacterial contamination. The heavy metals, such as Cd (29 and 8 %), Ni (16 and 78 %), and Cr (7 %), exceeded their respective safe limits of WHO (2006) and Pak-EPA (2008), respectively, in water sources, while Pb (9 %) only exceeded from WHO safe limit. The risk assessment tools such as daily intake of metals (DIMs) and health risk indexes (HRIs) were used for health risk estimation and were observed in the order of Ni > Cr > Mn > Pb > Cd and Cd > Ni > Pb > Mn > Cr, respectively. The HRI values of heavy metals for both children and adults were <1, showing lack of potential health risk to the local inhabitants of the study area. PMID:27075311

  5. Health risk assessment of heavy metals and bacterial contamination in drinking water sources: a case study of Malakand Agency, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Ali, Sharafat; Sher, Hassan; Rahman, Ziaur; Khan, Kifayatullah; Tang, Jianfeng; Ahmad, Aziz

    2016-05-01

    Human beings are frequently exposed to pathogens and heavy metals through ingestion of contaminated drinking water throughout the world particularly in developing countries. The present study aimed to assess the quality of water used for drinking purposes in Malakand Agency, Pakistan. Water samples were collected from different sources (dug wells, bore wells, tube wells, springs, and hand pumps) and analyzed for different physico-chemical parameters and bacterial pathogens (fecal coliform bacteria) using standard methods, while heavy metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS-PEA-700). In the study area, 70 % of water sources were contaminated with F. coliform representing high bacterial contamination. The heavy metals, such as Cd (29 and 8 %), Ni (16 and 78 %), and Cr (7 %), exceeded their respective safe limits of WHO (2006) and Pak-EPA (2008), respectively, in water sources, while Pb (9 %) only exceeded from WHO safe limit. The risk assessment tools such as daily intake of metals (DIMs) and health risk indexes (HRIs) were used for health risk estimation and were observed in the order of Ni > Cr > Mn > Pb > Cd and Cd > Ni > Pb > Mn > Cr, respectively. The HRI values of heavy metals for both children and adults were <1, showing lack of potential health risk to the local inhabitants of the study area.

  6. A Bayesian network model to assess the public health risk associated with wet weather sewer overflows discharging into waterways.

    PubMed

    Goulding, R; Jayasuriya, N; Horan, E

    2012-10-15

    Overflows from sanitary sewers during wet weather, which occur when the hydraulic capacity of the sewer system is exceeded, are considered a potential threat to the ecological and public health of the waterways which receive these overflows. As a result, water retailers in Australia and internationally commit significant resources to manage and abate sewer overflows. However, whilst some studies have contributed to an increased understanding of the impacts and risks associated with these events, they are relatively few in number and there still is a general lack of knowledge in this area. A Bayesian network model to assess the public health risk associated with wet weather sewer overflows is presented in this paper. The Bayesian network approach is shown to provide significant benefits in the assessment of public health risks associated with wet weather sewer overflows. In particular, the ability for the model to account for the uncertainty inherent in sewer overflow events and subsequent impacts through the use of probabilities is a valuable function. In addition, the paper highlights the benefits of the probabilistic inference function of the Bayesian network in prioritising management options to minimise public health risks associated with sewer overflows.

  7. Seasonality, disease and behavior: using multiple methods to explore socio-environmental health risks in the Mekong Delta.

    PubMed

    Few, Roger; Lake, Iain; Hunter, Paul R; Tran, Pham Gia

    2013-03-01

    Any analysis of how changing environmental hazards impact on public health is fundamentally constrained unless it recognizes the centrality of the social and behavioral dimensions of risk. This paper reports on a research project conducted among low-income peri-urban households in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The research was based on cross-disciplinary inputs to develop a multi-layered understanding of the implications of a dynamic seasonal environment for diarrheal disease risk. It is a widely held assumption that the major changes in the abundance of surface water between the flood and dry seasons in the Mekong Delta are likely to be reflected in the changing patterns of disease risk, especially for poorer households that tend to rely heavily on river water for domestic water use. Therefore, this study investigated seasonal patterns in the contamination of environmental water, incidences of diarrheal illnesses, water use and hygiene behavior, together with perceptions of health risks and seasonality. During the period of October 2007 to October 2008, the UK and Vietnamese research team worked with a total of 120 households in four low-income sites around the city of Long Xuyen to conduct water testing; administer questionnaires on self-reported health, risk perceptions and behavior; and conduct semi-structured interviews. The research team found no overall evidence of a systematic seasonal risk pattern. At the population level, marginal temporal variations in water quality in the environment failed to translate into health outcomes. A complex risk narrative emerged from the interweaving data elements, demonstrating major inter- and intra-household variations in risk perceptions, hygiene behavior, seasonal behavior and other risk factors. It is suggested that these complexities of human behavior and transmission routes challenge simplistic assumptions about change in health outcomes as a result of seasonal environmental changes. These findings demonstrate the key

  8. Seasonality, disease and behavior: using multiple methods to explore socio-environmental health risks in the Mekong Delta.

    PubMed

    Few, Roger; Lake, Iain; Hunter, Paul R; Tran, Pham Gia

    2013-03-01

    Any analysis of how changing environmental hazards impact on public health is fundamentally constrained unless it recognizes the centrality of the social and behavioral dimensions of risk. This paper reports on a research project conducted among low-income peri-urban households in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The research was based on cross-disciplinary inputs to develop a multi-layered understanding of the implications of a dynamic seasonal environment for diarrheal disease risk. It is a widely held assumption that the major changes in the abundance of surface water between the flood and dry seasons in the Mekong Delta are likely to be reflected in the changing patterns of disease risk, especially for poorer households that tend to rely heavily on river water for domestic water use. Therefore, this study investigated seasonal patterns in the contamination of environmental water, incidences of diarrheal illnesses, water use and hygiene behavior, together with perceptions of health risks and seasonality. During the period of October 2007 to October 2008, the UK and Vietnamese research team worked with a total of 120 households in four low-income sites around the city of Long Xuyen to conduct water testing; administer questionnaires on self-reported health, risk perceptions and behavior; and conduct semi-structured interviews. The research team found no overall evidence of a systematic seasonal risk pattern. At the population level, marginal temporal variations in water quality in the environment failed to translate into health outcomes. A complex risk narrative emerged from the interweaving data elements, demonstrating major inter- and intra-household variations in risk perceptions, hygiene behavior, seasonal behavior and other risk factors. It is suggested that these complexities of human behavior and transmission routes challenge simplistic assumptions about change in health outcomes as a result of seasonal environmental changes. These findings demonstrate the key

  9. Heavy metals contamination and human health risk assessment around Obuasi gold mine in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Bempah, Crentsil Kofi; Ewusi, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    Gold mining has increased the prevalence and occurrence of heavy metals contamination at the Earth's surface and is causing major concern due to the potential risk involved. This study investigated the impact of gold mine on heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn) pollution and evaluated the potential health risks to local residents via consumption of polluted groundwater, agricultural soils, and vegetable crops grown at three community farms surrounding the mine at Obuasi municipality of Ghana. The results showed levels of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Fe, and Mn higher than the allowable drinking water standards. The vegetable samples analyzed showed high accumulation of As and Ni above the normal value. Bioaccumulation factors of heavy metals were significantly higher for vegetables grown in the Sanso soils. Estimated average daily intake and hazard quotient for As in drinking water as well as As, Pb, and Hg in vegetable samples exceeded permissible limit. Unacceptable non-cancer health risk levels were found in vegetable samples analyzed for As, Pb, and Hg. An unacceptable cancer risk was found via drinking of groundwater, in consumption of vegetables, and in soil. The hazard index for vegetables was higher than 1, indicating very high health risk to heavy metals contamination through consumption of vegetables grown around the sampling sites. The results recommend the need for regular monitoring of groundwater and food crops to protect consumers' health. PMID:27037696

  10. Heavy metals contamination and human health risk assessment around Obuasi gold mine in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Bempah, Crentsil Kofi; Ewusi, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    Gold mining has increased the prevalence and occurrence of heavy metals contamination at the Earth's surface and is causing major concern due to the potential risk involved. This study investigated the impact of gold mine on heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn) pollution and evaluated the potential health risks to local residents via consumption of polluted groundwater, agricultural soils, and vegetable crops grown at three community farms surrounding the mine at Obuasi municipality of Ghana. The results showed levels of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Fe, and Mn higher than the allowable drinking water standards. The vegetable samples analyzed showed high accumulation of As and Ni above the normal value. Bioaccumulation factors of heavy metals were significantly higher for vegetables grown in the Sanso soils. Estimated average daily intake and hazard quotient for As in drinking water as well as As, Pb, and Hg in vegetable samples exceeded permissible limit. Unacceptable non-cancer health risk levels were found in vegetable samples analyzed for As, Pb, and Hg. An unacceptable cancer risk was found via drinking of groundwater, in consumption of vegetables, and in soil. The hazard index for vegetables was higher than 1, indicating very high health risk to heavy metals contamination through consumption of vegetables grown around the sampling sites. The results recommend the need for regular monitoring of groundwater and food crops to protect consumers' health.

