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Sample records for environmental interaction studies

  1. Environmental confounding in gene-environment interaction studies.

    PubMed

    Vanderweele, Tyler J; Ko, Yi-An; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2013-07-01

    We show that, in the presence of uncontrolled environmental confounding, joint tests for the presence of a main genetic effect and gene-environment interaction will be biased if the genetic and environmental factors are correlated, even if there is no effect of either the genetic factor or the environmental factor on the disease. When environmental confounding is ignored, such tests will in fact reject the joint null of no genetic effect with a probability that tends to 1 as the sample size increases. This problem with the joint test vanishes under gene-environment independence, but it still persists if estimating the gene-environment interaction parameter itself is of interest. Uncontrolled environmental confounding will bias estimates of gene-environment interaction parameters even under gene-environment independence, but it will not do so if the unmeasured confounding variable itself does not interact with the genetic factor. Under gene-environment independence, if the interaction parameter without controlling for the environmental confounder is nonzero, then there is gene-environment interaction either between the genetic factor and the environmental factor of interest or between the genetic factor and the unmeasured environmental confounder. We evaluate several recently proposed joint tests in a simulation study and discuss the implications of these results for the conduct of gene-environment interaction studies.

  2. Challenges and Opportunities in Genome-Wide Environmental Interaction (GWEI) studies

    PubMed Central

    Aschard, Hugues; Lutz, Sharon; Maus, Bärbel; Duell, Eric J.; Fingerlin, Tasha; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Kraft, Peter; Van Steen, Kristel

    2012-01-01

    The interest in performing gene-environment interaction studies has seen a significant increase with the increase of advanced molecular genetics techniques. Practically, it became possible to investigate the role of environmental factors in disease risk and hence to investigate their role as genetic effect modifiers. The understanding that genetics is important in the uptake and metabolism of toxic substances is an example of how genetic profiles can modify important environmental risk factors to disease. Several rationales exist to set up gene-environment interaction studies and the technical challenges related to these studies – when the number of environmental or genetic risk factors is relatively small – has been described before. In the post-genomic era, it is now possible to study thousands of genes and their interaction with the environment. This brings along a whole range of new challenges and opportunities. Despite a continuing effort in developing efficient methods and optimal bioinformatics infrastructures to deal with the available wealth of data, the challenge remains how to best present and analyze Genome-Wide Environmental Interaction (GWEI) studies involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. Since GWEIs are performed at the intersection of statistical genetics, bioinformatics and epidemiology, usually similar problems need to be dealt with as for Genome-Wide Association gene-gene Interaction (GWAI) studies. However, additional complexities need to be considered which are typical for large-scale epidemiological studies, but are also related to “joining” two heterogeneous types of data in explaining complex disease trait variation or for prediction purposes. PMID:22760307

  3. Interactions between toxic chemicals and natural environmental factors--a meta-analysis and case studies.

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Ryszard; Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Kramarz, Paulina E; Loureiro, Susana; Scheil, Volker; Kudłek, Joanna; Holmstrup, Martin

    2010-08-15

    The paper addresses problems arising from effects of natural environmental factors on toxicity of pollutants to organisms. Most studies on interactions between toxicants and natural factors, including those completed in the EU project NoMiracle (Novel Methods for Integrated Risk Assessment of Cumulative Stressors in Europe) described herein, showed that effects of toxic chemicals on organisms can differ vastly depending purely on external conditions. We compiled data from 61 studies on effects of temperature, moisture and dissolved oxygen on toxicity of a range of chemicals representing pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, plant protection products of bacterial origin and trace metals. In 62.3% cases significant interactions (p< or =0.05 or less) between natural factors and chemicals were found, reaching 100% for the effect of dissolved oxygen on toxicity of waterborne chemicals. The meta-analysis of the 61 studies showed that the null hypothesis assuming no interactions between toxic chemicals and natural environmental factors should be rejected at p=2.7 x 10(-82) (truncated product method probability). In a few cases of more complex experimental designs, also second-order interactions were found, indicating that natural factors can modify interactions among chemicals. Such data emphasize the necessity of including information on natural factors and their variation in time and across geographic regions in ecological risk assessment. This can be done only if appropriate ecotoxicological test designs are used, in which test organisms are exposed to toxicants at a range of environmental conditions. We advocate designing such tests for the second-tier ecological risk assessment procedures.

  4. Interaction between polygenic risk for cigarette use and environmental exposures in the Detroit neighborhood health study

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, J L; Cerdá, M; Galea, S; Keyes, K M; Aiello, A E; Uddin, M; Wildman, D E; Koenen, K C

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is influenced both by genetic and environmental factors. Until this year, all large-scale gene identification studies on smoking were conducted in populations of European ancestry. Consequently, the genetic architecture of smoking is not well described in other populations. Further, despite a rich epidemiologic literature focused on the social determinants of smoking, few studies have examined the moderation of genetic influences (for example, gene–environment interactions) on smoking in African Americans. In the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study (DNHS), a sample of randomly selected majority African American residents of Detroit, we constructed a genetic risk score (GRS), in which we combined top (P-value <5 × 10−7) genetic variants from a recent meta-analysis conducted in a large sample of African Americans. Using regression (effective n=399), we first tested for association between the GRS and cigarettes per day, attempting to replicate the findings from the meta-analysis. Second, we examined interactions with three social contexts that may moderate the genetic association with smoking: traumatic events, neighborhood social cohesion and neighborhood physical disorder. Among individuals who had ever smoked cigarettes, the GRS significantly predicted the number of cigarettes smoked per day and accounted for ∼3% of the overall variance in the trait. Significant interactions were observed between the GRS and number of traumatic events experienced, as well as between the GRS and average neighborhood social cohesion; the association between genetic risk and smoking was greater among individuals who had experienced an increased number of traumatic events in their lifetimes, and diminished among individuals who lived in a neighborhood characterized by greater social cohesion. This study provides support for the utility of the GRS as an alternative approach to replication of common polygenic variation, and in gene–environment interaction, for

  5. Strontium isotope study of coal utilization by-products interacting with environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J; Stewart, Brian W; Capo, Rosemary C; Chapman, Elizabeth C; Schroeder, Karl T; Brubaker, Tonya M

    2012-01-01

    Sequential leaching experiments on coal utilization by-products (CUB) were coupled with chemical and strontium (Sr) isotopic analyses to better understand the influence of coal type and combustion processes on CUB properties and the release of elements during interaction with environmental waters during disposal. Class C fly ash tended to release the highest quantity of minor and trace elements-including alkaline earth elements, sodium, chromium, copper, manganese, lead, titanium, and zinc-during sequential extraction, with bottom ash yielding the lowest. Strontium isotope ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in bulk-CUB samples (total dissolution of CUB) are generally higher in class F ash than in class C ash. Bulk-CUB ratios appear to be controlled by the geologic source of the mineral matter in the feed coal, and by Sr added during desulfurization treatments. Leachates of the CUB generally have Sr isotope ratios that are different than the bulk value, demonstrating that Sr was not isotopically homogenized during combustion. Variations in the Sr isotopic composition of CUB leachates were correlated with mobility of several major and trace elements; the data suggest that arsenic and lead are held in phases that contain the more radiogenic (high-(87)Sr/(86)Sr) component. A changing Sr isotope ratio of CUB-interacting waters in a disposal environment could forecast the release of certain strongly bound elements of environmental concern. This study lays the groundwork for the application of Sr isotopes as an environmental tracer for CUB-water interaction. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Strontium Isotope Study of Coal Untilization By-products Interacting with Environmental Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J; Stewart, Brian W; Capo, Rosemary C; Chapman, Elizabeth C; Schroeder, Karl T; Brubaker, Tonya M

    2011-09-01

    Sequential leaching experiments on coal utilization by-products (CUB) were coupled with chemical and strontium (Sr) isotopic analyses to better understand the influence of coal type and combustion processes on CUB properties and the release of elements during interaction with environmental waters during disposal. Class C fly ash tended to release the highest quantity of minor and trace elements—including alkaline earth elements, sodium, chromium, copper, manganese, lead, titanium, and zinc—during sequential extraction, with bottom ash yielding the lowest. Strontium isotope ratios ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) in bulk-CUB samples (total dissolution of CUB) are generally higher in class F ash than in class C ash. Bulk-CUB ratios appear to be controlled by the geologic source of the mineral matter in the feed coal, and by Sr added during desulfurization treatments. Leachates of the CUB generally have Sr isotope ratios that are different than the bulk value, demonstrating that Sr was not isotopically homogenized during combustion. Variations in the Sr isotopic composition of CUB leachates were correlated with mobility of several major and trace elements; the data suggest that arsenic and lead are held in phases that contain the more radiogenic (high-{sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) component. A changing Sr isotope ratio of CUB-interacting waters in a disposal environment could forecast the release of certain strongly bound elements of environmental concern. This study lays the groundwork for the application of Sr isotopes as an environmental tracer for CUB–water interaction.

  7. Multivariate Approach for Studying Interactions between Environmental Variables and Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinhui; Eijkemans, Marinus J. C.; Wallinga, Jacco; Biesbroek, Giske; Trzciński, Krzysztof; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Bogaert, Debby

    2012-01-01

    To understand the role of human microbiota in health and disease, we need to study effects of environmental and other epidemiological variables on the composition of microbial communities. The composition of a microbial community may depend on multiple factors simultaneously. Therefore we need multivariate methods for detecting, analyzing and visualizing the interactions between environmental variables and microbial communities. We provide two different approaches for multivariate analysis of these complex combined datasets: (i) We select variables that correlate with overall microbiota composition and microbiota members that correlate with the metadata using canonical correlation analysis, determine independency of the observed correlations in a multivariate regression analysis, and visualize the effect size and direction of the observed correlations using heatmaps; (ii) We select variables and microbiota members using univariate or bivariate regression analysis, followed by multivariate regression analysis, and visualize the effect size and direction of the observed correlations using heatmaps. We illustrate the results of both approaches using a dataset containing respiratory microbiota composition and accompanying metadata. The two different approaches provide slightly different results; with approach (i) using canonical correlation analysis to select determinants and microbiota members detecting fewer and stronger correlations only and approach (ii) using univariate or bivariate analyses to select determinants and microbiota members detecting a similar but broader pattern of correlations. The proposed approaches both detect and visualize independent correlations between multiple environmental variables and members of the microbial community. Depending on the size of the datasets and the hypothesis tested one can select the method of preference. PMID:23189192

  8. Plant-plant interactions, environmental gradients and plant diversity: a global synthesis of community-level studies

    PubMed Central

    Soliveres, Santiago; Maestre, Fernando T.

    2015-01-01

    Previous syntheses on the effects of environmental conditions on the outcome of plant-plant interactions summarize results from pairwise studies. However, the upscaling to the community-level of such studies is problematic because of the existence of multiple species assemblages and species-specific responses to both the environmental conditions and the presence of neighbors. We conducted the first global synthesis of community-level studies from harsh environments, which included data from 71 alpine and 137 dryland communities. Here we: i) test how important are facilitative interactions as a driver of community structure, ii) evaluate whether the frequency of positive plant-plant interactions across differing environmental conditions and habitats is predictable, and iii) assess whether thresholds in the response of plant-plant interactions to environmental gradients exists between “moderate” and “extreme” stress levels. We also used those community-level studies performed across gradients of at least three points to evaluate how the average environmental conditions, the length of the gradient studied, and the number of points sampled across such gradient affect the form and strength of the facilitation-environment relationship. Over 25% of the species present were more spatially associated to nurse plants than expected by chance in both alpine and dryland areas, illustrating the high importance of positive plant-plant interactions for the maintenance of plant diversity. Facilitative interactions were more frequent, and more related to environmental conditions, in alpine than in dryland areas, perhaps because drylands are generally characterized by a larger variety of environmental stress factors and plant functional traits. The frequency of facilitative interactions in alpine communities peaked at 1000 mm of annual rainfall, and globally decreased with elevation. The frequency of positive interactions in dryland communities decreased globally with water

  9. Relevance of Bt toxin interaction studies for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    De Schrijver, Adinda; De Clercq, Patrick; de Maagd, Ruud A; van Frankenhuyzen, Kees

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, different Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin-encoding genes have been combined or 'stacked' in genetically modified (GM) crops. Synergism between Bt proteins may occur and thereby increase the impact of the stacked GM event on nontarget invertebrates compared to plants expressing a single Bt gene. On the basis of bioassay data available for Bt toxins alone or in combination, we argue that the current knowledge of Bt protein interactions is of limited relevance in environmental risk assessment (ERA).

  10. Inter-Action's Environmental Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knights, John

    1984-01-01

    Describes the work of Inter-Action, a voluntary organization funded to explore ways in which creative arts can be applied to the resolution of social and environmental problems of the inner-city. Environmental projects for neighborhood residents focus on city farms, community architecture, family food production, concrete sculptures, and…

  11. Environmental scanning electron microscopy study of the interaction of carbon nanotubes with fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Maria Pia

    The behavior of fluids at the nanoscale is currently of interest, as nanotechnology promises tools for the precise delivery and analysis of minute volumes of liquids. Because of their reported properties, ease of manipulation and hollow cavity, carbon nanotubes have attracted attention for fluidic delivery. Thus far, experimental studies on wetting of carbon nanotubes have been limited, and other work revolves around theoretical modeling. Consequently, there is a considerable lack of experimental data on the subject. In this work, environmental scanning electron microscopy was employed for visualization of the interaction of carbon nanotubes with fluids such as water, liquid crystals, and biological solutions. Carbon nanotubes of diverse surface structure and chemistry were evaluated, and hydrophobic and hydrophilic behavior was observed. Nanotubes made by catalytic chemical vapor deposition showed highly hydrophobic behavior by the formation of spherical water droplets on nanotube agglomerates. This behavior was caused by roughness of the agglomerates as well as pinning of the droplets on defects and functional groups along the walls of the nanotubes. On highly graphitic carbon nanotube agglomerates, no droplet formation was observed due to the lack of defects and terminations on the surface. Formation of "barrel" and "clam-shell" shaped droplets on individual nanotubes was also observed. Capillary condensation inside carbon nanotubes made by non-catalytic chemical vapor deposition was also observed in the environmental scanning electron microscope. Condensation was marked by the formation of a thin film of water on the inner walls of the nanotubes, followed by growth of a meniscus of low contact angle, indicating the hydrophilic nature of the nanotubes. Spontaneous elastic deformation of the nanotubes was observed upon the formation of the film due to surface tension effects. By annealing, the carbon nanotubes were graphitized, and highly hydrophobic behavior was

  12. Environmental interactions in space exploration: Environmental interactions working group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolecki, Joseph C.; Hillard, G. Barry

    1992-01-01

    With the advent of the Space Exploration Initiative, the possibility of designing and using systems on scales heretofore unattempted presents exciting new challenges in systems design and space science. The environments addressed by the Space Exploration Initiative include the surfaces of the Moon and Mars, as well as the varied plasma and field environments which will be encountered by humans and cargo enroute to these destinations. Systems designers will need to understand environmental interactions and be able to model these mechanisms from the earliest conceptual design stages through design completion. To the end of understanding environmental interactions and establishing robotic precursor mission requirements, an Environmental Interactions Working Group was established as part of the Robotic Missions Working Group. The working group is described, and its current activities are updated.

  13. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this gap by conducting a county-level cross-sectional analysis of interactions between Environmental Quality Index (EQI) domain indices on preterm birth in the Unites States from 2000-2005.METHODS: The EQI, a county-level index constructed for the 2000-2005 time period, was constructed from five domain-specific indices (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) using principal component analyses. County-level preterm birth rates (n=3141) were estimated using live births from the National Center for Health Statistics. Linear regression was used to estimate prevalence differences (PD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing worse environmental quality to the better quality for each model for a) each individual domain main effect b) the interaction contrast and c) the two main effects plus interaction effect (i.e. the “net effect”) to show departure from additive interaction for the all U.S counties. Analyses were also performed for subgroupings by four urban/rural strata. RESULTS: We found the suggestion of antagonistic interactions but no synergism, along with several purely additive (i.e., no interaction) associations. In the non-stratified model, we observed antagonistic interac

  14. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this gap by conducting a county-level cross-sectional analysis of interactions between Environmental Quality Index (EQI) domain indices on preterm birth in the Unites States from 2000-2005.METHODS: The EQI, a county-level index constructed for the 2000-2005 time period, was constructed from five domain-specific indices (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) using principal component analyses. County-level preterm birth rates (n=3141) were estimated using live births from the National Center for Health Statistics. Linear regression was used to estimate prevalence differences (PD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing worse environmental quality to the better quality for each model for a) each individual domain main effect b) the interaction contrast and c) the two main effects plus interaction effect (i.e. the “net effect”) to show departure from additive interaction for the all U.S counties. Analyses were also performed for subgroupings by four urban/rural strata. RESULTS: We found the suggestion of antagonistic interactions but no synergism, along with several purely additive (i.e., no interaction) associations. In the non-stratified model, we observed antagonistic interac

  15. Functional Logistic Regression Approach to Detecting Gene by Longitudinal Environmental Exposure Interaction in a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Peng; Tang, Hongwei; Li, Donghui

    2014-01-01

    Most complex human diseases are likely the consequence of the joint actions of genetic and environmental factors. Identification of gene-environment (GxE) interactions not only contributes to a better understanding of the disease mechanisms, but also improves disease risk prediction and targeted intervention. In contrast to the large number of genetic susceptibility loci discovered by genome-wide association studies, there have been very few successes in identifying GxE interactions which may be partly due to limited statistical power and inaccurately measured exposures. While existing statistical methods only consider interactions between genes and static environmental exposures, many environmental/lifestyle factors, such as air pollution and diet, change over time, and cannot be accurately captured at one measurement time point or by simply categorizing into static exposure categories. There is a dearth of statistical methods for detecting gene by time-varying environmental exposure interactions. Here we propose a powerful functional logistic regression (FLR) approach to model the time-varying effect of longitudinal environmental exposure and its interaction with genetic factors on disease risk. Capitalizing on the powerful functional data analysis framework, our proposed FLR model is capable of accommodating longitudinal exposures measured at irregular time points and contaminated by measurement errors, commonly encountered in observational studies. We use extensive simulations to show that the proposed method can control the Type I error and is more powerful than alternative ad hoc methods. We demonstrate the utility of this new method using data from a case-control study of pancreatic cancer to identify the windows of vulnerability of lifetime body mass index on the risk of pancreatic cancer as well as genes which may modify this association. PMID:25219575

  16. Cognitive deficits in the elderly: interactive theories and a study of environmental effects on psychometric intelligence.

    PubMed

    Canestrari, R; Godino, A

    1997-08-01

    Problems related to psychometric measures of intelligence are discussed with regard to both the general characteristics and metric properties (validity, reliability and sensibility) of mental tests, and interindividual differences (cultural background, education, life contents and age-cohorts). Currently used standard intelligence tests explore the structure of intelligence only in part, so a distinction must be made between true actual intelligence, potential inheritance of intelligence, and psychometrical or scored intelligence. The correct use of intelligence testing, however, does provide some relevant and objective information regarding the evolution of cognitive structure during adulthood and in relationship to aging. Cognitive performance in the elderly follows a downward curve that is not explained as a result of aging on physiological responses (i.e., reaction time delay, signal-noise ratio in the CNS, degenerative loss of cortical cells, etc.). Biologically based theories of intelligence cannot explain the large individual differences in cognitive abilities observed in subjects who have very similar physical characteristics. Cognitive approaches to intelligence enable us to better understand the causal factors of the cognitive deficits in the elderly, and an interactive model permits us to fully integrate both the individual differences in cognitive abilities and the large consistency in performances. We compared the cognitive performances of two groups of elderly subjects, ranging in age from 65 to 97 years; we observed some statistically significant effects on cognitive deficit that could be explained as fully deriving from emotional and extra-cognitive responses to environmental changes.

  17. Strategic environmental assessment performance factors and their interaction: An empirical study in China

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tianwei; Wang, Huizhi; Deng, Baole; Ren, Wei; Xu, He

    2016-07-15

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has been seen as a preventive and participatory environmental management tool designed to integrate environmental protection into the decision-making process. However, the debate about SEA performance and effectiveness has increased in recent decades. Two main challenges exist in relation to this issue. The first is identifying the key influencing factors that affect SEA effectiveness, and the second is analyzing the relationship between SEA and these influencing factors. In this study, influencing factors were investigated through questionnaire surveys in the Chinese context, and then a Structural Equation Model (SEM) was developed and tested to identify potential links and causal relationships among factors. The associations between the independent factors were divided into direct and indirect causal associations. The results indicate that the decision-making process and policy context directly affect SEA implementation, while information and data sharing, public participation, expertise and SEA institutions are indirectly related with SEA. The results also suggest that a lack of cooperation between different sectors is an obstacle to the implementation of SEA. These findings could potentially contribute to the future management and implementation of SEA or enhance existing knowledge of SEA. The results show that the proposed model has a degree of feasibility and applicability. - Highlights: • Influencing factors were identified and investigated through questionnaire surveys. • Structural Equation Model (SEM) was developed and tested to identify potential links and causal relationships among factors. • Decision-making process and policy context directly affect SEA implementation. • Lack of cooperation among different sectors is an obstacle to the implementation of SEA. • The proposed model has a degree of feasibility and applicability.

  18. A Robust Model-free Approach for Rare Variants Association Studies Incorporating Gene-Gene and Gene-Environmental Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ruixue; Lo, Shaw-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Recently more and more evidence suggest that rare variants with much lower minor allele frequencies play significant roles in disease etiology. Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies will lead to many more rare variants association studies. Several statistical methods have been proposed to assess the effect of rare variants by aggregating information from multiple loci across a genetic region and testing the association between the phenotype and aggregated genotype. One limitation of existing methods is that they only look into the marginal effects of rare variants but do not systematically take into account effects due to interactions among rare variants and between rare variants and environmental factors. In this article, we propose the summation of partition approach (SPA), a robust model-free method that is designed specifically for detecting both marginal effects and effects due to gene-gene (G×G) and gene-environmental (G×E) interactions for rare variants association studies. SPA has three advantages. First, it accounts for the interaction information and gains considerable power in the presence of unknown and complicated G×G or G×E interactions. Secondly, it does not sacrifice the marginal detection power; in the situation when rare variants only have marginal effects it is comparable with the most competitive method in current literature. Thirdly, it is easy to extend and can incorporate more complex interactions; other practitioners and scientists can tailor the procedure to fit their own study friendly. Our simulation studies show that SPA is considerably more powerful than many existing methods in the presence of G×G and G×E interactions. PMID:24358248

  19. The Interacting Axes of Environmental, Health, and Social Justice Cumulative Impacts: A Case Study of the Blueberry River First Nations.

    PubMed

    Gislason, Maya K; Andersen, Holly K

    2016-10-18

    We consider the case of intensive resource extractive projects in the Blueberry River First Nations in Northern British Columbia, Canada, as a case study. Drawing on the parallels between concepts of cumulative environmental and cumulative health impacts, we highlight three axes along which to gauge the effects of intensive extraction projects. These are environmental, health, and social justice axes. Using an intersectional analysis highlights the way in which using individual indicators to measure impact, rather than considering cumulative effects, hides the full extent by which the affected First Nations communities are impacted by intensive extraction projects. We use the case study to contemplate several mechanisms at the intersection of these axes whereby the negative effects of each not only add but also amplify through their interactions. For example, direct impact along the environmental axis indirectly amplifies other health and social justice impacts separately from the direct impacts on those axes. We conclude there is significant work still to be done to use cumulative indicators to study the impacts of extractive industry projects-like liquefied natural gas-on peoples, environments, and health.

  20. The Interacting Axes of Environmental, Health, and Social Justice Cumulative Impacts: A Case Study of the Blueberry River First Nations

    PubMed Central

    Gislason, Maya K; Andersen, Holly K

    2016-01-01

    We consider the case of intensive resource extractive projects in the Blueberry River First Nations in Northern British Columbia, Canada, as a case study. Drawing on the parallels between concepts of cumulative environmental and cumulative health impacts, we highlight three axes along which to gauge the effects of intensive extraction projects. These are environmental, health, and social justice axes. Using an intersectional analysis highlights the way in which using individual indicators to measure impact, rather than considering cumulative effects, hides the full extent by which the affected First Nations communities are impacted by intensive extraction projects. We use the case study to contemplate several mechanisms at the intersection of these axes whereby the negative effects of each not only add but also amplify through their interactions. For example, direct impact along the environmental axis indirectly amplifies other health and social justice impacts separately from the direct impacts on those axes. We conclude there is significant work still to be done to use cumulative indicators to study the impacts of extractive industry projects—like liquefied natural gas—on peoples, environments, and health. PMID:27763548

  1. A novel environmental exposure index and its interaction with familial susceptibility on oral cancer in non-smokers and non-drinkers: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lingjun; Chen, Fa; He, Baochang; Liu, Fengqiong; Liu, Fangping; Huang, Jiangfeng; Wu, Junfeng; Lin, Lisong; Qiu, Yu; Cai, Lin

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the collective effect of environmental factors and its interaction with familial susceptibility on oral cancer among non-smokers and non-drinkers (NSND). A hospital-based case-control study, including 319 oral cancer patients and 994 frequency-matched controls, was conducted in Fujian, China. We raised a weighed environmental exposure index according to nine significant environmental factors obtained from multivariable logistic regression model. And then, the index was classified into three categories according to the tertiles of controls (<1.34, 1.34-2.43, and >2.43). Multiplicative and additive interactions were evaluated between environmental exposure index and family cancer history. Our results showed that environmental exposure index was associated with an increased risk of oral cancer especially for those with family cancer history. Compared to subjects with low environmental exposure index and without family cancer history, those with high index and family cancer history showed the highest magnitude of OR in oral cancer risk (OR 10.40, 95% CI 5.46-19.80). Moreover, there was a multiplicative interaction between environmental exposure index and family cancer history for the risk of oral cancer (P < 0.001). This study puts forward a novel environmental exposure index, which enables a comprehensive evaluation on the overall effect of environmental risk factors on oral cancer among NSND and may interact with family cancer history. Further studies are warranted to explore the underlying mechanisms.

  2. Stronger diversity effects with increased environmental stress: A study of multitrophic interactions between oak, powdery mildew and ladybirds.

    PubMed

    Dillen, Mathias; Smit, Christian; Buyse, Martijn; Höfte, Monica; De Clercq, Patrick; Verheyen, Kris

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that increasing neighbourhood tree species diversity may mitigate the impact of pests or pathogens by supporting the activities of their natural enemies and/or reducing the density of available hosts. In this study, we attempted to assess these mechanisms in a multitrophic study system of young oak (Quercus), oak powdery mildew (PM, caused by Erysiphe spp.) and a mycophagous ladybird (Psyllobora vigintiduopunctata). We assessed ladybird mycophagy on oak PM in function of different neighbourhood tree species compositions. We also evaluated whether these species interactions were modulated by environmental conditions as suggested by the Stress Gradient Hypothesis. We adopted a complementary approach of a field experiment where we monitored oak saplings subjected to a reduced rainfall gradient in a young planted forest consisting of different tree species mixtures, as well as a lab experiment where we independently evaluated the effect of different watering treatments on PM infections and ladybird mycophagy. In the field experiment, we found effects of neighbourhood tree species richness on ladybird mycophagy becoming more positive as the target trees received less water. This effect was only found as weather conditions grew drier. In the lab experiment, we found a preference of ladybirds to graze on infected leaves from trees that received less water. We discuss potential mechanisms that might explain this preference, such as emissions of volatile leaf chemicals. Our results are in line with the expectations of the Natural Enemies Hypothesis and support the hypothesis that biodiversity effects become stronger with increased environmental stress.

  3. Stronger diversity effects with increased environmental stress: A study of multitrophic interactions between oak, powdery mildew and ladybirds

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Christian; Buyse, Martijn; Höfte, Monica; De Clercq, Patrick; Verheyen, Kris

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that increasing neighbourhood tree species diversity may mitigate the impact of pests or pathogens by supporting the activities of their natural enemies and/or reducing the density of available hosts. In this study, we attempted to assess these mechanisms in a multitrophic study system of young oak (Quercus), oak powdery mildew (PM, caused by Erysiphe spp.) and a mycophagous ladybird (Psyllobora vigintiduopunctata). We assessed ladybird mycophagy on oak PM in function of different neighbourhood tree species compositions. We also evaluated whether these species interactions were modulated by environmental conditions as suggested by the Stress Gradient Hypothesis. We adopted a complementary approach of a field experiment where we monitored oak saplings subjected to a reduced rainfall gradient in a young planted forest consisting of different tree species mixtures, as well as a lab experiment where we independently evaluated the effect of different watering treatments on PM infections and ladybird mycophagy. In the field experiment, we found effects of neighbourhood tree species richness on ladybird mycophagy becoming more positive as the target trees received less water. This effect was only found as weather conditions grew drier. In the lab experiment, we found a preference of ladybirds to graze on infected leaves from trees that received less water. We discuss potential mechanisms that might explain this preference, such as emissions of volatile leaf chemicals. Our results are in line with the expectations of the Natural Enemies Hypothesis and support the hypothesis that biodiversity effects become stronger with increased environmental stress. PMID:28419174

  4. Interactions between environmental factors and polymorphisms in angiogenesis pathway genes in esophageal adenocarcinoma risk: a case-only study.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Rihong; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Geoffrey; Ter-Minassian, Monica; Wu, I-Chen; Wang, Zhaoxi; Su, Li; Asomaning, Kofi; Chen, Feng; Kulke, Matthew H; Lin, Xihong; Heist, Rebecca S; Wain, John C; Christiani, David C

    2012-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), higher body mass index (BMI), smoking, and genetic variants in angiogenic pathway genes have been individually associated with increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, how angiogenic gene polymorphisms and environmental factors jointly affect esophageal adenocarcinoma development remains unclear. By using a case-only design (n = 335), the authors examined interactions between 141 functional/tagging angiogenic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and environmental factors (GERD, BMI, smoking) in modulating esophageal adenocarcinoma risk. Gene-environment interactions were assessed by a 2-step approach. First, the authors applied random forest to screen for important SNPs that had either main or interaction effects. Second, they used case-only logistic regression to assess the effects of gene-environment interactions on esophageal adenocarcinoma risk, adjusting for covariates and false-discovery rate. Random forest analyses identified 3 sets of SNPs (17 SNPs-GERD, 26 SNPs-smoking, and 34 SNPs-BMI) that had the highest importance scores. In subsequent logistic regression analyses, interactions between 2 SNPs (rs2295778 of HIF1AN, rs13337626 of TSC2) and GERD, 2 SNPs (rs2295778 of HIF1AN, rs2296188 of VEGFR1) and smoking, and 7 SNPs (rs2114039 of PDGRFA, rs2296188 of VEGFR1, rs11941492 of VEGFR1, rs17708574 of PDGFRB, rs7324547 of VEGFR1, rs17619601 of VEGFR1, and rs17625898 of VEGFR1) and BMI were significantly associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma development (all false-discovery rates ≤0.10). Moreover, these interactions tended to have SNP dose-response effects for increased esophageal adenocarcinoma risk with increasing number of combined risk genotypes. These findings suggest that genetic variations in angiogenic genes may modify esophageal adenocarcinoma susceptibility through interactions with environmental factors in an SNP dose-response manner. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  5. Developing Students' Environmental Knowledge through Interactive Worksheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantyne, Roy; Witney, Eve; Tulip, David

    1998-01-01

    Environmental education is often characterized by a concern with developing attitudes and behavior rather than developing environmental knowledge and concepts. Students may thus unknowingly hold and later teach environmental misconceptions. Discusses the use of interactive worksheets to provide a time-effective means of developing students'…

  6. Developing Students' Environmental Knowledge through Interactive Worksheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantyne, Roy; Witney, Eve; Tulip, David

    1998-01-01

    Environmental education is often characterized by a concern with developing attitudes and behavior rather than developing environmental knowledge and concepts. Students may thus unknowingly hold and later teach environmental misconceptions. Discusses the use of interactive worksheets to provide a time-effective means of developing students'…

  7. Comparing species interaction networks along environmental gradients.

    PubMed

    Pellissier, Loïc; Albouy, Camille; Bascompte, Jordi; Farwig, Nina; Graham, Catherine; Loreau, Michel; Maglianesi, Maria Alejandra; Melián, Carlos J; Pitteloud, Camille; Roslin, Tomas; Rohr, Rudolf; Saavedra, Serguei; Thuiller, Wilfried; Woodward, Guy; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Gravel, Dominique

    2017-09-22

    Knowledge of species composition and their interactions, in the form of interaction networks, is required to understand processes shaping their distribution over time and space. As such, comparing ecological networks along environmental gradients represents a promising new research avenue to understand the organization of life. Variation in the position and intensity of links within networks along environmental gradients may be driven by turnover in species composition, by variation in species abundances and by abiotic influences on species interactions. While investigating changes in species composition has a long tradition, so far only a limited number of studies have examined changes in species interactions between networks, often with differing approaches. Here, we review studies investigating variation in network structures along environmental gradients, highlighting how methodological decisions about standardization can influence their conclusions. Due to their complexity, variation among ecological networks is frequently studied using properties that summarize the distribution or topology of interactions such as number of links, connectance, or modularity. These properties can either be compared directly or using a procedure of standardization. While measures of network structure can be directly related to changes along environmental gradients, standardization is frequently used to facilitate interpretation of variation in network properties by controlling for some co-variables, or via null models. Null models allow comparing the deviation of empirical networks from random expectations and are expected to provide a more mechanistic understanding of the factors shaping ecological networks when they are coupled with functional traits. As an illustration, we compare approaches to quantify the role of trait matching in driving the structure of plant-hummingbird mutualistic networks, i.e. a direct comparison, standardized by null models and hypothesis

  8. Classification and Clustering Methods for Multiple Environmental Factors in Gene-Environment Interaction: Application to the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yi-An; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Smith, Jennifer A; Kardia, Sharon L R; Allison, Matthew; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2016-11-01

    There has been an increased interest in identifying gene-environment interaction (G × E) in the context of multiple environmental exposures. Most G × E studies analyze one exposure at a time, but we are exposed to multiple exposures in reality. Efficient analysis strategies for complex G × E with multiple environmental factors in a single model are still lacking. Using the data from the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we illustrate a two-step approach for modeling G × E with multiple environmental factors. First, we utilize common clustering and classification strategies (e.g., k-means, latent class analysis, classification and regression trees, Bayesian clustering using Dirichlet Process) to define subgroups corresponding to distinct environmental exposure profiles. Second, we illustrate the use of an additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model, instead of the conventional saturated interaction model using product terms of factors, to study G × E with the data-driven exposure subgroups defined in the first step. We demonstrate useful analytical approaches to translate multiple environmental exposures into one summary class. These tools not only allow researchers to consider several environmental exposures in G × E analysis but also provide some insight into how genes modify the effect of a comprehensive exposure profile instead of examining effect modification for each exposure in isolation.

  9. Environmental Interactions Working Group Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.; Wiskerchen, M.

    1984-01-01

    Interactions between spacecraft systems and the space charged particle environment are reviewed and recommendations are presented for both near-term and far-term research considerations. Transient environment models, large space structures, solar and nuclear power systems/environment interactions, single event upsets, material degradation, and planetary missions are addressed.

  10. Myocardial infarction in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study: the interaction among environmental, health, social, behavioural and genetic factors

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Tina K; Yonker, James A; Chang, Vicky; Roan, Carol L; Herd, Pamela; Atwood, Craig S

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study examined how environmental, health, social, behavioural and genetic factors interact to contribute to myocardial infarction (MI) risk. Design Survey data collected by Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS), USA, from 1957 to 2011, including 235 environmental, health, social and behavioural factors, and 77 single- nucleotide polymorphisms were analysed for association with MI. To identify associations with MI we utilized recursive partitioning and random forest prior to logistic regression and chi-squared analyses. Participants 6198 WLS participants (2938 men; 3260 women) who (1) had a MI before 72 years and (2) had a MI between 65 and 72 years. Results In men, stroke (LR OR: 5.01, 95% CI 3.36 to 7.48), high cholesterol (3.29, 2.59 to 4.18), diabetes (3.24, 2.53 to 4.15) and high blood pressure (2.39, 1.92 to 2.96) were significantly associated with MI up to 72 years of age. For those with high cholesterol, the interaction of smoking and lower alcohol consumption increased prevalence from 23% to 41%, with exposure to dangerous working conditions, a factor not previously linked with MI, further increasing prevalence to 50%. Conversely, MI was reported in <2.5% of men with normal cholesterol and no history of diabetes or depression. Only stroke (4.08, 2.17 to 7.65) and diabetes (2.71, 1.81 to 4.04) by 65 remained significantly associated with MI for men after age 65. For women, diabetes (5.62, 4.08 to 7.75), high blood pressure (3.21, 2.34 to 4.39), high cholesterol (2.03, 1.38 to 3.00) and dissatisfaction with their financial situation (4.00, 1.94 to 8.27) were significantly associated with MI up to 72 years of age. Conversely, often engaging in physical activity alone (0.53, 0.32 to 0.89) or with others (0.34, 0.21 to 0.57) was associated with the largest reduction in odds of MI. Being non-diabetic with normal blood pressure and engaging in physical activity often lowered prevalence of MI to 0.2%. Only diabetes by 65 (4.25, 2.50 to 7

  11. Spacecraft Environmental Interactions Technology, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    State of the art of environment interactions dealing with low-Earth-orbit plasmas; high-voltage systems; spacecraft charging; materials effects; and direction of future programs are contained in over 50 papers.

  12. The Interaction of Michigan Environmental Education Curriculum, Science Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge, and Environmental Action Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Angelita P.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main goals of Environmental Education (EE) is to develop people's environmental stewardship, which includes people's capacity to take environmental action--their action competence (AC). The purposes of my study were to characterize the interactions found in an EE curriculum, science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and…

  13. The Interaction of Michigan Environmental Education Curriculum, Science Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge, and Environmental Action Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Angelita P.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main goals of Environmental Education (EE) is to develop people's environmental stewardship, which includes people's capacity to take environmental action--their action competence (AC). The purposes of my study were to characterize the interactions found in an EE curriculum, science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and…

  14. Environmental interactions on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Gabriel, Stephen B.; Murphy, Gerald B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the key environment/system interactions associated with the Space Station and its companion polar platform and defines the range of test environments that will need to be simulated. These environments include the neutral atmosphere, the ionospheric plasma, natural and man-made particulates, the ambient magnetic field, the South Atlantic Anomaly, and the ram/wake environment. The system/environment interactions include glow, oxygen erosion, drag, radiation effects, induced electric fields, high-voltage solar-array effects, and EMC/EMI associated with plasma/neutral gas operations. The Space Station and its associated systems pose unique demands on the ability to simulate these effects; synergistic effects require multiple environments to be simulated simultaneously, and the long life requirements require proper scaling of the exposure time. The analysis of specific effects and the calibration or improvement of ground test techniques will likely require in situ evaluation. Qualification and acceptance testing, because of cost and the impractically of extensive on-orbit analysis/modification, will likely remain ground test objectives except in very rare cases.

  15. Developing Environmental Study Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Jonathan M.

    This publication is designed to help the teacher in developing environmental study areas. Numerous examples of study areas, including airports, lakes, shopping centers, and zoos, are listed. A current definition of environmental study areas is given and guidelines for their development and identification are included. The appendix, which comprises…

  16. Genotype environmental interaction: A case study for douglas-fir in Western Oregon. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.K.

    1992-12-01

    Unrecognized genotype x environment interactions can bias genetic-gain predictions and models for predicting growth dynamics or species perturbations by global climate change. The study tested six sets of families in 10 plantation sites in a 78-thousand-hectare breeding zone. Plantation differences accounted for 71 percent of sums of squares (15-year heights), replications an additional 4.4 percent, families 1.9 percent, the first principal component of interaction effects 3.5 percent, and the second principal component 1.2 percent. Results in the study in a larger survey (87 sets in 10 breeding zones) were similar: 51 percent of sets indicated significant g star e.

  17. Space environmental interactions with spacecraft surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    Environmental interactions are defined as the response of spacecraft surfaces to the charged-particle environment. These interactions are divided into two broad categories: spacecraft passive, in which the environment acts on the surfaces and spacecraft active, in which the spacecraft or a system on the spacecraft causes the interaction. The principal spacecraft passive interaction of concern is the spacecraft charging phenomenon. The spacecraft active category introduces the concept of interactions with the thermal plasma environment and Earth's magnetic fields, which are important at all altitudes and must be considered the designs of proposed large space structures and space power systems. The status of the spacecraft charging investigations is reviewed along with the spacecraft active interactions.

  18. Everglades Environmental Study Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Environment Education.

    These environmental study units consist of four modules and a tape-slide presentation on the Everglades National Park. Although not required for completion of the modules, the slide-tape presentation provides a resource for orientation of teachers and parents to camping experience for school children in an environmental education program. The four…

  19. Interactions between environmental factors can hide isolation by distance patterns: a case study of Ctenomys rionegrensis in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Kittlein, Marcelo J; Gaggiotti, Oscar E

    2008-01-01

    Identifying the factors responsible for the structuring of genetic diversity is of fundamental importance for biodiversity conservation. However, arriving at such understanding is difficult owing to the many factors involved and the potential interactions between them. Here, we present an example of how such interactions can preclude us from arriving at a complete characterization of the demographic history and genetic structure of a species. Ctenomys rionegrensis is a species with restricted dispersal abilities and, as such, should exhibit an isolation by distance (IBD) pattern, which previous studies were unable to uncover. It was therefore concluded that this species underwent a recent population expansion. Using a novel hierarchical Bayesian method, we show that the inability to detect the IBD pattern is due to the interaction between elevation and geographical distance. We posit that populations in low areas suffer periodic floods that may reduce local population sizes, increasing genetic drift, a process that masks the effect of distance on genetic differentiation. Our results do not refute the possibility that the populations of C. rionegrensis underwent a recent population expansion but they indicate that an alternative scenario described by a metapopulation model at or near migration-drift equilibrium cannot be excluded either. PMID:18682369

  20. Detecting regulatory gene-environment interactions with unmeasured environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Fusi, Nicoló; Lippert, Christoph; Borgwardt, Karsten; Lawrence, Neil D; Stegle, Oliver

    2013-06-01

    Genomic studies have revealed a substantial heritable component of the transcriptional state of the cell. To fully understand the genetic regulation of gene expression variability, it is important to study the effect of genotype in the context of external factors such as alternative environmental conditions. In model systems, explicit environmental perturbations have been considered for this purpose, allowing to directly test for environment-specific genetic effects. However, such experiments are limited to species that can be profiled in controlled environments, hampering their use in important systems such as human. Moreover, even in seemingly tightly regulated experimental conditions, subtle environmental perturbations cannot be ruled out, and hence unknown environmental influences are frequent. Here, we propose a model-based approach to simultaneously infer unmeasured environmental factors from gene expression profiles and use them in genetic analyses, identifying environment-specific associations between polymorphic loci and individual gene expression traits. In extensive simulation studies, we show that our method is able to accurately reconstruct environmental factors and their interactions with genotype in a variety of settings. We further illustrate the use of our model in a real-world dataset in which one environmental factor has been explicitly experimentally controlled. Our method is able to accurately reconstruct the true underlying environmental factor even if it is not given as an input, allowing to detect genuine genotype-environment interactions. In addition to the known environmental factor, we find unmeasured factors involved in novel genotype-environment interactions. Our results suggest that interactions with both known and unknown environmental factors significantly contribute to gene expression variability. and implementation: Software available at http://pmbio.github.io/envGPLVM/. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  1. Environmental interaction implications for large space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E.; Fischbein, W.; Stauber, M. C.; Suh, P. K.