  11. Preliminary Assessment of Health Risks of Potentially Toxic Elements in Settled Dust over Beijing Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Dejun; Zhan, Changlin; Yang, Guanglin; Liu, Xingqi; Yang, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    To examine levels, health risks, sources, and spatial distributions of potentially toxic elements in settled dust over Beijing urban area, 62 samples were collected mostly from residential building outdoor surfaces, and their <63 μm fractions were measured for 12 potentially toxic elements. The results show that V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Ba in dust are from predominantly natural sources, whereas Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Pb mostly originate from anthropogenic sources. Exposure to these elements in dust has significant non-cancer risks to children but insignificant to adults. Cancer risks of Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Cd via inhalation and dermal contact are below the threshold of 10−6–10−4 but As via dust ingestion shows a tolerable risk. The non-cancer risks to children are contributed mainly (75%) by As, Pb, and Sb, and dominantly (92%) via dust ingestion, with relatively higher risks mainly occurring in the eastern and northeastern Beijing urban areas. Although Cd, Zn, and Cu in dust are heavily affected by anthropogenic sources, their health risks are insignificant. Source appointments suggest that coal burning emissions, the dominant source of As, are likely the largest contributors to the health risk, and traffic-related and industrial emissions are also important because they contribute most of the Pb and Sb in dust. PMID:27187427

  12. Health risks of electromagnetic fields. Part I: Evaluation and assessment of electric and magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Habash, Riadh W Y; Brodsky, Lynn M; Leiss, William; Krewski, Daniel; Repacholi, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to electric and magnetic fields (EMF) emanating from the generation, distribution, and utilization of electricity is widespread. The major debate in recent years has focused on the possibility that exposure to EMF may result in adverse health consequences, including the development of cancer. This article provides a review and evaluation of potential health risks associated with residential and occupational exposure to EMF. In addition to reviewing data from laboratory, epidemiology, and clinical studies, we examine exposure data from field measurement surveys and exposure guidelines that have been established for EMF. Currently, the evidence in support of an association between EMF and childhood cancer is limited, although this issue warrants further investigation. Evidence of an association between EMF exposure and adult cancers, derived largely from occupational settings, is inconsistent, precluding clear conclusions. There is little evidence of an association between EMF and noncancer health effects. Epidemiological studies of EMF and population health are limited by exposure measurement error and the lack of a clear dose/response relationship in studies suggesting possible health risks. Further research is needed to clarify the ambiguous findings from present studies and to determine if EMF exposure poses a health risk. PMID:15018215

  13. Benzene homologues in environmental matrixes from a pesticide chemical region in China: Occurrence, health risk and management.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tieyu; Bo, Pang; Bing, Tan; Zhaoyun, Zhu; Liyu, Du; Yonglong, Lu

    2014-06-01

    The contamination status and health risks of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in air, soil, dust and groundwater were evaluated in a pesticide chemical region located in Hebei province, China. The concentrations of BTEX in air ranged from 7.80 to 238ug/m(3) and those in soil and dust ranged from lower than limit of detection (LOD) to 32,360ng/g dw, and those in groundwater varied from 2.68 to 98.6ug/L. Generally, the levels of BTEX in multimedia matrixes were all below the standards established in China. Health risk assessment was performed based on the monitoring data via inhalation, dermal contact and ingestion pathways and hazard quotient (HQ) was calculated to be on the order of 10(-7), below 10(-6), and Hazard index (HI) levels of BTEX were lower than 1.0. However, both HQ and HI ascended with an increase in work experience/exposure. Integrated risk management was proposed to eliminate BTEX pollution and to protect occupational health of workers in those industries.

  14. Assessment of the human health risks posed by exposure to chromium-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, P J; Meyer, D M; Sauer, M M; Paustenbach, D J

    1991-02-01

    Millions of tons of chromite-ore processing residue have been used as fill in various locations in northern New Jersey and elsewhere in the United States. The primary toxicants in the residue are trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]. The hazard posed by Cr(III) is negligible due to its low acute and chronic toxicity. In contrast, Cr(VI) is a human carcinogen following inhalation of high concentrations. It can also cause allergic contact dermatitis. This evaluation addresses a residential site where the arithmetic mean (x) and geometric mean (gm) concentrations of Cr(III) in soil were 2879 and 1212 mg/kg (ppm). The mean and geometric mean concentrations of Cr(VI) were 180 and 4 mg/kg, respectively. The uptake (absorbed dose) of Cr(III) via soil ingestion, consumption of homegrown vegetables, and ingestion of inspired particles was determined. The uptake of Cr(VI) via dermal absorption from contact with surface soil and building wall surfaces, as well as inhalation, was also evaluated. The techniques used in this assessment are applicable for evaluating the human health risks posed by any residential site having contaminated soil. The potential for both sensitized and unsensitized persons to develop allergic contact dermatitis due to exposure to soil contaminated at these levels was found to be negligible. The estimated average daily dose (ADD) via ingestion and dermal absorption for the maximally exposed individual (MEI) was about 1500- and 40-fold below the EPA reference dose (RfD) for Cr(III) and Cr(VI), respectively. It was shown that for residential sites, the most important route of exposure to Cr(III) was incidental soil ingestion. Although not relevant to these sites specifically, if garden vegetables could be successfully grown in these soils, then they would probably be the predominant source of uptake of Cr(III). Since inhalation of Cr(VI)-contaminated dust (but not ingestion or dermal contact) poses a cancer hazard, the doses and

  15. Probabilistic Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures: Importance of Travel Times and Connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henri, Christopher V.; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel; de Barros, Felipe P. J.

    2014-05-01

    Subsurface contamination cases giving rise to groundwater pollutions are extensively found in all industrialized countries. Under this pressure, risk assessment methods play an important role in population protection by (1) quantifying the potential impact on human health of an aquifer contamination and (2) helping and driving decisions of groundwater-resource managers. Many reactive components such as chlorinated solvents or nitrates potentially experience attenuation processes under common geochemical conditions. This represents an attractive and extensively used remediation solution but leads often to the production of by-products before to reach a harmless chemical form. This renders mixtures of contaminants a common issue for groundwater resources managers. In this case, the threat posed by these contaminants to human health at a given sensitive location greatly depends on the competition between reactive and advective-dispersive characteristic times. However, hydraulic properties of the aquifer are known to be spatially variable, which can lead to the formation of preferential flow channels and fast contamination pathways. Therefore, the uncertainty on the spatial distribution of the aquifer properties controlling the plume travel time may then play a particular role in the human health risk assessment of chemical mixtures. We investigate here the risk related to a multispecies system in response to different degrees of heterogeneity of the hydraulic conductivity (K or Y =ln(K)). This work focuses on a Perchloroethylene (PCE) contamination problem followed by the sequential first-order production/biodegradation of its daughter species Trichloroethylene (TCE), Dichloroethylene (DCE) and Vinyl Chlorine (VC). For this specific case, VC is known to be a highly toxic contaminant. By performing numerical experiments, we evaluate transport through three-dimensional mildly (σY 2=1.0) and highly (σY 2=4.0) heterogeneous aquifers. Uncertainty on the hydraulic

  16. Health risk assessment of hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorobutadiene residues in fish collected from a hazardous waste contaminated wetland in Louisiana, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Tchounwou, P.B.; Abdelghani, A.A.; Heyer, L.R.; Pramar, Y.V.

    1998-12-31

    Improper disposal of hazardous materials has often led to significant adverse effects on environmental quality and human health. This investigation was undertaken to compare the concentration levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) in various fish collected from a local hazardous waste contaminated wetland to those of a control site, and to assess the potential health risk that may be associated with consuming such fish. A total of 201 samples including 146 fish from the study site and 55 fish from a control site were examined. Statistical analyses revealed a highly significant difference i concentrations between the 2 sites. Mean levels of contaminants in edible tissues were 23.52 {+-} 53.54 ng/g (HCB) and 226.33 {+-} 778.40 ng/g (HCBD) in the study site, and 2.00 {+-} 5.62 ng/g (HCB) and 6.84 {+-} 10.41 ng/g (HCBD) in the control site. For the study site, a combined hazard index of 0.65 was computed for a 10-kg child eating 6.5 g of fish per day, while 70-kg adults with daily intakes of 6.5 g toxicant (general population), 30 g (sport fishermen) and 140 g (subsistence fishermen) yielded hazard indices of 0.11, 0.50 and 2.32, respectively, indicating that subsistence fishermen had a higher risk for systemic effects, with an exposure in excess of the EPA-Reference Dose. Cancer risks varied from 3.52 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} for HCB, and from 1.64 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} to 35.33 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} for HCBD, indicating an exposure in excess of the widely accepted risk level of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}. For the control site, a significantly lower level of exposure was estimated for both HCB and HCBD.

  17. Heavy metal levels in kiwifruit orchard soils and trees and its potential health risk assessment in Shaanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Yue, Tianli; Li, Xiaotong; Yuan, Yahong

    2016-07-01

    Concentrations of five heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Cd, Hg, and Pb) in orchard soils and kiwifruit tissues (root, twig, leave, fruit) collected from Shaanxi province in China were measured, and the potential health risk for human through the fruit consumption was assessed. The orchard soils were in no pollution for Cr, Cu, Hg, and Pb, with their pollution index (PI) ≤1, while 10.0 % of the soil samples were under Cd contamination. Furthermore, kiwifruit tended to have a higher Cd and Hg accumulation (as indicated by Biological Accumulation Coefficient) from soil and have a higher Cu and Hg translocation (as reflected by Biological Transfer Coefficient) to aboveground parts. From the human health point of view, the DIM and HRI values for all the fruit samples were within the safe limits, while for Cr, Cu, Cd, Hg, and Pb, about 22.5, 12.5, 52.5, 15.0, and 47.5 % of the fruit samples exceeded the national maximum permissible levels, respectively. These results showed that, although there was no possible health risk to consumers due to intake of studied kiwifruit fruits under the current consumption rate, the regular survey of heavy metal pollution levels should be performed for the kiwifruit in Shaanxi province and a strict management program should be established to reduce the amount of chemical fertilizers and pesticides used in fruit production in order to prevent the potential health risk. PMID:27068913

  18. An Integrated Approach to Assess Exposure and Health-Risk from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a Fastener Manufacturing Industry

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsin-I; Lin, Ming-Yeng; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Wang-Yi; Yoon, Chungsik; Chen, Mei-Ru; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    2014-01-01

    An integrated approach was developed to assess exposure and health-risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained in oil mists in a fastener manufacturing industry. One previously developed model and one new model were adopted for predicting oil mist exposure concentrations emitted from metal work fluid (MWF) and PAHs contained in MWF by using the fastener production rate (Pr) and cumulative fastener production rate (CPr) as predictors, respectively. By applying the annual Pr and CPr records to the above two models, long-term workplace PAH exposure concentrations were predicted. In addition, true exposure data was also collected from the field. The predicted and measured concentrations respectively served as the prior and likelihood distributions in the Bayesian decision analysis (BDA), and the resultant posterior distributions were used to determine the long-term exposure and health-risks posed on workers. Results show that long term exposures to PAHs would result in a 3.1%, 96.7%, and 73.4% chance of exceeding the PEL-TWA (0.2 mg/m3), action level (0.1 mg/m3), and acceptable health risk (10−3), respectively. In conclusion, preventive measures should be taken immediately to reduce workers’ PAH exposures. PMID:25226413

  19. Quantitative microbial risk assessment combined with hydrodynamic modelling to estimate the public health risk associated with bathing after rainfall events.

    PubMed

    Eregno, Fasil Ejigu; Tryland, Ingun; Tjomsland, Torulv; Myrmel, Mette; Robertson, Lucy; Heistad, Arve

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the public health risk from exposure to infectious microorganisms at Sandvika recreational beaches, Norway and dose-response relationships by combining hydrodynamic modelling with Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA). Meteorological and hydrological data were collected to produce a calibrated hydrodynamic model using Escherichia coli as an indicator of faecal contamination. Based on average concentrations of reference pathogens (norovirus, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Giardia and Cryptosporidium) relative to E. coli in Norwegian sewage from previous studies, the hydrodynamic model was used for simulating the concentrations of pathogens at the local beaches during and after a heavy rainfall event, using three different decay rates. The simulated concentrations were used as input for QMRA and the public health risk was estimated as probability of infection from a single exposure of bathers during the three consecutive days after the rainfall event. The level of risk on the first day after the rainfall event was acceptable for the bacterial and parasitic reference pathogens, but high for the viral reference pathogen at all beaches, and severe at Kalvøya-small and Kalvøya-big beaches, supporting the advice of avoiding swimming in the day(s) after heavy rainfall. The study demonstrates the potential of combining discharge-based hydrodynamic modelling with QMRA in the context of bathing water as a tool to evaluate public health risk and support beach management decisions. PMID:26802355

  20. Health risk assessment of zinc, chromium, and nickel from cow meat consumption in an urban Nigerian population

    PubMed Central

    Ihedioha, Janefrances N; Okoye, Chukwuma O B; Onyechi, Uchenna A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Meat consumption is increasingly becoming a larger part of diets worldwide. However, the bioaccumulation of toxic metals from anthropogenic pollution is a potential health risk to human health. Objective: To measure the daily intake of zinc, chromium, and nickel from cow meat consumption and assess the possible health risks in an urban population in Nigeria. Methods: Dried meat samples were digested with 3 : 2HNO3 : HClO4 v/v. Zinc, chromium, and nickel concentrations were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Daily intakes of meat were obtained using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Results: The estimated daily intakes (EDI) (μg/person/day) ranges were: zinc (10 496–13 459), chromium (310.90–393.73), and nickel (26.72–34.87). Estimated daily intake for zinc was 15–30% of provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) and for nickel it was 8–15% of tolerable daily intake (TDI). Conclusion: Chromium intakes were above recommended daily intake (RDI). Target hazard quotient (THQ) for nickel and zinc were within WHO/FAO limit. There was no evidence of possible health risk to consumers with regard to zinc and nickel. However, chromium intake should be of utmost concern, while disposal of tanning waste should be checked. PMID:25078345

  1. Health risk assessment from contaminated foodstuffs: a field study in chromite mining-affected areas northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Li, Gang; Khan, Sardar; Sher, Hassan; Aamir, Muhammad; Shamshad, Isha; Khan, Anwarzeb; Khan, Muhammad Amjad

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential health risk associated with toxic metals in contaminated foodstuffs (fruits, vegetables, and cereals) collected from various agriculture fields present in chromite mining-affected areas of mafic and ultramafic terrains (northern Pakistan). The concentrations of Cr, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb were quantified in both soil and food samples. The soil samples were highly contaminated with Cr (320 mg/kg), Ni (108 mg/kg), and Cd (2.55 mg/kg), which exceeded their respective safe limits set by FAO/WHO. Heavy metal concentrations in soil were found in the order of Cr>Ni>Pb>Zn>Cd and showed significantly (p < 0.001) higher concentrations as compared to reference soil. The integrated pollution load index (PLI) value was observed greater than three indicating high level of contamination in the study area. The concentrations of Cr (1.80-6.99 mg/kg) and Cd (0.21-0.90 mg/kg) in foodstuffs exceeded their safe limits, while Zn, Pb, and Ni concentrations were observed within their safe limits. In all foodstuffs, the selected heavy metal concentrations were accumulated significantly (p < 0.001) higher as compared to the reference, while some heavy metals were observed higher but not significant like Zn in pear, persimmon, white mulberry, and date-plum; Cd in pear, fig and white mulberry; and Pb in walnut, fig, and pumpkin. The health risk assessment revealed no potential risk for both adults and children for the majority of heavy metals, except Cd, which showed health risk index (HRI) >1 for children and can pose potential health threats for local inhabitants. Graphical Abstract Heavy metals released from chromite mining lead to soil and foodstuff contamination and human health risk.

  2. Health risk assessment from contaminated foodstuffs: a field study in chromite mining-affected areas northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Li, Gang; Khan, Sardar; Sher, Hassan; Aamir, Muhammad; Shamshad, Isha; Khan, Anwarzeb; Khan, Muhammad Amjad

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential health risk associated with toxic metals in contaminated foodstuffs (fruits, vegetables, and cereals) collected from various agriculture fields present in chromite mining-affected areas of mafic and ultramafic terrains (northern Pakistan). The concentrations of Cr, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb were quantified in both soil and food samples. The soil samples were highly contaminated with Cr (320 mg/kg), Ni (108 mg/kg), and Cd (2.55 mg/kg), which exceeded their respective safe limits set by FAO/WHO. Heavy metal concentrations in soil were found in the order of Cr>Ni>Pb>Zn>Cd and showed significantly (p < 0.001) higher concentrations as compared to reference soil. The integrated pollution load index (PLI) value was observed greater than three indicating high level of contamination in the study area. The concentrations of Cr (1.80-6.99 mg/kg) and Cd (0.21-0.90 mg/kg) in foodstuffs exceeded their safe limits, while Zn, Pb, and Ni concentrations were observed within their safe limits. In all foodstuffs, the selected heavy metal concentrations were accumulated significantly (p < 0.001) higher as compared to the reference, while some heavy metals were observed higher but not significant like Zn in pear, persimmon, white mulberry, and date-plum; Cd in pear, fig and white mulberry; and Pb in walnut, fig, and pumpkin. The health risk assessment revealed no potential risk for both adults and children for the majority of heavy metals, except Cd, which showed health risk index (HRI) >1 for children and can pose potential health threats for local inhabitants. Graphical Abstract Heavy metals released from chromite mining lead to soil and foodstuff contamination and human health risk. PMID:26971962

  3. Characteristics of self-selected responders to a health risk appraisal: generalizability of corporate health assessments.