    1979-01-01

    Large Space Systems (LSS) comprise a new class of spacecraft, the design and performance of which may be seriously affected by a variety of environmental interactions. The special concerns associated with spacecraft charging and plasma interactions from the LSS designer's viewpoint are addressed. Survivability of these systems under combined solar U.V., particle radiation and repeated electrical discharges is of primary importance. Additional questions regard the character of electrical discharges over very large areas, the effects of high current/voltage systems and magnitude of induced structural disturbances. A concept is described for a large scale experiment platform.

  2. Recent coastal environmental management based on new concept of Satoumi which promotes land-ocean interaction: A case study in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Osamu; Kokubu, Hideki

    2016-12-01

    Environmental conservation and management policy first emphasized on water pollution control in Japan. However, this kind of passive conservation policy is gradually being shifted to an active approach such as Satoumi, which includes the restoration of biodiversity, biological productivity, habitat and a well-balanced nutrient cycle between land and sea. Many Satoumi creation activities were also characterized by activities which promote interactions between land and sea. In this paper, a case study of Ago Bay in Shima City, Mie Prefecture, Japan, is introduced in which land-sea interaction at two sites was improved by promoting water exchange across dikes constructed for land development and land reclamation. Tidal flat restoration experiments conducted in Ago Bay clearly showed that the promotion of tidal exchange between the sea and wetland area on the inner side of dikes improved both deteriorated sediment quality and macro-benthos conditions. Along with the results of this case study, future tidal flat restoration in Japan is also discussed.

  3. Reprint of Recent coastal environmental management based on new concept of Satoumi which promotes land-ocean interaction: A case study in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Osamu; Kokubu, Hideki

    2016-12-01

    Environmental conservation and management policy first emphasized on water pollution control in Japan. However, this kind of passive conservation policy is gradually being shifted to an active approach such as Satoumi, which includes the restoration of biodiversity, biological productivity, habitat and a well-balanced nutrient cycle between land and sea. Many Satoumi creation activities were also characterized by activities which promote interactions between land and sea. In this paper, a case study of Ago Bay in Shima City, Mie Prefecture, Japan, is introduced in which land-sea interaction at two sites was improved by promoting water exchange across dikes constructed for land development and land reclamation. Tidal flat restoration experiments conducted in Ago Bay clearly showed that the promotion of tidal exchange between the sea and wetland area on the inner side of dikes improved both deteriorated sediment quality and macro-benthos conditions. Along with the results of this case study, future tidal flat restoration in Japan is also discussed.

  4. Re-Structuring of Marine Communities Exposed to Environmental Change: A Global Study on the Interactive Effects of Species and Functional Richness

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Martin; Link, Heike; Alexandridis, Nicolaos; Thomason, Jeremy C.; Cifuentes, Mauricio; Costello, Mark J.; da Gama, Bernardo A. P.; Hillock, Kristina; Hobday, Alistair J.; Kaufmann, Manfred J.; Keller, Stefanie; Kraufvelin, Patrik; Krüger, Ina; Lauterbach, Lars; Antunes, Bruno L.; Molis, Markus; Nakaoka, Masahiro; Nyström, Julia; bin Radzi, Zulkamal; Stockhausen, Björn; Thiel, Martin; Vance, Thomas; Weseloh, Annika; Whittle, Mark; Wiesmann, Lisa; Wunderer, Laura; Yamakita, Takehisa; Lenz, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Species richness is the most commonly used but controversial biodiversity metric in studies on aspects of community stability such as structural composition or productivity. The apparent ambiguity of theoretical and experimental findings may in part be due to experimental shortcomings and/or heterogeneity of scales and methods in earlier studies. This has led to an urgent call for improved and more realistic experiments. In a series of experiments replicated at a global scale we translocated several hundred marine hard bottom communities to new environments simulating a rapid but moderate environmental change. Subsequently, we measured their rate of compositional change (re-structuring) which in the great majority of cases represented a compositional convergence towards local communities. Re-structuring is driven by mortality of community components (original species) and establishment of new species in the changed environmental context. The rate of this re-structuring was then related to various system properties. We show that availability of free substratum relates negatively while taxon richness relates positively to structural persistence (i.e., no or slow re-structuring). Thus, when faced with environmental change, taxon-rich communities retain their original composition longer than taxon-poor communities. The effect of taxon richness, however, interacts with another aspect of diversity, functional richness. Indeed, taxon richness relates positively to persistence in functionally depauperate communities, but not in functionally diverse communities. The interaction between taxonomic and functional diversity with regard to the behaviour of communities exposed to environmental stress may help understand some of the seemingly contrasting findings of past research. PMID:21611170

  5. Early predictors of behavioural problems in pre-schoolers - a longitudinal study of constitutional and environmental main and interaction effects.

    PubMed

    Agnafors, Sara; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Comasco, Erika; Bladh, Marie; Oreland, Lars; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2016-06-07

    The early environment is important for child development and wellbeing. Gene-by-environment studies investigating the impact of the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphisms by life events on mental health and behaviour problems have been inconclusive. Methodological differences regarding sample sizes, study population, definitions of adversities and measures of mental health problems obstacle their comparability. Furthermore, very few studies included children. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between a broad range of risk factors covering pregnancy and birth, genetic polymorphism, experience of multiple life events and psychosocial environment, and child behaviour at age 3, using a comparably large, representative, population-based sample. A total of 1,106 children, and their mothers, were followed from pregnancy to age 3. Information on pregnancy and birth-related factors was retrieved from the Medical Birth Register. Questionnaires on depressive symptoms, child behaviour and child experiences of life events were filled in by the mothers. Child saliva samples were used for genotyping the 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the association between psychological scales and genetic polymorphisms. Symptoms of postpartum depression increased the risk of both internalizing and externalizing problems. Experience of multiple life events was also a predictor of behavioural problems across the scales. No gene-by-environment or gene-by-gene-by-environment interactions were found. Children of immigrants had an increased risk of internalizing problems and parental unemployment was significantly associated with both internalizing and externalizing type of problems. This study shows the importance of the psychosocial environment for psychosocial health in preschool children, and adds to the literature of

  6. Environmental Studies Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, David R.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model of an environmental studies course that reflects a spaceship earth philosophy. Includes a rationale and a listing of concepts and processes for this action oriented program. Suggests several interdisciplinary experiences that emphasize problem-solving and decision-making skills. (ML)

  7. Environmental interactions in Space Exploration: Announcement of the formation of an Environmental Interactions Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolecki, Joseph C.; Hillard, G. Barry

    1991-01-01

    With the advent of the Space Exploration Initiative, the possibility of designing and using systems on scales not heretofore attempted presents exciting new challenges in systems design and space science. The environments addressed by the Space Exploration Initiative include the surfaces of the Moon and Mars, as well as the varied plasma and field environments which will be encountered by humans and cargo enroute to these destinations. Systems designers will need to understand environmental interactions and be able to model these mechanisms from the earliest conceptual design stages through design completion. To the end of understanding environmental interactions and establishing robotic precursor mission requirements, an Environmental Interactions Working Group has been established as part of the Robotic Missions Working Group. The current paper describes the working group and gives an update of its current activities. Working group charter and operation are reviewed, background information on the environmental interactions and their characteristics is offered, and the current status of the group's activities is presented along with anticipations for the future.

  8. Environmental Impact Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency’s (ARPA) Environmental Impact Program is directed toward identifying those scientific and technical...facilities and techniques. These include: An Environmental Impact Prediction Facility to assist in evaluating impact on the environment and to provide a...actual Environmental Impact Prediction Facility. Also described is an effort toward identifying research needed to support future environmental impact statements

  9. Interacting Cracks in an Environmentally Assisted Fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levandovsky, Artem; Balazs, Anna

    2006-03-01

    We perform the study of environmentally assisted fracture within the framework of a lattice model. Formation of an ensemble of environmentally assisted microcracks, their coalescence and formation of crack ``avalanches'' lead to a very rich dynamical picture. Under specific condition crack healing can occur due to cohesive forces, which hold material together and tend to pull atoms together even if they are separated by a crack over several lattice units. We investigate the dynamical interplay between crack formation, arrest, healing and re-cracking. The goal here is to provide an understanding of the conditions leading to the phenomena of crack healing that happens along with the crack formation. We study the morphology of crack patterns with the intentions to establish a way to enhance the healing property of a material sample.

  10. The Generation R Study: A Review of Design, Findings to Date, and a Study of the 5-HTTLPR by Environmental Interaction from Fetal Life Onward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiemeier, Henning; Velders, Fleur P.; Szekely, Eszter; Roza, Sabine J.; Dieleman, Gwen; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; White, Tonya J. H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Hofman, Albert; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Hudziak, James J.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: First, we give an overview of child psychiatric research in the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life forward. Second, we examine within Generation R whether the functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the promoter of the serotonin transporter gene interacts with prenatal maternal chronic difficulties, prenatal…

  11. The Generation R Study: A Review of Design, Findings to Date, and a Study of the 5-HTTLPR by Environmental Interaction from Fetal Life Onward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiemeier, Henning; Velders, Fleur P.; Szekely, Eszter; Roza, Sabine J.; Dieleman, Gwen; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; White, Tonya J. H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Hofman, Albert; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Hudziak, James J.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: First, we give an overview of child psychiatric research in the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life forward. Second, we examine within Generation R whether the functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the promoter of the serotonin transporter gene interacts with prenatal maternal chronic difficulties, prenatal…

  12. Gene-environment studies: any advantage over environmental studies?

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Hemminki, Kari

    2007-07-01

    Gene-environment studies have been motivated by the likely existence of prevalent low-risk genes that interact with common environmental exposures. The present study assessed the statistical advantage of the simultaneous consideration of genes and environment to investigate the effect of environmental risk factors on disease. In particular, we contemplated the possibility that several genes modulate the environmental effect. Environmental exposures, genotypes and phenotypes were simulated according to a wide range of parameter settings. Different models of gene-gene-environment interaction were considered. For each parameter combination, we estimated the probability of detecting the main environmental effect, the power to identify the gene-environment interaction and the frequency of environmentally affected individuals at which environmental and gene-environment studies show the same statistical power. The proportion of cases in the population attributable to the modeled risk factors was also calculated. Our data indicate that environmental exposures with weak effects may account for a significant proportion of the population prevalence of the disease. A general result was that, if the environmental effect was restricted to rare genotypes, the power to detect the gene-environment interaction was higher than the power to identify the main environmental effect. In other words, when few individuals contribute to the overall environmental effect, individual contributions are large and result in easily identifiable gene-environment interactions. Moreover, when multiple genes interacted with the environment, the statistical benefit of gene-environment studies was limited to those studies that included major contributors to the gene-environment interaction. The advantage of gene-environment over plain environmental studies also depends on the inheritance mode of the involved genes, on the study design and, to some extend, on the disease prevalence.

  13. A Twin and Adoption Study of Reading Achievement: Exploration of Shared-Environmental and Gene-Environment-Interaction Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Legrand, Lisa N.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Existing behavior-genetic research implicates substantial influence of heredity and modest influence of shared environment on reading achievement and reading disability. Applying DeFries-Fulker analysis to a combined sample of twins and adoptees (N = 4886, including 266 reading-disabled probands), the present study replicates prior findings of…

  14. A Twin and Adoption Study of Reading Achievement: Exploration of Shared-Environmental and Gene-Environment-Interaction Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Legrand, Lisa N.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Existing behavior-genetic research implicates substantial influence of heredity and modest influence of shared environment on reading achievement and reading disability. Applying DeFries-Fulker analysis to a combined sample of twins and adoptees (N = 4886, including 266 reading-disabled probands), the present study replicates prior findings of…

  15. Characterisation of terminal sire sheep farm systems, based on a range of environmental factors: a case study in the context of genotype by environment interactions using Charollais lambs.

    PubMed

    McLaren, A; Lambe, N R; Morgan-Davies, C; Mrode, R; Brotherstone, S; Conington, J; Morgan-Davies, J; Bunger, L

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to define different terminal sire flock environments, based on a range of environmental factors, and then investigate the presence of genotype by environment interactions (G×E) between the environments identified. Data from 79 different terminal sire flocks (40 Texel, 21 Charollais and 18 Suffolk), were analysed using principal coordinate and non-hierarchical cluster analyses, the results of which identified three distinct environmental cluster groups. The type of grazing, climatic conditions and the use of vitamins and mineral supplements were found to be the most important factors in the clustering of flocks. The presence of G×E was then investigated using data from the Charollais flocks only. Performance data were collected for 12 181 lambs, between 1990 and 2010, sired by 515 different sires. Fifty six of the sires had offspring in at least two of the three different cluster groups and pedigree information was available for a total of 161 431 animals. Traits studied were the 21-week old weight (21WT), ultrasound muscle depth (UMD) and log transformed backfat depth (LogUFD). Heritabilities estimated for each cluster, for each trait, ranged from 0.32 to 0.45. Genetic correlations estimated between Cluster 1 and Cluster 2 were all found to be significantly lower than unity, indicating the presence of G×E. They were 0.31 (±0.17), 0.68 (±0.14) and 0.18 (±0.21) for 21WT, UMD and LogUFD, respectively. Evidence of sires re-ranking across clusters was also observed. Providing a suitable strategy can be identified, there is potential for the optimisation of future breeding programmes, by taking into account the G×E observed. This would enable farmers to identify and select animals with an increased knowledge as to how they will perform in their specific farm environment thus reducing any unexpected differences in performance.

  16. Bacterial interactions with uranium: An environmental perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merroun, Mohamed L.; Selenska-Pobell, Sonja

    2008-12-01

    The presence of actinides in radioactive wastes is of major concern because of their potential for migration from the waste repositories and long-term contamination of the environment. Studies have been and are being made on inorganic processes affecting the migration of radionuclides from these repositories to the environment but it is becoming increasingly evident that microbial processes are of importance as well. Bacteria interact with uranium through different mechanisms including, biosorption at the cell surface, intracellular accumulation, precipitation, and redox transformations (oxidation/reduction). The present study is intended to give a brief overview of the key processes responsible for the interaction of actinides e.g. uranium with bacterial strains isolated from different extreme environments relevant to radioactive repositories. Fundamental understanding of the interaction of these bacteria with U will be useful for developing appropriate radioactive waste treatments, remediation and long-term management strategies as well as for predicting the microbial impacts on the performance of the radioactive waste repositories.

  17. Music and Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Kate; Freedman, Bill

    2004-01-01

    The use of music in environmental education (EE) can help to inform students through ideas incorporated in musical lyrics, while also enhancing interest in environmental topics. Music can also enhance perceptions of the value of the natural world, especially when nature itself is recognized as being musical. This article discusses historical and…

  18. Music and Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Kate; Freedman, Bill

    2004-01-01

    The use of music in environmental education (EE) can help to inform students through ideas incorporated in musical lyrics, while also enhancing interest in environmental topics. Music can also enhance perceptions of the value of the natural world, especially when nature itself is recognized as being musical. This article discusses historical and…

  19. AENV: Studying Environmental Hazards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tombaugh, Larry W.

    1975-01-01

    The Division of Advanced Environmental Research and Technology (AENV) examines those environmental problems outside the responsibilities of other federal agencies. Present areas of concern include: organic threats to the environment, energy, land-use decisions, weather modification, earthquakes, and the development of a data base for understanding…

  20. Space Systems Environmental Interaction Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-12

    dielectric to substrate), by flashover (propagating sub- surface discharge), blowoff (arc to surface ), between surfaces , or between exposed surfaces on...the pulse rate, peak amplitude, rise time and pulse integral of transient electromagnetic signals, by processing the input of up to six Electric Field...Maximum 200 words) Under Task 1, the Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics [PASP Plus] experiment, encompassing moat of Amptek’s effort in the

  1. Interactive Learning in an Urban Environmental Education Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yue; Krasny, Marianne; Russ, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Online courses play an increasing role in professional development of environmental educators, yet little information is available on the interactive processes involved in online learning. We examined the relationship of three types of interactions in an urban environmental education online course--participant-participant, participant-instructor,…

  2. University Reorganization Through Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, John C.

    1972-01-01

    A sound program in Environmental Studies may show the way to attack other multidisciplinary problems. Some of these are population problems, urban renewal, black studies, resource utilization, and in-depth regional studies. (Author)

  3. University Reorganization Through Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, John C.

    1972-01-01

    A sound program in Environmental Studies may show the way to attack other multidisciplinary problems. Some of these are population problems, urban renewal, black studies, resource utilization, and in-depth regional studies. (Author)

  4. MAESPA: a model to study interactions between water limitation, environmental drivers and vegetation function at tree and stand levels, with an example application to [CO2] × drought interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duursma, R. A.; Medlyn, B. E.

    2012-07-01

    Process-based models (PBMs) of vegetation function can be used to interpret and integrate experimental results. Water limitation to plant carbon uptake is a highly uncertain process in the context of environmental change, and many experiments have been carried out that study drought limitations to vegetation function at spatial scales from seedlings to entire canopies. What is lacking in the synthesis of these experiments is a quantitative tool incorporating a detailed mechanistic representation of the water balance that can be used to integrate and analyse experimental results at scales of both the whole-plant and the forest canopy. To fill this gap, we developed an individual tree-based model (MAESPA), largely based on combining the well-known MAESTRA and SPA ecosystem models. The model includes a hydraulically-based model of stomatal conductance, root water uptake routines, drainage, infiltration, runoff and canopy interception, as well as detailed radiation interception and leaf physiology routines from the MAESTRA model. The model can be applied both to single plants of arbitrary size and shape, as well as stands of trees. The utility of this model is demonstrated by studying the interaction between elevated [CO2] (eCa) and drought. Based on theory, this interaction is generally expected to be positive, so that plants growing in eCa should be less susceptible to drought. Experimental results, however, are varied. We apply the model to a previously published experiment on droughted cherry, and show that changes in plant parameters due to long-term growth at eCa (acclimation) may strongly affect the outcome of Ca × drought experiments. We discuss potential applications of MAESPA and some of the key uncertainties in process representation.

  5. MAESPA: a model to study interactions between water limitation, environmental drivers and vegetation function at tree and stand levels, with an example application to [CO2] × drought interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duursma, R. A.; Medlyn, B. E.

    2012-02-01

    Process-based models (PBMs) of vegetation function can be used to interpret and integrate experimental results. Water limitation to plant carbon uptake is a highly uncertain process in the context of environmental change, and many experiments have been carried out that study drought limitations to vegetation function at spatial scales from seedlings to entire canopies. What is lacking in the synthesis of these experiments is a quantitative tool that can be used to integrate and analyse experimental results at scales of both the whole-plant and the forest canopy, and that includes a detailed mechanistic representation of the water balance. To fill this gap, we developed an individual tree-based model (MAESPA), largely based on combining the well-known MAESTRA and SPA ecosystem models. The model includes a hydraulically-based model of stomatal conductance, root water uptake routines, drainage, infiltration, runoff and canopy interception, as well as detailed radiation interception and leaf physiology routines from the MAESTRA model. The model can be applied both to single plants of arbitrary size and shape, as well as stands of trees. The utility of this model is demonstrated by studying the interaction between elevated [CO2] (eCa) and drought. Based on theory, this interaction is generally expected to be positive, so that plants growing in eCa should be less susceptible to drought. Experimental results, however, are varied. We apply the model to a previously published experiment on droughted cherry, and show that changes in plant parameters due to long-term growth at eCa (acclimation) may strongly affect the outcome of Ca × drought experiments. We discuss potential applications of MAESPA and some of the key uncertainties in process representation.

  6. Environmental Health: Threats and their Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Holdstock, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Improvements in the provision of an acceptable standard of health care, particularly in the developing world, will be undermined by three ongoing processes: ongoing armed conflicts; the threat of global warming due to rising levels of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide emitted by developed countries; and by rapidly rising populations. The key features of these three threats are summarised, and it is shown that interactions between them increase both the likelihood of their occurrence and the probable harm that they will cause. Some of the interactions are described, with ways of providing health care taking into account the threats and their interactions, and the paradox is emphasised that better health care in the developing world will further increase population growth followed by increased greenhouse gas emissions. Improved education for women and free and unlimited access to modern methods of contraception are vital. PMID:21572838

  7. Karst depressions as geoarchaeological archives: revealing the past human-environmental interactions of Zominthos (Crete) through geophysical prospection, geomorphologic studies and mineralogical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siart, C.; Hecht, S.; Holzhauer, I.; Meyer, H. P.; Eitel, B.; Schukraft, G.; Bubenzer, O.; Altherr, R.; Panagiotopoulos, D.

    2009-04-01

    Focusing on the currently uninhabited plateau of Zominthos at 1200 m a.s.l. in Central Crete, which - according to huge archaeological remains - was densely populated during the Minoan era (Neopalatial period, ca. 1650 B.C.), the main objective of the project is to reconstruct the Bronze-Age landscape evolution with special regard to human-environmental interactions. Primary aims are to investigate the general structure of the subsurface karst relief (e.g. dolines, poljes), the amount of overlying loose sediments, their provenance and their geoarchive function, which has not been studied so far. A multi-method approach with combined Earth Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Seismic Refraction Tomography (SRT) perfectly qualifies for this issue, proving that Cretan karst depressions are filled with thick colluvial accumulations up to 20 m below surface. Subsequent to vibra coring of the sedimentary archives, mineralogical analyses and AMS 14C datings were conducted. Heavy mineral analyses (SEM-EDX, EPMA) show that the filled karst hollows include high concentrations of autochthonous materials. This suggests massive neotectonic activity, formerly existing but currently absent klippes of different petrography and aeolian input during the Holocene. The latter is supported by the detection of volcanogenic tephra in the cores, which absolutely correlates to the chemical composition of Santorini rhyodacites (Minoan eruption 3.6 ka). As such minerals have never been found at altitudes above 1000 m a.s.l. on Crete before, the spatial fallout of the ash needs to be revised with respect to a distribution further south of Santorini. Corresponding pyroxenes and glass shards were detected in a depth of up to 10 m below surface and thus prove the geomorphodynamic activity since the Bronze-Age, which lead to the radical change of the palaeolandscape induced by anthropogenic land use and soil erosion. The environmental transformation is confirmed by maximum radiocarbon ages of 4991

  8. Why study gene-environment interactions?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We examine the reasons for investigating gene-environment interactions and address recent reports evaluating interactions between genes and environmental modulators in relation to cardiovascular disease and its common risk factors. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies focusing on smoking, phy...

  9. Sleep and environmental context: interactive effects for memory.

    PubMed

    Cairney, Scott A; Durrant, Simon J; Musgrove, Hazel; Lewis, Penelope A

    2011-09-01

    Sleep after learning is often beneficial for memory. Reinstating an environmental context that was present at learning during subsequent retrieval also leads to superior declarative memory performance. This study examined how post-learning sleep, relative to wakefulness, impacts upon context-dependent memory effects. Thirty-two participants encoded word lists in each of two rooms (contexts), which were different in terms of size, odour and background music. Immediately after learning and following a night of sleep or a day of wakefulness, memory for all previously studied words was tested using a category-cued recall task in room one or two alone. Accordingly, a comparison could be made between words retrieved in an environmental context which was the same as, or different to, that of the learning phase. Memory performance was assessed by the difference between the number of words remembered at immediate and delayed retrieval. A 2 × 2 × 2 mixed ANOVA revealed an interaction between retrieval context (same/different to learning) and retention interval (sleep/wakefulness), which was driven by superior memory after sleep than after wake when learning and retrieval took place in different environmental contexts. Our findings suggest a sleep-related reduction in the extent to which context impacts upon retrieval. As such, these data provide initial support for the possibility that sleep dependent processes may promote a decontextualisation of recently formed declarative representations.

  10. Environmental interactions of the Space Station Freedom electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Lu, C. Y.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom will be operating in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. LEO environment operation results in different potential interactions with the Space Station systems including the Electric Power Systems (EPS). These potential interactions result in environmental effects which include neutral species effects such as atomic oxygen erosion, effects of micrometeroid and orbital debris impacts, plasma effects, ionizing radiation effects, and induced contamination degradation effects. The EPS design and its interactions with the LEO environment are described. The results of analyses and testing programs planned and performed thus far to resolve the environmental concerns related to the EPS and its function in the LEO environment are discussed.

  11. Environmental interactions of the Space Station Freedom electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Lu, C. Y.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom will be operating in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. LEO environment operation results in different potential interactions with the Space Station systems including the Electric Power Systems (EPS). These potential interactions result in environmental effects which include neutral species effects such as atomic oxygen erosion, effects of micrometeroid and orbital debris impacts, plasma effects, ionizing radiation effects, and induced contamination degradation effects. The EPS design and its interactions with the LEO environment are described. The results of analyses and testing programs planned and performed thus far to resolve the environmental concerns related to the EPS and its function in the LEO environment are discussed.

  12. Environmental interactions of the Space Station Freedom electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Lu, Cheng-Yi

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom operates in a low earth orbit (LEO) environment. Such operation results in different potential interactions with the Space Station systems including the Electric Power System (EPS). These potential interactions result in environmental effects which include neutral species effects such as atomic oxygen erosion, effects of micrometeoroid and orbital debris impacts, plasma effects, ionizing radiation, and induced contamination degradation effects. The EPS design and its interactions with the LEO environment are briefly described and the results of analyses and testing programs planned and performed thus far to resolve environmental concerns related to the EPS and its function in LEO environment.

  13. Interaction between ESRα polymorphisms and environmental factors in osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Sonoda, Tomoko; Takada, Junichi; Iba, Kousuke; Asakura, Sumiyo; Yamashita, Toshihiko; Mori, Mitsuru

    2012-10-01

    We hypothesized that environmental factors might affect the relationship between genetic predisposition and the risk of bone mineral density (BMD) loss. Cases were 114 Japanese women with a confirmed diagnosis of postmenopausal osteoporosis and controls were 171 general Japanese women. Genetic risk of SNPs in the estrogen receptors was analyzed by a case-control study. The interaction between gene and environmental factors for osteoporosis were assessed by a case-only design. Significant increases in osteoporosis risk were observed with minor alleles of rs2077647 located in the first exon and rs2234693 located in the first intron of estrogen receptor α (ESRα). Haplotype CC at these risk SNPs was strongly associated with osteoporosis risk (odds ratio [OR] =  3.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.83-5.41). There was a statistically significant interaction between haplotype CC and alcohol drinking; moderate alcohol consumption decreased genetic risk of osteoporosis (OR  =  0.22, 95%CI  =  0.05-0.83). Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  14. Environmental and radiological safety studies: Interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, September 26-December 25, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.

    1982-02-01

    Although existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator designs have proved more than adequately safe, more information is continually sought about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work here includes studies of the effects on the heat sources of terrestrial and aquatic environments and also of the effect of the heat sources on various simulated environments. This progress report presents recent data from environmental chamber and aquatic experiments and gives the present status of the experiments.

  15. Environmental and radiological safety studies. Interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, July 1-September 25, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.

    1981-11-01

    Although existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator designs have proved more than adequately safe, more information is continually sought about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work here includes studies of the effects on the heat sources of terrestrial and aquatic environments and also of the effects of the heat sources on various simulated environments. This progress report presents recent data from environmental chamber and aquatic experiments and gives the present status of the experiments.

  16. Environmental and radiological safety studies: interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, April 1- June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1982-09-01

    Although existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator designs have proved more than adequately safe, more information is continually sought about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work here includes studies of the effects on the heat sources on terrestrial and aquatic environments and also of the effects of the heat sources on various simulated environments. This progress report presents recent data from environmental chamber and aquatic experiments and gives the present status of the experiments.

  17. Environmental and radiological safety studies: interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, July 1-September 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1982-12-01

    Although existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator designs have proved more than adequately safe, more information is continually sought about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work here includes studies of the effects on the heat sources of terrestrial and aquatic environments and also of the effects of the heat sources on various simulated environments. This progress report presents recent data from environmental chamber and aquatic experiments and gives the present status of the experiments.

  18. Contamination Effects Due to Space Environmental Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip T.; Paquin, Krista C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and particulate contaminants are commonly generated from the orbital spacecraft operations that are under the influence of the space environment. Once generated, these contaminants may attach to the surfaces of the spacecraft or may remain in the vicinity of the spacecraft. In the event these contaminants come to rest on the surfaces of the spacecraft or situated in the line-of-sight of the observation path, they will create various degrees of contamination effect which may cause undesirable effects for normal spacecraft operations, There will be circumstances in which the spacecraft may be subjected to special space environment due to operational conditions. Interactions between contaminants and special space environment may alter or greatly increase the contamination effect due to the synergistic effect. This paper will address the various types of contamination generation on orbit, the general effects of the contamination on spacecraft systems, and the typical impacts on the spacecraft operations due to the contamination effect. In addition, this paper will explain the contamination effect induced by the space environment and will discuss the intensified contamination effect resulting from the synergistic effect with the special space environment.

  19. Cephradine antacids interaction studies.

    PubMed

    Arayne, M Saeed; Sultana, Najma; Afzal, M

    2007-07-01

    The present work comprises of interaction studies of cephradine with antacids. Cephradine is included among the first generation cephalosporin, which is active against a wide range of Gram positive and Gram-negative bacteria including penicillinase-producing staphylococci. Since the presence of complexing ligand may affect the bioavailability of a drug in blood or tissues, therefore, in order to study the probable interaction of cephradine with antacids all the reaction conditions were simulated to natural environments. Antacids are commonly used in patients complaining of GI irritations. The behavior of cephradine in presence of seven antacids i.e., simethicone, magaldrate, magnesium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium trisilicate, sodium bicarbonate and aluminium hydroxide was studied by using standard dissolution apparatus. Cephradine was monitored both by UV and by high performance liquid chromatography. The results revealed that antacids containing polyvalent cations retarded the in vitro availability of cephradine. Moreover, these studies indicated that cephradine was strongly adsorbed on antacids; magnesium trisilicate and simeco tablets (powdered) exhibited relatively higher adsorption capacities.

  20. AN INTEGRATED NETWORK APPROACH TO IDENTIFYING BIOLOGICAL PATHWAYS AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE INTERACTIONS IN COMPLEX DISEASES

    PubMed Central

    DARABOS, CHRISTIAN; QIU, JINGYA; MOORE, JASON H.

    2015-01-01

    Complex diseases are the result of intricate interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. In previous studies, we used epidemiological and genetic data linking environmental exposure or genetic variants to phenotypic disease to construct Human Phenotype Networks and separately analyze the effects of both environment and genetic factors on disease interactions. To better capture the intricacies of the interactions between environmental exposure and the biological pathways in complex disorders, we integrate both aspects into a single “tripartite” network. Despite extensive research, the mechanisms by which chemical agents disrupt biological pathways are still poorly understood. In this study, we use our integrated network model to identify specific biological pathway candidates possibly disrupted by environmental agents. We conjecture that a higher number of co-occurrences between an environmental substance and biological pathway pair can be associated with a higher likelihood that the substance is involved in disrupting that pathway. We validate our model by demonstrating its ability to detect known arsenic and signal transduction pathway interactions and speculate on candidate cell-cell junction organization pathways disrupted by cadmium. The validation was supported by distinct publications of cell biology and genetic studies that associated environmental exposure to pathway disruption. The integrated network approach is a novel method for detecting the biological effects of environmental exposures. A better understanding of the molecular processes associated with specific environmental exposures will help in developing targeted molecular therapies for patients who have been exposed to the toxicity of environmental chemicals. PMID:26776169

  1. Lunar and Martian environmental interactions with nuclear power system radiators

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Davis, M.E.; Gaier, J.R.; Katzan, C.M.

    1994-09-01

    In the foreseeable future, NASA space milestones include a permanent manned presence on the Moon and an expedition to the planet Mars. Such steps will require careful consideration of environmental interactions in the selection and design of required power systems. Several environmental constituents may be hazardous to performance integrity. Potential threats common to both the Moon and Mars are low ambient temperatures, wide daily temperature swings, solar flux, and large quantities of dust. The surface of Mars provides the additional challenges of dust storms, winds, and a carbon dioxide atmosphere. In this review, the anticipated environmental interactions with surface power system radiators are described, as well as the impacts of these interactions on radiator durability, which have been identified at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  2. Lunar and Martian environmental interactions with nuclear power system radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Gaier, James R.; Katzan, Cynthia M.

    1992-01-01

    Future NASA space missions include a permanent manned presence on the moon and an expedition to the planet Mars. Such steps will require careful consideration of environmental interactions in the selection and design of required power systems. Several environmental constituents may be hazardous to performance integrity. Potential threats common to both the moon and Mars are low ambient temperatures, wide daily temperature swings, solar flux, and large quantities of dust. The surface of Mars provides the additional challenges of dust storms, winds, and a carbon dioxide atmosphere. In this review, the anticipated environmental interactions with surface power system radiators are described, as well as the impacts of these interactions on radiator durability, which were identified at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  3. Predator diversity and environmental change modify the strengths of trophic and nontrophic interactions.

    PubMed

    Sentis, Arnaud; Gémard, Charlène; Jaugeon, Baptiste; Boukal, David S

    2016-11-10

    Understanding the dependence of species interaction strengths on environmental factors and species diversity is crucial to predict community dynamics and persistence in a rapidly changing world. Nontrophic (e.g. predator interference) and trophic components together determine species interaction strengths, but the effects of environmental factors on these two components remain largely unknown. This impedes our ability to fully understand the links between environmental drivers and species interactions. Here, we used a dynamical modelling framework based on measured predator functional responses to investigate the effects of predator diversity, prey density, and temperature on trophic and nontrophic interaction strengths within a freshwater food web. We found that (i) species interaction strengths cannot be predicted from trophic interactions alone, (ii) nontrophic interaction strengths vary strongly among predator assemblages, (iii) temperature has opposite effects on trophic and nontrophic interaction strengths, and (iv) trophic interaction strengths decrease with prey density, whereas the dependence of nontrophic interaction strengths on prey density is concave up. Interestingly, the qualitative impacts of temperature and prey density on the strengths of trophic and nontrophic interactions were independent of predator identity, suggesting a general pattern. Our results indicate that taking multiple environmental factors and the nonlinearity of density-dependent species interactions into account is an important step towards a better understanding of the effects of environmental variations on complex ecological communities. The functional response approach used in this study opens new avenues for (i) the quantification of the relative importance of the trophic and nontrophic components in species interactions and (ii) a better understanding how environmental factors affect these interactions and the dynamics of ecological communities.

  4. Critical Density Interaction Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P; Baldis, H A; Cheung, P; Rozmus, W; Kruer, W; Wilks, S; Crowley, S; Mori, W; Hansen, C

    2001-02-14

    Experiments have been performed to study the propagation of intense laser pulses to high plasma densities. The issue of self-focusing and filamentation of the laser pulse as well as developing predictive capability of absorption processes and x-ray conversion efficiencies is important for numerous programs at the Laboratory, particularly Laser Program (Fast Ignitor and direct-drive ICF) and D&NT (radiography, high energy backlighters and laser cutting). Processes such as resonance absorption, profile modification, linear mode conversion, filamentation and stimulated Brillouin scattering can occur near the critical density and can have important effects on the coupling of laser light to solid targets. A combination of experiments have been used to study the propagation of laser light to high plasma densities and the interaction physics of intense laser pulses with solid targets. Nonparaxial fluid codes to study nonstationary behavior of filamentation and stimulated Brillouin scattering at high densities have also been developed as part of this project.

  5. Interactions Between Genetics, Lifestyle, and Environmental Factors for Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuxin; Chen, Jiajia; Shen, Bairong

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence and progression of diseases are strongly associated with a combination of genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Understanding the interplay between genetic and nongenetic components provides deep insights into disease pathogenesis and promotes personalized strategies for people healthcare. Recently, the paradigm of systems medicine, which integrates biomedical data and knowledge at multidimensional levels, is considered to be an optimal way for disease management and clinical decision-making in the era of precision medicine. In this chapter, epigenetic-mediated genetics-lifestyle-environment interactions within specific diseases and different ethnic groups are systematically discussed, and data sources, computational models, and translational platforms for systems medicine research are sequentially presented. Moreover, feasible suggestions on precision healthcare and healthy longevity are kindly proposed based on the comprehensive review of current studies.

  6. Interactive Declustering of Spatial Environmental Data for Geostatistical Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher P. Oertel; John R. Giles; Stanley M. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Clustered sampling often results during environmental site investigations when localized areas are over-sampled due to specific concerns in those areas or due to monitoring programs focused on specific zones. An interactive, nearest-neighbor method for efficient spatial declustering has been developed as part of the ongoing monitoring and assessment of Cs-137 concentrations in soils at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site. Insitu field measurements of Cs-137 have been obtained with a field gamma-ray spectrometer using a sampling layout with points concentrated around several former nuclear processing facilities. The spatial declustering process allows for more useful and productive geostatistical studies focused on characterization of spatial dependence and subsequent spatial estimation to generate maps that depict Cs-137 concentrations across the site.

  7. Intersection of participation and environmental factors: a complex interactive process.

    PubMed

    Noreau, Luc; Boschen, Kathryn

    2010-09-01

    The objective was to review contemporary and historical rehabilitation-focused literature on conceptualizations of the environment, broadly defined, and environmental measures. Data sources included historical nonempirical American-based literature from 1935 to the present and descriptive and empirical rehabilitation articles worldwide, retrieved from computerized databases predominantly from past 10 years depicting a participation-environment association. Literature selection required relevance to 3 combined topics: physical disability rehabilitation, participation/community integration, and impact of environmental barriers and facilitators. The ultimate focus was on spinal cord injury for recent literature and measures reviewed. Data extraction was based on author-assessed relevance to both participation and environmental considerations. Nonempirical literature from last three quarters of a century suggests an environmental impact on participation, focusing on "person-environment fit." Recent empirical evidence supports environmental contributions to participation, but the magnitude of the contribution is low. Despite the obvious theoretic impact of the environment, scientific demonstration of environmental contribution to participation restriction or facilitation has yet to be achieved. Participation-environment interaction could be illustrated better by (1) taking into account critical elements in environmental measures (eg, comprehensiveness of approach to environment, scales describing spectrum of environmental influence, subjective vs objective perspectives), (2) addressing the concept of participation in a dimension-specific approach, and (3) avoiding environmental features in construction of participation measures.

  8. Arsenic and dichlorvos: Possible interaction between two environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Flora, Swaran J S

    2016-05-01

    Metals are ubiquitously present in the environment and pesticides are widely used throughout the world. Environmental and occupational exposure to metal along with pesticide is an area of great concern to both the public and regulatory authorities. Our major concern is that combination of these toxicant present in environment may elicit toxicity either due to additive or synergistic interactions or 'joint toxic actions' among these toxicants. It poses a rising threat to human health. Water contamination particularly ground water contamination with arsenic is a serious problem in today's scenario since arsenic is associated with several kinds of health problems, such arsenic associated health anomalies are commonly called as 'Arsenism'. Uncontrolled use and spillage of pesticides into the environment has resulted in alarming situation. Moreover serious concerns are being addressed due to their persistence in the environmental matrices such as air, soil and surface water runoff resulting in continuous exposure of these harmful chemicals to human beings and animals. Bio-availability of these environmental toxicants has been enhanced much due to anthropological activities. Dreadfully very few studies are available on combined exposures to these toxicants on the animal or human system. Studies on the acute and chronic exposure to arsenic and DDVP are well reported and well defined. Arsenic is a common global ground water contaminant while dichlorvos is one of the most commonly and widely employed organophosphate based insecticide used in agriculture, horticulture etc. There is thus a real situation where a human may get exposed to these toxicants while working in a field. This review highlights the individual and combined exposure to arsenic and dichlorvos on health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Interaction of environmental chemicals with respiratory sensitization.