    PubMed

    Lynch, W D; Golaszewski, T J; Clearie, A; Vickery, D M

    1989-07-01

    Selected characteristics and total medical claims of health risk appraisal (HRA) responders and non-responders were compared in a sample of employees having a three-year employment and claims history. HRA responders were younger and more likely to file medical claims than non-responders. Although mean medical claims were greater for HRA responders than non-responders, when adjusted for age and sex this difference reflected the proportion of employees reporting claims, not a difference in the claims amount. PMID:2735480

  4. Human health risk assessment of multiple contaminants due to consumption of animal-based foods available in the markets of Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Bingli; Zhang, Kaiqiong; An, Jing; Zhang, Xinyu; Yu, Yingxin

    2015-03-01

    To assess the health risks due to food consumption, the human daily intake and uptake of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and toxic trace elements (mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, and arsenic) were estimated based on the animal-based foods collected from markets in Shanghai, China. The estimated daily intake and uptake considering the contaminant bioaccessibility via single food consumption were 9.4-399 and 4.2-282 ng/kg body weight/day for adults, and 10.8-458 and 4.8-323 ng/kg body weight/day for children, respectively. These values were 0.2-104 and 0.05-58.1, and 0.2-119 and 0.06-66.6 ng/kg body weight/day via multiple food consumption for adults and children, respectively. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency risk assessment method, the non-cancer and cancer health risks posed by the contaminants were estimated using the hazard quotient and the lifetime cancer risk method, respectively. The results showed that the combined hazard quotient values for multiple contaminants via single or multiple food consumption were below 1, suggesting that the residents in Shanghai would not experience a significant non-cancer health risk. Among the contaminants investigated, the potential non-cancer risk of methylmercury was highest. However, the combined cancer risk posed by multiple contaminants in most foods exceeded the accepted risk level of 10(-6), and inorganic arsenic was the main contributor. The risks caused by polybrominated diphenyl ethers for cancer and non-cancer effects were negligible. The cancer risk of inorganic arsenic is a matter of concern in animal-based foods from Shanghai markets. PMID:25315930

  5. Human health risk assessment of multiple contaminants due to consumption of animal-based foods available in the markets of Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Bingli; Zhang, Kaiqiong; An, Jing; Zhang, Xinyu; Yu, Yingxin

    2015-03-01

    To assess the health risks due to food consumption, the human daily intake and uptake of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and toxic trace elements (mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, and arsenic) were estimated based on the animal-based foods collected from markets in Shanghai, China. The estimated daily intake and uptake considering the contaminant bioaccessibility via single food consumption were 9.4-399 and 4.2-282 ng/kg body weight/day for adults, and 10.8-458 and 4.8-323 ng/kg body weight/day for children, respectively. These values were 0.2-104 and 0.05-58.1, and 0.2-119 and 0.06-66.6 ng/kg body weight/day via multiple food consumption for adults and children, respectively. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency risk assessment method, the non-cancer and cancer health risks posed by the contaminants were estimated using the hazard quotient and the lifetime cancer risk method, respectively. The results showed that the combined hazard quotient values for multiple contaminants via single or multiple food consumption were below 1, suggesting that the residents in Shanghai would not experience a significant non-cancer health risk. Among the contaminants investigated, the potential non-cancer risk of methylmercury was highest. However, the combined cancer risk posed by multiple contaminants in most foods exceeded the accepted risk level of 10(-6), and inorganic arsenic was the main contributor. The risks caused by polybrominated diphenyl ethers for cancer and non-cancer effects were negligible. The cancer risk of inorganic arsenic is a matter of concern in animal-based foods from Shanghai markets.

  6. Fluoride exposure and its health risk assessment in drinking water and staple food in the population of Dayyer, Iran, in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz, Somayye; Ebrahimi, Afshin; Nikaeen, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were to determine fluoride concentration in drinking water and staple foods consumed by residents of Dayyer port (Bushehr province, south of Iran) and to assess its health risk via human intake in 2013. Materials and Methods: Health risk assessment due to fluoride exposure via consumption of drinking water, date, vegetables and fish was conducted in spring and summer of 2013 using the US-EPA (United States—Environmental Protection Agency) method, which considers hazard quotient (HQ) as a ratio of the estimated dose of a contaminant to the reference dose. A fluoride ion-selective electrode (ISE) measured the fluoride contents of food samples. The sodium-2-(parasulfophenyl largo)-1,8-dihydroxy-3,6-naphtnalene disulfonate colorimetric method (SPADNS) was used to determine fluoride concentration in water samples. Results: The total estimated oral intake of fluoride for children in summer and spring were 120.6 and 145.6 µg/kg/day, respectively. These values for adults were 99.2 and 112 µg/kg/day. This survey demonstrated that drinking water was the most important contributor of dietary fluoride intake in the study area. Conclusion: HQ values for adults and children were >1 which approves that a potential health risk of fluorosis can exist. The recommendations for the study area are supplying drinking water from alternative sources and defluoridation of drinking water by an adsorption technique and membrane filtration, respectively. Furthermore, people are suggested to have a good nutrition (especially rich of vitamin C) to reduce the risk of fluorosis. PMID:27462614

  7. Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils from Witwatersrand Gold Mining Basin, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kamunda, Caspah; Mathuthu, Manny; Madhuku, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluates the health risk caused by heavy metals to the inhabitants of a gold mining area. In this study, 56 soil samples from five mine tailings and 17 from two mine villages were collected and analyzed for Asernic (As), Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) using ICP-MS. Measured concentrations of these heavy metals were then used to calculate the health risk for adults and children. Their concentrations were such that Cr > Ni > As > Zn > Cu > Co > Pb > Hg > Cd, with As, Cr and Ni higher than permissible levels. For the adult population, the Hazard Index value for all pathways was found to be 2.13, making non-carcinogenic effects significant to the adult population. For children, the Hazard Index value was 43.80, a value >1, which poses serious non-carcinogenic effect to children living in the gold mining area. The carcinogenic risk was found to be 1.7 × 10(-4) implying that 1 person in every 5882 adults may be affected. In addition, for children, in every 2725 individuals, 1 child may be affected (3.67 × 10(-4)). These carcinogenic risk values were both higher than acceptable values. PMID:27376316

  8. Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils from Witwatersrand Gold Mining Basin, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kamunda, Caspah; Mathuthu, Manny; Madhuku, Morgan

    2016-06-30

    The study evaluates the health risk caused by heavy metals to the inhabitants of a gold mining area. In this study, 56 soil samples from five mine tailings and 17 from two mine villages were collected and analyzed for Asernic (As), Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) using ICP-MS. Measured concentrations of these heavy metals were then used to calculate the health risk for adults and children. Their concentrations were such that Cr > Ni > As > Zn > Cu > Co > Pb > Hg > Cd, with As, Cr and Ni higher than permissible levels. For the adult population, the Hazard Index value for all pathways was found to be 2.13, making non-carcinogenic effects significant to the adult population. For children, the Hazard Index value was 43.80, a value >1, which poses serious non-carcinogenic effect to children living in the gold mining area. The carcinogenic risk was found to be 1.7 × 10(-4) implying that 1 person in every 5882 adults may be affected. In addition, for children, in every 2725 individuals, 1 child may be affected (3.67 × 10(-4)). These carcinogenic risk values were both higher than acceptable values.

  9. Health risk assessment of urban population exposure to contaminants in the soils of the Southern Kuzbass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipova, N. A.; Tarasova, N. P.; Osipov, K. Yu.; Maximova, D. I.

    2015-11-01

    This study concerns the human health risk due to exposure of Co, Cu, As, Mn contained in soils of the Southern Kuzbass, where the coal industry is developed. Soil samples of 200 were taken in Mezhdurechensk - city with intensive coal mining and processing industries. The content of heavy metals in samples were determined using the electron spectroscopy. Several samples were also investigated by methods of the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). With regard to the effects of heavy metals on the adult population health the total Hazard Index (HI) for ingestion and inhalation routes was 0.87×10-1 and 7.8×10-1 respectively. According to the contribution of Co, Cu, As, Mn to the total HI the elements form the decreasing series Mn (0,42-0,50)> Co (0.18-0.20)> Cu (0,13-0,19 )> As (0,05-0,09). These chemical elements are present in the organic and inorganic forms in coals and coal wastes. Ranking the city territory has shown that administrative districts have different HI values (8.4 10-1 - 8.8 10-1). When analyzing the human health risks of coal mining and coal-processing enterprises the impact of heavy metals as components of coals and combustion products should be taken into account.

  10. Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils from Witwatersrand Gold Mining Basin, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kamunda, Caspah; Mathuthu, Manny; Madhuku, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluates the health risk caused by heavy metals to the inhabitants of a gold mining area. In this study, 56 soil samples from five mine tailings and 17 from two mine villages were collected and analyzed for Asernic (As), Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) using ICP-MS. Measured concentrations of these heavy metals were then used to calculate the health risk for adults and children. Their concentrations were such that Cr > Ni > As > Zn > Cu > Co > Pb > Hg > Cd, with As, Cr and Ni higher than permissible levels. For the adult population, the Hazard Index value for all pathways was found to be 2.13, making non-carcinogenic effects significant to the adult population. For children, the Hazard Index value was 43.80, a value >>1, which poses serious non-carcinogenic effect to children living in the gold mining area. The carcinogenic risk was found to be 1.7 × 10−4 implying that 1 person in every 5882 adults may be affected. In addition, for children, in every 2725 individuals, 1 child may be affected (3.67 × 10−4). These carcinogenic risk values were both higher than acceptable values. PMID:27376316

  11. Online tailored weight management in the worksite: does it make a difference in biennial health risk assessment data?

    PubMed

    McHugh, Janice; Suggs, L Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are directly associated with heart disease, cancer, and diabetes and pose a serious cost-related challenge to employers. As most of the rise in health care spending is traced to the rise in population risk factors, maintaining or reducing the prevalence of disease represents a strategy with large potential payoffs. Tailored communication is a promising communication strategy for influencing health behavior change, including behaviors for weight management. Much of the tailored communication research is based on communication developed for research purposes, yet access to commercially available tailored health programs for worksites is growing. As health risk assessments are increasingly used for setting health programming and insurance priorities in U.S. workplaces and worksites have opportunities to purchase tailored programs, it is important to understand the effect of tailored communication on health risk assessment data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of a commercially available web-based tailored weight management program on employee weight, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose. The authors compared health risk assessment data at baseline and 2 years later from 101 overweight and obese employees who participated in the tailored weight management program and 137 overweight and obese employees who did not participate in the program. Results show that there were significant mean differences in systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, and blood sugar levels, but each in a clinically undesirable direction. More research is needed to understand the effect of tailored programs used in worksite health promotion. PMID:22188131

  12. The current practice of health risk assessment: Potential impact on standards for toxic air contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Paustenbach, D.J.; Jernigan, J.D.; Finley, B.L.; Ripple, S.R.; Keenan, R.E. )

    1990-12-01

    Since the Bhopal incident, the public has placed pressure on regulatory agencies to set community exposure limits for the dozens of chemicals that may be released by manufacturing facilities. More or less objective limits can be established for the vast majority of these chemicals through the use of risk assessment. However, each step of the risk assessment process (i.e., hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization) contains a number of pitfalls that scientists need to avoid to ensure that valid limits are established. For example, in the hazard identification step there has been little discrimination among animal carcinogens with respect to mechanism of action or the epidemiology experience. In the dose-response portion, rarely is the range of plausible estimated risks presented. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) models should be used to understand the difference between the tissue doses and the administered dose, as well as the difference in target tissue concentrations of the toxicant between rodents and humans. Biologically-based models like the Moolgavkar-Knudson-Venzon (MKV) should be developed and used, when appropriate. The exposure assessment step can be significantly improved by using more sensitive and specific sampling and analytical methods, more accurate exposure parameters, and computer models that can account for complex environmental factors. Whenever possible, model predictions of exposure and uptake should be validated by biological monitoring of exposed persons (urine, blood, adipose) or by field measurements of plants, soil, fish, air, or water. In each portion of an assessment, the weight of evidence approach should be used to identify the most defensible value. 129 refs.

  13. Compendium of selected references on air emissions; health, risk, and valuation research; and environmental externalities

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1992-07-01

    In preparing to develop a cost-benefit methodology that could be applied to potential projects abroad involving new coal-fired power plants that make use of US clean coal technologies, the author reviewed a wide variety of reference sources. These are listed in this publication. Before this review, the author had conducted a number of literature searches that identified source material in the newly rediscovered field of environmental externalities and related topics that might also be of value to other energy and environmental researchers. Those sources that appeared to be appropriate but that the author was unable to review are also listed in this document. Thus, this document serves as a comprehensive compendium of source material on these subjects, arranged alphabetically within categories.

  14. Environmental and occupational health risks among agricultural workers living in a rural community near petroleum refinery and motorway in Skopje region.

    PubMed

    Karadžinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Minov, Jordan; Stoleski, Sašo; Mijakoski, Dragan; Risteska-Kuc, Snežana; Milkovska, Snežana

    2010-12-01

    To assess health risks in agricultural workers associated with environmental exposure to pollutants released from a petroleum refinery and from traffic, we performed a cross-sectional study that included 119 randomly selected subjects divided in two groups. Group 1 included 60 agricultural workers living in a rural community near the petroleum refinery and a motorway overpass, whereas Group 2 consisted of 59 agricultural workers performing similar activities and living in a rural community with no exposure to industrial and traffic pollutants. Risk assessment included a questionnaire, blood pressure measurement, spirometry, laboratory tests, and toxicological analysis. The groups showed a similar prevalence of health problems, with exception of muscle pain in the extremities, headache, and fatigue, which were significantly more common in Group 1. Diastolic blood pressure was higher in Group 1, but not significantly (p=0.057). The same is true for blood carbon monoxide. Significantly higher in Group 1 were blood haemoglobin (p=0.001) and blood lead (p<0.001). Serum cholinesterase activity was similar in both groups. Our findings indicate the need of regular medical exams, ambient monitoring and environmental impact assessment in agricultural population in order to detect individuals at risk and to institute adequate preventive measures.

  15. Geochemistry and health risk assessment of arsenic exposure to street dust in the zinc smelting district, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sujuan; Zheng, Na; Liu, Jingshuang; Wang, Yang; Chang, Shouzhi

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate arsenic (As) accumulation in street dust and health risk of population. The investigation concentrated on: a. pollution levels of As in street dust; b. spatial distribution of As in street dust; c. physicochemical properties analysis of street dust; and d. assessment of population health risk due to As exposure to street dust. As concentration in street dust ranged from 3.33 to 185.1 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 33.10 mg kg(-1), which was higher than the background value of Liaoning soil. As contamination level of the area closing to Huludao Zinc Plant (HZP) was highest. Spatial variation showed that the pollution center was close to HZP, formed radial distribution pattern and extended to the northeast and southwest of HZP. The pH and organic matter of street dust were both higher than the background values of soil in Liaoning. There was significantly negative correlation between As concentration and the pH. The mass percentages of particles 180-100, <100-75, <75-63, and <63 μm were 29.8, 3.7, 21.3, and 4.2 %, respectively. The highest of As concentration was found in the smallest particle size (<63 μm). As loadings in the particles of grain size 180-100 and <75-63 μm were higher than other particle fractions. Results of the risk assessment indicated that the highest risk was associated with the ingestion of street dust particles. Health risk for different use scenarios to human decreased in the order of HZP > Industrial district > School > Commercial center > Residential area. Around HZP, Hazard Index (HI) for children and cancer risk of As by street dust exposure exceeded the acceptable values. It indicated that there was a potential adverse effect on children health by As exposure to the street dust of Huludao.

  16. What risk assessments of genetically modified organisms can learn from institutional analyses of public health risks.

    PubMed

    Rajan, S Ravi; Letourneau, Deborah K

    2012-01-01

    The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT) as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large. PMID:23193357

  17. An exposure and health risk assessment of lead (Pb) in lipstick.

    PubMed

    Monnot, Andrew D; Christian, Whitney V; Abramson, Matthew M; Follansbee, Mark H

    2015-06-01

    Lead (Pb) content in lipstick and other consumer products has become an increasing concern. In 2010, the United States Food and Drug Administration tested 400 lipstick samples and found a maximum Pb concentration of 7.19 ppm. To assess the safety of lipstick in adults that chronically apply lipstick as well as instances where children might incidentally ingest lipstick products, the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) Adult Lead Model and Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children were used to determine the blood Pb concentrations of adults and children ingesting varying amounts of lipstick of different Pb concentrations. Modeled blood Pb concentrations were compared with oral ingestion guidelines and to the Centers for Disease Control and the US EPA's actionable blood Pb levels of 5 and 10 µg/dL. Background Pb exposure was the primary contributor to estimated blood Pb levels (BLLs) in children and adults, and Pb exposure from lipstick did not significantly increase estimated BLLs. These results suggest that the safety of consumer products and cosmetics should be assessed not only by the presence and amounts of hazardous contents, but also in conjunction with an assessment of estimated background exposures and comparison to health-based standards. PMID:25839902

  18. What Risk Assessments of Genetically Modified Organisms Can Learn from Institutional Analyses of Public Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, S. Ravi; Letourneau, Deborah K.

    2012-01-01

    The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT) as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large. PMID:23193357

  19. What risk assessments of genetically modified organisms can learn from institutional analyses of public health risks.

    PubMed

    Rajan, S Ravi; Letourneau, Deborah K

    2012-01-01

    The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT) as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large.

  20. Probabilistic health risk assessment for ingestion of seafood farmed in arsenic contaminated groundwater in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Jui-Sheng; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Lee, Jin-Jing; Liu, Chen-Wuing

    2013-08-01

    Seafood farmed in arsenic (As)-contaminated areas is a major exposure pathway for the ingestion of inorganic As by individuals in the southwestern part of Taiwan. This study presents a probabilistic risk assessment using limited data for inorganic As intake through the consumption of the seafood by local residents in these areas. The As content and the consumption rate are both treated as probability distributions, taking into account the variability of the amount in the seafood and individual consumption habits. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is utilized to conduct an assessment of exposure due to the daily intake of inorganic As from As-contaminated seafood. Exposure is evaluated according to the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) established by the FAO/WHO and the target risk based on the US Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. The assessment results show that inorganic As intake from five types of fish (excluding mullet) and shellfish fall below the PTWI threshold values for the 95th percentiles, but exceed the target cancer risk of 10(-6). The predicted 95th percentile for inorganic As intake and lifetime cancer risks obtained in the study are both markedly higher than those obtained in previous studies in which the consumption rate of seafood considered is a deterministic value. This study demonstrates the importance of the individual variability of seafood consumption when evaluating a high exposure sub-group of the population who eat higher amounts of fish and shellfish than the average Taiwanese.