    PubMed

    Van Loveren, H; Steerenberg, P A; Garssen, J; Van Bree, L

    1996-08-01

    The acute effects of the inhalation of air polluting agents have been examined by many research groups in both animal models and human beings. For instance, it is evident that exposure to ozone has toxic effects and can lead to lung function disturbances. For this reason it is likely that individuals suffering from COPD or asthma are groups especially at risk with respect to the effects of ozone. The majority of studies dealing with effects of air pollutants on pulmonary allergy are restricted to IgE mediated allergy (type I allergy). Again for ozone, in animal models for type I allergy it has been demonstrated that exposure can affect the induction as well as the effector phase of this type of hyperimmune reaction (e.g. allergic asthma). Recently it has been demonstration in animal models that non-IgE mediated "asthma' T cells, and notably Th1 cells, may play a crucial role. In a murine model it was demonstrated that low molecular weight compounds can induce delayed type hypersensitivity-like reactions in the respiratory tract, and that these reactions are associated with the induction of airway hyperreactivity. Such compounds include toluene diisocyanate (TDI), to which immune responses can be readily mounted, and which can cause occupational asthma through its sensitizing capability, but to which IgE is only detected in a minority of patients suffering from TDI-associated asthma. Effects of air pollutants on Th1 responses in the respiratory tract have not been studied so far. We have demonstrated that ozone can inhibit resistance to a an intratracheal challenge with Listeria monocytogenes, indicating suppression of Th1 immune responses. In addition, we have shown that ozone exposure suppresses pulmonary delayed type hypersensitivity induced by small molecular weight compounds, as well as the tracheal hyperreactivity that is induced during the development of these immune responses, again supporting the hypothesis of suppression of Th1 responses by ozone exposure

  10. Arc electrode interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, X.; Berns, D.; Heberlein, J.

    1994-01-01

    The project consisted of two parts: (1) the cathode interaction studies which were a continuation of previous work and had the objective of increasing our understanding of the microscopic phenomena controlling cathode erosion in arc jet thrusters, and (2) the studies of the anode attachment in arc jet thrusters. The cathode interaction studies consisted of (1) a continuation of some modeling work in which the previously derived model for the cathode heating was applied to some specific gases and electrode materials, and (2) experimental work in which various diagnostics was applied to the cathode. The specific diagnostics used were observation of the cathode tip during arcing using a Laser Strobe Video system in conjunction with a tele-microscope, a monochromator with an optical multichannel analyzer for the determination of the cathode temperature distribution, and various ex situ materials analysis methods. The emphasis of our effort was shifted to the cathode materials analysis because a parallel project was in place during the second half of 1993 with a visiting scientist pursuing arc electrode materials studies. As a consequence, the diagnostic investigations of the arc in front of the cathode had to be postponed to the first half of 1994, and we are presently preparing these measurements. The results of last year's study showed some unexpected effects influencing the cathode erosion behavior, such as increased erosion away from the cathode tip, and our understanding of these effects should improve our ability to control cathode erosion. The arc jet anode attachment studies concentrated on diagnostics of the instabilities in subsonic anode attachment arc jet thrusters, and were supplemental measurements to work which was performed by one of the authors who spent the summer as an intern at NASA Lewis Research Center. A summary of the results obtained during the internship are included because they formed an integral part of the study. Two tasks for 1994, the

  11. Bulletin Boards for Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford; Seim, Stuart S.

    The bulletin board and activity ideas presented in this handbook offer some attractive ways of exploring and studying various environmental issues. They stress the concept that man is but one element in the whole chain of being. Each chapter, devoted to one element apiece, begins with an overview of the natural resource situation and/or problem…

  12. Metropolitan Environmental Education Resources Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, John Dean, Ed.

    Two major objectives of the Metropolitan Environmental Education Resources Study were: (1) to produce a directory of sites around Columbus, Ohio, having fieldtrip potential; and (2) to test the validity of the concept that field trips are a useful method in aiding student educational growth. The first section of this document relates the history…

  13. An Interactive Environmental Science Course for Education Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, Suzanne K.; Slattery, William

    2006-01-01

    An interactive environmental science course was designed to provide a set of learning experiences that connect chemistry, geology, biology, physics, and math with the future careers as teachers. The environment deals with many factors contributing with the quality of life, such as the air, the water and the protective shelter of the atmosphere.

  14. Passive environmental radon detector study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    There are three stages at which the ambient air concentrations of radon-222 are monitored around the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites: before, during, and after construction. Pre-remedial-action measurements are taken for approximately 1 year. Monitoring is conducted during the entire duration of construction, and post-remedial-action monitoring is performed for approximately 1 year. Currently, the UMTRA Project uses Radtrak{reg_sign} brand alpha-track radon detectors for these environmental measurements. The purposes of radon monitoring around the UMTRA sites are (1) to determine background values around the site and pre-remedial-action conditions, (2) to control construction activities and monitor off-site releases, and (3) to compare post-remedial-action concentrations with pre-remedial-action values to demonstrate that radon concentrations have been reduced to approximately background levels. The Technical Assistance Contractor to the DOE for the UMTRA Project evaluated the performance of four different types of passive environmental radon detectors under both controlled laboratory conditions and field conditions at an unremediated UMTRA site. This study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy and precision of four different passive, timeintegrating, environmental radon detectors in an effort to determine which brand of detector is best suited to measure environmental outdoor radon concentrations for the UMTRA Project. Voluntary manufacturer participation in the study was solicited by placing an advertisement in the Commerce Business Daily. All manufacturers participating in the study supplied the detectors and analysis free of charge.

  15. Passive environmental radon detector study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    There are three stages at which the ambient air concentrations of radon-222 are monitored around the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites: before, during, and after construction. Pre-remedial-action measurements are taken for approximately 1 year. Monitoring is conducted during the entire duration of construction, and post-remedial-action monitoring is performed for approximately 1 year. Currently, the UMTRA Project uses Radtrak[reg sign] brand alpha-track radon detectors for these environmental measurements. The purposes of radon monitoring around the UMTRA sites are (1) to determine background values around the site and pre-remedial-action conditions, (2) to control construction activities and monitor off-site releases, and (3) to compare post-remedial-action concentrations with pre-remedial-action values to demonstrate that radon concentrations have been reduced to approximately background levels. The Technical Assistance Contractor to the DOE for the UMTRA Project evaluated the performance of four different types of passive environmental radon detectors under both controlled laboratory conditions and field conditions at an unremediated UMTRA site. This study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy and precision of four different passive, timeintegrating, environmental radon detectors in an effort to determine which brand of detector is best suited to measure environmental outdoor radon concentrations for the UMTRA Project. Voluntary manufacturer participation in the study was solicited by placing an advertisement in the Commerce Business Daily. All manufacturers participating in the study supplied the detectors and analysis free of charge.

  16. Monographs in Environmental Education and Environmental Studies. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Arthur B., Ed.

    The first section of this document contains definitional papers prepared by three sections of the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAEE). They are: (1) "The Challenges of K-12 Environmental Education" (Harold Hungerford and Trudi Volk); (2) "'Environmental Studies': Towards a Definition" (Royal Harde);…

  17. Environmental and radiological safety studies: interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, April 1-June 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.

    1981-09-01

    The containers for /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources in radioisotope thermoelectric generators are designed with large safety factors to ensure they will withstand reentry from orbit and impact with the earth and safely contain the nuclear fuel until it is recovered. Existing designs have proved more than adequately safe, but the Space and Terrestrial Division of the Department of Energy Office of Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects continually seeks more information about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work discussed here includes studies of the effects on the heat source of terrestrial and aquatic environments to obtain data for design of even safer systems. This report includes data from environmental chamber experiments that simulate terrestrial conditions, experiments to measure PuO/sub 2/ dissolution rates, soil column experiments to measure sorption of plutonium by soils, and several aquatic experiments.

  18. Environmental Studies and Utilitarian Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Brian G.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental ethicists have focused much attention on the limits of utilitarianism and have generally defined "environmental ethics" in a manner that treats utilitarian environmental ethics as an oxymoron. This is unfortunate because utilitarian ethics can support strong environmental policies, and environmental ethicists have not yet produced a…

  19. Environmental Studies and Utilitarian Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Brian G.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental ethicists have focused much attention on the limits of utilitarianism and have generally defined "environmental ethics" in a manner that treats utilitarian environmental ethics as an oxymoron. This is unfortunate because utilitarian ethics can support strong environmental policies, and environmental ethicists have not yet produced a…

  20. Interaction forces drive the environmental transmission of pathogenic protozoa.

    PubMed

    Dumètre, Aurélien; Aubert, Dominique; Puech, Pierre-Henri; Hohweyer, Jeanne; Azas, Nadine; Villena, Isabelle

    2012-02-01

    The protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Toxoplasma gondii are pathogens that are resistant to a number of environmental factors and pose significant risks to public health worldwide. Their environmental transmission is closely governed by the physicochemical properties of their cysts (Giardia) and oocysts (Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma), allowing their transport, retention, and survival for months in water, soil, vegetables, and mollusks, which are the main reservoirs for human infection. Importantly, the cyst/oocyst wall plays a key role in that regard by exhibiting a complex polymeric coverage that determines the charge and hydrophobic characteristics of parasites' surfaces. Interaction forces between parasites and other environmental particles may be, in a first approximation, evaluated following the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory of colloidal stability. However, due to the molecular topography and nano- to microstructure of the cyst/oocyst surface, non-DVLO hydrophobic forces together with additional steric attractive and/or repulsive forces may play a pivotal role in controlling the parasite behavior when the organism is subjected to various external conditions. Here, we review several parameters that enhance or hinder the adhesion of parasites to other particles and surfaces and address the role of fast-emerging techniques for mapping the cyst/oocyst surface, e.g., by measuring its topology and the generated interaction forces at the nano- to microscale. We discuss why characterizing these interactions could be a crucial step for managing the environmental matrices at risk of microbial pollution.

  1. Interaction Forces Drive the Environmental Transmission of Pathogenic Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Aubert, Dominique; Puech, Pierre-Henri; Hohweyer, Jeanne; Azas, Nadine; Villena, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Toxoplasma gondii are pathogens that are resistant to a number of environmental factors and pose significant risks to public health worldwide. Their environmental transmission is closely governed by the physicochemical properties of their cysts (Giardia) and oocysts (Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma), allowing their transport, retention, and survival for months in water, soil, vegetables, and mollusks, which are the main reservoirs for human infection. Importantly, the cyst/oocyst wall plays a key role in that regard by exhibiting a complex polymeric coverage that determines the charge and hydrophobic characteristics of parasites' surfaces. Interaction forces between parasites and other environmental particles may be, in a first approximation, evaluated following the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory of colloidal stability. However, due to the molecular topography and nano- to microstructure of the cyst/oocyst surface, non-DVLO hydrophobic forces together with additional steric attractive and/or repulsive forces may play a pivotal role in controlling the parasite behavior when the organism is subjected to various external conditions. Here, we review several parameters that enhance or hinder the adhesion of parasites to other particles and surfaces and address the role of fast-emerging techniques for mapping the cyst/oocyst surface, e.g., by measuring its topology and the generated interaction forces at the nano- to microscale. We discuss why characterizing these interactions could be a crucial step for managing the environmental matrices at risk of microbial pollution. PMID:22156429

  2. Studies on Strong Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coriano, Claudio

    Five studies, four in Quantum field theory and one in fermionic molecular dynamics are presented. In the first study, introduced in chapter one and developed in chapter two of this dissertation, we formulate an extension of QCD sum rules to Compton scattering of the pion at intermediate energy. The chapter is based on the research paper Fixed angle pion Compton scattering and QCD sum rules by Prof. George Sterman and the author, which has been submitted for publication as a regular article. In chapter 3 we discuss the relation between traditional bosonic exchange models of nuclear strong interaction and soliton models, in the particular case of the sine-Gordon model. The chapter is based on the research paper "Scattering in soliton models and bosonic exchange descriptions", by R. R. Parwani, H. Yamagishi, I. Zahed and the author, and is published in Phys. Rev. D 45 (1992), 2542. A preprint of this paper (Preprint 1) has been included as an Appendix to the Chapter. In Chapter 4 we discuss aspects of the propagation of quantized fields in classical backgrounds, using the light-cone expansion of the propagator. The chapter is based on the research papers "Electrodynamics in the presence of an axion", published by the author in Modern Physics Letters A 7 (1992), 1253, and on the paper "Singularity of Green's function and the effective action in massive Yang Mills theories, by Prof. H. Yamagishi and the author. This last paper is published in Physical Review D 41 (1990), 3226 and its reprint appears in the final part of the Chapter (Reprint 1). In chapter 5, entitled "On the time dependent Rayleigh-Ritz equations", we discuss aspects of the variational approach to fermionic molecular dynamics. This investigation by R. Parwani, H. Yamagishi and the author has been published in Nucl. Physics A 522 (1991), 591. A preprint of this research paper has been inserted in the final part of the Chapter (Preprint 2).

  3. Environmental Identity Development through Social Interactions, Action, and Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Sarah Riggs

    2015-01-01

    This article uses sociocultural identity theory to explore how practice, action, and recognition can facilitate environmental identity development. Recognition, a construct not previously explored in environmental identity literature, is particularly examined. The study is based on a group of diverse teens who traveled to South Asia to participate…

  4. Environmental Identity Development through Social Interactions, Action, and Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Sarah Riggs

    2015-01-01

    This article uses sociocultural identity theory to explore how practice, action, and recognition can facilitate environmental identity development. Recognition, a construct not previously explored in environmental identity literature, is particularly examined. The study is based on a group of diverse teens who traveled to South Asia to participate…

  5. The Contribution of Environmental Studies Curricula to Environmental Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, Jean

    Current studies indicate that college environmental-science curriculums are often inadequate and not meaningful to college students. Yet climate change, depletion of natural resources, and loss of habitat due to human activities are among critical environmental issues. It is important that college students are prepared to address these issues after graduation. This case study attempted to discover the ways that college students perceived how participation in environmental science courses contributed to their environmental decision making and ecological intelligence. The population consisted of 15 sophomore, junior, and senior students randomly selected from a list of science students provided by the registrar. The conceptual framework that guided this study includes 5 components of ecological intelligence: biodiversity, ecological literacy, decision making skills, understanding sustainability, and systems thinking. The data collected over a period of 3 months from focus groups, individual interviews, and student discussions were transcribed and coded using typological analysis to identify students' perspectives on environmental science courses. Findings showed that college science curriculums need to incorporate students' prior environmental experiences into science courses. They should also focus on providing hands on experiences that promote application of knowledge to address environmental problems. This study may promote the implementation of integrated college science curriculums that encourage environmental, interdisciplinary, and personalized learning experiences. Implications for positive social change include college environmental studies and curricula that motivate students and engage their interest in participating in environmental activities.

  6. Environmental Research Translation: enhancing interactions with communities at contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D; Brusseau, Mark L; Artiola, Janick F; Maier, Raina M; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2014-11-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation, and decision-making and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with environmental contamination sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brusseau, Mark L.; Artiola, Janick F.; Maier, Raina M.; Gandolfi, A. Jay

    2014-01-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation, and decision-making and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with environmental contamination sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites. PMID:25173762

  8. 25 CFR 211.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental studies. 211.7 Section 211.7 Indians BUREAU... DEVELOPMENT General § 211.7 Environmental studies. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that all environmental studies are prepared as required by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the...

  9. 25 CFR 211.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Environmental studies. 211.7 Section 211.7 Indians BUREAU... DEVELOPMENT General § 211.7 Environmental studies. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that all environmental studies are prepared as required by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and...

  10. 25 CFR 211.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental studies. 211.7 Section 211.7 Indians BUREAU... DEVELOPMENT General § 211.7 Environmental studies. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that all environmental studies are prepared as required by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and...

  11. 25 CFR 211.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental studies. 211.7 Section 211.7 Indians BUREAU... DEVELOPMENT General § 211.7 Environmental studies. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that all environmental studies are prepared as required by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and...

  12. 25 CFR 211.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental studies. 211.7 Section 211.7 Indians BUREAU... DEVELOPMENT General § 211.7 Environmental studies. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that all environmental studies are prepared as required by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and...

  13. Environmental and radiological safety studies: interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, January 1-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Waterbury, G.R.

    1981-09-01

    The containers for /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat souces in radioisotope thermoelectric generators are designed with large safety factors to ensure that they will withstand reentry from orbit and impact with the earth and safely contain the nuclear fuel until it is recovered. Existing designs have proved more than adequately safe, but the Space and Terrestrial Division of the Department of Energy Office of Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects continually seeks more information about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work discussed here includes studies of the effects on the heat source of terrestrial and aquatic environments to obtain data for design of even safer systems. The data obtained in several ongoing experiments are presented; these data tables will be updated quarterly. Discussions of experimental details are minimized and largely repetitive in succeeding reports. Compilations of usable data generated in each experiment are emphasized. These compilations include data from environmental chamber experiments that simulate terrestrial conditions, experiments to measure PuO/sub 2/ dissolution rates soil column experiments to measure sorption of plutonium by soils, and several aquatic experiments.

  14. Environmental and radiological safety studies. Interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, July 1-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Waterbury, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    The containers for /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources in radioisotope thermoelectric generators are designed with large safety factors to ensure that they will withstand reentry from orbit and impact with the earth and safely contain the nuclear fuel until it is recovered. Existing designs have proved more than adequately safe, but the Space and Terrestrial Division of the Department of Energy Office of Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects continually seeks more information about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work discussed here includes studies of the effects on the heat source of terrestrial and aquatic environments to obtain data for design of even safer systems. The data obtained in several ongoing experiments are presented; these data tables will be updated quarterly. Discussions of experimental details are minimized and largely repetitive in succeeding reports. Compilations of usable data generated in each experiment are emphasized. These compilations include data from environmental chamber experiments that simulate terrestrial conditions, experiments to measure PuO/sub 2/ dissolution rates, soil column experiments to measure sorption of plutonium by soils, and several aquatic experiments.

  15. EnviroNET: An online environmental interactions resource

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauriente, Michael

    1991-01-01

    EnviroNET is a centralized depository for technical information on environmentally induced interactions likely to be encountered by spacecraft in both low-altitude and high-altitude orbits. It provides a user-friendly, menu-driven format on networks that are connected globally and is available 24 hours a day - every day. The service pools space data collected over the years by NASA, USAF, other government research facilities, industry, universities, and the European Space Agency. This information contains text, tables and over one hundred high resolution figures and graphs based on empirical data. These graphics can be accessed while still in the chapters, making it easy to flip from text to graphics and back. Interactive graphics programs are also available on space debris, the neutral atmosphere, magnetic field, and ionosphere. EnviroNET can help designers meet tough environmental flight criteria before committing to flight hardware built for experiments, instrumentation, or payloads.

  16. Gene-environment interactions in environmental lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Kleeberger, Steven R; Cho, Hye-Youn

    2008-01-01

    Lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have complex etiologies. It is generally agreed that genetic background has an important role in susceptibility to these diseases, and the genetic contribution to disease phenotypes varies between populations. Linkage analyses have identified some predisposing genes. However, genetic background cannot account for all of the inter-individual variation in disease susceptibility. Interaction between genetic background and exposures to environmental stimuli, and understanding of the mechanisms through which environmental exposure interact with susceptibility genes, is critical to disease prevention. Use of animal models, particularly inbred mice, has provided important insight to understand human disease etiologies because genetic background and environmental exposures can be controlled. We have utilized a positional cloning approach in inbred mice to identify candidate susceptibility genes for oxidant-induced lung injury. Subsequent investigations with cell models identified functional polymorphisms in human homologues that confer enhanced risk of lung injury in humans. This 'bench to bedside' approach may provide an understanding of gene-environment interactions in complex lung diseases is essential to the development of new strategies for lung disease prevention and treatment.

  17. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, M.; Brusseau, M. L. L.; Artiola, J. F.; Maier, R. M.; Gandolfi, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation and decision-making, and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with contaminated sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites.

  18. Estimating interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors efficiency of sampling designs within a cohort

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Large prospective cohorts originally assembled to study environmental risk factors are increasingly exploited to study gene-environment interactions. Given the cost of genetic studies in large numbers of subjects, being able to select a sub-sample for genotyping that contains most of the information...

  19. Thermal analysis in environmental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smykatz-Kloss, W.; Heil, A.; Kaeding, L.; Roller, E.

    Thermal analysis offers suitable methods for environmental studies. Impurities of toxic elements in minerals, rocks, and raw materials can be determined by DTA, TG, CSA-CWA or EGA techniques (S in clays and coals, Cr or Cd in oxides and sulphides etc.). The DTA of the illite or smectite crystallinity shows to be a good controlling measure for barrier clays around waste disposals. The DTA/TG investigation of organo-clay mineral complexes contributes to the estimation of erosion tendencies in agricultural environments. This is discussed for several pesticide-bentonite complexes.

  20. Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Education: Environmental Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koether, Marina C.; McGarey, Donald; Patterson, Mark; Williams, Daniel J.

    2002-08-01

    With an NSF grant for an Interdisciplinary Environmental Program, faculty at Kennesaw State University (two chemists, a biologist, and a geographer) collaborated to develop and teach an environmental chemistry laboratory course and an environmental science capstone course. This article describes the details and results of these efforts.

  1. Effects of interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors on moose resource selection and environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Bao, Heng; Fryxell, John M; Liu, Hui; Dou, Hongliang; Ma, Yingjie; Jiang, Guangshun

    2017-01-27

    Resource selection of herbivores is a complex ecological process that operates in relation to biological or non-biological factors, which may affect the feeding and movement, and subsequently their spatial distribution and environmental stress. Here, we estimated moose (Alces alces cameloides) resource selection for habitat variables and the effect of interspecific interactions related to roe deer (Capreolus pygargus bedfordi) on its population distribution and environmental stress in the Khingan Mountain region of northeast China at local and regional scales. Different response patterns of moose resource selection, spatial distribution, and environmental stress to interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors were shown at the two scales. A general ecological chain, response of moose to interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors, was exhibited at the regional scale, and at the local scale, heterogeneous responses, linkages of habitat selection and environmental stress of moose population might be driven by different interspecific interaction patterns. Our study firstly suggested that moose resource selection, food availability, diet quality, population density and environmental stress indicators were impacted by interactions with the distribution of other sympatric herbivore species and showed differences in ecological response chains at various spatial scales. These findings are useful for sympatric herbivore assembly conservation, habitat quality monitoring and management.

  2. Effects of interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors on moose resource selection and environmental stress

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Heng; Fryxell, John M.; Liu, Hui; Dou, Hongliang; Ma, Yingjie; Jiang, Guangshun

    2017-01-01

    Resource selection of herbivores is a complex ecological process that operates in relation to biological or non-biological factors, which may affect the feeding and movement, and subsequently their spatial distribution and environmental stress. Here, we estimated moose (Alces alces cameloides) resource selection for habitat variables and the effect of interspecific interactions related to roe deer (Capreolus pygargus bedfordi) on its population distribution and environmental stress in the Khingan Mountain region of northeast China at local and regional scales. Different response patterns of moose resource selection, spatial distribution, and environmental stress to interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors were shown at the two scales. A general ecological chain, response of moose to interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors, was exhibited at the regional scale, and at the local scale, heterogeneous responses, linkages of habitat selection and environmental stress of moose population might be driven by different interspecific interaction patterns. Our study firstly suggested that moose resource selection, food availability, diet quality, population density and environmental stress indicators were impacted by interactions with the distribution of other sympatric herbivore species and showed differences in ecological response chains at various spatial scales. These findings are useful for sympatric herbivore assembly conservation, habitat quality monitoring and management. PMID:28128311

  3. Environmental variability uncovers disruptive effects of species' interactions on population dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Gudmundson, Sara; Eklöf, Anna; Wennergren, Uno

    2015-01-01

    How species respond to changes in environmental variability has been shown for single species, but the question remains whether these results are transferable to species when incorporated in ecological communities. Here, we address this issue by analysing the same species exposed to a range of environmental variabilities when (i) isolated or (ii) embedded in a food web. We find that all species in food webs exposed to temporally uncorrelated environments (white noise) show the same type of dynamics as isolated species, whereas species in food webs exposed to positively autocorrelated environments (red noise) can respond completely differently compared with isolated species. This is owing to species following their equilibrium densities in a positively autocorrelated environment that in turn enables species–species interactions to come into play. Our results give new insights into species' response to environmental variation. They especially highlight the importance of considering both species' interactions and environmental autocorrelation when studying population dynamics in a fluctuating environment. PMID:26224705

  4. Amphibians as models for studying environmental change.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William A

    2007-01-01

    The use of amphibians as models in ecological research has a rich history. From an early foundation in studies of amphibian natural history sprang generations of scientists who used amphibians as models to address fundamental questions in population and community ecology. More recently, in the wake of an environment that human disturbances rapidly altered, ecologists have adopted amphibians as models for studying applied ecological issues such as habitat loss, pollution, disease, and global climate change. Some of the characteristics of amphibians that make them useful models for studying these environmental problems are highlighted, including their trophic importance, environmental sensitivity, research tractability, and impending extinction. The article provides specific examples from the recent literature to illustrate how studies on amphibians have been instrumental in guiding scientific thought on a broad scale. Included are examples of how amphibian research has transformed scientific disciplines, generated new theories about global health, called into question widely accepted scientific paradigms, and raised awareness in the general public that our daily actions may have widespread repercussions. In addition, studies on amphibian declines have provided insight into the complexity in which multiple independent factors may interact with one another to produce catastrophic and sometimes unpredictable effects. Because of the complexity of these problems, amphibian ecologists have been among the strongest advocates for interdisciplinary research. Future studies of amphibians will be important not only for their conservation but also for the conservation of other species, critical habitats, and entire ecosystems.

  5. MODELING THE INTERACTION OF AGROCHEMICALS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interactions between agrochemicals and organo-mineral surfaces were studied using molecular mechanical conformational calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine), 2,4-D (1, 2-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), and DD...

  6. MODELING THE INTERACTION OF AGROCHEMICALS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interactions between agrochemicals and organo-mineral surfaces were studied using molecular mechanical conformational calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine), 2,4-D (1, 2-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), and DD...

  7. Environmental interactions and the SP-100 power system

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Civil Space Technology Initiative High-Capacity-Power Environmental Interactions Program has made great progress in defining and evaluating the interactions of the SP-100 power system with its expected ambient environments. The NASCAP/LEO and POLAR computer codes demonstrated that local electric fields at the user interface module are high. Therefore, particular attention must be paid to geometries and materials in this region to prevent arcing at conductor-insulator junctions in low Earth orbit. NASCAP/LEO and EPSAT computer models revealed that SP-100 payloads float about 100 V negative of the LEO plasma. In addition, ground tests and modeling done for the Space Station Freedom Electrical Grounding Tiger Team found that dielectric coatings often break down at such voltages in a plasma. Thus, surface coatings for SP-100 payloads should be carefully selected. Sputtering may also be a concern for long-duration missions in LEO at these voltages. Much work has been done on a sputtering model to evaluate surface material loss rates on SP-100 payloads. In ground plasma chamber tests of cables and cable insulators at SP-100 voltages, parasitic power losses due to the plasma current collected from possible pinholes or coating defects were quantified and shown to be small. Modeling revealed that the power loss from currents to other surfaces is also small. The atomic oxygen durability of SP-100 materials and coatings continues to be investigated in ground tests. In the upcoming Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-3) Shuttle flight experiment, a host of SP-100 materials will be evaluated for atomic oxygen durability in LEO. Finally, an evaluation of the interactions of the SP-100 power system with lunar and planetary environments has started. At a workshop on chemical and electrical interactions on Mars recently held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, many of primary interactions were identified.

  8. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    When considering the effects of climate change, it has become clear that processes resulting in changes in stratospheric ozone are more complex than previously believed. As a result of this, human health and environmental issues will be longer-lasting and more regionally variable. Like the other Panels, the EEAP produces a detailed report every four years; the most recent was published as a series of seven papers in 2015 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2015, 14, 1-184). In the years in between, the EEAP produces less detailed and shorter Progress Reports of the relevant scientific findings. The most recent of these was for 2015 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2016, 15, 141-147). The present Progress Report for 2016 assesses some of the highlights and new insights with regard to the interactive nature of the direct and indirect effects of UV radiation, atmospheric processes, and climate change. The report is also published in (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2017, DOI: 10.1039/c7pp90001e). The more detailed Quadrennial Assessment will be made available in 2018. The Parties to the Montreal Protocol are informed by three Panels of experts. One of these is the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP), which deals with two focal issues. The first focus is the effects on increased UV radiation on human health, animals, plants, biogeochemistry, air quality, and materials. The second focus is on interactions between UV radiation and global climate change and how these may

  9. Comparison of Environmental Interactions and Motor Activity of Visually Handicapped and Sighted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneekloth, Lynda H.; Day, Diane

    The study compared the motor activities and environmental interactions of 36 sighted, partially sighted, and blind children (7 to 13 years old) during unstructured play. Objectives were to assess motor proficiency level; to establish frequency and kind of gross motor, manipulative self stimulation, and social/play behaviors; and to assess use of…

  10. Biological and environmental interactions of emerging two-dimensional nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongying; Zhu, Wenpeng; Qiu, Yang; Yi, Xin; von dem Bussche, Annette; Kane, Agnes; Gao, Huajian; Koski, Kristie; Hurt, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials have become a major focus in materials chemistry research worldwide with substantial efforts centered on synthesis, property characterization, and technological application. These high-aspect ratio sheet-like solids come in a wide array of chemical compositions, crystal phases, and physical forms, and are anticipated to enable a host of future technologies in areas that include electronics, sensors, coatings, barriers, energy storage and conversion, and biomedicine. A parallel effort has begun to understand the biological and environmental interactions of synthetic nanosheets, both to enable the biomedical developments and to ensure human health and safety for all application fields. This review covers the most recent literature on the biological responses to 2D materials and also draws from older literature on natural lamellar minerals to provide additional insight into the essential chemical behaviors. The article proposes a framework for more systematic investigation of biological behavior in the future, rooted in fundamental materials chemistry and physics. That framework considers three fundamental interaction modes: (i) chemical interactions and phase transformations, (ii) electronic and surface redox interactions, and (iii) physical and mechanical interactions that are unique to near-atomically-thin, high-aspect-ratio solids. Two-dimensional materials are shown to exhibit a wide range of behaviors, which reflect the diversity in their chemical compositions, and many are expected to undergo reactive dissolution processes that will be key to understanding their behaviors and interpreting biological response data. The review concludes with a series of recommendations for high-priority research subtopics at the “bio-nanosheet” interface that we hope will enable safe and successful development of technologies related to two-dimensional nanomaterials. PMID:26923057

  11. Biological and environmental interactions of emerging two-dimensional nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongying; Zhu, Wenpeng; Qiu, Yang; Yi, Xin; von dem Bussche, Annette; Kane, Agnes; Gao, Huajian; Koski, Kristie; Hurt, Robert

    2016-03-21

    Two-dimensional materials have become a major focus in materials chemistry research worldwide with substantial efforts centered on synthesis, property characterization, and technological application. These high-aspect ratio sheet-like solids come in a wide array of chemical compositions, crystal phases, and physical forms, and are anticipated to enable a host of future technologies in areas that include electronics, sensors, coatings, barriers, energy storage and conversion, and biomedicine. A parallel effort has begun to understand the biological and environmental interactions of synthetic nanosheets, both to enable the biomedical developments and to ensure human health and safety for all application fields. This review covers the most recent literature on the biological responses to 2D materials and also draws from older literature on natural lamellar minerals to provide additional insight into the essential chemical behaviors. The article proposes a framework for more systematic investigation of biological behavior in the future, rooted in fundamental materials chemistry and physics. That framework considers three fundamental interaction modes: (i) chemical interactions and phase transformations, (ii) electronic and surface redox interactions, and (iii) physical and mechanical interactions that are unique to near-atomically-thin, high-aspect-ratio solids. Two-dimensional materials are shown to exhibit a wide range of behaviors, which reflect the diversity in their chemical compositions, and many are expected to undergo reactive dissolution processes that will be key to understanding their behaviors and interpreting biological response data. The review concludes with a series of recommendations for high-priority research subtopics at the "bio-nanosheet" interface that we hope will enable safe and successful development of technologies related to two-dimensional nanomaterials.

  12. [Genetic and environmental interactions on the development of rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Malaise, O; von Frenckell, C; Malaise, M G

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) more and more becomes a syndrome, rather than a disease, with genetic, hormonal and environmental influences, among which smoking and the microbiota generate focused interest. The shared epitope and PTPN22 loci are associated with RA, and, particularly, with the "classical" form with anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA) and IgM-rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF) positivity. Pregnancy is associated with a--temporary--remission of RA. Epidemiological studies have shown that oral contraception, parity and hormonal replacement therapy influence the severity of RA, and, this is still discussed, its incidence. Smoking is the first environmental factor strongly associated with RA, specifically with the shared epitope and with ACPA. The study of the microbiota is a novel emerging field that will help us to better understand patterns and evolution of RA.

  13. An age-size reaction norm yields insight into environmental interactions affecting life-history traits: a factorial study of larval development in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Conan; Rotiberg, Bernard D

    2013-07-01

    Environmental factors frequently act nonindependently to determine growth and development of insects. Because age and size at maturity strongly influence population dynamics, interaction effects among environmental variables complicate the task of predicting dynamics of insect populations under novel conditions. We reared larvae of the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) under three factors relevant to changes in climate and land use: food level, water depth, and temperature. Each factor was held at two levels in a fully crossed design, for eight experimental treatments. Larval survival, larval development time, and adult size (wing length) were measured to indicate the importance of interaction effects upon population-level processes. For age and size at emergence, but not survival, significant interaction effects were detected for all three factors, in addition to sex. Some of these interaction effects can be understood as consequences of how the different factors influence energy usage in the context of a nonindependent relationship between age and size. Experimentally assessing interaction effects for all potential future sets of conditions is intractable. However, considering how different factors affect energy usage within the context of an insect's evolved developmental program can provide insight into the causes of complex environmental effects on populations.

  14. Environmental Issues, A Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bettye G.

    Background information, discussion topics and questions, and suggested readings and references are compiled in this booklet dealing with environmental issues. Designed for integration into the senior high school curriculum, the issues and units are titled: (1) The Earth Develops Its Atmosphers, (2) Energy and Materials: Fundamentals, (3)…

  15. Environmental Issues, A Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bettye G.

    Background information, discussion topics and questions, and suggested readings and references are compiled in this booklet dealing with environmental issues. Designed for integration into the senior high school curriculum, the issues and units are titled: (1) The Earth Develops Its Atmosphers, (2) Energy and Materials: Fundamentals, (3)…

  16. Environmental Reference Series, Earth and Environmental Studies, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutub, Musa, Comp.

    Compiled in this reference work are bibliographic citations for books and articles dealing with the earth and environmental studies. Specific categories are geology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy. Items are indexed only by title but information about author, source, and date of publication is also noted. (BL)

  17. Environmental Reference Series, Earth and Environmental Studies, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutub, Musa, Comp.

    Compiled in this reference work are bibliographic citations for books and articles dealing with the earth and environmental studies. Specific categories are geology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy. Items are indexed only by title but information about author, source, and date of publication is also noted. (BL)

  18. Study design considerations in evaluating environmental impacts

    Treesearch

    Stan T. Lebow; Paul A. Cooper; Patricia Lebow

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to make the reader aware of how choices in study parameters may influence the outcome of treated-wood environmental impact evaluations. Evaluation of the leaching and environmental accumulation of preservatives from treated wood is a complex process. and many factors can influence the results of such studies. In laboratory studies, the...

  19. Studying strategic interaction under environmental and economic uncertainties among water users in the Zambezi River Basin - From descriptive analysis to institutional design for better transboundary management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, L.; Siegfried, T. U.; Bernauer, T.

    2009-12-01

    The Zambezi River Basin (ZRB) is one of the largest freshwater catchments in Africa and worldwide. Consumptive water use in the ZRB is currently estimated at 15 - 20 percent of total runoff. This suggests many development possibilities, particularly for irrigated agriculture and hydropower production. The key drivers in the basin are population development on the demand side as well as uncertain impacts from climate change for supply. Development plans of the riparian countries suggest that consumptive water use might increase up to 40 percent of total runoff by 2025. This suggests that expanding water use in the Zambezi basin could become a source of disputes among the eight riparian countries. We study the surface water allocation in the basin by means of a couple hydrological-economic modeling approach. A conceptual lumped-parameter rainfall-runoff model for the ZRB was constructed and calibrated on the best available runoff data for the basin. Water users are modeled based on an agent-based framework and implemented as distributed sequential decision makers that act in an uncertain environment. Given the current non-cooperative status quo, we use the stochastic optimization technique of reinforcement learning to model the individual agents’ behavior. Their goals include the maximization of a) their long-term reward as conditioned on the state of the multi-agent system and b) the immediate reward obtained from operational decisions of reservoirs and water diversions under their control. We feed a wide range of water demand drivers as well as climate change predictions into the model and assess agents’ responses and the resulting implications for runoff at key points in the water catchment, including Victoria Falls, Kariba reservoir, Kafue Gorge, and Cahora Bassa reservoir in the downstream. It will be shown that considerable benefits exist if the current non-cooperative regime is replaced by a basin-wide, coordinated allocation strategy that regulates water

  20. Studies of food drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Aman, Syed Faisal; Hassan, Fouzia; Naqvi, Baqar S; Hasan, Syed Muhammmad Farid

    2010-07-01

    Medicines can treat and alleviate many diseases provided that they must be taken properly to ensure that they are safe and useful. One issue related with the medicines is that whether to take on empty stomach or with food. The present work gives information regarding food-drug interactions that were studied by collecting seventy five prescriptions from various hospitals. In most of the collected prescriptions, food-drug interactions were detected using the literature available. It was also found that only few studies have been carried out so far on the effect of food on drug disposition in the Asian population. Thus more studies on food-drug interactions particularly in the local population is recommended in order to determine the effect of food and food components on drug disposition and to the kinetics of the drugs which has not yet well highlighted in this part of the world.

  1. Environmental Contracting: A Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 [Ref. 4] provided the impetus for cradle-to-grave accountability of hazardous materials by industry...Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA, a.k.a. the 1984 RCRA Amendments) and various...Office, Washington, DC, 1976. 4. United States Code. Environmental Policy: Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA).

  2. When environmental factors become stressors: interactive effects of vermetid gastropods and sedimentation on corals.

    PubMed

    Zill, Julie A; Gil, Michael A; Osenberg, Craig W

    2017-03-01

    Environmental stressors often interact, but most studies of multiple stressors have focused on combinations of abiotic stressors. Here we examined the potential interaction between a biotic stressor, the vermetid snail Ceraesignum maximum, and an abiotic stressor, high sedimentation, on the growth of reef-building corals. In a field experiment, we subjected juvenile massive Porites corals to four treatments: (i) neither stressor, (ii) sedimentation, (iii) vermetids or (iv) both stressors. Unexpectedly, we found no effect of either stressor in isolation, but a significant decrease in coral growth in the presence of both stressors. Additionally, seven times more sediment remained on corals in the presence (versus absence) of vermetids, likely owing to adhesion of sediments to corals via vermetid mucus. Thus, vermetid snails and high sedimentation can interact to drive deleterious effects on reef-building corals. More generally, our study illustrates that environmental factors can combine to have negative interactive effects even when individual effects are not detectable. Such 'ecological surprises' may be easily overlooked, leading to environmental degradation that cannot be anticipated through the study of isolated factors.

  3. Association mapping of loci controlling genetic and environmental interaction of soybean flowering time under various photo-thermal conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean (Glycine max) is a short day plant. Its flowering and maturity time are controlled by genetic and environmental factors, as well as their interaction. Previous studies have shown that both genetic and environmental factors, mainly photoperiod and temperature control flowering time of soybean...

  4. The Environmental Action and Philosophy Matrix: An Exploratory Study of the Environmental Attitudes of Recreation Management and Environmental Studies Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Jeremy R.; Simpson, Steven; Elfessi, Abdulaziz M.

    2011-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis of the environmental philosophies of college undergraduates enrolled in a Midwestern university. Two courses were used for the research, one from a recreation management curriculum and the other from environmental studies. The study utilized a survey instrument called the Environmental Action and Philosophy…

  5. The Environmental Action and Philosophy Matrix: An Exploratory Study of the Environmental Attitudes of Recreation Management and Environmental Studies Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Jeremy R.; Simpson, Steven; Elfessi, Abdulaziz M.

    2011-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis of the environmental philosophies of college undergraduates enrolled in a Midwestern university. Two courses were used for the research, one from a recreation management curriculum and the other from environmental studies. The study utilized a survey instrument called the Environmental Action and Philosophy…

  6. 25 CFR 225.24 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental studies. 225.24 Section 225.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.24 Environmental studies. (a) The Secretary shall...

  7. 25 CFR 225.24 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental studies. 225.24 Section 225.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.24 Environmental studies. (a) The Secretary shall...

  8. 25 CFR 225.24 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Environmental studies. 225.24 Section 225.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.24 Environmental studies. (a) The Secretary shall...

  9. 25 CFR 225.24 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental studies. 225.24 Section 225.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.24 Environmental studies. (a) The Secretary shall...

  10. 25 CFR 225.24 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental studies. 225.24 Section 225.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.24 Environmental studies. (a) The Secretary shall...

  11. 25 CFR 212.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental studies. 212.7 Section 212.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT General § 212.7 Environmental studies. The provisions of § 211.7 of this subchapter...

  12. 25 CFR 212.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Environmental studies. 212.7 Section 212.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT General § 212.7 Environmental studies. The provisions of § 211.7 of this...

  13. 25 CFR 212.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental studies. 212.7 Section 212.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT General § 212.7 Environmental studies. The provisions of § 211.7 of this...

  14. 25 CFR 212.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental studies. 212.7 Section 212.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT General § 212.7 Environmental studies. The provisions of § 211.7 of this...

  15. 25 CFR 212.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental studies. 212.7 Section 212.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT General § 212.7 Environmental studies. The provisions of § 211.7 of this...

  16. How to Think about Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    It is not possible to date when environmental studies became "Environmental Studies." Nevertheless it has had a turbulent history marked by inconsistency, conflict and change. It is not surprising that at present it lacks disciplinary coherence and is subject to various definitions, often contradictory. There is ongoing speculation as to the cause…

  17. Indigenous Studies Speaks to Environmental Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Laurie; Middleton, Beth Rose; Gilmer, Robert; Grossman, Zoltán; Janis, Terry; Lucero, Stephanie; Morgan, Tukoroirangi; Watson, Annette

    2013-11-01

    This article describes the increasing connections between the fields of Indigenous studies and environmental management and examines some of the ways that an Indigenous studies perspective can guide thinking about environmental management. Indigenous groups have been involved in the management of environmental and natural resources on their lands since time immemorial. Indigenous groups have also become increasingly involved in Western practices of environmental management with the advent of co-management institutions, subsistence boards, traditional ecological knowledge forums, and environmental issues affecting Indigenous resources. Thus, it is an important time for scholarship that explores how Indigenous groups are both shaping and being affected by processes of environmental management. This article summarizes key findings and themes from eight papers situated at the intersection of these two fields of study and identify means by which environmental managers can better accommodate Indigenous rights and perspectives. It is the authors’ hope that increased dialog between Indigenous studies and environmental management can contribute to the building of sustainable and socially just environmental management practices.

  18. Environmental controls, morphodynamic processes, and ecogeomorphic interactions of barchan to parabolic dune transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Na; Baas, Andreas C. W.

    2017-02-01

    The transformation of barchans into parabolic dunes has been observed in various dune systems around the world. Precise details of how environmental controls influence the dune transformation and stabilisation mechanism, however, remain poorly understood. A 'horns-anchoring' mechanism and a 'nebkhas-initiation' mechanism have previously been proposed and selected environmental controls on the transformation have been explored by some modelling efforts, but the morphodynamic processes and eco-geomorphic interactions involved are unclear and comparison between different dune systems is challenging. This study extends a cellular automaton model, informed by empirical data from fieldwork and remote sensing, to fully explore how vegetation characteristics, boundary conditions, and wind regime influence the transformation process and the resulting dune morphologies. A 'dynamic growth function' is introduced for clump-like perennials to differentiate between growing and non-growing seasons and to simulate the development of young plants into mature plants over multiple years. Modelling results show that environmental parameters interact with each other in a complex manner to impact the transformation process. The study finds a fundamental power-law relation between a non-dimensional parameter group, so-called the 'dune stabilising index' (S*), and the normalised migration distance of the transforming dune, which can be used to reconstruct paleo-environmental conditions and monitor the impacts of changes in climate or land-use on a dune system. Four basic eco-geomorphic interaction zones are identified which bear different functionality in the barchan to parabolic dune transformation. The roles of different environmental controls in changing the eco-geomorphic interaction zones, transforming processes, and resulting dune morphologies are also clarified.

  19. Environmental Enrichments for a Group of Captive Macaws: Low Interaction Does Not Mean Low Behavioral Changes.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Jéssica; Maia, Caroline Marques; Santos, Eliana Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enrichment has been widely used to improve conditions for nonhuman animals in captivity. However, there is no consensus about the best way to evaluate the success of enrichments. This study evaluated whether the proportion of time spent interacting with enrichments indicated the proportion of overall behavioral changes. Six environmental enrichments were introduced in succession to 16 captive macaws, and interaction of the animals with them as well as the behaviors of the group were recorded before and during the enrichments. All of the enrichments affected the proportions of time spent in different behaviors. Macaws interacted more with certain items (hibiscus and food tree) than with others (a toy or swings and stairs), but introduction of the enrichments that invoked the least interaction caused as many behavioral changes as those that invoked the most. Moreover, feeding behavior was only affected by the enrichment that invoked the least interaction, a change not detected by a general analysis of enrichment effects. In conclusion, little interaction with enrichment does not mean little change in behavior, and the effects of enrichments are more complex than previously considered.

  20. Polygenic interactions with environmental adversity in the aetiology of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Mullins, N; Power, R A; Fisher, H L; Hanscombe, K B; Euesden, J; Iniesta, R; Levinson, D F; Weissman, M M; Potash, J B; Shi, J; Uher, R; Cohen-Woods, S; Rivera, M; Jones, L; Jones, I; Craddock, N; Owen, M J; Korszun, A; Craig, I W; Farmer, A E; McGuffin, P; Breen, G; Lewis, C M

    2016-03-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common and disabling condition with well-established heritability and environmental risk factors. Gene-environment interaction studies in MDD have typically investigated candidate genes, though the disorder is known to be highly polygenic. This study aims to test for interaction between polygenic risk and stressful life events (SLEs) or childhood trauma (CT) in the aetiology of MDD. The RADIANT UK sample consists of 1605 MDD cases and 1064 controls with SLE data, and a subset of 240 cases and 272 controls with CT data. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) were constructed using results from a mega-analysis on MDD by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. PRS and environmental factors were tested for association with case/control status and for interaction between them. PRS significantly predicted depression, explaining 1.1% of variance in phenotype (p = 1.9 × 10(-6)). SLEs and CT were also associated with MDD status (p = 2.19 × 10(-4) and p = 5.12 × 10(-20), respectively). No interactions were found between PRS and SLEs. Significant PRSxCT interactions were found (p = 0.002), but showed an inverse association with MDD status, as cases who experienced more severe CT tended to have a lower PRS than other cases or controls. This relationship between PRS and CT was not observed in independent replication samples. CT is a strong risk factor for MDD but may have greater effect in individuals with lower genetic liability for the disorder. Including environmental risk along with genetics is important in studying the aetiology of MDD and PRS provide a useful approach to investigating gene-environment interactions in complex traits.

  1. Summer Undergraduate Research Program: Environmental studies

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. The students are offered research topics at the Medical University in the scientific areas of pharmacology and toxicology, epidemiology and risk assessment, environmental microbiology, and marine sciences. Students are also afforded the opportunity to work with faculty at the University of Charleston, SC, on projects with an environmental theme. Ten well-qualified students from colleges and universities throughout the eastern United States were accepted into the program.

  2. Additive Interaction between Heterogeneous Environmental Quality Domains (Air, Water, Land, Sociodemographic, and Built Environment) on Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Grabich, Shannon C; Rappazzo, Kristen M; Gray, Christine L; Jagai, Jyotsna S; Jian, Yun; Messer, Lynne C; Lobdell, Danelle T

    2016-01-01

    antagonistic associations may indicate that those living in areas with multiple detrimental domains may have other interfering factors reducing the burden of environmental exposure. This study is the first to explore interactions across different environmental domains and demonstrates the utility of the EQI to examine the relationship between environmental domain interactions and human health. While we did observe some departures from additivity, many observed effects were additive. This study demonstrated that interactions between environmental domains should be considered in future analyses.

  3. Quantifying Wheat Sensitivities to Environmental Constraints to Dissect Genotype × Environment Interactions in the Field.

    PubMed

    Parent, Boris; Bonneau, Julien; Maphosa, Lance; Kovalchuk, Alex; Langridge, Peter; Fleury, Delphine

    2017-07-01

    Yield is subject to strong genotype-by-environment (G × E) interactions in the field, especially under abiotic constraints such as soil water deficit (drought [D]) and high temperature (heat [H]). Since environmental conditions show strong fluctuations during the whole crop cycle, geneticists usually do not consider environmental measures as quantitative variables but rather as factors in multienvironment analyses. Based on 11 experiments in a field platform with contrasting temperature and soil water deficit, we determined the periods of sensitivity to drought and heat constraints in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and determined the average sensitivities for major yield components. G × E interactions were separated into their underlying components, constitutive genotypic effect (G), G × D, G × H, and G × H × D, and were analyzed for two genotypes, highlighting contrasting responses to heat and drought constraints. We then tested the constitutive and responsive behaviors of two strong quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated previously with yield components. This analysis confirmed the constitutive effect of the chromosome 1B QTL and explained the G × E interaction of the chromosome 3B QTL by a benefit of one allele when temperature rises. In addition to the method itself, which can be applied to other data sets and populations, this study will support the cloning of a major yield QTL on chromosome 3B that is highly dependent on environmental conditions and for which the climatic interaction is now quantified. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Interactions between environmental changes and brain plasticity in birds.

    PubMed

    Barnea, Anat

    2009-09-01

    Neurogenesis and neuronal recruitment occur in many vertebrates, including humans. Most of the new neurons die before reaching their destination. Those which survive migrate to various brain regions, replace older ones and connect to existing circuits. Evidence suggests that this replacement is related to acquisition of new information. Therefore, neuronal replacement can be seen as a form of brain plasticity that enables organisms to adjust to environmental changes. However, direct evidence of a causal link between replacement and learning remains elusive. Our hypothesis is that increased neuronal recruitment is associated with increase in memory load. Moreover, since neuronal recruitment is part of a turnover process, we assume that the same conditions that favor survival of some neurons induce the death of others. I present studies that investigated the effect of various behaviors and environmental conditions (food-hoarding, social change, reproductive cycle) on neuronal recruitment and survival in adult avian brains, and discuss how these phenomena relate to the life of animals. I offer a frame and rationale for comparing neuronal replacement in the adult brain, in order to uncover the pressures, rules, and mechanisms that govern its constant rejuvenation. The review emphasizes the importance of using various approaches (behavioral, anatomical, cellular and hormonal) in neuroethological research, and the need to study natural populations, in order to fully understand how neurogenesis and neuronal replacement contribute to life of animals. Finally, the review indicates to future directions and ends with the hope that a better understanding of adult neuronal replacement will lead to medical applications.

  5. Do Interactions Between Gut Ecology and Environmental Chemicals Contribute to Obesity and Diabetes?

    PubMed Central

    Snedeker, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Gut microbiota are important factors in obesity and diabetes, yet little is known about their role in the toxicodynamics of environmental chemicals, including those recently found to be obesogenic and diabetogenic. Objectives: We integrated evidence that independently links gut ecology and environmental chemicals to obesity and diabetes, providing a framework for suggesting how these environmental factors may interact with these diseases, and identified future research needs. Methods: We examined studies with germ-free or antibiotic-treated laboratory animals, and human studies that evaluated how dietary influences and microbial changes affected obesity and diabetes. Strengths and weaknesses of studies evaluating how environmental chemical exposures may affect obesity and diabetes were summarized, and research gaps on how gut ecology may affect the disposition of environmental chemicals were identified. Results: Mounting evidence indicates that gut microbiota composition affects obesity and diabetes, as does exposure to environmental chemicals. The toxicology and pharmacology literature also suggests that interindividual variations in gut microbiota may affect chemical metabolism via direct activation of chemicals, depletion of metabolites needed for biotransformation, alteration of host biotransformation enzyme activities, changes in enterohepatic circulation, altered bioavailability of environmental chemicals and/or antioxidants from food, and alterations in gut motility and barrier function. Conclusions: Variations in gut microbiota are likely to affect human toxicodynamics and increase individual exposure to obesogenic and diabetogenic chemicals. Combating the global obesity and diabetes epidemics requires a multifaceted approach that should include greater emphasis on understanding and controlling the impact of interindividual gut microbe variability on the disposition of environmental chemicals in humans. PMID:22042266

  6. Environmental influences on epistatic interactions: viabilities of cytochrome c genotypes in interpopulation crosses.

    PubMed

    Willett, Christopher S; Burton, Ronald S

    2003-10-01

    The genetic incompatibilities that underlie F2 hybrid breakdown and reproductive isolation between allopatric populations may be susceptible to environmental interactions. Here we show that epistatic interactions between cytochrome c (CYC) alleles and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation are dramatically influenced by environmental temperature in interpopulation hybrids of the copepod Tigriopus californicus. CYC is a nuclear-encoded gene that functionally interacts with electron transport system (ETS) complexes composed in part of mtDNA-encoded proteins. Previous studies have provided evidence for functional coadaptation between CYC and ETS complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) and for cytoplasmic effects on the fitness of CYC genotype in copepod hybrids. In this study, selection on CYC genotype is shown to continue into advanced generation hybrids (F2-F8) increasing the likelihood that CYC itself is involved in the interaction (and not a linked factor). Relative viabilities varied markedly between copepods raised in two different temperature/light regimes. These results suggest that both intrinsic coadaptation and extrinsic selection will influence the outcome of natural hybridizations between populations. Furthermore, the results indicate that the fitness of particular hybrid genotypes depends on additional non-mtDNA encoded genes that interact with CYC.

  7. Combined and interactive effects of environmental and GWAS-identified risk factors in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Rossing, Mary Anne; Lee, Alice W.; Ness, Roberta; Webb, Penelope M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Jordan, Susan M.; Stram, Douglas A.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Nickels, Stefan; Lurie, Galina; Thompson, Pamela J.; Carney, Michael E.; Goodman, Marc T.; Moysich, Kirsten; Hogdall, Estrid; Jensen, Allan; Goode, Ellen L.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Ziogas, Argyrios; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gayther, Simon A.; Gentry-Maharaj, Alexandra; Menon, Usha; Ramus, Susan J.; Brinton, Louise; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Lissowska, Jolanta; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Massuger, Leon F.A.G; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.L.M.; Van Altena, Anne M.; Aben, Katja K.H.; Berchuck, Andrew; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Iversen, Edwin; McGuire, Valerie; Moorman, Patricia G.; Pharoah, Paul; Pike, Malcolm C.; Risch, Harvey; Sieh, Weiva; Stram, Daniel O.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Whittemore, Alice; Wu, Anna H.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Kjaer, Susanne K.

    2014-01-01

    Background There are several well-established environmental risk factors for ovarian cancer, and recent genome-wide association studies have also identified six variants that influence disease risk. However, the interplay between such risk factors and susceptibility loci has not been studied. Methods Data from 14 ovarian cancer case-control studies were pooled, and stratified analyses by each environmental risk factor with tests for heterogeneity were conducted to determine the presence of interactions for all histological subtypes. A genetic “risk score” was created to consider the effects of all six variants simultaneously. A multivariate model was fit to examine the association between all environmental risk factors and genetic risk score on ovarian cancer risk. Results Among 7,374 controls and 5,566 cases, there was no statistical evidence of interaction between the six SNPs or genetic risk score and the environmental risk factors on ovarian cancer risk. In a main effects model, women in the highest genetic risk score quartile had a 65% increased risk of ovarian cancer compared to women in the lowest (95% CI 1.48-1.84). Analyses by histological subtype yielded risk differences across subtype for endometriosis (phet<0.001), parity (phet<0.01), and tubal ligation (phet=0.041). Conclusions The lack of interactions suggests that a multiplicative model is the best fit for these data. Under such a model, we provide a robust estimate of each risk factor's effect, which sets the stage for absolute risk prediction modeling that considers both environmental and genetic risk factors. Further research into the observed differences in risk across histological subtype is warranted. PMID:23462924

  8. Extraterrestrial Studies Using Nuclear Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides were used to study the recent histories of the aubrite Norton County and the pallasite Brenham using calculated production rates. Calculations were done of the rates for making cosmogenic noble-gas isotopes in the Jovian satellite Europa by the interactions of galactic cosmic rays and especially trapped Jovian protons. Cross sections for the production of cosmogenic nuclides were reported and plans made to measure additional cross sections. A new code, MCNPX, was used to numerically simulate the interactions of cosmic rays with matter and the subsequent production of cosmogenic nuclides. A review was written about studies of extraterrestrial matter using cosmogenic radionuclides. Several other projects were done. Results are reviewed here with references to my recent publications for details.

  9. Environmental and gene-environment interactions and risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Deane, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Multiple environmental factors including hormones, dietary factors, infections and exposure to tobacco smoke as well as gene-environment interactions have been associated with increased risk for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Importantly, the growing understanding of the prolonged period prior to the first onset of symptoms of RA suggests that these environmental and genetic factors are likely acting to drive the development of RA-related autoimmunity long before the appearance of the first joint symptoms and clinical findings that are characteristic of RA. Herein we will review these factors and interactions, especially those that have been investigated in a prospective fashion prior to the symptomatic onset of RA. We will also discuss how these factors may be explored in future study to further the understanding of the pathogenesis of RA, and ultimately perhaps develop preventive measures for this disease. PMID:22819092

  10. Environmental Studies and Environmental Careers. ERIC/CSMEE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.

    Increased concern with the environment has increased opportunities for employment in the environmental job market. This digest helps clarify the meaning of environmental employment and discusses aspects of its present state. An examination of trends in environmental employment indicates a growing demand for new jobs in environmental fields created…

  11. IRAS study of interacting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allam, S.

    1998-04-01

    Interacting galaxies are ideal laboratories for studying the influence of gravitational forces on galaxies. From theoretical and observational studies, we know how sensitive galaxies are to tidal interaction, from the formation of tidal tails, bridges, bursts of star formation up to a complete merging of the galaxies. The Far Infrared (FIR) properties of interacting galaxies give information on the dynamical and physical properties of these systems. Several earlier studies using the IRAS point source catalogue (IPSC) and IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), showed that the FIR emission from interacting/merging galaxies is enhanced with respect to isolated non-interacting galaxies; moreover, that high density environments have more influence in producing enhanced FIR emission over isolated interacting systems. In general the ratio of FIR to optical luminosity in interacting systems was found to be enhanced. It is regarded as an increased star formation (SF) rate in these systems. Later on, due to the rather high IPSC detection threshold, and its low resolution, several contradictory results have been reported. In this thesis the FIR emission from interacting galaxies is studied by using the high resolution IRAS software introduced by Bontekoe et al. (1994). This soft ware package uses a Maximum Entropy method (hereafter MaxEnt). The MaxEnt formulation is rooted in Bayesian probability theory. The raw IRAS data contains the Point Spread Function (PSF) of both the telescope mirror (60 cm --> 1 arcmin at 60 μm) and the PSF of the detectors (≃ 5 arcmin). Since there is much redundancy in the data, the MaxEnt routine can be used to remove the 5 arcmin PSF from the detectors. For many interacting galaxies this is enough to resolve them. The size of the images was chosen such that the objects could be studied including their surroundings. The absolute position calibration and flux estimates for the MaxEnt images are described in Allam et al. (1996). Because of the high

  12. SEPAC data analysis in support of the environmental interaction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chin S.

    1991-01-01

    Data analyses of the Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) data and computer modeling were conducted to investigate spacecraft environmental effects associated with injection of electron beams, plasma clouds, and neutral gas clouds from the Shuttle orbiter. The data analysis indicates that Extremely Low Frequency oscillations from 150 to 200 Hz were seen in the Langmuir probe current when the beam was fired in a continuous mode. The strongest oscillations occurred when the ambient pressure was augmented by neutral gas releases from the SEPAC plasma accelerator magnetoplasma-dynamic (MPD) arcjet. To understand the dependence of spacecraft charging potential on beam density and other plasma parameters, a two-dimensional electrostatic particle code was used to simulate the injection of electron beams from an infinite conductor into a plasma. The simulations show that the conductor charging potential depends critically on the reflection coefficient of the conductor surface, which is defined as the percentage of incident particles reflected by the conductor. The ionization effects on spacecraft charging were examined by including interactions of electrons with neutral gas. The simulations show that the conductor charging potential decreases with increasing neutral background density due to the production of secondary electrons near the conductor surface. The simulations also indicate that the beam radius is generally proportional to the beam electron gyroradius when the conductor is charged to a large potential. It appears that the charge buildup at the beam stagnation point causes the beam radial expansion. A survey of the simulation results suggests that the ratio of the beam radius to the beam electron gyroradius increases with the square root of beam density and decreases inversely with beam injection velocity. These results are useful for explaining the spacecraft charging phenomena observed during SEPAC experiments from Spacelab 1.

  13. Environmental variability uncovers disruptive effects of species' interactions on population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Gudmundson, Sara; Eklöf, Anna; Wennergren, Uno

    2015-08-07

    How species respond to changes in environmental variability has been shown for single species, but the question remains whether these results are transferable to species when incorporated in ecological communities. Here, we address this issue by analysing the same species exposed to a range of environmental variabilities when (i) isolated or (ii) embedded in a food web. We find that all species in food webs exposed to temporally uncorrelated environments (white noise) show the same type of dynamics as isolated species, whereas species in food webs exposed to positively autocorrelated environments (red noise) can respond completely differently compared with isolated species. This is owing to species following their equilibrium densities in a positively autocorrelated environment that in turn enables species-species interactions to come into play. Our results give new insights into species' response to environmental variation. They especially highlight the importance of considering both species' interactions and environmental autocorrelation when studying population dynamics in a fluctuating environment. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. The effect of positive interactions on temporal turnover of community composition along an environmental gradient.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youshi; Yang, Zhiyong; Zhou, Shurong; Soininen, Janne; Ai, Dexiecuo; Li, Yali; Chu, Chengjin

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the interplay between negative and positive interactions simultaneously shapes community structure and composition. However, few studies have attempted to examine the effect of facilitation on compositional changes in communities through time. Additionally, due to the difficulties in collecting the long-term data, it would be useful to indicate the rate of temporal turnover using a readily obtainable metric. Using an individual-based model incorporating plant strategies, we examined the role of facilitation on the temporal turnover of communities located at different positions along an environmental gradient for three model scenarios: CM without facilitation; CFM-U, a unimodal relationship between facilitation and environmental severity; and CFM-L, a positively linear relationship between facilitation and environmental severity. Our results demonstrated that facilitation could increase, decrease or have no remarkable effect on temporal turnover. The specific outcome depended on the location of the focal community across the environmental gradient and the model employed. Compared with CM, the inclusion of positive interactions (i.e. CFM-U and CFM-L), at intermediate environmental stress levels (such as S = 0.7 and 0.8) resulted in lower Bray-Curtis similarity values; at other severity levels, facilitation slowed down (such as S = 0.3 and 0.4 at low to medium stress levels, and S = 0.9 at high stress levels) or had only a subtle effect (such as at S = 0.1) on temporal turnover. We also found that the coefficient of variation (CV) in species abundances and the rate of temporal variability showed a significant quadratic relationship. Our theoretical analysis contributes to the understanding of factors driving temporal turnover in biotic communities, and presents a potential metric (i.e. CV in species abundances) assessing the consequences of ongoing environmental change on community structure.

  15. Spatial analysis for environmental studies

    SciTech Connect

    Thiebaux, H.J.

    1996-12-31

    The cartoon shown below appeared in a local newspaper on the day I gave my talk at UMN. It is meant, here, to catch your attention and focus it on the importance of using available data in the best possible way to define the current state of the system under study, in order to update the model - whatever model we have in the works.

  16. Outdoor Activities for Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford E.

    This booklet is a compilation of field-tested outdoor activities introducing basic projects for small group or individualized study in monitoring certain aspects of the environment. Its purpose is to provide teachers with new ways to involve children directly in meaningful and developmental learning activities and to help students become more…

  17. Outdoor Activities for Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford E.

    This booklet is a compilation of field-tested outdoor activities introducing basic projects for small group or individualized study in monitoring certain aspects of the environment. Its purpose is to provide teachers with new ways to involve children directly in meaningful and developmental learning activities and to help students become more…

  18. Water-module interaction studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mon, G.; Wen, L.; Ross, R., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanisms by which moisture enters photovoltaic modules and techniques for reducing such interactions are reported. Results from a study of the effectiveness of various module sealants are given. Techniques for measuring the rate and quantity of moisture ingress are discussed. It is shown that scribe lines and porous frit bridging conductors provide preferential paths for moisture ingress and that moisture diffusion by surface/interfacial paths is considerably more rapid than diffusion by bulk paths, which implies that thin-film substrate and supersubstrate modules are much more vulnerable to moist environments than are bulk-encapsulated crystalline-silicon modules. Design approaches that reduce moisture entry are discussed.

  19. Genetic and environmental control of host-gut microbiota interactions

    PubMed Central

    Org, Elin; Parks, Brian W.; Joo, Jong Wha J.; Emert, Benjamin; Schwartzman, William; Kang, Eun Yong; Mehrabian, Margarete; Pan, Calvin; Knight, Rob; Gunsalus, Robert; Drake, Thomas A.; Eskin, Eleazar; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2015-01-01

    Genetics provides a potentially powerful approach to dissect host-gut microbiota interactions. Toward this end, we profiled gut microbiota using 16s rRNA gene sequencing in a panel of 110 diverse inbred strains of mice. This panel has previously been studied for a wide range of metabolic traits and can be used for high-resolution association mapping. Using a SNP-based approach with a linear mixed model, we estimated the heritability of microbiota composition. We conclude that, in a controlled environment, the genetic background accounts for a substantial fraction of abundance of most common microbiota. The mice were previously studied for response to a high-fat, high-sucrose diet, and we hypothesized that the dietary response was determined in part by gut microbiota composition. We tested this using a cross-fostering strategy in which a strain showing a modest response, SWR, was seeded with microbiota from a strain showing a strong response, A×B19. Consistent with a role of microbiota in dietary response, the cross-fostered SWR pups exhibited a significantly increased response in weight gain. To examine specific microbiota contributing to the response, we identified various genera whose abundance correlated with dietary response. Among these, we chose Akkermansia muciniphila, a common anaerobe previously associated with metabolic effects. When administered to strain A×B19 by gavage, the dietary response was significantly blunted for obesity, plasma lipids, and insulin resistance. In an effort to further understand host-microbiota interactions, we mapped loci controlling microbiota composition and prioritized candidate genes. Our publicly available data provide a resource for future studies. PMID:26260972

  20. Environmental Connections: A Teacher's Guide to Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deBettencourt, Kathleen B.; Feeney, Matthew; Barone, A. Nicole; White, Keith

    This guide assists teachers who teach an environmental science course or include environmental topics in their curriculum. The guide is intended to help educators and students find resources that enable them to examine issues in greater depth. A brief summary of a number of environmental issues that are often mentioned in textbooks, in the media,…

  1. Environmental Connections: A Teacher's Guide to Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deBettencourt, Kathleen B.; Feeney, Matthew; Barone, A. Nicole; White, Keith

    This guide assists teachers who teach an environmental science course or include environmental topics in their curriculum. The guide is intended to help educators and students find resources that enable them to examine issues in greater depth. A brief summary of a number of environmental issues that are often mentioned in textbooks, in the media,…

  2. Environmental constraints shaping constituent order in emerging communication systems: Structural iconicity, interactive alignment and conventionalization.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Peer; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Where does linguistic structure come from? Recent gesture elicitation studies have indicated that constituent order (corresponding to for instance subject-verb-object, or SVO in English) may be heavily influenced by human cognitive biases constraining gesture production and transmission. Here we explore the alternative hypothesis that syntactic patterns are motivated by multiple environmental and social-interactional constraints that are external to the cognitive domain. In three experiments, we systematically investigate different motivations for structure in the gestural communication of simple transitive events. The first experiment indicates that, if participants communicate about different types of events, manipulation events (e.g. someone throwing a cake) and construction events (e.g. someone baking a cake), they spontaneously and systematically produce different constituent orders, SOV and SVO respectively, thus following the principle of structural iconicity. The second experiment shows that participants' choice of constituent order is also reliably influenced by social-interactional forces of interactive alignment, that is, the tendency to re-use an interlocutor's previous choice of constituent order, thus potentially overriding affordances for iconicity. Lastly, the third experiment finds that the relative frequency distribution of referent event types motivates the stabilization and conventionalization of a single constituent order for the communication of different types of events. Together, our results demonstrate that constituent order in emerging gestural communication systems is shaped and stabilized in response to multiple external environmental and social factors: structural iconicity, interactive alignment and distributional frequency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Inferring interactions in complex microbial communities from nucleotide sequence data and environmental parameters

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Yu; Sikorski, Johannes; Bonkowski, Michael; Fiore-Donno, Anna-Maria; Kandeler, Ellen; Marhan, Sven; Boeddinghaus, Runa S.; Solly, Emily F.; Schrumpf, Marion; Schöning, Ingo; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, Francois; Overmann, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Interactions occur between two or more organisms affecting each other. Interactions are decisive for the ecology of the organisms. Without direct experimental evidence the analysis of interactions is difficult. Correlation analyses that are based on co-occurrences are often used to approximate interaction. Here, we present a new mathematical model to estimate the interaction strengths between taxa, based on changes in their relative abundances across environmental gradients. PMID:28288199

  4. Environmental radon studies in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Segovia, N; Gaso, M I; Armienta, M A

    2007-04-01

    Radon has been determined in soil, groundwater, and air in Mexico, both indoors and outdoors, as part of geophysical studies and to estimate effective doses as a result of radon exposure. Detection of radon has mainly been performed with solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and, occasionally, with active detection devices based on silicon detectors or ionization chambers. The liquid scintillation technique, also, has been used for determination of radon in groundwater. The adjusted geometric mean indoor radon concentration (74 Bq m-3) in urban developments, for example Mexico City, is higher than the worldwide median concentration of radon in dwellings. In some regions, particularly hilly regions of Mexico where air pollution is high, radon concentrations are higher than action levels and the effective dose for the general population has increased. Higher soil radon levels have been found in the uranium mining areas in the northern part of the country. Groundwater radon levels are, in general, low. Soil-air radon contributing to indoor atmospheres and air pollution is the main source of increased exposure of the population.

  5. Interactions between Financial and Environmental Networks in OECD Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ruzzenenti, Franco; Joseph, Andreas; Ticci, Elisa; Vozzella, Pietro; Gabbi, Giampaolo

    2015-01-01

    We analysed a multiplex of financial and environmental networks between OECD countries from 2002 to 2010. Foreign direct investments and portfolio investment showing the flows in equity securities, short-term, long-term and total debt, these securities represent the financial layers; emissions of NOx, PM10, SO2, CO2 equivalent and the water footprint associated with international trade represent the environmental layers. We present a new measure of cross-layer correlations between flows in different layers based on reciprocity. For the assessment of results, we implement a null model for this measure based on the exponential random graph theory. We find that short-term financial flows are more correlated with environmental flows than long-term investments. Moreover, the correlations between reverse financial and environmental flows (i.e. the flows of different layers going in opposite directions) are generally stronger than correlations between synergic flows (flows going in the same direction). This suggests a trade-off between financial and environmental layers, where, more financialised countries display higher correlations between outgoing financial flows and incoming environmental flows than from lower financialised countries. Five countries are identified as hubs in this finance-environment multiplex: The United States, France, Germany, Belgium-Luxembourg and United Kingdom. PMID:26375393

  6. Interactions between Financial and Environmental Networks in OECD Countries.

    PubMed

    Ruzzenenti, Franco; Joseph, Andreas; Ticci, Elisa; Vozzella, Pietro; Gabbi, Giampaolo

    2015-01-01

    We analysed a multiplex of financial and environmental networks between OECD countries from 2002 to 2010. Foreign direct investments and portfolio investment showing the flows in equity securities, short-term, long-term and total debt, these securities represent the financial layers; emissions of NOx, PM10, SO2, CO2 equivalent and the water footprint associated with international trade represent the environmental layers. We present a new measure of cross-layer correlations between flows in different layers based on reciprocity. For the assessment of results, we implement a null model for this measure based on the exponential random graph theory. We find that short-term financial flows are more correlated with environmental flows than long-term investments. Moreover, the correlations between reverse financial and environmental flows (i.e. the flows of different layers going in opposite directions) are generally stronger than correlations between synergic flows (flows going in the same direction). This suggests a trade-off between financial and environmental layers, where, more financialised countries display higher correlations between outgoing financial flows and incoming environmental flows than from lower financialised countries. Five countries are identified as hubs in this finance-environment multiplex: The United States, France, Germany, Belgium-Luxembourg and United Kingdom.

  7. Epigenetic, Genetic and Environmental Interactions in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma from Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Fazlur Rahman; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar; Laskar, Ruhina Shirin; Mondal, Rosy

    2013-01-01

    Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) develops as a result of complex epigenetic, genetic and environmental interactions. Epigenetic changes like, promoter hypermethylation of multiple tumour suppressor genes are frequent events in cancer, and certain habit-related carcinogens are thought to be capable of inducing aberrant methylation. However, the effects of environmental carcinogens depend upon the level of metabolism by carcinogen metabolizing enzymes. As such key interactions between habits related factors and carcinogen metabolizing gene polymorphisms towards modulating promoter methylation of genes are likely. However, this remains largely unexplored in ESCC. Here, we studied the interaction of various habits related factors and polymorphism of GSTM1/GSTT1 genes towards inducing promoter hypermethylation of multiple tumour suppressor genes. Methodology/Principal Findings The study included 112 ESCC cases and 130 age and gender matched controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) was used to explore high order interactions. Tobacco chewing and smoking were the major individual risk factors of ESCC after adjusting for all potential confounding factors. With regards to methylation status, significantly higher methylation frequencies were observed in tobacco chewers than non chewers for all the four genes under study (p<0.01). In logistic regression analysis, betel quid chewing, alcohol consumption and null GSTT1 genotypes imparted maximum risk for ESCC without promoter hypermethylation. Whereas, tobacco chewing, smoking and GSTT1 null variants were the most important risk factors for ESCC with promoter hypermethylation. MDR analysis revealed two predictor models for ESCC with promoter hypermethylation (Tobacco chewing/Smoking/Betel quid chewing/GSTT1 null) and ESCC without promoter hypermethylation (Betel quid chewing/Alcohol/GSTT1) with TBA of 0.69 and 0

  8. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report.

  9. Preliminary environmental historical results to reconstruct prehistoric human-environmental interactions in Eastern Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, Roderick B.; Bácsmegi, Gábor; Sümegi, Pál

    2013-09-01

    Palaeoenvironmental research is playing an important role in recent archaeological investigations. We present preliminary results of geoarchaeological analyses conducted at a palaeochannel located between two prehistoric archaeological sites in eastern Hungary. The study area lies within the Körös River Basin in Békés County, a region of intensive human occupation beginning in the Neolithic, ca. 7550 BP, and represents only the second palynological analysis done in conjunction with archaeological investigations and adjacent to an archaeological site in the Körös region. Pollen from an environmental monolith was used to reconstruct the local vegetation composition and the human impact on arboreal and non-arboreal vegetation near the archaeological sites. Sediment analyses helped to reconstruct hydrological activity and human impact on the local palaeochannel. Results indicate that activity from the Neolithic onwards played an important role in local environmental change, including increasing sedimentation and deposition of organic matter in the local waterway, some forest clearance and a shift from primarily arboreal vegetation to more grasses on elevated surfaces. The trophic status of the local channel changed several times during the Holocene. In addition, indications that groundwater levels may have been fluctuating during the period of human occupation, when combined with the other changes in the area, provide a possible partial explanation for changing settlement patterns.

  10. GST-omega genes interact with environmental tobacco smoke on adult level of lung function.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Kim; Boezen, H Marike; Hacken, Nick H T ten; Postma, Dirkje S; Vonk, Judith M

    2013-08-09

    Lung growth in utero and lung function loss during adulthood can be affected by exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Both ETS exposure and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) Omega genes have been associated with the level of lung function. This study aimed to assess if GSTO SNPs interact with ETS exposure in utero and during adulthood on the level of lung function during adulthood. We used cross-sectional data of 8,128 genotyped participants from the LifeLines cohort study. Linear regression models (adjusted for age, sex, height, weight, current smoking, ex-smoking and packyears smoked) were used to analyze the associations between in utero, daily and workplace ETS exposure, GSTO SNPs, the interaction between ETS and GSTOs, and level of lung function (FEV(1), FEV(1)/FVC). Since the interactions between ETS and GSTOs may be modified by active tobacco smoking we additionally assessed associations in never and ever smokers separately. A second sample of 5,308 genotyped LifeLines participants was used to verify our initial findings. Daily and workplace ETS exposure was associated with significantly lower FEV(1)levels. GSTO SNPs (recessive model) interacted with in utero ETS and were associated with higher levels of FEV(1), whereas the interactions with daily and workplace ETS exposure were associated with lower levels of FEV(1), effects being more pronounced in never smokers. The interaction of GSTO2 SNP rs156697 with in utero ETS associated with a higher level of FEV(1) was significantly replicated in the second sample. Overall, the directions of the interactions of in utero and workplace ETS exposure with the SNPs found in the second (verification) sample were in line with the first sample. GSTO genotypes interact with in utero and adulthood ETS exposure on adult lung function level, but in opposite directions.

  11. Environmental constraints upon locomotion and predator-prey interactions in aquatic organisms: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Domenici, P; Claireaux, G; McKenzie, D J

    2007-11-29

    Environmental constraints in aquatic habitats have become topics of concern to both the scientific community and the public at large. In particular, coastal and freshwater habitats are subject to dramatic variability in various environmental factors, as a result of both natural and anthropogenic processes. The protection and sustainable management of all aquatic habitats requires greater understanding of how environmental constraints influence aquatic organisms. Locomotion and predator-prey interactions are intimately linked and fundamental to the survival of mobile aquatic organisms. This paper summarizes the main points from the review and research articles which comprise the theme issue 'Environmental constraints upon locomotion and predator-prey interactions in aquatic organisms'. The articles explore how natural and anthropogenic factors can constrain these two fundamental activities in a diverse range of organisms from phytoplankton to marine mammals. Some major environmental constraints derive from the intrinsic properties of the fluid and are mechanical in nature, such as viscosity and flow regime. Other constraints derive from direct effects of factors, such as temperature, oxygen content of the water or turbidity, upon the mechanisms underlying the performance of locomotion and predator-prey interactions. The effect of these factors on performance at the tissue and organ level is reflected in constraints upon performance of the whole organism. All these constraints can influence behaviour. Ultimately, they can have an impact on ecological performance. One issue that requires particular attention is how factors such as temperature and oxygen can exert different constraints on the physiology and behaviour of different taxa and the ecological implications of this. Given the multiplicity of constraints, the complexity of their interactions, and the variety of biological levels at which they can act, there is a clear need for integration between the fields of

  12. Environmental influences on virus-host interactions in an Australian subtropical reservoir.

    PubMed

    Säwström, Christin; Pollard, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Viral and prokaryotic interactions in freshwaters have been investigated worldwide but there are few temporal studies in the tropics and none in the sub-tropics. In this 10-month study, we examined temporal changes in virus-host interactions and viral life cycles (lytic versus lysogenic) in relation to the prevailing environmental conditions in a subtropical water reservoir (Wivenhoe) in southeast Queensland, Australia. Heterotrophic prokaryotes and picocyanobacteria were positively correlated with concentrations of viruses throughout the study, indicating the presence of both bacteriophages and cyanophages in the reservoir. The percentage of heterotrophic prokaryotes and picocyanobacteria containing intracellular viruses (FVIC) ranged between 0.2% and 2.4% and did not vary significantly over the 10-month study, whereas lysogenic heterotrophic prokaryotes were only detected in the drier months of June and July. Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that the oxidative-reduction potential (ORP) of the water reservoir influenced the concentrations of viruses, heterotrophic prokaryotes and picocyanobacteria significantly, with low ORP offering a favourable environment for these components. There was a negative relationship between FVIC and rainfall suggesting the associated run-off altered virus-host interactions. Overall, our study provides novel information and inferences on how virus-host interactions in subtropical freshwaters might respond to changes in precipitation predicted to occur with global climate change.

  13. Environmental factors and interactions affecting the temporal abundance of juvenile flatfish in the Thames Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, M.; Attrill, M. J.; Thomas, R. M.

    2000-05-01

    Samples taken regularly from the intake screens of West Thurrock power station between January 1977 and November 1992 were used to investigate the factors controlling flatfish abundance (flounder: Platichthys flesus; dab: Limanda limanda; plaice: Pleuronectes platessa; sole: Solea solea) in the middle Thames estuary. Most sampled fish were age-0. All species followed regular patterns of seasonal occurrence, had distinctive seasonal abundance peaks and demonstrated only minimal temporal overlap. Multiple-regression models were used to study the relationship between physico-chemical variables, physico-chemical variable interactions, trends and seasonal factors on fluctuations in flatfish sample abundance. Flounder abundance was significantly influenced by temperature, suspended solids, oxygen-flow and oxygen-temperature interactions, trend and seasonal variables. Dab abundance was significantly related to suspended solids, oxygen-flow, oxygen-temperature and flow-chlorinity interactions, Crangon crangon abundance and seasonal variables. Sole abundance was controlled only by seasonal variables, whilst plaice abundance could not be adequately explained by the available physico-chemical data. The combination of variables affecting flatfish abundance indicates species using the estuary were affected by a complex set of events within the estuary. The interactions between routinely measured environmental variables further suggest that estuarine monitoring studies must attempt to understand the nature of possible interactions between variables if an improved understanding of the changes in estuarine fish communities resulting from human activity is to be gained.

  14. 77 FR 18271 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG) 4.11, ``Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations... environmental studies and analyses supporting licensing decisions for nuclear power reactors. ADDRESSES: Please...

  15. Synergistic interactions of biotic and abiotic environmental stressors on gene expression.

    PubMed

    Altshuler, Ianina; McLeod, Anne M; Colbourne, John K; Yan, Norman D; Cristescu, Melania E

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the response of organisms to multiple stressors is critical for predicting if populations can adapt to rapid environmental change. Natural and anthropogenic stressors often interact, complicating general predictions. In this study, we examined the interactive and cumulative effects of two common environmental stressors, lowered calcium concentration, an anthropogenic stressor, and predator presence, a natural stressor, on the water flea Daphnia pulex. We analyzed expression changes of five genes involved in calcium homeostasis - cuticle proteins (Cutie, Icp2), calbindin (Calb), and calcium pump and channel (Serca and Ip3R) - using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in a full factorial experiment. We observed strong synergistic interactions between low calcium concentration and predator presence. While the Ip3R gene was not affected by the stressors, the other four genes were affected in their transcriptional levels by the combination of the stressors. Transcriptional patterns of genes that code for cuticle proteins (Cutie and Icp2) and a sarcoplasmic calcium pump (Serca) only responded to the combination of stressors, changing their relative expression levels in a synergistic response, while a calcium-binding protein (Calb) responded to low calcium stress and the combination of both stressors. The expression pattern of these genes (Cutie, Icp2, and Serca) were nonlinear, yet they were dose dependent across the calcium gradient. Multiple stressors can have complex, often unexpected effects on ecosystems. This study demonstrates that the dominant interaction for the set of tested genes appears to be synergism. We argue that gene expression patterns can be used to understand and predict the type of interaction expected when organisms are exposed simultaneously to natural and anthropogenic stressors.

  16. Environmental interactions and the SP-100 power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    1993-01-01

    Interactions of the SP-100 power system with its expected ambient environments are defined. SP-100 payloads will float 100 V negative of the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma. Choice of proper geometries and materials will prevent arcing at conductor-insulator junctions in LEO. Care in selecting surface coatings will prevent dielectric breakdown. Sputtering is a concern for long-duration LEO missions. Atomic oxygen durability of SP-100 materials will be tested in ground and flight tests. Evaluation of SP-100 in lunar and planetary environments has begun. The report of a recent workshop on Chemical and Electrical Interactions on Mars identified many of the primary interactions.