  1. Screening level health risk assessment of selected metals in apple juice sold in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tvermoes, Brooke E; Banducci, Amber M; Devlin, Kathryn D; Kerger, Brent D; Abramson, Mathew M; Bebenek, Ilona G; Monnot, Andrew D

    2014-09-01

    Concerns have recently been raised about the presence of metals in apple juices. As such, the concentration of aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), and zinc (Zn) were measured in six commercially available brands of apple juice and three organic brands. The concentrations of total As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, and Zn in all nine apple juice brands sampled were below each metal's respective U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) maximum contaminant level for bottled water. However, in some apple juices the levels of Al, Pb, and Mn exceeded FDA maximum contaminant levels for bottled water. Therefore, a screening level risk assessment was carried out to assess the potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks that may result from metal exposure via apple juice consumption. Changes in blood Pb concentrations were also estimated to characterize potential risk from Pb exposure. Our results suggest that the exposure concentrations of the studied metals do not pose an increased non-carcinogenic risk (Hazard Index<1). Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) resulting from apple juice consumption was also estimated using both the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) and the U.S. EPA cancer slope factor for inorganic As.

  2. An exposure and health risk assessment of lead (Pb) in lipstick.

    PubMed

    Monnot, Andrew D; Christian, Whitney V; Abramson, Matthew M; Follansbee, Mark H

    2015-06-01

    Lead (Pb) content in lipstick and other consumer products has become an increasing concern. In 2010, the United States Food and Drug Administration tested 400 lipstick samples and found a maximum Pb concentration of 7.19 ppm. To assess the safety of lipstick in adults that chronically apply lipstick as well as instances where children might incidentally ingest lipstick products, the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) Adult Lead Model and Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children were used to determine the blood Pb concentrations of adults and children ingesting varying amounts of lipstick of different Pb concentrations. Modeled blood Pb concentrations were compared with oral ingestion guidelines and to the Centers for Disease Control and the US EPA's actionable blood Pb levels of 5 and 10 µg/dL. Background Pb exposure was the primary contributor to estimated blood Pb levels (BLLs) in children and adults, and Pb exposure from lipstick did not significantly increase estimated BLLs. These results suggest that the safety of consumer products and cosmetics should be assessed not only by the presence and amounts of hazardous contents, but also in conjunction with an assessment of estimated background exposures and comparison to health-based standards.

  3. Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of heavy metals in street dusts from different functional areas in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Gao, Bo; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Huaidong; Lu, Jin

    2015-02-01

    Street dusts from Heavy Density Traffic Area, Residential Area, Educational Area and Tourism Area in Beijing, China, were collected to study the distribution, accumulation and health risk assessment of heavy metals. Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb concentrations were in higher concentrations in these four locations than in the local soil background. In comparison with the concentrations of selected metals in other cities, the concentrations of heavy metals in Beijing were generally at moderate or low levels. Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations in the Tourism Area were the highest among four different areas in Beijing. A pollution assessment by Geoaccumulation Index showed that the pollution level for the heavy metals is in the following order: Cd>Pb>Zn>Cu>Cr>Ni. The Cd levels can be considered "heavily contaminated" status. The health risk assessment model that was employed to calculate human exposure indicated that both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of selected metals in street dusts were generally in the low range, except for the carcinogenic risk from Cr for children.

  4. [Results of health risk assessment due to exposure to contaminants in drinking water in Russia population (review of literature)].

    PubMed

    Unguryanu, T N; Novikov, S M

    2014-01-01

    With the purpose of the analysis of general trends in the development of risk assessment methodology in Russia the results obtained with the her help, as well as existing methodological problems, there was performed a review of 68 published works concerning the assessment of the health risk for population under the exposure to chemicals in drinking water carried out in 42 cities and regions of the country. There was made the grouping of Russian cities on individual carcinogenic risk level and ranking on the values for the population carcinogenic risk. A list of prioritized carcinogens in tap water has been made. By the values of the risk indices to adverse effects of chemicals tap water there are exposed central nervous system, kidneys, liver, skin and mucous membranes, blood, bone, immune system, hormone homeostasis, blood circulation and digestion organs. There are identified methodological problems leading to an underestimation of the actual risk to public health under exposure of chemicals in drinking water: there are no used regional and age differences in exposure factors, virtually there is no assessed health risk for children population; there is ignored age sensitivity to carcinogens, there is rarely estimated exposure for all the real exposing routes of income and there are no carried out risk calculations at the upper limit (90- 95th percentile) of the exposure.

  5. Comparison of measured and modelled uv indices for the assessment of health risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Backer, Hugo; Koepke, Peter; Bais, Alkiviadis; de Cabo, Xavier; Frei, Thomas; Gillotay, Didier; Haite, Christine; Heikkilä, Anu; Kazantzidis, Andreas; Koskela, Tapani; Kyrö, Esko; Lapeta, Bozena; Lorente, Jeronimo; Masson, Kaisa; Mayer, Bernhard; Plets, Hans; Redondas, Alberto; Renaud, Anne; Schauberger, Gunther; Schmalwiesser, Alois; Schwander, Harry; Vanicek, Karl

    2001-09-01

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) and the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) have jointly recommended that the UV Index (UVI) should be used to inform the public about possible health risks due to overexposure to solar radiation, especially skin damage. To test the current operational status of measuring and modelling techniques used in providing the public with UVI information, this article compares cloudless sky UVIs (measured using five instruments at four locations with different latitudes and climate) with the results of 13 models used in UVI forecasting schemes. For the models, only location, total ozone and solar zenith angle were provided as input parameters. In many cases the agreement is acceptable, i.e. less than 0.5 UVI. Larger differences may originate from instrumental errors and shortcomings in the models and their input parameters. A possible explanation for the differences between models is the treatment of the unknown input parameters, especially aerosols.

  6. Occurrence and health risk assessment of halogenated disinfection byproducts in indoor swimming pool water.

    PubMed

    Hang, Chen; Zhang, Beibei; Gong, Tingting; Xian, Qiming

    2016-02-01

    Swimming pool disinfection byproducts (DBPs) have become a concern in many countries all over the world. In this study, the concentrations of several categories of DBPs, including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), haloketones (HKs) and trichloronitromethane (TCNM), in 13 public indoor swimming pools in Nanjing, China were determined, the correlations between DBPs and water quality parameters as well as between different DBP categories were evaluated, and the health risks of the DBPs to human were examined. The results indicate that the DBP levels in the swimming pools in Nanjing were relatively high, with HAAs as the most dominant category, followed by THMs, HANs, HKs and TCNM sequentially. Bromochloroacetic acid (BCAA), trichloromethane (TCM), dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone (1,1,1-TCP) were the most dominant species among HAAs, THMs, HANs, and HKs, respectively. For all the different categories of DBPs, the concentrations in the pool disinfected with ozonation/chlorination were lower than those in the pool disinfected with chlorination. The DBP levels were generally not affected by the number of swimmers and the DBP levels on different dates were relatively stable. Besides, the chlorine residual seemed to be a critical concern in most of the swimming pools in this study. Moreover, there were some correlations between DBPs and water quality parameters as well as between different DBP categories. It is to be noted that the predicted cancer and health risks of the DBPs in these swimming pools were generally higher than the regulatory limits by USEPA, and thus DBPs in these swimming pools should be concerned.

  7. Health Risk Assessment for Exposure to Benzene in Petroleum Refinery Environments

    PubMed Central

    Edokpolo, Benjamin; Yu, Qiming Jimmy; Connell, Des

    2015-01-01

    The health risk resulting from benzene exposure in petroleum refineries was calculated using data from the scientific literature from various countries throughout the world. The exposure data was collated into four scenarios from petroleum refinery environments and plotted as cumulative probability distributions (CPD) plots. Health risk was evaluated for each scenario using the Hazard Quotient (HQ) at 50% (CEXP50) and 95% (CEXP95) exposure levels. Benzene levels were estimated to pose a significant risk with HQ50 > 1 and HQ95 > 1 for workers exposed to benzene as base estimates for petroleum refinery workers (Scenario 1), petroleum refinery workers evaluated with personal samplers in Bulgarian refineries (Scenario 2B) and evaluated using air inside petroleum refineries in Bulgarian refineries (Scenario 3B). HQ50 < 1 were calculated for petroleum refinery workers with personal samplers in Italian refineries (Scenario 2A), air inside petroleum refineries (Scenario 3A) and air outside petroleum refineries (Scenario 4) in India and Taiwan indicating little possible adverse health effects. Also, HQ95 was < 1 for Scenario 4 however potential risk was evaluated for Scenarios 2A and 3A with HQ95 > 1. The excess Cancer risk (CR) for lifetime exposure to benzene for all the scenarios was evaluated using the Slope Factor and Overall Risk Probability (ORP) methods. The result suggests a potential cancer risk for exposure to benzene in all the scenarios. However, there is a higher cancer risk at 95% (CEXP95) for petroleum refinery workers (2B) with a CR of 48,000 per 106 and exposure to benzene in air inside petroleum refineries (3B) with a CR of 28,000 per 106. PMID:25588154