  17. Reaction norm model with unknown environmental covariate to analyze heterosis by environment interaction.

    PubMed

    Su, G; Madsen, P; Lund, M S

    2009-05-01

    Crossbreeding is currently increasing in dairy cattle production. Several studies have shown an environment-dependent heterosis [i.e., an interaction between heterosis and environment (H x E)]. An H x E interaction is usually estimated from a few discrete environment levels. The present study proposes a reaction norm model to describe H x E interaction, which can deal with a large number of environment levels using few parameters. In the proposed model, total heterosis consists of an environment-independent part, which is described as a function of heterozygosity, and an environment-dependent part, which is described as a function of heterozygosity and environmental value (e.g., herd-year effect). A Bayesian approach is developed to estimate the environmental covariates, the regression coefficients of the reaction norm, and other parameters of the model simultaneously in both linear and nonlinear reaction norms. In the nonlinear reaction norm model, the H x E is approximated using linear splines. The approach was tested using simulated data, which were generated using an animal model with a reaction norm for heterosis. The simulation study includes 4 scenarios (the combinations of moderate vs. low heritability and moderate vs. low herd-year variation) of H x E interaction in a nonlinear form. In all scenarios, the proposed model predicted total heterosis very well. The correlation between true heterosis and predicted heterosis was 0.98 in the scenarios with low herd-year variation and 0.99 in the scenarios with moderate herd-year variation. This suggests that the proposed model and method could be a good approach to analyze H x E interactions and predict breeding values in situations in which heterosis changes gradually and continuously over an environmental gradient. On the other hand, it was found that a model ignoring H x E interaction did not significantly harm the prediction of breeding value under the simulated scenarios in which the variance for environment

  18. Counseling Interactions as a Function of Spatial-Environmental Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecomte, Conrad; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the effects of selected spatial-environmental conditions on counselor and counselee interview behaviors. Rated excerpts from initial sessions. Results indicated significant effects of distance on counselor concreteness, lighting on counselor communication of cognitive sets and distance on counselee affective self-disclosure in later…

  19. Theoretical studies of molecular interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, W.A. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    This research program is directed at extending fundamental knowledge of atoms and molecules including their electronic structure, mutual interaction, collision dynamics, and interaction with radiation. The approach combines the use of ab initio methods--Hartree-Fock (HF) multiconfiguration HF, configuration interaction, and the recently developed quantum Monte Carlo (MC)--to describe electronic structure, intermolecular interactions, and other properties, with various methods of characterizing inelastic and reaction collision processes, and photodissociation dynamics. Present activity is focused on the development and application of the QMC method, surface catalyzed reactions, and reorientation cross sections.

  20. Unraveling the environmental and genetic interactions in atherosclerosis: Central role of the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Org, Elin; Mehrabian, Margarete; Lusis, Aldons J

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have convincingly linked gut microbiota to traits relevant to atherosclerosis, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and inflammation, and have revealed novel disease pathways involving microbe-derived metabolites. These results have important implications for understanding how environmental and genetic factors act together to influence cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Thus, dietary constituents are not only absorbed and metabolized by the host but they also perturb the gut microbiota, which in turn influence host metabolism and inflammation. It also appears that host genetics helps to shape the gut microbiota community. Here, we discuss challenges in understanding these interactions and the role they play in CVD.

  1. Unraveling the environmental and genetic interactions in atherosclerosis: Central role of the gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Org, Elin; Mehrabian, Margarete; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have convincingly linked gut microbiota to traits relevant to atherosclerosis, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and inflammation, and have revealed novel disease pathways involving microbe-derived metabolites. These results have important implications for understanding how environmental and genetic factors act together to influence cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Thus, dietary constituents are not only absorbed and metabolized by the host but they also perturb the gut microbiota, which in turn influence host metabolism and inflammation. It also appears that host genetics helps to shape the gut microbiota community. Here, we discuss challenges in understanding these interactions and the role they play in CVD. PMID:26071662

  2. Pathways of Understanding: the Interactions of Humanity and Global Environmental Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Harold K.; Katzenberger, John; Lousma, Jack; Mooney, Harold A.; Moss, Richard H.; Kuhn, William; Luterbacher, Urs; Wiegandt, Ellen

    1992-01-01

    How humans, interacting within social systems, affect and are affected by global change is explored. Recognizing the impact human activities have on the environment and responding to the need to document the interactions among human activities, the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) commissioned a group of 12 scientists to develop a framework illustrating the key human systems that contribute to global change. This framework, called the Social Process Diagram, will help natural and social scientists, educators, resource managers and policy makers envision and analyze how human systems interact among themselves and with the natural system. The Social Process Diagram consists of the following blocks that constitute the Diagram's structural framework: (1) fund of knowledge and experience; (2) preferences and expectations; (3) factors of production and technology; (4) population and social structure; (5) economic systems; (6) political systems and institutions; and (7) global scale environmental processes. To demonstrate potential ways the Diagram can be used, this document includes 3 hypothetical scenarios of global change issues: global warming and sea level rise; the environmental impact of human population migration; and energy and the environment. These scenarios demonstrate the Diagram's usefulness for visualizing specific processes that might be studied to evaluate a particular global change issues. The scenario also shows that interesting and unanticipated questions may emerge as links are explored between categories on the Diagram.

  3. Heart and ventilatory measures in crayfish during environmental disturbances and social interactions.

    PubMed

    Schapker, Heidi; Breithaupt, Thomas; Shuranova, Zhanna; Burmistrov, Yuri; Cooper, Robin L

    2002-02-01

    Most animals assess the environment in which they live and alter their behavior according to various stimuli. When the animal does not make significant behavioral changes, as measured by bodily movements, the animal may be characterized as unresponsive to a given stimulus. This study demonstrates that when behavioral movements of crayfish cannot be observed, physiological measures of heart rate (HR) and ventilatory rate (VR) show dramatic changes in response to defined sensory stimuli. In the majority of cases, upon anticipation of a social interaction with another crayfish both HR and VR will increase. During an agonistic encounter between two crayfish, the level of HR and VR correlate with the intensity of the interaction. Such rapid responses in cardiac and respiratory systems to environmental disturbances and anticipation of a social interaction suggest an autonomic-like regulation associated with fear, flight or fight. Since behavioral observations do not allow an internal status to be readily assessed, we suggest that HR and VR may serve as a useful bioindex in crustaceans to their internal drive or possibly an awareness level to environmental cues.

  4. Effects of ecological interactions and environmental conditions on community dynamics in an estuarine ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Minello, T.; Sutton, G.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal marine ecosystems are both productive and vulnerable to human and natural stressors. Examining the relative importance of fishing, environmental variability, and habitat alteration on ecosystem dynamics is challenging. Intensive harvest and habitat loss have resulted in widespread concerns related to declines in fisheries production, but causal mechanisms are rarely clear. In this study, we modeled trophic dynamics in Galveston Bay, Texas, using fishery-independent catch data for blue crab, shrimp, red drum, Atlantic croaker and spotted seatrout along with habitat information collected by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department during 1984 - 2014. We developed a multispecies state-space model to examine ecological interactions and partition the relative effects of trophic interactions and environmental conditions on the community dynamics. Preliminary results showed the importance of salinity, density-dependence, and trophic interactions. We are continuing to explore these results from a perspective of fish community compensatory responses to exploitation, reflecting both direct and indirect effects of harvesting under the influence of climate variability.

  5. Pathways of understanding: The interactions of humanity and global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, H.K.; Katzenberger, J.; Lousma, J.; Mooney, H.A.; Moss, R.H.; Kuhn, W.; Luterbacher, U.; Wiegandt, E.

    1992-01-01

    How humans, interacting within social systems, affect and are affected by global change is explored. Recognizing the impact human activities have on the environment and responding to the need to document the interactions among human activities, the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) commissioned a group of 12 scientists to develop a framework illustrating the key human systems that contribute to global change. This framework, called the Social Process Diagram, will help natural and social scientists, educators, resource managers and policy makers envision and analyze how human systems interact among themselves and with the natural system. The Social Process Diagram consists of the following blocks that constitute the Diagram's structural framework: (1) fund of knowledge and experience; (2) preferences and expectations; (3) factors of production and technology; (4) population and social structure; (5) economic systems; (6) political systems and institutions; and (7) global scale environmental processes. To demonstrate potential ways the Diagram can be used, this document includes 3 hypothetical scenarios of global change issues: global warming and sea level rise; the environmental impact of human population migration; and energy and the environment. These scenarios demonstrate the Diagram's usefulness for visualizing specific processes that might be studied to evaluate a particular global change issues. The scenario also shows that interesting and unanticipated questions may emerge as links are explored between categories on the Diagram.

  6. Stakeholder Interaction in Participatory Land Restoration in Iceland: Environmental Officers' Challenges and Strategies.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Brita; Hallgren, Lars; Aradóttir, Ása L

    2015-08-01

    Participatory approaches involve stakeholder interaction but environmental agency employees engaged in participatory undertakings often lack training for interaction tasks. This study explored how district officers at the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland (SCSI) experienced and dealt with stakeholder interaction in participatory land restoration. We made semi-structured interviews with all district officers with at least 1-year experience; seven in total. A thematic content analysis revealed five challenges facing the officers in their interaction activities and seven strategies that they used to deal with these challenges. The core challenge was to establish and maintain contacts with farmers and other stakeholders as it enabled the SCSI to support and influence their land restoration practices. Other challenges were to: accomplish SCSI's objectives; represent the SCSI and the government; have adequate skills, knowledge, and background; and deal with one's own emotions. Four of the strategies seemed to promote collaboration: create win-win scenarios; "go local"; direct and positive communication; and motivation and knowledge sharing. The other strategies: supportive district officer team; self-reliance and personal background; and self-control supported the officers in their interaction tasks. Factors undermining their collaboration efforts included insufficient time and other resources, an unsupportive organizational culture and a legal duty to assess the condition of vegetation cover on farmland. Increased resource allocation to the SCSI's local operations, more attention to emotional issues, and efforts to develop a more flexible and learning organizational culture that supports collaboration could counteract these factors.

  7. Human interaction as environmental enrichment for pair-housed wolves and wolf-dog crosses.

    PubMed

    Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Verdi, Nicolle T; Wynne, Clive D L

    2014-01-01

    Private nonhuman animal sanctuaries are often financially limited in their ability to implement traditional environmental enrichment strategies. One possible solution may be to provide socialized animals with human interaction sessions. However, the merit of human interaction as enrichment has received little empirical attention to date. The present study aimed to evaluate whether human interaction could be enriching for socialized, pair-housed wolves and wolf-dog crosses at a private sanctuary. Observations of each subject were conducted in a reversal design to measure species-typical affiliation, activity levels, and aberrant behaviors when caretakers were both present and absent. The results demonstrate significantly higher levels of conspecific-directed affiliation and activity levels and reduced aberrant behavior when human interaction was available. Social play also increased when caregivers were present, supporting the hypothesis that play among conspecifics may be maintained by positive changes in an animal's environment. The potential for human interaction to be established as a scientifically validated, cost-effective enrichment strategy is supported by these findings.

  8. Environmental influences on maize-Aspergillus flavus interactions and aflatoxin production

    PubMed Central

    Fountain, Jake C.; Scully, Brian T.; Ni, Xinzhi; Kemerait, Robert C.; Lee, Robert D.; Chen, Zhi-Yuan; Guo, Baozhu

    2014-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus (Link ex Fr.) has been the focus of intensive research due to the production of carcinogenic and highly toxic secondary metabolites collectively known as aflatoxins following pre-harvest colonization of crops. Given this recurrent problem and the occurrence of a severe aflatoxin outbreak in maize (Zea mays L.), particularly in the Southeast U.S. in the 1977 growing season, a significant research effort has been put forth to determine the nature of the interaction occurring between aflatoxin production, A. flavus, environment and its various hosts before harvest. Many studies have investigated this interaction at the genetic, transcript, and protein levels, and in terms of fungal biology at either pre- or post-harvest time points. Later experiments have indicated that the interaction and overall resistance phenotype of the host is a quantitative trait with a relatively low heritability. In addition, a high degree of environmental interaction has been noted, particularly with sources of abiotic stress for either the host or the fungus such as drought or heat stresses. Here, we review the history of research into this complex interaction and propose future directions for elucidating the relationship between resistance and susceptibility to A. flavus colonization, abiotic stress, and its relationship to oxidative stress in which aflatoxin production may function as a form of antioxidant protection to the producing fungus. PMID:24550905

  9. Stakeholder Interaction in Participatory Land Restoration in Iceland: Environmental Officers' Challenges and Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglund, Brita; Hallgren, Lars; Aradóttir, Ása L.

    2015-08-01

    Participatory approaches involve stakeholder interaction but environmental agency employees engaged in participatory undertakings often lack training for interaction tasks. This study explored how district officers at the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland (SCSI) experienced and dealt with stakeholder interaction in participatory land restoration. We made semi-structured interviews with all district officers with at least 1-year experience; seven in total. A thematic content analysis revealed five challenges facing the officers in their interaction activities and seven strategies that they used to deal with these challenges. The core challenge was to establish and maintain contacts with farmers and other stakeholders as it enabled the SCSI to support and influence their land restoration practices. Other challenges were to: accomplish SCSI's objectives; represent the SCSI and the government; have adequate skills, knowledge, and background; and deal with one's own emotions. Four of the strategies seemed to promote collaboration: create win-win scenarios; "go local"; direct and positive communication; and motivation and knowledge sharing. The other strategies: supportive district officer team; self-reliance and personal background; and self-control supported the officers in their interaction tasks. Factors undermining their collaboration efforts included insufficient time and other resources, an unsupportive organizational culture and a legal duty to assess the condition of vegetation cover on farmland. Increased resource allocation to the SCSI's local operations, more attention to emotional issues, and efforts to develop a more flexible and learning organizational culture that supports collaboration could counteract these factors.

  10. [Ecological studies in environmental health: Beyond epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Becerra, Luis C; Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos E; Idrovo, Álvaro J

    2015-08-01

    Ecological studies provide important and frequent sources of evidence of environmental health, since their unit of analysis is populations. This review summarizes the foundations of ecological studies with the premise that they can be performed using quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods. It presents the logic behind their design, their role in exploring causality, the variables and categories of analysis and the design principles and techniques used to collect data. Examples of ecological studies performed in Latin America are then presented, as well as some common methodological problems and options to address them. Lastly, the relevance of quantitative and qualitative ecological studies to environmental health as a way to overcome the dominance of conceptual and methodological individualism is highlighted, though ecological studies alone do not suffice for studying population health.

  11. SEPAC data analysis in support of the environmental interaction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chin S.

    1990-01-01

    Injections of nonrelativistic electron beams from an isolated equipotential conductor into a uniform background of plasma and neutral gas were simulated using a two dimensional electrostatic particle code. The ionization effects of spacecraft charging are examined by including interactions of electrons with neutral gas. The simulations show that the conductor charging potential decreases with increasing neutral background density due to the production of secondary electrons near the conductor surface. In the spacecraft wake, the background electrons accelerated towards the charged space craft produced an enhancement of secondary electrons and ions. Simulations run for longer times indicate that the spacecraft potential is further reduced and short wavelength beam-plasma oscillations appear. The results are applied to explain the space craft charging potential measured during the SEPAC experiments from Spacelab 1. A second paper is presented in which a two dimensional electrostatic particle code was used to study the beam radial expansion of a nonrelativistic electron beam injected from an isolated equipotential conductor into a background plasma. The simulations indicate that the beam radius is generally proportional to the beam electron gyroradius when the conductor is charged to a large potential. The simulations also suggest that the charge buildup at the beam stagnation point causes the beam radial expansion. From a survey of the simulation results, it is found that the ratio of the beam radius to the beam electron gyroradius increases with the square root of beam density and decreases inversely with beam injection velocity. This dependence is explained in terms of the ratio of the beam electron Debye length to the ambient electron Debye length. These results are most applicable to the SEPAC electron beam injection experiments from Spacelab 1, where high charging potential was observed.

  12. Jupiter Environmental Research & Field Studies Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttemeyer, Bob

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development and workings of the Jupiter Environmental Research and Field Studies Academy that focuses on enabling both teachers and students to participate in real-life learning experiences. Discusses qualifications for admittance, curriculum, location, ongoing projects, students, academics, preparation for life, problem solving, and…

  13. A CASE STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL DATA MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to support our ongoing research in watershed ecology and global climate change, we gather and analyze environmental data from several government agencies. This case study demonstrates a researcher’s approach to accessing, organizing, and using intersectoral data. T...

  14. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  15. Jupiter Environmental Research & Field Studies Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttemeyer, Bob

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development and workings of the Jupiter Environmental Research and Field Studies Academy that focuses on enabling both teachers and students to participate in real-life learning experiences. Discusses qualifications for admittance, curriculum, location, ongoing projects, students, academics, preparation for life, problem solving, and…

  16. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  17. A CASE STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL DATA MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to support our ongoing research in watershed ecology and global climate change, we gather and analyze environmental data from several government agencies. This case study demonstrates a researcher’s approach to accessing, organizing, and using intersectoral data. T...

  18. Interactions of aging and environmental agents: the gerontological perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    This article attempts to briefly review the current status of knowledge of biogerontology as a basis for a beginning set of discussions on the potential roles of environmental agents in the modulation of rates of aging in man. The article has tried to summarize what the toxicologist should know about gerontology, whereas a companion review, by Dr. Jerry Williams, summarizes what the gerontologist should know about toxicity. The review begins by defining some basic terminology, including introduction of the term gerontogens for those putative environmental agents that may in fact modulate the times of onset and/or rates of development of specific aspects of the senescent phenotype. That phenotype is then briefly described from the level of populations to the level of molecules, including an organ systems approach with emphasis on what is observed in humans. Among the important points that emerge from this description are: the variety of phenotypic alterations; the multiplicity of phenotypic alterations in any one aged individual; the special vulnerability in humans of the arterial system; the loss of proliferative homeostasis; the decline in the efficiency of enzyme adaptation; the decline in protein synthesis; the increasing evidence of post-translational modifications of proteins and DNA; the evidence for chromosomal instability (and, therefore, the potential importance of environmental clastogens). Arguments for a genetic basis for differential rates of aging are then developed, and a number of genotropic theories of aging are tabulated. It is concluded that no single theory is supported by a preponderance of evidence. 155 references.

  19. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Handcock, Rebecca N.; Swain, Dave L.; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J.; Patison, Kym P.; Wark, Tim; Valencia, Philip; Corke, Peter; O'Neill, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle. PMID:22412327

  20. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing.

    PubMed

    Handcock, Rebecca N; Swain, Dave L; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J; Patison, Kym P; Wark, Tim; Valencia, Philip; Corke, Peter; O'Neill, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle.

  1. Environmental factors as modulators of neurodegeneration: insights from gene-environment interactions in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Mo, Christina; Hannan, Anthony J; Renoir, Thibault

    2015-05-01

    Unlike many other neurodegenerative diseases with established gene-environment interactions, Huntington's disease (HD) is viewed as a disorder governed by genetics. The cause of the disease is a highly penetrant tandem repeat expansion encoding an extended polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. In the year 2000, a pioneering study showed that the disease could be delayed in transgenic mice by enriched housing conditions. This review describes subsequent human and preclinical studies identifying environmental modulation of motor, cognitive, affective and other symptoms found in HD. Alongside the behavioral observations we also discuss potential mechanisms and the relevance to other neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. In mouse models of HD, increased sensorimotor and cognitive stimulation can delay or ameliorate various endophenotypes. Potential mechanisms include increased trophic support, synaptic plasticity, adult neurogenesis, and other forms of experience-dependent cellular plasticity. Subsequent clinical investigations support a role for lifetime activity levels in modulating the onset and progression of HD. Stress can accelerate memory and olfactory deficits and exacerbate cellular dysfunctions in HD mice. In the absence of effective treatments to slow the course of HD, environmental interventions offer feasible approaches to delay the disease, however further preclinical and human studies are needed in order to generate clinical recommendations. Environmental interventions could be combined with future pharmacological therapies and stimulate the identification of enviromimetics, drugs which mimic or enhance the beneficial effects of cognitive stimulation and physical activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Environmental and radiological-safety studies: interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, January 1-March 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.

    1982-06-01

    Although existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator designs have proved more than adequately safe, more information is continually sought about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work here includes studies of the effects on the heat sources of terrestrial and aquatic environments and also of the effects of the heat sources on various simulated environments. This progress report presents recent data from environmental chamber and aquatic experiments and gives the present status of the experiments.

  3. Mucociliary Interaction in the Tracheobronchial Tree and Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlesinger, Richard B.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the interaction of the various factors involved in the normal functioning of the mucociliary system of the human respiratory tract. The mucociliary system constitutes a major mammalian defense against dangerous inhaled particles by acting to collect, transport, and eventually eliminate such materials from the tracheobronchial tree. (JR)

  4. Genotype x environment interaction, environmental heterogeneity, and the lek paradox

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Substantial additive genetic variance (VA) often exists for male signaling traits in spite of the directional selection that female choice imposes. One solution to this problem, generally termed the ‘lek paradox’, is that genotype x environment interaction (GEI) occurs and generates a ‘crossover’ of...

  5. Environmental Education for the Masses: Lessons from a Large, General Enrollment Environmental Studies Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wixon, Devin L.; Balser, Teri C.

    2012-01-01

    One critical tool for creating an environmentally literate citizenry is to reach students other than those in environmental-related majors in the form of the university-level large introductory environmental studies course. In this study, we relate student academic background to initial and final environmental awareness results. We found that…

  6. The environmental interactions of tidal and wave energy generation devices

    SciTech Connect

    Frid, Chris; Andonegi, Eider; Judd, Adrian; Rihan, Dominic; Rogers, Stuart I.; Kenchington, Ellen

    2012-01-15

    Global energy demand continues to grow and tidal and wave energy generation devices can provide a significant source of renewable energy. Technological developments in offshore engineering and the rising cost of traditional energy means that offshore energy resources will be economic in the next few years. While there is now a growing body of data on the ecological impacts of offshore wind farms, the scientific basis on which to make informed decisions about the environmental effects of other offshore energy developments is lacking. Tidal barrages have the potential to cause significant ecological impacts particularly on bird feeding areas when they are constructed at coastal estuaries or bays. Offshore tidal stream energy and wave energy collectors offer the scope for developments at varying scales. They also have the potential to alter habitats. A diversity of designs exist, including floating, mid-water column and seabed mounted devices, with a variety of moving-part configurations resulting in a unique complex of potential environmental effects for each device type, which are discussed to the extent possible. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We review the environmental impacts of tidal barrages and fences, tidal stream farms and wave energy capture devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impacts on habitats, species and the water column, and effects of noise and electromagnetic fields are considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tidal barrages can cause significant impacts on bird feeding areas when constructed at coastal estuaries or bays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wave energy collectors can alter water column and sea bed habitats locally and over large distances.

  7. Habitat Study. Transect Study. [Environmental Education Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    These three documents outline teaching activities intended to involve children with their environment. Suggested preliminary studies to motivate and familiarize elementary school students with some characteristics of organisms and their physical environment are followed by descriptions of class activities that may be undertaken in the field.…

  8. Micro-Environmental Signature of The Interactions between Druggable Target Protein, Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV, and Anti-Diabetic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Mallick, Bidyut; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Sharma, Garima; Jagga, Supriya; Doss, C George Priya; Nam, Ju-Suk; Lee, Sang-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Objective Druggability of a target protein depends on the interacting micro-environment between the target protein and drugs. Therefore, a precise knowledge of the interacting micro-environment between the target protein and drugs is requisite for drug discovery process. To understand such micro-environment, we performed in silico interaction analysis between a human target protein, Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV (DPP-4), and three anti-diabetic drugs (saxagliptin, linagliptin and vildagliptin). Materials and Methods During the theoretical and bioinformatics analysis of micro-environmental properties, we performed drug-likeness study, protein active site predictions, docking analysis and residual interactions with the protein-drug interface. Micro-environmental landscape properties were evaluated through various parameters such as binding energy, intermolecular energy, electrostatic energy, van der Waals’+H-bond+desolvo energy (EVHD) and ligand efficiency (LE) using different in silico methods. For this study, we have used several servers and software, such as Molsoft prediction server, CASTp server, AutoDock software and LIGPLOT server. Results Through micro-environmental study, highest log P value was observed for linagliptin (1.07). Lowest binding energy was also observed for linagliptin with DPP-4 in the binding plot. We also identified the number of H-bonds and residues involved in the hydrophobic interactions between the DPP-4 and the anti-diabetic drugs. During interaction, two H-bonds and nine residues, two H-bonds and eleven residues as well as four H-bonds and nine residues were found between the saxagliptin, linagliptin as well as vildagliptin cases and DPP-4, respectively. Conclusion Our in silico data obtained for drug-target interactions and micro-environmental signature demonstrates linagliptin as the most stable interacting drug among the tested anti-diabetic medicines. PMID:28367418

  9. Environmental heterogeneity and the evolution of plant-virus interactions: Viruses in wild pepper populations.

    PubMed

    Fraile, Aurora; McLeish, Michael J; Pagán, Israel; González-Jara, Pablo; Piñero, Daniel; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2017-05-26

    Understanding host-pathogen interactions requires analyses to address the multiplicity of scales in heterogeneous landscapes. Anthropogenic influence on plant communities, especially cultivation, is a major cause of environmental heterogeneity. We have approached the analysis of how environmental heterogeneity determines plant-virus interactions by studying virus infection in a wild plant currently undergoing incipient domestication, the wild pepper or chiltepin, across its geographical range in Mexico. We have shown previously that anthropogenic disturbance is associated with higher infection and disease risk, and with disrupted patterns of host and virus genetic spatial structure. We now show that anthropogenic factors, species richness, host genetic diversity and density in communities supporting chiltepin differentially affect infection risk according to the virus analysed. We also show that in addition to these factors, a broad range of abiotic and biotic variables meaningful to continental scales, have an important role on the risk of infection depending on the virus. Last, we show that natural virus infection of chiltepin plants in wild communities results in decreased survival and fecundity, hence negatively affecting fitness. This important finding paves the way for future studies on plant-virus co-evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential susceptibility and the early development of aggression: interactive effects of respiratory sinus arrhythmia and environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Sulik, Michael J; Spinrad, Tracy L; Edwards, Alison; Eggum, Natalie D; Liew, Jeffrey; Sallquist, Julie; Popp, Tierney K; Smith, Cynthia L; Hart, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of the current study was to predict the development of aggressive behavior from young children's respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and environmental quality. In a longitudinal sample of 213 children, baseline RSA, RSA suppression in response to a film of crying babies, and a composite measure of environmental quality (incorporating socioeconomic status and marital adjustment) were measured, and parent-reported aggression was assessed from 18 to 54 months of age. Predictions based on biological sensitivity-to-context/differential susceptibility and diathesis-stress models, as well as potential moderation by child sex, were examined. The interaction of baseline RSA with environmental quality predicted the development (slope) and 54-month intercept of mothers' reports of aggression. For girls only, the interaction between baseline RSA and environmental quality predicted the 18-month intercept of fathers' reports. In general, significant negative relations between RSA and aggression were found primarily at high levels of environmental quality. In addition, we found a significant Sex × RSA interaction predicting the slope and 54-month intercept of fathers' reports of aggression, such that RSA was negatively related to aggression for boys but not for girls. Contrary to predictions, no significant main effects or interactions were found for RSA suppression. The results provide mixed but not full support for differential susceptibility theory and provide little support for the diathesis-stress model.

  11. Environmental awareness -- An interactive multimedia CD-ROM

    SciTech Connect

    Huntelmann, A.; Petruk, M.W.

    1998-07-01

    As corporations move to new and innovative ways of structuring high-performance work teams, effective training is being recognized as a key to insuring success. Time and scheduling constraints tend to limit the effectiveness of traditional approaches to training. This has led Edmonton Power Inc. to explore the use of CD-ROM based multimedia as a means of delivering individualized instruction in an effective and timely manner. This session will demonstrate a multimedia CD-ROM based course on Environmental Awareness designed for workers in the electrical utilities industry. The objective of the course is to make workers aware of their roles and responsibilities with respect to their impact on the environment. This session will also describe the instructional design strategy underlying this approach to training and will present some preliminary findings with respect to the effectiveness of this approach. Individuals who are interested in improving the effectiveness of their environmental training program as well as individuals who are interested in understanding the strengths of multimedia CD-ROM based training will find this session useful and informative.

  12. Polyyne electronic and vibrational properties under environmental interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanko, Marius; Cahangirov, Seymur; Shi, Lei; Rohringer, Philip; Lapin, Zachary J.; Novotny, Lukas; Ayala, Paola; Pichler, Thomas; Rubio, Angel

    2016-11-01

    Recently the novel system of linear carbon chains inside double-walled carbon nanotubes has extended the length of s p1 hybridized carbon chains from 44 to thousands of atoms [Shi et al., Nat. Mater. 15, 634 (2016), 10.1038/nmat4617]. The optoelectronic properties of these ultralong chains are poorly described by current theoretical models, which are based on short chain experimental data and assume a constant environment. As such, a physical understanding of the system in terms of charge transfer and van der Waals interactions is widely missing. We provide a reference for the intrinsic Raman frequency of polyynes in vacuo and explicitly describe the interactions between polyynes and carbon nanotubes. We find that van der Waals interactions strongly shift this frequency, which has been neither expected nor described for other intramolecular C-C stretching vibrations. As a consequence of charge transfer from the tube to the chain, the Raman response of long chains is qualitatively different from the known phonon dispersion of polymers close to the Γ point. Based on these findings we show how to correctly interpret the Raman data, considering the nanotube's properties. This is essential for its use as an analytical tool to optimize the growth process for future applications.

  13. Hydra, a model system for environmental studies.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Brian; Gagné, François; Blaise, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Hydra have been extensively used for studying the teratogenic and toxic potential of numerous toxins throughout the years and are more recently growing in popularity to assess the impacts of environmental pollutants. Hydra are an appropriate bioindicator species for use in environmental assessment owing to their easily measurable physical (morphology), biochemical (xenobiotic biotransformation; oxidative stress), behavioural (feeding) and reproductive (sexual and asexual) endpoints. Hydra also possess an unparalleled ability to regenerate, allowing the assessment of teratogenic compounds and the impact of contaminants on stem cells. Importantly, Hydra are ubiquitous throughout freshwater environments and relatively easy to culture making them appropriate for use in small scale bioassay systems. Hydra have been used to assess the environmental impacts of numerous environmental pollutants including metals, organic toxicants (including pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds), nanomaterials and industrial and municipal effluents. They have been found to be among the most sensitive animals tested for metals and certain effluents, comparing favourably with more standardised toxicity tests. Despite their lack of use in formalised monitoring programmes, Hydra have been extensively used and are regarded as a model organism in aquatic toxicology.

  14. Environmental injustice: case studies from the South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifuentes, Enrique; Frumkin, Howard

    2007-10-01

    We selected three case studies to illustrate environmental injustice issues in the South. These examples relate to migrant agricultural workers, the maquiladora industry and artisanal mining, while reviewing some of the major mechanisms involved, e.g. multinational corporations, the development of free trade zones, multilateral free trade agreements and the export of hazards. A series of strategies are discussed in order to address environmental injustice and health disparities that exist on a global scale. Some of the recommendations involve policy initiatives; others, such as research and mentorship, fall within the traditional domain of public health practice. In this paper, special attention is given to concerned environmental and occupational health professionals using evidence-based data for advocacy. For lasting changes to be made, however, stronger institutions and legislation are required. Those who have the 'right to know' about environmental injustice issues include communities of concern, workers' representatives and lawyers. Government officials and company officials may eventually work on the basis of conflict resolution, compensation and remediation, to quote some examples. Systematic approaches to protect both the environment and public health must be updated.

  15. Environmental dependency of amphibian–ranavirus genotypic interactions: evolutionary perspectives on infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Echaubard, Pierre; Leduc, Joel; Pauli, Bruce; Chinchar, V Gregory; Robert, Jacques; Lesbarrères, David

    2014-01-01

    The context-dependent investigations of host–pathogen genotypic interactions, where environmental factors are explicitly incorporated, allow the assessment of both coevolutionary history and contemporary ecological influences. Such a functional explanatory framework is particularly valuable for describing mortality trends and identifying drivers of disease risk more accurately. Using two common North American frog species (Lithobates pipiens and Lithobates sylvaticus) and three strains of frog virus 3 (FV3) at different temperatures, we conducted a laboratory experiment to investigate the influence of host species/genotype, ranavirus strains, temperature, and their interactions, in determining mortality and infection patterns. Our results revealed variability in host susceptibility and strain infectivity along with significant host–strain interactions, indicating that the outcome of an infection is dependent on the specific combination of host and virus genotypes. Moreover, we observed a strong influence of temperature on infection and mortality probabilities, revealing the potential for genotype–genotype–environment interactions to be responsible for unexpected mortality in this system. Our study thus suggests that amphibian hosts and ranavirus strains genetic characteristics should be considered in order to understand infection outcomes and that the investigation of coevolutionary mechanisms within a context-dependent framework provides a tool for the comprehensive understanding of disease dynamics. PMID:25469155

  16. Environmental Studies at the Guiana Space Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Sandrine

    2013-09-01

    The Environmental Commitment of the French Space Agency at the Guiana Space Centre (CNES / CSG) specifies that the environmental protection is a major stake. Consequently, CNES participates in numerous space programs that contribute significantly to a better knowledge, management and protection of our environment at a global scale.The studies and researches that are done at CNES / CSG meet several objectives:* Assessment of safety and environmental effects and risk related to the effects overflowing due to a pollution caused by ground and flight activities* Improvement of the studies related to the knowledge of the environment (flora and fauna monitoring).* Risk assessment and management which may affect the safety of people , property, and protection of public health and environment * Verification of the compliance of the results of impact studies of launch vehicle in flight phase provided by the launch operator (Technical Regulation) with the French Safety Operational Acts.In this note, study and research programs are presented. They allow a better knowledge of the surrounding environment and of impacts caused by the industrial activities done in Guiana Space Center.

  17. Course Descriptions in Environmental Studies Part One: Historical Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Donald; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents descriptions (syllabi, outlines, goals) of selected environmental studies courses which approach the discipline from an historical and humanistic perspective. Areas explored in the courses include human ecology, American environmental history, environmental politics, and others. (JN)

  18. Cascading effects of predator-detritivore interactions depend on environmental context in a Tibetan alpine meadow.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinwei; Griffin, John N; Sun, Shucun

    2014-05-01

    Studies of grazing food webs show that species traits can interact with environmental factors to determine the strength of trophic cascades, but analogous context dependencies in detrital food webs remain poorly understood. In predator-detritivore-plant interaction chains, predators are expected to indirectly suppress plant biomass by reducing the density of plant-facilitating detritivores. However, this outcome can be reversed where above-ground predators drive burrowing detritivores to lower soil levels, strengthening their plant-facilitating effects. Here, we show that these trait-mediated indirect interactions further depend on environmental context in a Tibetan alpine meadow. In our study system, undulating topography generates higher (dry soil) patches interspersed with lower (wet soil) patches. Because the ability of detritivores to form deep burrows is likely to be limited by oxygen availability in low patches (wet soil), we hypothesized that (i) burrowing detritivores would undergo a vertical habitat shift, allowing them to more effectively avoid predation, in high - but not low - patches, and (ii) this shift would transmit positive effects of predators to plants in high patches by improving conditions in the lower soil layer. We tested these hypotheses using complementary field and glasshouse experiments examining whether the cascading effects of above-ground predatory beetles (presence/absence) on the density and behaviour of tunnel-forming detritivorous beetles, soil properties, and plant growth varied with patch type (low/high). Results revealed that predatory beetles did not reduce the density of detritivores in either patch type but had context-dependent trait-mediated effects, increasing the tunnelling depth of detritivores, improving soil conditions and ultimately increasing plant biomass in the high but not low patches. This study adds to an emerging predictive framework linking predators to plants in detritus food webs, demonstrating that these

  19. Environmental Studies Continuum K-12. Interdisciplinary Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrasher, William; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist curriculum developers, subject area specialists, and teachers in identifying environmental activities and learning aids appropriate for various grade levels. The guide attempts to integrate all grade levels by using the same conceptual scheme throughout the primary, intermediate, middle, and secondary levels. This…

  20. Environmental Studies on Titanium Aluminide Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, William J.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Smialek, James L.; Brady, Michael P.

    2005-01-01

    Titanium aluminides are attractive alternatives to superalloys in moderate temperature applications (600 to 850 C) by virtue of their high strength-to-density ratio (high specific strength). These alloys are also more ductile than competing intermetallic systems. However, most Ti-based alloys tend to degrade through interstitial embrittlement and rapid oxidation during exposure to elevated temperatures. Therefore, their environmental behavior must be thoroughly investigated before they can be developed further. The goals of titanium aluminide environmental studies at the NASA Lewis Research Center are twofold: characterize the degradation mechanisms for advanced structural alloys and determine what means are available to minimize degradation. The studies to date have covered the alpha 2 (Ti3Al), orthorhombic (Ti2AlNb), and gamma (TiAl) classes of alloys.

  1. An interactive environmental model for economic growth: evidence from a panel of countries.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Suresh; Hishan, Sanil S; Nabi, Agha Amad; Arshad, Zeeshan; Kanjanapathy, Malini; Zaman, Khalid; Khan, Faisal

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to determine an interactive environmental model for economic growth that would be supported by the "sustainability principles" across the globe. The study examines the relationship between environmental pollutants (i.e., carbon dioxide emission, sulfur dioxide emission, mono-nitrogen oxide, and nitrous oxide emission); population growth; energy use; trade openness; per capita food production; and it's resulting impact on the real per capita GDP and sectoral growth (i.e., share of agriculture, industry, and services in GDP) in a panel of 34 high-income OECD, high-income non-OECD, and Europe and Central Asian countries, for the period of 1995-2014. The results of the panel fixed effect regression show that per capita GDP are influenced by sulfur dioxide emission, population growth, and per capita food production variability, while energy and trade openness significantly increases per capita income of the region. The results of the panel Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) show that carbon dioxide emission significantly decreases the share of agriculture and industry in GDP, while it further supports the share of services sector to GDP. Both the sulfur dioxide and mono-nitrogen oxide emission decreases the share of services in GDP; nitrous oxide decreases the share of industry in GDP; while mono-nitrogen oxide supports the industrial activities. The following key growth-specific results has been obtained from the panel SUR estimation, i.e., (i) Both the food production per capita and trade openness significantly associated with the increasing share of agriculture, (ii) food production and energy use significantly increases the service sectors' productivity; (iii) food production decreases the industrial activities; (iv) trade openness decreases the share of services to GDP while it supports the industrial share to GDP; and finally, (v) energy demand decreases along with the increase agricultural share in the region. The results emphasize the need for

  2. SEPAC data analysis in support of the environmental interaction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. S.

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is to conduct data analyses of SEPAC data and computer modeling to investigate spacecraft environment effects associated with injection of electron beam, plasma clouds, and neutral gas clouds from the Shuttle Orbiter. To understand the dependence of spacecraft charging potential on beam density and other plasma parameters, a two dimensional electrostatic particle code was used to simulate the injection of electron beams from an infinite conductor into a plasma. The ionization effects on spacecraft charging are examined by including interactions of electrons with neutral gases. A survey of the simulation results is presented and discussed.

  3. Midpoint attractors and species richness: Modelling the interaction between environmental drivers and geometric constraints.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Robert K; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Ashton, Louise A; Beck, Jan; Brehm, Gunnar; Fayle, Tom M; Fiedler, Konrad; Forister, Matthew L; Kessler, Michael; Kitching, Roger L; Klimes, Petr; Kluge, Jürgen; Longino, John T; Maunsell, Sarah C; McCain, Christy M; Moses, Jimmy; Noben, Sarah; Sam, Katerina; Sam, Legi; Shapiro, Arthur M; Wang, Xiangping; Novotny, Vojtech

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a novel framework for conceptualising, quantifying and unifying discordant patterns of species richness along geographical gradients. While not itself explicitly mechanistic, this approach offers a path towards understanding mechanisms. In this study, we focused on the diverse patterns of species richness on mountainsides. We conjectured that elevational range midpoints of species may be drawn towards a single midpoint attractor - a unimodal gradient of environmental favourability. The midpoint attractor interacts with geometric constraints imposed by sea level and the mountaintop to produce taxon-specific patterns of species richness. We developed a Bayesian simulation model to estimate the location and strength of the midpoint attractor from species occurrence data sampled along mountainsides. We also constructed midpoint predictor models to test whether environmental variables could directly account for the observed patterns of species range midpoints. We challenged these models with 16 elevational data sets, comprising 4500 species of insects, vertebrates and plants. The midpoint predictor models generally failed to predict the pattern of species midpoints. In contrast, the midpoint attractor model closely reproduced empirical spatial patterns of species richness and range midpoints. Gradients of environmental favourability, subject to geometric constraints, may parsimoniously account for elevational and other patterns of species richness.

  4. Environmental interactions of hydrazine fuels in soil/water systems. Final report, March 1985-September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Street, J.; Johnston, C.; Mansell, R.; Bloom, S.

    1988-10-01

    Because the Air Force is the primary user of the rocket fuels, hydrazine (Hz), monomethylhydrazine (MMH), and 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), it is responsible for the environmental implications associated with the transport, storage, and handling of these fuels. During handling, hydrazine fuels could inadvertently be released to the atmosphere and the surrounding aqueous and terrestrial environments. The studies are divided into the following five areas: aqueous and soil suspension studies, surface interaction studies, biological interaction studies, soil column studies, and soil transport modeling. The objective of this work is to determine the fate of hydrazine fuel released into an aqueous or soil environment. Aqueous degradation studies reveal that the extent of hydrazine degradation and the products formed are highly dependent upon several variables. Among these include the type of container used in the studies, the presence of certain metal ions, the ionic strength, the presence and type of pH buffer, the temperature, the presence of bacteria, and the amount of dissolved oxygen. Aqueous hydrazine degradation is particularly rapid in quartz vessels with copper ions ions and oxygen present. Degradation also increases with increasing ionic strength, pH buffer concentration, temperature, and bacteria content.

  5. Genetic variation of apolipoproteins, diet and other environmental interactions; an updated review.

    PubMed

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Peñalvo, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the recent findings from studies investigating the potential environmental modulation of the genetic variation of apolipoprotein genes on metabolic traits. We reviewed nutrigenetic studies evaluating variations on apolipoproteins-related genes and its associated response to nutrients (mostly dietary fatty acids) or any other dietary or environmental component. Most revised research studied single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and specific nutrients through small intervention studies, and only few interactions have been replicated in large and independent populations (as in the case of -265T > C SNP in APOA2 gene). Although current knowledge shows that variations on apolipoprotein genes may contribute to the different response on metabolic traits due to dietary interventions, evidence is still scarce and results are inconsistent. Success in this area will require going beyond the limitations of current experimental designs and explore the hypotheses within large populations. Some of these limitations are being covered by the rapidly advance in high-throughput technologies and large scale-genome wide association studies.

  6. Exploratory analysis of environmental interactions in central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Cola, Lee; Falcone, Neil L.

    1996-01-01

    As part of its global change research program, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) has produced raster data that describe the land cover of the United States using a consistent format. The data consist of elevations, satellite measurements, computed vegetation indices, land cover classes, and ancillary political, topographic and hydrographic information. This open-file report uses some of these data to explore the environment of a (256-km)? region of central California. We present various visualizations of the data, multiscale correlations between topography and vegetation, a path analysis of more complex statistical interactions, and a map that portrays the influence of agriculture on the region's vegetation. An appendix contains C and Mathematica code used to generate the graphics and some of the analysis.

  7. Studies on the Environmental Improvement in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogaki, Mitsuharu; Yoshizumi, Koji; Motonaka, Junko; Yabutani, Tomoki; Nakamoto, Yumi; Stanescu, Rodica; Plesca, Marinela

    In Romania, the communist planned economy system was in place for 42 years but ended due to a revolution in 1989. An environmental administration was started 1990. In order to assist with environment related activities, one of the authors worked in Bucharest for two years from March 2002 to March 2004 as a JICA (Japan International Cooperation Activity) member. One of the most important problems regarding environmental protection in Romania is waste management. In Japan, the regulations and penalties system of waste management have been used for a long time. However, there are many serious problems with the system, such as a decrease in waste disposal facilities and illegally disposed waste. The authors studied a new plan that uses a certification system in order to promote recycling industries. This system is both efficient and inexpensive so it is possible that this method of waste management could be transmitted to Romania.

  8. Molecular evidence of an interaction between prenatal environmental exposures and birth outcomes in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Frederica P; Rauh, Virginia; Whyatt, Robin M; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Bernert, John T; Tu, Yi-Hsuan; Andrews, Howard; Ramirez, Judyth; Qu, Lirong; Tang, Deliang

    2004-01-01

    Inner-city, minority populations are high-risk groups for adverse birth outcomes and also are more likely to be exposed to environmental contaminants, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in urban air. In a sample of nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women, we evaluated the effects on birth outcomes of prenatal exposure to ETS, using questionnaire data and plasma cotinine as a biomarker of exposure, and environmental PAHs using BaP-DNA adducts as a molecular dosimeter. We previously reported that among African Americans, high prenatal exposure to PAHs estimated by prenatal personal air monitoring was associated with lower birth weight (p = 0.003) and smaller head circumference (p = 0.01) after adjusting for potential confounders. In the present analysis, self-reported ETS was associated with decreased head circumference (p = 0.04). BaP-DNA adducts were not correlated with ETS or dietary PAHs. There was no main effect of BaP-DNA adducts on birth outcomes. However, there was a significant interaction between the two pollutants such that the combined exposure to high ETS and high adducts had a significant multiplicative effect on birth weight (p = 0.04) and head circumference (p = 0.01) after adjusting for ethnicity, sex of newborns, maternal body mass index, dietary PAHs, and gestational age. This study provides evidence that combined exposure to environmental pollutants at levels currently encountered in New York City adversely affects fetal development. PMID:15064172

  9. Environmental studies: Mathematical, computational, and statistical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    The Summer Program on Mathematical, Computational, and Statistical Analyses in Environmental Studies held 6--31 July 1992 was designed to provide a much needed interdisciplinary forum for joint exploration of recent advances in the formulation and application of (A) environmental models, (B) environmental data and data assimilation, (C) stochastic modeling and optimization, and (D) global climate modeling. These four conceptual frameworks provided common themes among a broad spectrum of specific technical topics at this workshop. The program brought forth a mix of physical concepts and processes such as chemical kinetics, atmospheric dynamics, cloud physics and dynamics, flow in porous media, remote sensing, climate statistical, stochastic processes, parameter identification, model performance evaluation, aerosol physics and chemistry, and data sampling together with mathematical concepts in stiff differential systems, advective-diffusive-reactive PDEs, inverse scattering theory, time series analysis, particle dynamics, stochastic equations, optimal control, and others. Nineteen papers are presented in this volume. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. The Interplay among Environmental Attitudes, Pro-Environmental Behavior, Social Identity, and Pro-Environmental Institutional Climate. A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prati, Gabriele; Albanesi, Cinzia; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    By using a panel design in a sample of 298 undergraduate/master students at an Italian public university, the present study aimed to test longitudinally the interplay among environmental attitudes, pro-environmental behavior, social identity, and pro-environmental institutional climate. The relationships were tested with cross-lagged analysis…

  11. The Interplay among Environmental Attitudes, Pro-Environmental Behavior, Social Identity, and Pro-Environmental Institutional Climate. A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prati, Gabriele; Albanesi, Cinzia; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    By using a panel design in a sample of 298 undergraduate/master students at an Italian public university, the present study aimed to test longitudinally the interplay among environmental attitudes, pro-environmental behavior, social identity, and pro-environmental institutional climate. The relationships were tested with cross-lagged analysis…

  12. Microbial interactions with chromium: basic biological processes and applications in environmental biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Corona, J F; Romo-Rodríguez, P; Santos-Escobar, F; Espino-Saldaña, A E; Hernández-Escoto, H

    2016-12-01

    Chromium (Cr) is a highly toxic metal for microorganisms as well as plants and animal cells. Due to its widespread industrial use, Cr has become a serious pollutant in diverse environmental settings. The hexavalent form of the metal, Cr(VI), is considered a more toxic species than the relatively innocuous and less mobile Cr(III) form. The study of the interactions between microorganisms and Cr has been helpful to unravel the mechanisms allowing organisms to survive in the presence of high concentrations of Cr(VI) and to detoxify and remove the oxyanion. Various mechanisms of interactions with Cr have been identified in diverse species of bacteria and fungi, including biosorption, bioaccumulation, reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and chromate efflux. Some of these systems have been proposed as potential biotechnological tools for the bioremediation of Cr pollution using bioreactors or by in situ treatments. In this review, the interactions of microorganisms with Cr are summarised, emphasising the importance of new research avenues using advanced methodologies, including proteomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic analyses, as well as the use of techniques based on X-ray absorption spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  13. When nanoparticles meet biofilms—interactions guiding the environmental fate and accumulation of nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ikuma, Kaoru; Decho, Alan W.; Lau, Boris L. T.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria are essential components of all natural and many engineered systems. The most active fractions of bacteria are now recognized to occur as biofilms, where cells are attached and surrounded by a secreted matrix of “sticky” extracellular polymeric substances. Recent investigations have established that significant accumulation of nanoparticles (NPs) occurs in aquatic biofilms. These studies point to the emerging roles of biofilms for influencing partitioning and possibly transformations of NPs in both natural and engineered systems. While attached biofilms are efficient “sponges” for NPs, efforts to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms guiding interactions between NPs and biofilms have just begun. In this mini review, special attention is focused on NP–biofilm interactions within the aquatic environment. We highlight key physical, chemical, and biological processes that affect interactions and accumulation of NPs by bacterial biofilms. We posit that these biofilm processes present the likely possibility for unique biological and chemical transformations of NPs. Ultimately, the environmental fate of NPs is influenced by biofilms, and therefore requires a more in-depth understanding of their fundamental properties. PMID:26136732

  14. Environmentally responsive material to address human-system interaction in the automotive cockpit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehkopf, Jackie D.; Barbat, Saeed D.; Goldman, Neil M.; Samus, Marsha A.; Gold, Harris

    2001-06-01

    There is significant human-system interaction in an automotive cockpit, and for particular components this interaction can be ever-present while being transient in nature. It is envisioned that environmentally responsive materials can be used in some components to accommodate personal and transient differences in the desired human-system interaction. Systems containing responsive gels have been developed to provide user activation and adjustment of the physical properties of a particular interior automotive component. Proprietary reverse viscosification gel formulations were developed that are thermally responsive. Formulations were modified to adjust the dynamic modulus and viscosity in terms of magnitude, amount of change over the viscosification transition, and the temperature over which the transition occurs. Changes in the physical properties of two orders of magnitude and more were achieved over a narrow transition region. Preliminary human factors assessment indicates that this order of magnitude of change is desirable. As the system of responsive gel, encapsulating material and activation mechanism is developed further, additional human factors studies will refine the desired physical properties and thermal activation mechanism. Ultimately, this system will have to perform over the broad range of temperatures imposed on interior automotive components and exhibit long-term durability chemically, physically and mechanically.

  15. Interactions between environmental factors and maternal-fetal genetic variations: strategies to elucidate risks of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Pereyra, Silvana; Bertoni, Bernardo; Sapiro, Rossana

    2016-07-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a complex disease in which medical, social, cultural, and hereditary factors contribute to the pathogenesis of this adverse event. Interactions between genes and environmental factors may complicate our understanding of the relative influence of both effects on PTB. To overcome this, we combined data obtained from a cohort of newborns and their mothers with multiplex analysis of inflammatory-related genes and several environmental risk factors of PTB to describe the environmental-genetic influence on PTB. The study aimed to investigate the association between maternal and fetal genetic variations in genes related to the inflammation pathway with PTB and to assess the interaction between environmental factors with these variations. We conducted a case-control study at the Pereira Rossell Hospital Center, Montevideo, Uruguay. The study included 143 mother-offspring dyads who delivered at preterm (gestational age<37 weeks) and 108 mother-offspring dyads who delivered at term. We used real-time PCR followed by a high-resolution melting analysis to simultaneously identify gene variations involved in inflammatory pathways in the context of environmental variables. The genes analyzed were: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Interleukin 6 (IL6), Interleukin 1 beta (IL1B) and Interleukin 12 receptor beta (IL12RB). We detected a significant interaction between IL1B rs16944 polymorphism in maternal samples and IL6 rs1800795 polymorphism in newborns, emphasizing the role of the interaction of maternal and fetal genomes in PTB. In addition, smoke exposure and premature rupture of membranes (PROM) were significantly different between the premature group and controls. IL1B and IL6 polymorphisms in mothers were significantly associated with PTB when controlling for smoke exposure. TLR4 polymorphism and PROM were significantly associated with PTB when controlling for PROM, but only in the case of severe PTB. Interactions between maternal and fetal genomes may

  16. The relationship between corporate environmental performance and environmental disclosure: an empirical study in China.

    PubMed

    Meng, X H; Zeng, S X; Shi, Jonathan J; Qi, G Y; Zhang, Z B

    2014-12-01

    Based on a content analysis of 533 Chinese listed companies, this study examines how corporate environmental performance affects not only the level of detail of a company's environmental disclosures, but also what information is disclosed. The results show that (1) both poor and good performers have more disclosure than the median (i.e., "mixed") performers, which provides empirical evidence to support a nonlinear relationship between corporate environmental performance and environmental disclosure; (2) poor performers disclose more soft information on environmental performance than good performers, and good performers disclose more solid information; and (3) although poor performers increase disclosure after being exposed as environmental violators, they avoid disclosing negative environmental information, such as the violation and the associated penalties. This study provides additional evidence for a nonlinear relationship between environmental performance and disclosure in emerging markets, and suggests environmental disclosure may not be a valid signal to differentiate good performers from poor performers in contemporary China.

  17. Lung tumorigenic interactions in strain A/J mice of five environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Nesnow, S; Mass, M J; Ross, J A; Galati, A J; Lambert, G R; Gennings, C; Carter, W H; Stoner, G D

    1998-12-01

    The binary, ternary, quaternary, and quintary interactions of a five-component mixture of carcinogenic environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using response surface analyses are described. Initially, lung tumor dose-response curves in strain A/J mice for each of the individual PAHs benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F), dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBA), 5-methylchrysene (5MC), and cyclopenta[cd]pyrene (CPP) were obtained. From these data, doses were selected for the quintary mixture study based on toxicity, survival, range of response, and predicted tumor yields. The ratios of doses among PAHs were designed to simulate PAH ratios found in environmental air and combustion samples. Quintary mixtures of B[a]P, B[b]F, DBA, 5MC, and CPP were administered to male strain A/J mice in a 2(5) factorial 32-dose group dosing scheme (combinations of five PAHs each at either high or low doses) and lung adenomas were scored. Comparison of observed lung adenoma formation with that expected from additivity identified both greater than additive and less than additive interactions that were dose related i.e., greater than additive at lower doses and less than additive at higher doses. To identify specific interactions, a response surface analysis using response addition was applied to the tumor data. This response surface model contained five dose, ten binary, ten ternary, five quaternary, and one quintary parameter. This analysis produced statistically significant values of 16 parameters. The model and model parameters were evaluated by estimating the dose-response relationships for each of the five PAHs. The predicted dose-response curves for all five PAHs indicated a good estimation. The binary interaction functions were dominated for the most part by DBA and were inhibitory. The response surface model predicted, to a significant degree, the observed lung tumorigenic responses of the quintary mixtures. These data suggest that although interactions between

  18. Lung tumorigenic interactions in strain A/J mice of five environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed Central

    Nesnow, S; Mass, M J; Ross, J A; Galati, A J; Lambert, G R; Gennings, C; Carter, W H; Stoner, G D

    1998-01-01

    The binary, ternary, quaternary, and quintary interactions of a five-component mixture of carcinogenic environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using response surface analyses are described. Initially, lung tumor dose-response curves in strain A/J mice for each of the individual PAHs benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F), dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBA), 5-methylchrysene (5MC), and cyclopenta[cd]pyrene (CPP) were obtained. From these data, doses were selected for the quintary mixture study based on toxicity, survival, range of response, and predicted tumor yields. The ratios of doses among PAHs were designed to simulate PAH ratios found in environmental air and combustion samples. Quintary mixtures of B[a]P, B[b]F, DBA, 5MC, and CPP were administered to male strain A/J mice in a 2(5) factorial 32-dose group dosing scheme (combinations of five PAHs each at either high or low doses) and lung adenomas were scored. Comparison of observed lung adenoma formation with that expected from additivity identified both greater than additive and less than additive interactions that were dose related i.e., greater than additive at lower doses and less than additive at higher doses. To identify specific interactions, a response surface analysis using response addition was applied to the tumor data. This response surface model contained five dose, ten binary, ten ternary, five quaternary, and one quintary parameter. This analysis produced statistically significant values of 16 parameters. The model and model parameters were evaluated by estimating the dose-response relationships for each of the five PAHs. The predicted dose-response curves for all five PAHs indicated a good estimation. The binary interaction functions were dominated for the most part by DBA and were inhibitory. The response surface model predicted, to a significant degree, the observed lung tumorigenic responses of the quintary mixtures. These data suggest that although interactions between

  19. International Aspects of Environmental Education. Monographs in Environmental Education and Environmental Studies. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, John H., Ed.; And Others

    This document contains four sections which deal with various aspects of international environmental education. Section 1 includes papers that describe environmental education projects and programs in South America, Europe, India, Scotland, the Arab states, and the Sudan. An additional article in this chapter compares the environmental education…

  20. International Aspects of Environmental Education. Monographs in Environmental Education and Environmental Studies. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, John H., Ed.; And Others

    This document contains four sections which deal with various aspects of international environmental education. Section 1 includes papers that describe environmental education projects and programs in South America, Europe, India, Scotland, the Arab states, and the Sudan. An additional article in this chapter compares the environmental education…

  1. Project Q. U. E. S. T. (Quality Urban Environmental Studies Training). An Environmental Studies Curriculum for High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockton Public Schools, MA.

    This interdisciplinary environmental education curriculum guide provides a series of environmental encounters for high school students. The purpose of the encounters is to develop an awareness and understanding of community environmental problems. The guide utilizes math, science and social studies in the study of urban environmental problems.…

  2. Calcium-magnesium Aluminosilicate (CMAS) Interactions with Advanced Environmental Barrier Coating Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesner, Valerie L.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2015-01-01

    Particulates, like sand and volcanic ash, threaten the development of robust environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) that protect next-generation silicon-based ceramic matrix composite (CMC) turbine engine components from harsh combustion environments during service. The siliceous particulates transform into molten glassy deposits of calcium-magnesium aluminosilicate (CMAS) when ingested by an aircraft engine operating at temperatures above 1200C. In this study, a sample of desert sand was melted into CMAS glass to evaluate high-temperature interactions between the sand glass and an advanced EBC material. Desert sand glass was added to the surface of hot-pressed EBC substrates, which were then heated in air at temperatures ranging from 1200C to 1500C. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy were used to evaluate microstructure and phase compositions of specimens and the CMASEBC interface after heat treatments.

  3. Interaction between intention and environmental constraints on the fractal dynamics of human performance.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Auriel; Coey, Charles A; Romero, Veronica; Malone, MaryLauren; Richardson, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated whether the influence of available task constraints on power-law scaling might be moderated by a participant's task intention. Participants performed a simple rhythmic movement task with the intention of controlling either movement period or amplitude, either with or without an experimental stimulus designed to constrain period. In the absence of the stimulus, differences in intention did not produce any changes in power-law scaling. When the stimulus was present, however, a shift toward more random fluctuations occurred in the corresponding task dimension, regardless of participants' intentions. More importantly, participants' intentions interacted with available task constraints to produce an even greater shift toward random variation when the task dimension constrained by the stimulus was also the dimension the participant intended to control. Together, the results suggest that intentions serve to more tightly constrain behavior to existing environmental constraints, evidenced by changes in the fractal scaling of task performance.

  4. Interaction of Intention and Environmental Constraints on the Fractal Dynamics of Human Performance

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Auriel; Coey, Charles A.; Romero, Veronica; Malone, MaryLauren; Richardson, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated whether the influence of available task constraints on power-law scaling might be moderated by a participant’s task intention. Participants performed a simple rhythmic movement task with the intention of controlling either movement period or amplitude, either with or without an experimental stimulus designed to constrain period. In the absence of the stimulus, differences in intention did not produce any changes in power-law scaling. When the stimulus was present, however, a shift toward more random fluctuations occurred in the corresponding task dimension, regardless of participants’ intentions. More importantly, participants’ intentions interacted with available task constraints to produce an even greater shift toward random variation when the task dimension constrained by the stimulus was also the dimension the participant intended to control. Together, the results suggest that intentions serve to more tightly constrain behavior to existing environmental constraints, evidenced by changes in the fractal scaling of task performance. PMID:25900114

  5. Structure effect on the interaction of phenylurea herbicides with model biomembrane as an environmental mobility parameter.

    PubMed

    Librando, Vito; Forte, Stefano; Sarpietro, Maria G

    2004-01-15

    During recent years, intensive use of herbicides has raised increasing concern mainly due to their massive pollution of the environment. As these herbicides are directly or indirectly toxic to a wide range of organisms, their potential for contaminating soil, surface water, and groundwater makes these xenobiotics of special interest from a health and environmental point of view. Knowledge of the mechanisms by which they exert their toxic effects is becoming a need. Because of the herbicides' lipophilicity, a possible site of interaction in the cell is represented by biomembranes. The interaction of four herbicides, difenoxuron, diuron, linuron, and metoxuron, with model membranes constituted of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine multilamellar vesicles was investigated by the differential scanning calorimetry technique. The aim was to study the effects exerted by an increasing amount of the examined compounds on thermotropic behavior of the model phospholipid membranes and to correlate the obtained results with structural features of the herbicides due to their environmental mobility. Among the herbicides studied, linuron is the most effective in perturbing the ordinate structure of vesicles forming phospholipids, whereas metoxuron is the least effective and the others exert an intermediate effect. Linuron exerts its effect both on the transition temperature of the gel to the liquid crystalline phase and on the enthalpy change. Difenoxuron, diuron, and metoxuron cause a change in the transition temperature but have an insignificant effect on the enthalpy change. The calorimetric results, correlated with the structural features of the herbicides, are consistent with their partition coefficient, log K(ow), suggesting that the more hydrophobic compound character causes a greater liposolubility and consequential cellular absorption with more effectiveness on the membrane order.

  6. Community Environmental Study Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Environmental Sciences Foundation, Inc., Minneapolis.

    This booklet contains the final report of an environmental education project designed to make use of the local community as an environmental learning resource. This three year program was developed by the Minnesota Environmental Science Foundation, Inc. in conjunction with three local school systems. The booklet is divided into five major…

  7. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental quality domains (air, water, land, sociodemographic and built environment) on preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this ...

  8. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental quality domains (air, water, land, sociodemographic and built environment) on preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this ...

  9. Temporal scale dependent interactions between multiple environmental disturbances in microcosm ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Aurélie; Pennekamp, Frank; Lemoine, Mélissa; Petchey, Owen L

    2017-06-15

    Global environmental change has negative impacts on ecological systems, impacting the stable provision of functions, goods, and services. Whereas effects of individual environmental changes (e.g. temperature change or change in resource availability) are reasonably well understood, we lack information about if and how multiple changes interact. We examined interactions among four types of environmental disturbance (temperature, nutrient ratio, carbon enrichment, and light) in a fully factorial design using a microbial aquatic ecosystem and observed responses of dissolved oxygen saturation at three temporal scales (resistance, resilience, and return time). We tested whether multiple disturbances combine in a dominant, additive, or interactive fashion, and compared the predictability of dissolved oxygen across scales. Carbon enrichment and shading reduced oxygen concentration in the short term (i.e. resistance); although no other effects or interactions were statistically significant, resistance decreased as the number of disturbances increased. In the medium term, only enrichment accelerated recovery, but none of the other effects (including interactions) were significant. In the long term, enrichment and shading lengthened return times, and we found significant two-way synergistic interactions between disturbances. The best performing model (dominant, additive, or interactive) depended on the temporal scale of response. In the short term (i.e. for resistance), the dominance model predicted resistance of dissolved oxygen best, due to a large effect of carbon enrichment, whereas none of the models could predict the medium term (i.e. resilience). The long-term response was best predicted by models including interactions among disturbances. Our results indicate the importance of accounting for the temporal scale of responses when researching the effects of environmental disturbances on ecosystems. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley

  10. Plant species distributions along environmental gradients: do belowground interactions with fungi matter?

    PubMed Central

    Pellissier, Loïc; Pinto-Figueroa, Eric; Niculita-Hirzel, Hélène; Moora, Mari; Villard, Lucas; Goudet, Jérome; Guex, Nicolas; Pagni, Marco; Xenarios, Ioannis; Sanders, Ian; Guisan, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of plants along environmental gradients is constrained by abiotic and biotic factors. Cumulative evidence attests of the impact of biotic factors on plant distributions, but only few studies discuss the role of belowground communities. Soil fungi, in particular, are thought to play an important role in how plant species assemble locally into communities. We first review existing evidence, and then test the effect of the number of soil fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) on plant species distributions using a recently collected dataset of plant and metagenomic information on soil fungi in the Western Swiss Alps. Using species distribution models (SDMs), we investigated whether the distribution of individual plant species is correlated to the number of OTUs of two important soil fungal classes known to interact with plants: the Glomeromycetes, that are obligatory symbionts of plants, and the Agaricomycetes, that may be facultative plant symbionts, pathogens, or wood decayers. We show that including the fungal richness information in the models of plant species distributions improves predictive accuracy. Number of fungal OTUs is especially correlated to the distribution of high elevation plant species. We suggest that high elevation soil show greater variation in fungal assemblages that may in turn impact plant turnover among communities. We finally discuss how to move beyond correlative analyses, through the design of field experiments manipulating plant and fungal communities along environmental gradients. PMID:24339830

  11. A Citizen-Science Study Documents Environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A citizen-science study was conducted in two low-income, flood-prone communities in Atlanta, Georgia, in order to document environmental exposures and the prevalence of occupant asthma. Teams consisting of a public-health graduate student and a resident from one of the two communities administered a questionnaire, inspected residences for mold growth, and collected a dust sample for quantifying mold contamination. The dust samples were analyzed for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). Most residents (76%) were renters. The median duration of residence was 2.5 years. Although only 12% of occupants reported a history of flooding, 46% reported at least one water leak. Homes with visible mold (35%) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean ERMI values compared to homes without (14.0 versus 9.6). The prevalence of self-reported, current asthma among participants was 14%. In logistic regression models controlling for indoor smoking, among participants residing at their current residence for two years or less, a positive association was observed between asthma and the homes' ERMI values (adjusted odds ratio per unit increase in ERMI = 1.12, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.01-1.25; two-tailed P = 0.04). Documentation of the exposures and asthma prevalence has been presented to the communities and public officials. Community-based organizations have taken responsibility for planning and implementing activities in response to the st

  12. A Citizen-Science Study Documents Environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A citizen-science study was conducted in two low-income, flood-prone communities in Atlanta, Georgia, in order to document environmental exposures and the prevalence of occupant asthma. Teams consisting of a public-health graduate student and a resident from one of the two communities administered a questionnaire, inspected residences for mold growth, and collected a dust sample for quantifying mold contamination. The dust samples were analyzed for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). Most residents (76%) were renters. The median duration of residence was 2.5 years. Although only 12% of occupants reported a history of flooding, 46% reported at least one water leak. Homes with visible mold (35%) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean ERMI values compared to homes without (14.0 versus 9.6). The prevalence of self-reported, current asthma among participants was 14%. In logistic regression models controlling for indoor smoking, among participants residing at their current residence for two years or less, a positive association was observed between asthma and the homes' ERMI values (adjusted odds ratio per unit increase in ERMI = 1.12, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.01-1.25; two-tailed P = 0.04). Documentation of the exposures and asthma prevalence has been presented to the communities and public officials. Community-based organizations have taken responsibility for planning and implementing activities in response to the st

  13. Environmental enrichment strengthens corticocortical interactions and reduces amyloid-β oligomers in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Mainardi, Marco; Di Garbo, Angelo; Caleo, Matteo; Berardi, Nicoletta; Sale, Alessandro; Maffei, Lamberto

    2013-01-01

    Brain aging is characterized by global changes which are thought to underlie age-related cognitive decline. These include variations in brain activity and the progressive increase in the concentration of soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers, directly impairing synaptic function and plasticity even in the absence of any neurodegenerative disorder. Considering the high social impact of the decline in brain performance associated to aging, there is an urgent need to better understand how it can be prevented or contrasted. Lifestyle components, such as social interaction, motor exercise and cognitive activity, are thought to modulate brain physiology and its susceptibility to age-related pathologies. However, the precise functional and molecular factors that respond to environmental stimuli and might mediate their protective action again pathological aging still need to be clearly identified. To address this issue, we exploited environmental enrichment (EE), a reliable model for studying the effect of experience on the brain based on the enhancement of cognitive, social and motor experience, in aged wild-type mice. We analyzed the functional consequences of EE on aged brain physiology by performing in vivo local field potential (LFP) recordings with chronic implants. In addition, we also investigated changes induced by EE on molecular markers of neural plasticity and on the levels of soluble Aβ oligomers. We report that EE induced profound changes in the activity of the primary visual and auditory cortices and in their functional interaction. At the molecular level, EE enhanced plasticity by an upward shift of the cortical excitation/inhibition balance. In addition, EE reduced brain Aβ oligomers and increased synthesis of the Aβ-degrading enzyme neprilysin. Our findings strengthen the potential of EE procedures as a non-invasive paradigm for counteracting brain aging processes. PMID:24478697

  14. Interaction of Species Traits and Environmental Disturbance Predicts Invasion Success of Aquatic Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Mächler, Elvira; Altermatt, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Factors such as increased mobility of humans, global trade and climate change are affecting the range of many species, and cause large-scale translocations of species beyond their native range. Many introduced species have a strong negative influence on the new local environment and lead to high economic costs. There is a strong interest to understand why some species are successful in invading new environments and others not. Most of our understanding and generalizations thereof, however, are based on studies of plants and animals, and little is known on invasion processes of microorganisms. We conducted a microcosm experiment to understand factors promoting the success of biological invasions of aquatic microorganisms. In a controlled lab experiment, protist and rotifer species originally isolated in North America invaded into a natural, field-collected community of microorganisms of European origin. To identify the importance of environmental disturbances on invasion success, we either repeatedly disturbed the local patches, or kept them as undisturbed controls. We measured both short-term establishment and long-term invasion success, and correlated it with species-specific life-history traits. We found that environmental disturbances significantly affected invasion success. Depending on the invading species’ identity, disturbances were either promoting or decreasing invasion success. The interaction between habitat disturbance and species identity was especially pronounced for long-term invasion success. Growth rate was the most important trait promoting invasion success, especially when the species invaded into a disturbed local community. We conclude that neither species traits nor environmental factors alone conclusively predict invasion success, but an integration of both of them is necessary. PMID:23028985

  15. Study of Compton vs. Photoelectric Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gronberg, J B; Johnson, S C; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Beiersdorfer, P

    2004-07-09

    We have studied how often incoming photons interact via a Compton interaction and/or a photoelectric interaction as a function of energy and detector material Results are using a 1m{sup 3} detector, and discrete energy photons from 0.1 MeV up to 10 MeV. Essentially all of the lower energy photons interact at least once in a detector of this size. This is not the case at higher energies. Each detector, photon energy combination was simulated with 2000 photons.

  16. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels that regularly informs the Parties (countries) to the Montreal Protocol on the effects of ozone depletion and the consequences of climate change interactions with respect to human health, animals, plants, bi...

  17. Towards a Framework for Analysing Interactions between Social Science and Environmental Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Sarah; Murphy, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between social science and environmental policy have become increasingly important over the past 25 years. There has, however, been little analysis of the roles that social scientists adopt and the contributions they make. In this paper we begin the process, offering tentative answers to two key questions: in relation to environmental…

  18. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels that regularly informs the Parties (countries) to the Montreal Protocol on the effects of ozone depletion and the consequences of climate change interactions with respect to human health, animals, plants, bi...

  19. Social Interaction: Reality Oriented Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Tom

    1984-01-01

    Reasons why elementary teachers should use social interaction activities as the core of their social studies program are discussed. The two main vehicles for involving children in guided and purposeful social interaction are the real classroom social system and simulated real-life social activities. (RM)

  20. Interactive Videodisc Case Studies for Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Harless, William G.; Zier, Marcia A.; Duncan, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    The TIME Project of the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications is using interactive videodisc, microprocessor and voice recognition technology to create patient simulations for use in the training of medical students. These interactive case studies embody dramatic, lifelike portrayals of the social and medical conditions of a patient and allow uncued, verbal intervention by the student for independent clinical decisions.

  1. Joint HVAC transmission EMF environmental study

    SciTech Connect

    Stormshak, F.; Thompson, J. )

    1992-05-01

    This document describes the rationale, procedures, and results of a carefully controlled study conducted to establish whether chronic exposure of female (ewe) Suffolk lambs to the environment of a 500-kV 60-Hz transmission line would affect various characteristics of growth, endocrine function, and reproductive development. This experiment used identical housing and management schemes for control and line-exposed ewes, thus minimizing these factors as contributors to between-group experimental error. Further, throughout the 10-month duration of this study, changes in electric and magnetic fields, audible noise, and weather conditions were monitored continuously by a computerized system. Such measurements provided the opportunity to identify any relationship between environmental factors and biological responses. Because of reports in the literature that electric and magnetic fields alter concentrations of melatonin in laboratory animals, the primary objective of this study was to ascertain whether a similar effect occurs in lambs exposed to a 500-kV a-c line in a natural setting. In addition, onset of puberty, changes in body weight, wool growth, and behavior were monitored. To determine whether the environment of a 500-kV line caused stress in the study animals, serum levels of cortisol were measured. The study was conducted at Bonneville Power Administration's Ostrander Substation near Estacada, Oregon.

  2. Love Canal: environmental and toxicological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    The New York State Department of Health has been involved at the Love Canal since 1978. The State has carried out numerous environmental and toxicological studies. The major purposes for these studies were to define how Love Canal contaminants might be escaping into the environment at large, what paths contaminant migration might take, and what toxicological effects Love Canal chemicals might have individually and together. Although underground contaminant migration was hypothesized along swales and underground utility bedding, these mechanisms have been proven not to be operative except for some migration along the utility bedding under Frontier Avenue. In general no underground migration has occurred outside the confines of the three city blocks that contain the Love Canal referred to as the ''first ring''. Studies have been confused by apparent burial of waste materials in areas proximate but not directly connected to the Love Canal. Migration of Love Canal leachate has occurred through storm sewers. Love Canal contaminants have reached creeks to the north and the Niagara River to the south through storm sewer transport. In spite of finding 2, 3, 7, 8 tetrachlorodibenzoparadioxin (TCDD), toxicological studies in situ and through exposure to volatile components in Love Canal soils do not indicate unusual toxicity. Animal studies continue in an attempt to determine the teratogenic and fetotoxic potential of Love Canal chemicals under different routes of exposure.

  3. Analyzing interaction of electricity markets and environmental policies using equilibrium models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yihsu

    Around the world, the electric sector is evolving from a system of regulated vertically-integrated monopolies to a complex system of competing generation companies, unregulated traders, and regulated transmission and distribution. One emerging challenge faced by environmental policymakers and electricity industry is the interaction between electricity markets and environmental policies. The objective of this dissertation is to examine these interactions using large-scale computational models of electricity markets based on noncooperative game theory. In particular, this dissertation is comprised of four essays. The first essay studies the interaction of the United States Environmental Protection Agency NOx Budget Program and the mid-Atlantic electricity market. This research quantifies emissions, economic inefficiencies, price distortions, and overall social welfare under various market assumptions using engineering-economic models. The models calculate equilibria for imperfectly competitive markets---Cournot oligopoly---considering the actual landscape of power plants and transmission lines, and including the possibility of market power in the NOx allowances market. The second essay extends the results from first essay and models imperfectly competitive markets using a Stackelberg or leader-follower formulation. A leader in the power and NO x markets is assumed to have perfect foresight of its rivals' responses. The rivals' best response functions are explicitly embedded in the leader's constraints. The solutions quantify the extent to which a leader in the markets can extract economic rents on the expense of its followers. The third essay investigates the effect of implementing the European Union (EU) CO2 Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) on wholesale power prices in the Western European electricity market. This research uses theoretical and computational modeling approaches to quantify the degree to which CO2 costs were passed on to power prices, and quantifies the

  4. Spacecraft environmental interactions: A joint Air Force and NASA research and technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, C. P.; Purvis, C. K.; Hudson, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    A joint Air Force/NASA comprehensive research and technology program on spacecraft environmental interactions to develop technology to control interactions between large spacecraft systems and the charged-particle environment of space is described. This technology will support NASA/Department of Defense operations of the shuttle/IUS, shuttle/Centaur, and the force application and surveillance and detection missions, planning for transatmospheric vehicles and the NASA space station, and the AFSC military space system technology model. The program consists of combined contractual and in-house efforts aimed at understanding spacecraft environmental interaction phenomena and relating results of ground-based tests to space conditions. A concerted effort is being made to identify project-related environmental interactions of concern. The basic properties of materials are being investigated to develop or modify the materials as needed. A group simulation investigation is evaluating basic plasma interaction phenomena to provide inputs to the analytical modeling investigation. Systems performance is being evaluated by both groundbased tests and analysis.

  5. Computer-Aided Environmental Education. Monographs in Environmental Education and Environmental Studies, Volume VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohwedder, W. J., Ed.

    With creativity and innovation, environmental educators have begun wielding the ever increasing power of computers to promote and enhance environmental education. These pioneering programs and applications are the focus of this publication. This monograph is a sampling of the potential, problems and promises of this field. The four major content…

  6. Environmental responses, not species interactions, determine synchrony of dominant species in semiarid grasslands.

    PubMed

    Tredennick, Andrew T; de Mazancourt, Claire; Loreau, Michel; Adler, Peter B

    2017-02-01

    Temporal asynchrony among species helps diversity to stabilize ecosystem functioning, but identifying the mechanisms that determine synchrony remains a challenge. Here, we refine and test theory showing that synchrony depends on three factors: species responses to environmental variation, interspecific interactions, and demographic stochasticity. We then conduct simulation experiments with empirical population models to quantify the relative influence of these factors on the synchrony of dominant species in five semiarid grasslands. We found that the average synchrony of per capita growth rates, which can range from 0 (perfect asynchrony) to 1 (perfect synchrony), was higher when environmental variation was present (0.62) rather than absent (0.43). Removing interspecific interactions and demographic stochasticity had small effects on synchrony. For the dominant species in these plant communities, where species interactions and demographic stochasticity have little influence, synchrony reflects the covariance in species responses to the environment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental responses, not species interactions, determine synchrony of dominant species in semiarid grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Tredennick, Andrew T.; de Mazancourt, Claire; Loreau, Michel; Adler, Peter B.

    2017-01-01

    Temporal asynchrony among species helps diversity to stabilize ecosystem functioning, but identifying the mechanisms that determine synchrony remains a challenge. Here, we refine and test theory showing that synchrony depends on three factors: species responses to environmental variation, interspecific interactions, and demographic stochasticity. We then conduct simulation experiments with empirical population models to quantify the relative influence of these factors on the synchrony of dominant species in five semiarid grasslands. We found that the average synchrony of per capita growth rates, which can range from 0 (perfect asynchrony) to 1 (perfect synchrony), was higher when environmental variation was present (0.62) rather than absent (0.43). Removing interspecific interactions and demographic stochasticity had small effects on synchrony. For the dominant species in these plant communities, where species interactions and demographic stochasticity have little influence, synchrony reflects the covariance in species’ responses to the environment. PMID:28144939

  8. The role of cis-zeatin-type cytokinins in plant growth regulation and mediating responses to environmental interactions

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Martin; Brütting, Christoph; Canales, Ivan Meza; Großkinsky, Dominik K.; Vankova, Radomira; Baldwin, Ian T.; Meldau, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinins (CKs) are well-established as important phytohormonal regulators of plant growth and development. An increasing number of studies have also reveal the function of these hormones in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. While the function of certain CK classes, including trans-zeatin and isopentenyladenine-type CKs, have been studied in detail, the role of cis-zeatin-type CKs (cZs) in plant development and in mediating environmental interactions is less well defined. Here we provide a comprehensive summary of the current knowledge about abundance, metabolism and activities of cZs in plants. We outline the history of their analysis and the metabolic routes comprising cZ biosynthesis and degradation. Further we provide an overview of changes in the pools of cZs during plant development and environmental interactions. We summarize studies that investigate the role of cZs in regulating plant development and defense responses to pathogen and herbivore attack and highlight their potential role as “novel” stress-response markers. Since the functional roles of cZs remain largely based on correlative data and genetic manipulations of their biosynthesis, inactivation and degradation are few, we suggest experimental approaches using transgenic plants altered in cZ levels to further uncover their roles in plant growth and environmental interactions and their potential for crop improvement. PMID:25998904

  9. Resident interactions at mealtime: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Curle, Leah; Keller, Heather

    2010-09-01

    Social interaction is thought to be important for psychological wellbeing and is necessary for developing relationships between older adults living in facilities. This study seeks to describe the social interaction that occurs amongst tablemates at mealtime in retirement homes, as well those things that influence resident-to-resident interaction. Fourteen lunch time periods were the basis for qualitative participant observation. Two or three researchers collected data in each period, with each observing two tables, resulting in 63 individual table observations at a retirement living facility dining room in a medium-sized city in Southern Ontario. Residents attending mealtime in the dining room were (~ 100). The type, extent and influences on social interactions amongst tablemates were recorded in detailed field notes. Qualitative thematic analysis, using a constant comparison procedure, was used to summarize and make sense of the data. A variety of social interactions occurred amongst tablemates including: making conversation, providing assistance, sharing, humouring, showing appreciation and affection, and rebuffing/ignoring/excluding. Interactions were influenced by tablemate roles, resident characteristics, and the social and physical environment, including staff. Social interactions or lack thereof are important for relationship development and mealtime environment. Describing the types of interaction and what influences them is a first step towards promoting social engagement which can enhance quality of life for residents. Further investigation through interviews with residents on the meaning of mealtime and companionship at meals will build a deeper understanding of the importance and influences on social interaction in this setting.

  10. Metabolomics Reveals Cryptic Interactive Effects of Species Interactions and Environmental Stress on Nitrogen and Sulfur Metabolism in Seagrass.

    PubMed

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Castorani, Max C N; Glud, Ronnie N; Canfield, Donald E; Holmer, Marianne

    2016-11-01

    Eutrophication of estuaries and coastal seas is accelerating, increasing light stress on subtidal marine plants and changing their interactions with other species. To date, we have limited understanding of how such variations in environmental and biological stress modify the impact of interactions among foundational species and eventually affect ecosystem health. Here, we used metabolomics to assess the impact of light reductions on interactions between the seagrass Zostera marina, an important habitat-forming marine plant, and the abundant and commercially important blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Plant performance varied with light availability but was unaffected by the presence of mussels. Metabolomic analysis, on the other hand, revealed an interaction between light availability and presence of M. edulis on seagrass metabolism. Under high light, mussels stimulated seagrass nitrogen and energy metabolism. Conversely, in low light mussels impeded nitrogen and energy metabolism, and enhanced responses against sulfide toxicity, causing inhibited oxidative energy metabolism and tissue degradation. Metabolomic analysis thereby revealed cryptic changes to seagrass condition that could not be detected by traditional approaches. Our findings suggest that coastal eutrophication and associated reductions in light may shift seagrass-bivalve interactions from mutualistic to antagonistic, which is important for conservation management of seagrass meadows.

  11. Interactions of biotic and abiotic environmental factors in an ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, and the potential for selection mosaics

    PubMed Central

    Piculell, Bridget J; Hoeksema, Jason D; Thompson, John N

    2008-01-01

    Background Geographic selection mosaics, in which species exert different evolutionary impacts on each other in different environments, may drive diversification in coevolving species. We studied the potential for geographic selection mosaics in plant-mycorrhizal interactions by testing whether the interaction between bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) and one of its common ectomycorrhizal fungi (Rhizopogon occidentalis Zeller and Dodge) varies in outcome, when different combinations of plant and fungal genotypes are tested under a range of different abiotic and biotic conditions. Results We used a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment to test the main and interactive effects of plant lineage (two maternal seed families), fungal lineage (two spore collections), soil type (lab mix or field soil), and non-mycorrhizal microbes (with or without) on the performance of plants and fungi. Ecological outcomes, as assessed by plant and fungal performance, varied widely across experimental environments, including interactions between plant or fungal lineages and soil environmental factors. Conclusion These results show the potential for selection mosaics in plant-mycorrhizal interactions, and indicate that these interactions are likely to coevolve in different ways in different environments, even when initially the genotypes of the interacting species are the same across all environments. Hence, selection mosaics may be equally as effective as genetic differences among populations in driving divergent coevolution among populations of interacting species. PMID:18507825

  12. Recent Studies of the Nuclear Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, J.

    Recent studies of light p-shell nuclei reveal that so-called 'realistic' nuclear interactions, those based on the NN scattering data augmented with plausible models of the three-nucleon interaction, provide a good description or nuclei through A=8. However, significant discrepancies exist, primarily in the energies of neutron rich systems and in the L.S splittings in the spectra of these nuclei. We briefly describe the methods used in these studies, and describe improved models of the three-nucleon interaction.