  8. Health risk assessment for exposure to benzene in petroleum refinery environments.

    PubMed

    Edokpolo, Benjamin; Yu, Qiming Jimmy; Connell, Des

    2015-01-12

    The health risk resulting from benzene exposure in petroleum refineries was calculated using data from the scientific literature from various countries throughout the world. The exposure data was collated into four scenarios from petroleum refinery environments and plotted as cumulative probability distributions (CPD) plots. Health risk was evaluated for each scenario using the Hazard Quotient (HQ) at 50% (CEXP50) and 95% (CEXP95) exposure levels. Benzene levels were estimated to pose a significant risk with HQ50 > 1 and HQ95 > 1 for workers exposed to benzene as base estimates for petroleum refinery workers (Scenario 1), petroleum refinery workers evaluated with personal samplers in Bulgarian refineries (Scenario 2B) and evaluated using air inside petroleum refineries in Bulgarian refineries (Scenario 3B). HQ50 < 1 were calculated for petroleum refinery workers with personal samplers in Italian refineries (Scenario 2A), air inside petroleum refineries (Scenario 3A) and air outside petroleum refineries (Scenario 4) in India and Taiwan indicating little possible adverse health effects. Also, HQ95 was < 1 for Scenario 4 however potential risk was evaluated for Scenarios 2A and 3A with HQ95 > 1. The excess Cancer risk (CR) for lifetime exposure to benzene for all the scenarios was evaluated using the Slope Factor and Overall Risk Probability (ORP) methods. The result suggests a potential cancer risk for exposure to benzene in all the scenarios. However, there is a higher cancer risk at 95% (CEXP95) for petroleum refinery workers (2B) with a CR of 48,000 per 106 and exposure to benzene in air inside petroleum refineries (3B) with a CR of 28,000 per 106.

  9. Environmental and health risk analysis of nitrogen trifluoride (NF(3)), a toxic and potent greenhouse gas.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2008-11-30

    This article aimed at the introduction of nitrogen trifluoride (NF(3)) and its decomposition products into its hazards to the environment and health because this perfluorocompound is a toxic and potent greenhouse gas not blanketed into the Kyoto Protocol. This paper also predicted the global NF(3) emissions from the electronics industry on the basis of the methodologies recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and further discussed its atmospheric implications according to the estimation of environmental fate for NF(3). It showed that the vaporization of NF(3) from the water bodies to the atmosphere is very high according to its predicted value (ca. 6.0 x 10(5)MPa) of Henry's law constant (K(H)). Furthermore, NF(3) emitted from the electronics industry around the world in 2006 was estimated to be between 3.6 and 56 metric tonnes and it will be on increasing trend in the near future. Although the accumulative amount of NF(3) in the atmosphere currently should be very negligible based on the predicted ratio (the order of 10(-6) to 10(-7)) of equivalent CO(2) emission from NF(3) to total equivalent CO(2) emissions from potent greenhouse gases, it is necessary to adopt the available abatement and also monitor the concentration of NF(3) in the workplaces for reducing the overall environmental and health impacts of various semiconductor processes.

  10. Media Coverage of Pediatric Environmental Health Risks and its Effects on Mothers' Protective Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mello, Susan; Hornik, Robert C

    2016-03-01

    This study explores the relationship between exposure to U.S. media coverage of chemical threats to pediatric environmental health and mothers' behaviors to protect their children. Prior content analytic work revealed that media coverage volume from September 2012 to February 2013 differed significantly by type of chemical (i.e., pesticides = high coverage volume; bisphenol A [BPA] = moderate; and arsenic = low). Survey data collected from new and expecting mothers in March 2013 (n = 822) revealed mothers incidentally encountered-or scanned-this information in the media in the prior six months, and after adjusting for a series of potential confounders, such scanning was positively associated with mothers' self-reported behaviors to reduce chemical exposures. To test the hypothesis that coverage volume moderates the relationship between scanning and behavior, content analysis and survey data were combined in mixed effects regression analyses. Results showed significant differences between the effects of media scanning at different levels of coverage volume, but in a direction not entirely consistent with the study's hypothesis. The relationship between scanning and behavior was strongest for BPA, suggesting that a characteristic of media coverage other than volume may drive maternal responses to environmental health threats. Implications of these findings for risk communication research and practice are discussed.

  11. Environmental and health risk analysis of nitrogen trifluoride (NF(3)), a toxic and potent greenhouse gas.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2008-11-30

    This article aimed at the introduction of nitrogen trifluoride (NF(3)) and its decomposition products into its hazards to the environment and health because this perfluorocompound is a toxic and potent greenhouse gas not blanketed into the Kyoto Protocol. This paper also predicted the global NF(3) emissions from the electronics industry on the basis of the methodologies recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and further discussed its atmospheric implications according to the estimation of environmental fate for NF(3). It showed that the vaporization of NF(3) from the water bodies to the atmosphere is very high according to its predicted value (ca. 6.0 x 10(5)MPa) of Henry's law constant (K(H)). Furthermore, NF(3) emitted from the electronics industry around the world in 2006 was estimated to be between 3.6 and 56 metric tonnes and it will be on increasing trend in the near future. Although the accumulative amount of NF(3) in the atmosphere currently should be very negligible based on the predicted ratio (the order of 10(-6) to 10(-7)) of equivalent CO(2) emission from NF(3) to total equivalent CO(2) emissions from potent greenhouse gases, it is necessary to adopt the available abatement and also monitor the concentration of NF(3) in the workplaces for reducing the overall environmental and health impacts of various semiconductor processes. PMID:18378075

  12. A probabilistic assessment of health risks associated with short-term exposure to tropospheric ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, R.G; Biller, W.F.; Jusko, M.J.; Keisler, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    The work described in this report is part of a larger risk assessment sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Earlier efforts developed exposure-response relationships for acute health effects among populations engaged in heavy exertion. Those efforts also developed a probabilistic national ambient air quality standards exposure model and a general methodology for integrating probabilistic exposure-response relation- ships and exposure estimates to calculate overall risk results. Recently published data make it possible to model additional health endpoints (for exposure at moderate exertion), including hospital admissions. New air quality and exposure estimates for alternative national ambient air quality standards for ozone are combined with exposure-response models to produce the risk results for hospital admissions and acute health effects. Sample results explain the methodology and introduce risk output formats.

  13. Efficient regulation of environmental health risks: the case of groundwater contamination in California.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, E; Zilberman, D

    1986-11-15

    This paper presents a method for incorporating uncertainty explicitly into risk assessment and risk management procedures and illustrates its use with an application to the case of pesticide contamination of groundwater. The analysis demonstrates the importance of incorporating uncertainty explicitly, of using consistent significance levels of risk to estimate the value of life and explore cost/risk trade-off, and illustrates the role of economic theory in coordinating interdisciplinary work in this area.

  14. Environmental contamination by Aspergillus spp. in laying hen farms and associated health risks for farm workers.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Camarda, Antonio; Iatta, Roberta; Danesi, Patrizia; Favuzzi, Vincenza; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Pugliese, Nicola; Caroli, Anna; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-03-01

    Data on the occurrence and epidemiology of Aspergillus spp. in laying hens farms are scant. With the aims of determining levels of airborne contamination in laying hen farms and evaluating the potential risk of infection for workers and animals, 57 air samples from 19 sheds (Group I), 69 from faeces (Group II), 19 from poultry feedstuffs (Group III) and 60 from three anatomical sites (i.e. nostrils, pharynx, ears) of 20 farm workers (Group IV) were cultured. The Aspergillus spp. prevalence in samples ranged from 31.6% (Group III) to 55.5% (Group IV), whereas the highest conidia concentration was retrieved in Group II (1.2 × 10(4) c.f.u. g(-1)) and in Group III (1.9 × 10(3) c.f.u. g(-1)). The mean concentration of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia was 70 c.f.u. m(-3) with Aspergillus fumigatus (27.3%) being the most frequently detected species, followed by Aspergillus flavus (6.3%). These Aspergillus spp. were also isolated from human nostrils (40%) and ears (35%) (P<0.05) (Group IV). No clinical aspergillosis was diagnosed in hens. The results demonstrate a relationship between the environmental contamination in hen farms and presence of Aspergillus spp. on animals and humans. Even if the concentration of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia (i.e. 70 c.f.u. m(-3)) herein detected does not trigger clinical disease in hens, it causes human colonization. Correct management of hen farms is necessary to control environmental contamination by Aspergillus spp., and could lead to a significant reduction of animal and human colonization.