  13. CONSIDERATION OF CHILDREN'S DISTINCTIVE SUSCEPTIBILITY IN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consideration of children's distinctive susceptibility in environmental health studies.
    Pauline Mendola (US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)

    Children are a particularly susceptible subpopulation with ...

  14. CONSIDERATION OF CHILDREN'S DISTINCTIVE SUSCEPTIBILITY IN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consideration of children's distinctive susceptibility in environmental health studies.
    Pauline Mendola (US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)

    Children are a particularly susceptible subpopulation with ...

  15. MODELING THE INTERACTION OF AGROCHEMICALS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL SURFACES: PESTICIDES ON RUTILE AND ORGANO-RUTILE SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-bonded interactions between model pesticides and organo-mineral surfaces have been studied using molecular mechanical conformational calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. The minimum energy conformations and relative binding energies for the interaction of atrazine...

  16. Cancer risk and the complexity of the interactions between environmental and host factors: HENVINET interactive diagrams as simple tools for exploring and understanding the scientific evidence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Development of graphical/visual presentations of cancer etiology caused by environmental stressors is a process that requires combining the complex biological interactions between xenobiotics in living and occupational environment with genes (gene-environment interaction) and genomic and non-genomic based disease specific mechanisms in living organisms. Traditionally, presentation of causal relationships includes the statistical association between exposure to one xenobiotic and the disease corrected for the effect of potential confounders. Methods Within the FP6 project HENVINET, we aimed at considering together all known agents and mechanisms involved in development of selected cancer types. Selection of cancer types for causal diagrams was based on the corpus of available data and reported relative risk (RR). In constructing causal diagrams the complexity of the interactions between xenobiotics was considered a priority in the interpretation of cancer risk. Additionally, gene-environment interactions were incorporated such as polymorphisms in genes for repair and for phase I and II enzymes involved in metabolism of xenobiotics and their elimination. Information on possible age or gender susceptibility is also included. Diagrams are user friendly thanks to multistep access to information packages and the possibility of referring to related literature and a glossary of terms. Diagrams cover both chemical and physical agents (ionizing and non-ionizing radiation) and provide basic information on the strength of the association between type of exposure and cancer risk reported by human studies and supported by mechanistic studies. Causal diagrams developed within HENVINET project represent a valuable source of information for professionals working in the field of environmental health and epidemiology, and as educational material for students. Introduction Cancer risk results from a complex interaction of environmental exposures with inherited gene

  17. Study of physical interaction mefenamic acid - isonicotinamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuyun, Yonelian; Nugrahani, Ilma

    2015-09-01

    Solid-solid interaction in the form of physics and chemistry can occur in a combination of active ingredients with the active ingredient or active ingredients with excipients in a pharmaceutical preparation. Physical interactions can be classified into physical interaction system eutectic, peritectic, and molecular compounds based on the phase diagram of a mixture of two-component systems. The physical interaction between mefenamic acid and isonicotinamide not been reported previously. This study aims to examine the type of interaction of mefenamic acid (MA) with isonicotinamide (INA) and its interaction with the isolation methods by solvent drop grinding as the simplest method and easy to do. PXRD data showed the interaction of MA:INA mixture contained no new peaks, so the indicated MA:INA only form of eutectic interaction. There was founded new endothermic peak for DTA data at 149.5°C (SDG-Ethanol) and 148.4°C (SDG-EtAct). The results of infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated a shift in the NH stretch 3367 cm-1 to 3359 cm-1; and 3185 cm-1 to 3178 cm-1.

  18. Interactive Higher Education Instruction to Advance STEM Instruction in the Environmental Sciences - the Brownfield Action Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, J. C.; Bower, P.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that presently there are over half a million brownfields in the United States, but this number only includes sites for which an Environmental Site Assessment has been conducted. The actual number of brownfields is certainly in the millions and constitutes one of the major environmental issues confronting all communities today. Taught in part or entirely online for more than 15 years in environmental science, engineering, and hydrology courses at over a dozen colleges, universities, and high schools in the United States, Brownfield Action (BA) is an interactive, web-based simulation that combines scientific expertise, constructivist education philosophy, and multimedia to advance the teaching of environmental science (Bower et al., 2011, 2014; Liddicoat and Bower, 2015). In the online simulation and classroom, students form geotechnical consulting companies with a peer chosen at random to solve a problem in environmental forensics. The BA model contains interdisciplinary scientific and social information that are integrated within a digital learning environment that encourages students to construct their knowledge as they learn by doing. As such, the approach improves the depth and coherence of students understanding of the course material. Like real-world environmental consultants and professionals, students are required to develop and apply expertise from a wide range of fields, including environmental science and engineering as well as journalism, medicine, public health, law, civics, economics, and business management. The overall objective is for students to gain an unprecedented appreciation of the complexity, ambiguity, and risk involved in any environmental issue, and to acquire STEM knowledge that can be used constructively when confronted with such an issue.

  19. Land Ocean Interaction: processes, functioning and environmental management: a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin; Leeks, Graham J L; Millward, Geoff E; Harris, John R W; Huthnance, John M; Rees, John G

    2003-10-01

    The hydrochemical and physical functioning of UK river basins, estuaries and coastal waters through to the open sea are outlined in relation to British environmental research over the last ten or more years. An overview of a considerable body of published work is presented in the context of current findings and future research challenges. This is linked to this special issue of Science of the Total Environment 'Land Ocean Interaction: processes, functioning and environmental management: a UK perspective' for which this contribution provides a conclusion.

  20. Environmental biotechnology in India: prospects and case studies.

    PubMed

    Khanna, P

    1996-09-01

    The emergence and acceptance of the concept of sustainable development warrants that the scope of environmental biotechnology be enlarged to address issues like environmental monitoring, restoration of environmental quality, resource/residue/waste-recovery/utilization/treatment, and substitution of the non-renewable resource base with renewable resources. This paper delineates the current and prospective applications in these sub-areas of environmental biotechnology, and documents case studies on environmental monitoring (enteric viruses), restoration of environmental quality (oil spill remediation), resource recovery (hydrocarbon recovery from oily sludges, biosurfactants from distillery spentwash, desulphurization of coal & sour gases), and substitution of non-renewable resources with renewables (conversion of lignocellulisics into value added chemicals).

  1. Jubba Environmental and Socio-economic Studies (JESS). Volume 2. Environmental studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Jubba Environmental and Socio-economic Studies (JESS) investigated conditions in the Jubba Valley of southern Somalia. Projections from that baseline information were intended to elucidate changes likely to occur as a result of construction of a high dam near Baardheere and related developments. In particular, JESS was required to suggest ways of mitigating adverse impacts, enhancing potentially good impacts, and to draw up a program for future environmental and socio-economic monitoring. The report contains an analysis of the Terrestrial Ecology Baseline Studies (TEBS) section of the JESS project. Human use of biological resources is examined from the perspectives of land use, forestry, rangelands, and biological conservation. TEBS activities are used as the basis for a future monitoring program of terrestrial ecology.

  2. RISK COMMUNICATION IN ACTION: ENVIRONMENTAL CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook discusses a variety of data visualization and data interpretation tools that municipal, state and federal government agencies and others hve successfully used in environmental risk communication programs. The handbook presents a variety of tools used by several diff...

  3. RISK COMMUNICATION IN ACTION: ENVIRONMENTAL CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook discusses a variety of data visualization and data interpretation tools that municipal, state and federal government agencies and others hve successfully used in environmental risk communication programs. The handbook presents a variety of tools used by several diff...

  4. Protein-Inhibitor Interaction Studies Using NMR

    PubMed Central

    Ishima, Rieko

    2015-01-01

    Solution-state NMR has been widely applied to determine the three-dimensional structure, dynamics, and molecular interactions of proteins. The designs of experiments used in protein NMR differ from those used for small-molecule NMR, primarily because the information available prior to an experiment, such as molecular mass and knowledge of the primary structure, is unique for proteins compared to small molecules. In this review article, protein NMR for structural biology is introduced with comparisons to small-molecule NMR, such as descriptions of labeling strategies and the effects of molecular dynamics on relaxation. Next, applications for protein NMR are reviewed, especially practical aspects for protein-observed ligand-protein interaction studies. Overall, the following topics are described: (1) characteristics of protein NMR, (2) methods to detect protein-ligand interactions by NMR, and (3) practical aspects of carrying out protein-observed inhibitor-protein interaction studies. PMID:26361636

  5. Use of Genetic Effects and Genotype by Environmental Interactions for the Classification of Mexican Races of Maize

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes, Tarcicio S.; Goodman, Major M.; Casas, Eduardo D.; Rawlings, John O.

    1978-01-01

    To examine the questions of whether the additive and dominance effects present for morphological characters in racial crosses are of sufficient consistency and magnitude to allow such genetic effects to be used for racial classification, we used a diallel experiment among the 25 well-defined Mexican races of maize, which include the ancestral stocks of most commercial and genetic maize types. With such an experiment, genetic effects and genotype by environmental interactions for one or more characters can be used to measure genetic and adaptational or environmental similarity. We used average parental effects (general combining abilities), specific effects, and genotype by environmental effects of 21 characters from the diallel (grown at three locations) to group the Mexican races of maize. The groupings based upon average genetic effects and upon genotype by environmental interactions are more satisfactory than groupings based upon specific effects. The standard errors for genetic distances based upon specific (largely dominance) effects seem to be too high for practical use. Principal components analyses of the same data suggest a similar conclusion.—The groupings based upon average genetic effects are in general agreement with previous studies, with the exception of Maíz Dulce, which is grouped with the Cónicos, rather than being isolated from the other Mexican races of maize. PMID:17248866

  6. Time series regression studies in environmental epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Gasparrini, Antonio; Hajat, Shakoor; Smeeth, Liam; Armstrong, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Time series regression studies have been widely used in environmental epidemiology, notably in investigating the short-term associations between exposures such as air pollution, weather variables or pollen, and health outcomes such as mortality, myocardial infarction or disease-specific hospital admissions. Typically, for both exposure and outcome, data are available at regular time intervals (e.g. daily pollution levels and daily mortality counts) and the aim is to explore short-term associations between them. In this article, we describe the general features of time series data, and we outline the analysis process, beginning with descriptive analysis, then focusing on issues in time series regression that differ from other regression methods: modelling short-term fluctuations in the presence of seasonal and long-term patterns, dealing with time varying confounding factors and modelling delayed (‘lagged’) associations between exposure and outcome. We finish with advice on model checking and sensitivity analysis, and some common extensions to the basic model. PMID:23760528

  7. Podcasts as tools in introductory environmental studies.

    PubMed

    Vatovec, Christine; Balser, Teri

    2009-01-01

    Technological tools have increasingly become a part of the college classroom, often appealing to teachers because of their potential to increase student engagement with course materials. Podcasts in particular have gained popularity as tools to better inform students by providing access to lectures outside of the classroom. In this paper, we argue that educators should expand course materials to include prepublished podcasts to engage students with both course topics and a broader skill set for evaluating readily available media. We present a pre- and postassignment survey evaluation assessing student preferences for using podcasts and the ability of a podcast assignment to support learning objectives in an introductory environmental studies course. Overall, students reported that the podcasts were useful tools for learning, easy to use, and increased their understanding of course topics. However, students also provided insightful comments on visual versus aural learning styles, leading us to recommend assigning video podcasts or providing text-based transcripts along with audio podcasts. A qualitative analysis of survey data provides evidence that the podcast assignment supported the course learning objective for students to demonstrate critical evaluation of media messages. Finally, we provide recommendations for selecting published podcasts and designing podcast assignments.

  8. Podcasts as Tools in Introductory Environmental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vatovec, Christine; Balser, Teri

    2009-01-01

    Technological tools have increasingly become a part of the college classroom, often appealing to teachers because of their potential to increase student engagement with course materials. Podcasts in particular have gained popularity as tools to better inform students by providing access to lectures outside of the classroom. In this paper, we argue that educators should expand course materials to include prepublished podcasts to engage students with both course topics and a broader skill set for evaluating readily available media. We present a pre- and postassignment survey evaluation assessing student preferences for using podcasts and the ability of a podcast assignment to support learning objectives in an introductory environmental studies course. Overall, students reported that the podcasts were useful tools for learning, easy to use, and increased their understanding of course topics. However, students also provided insightful comments on visual versus aural learning styles, leading us to recommend assigning video podcasts or providing text-based transcripts along with audio podcasts. A qualitative analysis of survey data provides evidence that the podcast assignment supported the course learning objective for students to demonstrate critical evaluation of media messages. Finally, we provide recommendations for selecting published podcasts and designing podcast assignments. PMID:23653686

  9. Space Operations Center: Shuttle interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The implication of using the Shuttle with the Space Operation Center (SOC), including constraints that the Shuttle will place upon the SOC design. The study identifies the considerations involved in the use of the Shuttle as a part of the SOC concept, and also identifies the constraints to the SOC imposed by the Shuttle in its interactions with the SOC, and on the design or technical solutions which allow satisfactory accomplishment of the interactions.

  10. Two Superfund environmental justice case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschhorn, J.S.

    1997-12-31

    One of the environmental contributions of the Clinton Administration was Executive Order No. 12898 on Environmental Justice issued in 1994. Environmental justice has received considerable attention in EPA`s Superfund program. Many Superfund sites are located in or close by residential areas composed populated by ethnic minorities and people of the lowest economic status. Over the years, minority communities have often asserted that they have been treated more unfairly than predominantly white, middle class communities, with respect to the quality of environmental cleanups and the relocation of residents. The environmental justice claim is also that these communities have been intentionally placed in harm`s way because of historical racial prejudice and injustice, meaning that either polluting industrial facilities were intentionally placed in minority neighborhoods or that residential areas for minority workers were built close to industrial facilities. This paper presents discussions of two Superfund sites where environmental justice issues have been very important, and it analyzes how specific parts of the Executive Order have been complied with in EPA`s Superfund program.

  11. Genotype-Based Bayesian Analysis of Gene-Environment Interactions with Multiple Genetic Markers and Misclassification in Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lobach, Iryna; Fan, Ruzong

    2015-01-01

    A key component to understanding etiology of complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, alcohol dependence, is to investigate gene-environment interactions. This work is motivated by the following two concerns in the analysis of gene-environment interactions. First, multiple genetic markers in moderate linkage disequilibrium may be involved in susceptibility to a complex disease. Second, environmental factors may be subject to misclassification. We develop a genotype based Bayesian pseudolikelihood approach that accommodates linkage disequilibrium in genetic markers and misclassification in environmental factors. Since our approach is genotype based, it allows the observed genetic information to enter the model directly thus eliminating the need to infer haplotype phase and simplifying computations. Bayesian approach allows shrinking parameter estimates towards prior distribution to improve estimation and inference when environmental factors are subject to misclassification. Simulation experiments demonstrated that our method produced parameter estimates that are nearly unbiased even for small sample sizes. An application of our method is illustrated using a case-control study of interaction between early onset of drinking and genes involved in dopamine pathway. PMID:26180529

  12. Genotype-Based Bayesian Analysis of Gene-Environment Interactions with Multiple Genetic Markers and Misclassification in Environmental Factors.

    PubMed

    Lobach, Iryna; Fan, Ruzong

    A key component to understanding etiology of complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, alcohol dependence, is to investigate gene-environment interactions. This work is motivated by the following two concerns in the analysis of gene-environment interactions. First, multiple genetic markers in moderate linkage disequilibrium may be involved in susceptibility to a complex disease. Second, environmental factors may be subject to misclassification. We develop a genotype based Bayesian pseudolikelihood approach that accommodates linkage disequilibrium in genetic markers and misclassification in environmental factors. Since our approach is genotype based, it allows the observed genetic information to enter the model directly thus eliminating the need to infer haplotype phase and simplifying computations. Bayesian approach allows shrinking parameter estimates towards prior distribution to improve estimation and inference when environmental factors are subject to misclassification. Simulation experiments demonstrated that our method produced parameter estimates that are nearly unbiased even for small sample sizes. An application of our method is illustrated using a case-control study of interaction between early onset of drinking and genes involved in dopamine pathway.

  13. Case Studies in Environmental Adult and Popular Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clover, Darlene E., Ed.; Follen, Shirley, Ed.

    Following an introduction by Darlene E. Clover and Rene Karottki, this booklet provides 16 case studies about nonformal environmental adult education: "Environment and Development in Argentina: Innovative Experiences in Adult Learning" (Raul A. Montenegro); "Learning for Environmental Action: Environmental Adult and Popular Education in Canada"…

  14. Case Studies in Environmental Adult and Popular Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clover, Darlene E., Ed.; Follen, Shirley, Ed.

    Following an introduction by Darlene E. Clover and Rene Karottki, this booklet provides 16 case studies about nonformal environmental adult education: "Environment and Development in Argentina: Innovative Experiences in Adult Learning" (Raul A. Montenegro); "Learning for Environmental Action: Environmental Adult and Popular Education in Canada"…

  15. A Study of MX Environmental Management Information System (MXEMIS) Needs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (MXEMIS) NEEDS by Ronald Webster Ralph Mitchell Valorie Young -J : 2 34 LA--. Approved for public release...System (SAIFS) The MX Management Information System (MX MIS) The Mobilization Early Warning System (MEWS) The Computer-Aided Environmental Baseline...26 REFERENCES DISTRIBUTION I5 S’ t A STUDY OF MX ENVIRONMENTAL 2 EXISTING SYSTEMS CLASSIFICATION MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (MXEMIS

  16. Interactions with lectins and agglutination profiles of clinical, food, and environmental isolates of Listeria.

    PubMed Central

    Facinelli, B; Giovanetti, E; Casolari, C; Varaldo, P E

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of preliminary trials with 14 collection strains of Listeria, five lectins (Canavalia ensiformis, concanavalin A; Griffonia simplicifolia lectin I; Helix pomatia agglutinin; Ricinus communis agglutinin; and Triticum vulgaris wheat germ agglutinin) were selected to set up a microtiter agglutination assay. The lectin agglutination profiles of 174 clinical, food, and environmental strains of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, and Listeria seeligeri were investigated. Data on the standard determination of the antigenic structure were available for clinical strains; nonclinical isolates were assigned to serogroup 1 or 4 with commercial antisera. The listeria-lectin interaction was related to serological type rather than species; in particular, the strains assigned to serogroup 1 or belonging to serovars 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, 3a, 3b, and 7 were never agglutinated by G. simplicifolia lectin I. The five-lectin set proved to be capable of detecting differences between serologically identical isolates of L. monocytogenes. Of the 150 isolates of this species, 144 were distributed over 15 different lectin agglutination profiles and 6 autoagglutinated, the overall typeability being 96%. However, the profiles encountered among L. monocytogenes isolates were not randomly distributed. With strains assigned to serogroup 1 or belonging to serovars 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, and 3b, the clinical isolates fell into only two of the eight patterns recorded overall; with strains of serogroup 4 and serovar 4b, food and environmental isolates were distributed over eight of the nine patterns found in total, while clinical isolates were distributed over five patterns. In a comparative study of 15 epidemiologically relevant isolates of L. monocytogenes from five distinct outbreaks, strains with identical phage types and/or DNA fingerprints displayed identical lectin profiles. The heterogeneity of agglutination profiles may form the basis of a new approach to L. monocytogenes typing

  17. The harbour of Elaia: A palynological archive for human environmental interactions during the last 7500 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumilovskikh, Lyudmila S.; Seeliger, Martin; Feuser, Stefan; Novenko, Elena; Schlütz, Frank; Pint, Anna; Pirson, Felix; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-10-01

    Elaia, the harbour city for ancient Pergamon (western Turkey), was investigated using geoarchaeological methods. The rise and fall of Elaia were closely linked to the flourishing period of Pergamon, which ruled wide parts of today's western Turkey in Hellenistic times. In the framework of this research, the palynological analysis of a 9 m sediment core, Ela-70, retrieved from the enclosed harbour of the city, was carried out to reconstruct the vegetation and environmental history of the wider Gulf of Elaia region. An age-depth model, based on 11 calibrated radiocarbon ages, starting from 7.5 ka BP, provides the basis for the high resolution study of sediments from the Hellenistic period, as well as before and after. The lower part of the pollen diagram is characterised by high percentages of deciduous oaks and pines, suggesting the dominance of open forests close to the coring site. The change from oak forests to a cultural landscape, with olive, pistachio, walnut, and grape, started around 850 BC, reaching a maximum ca. 250 BC, and continuing to ca. AD 800. This period is characterised by increase of fire activity, soil erosion intensity, and pastoral farming. Such long-lasting intensive land use likely led to the climax ecosystem turnover from open deciduous oak forests to pine stands, while salt marshes developed around the coring site. The discovery of the dinoflagellate cysts of Peridinium ponticum, a Black Sea endemic species, in the harbour of Elaia evidences maritime trade between the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea; its first occurrence coincides with the time of the Mithridatic Wars (1st century BC). In conclusion, palynological data, in addition to historical and archaeological records, provide a deeper insight into human environmental interactions, as derived from the geoarchaeological archive of the harbour of Elaia.

  18. Study of Environmental Impact by Coal-Fired Power Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizumi, Koji; Ogaki, Mituharu; Motonaka, Junko; Yabutani, Tomoki

    The Tachibana-wan coal-fired power station was constructed on land that was reclaimed using the soil that came from cutting through half of a small island while balancing the amount of soil. The power station has been generating for three years. When the electric utility provider projected the power station, it must have conducted an environmental impact assessment, and studied the environmental preservation measures. Moreover, after the power generation began, an environmental investigation was done as a follow up survey to study the environmental impact by the power station based on its construction and use. To study the environmental impact with smoke, the environmental density of sulfur dioxide around the power station was investigated. It fell below the environmental standards at all the environmental measurement points during this investigation. Moreover, a big difference was not seen before and after the beginning of the power generation and the change in these data was in the normal range. As a result of the environmental impact assessment, the contribution density of the power station was near the quantitative limit and a low value. To study the environmental impact with warm wastewater, the water temperature in the bay was investigated. A big difference was not generally seen before and after the beginning of the power generation though the water temperature slowly rose at the discharge point of the warm wastewater but the change of these data was in the normal range. As for the environmental impact, a clear judgment was difficult only from the environmental investigation. It is necessary to set a new environmental indicator to judge the environmental impact. Moreover, as for a new environmental assessment system, it is necessary to introduce a strategic environmental assessment.

  19. National Environmental Change Information System Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Ritschard, R.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Hatch, U.

    2001-01-01

    The Global Hydrology and Climate Center and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a fact-finding case study for the Data Management Working Group (DMWG), now referred to as the Data and Information Working Group (DIWG), of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) to determine the feasibility of an interagency National Environmental Change Information System (NECIS). In order to better understand the data and information needs of policy and decision makers at the national, state, and local level, the DIWG asked the case study team to choose a regional water resources issue in the southeastern United States that had an impact on a diverse group of stakeholders. The southeastern United States was also of interest because the region experiences interannual climatic variations and impacts due to El Nino and La Nina. Jointly, with input from the DIWG, a focus on future water resources planning in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River basins of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida was selected. A tristate compact and water allocation formula is currently being negotiated between the states and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) that will affect the availability of water among competing uses within the ACF River basin. All major reservoirs on the ACF are federally owned and operated by the U.S. Army COE. A similar two-state negotiation is ongoing that addresses the water allocations in the adjacent Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT) River basin, which extends from northwest Georgia to Mobile Bay. The ACF and ACT basins are the subject of a comprehensive river basin study involving many stakeholders. The key objectives of this case study were to identify specific data and information needs of key stakeholders in the ACF region, determine what capabilities are needed to provide the most practical response to these user requests, and to identify any limitations in the use of federal data and information. The NECIS case study followed the terms of reference

  20. A Novel Open Tubular Capillary Electrochromatographic Method for Differentiating the DNA Interaction Affinity of Environmental Contaminants.

    PubMed

    D'Ulivo, Lucia; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of chemicals with DNA may lead to genotoxicity, mutation or carcinogenicity. A simple open tubular capillary electrochromatographic method is proposed to rapidly assess the interaction affinity of three environmental contaminants (1,4-phenylenediamine, pyridine and 2,4-diaminotoluene) to DNA by measuring their retention in the capillaries coated with DNA probes. DNA oligonucleotide probes were immobilized on the inner wall of a fused silica capillary that was first derivatized with 3-(aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane (APTES). The difference in retention times and factors was considered as the difference in interaction affinity of the contaminants to the DNA probes. The interaction of the contaminants with both double-stranded (dsDNA) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) coatings was compared. Retention factors of 1,4-phenylenediamine, pyridine and 2,4-diaminotoluene in the capillary coated with ssDNA probe were 0.29, 0.42, and 0.44, respectively. A similar trend was observed in the capillary coated with dsDNA, indicating that 2,4-diaminotoluene has the highest affinity among the three contaminants. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for the retention factors was in the range of 0.05-0.69% (n = 3). The results demonstrated that the developed technique could be applied for preliminary screening purpose to provide DNA interaction affinity information of various environmental contaminants.

  1. A Novel Open Tubular Capillary Electrochromatographic Method for Differentiating the DNA Interaction Affinity of Environmental Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    D’Ulivo, Lucia; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of chemicals with DNA may lead to genotoxicity, mutation or carcinogenicity. A simple open tubular capillary electrochromatographic method is proposed to rapidly assess the interaction affinity of three environmental contaminants (1,4-phenylenediamine, pyridine and 2,4-diaminotoluene) to DNA by measuring their retention in the capillaries coated with DNA probes. DNA oligonucleotide probes were immobilized on the inner wall of a fused silica capillary that was first derivatized with 3-(aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane (APTES). The difference in retention times and factors was considered as the difference in interaction affinity of the contaminants to the DNA probes. The interaction of the contaminants with both double-stranded (dsDNA) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) coatings was compared. Retention factors of 1,4-phenylenediamine, pyridine and 2,4-diaminotoluene in the capillary coated with ssDNA probe were 0.29, 0.42, and 0.44, respectively. A similar trend was observed in the capillary coated with dsDNA, indicating that 2,4-diaminotoluene has the highest affinity among the three contaminants. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for the retention factors was in the range of 0.05–0.69% (n = 3). The results demonstrated that the developed technique could be applied for preliminary screening purpose to provide DNA interaction affinity information of various environmental contaminants. PMID:27055261

  2. Environmental Studies and Environmental Science at GCE '0' and 'A' Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayford, Christopher G.

    1983-01-01

    Reports on environmental studies/science at General Certificate of Examination (GCE) ordinary ("0") and advanced ("A") levels. Questionnaires were used to survey teachers (focusing on their professional training and why they teach environmental studies/science courses) and to determine the relationship between environmental…

  3. Interaction of gravity with other environmental factors in growth and development: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Hoson, T

    1999-01-01

    The life of plants and other organisms is governed by the constant force of gravity on earth. The mechanism of graviperception, signal transduction, and gravireaction is one of the major themes in space biology. When gravity controls each step of the life cycle such as growth and development, it does not work alone but operates with the interaction of other environmental factors. In order to understand the role of gravity in regulation of the life cycle, such interactions also should be clarified. Under microgravity conditions in space, various changes are brought about in the process of growth and development. Some changes would be advantageous to organisms, but others would be unfavorable. For overcoming such disadvantages, it may be required to exploit some other environmental factors which substitute for gravity in some properties. In terrestrial plants, gravity can be replaced by light under certain conditions. The gravity-substituting factors may play a principal role in future space development.

  4. Identifying environmental sounds: a multimodal mapping study

    PubMed Central

    Tomasino, Barbara; Canderan, Cinzia; Marin, Dario; Maieron, Marta; Gremese, Michele; D'Agostini, Serena; Fabbro, Franco; Skrap, Miran

    2015-01-01

    Our environment is full of auditory events such as warnings or hazards, and their correct recognition is essential. We explored environmental sounds (ES) recognition in a series of studies. In study 1 we performed an Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of neuroimaging experiments addressing ES processing to delineate the network of areas consistently involved in ES processing. Areas consistently activated in the ALE meta-analysis were the STG/MTG, insula/rolandic operculum, parahippocampal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally. Some of these areas truly reflect ES processing, whereas others are related to design choices, e.g., type of task, type of control condition, type of stimulus. In study 2 we report on 7 neurosurgical patients with lesions involving the areas which were found to be activated by the ALE meta-analysis. We tested their ES recognition abilities and found an impairment of ES recognition. These results indicate that deficits of ES recognition do not exclusively reflect lesions to the right or to the left hemisphere but both hemispheres are involved. The most frequently lesioned area is the hippocampus/insula/STG. We made sure that any impairment in ES recognition would not be related to language problems, but reflect impaired ES processing. In study 3 we carried out an fMRI study on patients (vs. healthy controls) to investigate how the areas involved in ES might be functionally deregulated because of a lesion. The fMRI evidenced that controls activated the right IFG, the STG bilaterally and the left insula. We applied a multimodal mapping approach and found that, although the meta-analysis showed that part of the left and right STG/MTG activation during ES processing might in part be related to design choices, this area was one of the most frequently lesioned areas in our patients, thus highlighting its causal role in ES processing. We found that the ROIs we drew on the two clusters of activation found in the left and in

  5. Concepts for Studying Urban Environmental Justice.

    PubMed

    Corburn, Jason

    2017-03-01

    This paper offers research frameworks for understanding and acting to address urban environmental justice. Urban neighborhoods tend to concentrate and colocate vulnerable people and toxic environments. Cities are also where the poor and people of color tend to be disproportionately exposed to environmental hazards, such as air pollution, lead in paint and water, and polluting industries. Researchers and government agencies are increasingly recognizing the need to document cumulative exposures that the urban poor and people of color experience in addition to environmental hazards. These "toxic stressors" can exacerbate the health impacts of pollution exposures and include such social and economic factors as discrimination, racism, linguistic isolation, and political exclusion. Urban environmental justice research can benefit from a structural racism approach, which requires documenting the historical decisions, institutions, and policies that contribute to today's cumulative exposures. Key research frameworks and methods utilizing this approach for urban environmental justice include community-based participatory research, measuring cumulative stressors, and community-based asset and hazard mapping.

  6. Environmental conditions and biotic interactions influence ecosystem structure and function in a drying stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludlam, J.P.; Magoulick, D.D.

    2010-01-01

    Benthic consumers influence stream ecosystem structure and function, but these interactions depend on environmental context. We experimentally quantified the effects of central stoneroller minnows (Campostoma anomalum (Rafinesque) and Meek's crayfish (Orconectes meeki meeki (Faxon)) on benthic communities using electric exclusion quadrats in Little Mulberry Creek before (June) and during (August) seasonal stream drying. Unglazed ceramic tiles were deployed in June and August to measure periphyton and invertebrate abundance, and leafpack decomposition and primary production were also measured in August. Relationships between stoneroller and crayfish density and the size of consumer effects were evaluated with multiple linear regression models. Average chlorophyll a abundance was greater on exposed than exclusion tiles in August, but not in June. Sediment dry mass, periphyton ash-free dry mass (AFDM), and chironomid densities on tiles did not differ among treatments in either period. Leaf packs decayed faster in exposed than exclusion treatments (kexposed = 0.038 ?? 0.013, kexclusion = 0.007 ?? 0.002), but consumer effects were stronger in some pools than others. Leafpack invertebrate biomass and abundance and tile primary productivity did not differ among treatments. Consumer effects on chlorophyll a were related to crayfish and stoneroller density, and effects on chironomid density were related to stoneroller density. These results contrast with a previous exclusion experiment in Little Mulberry Creek that demonstrated strong consumer effects. The influence of stream drying on consumer effects appears to have been reduced by strong spates, underscoring the importance of conducting multi-year studies to determine the magnitude of variability in ecological interactions. ?? US Government: USGS 2010.

  7. Tritium environmental transport studies at TFTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, P. D.; Dolan, T. J.; Longhurst, G. R.

    1993-06-01

    Environmental tritium concentrations will be measured near the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to help validate dynamic models of tritium transport in the environment. For model validation the database must contain sequential measurements of tritium concentrations in key environmental compartments. Since complete containment of tritium is an operational goal, the supplementary monitoring program should be able to glean useful data from an unscheduled acute release. Portable air samplers will be used to take samples automatically every 4 hours for a week after an acute release, thus obtaining the time resolution needed for code validation. Samples of soil, vegetation, and foodstuffs will be gathered daily at the same locations as the active air monitors. The database may help validate the plant/soil/air part of tritium transport models and enhance environmental tritium transport understanding for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER).

  8. SPIV study of two interactive fire whirls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartl, Katherine; Smits, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Fire whirls are buoyancy-driven standing vortex structures that often form in forest fires. Capable of lifting and ejecting flaming debris, fire whirls can hasten the spread of fire lines and start fires in new places. Here we study the interaction of two jets in an externally applied circulation as an introduction to the study of two interacting fire whirls. To study this interaction we use two burner flames supplied with DME and induce swirl by entraining air through a split cylinder that surrounds both burners. Three components of velocity are measured using Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry both inside and outside the fire whirl core, at the base, midsection, and above the top of the fire whirls. The effects on the height and circulation on the distance between the burners, the rate of fuel supplied to the burners, and the gap size, are examined.

  9. The role of environmental heterogeneity in meta-analysis of gene-environment interactions with quantitative traits.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Taylor, Jeremy M G; Rice, Kenneth M; Wen, Xiaoquan; Rice, John D; Stringham, Heather M; Boehnke, Michael

    2014-07-01

    With challenges in data harmonization and environmental heterogeneity across various data sources, meta-analysis of gene-environment interaction studies can often involve subtle statistical issues. In this paper, we study the effect of environmental covariate heterogeneity (within and between cohorts) on two approaches for fixed-effect meta-analysis: the standard inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis and a meta-regression approach. Akin to the results in Simmonds and Higgins (), we obtain analytic efficiency results for both methods under certain assumptions. The relative efficiency of the two methods depends on the ratio of within versus between cohort variability of the environmental covariate. We propose to use an adaptively weighted estimator (AWE), between meta-analysis and meta-regression, for the interaction parameter. The AWE retains full efficiency of the joint analysis using individual level data under certain natural assumptions. Lin and Zeng (2010a, b) showed that a multivariate inverse-variance weighted estimator retains full efficiency as joint analysis using individual level data, if the estimates with full covariance matrices for all the common parameters are pooled across all studies. We show consistency of our work with Lin and Zeng (2010a, b). Without sacrificing much efficiency, the AWE uses only univariate summary statistics from each study, and bypasses issues with sharing individual level data or full covariance matrices across studies. We compare the performance of the methods both analytically and numerically. The methods are illustrated through meta-analysis of interaction between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in FTO gene and body mass index on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol data from a set of eight studies of type 2 diabetes.

  10. Social niche specialization under constraints: personality, social interactions and environmental heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Ferrari, Caterina; Réale, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Several personality traits are mainly expressed in a social context, and others, which are not restricted to a social context, can be affected by the social interactions with conspecifics. In this paper, we focus on the recently proposed hypothesis that social niche specialization (i.e. individuals in a population occupy different social roles) can explain the maintenance of individual differences in personality. We first present ecological and social niche specialization hypotheses. In particular, we show how niche specialization can be quantified and highlight the link between personality differences and social niche specialization. We then review some ecological factors (e.g. competition and environmental heterogeneity) and the social mechanisms (e.g. frequency-dependent, state-dependent and social awareness) that may be associated with the evolution of social niche specialization and personality differences. Finally, we present a conceptual model and methods to quantify the contribution of ecological factors and social mechanisms to the dynamics between personality and social roles. In doing so, we suggest a series of research objectives to help empirical advances in this research area. Throughout this paper, we highlight empirical studies of social niche specialization in mammals, where available. PMID:23569291

  11. Social niche specialization under constraints: personality, social interactions and environmental heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Ferrari, Caterina; Réale, Denis

    2013-05-19

    Several personality traits are mainly expressed in a social context, and others, which are not restricted to a social context, can be affected by the social interactions with conspecifics. In this paper, we focus on the recently proposed hypothesis that social niche specialization (i.e. individuals in a population occupy different social roles) can explain the maintenance of individual differences in personality. We first present ecological and social niche specialization hypotheses. In particular, we show how niche specialization can be quantified and highlight the link between personality differences and social niche specialization. We then review some ecological factors (e.g. competition and environmental heterogeneity) and the social mechanisms (e.g. frequency-dependent, state-dependent and social awareness) that may be associated with the evolution of social niche specialization and personality differences. Finally, we present a conceptual model and methods to quantify the contribution of ecological factors and social mechanisms to the dynamics between personality and social roles. In doing so, we suggest a series of research objectives to help empirical advances in this research area. Throughout this paper, we highlight empirical studies of social niche specialization in mammals, where available.

  12. Assessing Environmental Controls and Biogeochemical Consequences of Virus-Host Interactions in Marine Eukaryotic Picophytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, A. E.; Worden, A. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities in marine systems and propagate through lysis of their prokaryotic or eukaryotic hosts. Viruses infecting marine phytoplankton can be significant agents of mortality and disrupt the canonical flow of carbon and nutrients through the microbial loop via the "viral shunt." A large proportion of the ocean's primary production is contributed by photosynthetic eukaryotes, which are important members of the picophytoplankton size class. The smallest picoeukaryote Ostreococcus represents a diverse and widely distributed genus. While the genomes of several viruses infecting the coastal species Ostreococcus lucimarinus have been sequenced, the dependence of viral infection dynamics on environmental parameters such as light and nutrient availability has not been characterized. Therefore, the goal of this study is to determine how light synchronization and nutrient availability modulate the infection of three O. lucimarinus viruses. Viruses were introduced to mid-exponentially-growing O. lucimarinus cultures at different points during a 14:10h light:dark cycle and the infections were followed through a lysis event. Additionally, viral infection dynamics were quantified for cultures of O. lucimarinus under either nutrient-replete or nutrient-deplete conditions. Preliminary results suggest that both light and nutrient availability influence viral infection dynamics, and that low nutrient availability may dampen the severity of infection. This work provides insight to the role of light and nutrient availability in controlling viral replication in an ecologically important picophytoplankton. Considering virus-host interactions is therefore critical for understanding marine plankton-driven biogeochemical processes.

  13. Interdisciplinary Studies of Magma-Tectonic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaFemina, Peter; Stix, John; Saballos, Armando

    2013-08-01

    The Pan-American Advanced Studies Institute (PASI) Magma-Tectonic Interactions in the Americas brought together researchers, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students from every country in the Americas with active volcanoes and one participant from Iceland. Lecturers presented the latest geochemical and geophysical approaches to studying magma-tectonic interactions. Participants were introduced to the tectonics and volcanism of Nicaragua through a daylong field trip and given opportunities to collect and analyze their own data, including seismic, geodetic, and geochemical data, at the Cerro Negro volcano.

  14. A Manual for Conducting Environmental Impact Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, L. Ellis, Jr.; And Others

    This report presents methodologies for measuring the anticipated environmental impact of proposed highways at the conceptual, location, and design planning stages. An interdisciplinary team approach is recommended. The research emphasizes the systematic collection and evaluation of data on various types of impacts, including those related to…

  15. Gold Creek: Preserving an Environmental Studies Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Suzanne

    In response to a Board of Trustees request for information and recommendations concerning the future use of the Gold Creek property owned by the Los Angeles Community College District, this report emphasizes that the use of this site for instructional field experiences enhances the quality of environmental education for the district's diverse…

  16. A Manual for Conducting Environmental Impact Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, L. Ellis, Jr.; And Others

    This report presents methodologies for measuring the anticipated environmental impact of proposed highways at the conceptual, location, and design planning stages. An interdisciplinary team approach is recommended. The research emphasizes the systematic collection and evaluation of data on various types of impacts, including those related to…

  17. Environmental Studies. Plano Outdoor Learning Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    This curriculum guide for the Plano Intermediate School District (Texas) Outdoor Learning Center is divided into three major sections. Section I provides information on the numbered stations/posts found along the perimeter and inner trails of the center and includes brief comments on the philosophy of environmental education and the history…

  18. Environmental Studies. Plano Outdoor Learning Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    This curriculum guide for the Plano Intermediate School District (Texas) Outdoor Learning Center is divided into three major sections. Section I provides information on the numbered stations/posts found along the perimeter and inner trails of the center and includes brief comments on the philosophy of environmental education and the history…

  19. Environmental Learning and the Study of Extinction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Anne C.; Russell, Constance L.; Plotkin, Rachel

    1998-01-01

    Describes an environmental workshop with three goals: (1) to develop a more grounded and personal understanding in students of extinction; (2) to draw attention to their specific life contexts while making connections between local and global phenomena; and (3) to critically examine anthropocentrism. Highlights efforts to disrupt strictly…

  20. Methods for environmental change; an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While the interest of health promotion researchers in change methods directed at the target population has a long tradition, interest in change methods directed at the environment is still developing. In this survey, the focus is on methods for environmental change; especially about how these are composed of methods for individual change (‘Bundling’) and how within one environmental level, organizations, methods differ when directed at the management (‘At’) or applied by the management (‘From’). Methods The first part of this online survey dealt with examining the ‘bundling’ of individual level methods to methods at the environmental level. The question asked was to what extent the use of an environmental level method would involve the use of certain individual level methods. In the second part of the survey the question was whether there are differences between applying methods directed ‘at’ an organization (for instance, by a health promoter) versus ‘from’ within an organization itself. All of the 20 respondents are experts in the field of health promotion. Results Methods at the individual level are frequently bundled together as part of a method at a higher ecological level. A number of individual level methods are popular as part of most of the environmental level methods, while others are not chosen very often. Interventions directed at environmental agents often have a strong focus on the motivational part of behavior change. There are different approaches targeting a level or being targeted from a level. The health promoter will use combinations of motivation and facilitation. The manager will use individual level change methods focusing on self-efficacy and skills. Respondents think that any method may be used under the right circumstances, although few endorsed coercive methods. Conclusions Taxonomies of theoretical change methods for environmental change should include combinations of individual level methods that may

  1. Interactions between a pollinating seed predator and its host plant: the role of environmental context within a population.