  15. Heavy metal content in vegetables and fruits cultivated in Baia Mare mining area (Romania) and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Roba, Carmen; Roşu, Cristina; Piştea, Ioana; Ozunu, Alexandru; Baciu, Călin

    2016-04-01

    Information about heavy metal concentrations in food products and their dietary intake are essential for assessing the health risk of local inhabitants. The main purposes of the present study were (1) to investigate the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd in several vegetables and fruits cultivated in Baia Mare mining area (Romania); (2) to assess the human health risk associated with the ingestion of contaminated vegetables and fruits by calculating the daily intake rate (DIR) and the target hazard quotient (THQ); and (3) to establish some recommendations on human diet in order to assure an improvement in food safety. The concentration order of heavy metals in the analyzed vegetable and fruit samples was Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. The results showed the heavy metals are more likely to accumulate in vegetables (10.8-630.6 mg/kg dw for Zn, 1.4-196.6 mg/kg dw for Cu, 0.2-155.7 mg/kg dw for Pb, and 0.03-6.61 mg/kg dw for Cd) than in fruits (4.9-55.9 mg/kg dw for Zn, 1.9-24.7 mg/kg dw for Cu, 0.04-8.82 mg/kg dw for Pb, and 0.01-0.81 mg/kg dw for Cd). Parsley, kohlrabi, and lettuce proved to be high heavy metal accumulators. By calculating DIR and THQ, the data indicated that consumption of parsley, kohlrabi, and lettuce from the area on a regular basis may pose high potential health risks to local inhabitants, especially in the area located close to non-ferrous metallurgical plants (Romplumb SA and Cuprom SA) and close to Tăuții de Sus tailings ponds. The DIR for Zn (85.3-231.6 μg/day kg body weight) and Cu (25.0-44.6 μg/day kg body weight) were higher in rural areas, while for Pb (0.6-3.1 μg/day kg body weight) and Cd (0.22-0.82 μg/day kg body weight), the DIR were higher in urban areas, close to the non-ferrous metallurgical plants SC Romplumb SA and SC Cuprom SA. The THQ for Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd was higher than 5 for <1, <1, 12, and 6% of samples which indicates that those consumers may experience major health risks.

  16. Application of quantitative uncertainty analysis for human health risk assessment at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, F.L.W.; Gordon, J.W. ); Smith, D. ); Singh, S.P. )

    1993-01-01

    The characterization of uncertainty is an important component of the risk assessment process. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) [open quotes]Guidance on Risk Characterization for Risk Managers and Risk Assessors,[close quotes] point estimates of risk [open quotes]do not fully convey the range of information considered and used in developing the assessment.[close quotes] Furthermore, the guidance states that the Monte Carlo simulation may be used to estimate descriptive risk percentiles. To provide information about the uncertainties associated with the reasonable maximum exposure (RME) estimate and the relation of the RME to other percentiles of the risk distribution for Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) at Rocky Flats, uncertainties were identified and quantitatively evaluated. Monte Carlo simulation is a technique that can be used to provide a probability function of estimated risk using random values of exposure factors and toxicity values in an exposure scenario. The Monte Carlo simulation involves assigning a joint probability distribution to the input variables (i.e., exposure factors) of an exposure scenario. Next, a large number of independent samples from the assigned joint distribution are taken and the corresponding outputs calculated. Methods of statistical inference are used to estimate, from the output sample, some parameters of the output distribution, such as percentiles and the expected value.

  17. Drinking water studies: a review on heavy metal, application of biomarker and health risk assessment (a special focus in Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Ab Razak, Nurul Hafiza; Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Hashim, Zailina

    2015-12-01

    Malaysia has abundant sources of drinking water from river and groundwater. However, rapid developments have deteriorated quality of drinking water sources in Malaysia. Heavy metal studies in terms of drinking water, applications of health risk assessment and bio-monitoring in Malaysia were reviewed from 2003 to 2013. Studies on heavy metal in drinking water showed the levels are under the permissible limits as suggested by World Health Organization and Malaysian Ministry of Health. Future studies on the applications of health risk assessment are crucial in order to understand the risk of heavy metal exposure through drinking water to Malaysian population. Among the biomarkers that have been reviewed, toenail is the most useful tool to evaluate body burden of heavy metal. Toenails are easy to collect, store, transport and analysed. This review will give a clear guidance for future studies of Malaysian drinking water. In this way, it will help risk managers to minimize the exposure at optimum level as well as the government to formulate policies in safe guarding the population.

  18. Quantitative analysis and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible vegetable oils marketed in Shandong of China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dafeng; Xin, Chenglong; Li, Wei; Chen, Jindong; Li, Fenghua; Chu, Zunhua; Xiao, Peirui; Shao, Lijun

    2015-09-01

    This work studies on the quantitative analysis and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible vegetable oils in Shandong, China. The concentrations of 15 PAHs in 242 samples were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. The results indicated that the mean concentration of 15 PAHs in oil samples was 54.37 μg kg(-1). Low molecular weight PAH compounds were the predominant contamination. Especially, the carcinogenic benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was detected at a mean concentration of 1.28 μg kg(-1), which was lower than the limit of European Union and China. A preliminary evaluation of human health risk assessment for PAHs was accomplished using BaP toxic equivalency factors and the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The ILCR values for children, adolescents, adults, and seniors were all larger than 1 × 10(-6), indicating a high potential carcinogenic risk on the dietary exposed populations.

  19. Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds emitted from different plastic solid waste recycling workshops.

    PubMed

    He, Zhigui; Li, Guiying; Chen, Jiangyao; Huang, Yong; An, Taicheng; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2015-04-01

    The pollution profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from different recycling workshops processing different types of plastic solid waste (PSW) and their health risks were investigated. A total of 64 VOCs including alkanes, alkenes, monoaromatics, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), chlorinated VOCs (ClVOCs) and acrylonitrile during the melting extrusion procedure were identified and quantified. The highest concentration of total VOCs (TVOC) occurred in the poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene) (ABS) recycling workshop, followed by the polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyamide (PA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE) and polycarbonate (PC) workshops. Monoaromatics were found as the major component emitted from the ABS and PS recycling workshops, while alkanes were mainly emitted from the PE and PP recycling processes, and OVOCs from the PVC and PA recycling workshops. According to the occupational exposure limits' (OEL) assessment, the workers suffered acute and chronic health risks in the ABS and PS recycling workshops. Meanwhile, it was found that most VOCs in the indoor microenvironments were originated from the melting extrusion process, while the highest TVOC concentration was observed in the PS rather than in the ABS recycling workshop. Non-cancer hazard indices (HIs) of all individual VOCs were <1.0, whereas the total HI in the PS recycling workshop was 1.9, posing an adverse chronic health threat. Lifetime cancer risk assessment suggested that the residents also suffered from definite cancer risk in the PS, PA, ABS and PVC recycling workshops.

  20. Quantitative analysis and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible vegetable oils marketed in Shandong of China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dafeng; Xin, Chenglong; Li, Wei; Chen, Jindong; Li, Fenghua; Chu, Zunhua; Xiao, Peirui; Shao, Lijun

    2015-09-01

    This work studies on the quantitative analysis and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible vegetable oils in Shandong, China. The concentrations of 15 PAHs in 242 samples were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. The results indicated that the mean concentration of 15 PAHs in oil samples was 54.37 μg kg(-1). Low molecular weight PAH compounds were the predominant contamination. Especially, the carcinogenic benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was detected at a mean concentration of 1.28 μg kg(-1), which was lower than the limit of European Union and China. A preliminary evaluation of human health risk assessment for PAHs was accomplished using BaP toxic equivalency factors and the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The ILCR values for children, adolescents, adults, and seniors were all larger than 1 × 10(-6), indicating a high potential carcinogenic risk on the dietary exposed populations. PMID:26072099

  1. Source identification and health risk assessment of metals in indoor dust in the vicinity of phosphorus mining, Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qin; Chen, Huaguo; Li, Baizhan

    2015-01-01

    An investigation was performed to identify the sources of arsenic (As) and heavy metals in house dust and to assess the associated human health risks in the vicinity of phosphorus (P) mining in Guizhou, China. The concentrations and spatial distributions of mercury (Hg), As, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and P in 23 house dust samples from the study area were determined. Greater concentrations of As and Pb were found compared with values in other investigations in various countries. Pollution sources were identified using multivariate statistical analysis. As, Pb, Mn, and Hg pollution was mainly attributed to mining activities, and Mn and Cd levels were largely associated with automobile emissions. The dominant wind direction and the distance of the residence from the mining region were found to play an important role in element distributions. A health risk assessment showed that As and Pb should be paid more attention, although the noncancer risks of the studied elements were within the safe range and the cancer risks of As and Cd are within the acceptable range under present conditions.

  2. Human health risk assessment based on trace metals in suspended air particulates, surface dust, and floor dust from e-waste recycling workshops in Hong Kong, China.

    PubMed

    Lau, Winifred Ka Yan; Liang, Peng; Man, Yu Bon; Chung, Shan Shan; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated health risks exerted on electronic waste (e-waste) recycling workers exposed to cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), and zinc (Zn) in Hong Kong. E-waste recycling workshops were classified into eight working areas: 1 = office, 2 = repair, 3 = dismantling, 4 = storage, 5 = desoldering, 6 = loading, 7 = cable shredding, and 8 = chemical waste. The aforementioned metal concentrations were analyzed in suspended air particulates, surface dust and floor dust collected from the above study areas in five workshops. Elevated Pb levels were measured in dismantling and desoldering areas (582 and 486 μg/100 cm(2) in surface and 3,610 and 19,172 mg/kg in floor dust, respectively). Blood lead levels of 10 and 39.5 μg/dl were estimated using United States Environmental Protection Agency's Adult Lead Model as a result of exposure to the floor dust from these two areas. Human health risk assessments were conducted to evaluate can