    PubMed

    Kula, Abigail A R; Castillo, Dean M; Dudash, Michele R; Fenster, Charles B

    2014-07-01

    Plant-insect interactions often are important for plant reproduction, but the outcome of these interactions may vary with environmental context. Pollinating seed predators have positive and negative effects on host plant reproduction, and the interaction outcome is predicted to vary with density or abundance of the partners. We studied the interaction between Silene stellata, an herbaceous perennial, and Hadena ectypa, its specialized pollinating seed predator. Silene stellata is only facultatively dependent upon H. ectypa for pollination because other nocturnal moth co-pollinators are equally effective at pollen transfer. We hypothesized that for plants without conspecific neighbors, H. ectypa would have higher visitation rates compared to co-pollinators, and the plants would experience lower levels of H. ectypa pollen deposition. We predicted similar oviposition throughout the study site but greater H. ectypa predation in the area without conspecific neighbors compared to plants embedded in a naturally high density area. We found that H. ectypa had consistently higher visitation than moth co-pollinators in all host plant contexts. However, H. ectypa pollinator importance declined in areas with low conspecific density because of reduced pollen deposition, resulting in lower seed set. Conversely, oviposition was similar across the study site independent of host plant density. Greater likelihood of very high fruit predation combined with lower pollination by H. ectypa resulted in reduced S. stellata female reproductive success in areas with low conspecific density. Our results demonstrate local context dependency of the outcomes of pollinating seed predator interactions with conspecific host plant density within a population.

  2. Evolution of Neogene Mammals in Eurasia: Environmental Forcing and Biotic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortelius, Mikael; Eronen, Jussi T.; Kaya, Ferhat; Tang, Hui; Raia, Pasquale; Puolamäki, Kai

    2014-05-01

    The relative weights of physical forcing and biotic interaction as drivers of evolutionary change have been debated in evolutionary theory. The recent finding that species, genera, clades, and chronofaunas all appear to exhibit a symmetrical pattern of waxing and waning lends support to the view that biotic interactions shape the history of life. Yet, there is similarly abundant evidence that these primary units of biological evolution arise and wane in coincidence with major climatic change. We review these patterns and the process-level explanations offered for them. We also propose a tentative synthesis, characterized by interdependence between physical forcing and biotic interactions. We suggest that species with evolutionary novelties arise predominantly in "species factories" that develop under harsh environmental conditions, under dominant physical forcing, whereas exceptionally mild environments give rise to "oases in the desert," characterized by strong competition and survival of relics.

  3. How does human-induced environmental change influence host-parasite interactions?

    PubMed

    Budria, Alexandre; Candolin, Ulrika

    2014-04-01

    Host-parasite interactions are an integral part of ecosystems that influence both ecological and evolutionary processes. Humans are currently altering environments the world over, often with drastic consequences for host-parasite interactions and the prevalence of parasites. The mechanisms behind the changes are, however, poorly known. Here, we explain how host-parasite interactions depend on two crucial steps--encounter rate and host-parasite compatibility--and how human activities are altering them and thereby host-parasite interactions. By drawing on examples from the literature, we show that changes in the two steps depend on the influence of human activities on a range of factors, such as the density and diversity of hosts and parasites, the search strategy of the parasite, and the avoidance strategy of the host. Thus, to unravel the mechanisms behind human-induced changes in host-parasite interactions, we have to consider the characteristics of all three parts of the interaction: the host, the parasite and the environment. More attention should now be directed to unfold these mechanisms, focusing on effects of environmental change on the factors that determine encounter rate and compatibility. We end with identifying several areas in urgent need of more investigations.

  4. [Interactive effects of environmental tobacco smoke and pets ownership on respiratory diseases and symptoms in children].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Liu, Yu-qin; Liu, Miao-miao; Wang, Da; Ren, Wan-hui; Gao, Feng; Dong, Guang-hui

    2013-02-01

    Over the past few decades, secondhand smoke exposure among children become more serious and with China's implementation of the national policy of family planning and the family structure change, domestic pet has gradually become popular. This survey aimed to investigate the interactive effects of pet ownership and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on children's respiratory diseases and symptoms. Using a cluster random sampling method, 5 elementary schools and 10 kindergartens were randomly selected from each district of Shenyang, and all children from the selected schools were recruited in this survey. The information about the children's respiratory diseases, conditions of pets ownership and ETS exposure were collected by an international standard questionnaire from American Thoracic Society. A total of 9679 questionnaires were distributed to all the students enrolled in the selected schools, and 8798 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 90.9%. Finally, 8733 questionnaires were used for further analysis. The results showed that the number of the patients and the prevalence of persistent cough, persistent phlegm, doctor-diagnosed asthma, current asthma, wheeze, and allergic rhinitis in children were 835 (9.57%), 366 (4.42%), 559 (6.40%), 215 (2.46%), 229 (2.62%), 397 (4.55%), respectively. After controlling for the effects of age, gender and other confounding factors, the results from the multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis showed that either pet ownership or the ETS exposure significantly increased the risk of prevalence of respiratory diseases and symptoms in children. Compared with control group children, only the prenatal exposure to passive smoking or domestic pets made the risk of children with allergic rhinitis increased respectively 34% (OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 0.99 - 1.80) and 106% (OR = 2.06, 95%CI = 1.28 - 3.31), while the exposure of these two factors made the risk of children with allergic rhinitis increased

  5. A Study of Education for Environmental Design. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Princeton Univ., NJ.

    This study was commissioned by the American Institute of Architects because of a widespread feeling that education for environmental design must change. The purpose of this study is to focus and give direction to the many changes that are taking place in environmental design education today. Emerging from the study was a process for planning and…

  6. Graduate Students, Study of Environmental Literacy and Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özgurler, Safa; Cansaran, Arzu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the level of environmental literacy of the graduate students in Amasya University; their approach to environment and environmental issues; and to investigate their beliefs about the sustainable development. The sample of the study is 5 graduate students studying at Amasya University, 3 female and 2 male, in…

  7. An Oral Contraceptive Drug Interaction Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradstreet, Thomas E.; Panebianco, Deborah L.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on a two treatment, two period, two treatment sequence crossover drug interaction study of a new drug and a standard oral contraceptive therapy. Both normal theory and distribution-free statistical analyses are provided along with a notable amount of graphical insight into the dataset. For one of the variables, the decision on…

  8. NACASETAC BAY: AN INTERACTIVE CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This interactive case study or "game" was created to provide a "hands on" experience in the application of a weight of evidence approach to sediment assessment. The game proceeds in two phases. In each phase the players work together as a group. A scenario is presented, and the g...

  9. An Oral Contraceptive Drug Interaction Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradstreet, Thomas E.; Panebianco, Deborah L.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on a two treatment, two period, two treatment sequence crossover drug interaction study of a new drug and a standard oral contraceptive therapy. Both normal theory and distribution-free statistical analyses are provided along with a notable amount of graphical insight into the dataset. For one of the variables, the decision on…

  10. NACASETAC BAY: AN INTERACTIVE CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This interactive case study or "game" was created to provide a "hands on" experience in the application of a weight of evidence approach to sediment assessment. The game proceeds in two phases. In each phase the players work together as a group. A scenario is presented, and the g...

  11. A Study of Multiplicities in Hadronic Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Estrada Tristan, Nora Patricia; /San Luis Potosi U.

    2006-02-01

    Using data from the SELEX (Fermilab E781) experiment obtained with a minimum-bias trigger, we study multiplicity and angular distributions of secondary particles produced in interactions in the experimental targets. We observe interactions of {Sigma}{sup -}, proton, {pi}{sup -}, and {pi}{sup +}, at beam momenta between 250 GeV/c and 650 GeV/c, in copper, polyethylene, graphite, and beryllium targets. We show that the multiplicity and angular distributions for meson and baryon beams at the same momentum are identical. We also show that the mean multiplicity increases with beam momentum, and presents only small variations with the target material.

  12. Simplified environmental study on innovative bridge structure.

    PubMed

    Bouhaya, Lina; Le Roy, Robert; Feraille-Fresnet, Adélaïde

    2009-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to present a simplified life cycle assessment on an innovative bridge structure, made of wood and ultra high performance concrete, which combines mechanical performance with minimum environmental impact. The environmental analysis was conducted from cradle to grave using the Life Cycle Assessment method. It was restricted to energy release and greenhouse gas emissions. Assumptions are detailed for each step of the analysis. For the wood end-of-life, three scenarios were proposed: dumping, burning, and recycling. Results show that the most energy needed is in the production phase, which represents 73.4% of the total amount. Analysis shows that the renewable energy is about 70% of the production energy. Wood, through its biomass CO2, contributes positively to the environmental impact. It was concluded that no scenario can be the winner on both impacts. Indeed, the end-of-life wood recycling gives the best impact on CO2 release, whereas burning wood, despite its remarkable energy impact is the worst. According to the emphasis given to each impact, designers will be able to choose one or the other.

  13. Studying Environmental Influence on Motor Development in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl; Krebs, Ruy

    2012-01-01

    There is a good argument that in order to truly understand the influences that shape child motor development, one must consider environmental influences that reflect the multilevel ecological contexts that interact with the changing biological characteristics of the child. Although there are theories typically associated with motor development…

  14. Studying Environmental Influence on Motor Development in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl; Krebs, Ruy

    2012-01-01

    There is a good argument that in order to truly understand the influences that shape child motor development, one must consider environmental influences that reflect the multilevel ecological contexts that interact with the changing biological characteristics of the child. Although there are theories typically associated with motor development…

  15. Biofied room integrated with sensor agent robots to interact with residents and acquire environmental information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Fumi; Mita, Akira

    2011-04-01

    Current smart buildings are based on scenarios, so they are not prepared for unexpected events. We focus our attention on high adaptability of living matters to environmental changes. "Biofication of Living Spaces" is the concept of creating pleasant living environments using this high adaptability. Biofied room is integrated with sensor agent robots to interact with residents and acquire environmental information. In this research, we propose a highly adaptive algorithm to control the devices automatically. Based on physiological adaption, we can make the algorithm very flexible. As the first step in this research, a prototype of the sensor agent robot is built. Camera, microphone, proximity sensor, laser range-finder are mounted on the robot. As a sensor agent robot follows the residents, it acquires environmental information, and records the interaction between the robot and human. In a suggested control model, a resident is built in the control loop and his/her uncomfortable feeling plays a role of control signal. Following its signal, devices are controlled. Results obtained from the computer simulation show that models are able to maintain the human comfort feeling adaptively. This research suggests an adaptive, fault-tolerant, and energy-saving control models for building spaces, using simple algorithms based on physiological adaption.

  16. Systems interaction study of a Westinghouse PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, R.; Hanan, N.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Xue, D.; Bozoki, G.; Fresco, A.; Papazoglou, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents methods and findings of a systems interaction study of Indian Point 3. The study was carried out in support of the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue A-17 on Systems Interactions. Fault tree methods were employed. Among the study's findings is a single active failure in the low pressure injection function; this discovery led to a plant modification. In addition to providing support to the staff in resolving USI A-17, the project discovered an important new class of failure modes which led the utility to implement a hardware modification. The scope of the project is indicated, key features of the method are highlighted findings are discussed, and comments are offered on the usefulness of this type of, principal study. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. SPS ionosphere/microwave beam interactions: Arecibo experimental studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, L.M.

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of this program is to determine the environmental impacts associated with the operation of the proposed SPS microwave power transmission system. It is expected that thermal effects will provide the dominant force driving the nonlinear ionosphere/microwave beam interactions. Collisional damping of radio waves, producing ohmic heating of the ionospheric plasma, depends inversely on the square of the radio wave frequency. Therefore, equivalent heating and equivalent thermal forces can be generated at lower radiated power densities by using lower radio wave frequencies. This principle is fundamental to a large part of the experimental program. An understanding of the physics of the specific interactions excited by the SPS microwave beam is also an important part of the assessment program. This program is designed to determine instability thresholds, the growth rates and spatial extent of the resultant ionospheric disturbances, and the frequency and power dependences of the interactions. How these interactions are affected by variations in the natural ionospheric conditions, how different instabilities occurring simultaneously may affect each other, and how distinct microwave beams might mutually interact are studied. Status of the program is described. (WHK)

  18. The role of cis-zeatin-type cytokinins in plant growth regulation and mediating responses to environmental interactions.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Martin; Brütting, Christoph; Meza-Canales, Ivan David; Großkinsky, Dominik K; Vankova, Radomira; Baldwin, Ian T; Meldau, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Cytokinins (CKs) are well-established as important phytohormonal regulators of plant growth and development. An increasing number of studies have also revealed the function of these hormones in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. While the function of certain CK classes, including trans-zeatin and isopentenyladenine-type CKs, have been studied in detail, the role of cis-zeatin-type CKs (cZs) in plant development and in mediating environmental interactions is less well defined. Here we provide a comprehensive summary of the current knowledge about abundance, metabolism and activities of cZs in plants. We outline the history of their analysis and the metabolic routes comprising cZ biosynthesis and degradation. Further we provide an overview of changes in the pools of cZs during plant development and environmental interactions. We summarize studies that investigate the role of cZs in regulating plant development and defence responses to pathogen and herbivore attack and highlight their potential role as 'novel' stress-response markers. Since the functional roles of cZs remain largely based on correlative data and genetic manipulations of their biosynthesis, inactivation and degradation are few, we suggest experimental approaches using transgenic plants altered in cZ levels to further uncover their roles in plant growth and environmental interactions and their potential for crop improvement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Turn Your Schoolgrounds into an Environmental Study Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buetler, Larry, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Describes activities that utilize the school grounds as a context to study environmental problems. Activities include surveying the grounds, map making, tree identification, study of plant and animal life, soil studies, and conservation and beautification projects. (MDH)

  20. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2008.

    PubMed

    Andrady, Anthony; Aucamp, Pieter J; Bais, Alkiviadis; Ballaré, Carlos L; Björn, Lars Olof; Bornman, Janet F; Caldwell, Martyn; Cullen, Anthony P; Erickson, David J; de Gruijl, Frank R; Häder, Donat-P; Ilyas, Mohammad; Kulandaivelu, G; Kumar, H D; Longstreth, Janice; McKenzie, Richard L; Norval, Mary; Paul, Nigel; Redhwi, Halim Hamid; Smith, Raymond C; Solomon, Keith R; Sulzberger, Barbara; Takizawa, Yukio; Tang, Xiaoyan; Teramura, Alan H; Torikai, Ayako; van der Leun, Jan C; Wilson, Stephen R; Worrest, Robert C; Zepp, Richard G

    2009-01-01

    After the enthusiastic celebration of the 20th Anniversary of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in 2007, the work for the protection of the ozone layer continues. The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel is one of the three expert panels within the Montreal Protocol. This EEAP deals with the increase of the UV irradiance on the Earth's surface and its effects on human health, animals, plants, biogeochemistry, air quality and materials. For the past few years, interactions of ozone depletion with climate change have also been considered. It has become clear that the environmental problems will be long-lasting. In spite of the fact that the worldwide production of ozone depleting chemicals has already been reduced by 95%, the environmental disturbances are expected to persist for about the next half a century, even if the protective work is actively continued, and completed. The latest full report was published in Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2007, 6, 201-332, and the last progress report in Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2008, 7, 15-27. The next full report on environmental effects is scheduled for the year 2010. The present progress report 2008 is one of the short interim reports, appearing annually.

  1. Interactions of environmental stressors impact survival and development of parasitized larval amphibians.

    PubMed

    Koprivnikar, J

    2010-12-01

    Infected hosts are exposed to many environmental stressors that must be taken into account in order to determine the importance of disease, as various combinations can interact in unpredictable ways. Here, northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) tadpoles, a species in decline, were exposed to stressors singly or in combination. Stressors included infection by Echinostoma trivolvis (a trematode parasite), exposure to predator chemical cues (larval dragonflies), and exposure to varying concentrations of the herbicide atrazine. Parasitism decreased survival only in combination with exposure to 3 microg/L atrazine, with a negative interaction observed for mass as well. Similarly, a negative interaction of parasitism and predation on survival occurred. However, atrazine exposure alone negatively affected the survival, mass, and developmental stage of tadpoles. These results indicate that certain stressor combinations are particularly deleterious for young parasitized tadpoles. Notably, very common low-intensity parasite infection can be particularly harmful in certain situations. Such negative impacts on larval amphibians in certain scenarios may contribute to ongoing amphibian population declines, emphasizing that the combination of environmental stressors must be considered when evaluating the general role of disease in species extinctions.

  2. Environmental History: A New Challenge for the Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purmont, Jon E.

    1976-01-01

    Through the use of case studies, the classroom teacher can integrate environmental history into the social studies course, emphasizing the historical nature of environmental problems. Students can then apply the resulting knowledge, sensitivity, and awareness to developing attitudes and strengthening concerns for present and future ecological…

  3. Environmental ethics and wilderness management: an empirical study

    Treesearch

    William A. Valliere; Robert E. Manning

    1995-01-01

    The underlying hypothesis of this study is that environmental ethics influence public attitudes toward wilderness management. To study this hypothesis, environmental ethics were defined, categorized, and measured empirically. Additionally, attitudes toward selected wilderness management issues were measured. Associations were found between beliefs in selected...

  4. Environmental Education Study Projects for High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Jonathan M.

    This paper has been designed as a general guide to the teacher, student, group, or club interested in identifying environmental or resource problems at the community level and helping to find solutions to them. The paper discusses the independent studies program as a method of studying environmental problems as well as a source of academic credit.…

  5. 76 FR 50274 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations.'' This guide provides technical guidance that the NRC staff... nuclear power reactors. DATES: Submit comments by October 11, 2011. Comments received after this date will...

  6. Environmental nutrient supply alters prevalence and weakens competitive interactions among coinfecting viruses.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Christelle; Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T

    2014-10-01

    The rates and ratios of environmental nutrient supplies can determine plant community composition. However, the effect of nutrient supplies on within-host microbial interactions is poorly understood. Resource competition is a promising theory for understanding microbial interactions, because microparasites require nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) for synthesis of macromolecules such as nucleic acids and proteins. To better understand the effects of nutrient supplies to hosts on pathogen interactions, we singly inoculated and coinoculated Avena sativa with two virus species, barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV) and cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV). Host plants were grown across a factorial combination of N and P supply rates that created a gradient of N : P supply ratios, one being replicated at low and high nutrient supply. Nutrient supply affected prevalence and the interaction strength among viruses. P addition lowered CYDV-RPV prevalence. The two viruses had a distinct competitive hierarchy: the coinoculation of BYDV-PAV lowered CYDV-RPV infection rate, but the reverse was not true. This antagonistic interaction occurred at low nutrient supply rates and disappeared at high N supply rate. Given the global scale of human alterations of N and P cycles, these results suggest that elevated nutrient supply will increase risks of virus coinfection with likely effects on virus epidemiology, virulence and evolution. © 2014 The Authors New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Bacterial-Fungal Interactions: Hyphens between Agricultural, Clinical, Environmental, and Food Microbiologists

    PubMed Central

    Frey-Klett, P.; Burlinson, P.; Deveau, A.; Barret, M.; Tarkka, M.; Sarniguet, A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Bacteria and fungi can form a range of physical associations that depend on various modes of molecular communication for their development and functioning. These bacterial-fungal interactions often result in changes to the pathogenicity or the nutritional influence of one or both partners toward plants or animals (including humans). They can also result in unique contributions to biogeochemical cycles and biotechnological processes. Thus, the interactions between bacteria and fungi are of central importance to numerous biological questions in agriculture, forestry, environmental science, food production, and medicine. Here we present a structured review of bacterial-fungal interactions, illustrated by examples sourced from many diverse scientific fields. We consider the general and specific properties of these interactions, providing a global perspective across this emerging multidisciplinary research area. We show that in many cases, parallels can be drawn between different scenarios in which bacterial-fungal interactions are important. Finally, we discuss how new avenues of investigation may enhance our ability to combat, manipulate, or exploit bacterial-fungal complexes for the economic and practical benefit of humanity as well as reshape our current understanding of bacterial and fungal ecology. PMID:22126995

  8. Species response to environmental change: impacts of food web interactions and evolution.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Jason P; Moran, Nancy A; Ives, Anthony R

    2009-03-06

    How environmental change affects species abundances depends on both the food web within which species interact and their potential to evolve. Using field experiments, we investigated both ecological and evolutionary responses of pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum), a common agricultural pest, to increased frequency of episodic heat shocks. One predator species ameliorated the decrease in aphid population growth with increasing heat shocks, whereas a second predator did not, with this contrast caused by behavioral differences between predators. We also compared aphid strains with stably inherited differences in heat tolerance caused by bacterial endosymbionts and showed the potential for rapid evolution for heat-shock tolerance. Our results illustrate how ecological and evolutionary complexities should be incorporated into predictions of the consequences of environmental change for species' populations.

  9. Hormonal interactions and gene regulation can link monoecy and environmental plasticity to the evolution of dioecy in plants.

    PubMed

    Golenberg, Edward M; West, Nicholas W

    2013-06-01

    Most models for dioecy in flowering plants assume that dioecy arises directly from hermaphroditism through a series of independent feminizing and masculinizing mutations that become chromosomally linked. However, dioecy appears to evolve most frequently through monoecious grades. The major genetic models do not explain the evolution of unisexual flowers in monoecious and submonoecious populations, nor do they account for environmentally induced sexual plasticity. In this review, we explore the roles of environmental stress and hormones on sex determination, and propose a model that can explain the evolution of dioecy through monoecy, and the mechanisms of environmental sex determination. Environmental stresses elicit hormones that allow plants to mediate the negative effects of the stresses. Many of these same hormones are involved in the regulation of floral developmental genes. Recent studies have elucidated the mechanisms whereby these hormones interact and can act as switchpoints in regulatory pathways. Consequently, differential concentrations of plant hormones can regulate whole developmental pathways, providing a mechanism for differential development within isogenic individuals such as seen in monoecious plants. Sex-determining genes in such systems will evolve to generate clusters of coexpressed suites. Coexpression rather than coinheritance of gender-specific genes will define the sexual developmental fate. Therefore, selection for gender type will drive evolution of the regulatory sequences of such genes rather than their synteny. Subsequent mutations to hyper- or hyposensitive alleles within the hormone response pathway can result in segregating dioecious populations. Simultaneously, such developmental systems will remain sensitive to external stimuli that modify hormone responses.

  10. Study of environmental health problems in Korea using integrated environmental health indicators.

    PubMed

    Heo, Seulkee; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2013-07-25

    We have investigated the usefulness of environmental health indicators for the evaluation of environmental health in Korea. We also assessed the association between environmental contamination and health outcomes by integrating indicators into a composite measure. We selected health-related environmental indicators and environment-related health status indicators. The data were obtained from published statistical data from the period 2008-2009. Both synthesized measures of environmental indicators and health status indicators were calculated using Strahll's taxonometric methods. The range of values determined by this method is 0-1, with higher values representing a better situation in the given area. The study area consisted of 16 large administrative areas within Korea. The arithmetic mean of the synthesized measure of environmental indicators was 0.348 (SD = 0.151), and that of the synthesized measure of health status indicators was 0.708 (SD = 0.107). The correlation coefficient between the synthesized measures of environmental indicators and health status indicators was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.28-0.88). Comparisons between local communities based on integrated indicators may provide useful information for decision-makers, allowing them to identify priorities in pollutant mitigation policies or in improvement actions for public health. Integrated indicators are also useful to describe the relationships between environmental contamination and health effects.

  11. Metabolic Network Modeling of Microbial Interactions in Natural and Engineered Environmental Systems

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Garcia, Octavio; Lear, Gavin; Singhal, Naresh

    2016-01-01

    We review approaches to characterize metabolic interactions within microbial communities using Stoichiometric Metabolic Network (SMN) models for applications in environmental and industrial biotechnology. SMN models are computational tools used to evaluate the metabolic engineering potential of various organisms. They have successfully been applied to design and optimize the microbial production of antibiotics, alcohols and amino acids by single strains. To date however, such models have been rarely applied to analyze and control the metabolism of more complex microbial communities. This is largely attributed to the diversity of microbial community functions, metabolisms, and interactions. Here, we firstly review different types of microbial interaction and describe their relevance for natural and engineered environmental processes. Next, we provide a general description of the essential methods of the SMN modeling workflow including the steps of network reconstruction, simulation through Flux Balance Analysis (FBA), experimental data gathering, and model calibration. Then we broadly describe and compare four approaches to model microbial interactions using metabolic networks, i.e., (i) lumped networks, (ii) compartment per guild networks, (iii) bi-level optimization simulations, and (iv) dynamic-SMN methods. These approaches can be used to integrate and analyze diverse microbial physiology, ecology and molecular community data. All of them (except the lumped approach) are suitable for incorporating species abundance data but so far they have been used only to model simple communities of two to eight different species. Interactions based on substrate exchange and competition can be directly modeled using the above approaches. However, interactions based on metabolic feedbacks, such as product inhibition and synthropy require extensions to current models, incorporating gene regulation and compounding accumulation mechanisms. SMN models of microbial interactions can

  12. New Systems for Studying Intercellular Interactions in Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M.; Pyles, Richard B.; Ratner, Adam J.; Sycuro, Laura K.; Mitchell, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) affects almost a quarter of US women, making it a condition of major public health relevance. Key questions remain regarding the etiology of BV, mechanisms for its association with poor reproductive health outcomes, and reasons for high rates of treatment failure. New model systems are required to answer these remaining questions, elucidate the complex host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions, and develop new, effective interventions. In this review, we cover the strengths and limitations of in vitro and in vivo model systems to study these complex intercellular interactions. Furthermore, we discuss advancements needed to maximize the translational utility of the model systems. As no single model can recapitulate all of the complex physiological and environmental conditions of the human vaginal microenvironment, we conclude that combinatorial approaches using in vitro and in vivo model systems will be required to address the remaining fundamental questions surrounding the enigma that is BV. PMID:27449872

  13. Polymers' surface interactions with molten iron: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assadi, M. Hussein N.; Sahajwalla, Veena

    2014-10-01

    Environmental concerns are the chief drive for more innovative recycling techniques for end-of-life polymeric products. One attractive option is taking advantage of C and H content of polymeric waste in steelmaking industry. In this work, we examined the interaction of two high production polymers i.e. polyurethane and polysulfide with molten iron using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. We demonstrate that both polymers can be used as carburizers for molten iron. Additionally, we found that light weight H2 and CHx molecules were released as by-products of the polymer-molten iron interaction. The outcomes of this study will have applications in the carburization of molten iron during ladle metallurgy and waste plastic injection in electric arc furnace.

  14. Interacting Social and Environmental Predictors for the Spatial Distribution of Conservation Lands.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Robert F; Leonard, Paul B

    2015-01-01

    Conservation decisions should be evaluated for how they meet conservation goals at multiple spatial extents. Conservation easements are land use decisions resulting from a combination of social and environmental conditions. An emerging area of research is the evaluation of spatial distribution of easements and their spatial correlates. We tested the relative influence of interacting social and environmental variables on the spatial distribution of conservation easements by ownership category and conservation status. For the Appalachian region of the United States, an area with a long history of human occupation and complex land uses including public-private conservation, we found that settlement, economic, topographic, and environmental data associated with spatial distribution of easements (N = 4813). Compared to random locations, easements were more likely to be found in lower elevations, in areas of greater agricultural productivity, farther from public protected areas, and nearer other human features. Analysis of ownership and conservation status revealed sources of variation, with important differences between local and state government ownerships relative to non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and among U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) GAP program status levels. NGOs were more likely to have easements nearer protected areas, and higher conservation status, while local governments held easements closer to settlement, and on lands of greater agricultural potential. Logistic interactions revealed environmental variables having effects modified by social correlates, and the strongest predictors overall were social (distance to urban area, median household income, housing density, distance to land trust office). Spatial distribution of conservation lands may be affected by geographic area of influence of conservation groups, suggesting that multi-scale conservation planning strategies may be necessary to satisfy local and regional needs for reserve networks. Our

  15. Interacting Social and Environmental Predictors for the Spatial Distribution of Conservation Lands

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Robert F.; Leonard, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation decisions should be evaluated for how they meet conservation goals at multiple spatial extents. Conservation easements are land use decisions resulting from a combination of social and environmental conditions. An emerging area of research is the evaluation of spatial distribution of easements and their spatial correlates. We tested the relative influence of interacting social and environmental variables on the spatial distribution of conservation easements by ownership category and conservation status. For the Appalachian region of the United States, an area with a long history of human occupation and complex land uses including public-private conservation, we found that settlement, economic, topographic, and environmental data associated with spatial distribution of easements (N = 4813). Compared to random locations, easements were more likely to be found in lower elevations, in areas of greater agricultural productivity, farther from public protected areas, and nearer other human features. Analysis of ownership and conservation status revealed sources of variation, with important differences between local and state government ownerships relative to non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and among U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) GAP program status levels. NGOs were more likely to have easements nearer protected areas, and higher conservation status, while local governments held easements closer to settlement, and on lands of greater agricultural potential. Logistic interactions revealed environmental variables having effects modified by social correlates, and the strongest predictors overall were social (distance to urban area, median household income, housing density, distance to land trust office). Spatial distribution of conservation lands may be affected by geographic area of influence of conservation groups, suggesting that multi-scale conservation planning strategies may be necessary to satisfy local and regional needs for reserve networks. Our

  16. Environmental effects consideration: A case study - Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, William W.; Anderson, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance for serious consideration of environmental effects and associated risks by management early in the development cycle of a facility. A case study on the Space Shuttle provides information with regard to some of the environmental effects issues encountered and the lesson learned. The importance of early management action to enable the acceptance of known environmental risks, or to make program adjustments to avoid their potential consequences, is emphasized.

  17. Toxic interactions among environmental pollutants: corroborating laboratory observations with human experience.

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, K; Brodeur, J

    1994-01-01

    Combined exposures to multiple chemicals may result in interactions leading to a significant increase or decrease in the overall toxicity of the mixture compared to the summation of the toxicity of the components. A large number of chemical interactions have been described in animal studies by administering high doses of chemicals by routes and scenarios often different from anticipated human exposures. Though limited, there is some evidence for the occurrence of several supra-additive (the combined effects are greater than the simple summation of the individual effects) and infra-additive (the combined effects are smaller than the simple summation of the individual effects) chemical interactions in humans. For example, toxicokinetic interactions between several solvents have been found to occur in the workplace, whereas those involving pesticides have been reported less frequently, especially during accidental exposures. Toxic interactions involving nutritionally important metals and metalloids appear to occur more frequently, since several of them have an important role in a variety of physiological and biochemical processes. On the contrary, there is not much evidence to confirm the occurrence of toxic interactions among the commonly encountered inorganic gaseous pollutants in humans. Overall, the majority of chemical interactions observed in animal studies have neither been investigated in humans nor been extrapolated to humans based on appropriate mechanistic considerations. Future research efforts in the chemical interactions arena should address these issues by focusing on the development of mechanistically and biologically based models that allow predictions of the extent of interactions likely to be observed in humans. PMID:7698071

  18. Interactions between genetic polymorphisms in the apoptotic pathway and environmental factors on esophageal adenocarcinoma risk.

    PubMed

    Wu, I-Chen; Zhao, Yang; Zhai, Rihong; Liu, Chen-yu; Chen, Feng; Ter-Minassian, Monica; Asomaning, Kofi; Su, Li; Heist, Rebecca S; Kulke, Matthew H; Liu, Geoffrey; Christiani, David C

    2011-04-01

    How genetic variations in apoptosis pathway interact with environmental factors to contribute to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) risk has not been comprehensively investigated. We conducted a case-only analysis in 335 Caucasian EA patients that were genotyped for 242 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 43 apoptotic genes. Gene-environment interactions were assessed using a two-step approach. First, random forest algorithm was used to screen for the potential interacting markers. Next, we used case-only logistic regression model to estimate the effects of gene-environment interactions on EA risk. Four SNPs (PERP rs648802; PIK3CA rs4855094, rs7644468 and TNFRSF1A rs4149579) had significant interaction with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The presence of variant alleles in TP53BP1 rs560191, CASP7 rs7907519 or BCL2 rs12454712 enhanced the risk of smoking by 2.08-2.58 times [interaction odds ratio (ORi)=2.08-2.58, adjusted P-value (Padj)=0.02-0.04]. Compared with patients carrying ≤1 risk genotype, the risk of GERD on EA was increased in persons with two (ORi=1.89, Padj=0.016) or ≥3 (ORi=4.30, Padj<0.0001) risk genotypes. Compared with cases with ≤1 risk genotype, smoking-associated EA risk increased by 3.15 times when ≥2 risk genotypes were present (ORi=3.15, Padj<0.0001). In conclusion, interactions among apoptotic SNPs and GERD or smoking play an important role in EA development.

  19. Interactions between genetic polymorphisms in the apoptotic pathway and environmental factors on esophageal adenocarcinoma risk

    PubMed Central

    Wu, I-Chen; Zhao, Yang; Zhai, Rihong; Liu, Chen-yu.; Chen, Feng; Ter-Minassian, Monica; Asomaning, Kofi; Su, Li; Heist, Rebecca S.; Kulke, Matthew H.; Liu, Geoffrey; Christiani, David C.

    2011-01-01

    How genetic variations in apoptosis pathway interact with environmental factors to contribute to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) risk has not been comprehensively investigated. We conducted a case-only analysis in 335 Caucasian EA patients that were genotyped for 242 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 43 apoptotic genes. Gene–environment interactions were assessed using a two-step approach. First, random forest algorithm was used to screen for the potential interacting markers. Next, we used case-only logistic regression model to estimate the effects of gene–environment interactions on EA risk. Four SNPs (PERP rs648802; PIK3CA rs4855094, rs7644468 and TNFRSF1A rs4149579) had significant interaction with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The presence of variant alleles in TP53BP1 rs560191, CASP7 rs7907519 or BCL2 rs12454712 enhanced the risk of smoking by 2.08–2.58 times [interaction odds ratio (ORi) = 2.08–2.58, adjusted P-value (Padj) = 0.02–0.04]. Compared with patients carrying ≤1 risk genotype, the risk of GERD on EA was increased in persons with two (ORi = 1.89, Padj = 0.016) or ≥3 (ORi = 4.30, Padj < 0.0001) risk genotypes. Compared with cases with ≤1 risk genotype, smoking-associated EA risk increased by 3.15 times when ≥2 risk genotypes were present (ORi = 3.15, Padj < 0.0001). In conclusion, interactions among apoptotic SNPs and GERD or smoking play an important role in EA development. PMID:21212151

  20. Land-ocean interaction: processes, functioning and environmental management from a UK perspective: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin; Leeks, Graham J L; Millward, Geoff E; Harris, John R W; Huthnance, John M; Rees, John G

    2003-10-01

    This paper provides a foreword to a special edition of Science of the Total Environment concerned with land-ocean interaction from a UK perspective as linked to processes, functioning and environmental management. The volume structure is presented together with an outline of the nature of the individual papers. The areas covered are: (1) freshwater chemistry, (2) riverine sedimentology, (3) tidal river, estuarine and coastal chemistry, (4) estuarine and coastal sediments and (5) shelf-sea-ocean linkages. The foreword provides as an introductory link to the broader perspectives of contemporary UK research in this area, which comes in a conclusions paper at the end of the volume.

  1. Assemblage organization in stream fishes: effects of environmental variation and interspecific interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, G.D.; Ratajczak, R.E.; Crawford, M. M.; Freeman, Mary C.

    1998-01-01

    We assessed the relative importance of environmental variation, interspecific competition for space, and predator abundance on assemblage structure and microhabitat use in a stream fish assemblage inhabiting Coweeta Creek, North Carolina, USA. Our study encompassed a ten year time span (1983-1992) and included some of the highest and lowest flows in the last 58 years. We collected 16 seasonal samples which included data on: 1) habitat availability (total and microhabitat) and microhabitat diversity, 2) assemblage structure (i.e., the number and abundances of species comprising a subset of the community), and 3) microhabitat use and overlap. We classified habitat availability data on the basis of year, season, and hydrologic period. Hydrologic period (i.e., pre-drought [PR], drought [D], and post-drought [PO]) represented the temporal location of a sample with respect to a four-year drought that occurred during the study. Hydrologic period explained a greater amount of variance in habitat availability data than either season or year. Total habitat availability was significantly greater during PO than in PR or D, although microhabitat diversity did not differ among either seasons or hydrologic periods. There were significantly fewer high-flow events (i.e., > 2.1 m3/s) during D than in either PR or PO periods. We observed a total of 16 species during our investigation, and the total number of species was significantly higher in D than in PR samples. Correlation analyses between the number of species present (total and abundant species) and environmental data yielded limited results, although the total number of species was inversely correlated with total habitat availability. A cluster analysis grouped assemblage structure samples by hydrologic period rather than season or year, supporting the contention that variation in annual flow had a strong impact on this assemblage. The drought had little effect on the numerical abundance of benthic species in this assemblage

  2. Children's environmental knowing: A case study of children's experiences during an environmental education programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Sandra Anne

    This study explores children's experiences during WaterWorlds (pseudonym) a field-based environmental education programme at a marine science centre. The study objectives were to investigate how children understand and interpret their experiences, and how these experiences foster their environmental knowing. To address these objectives, I carried out a case study at a marine science centre in British Columbia. I examined children's WaterWorlds experiences and explored their environmental understandings and commitment to environmental action. I analysed the experiences of children in four separate classes and carried out an in-depth examination of four individual children. Data were collected using informal semi-structured interviews, observations, conversations, researcher journal logs, and student documents including their writing and illustrations. My findings indicate that the WaterWorlds programme experience fosters children's environmental knowing. Participation in WaterWorlds activities led to connection, caring, and concern for other species and in some cases, for the marine environment as a whole. During the programme, children chose the ways they interpreted and expressed their environmental knowledge, ethic of care, advocacy, and commitment to action. This development of each child's self-expression resulted in motivational and powerful learning experiences that inspired and nurtured their connections to the earth. This research provides evidence and examples of how educators can foster children's environmental knowing through multi-disciplinary environmental education experiences. It illustrates that activities such as observing and documenting the lives of other animal species, collecting data and conducting research on those species, and working and learning alongside experts in the field of environmental education are powerful experiences that motivate concern and care for the earth among children.

  3. Tracking of environmental determinants of bone structure and strength development in healthy boys: an eight-year follow up study on the positive interaction between physical activity and protein intake from prepuberty to mid-late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Chevalley, Thierry; Bonjour, Jean-Philippe; van Rietbergen, Bert; Ferrari, Serge; Rizzoli, René

    2014-10-01

    High protein (> median:Hprot) vs. moderate (< median:MProt) intake was shown to enhance the positive impact of high physical activity (HPA) on proximal femur BMC/aBMD/Area in healthy prepubertal boys. We tested the hypothesis that this synergistic effect would track and influence bone structure and strength until mid-adolescence. BMC/aBMD/Area was measured at femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TotHip) by DXA in 176 boys at 7.4 ± 0.4 and 15.2 ± 0.5 years (± SD). Distal tibia (DistTib) microstructure and strength were also assessed at 15.2 years by high-resolution peripheral computerized tomography (HR-pQCT) and micro-finite element analysis (µFEA). The positive impact of HProt vs. MProt on FN and TotHip BMC/aBMD/Area, recorded at 7.4 years remained unabated at 15.2 years. At this age, at DistTib, HProt-HPA vs. MProt-HPA was associated (p < 0.001) with larger cross-sectional area (CSA, mm(2) ), trabecular number (Tb.N, mm(-1) ) and lower trabecular separation (Tb.Sp, µm). The interaction between physical activity and protein intake was significant for CSA (p = 0.012) and Tb.N (p = 0.043). Under MProt (38.0 ± 6.9 g.d(-1)), a difference in PA from 168 ± 40 to 303 ± 54 kcal.d(-1) was associated with greater stiffness (kN/mm) and failure load (N) of +0.16 and +0.14 Z-score, respectively. In contrast, under HProt (56.2 ± 9.5 g.d(-1) ), a difference in PA of similar magnitude, from 167 ± 33 to 324 ± 80 kcal.d(-1) , was associated with a larger difference in stiffness and failure load of +0.50 and +0.57 Z-score, respectively. In conclusion, the positive influence of relatively HProt on the impact of HPA on proximal femur macrostructure tracks from prepuberty to mid-late puberty. At this stage, the impact of HProt on HPA is also associated with microstructural changes that should confer greater mechanical resistance to weight-bearing bones. These results underscore the importance of protein intake and exercise synergistic interaction in the early prevention of adult

  4. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2015.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels that regularly informs the Parties (countries) to the Montreal Protocol on the effects of ozone depletion and the consequences of climate change interactions with respect to human health, animals, plants, biogeochemistry, air quality, and materials. The Panels provide a detailed assessment report every four years. The most recent 2014 Quadrennial Assessment by the EEAP was published as a special issue of seven papers in 2015 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2015, 14, 1-184). The next Quadrennial Assessment will be published in 2018/2019. In the interim, the EEAP generally produces an annual update or progress report of the relevant scientific findings. The present progress report for 2015 assesses some of the highlights and new insights with regard to the interactive nature of the effects of UV radiation, atmospheric processes, and climate change.

  5. DNA Interaction Studies of Selected Polyamine Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Szumilak, Marta; Merecz, Anna; Strek, Malgorzata; Stanczak, Andrzej; Inglot, Tadeusz W.; Karwowski, Boleslaw T.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of polyamine conjugates with DNA double helix has been studied. Binding properties were examined by ethidium bromide (EtBr) displacement and DNA unwinding/topoisomerase I/II (Topo I/II) activity assays, as well as dsDNA thermal stability studies and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Genotoxicity of the compounds was estimated by a comet assay. It has been shown that only compound 2a can interact with dsDNA via an intercalative binding mode as it displaced EtBr from the dsDNA-dye complex, with Kapp = 4.26 × 106 M−1; caused an increase in melting temperature; changed the circular dichroism spectrum of dsDNA; converted relaxed plasmid DNA into a supercoiled molecule in the presence of Topo I and reduced the amount of short oligonucleotide fragments in the comet tail. Furthermore, preliminary theoretical study has shown that interaction of the discussed compounds with dsDNA depends on molecule linker length and charge distribution over terminal aromatic chromophores. PMID:27657041

  6. Environmental control system transducer development study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brudnicki, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    A failure evaluation of the transducers used in the environmental control systems of the Apollo command service module, lunar module, and portable life support system is presented in matrix form for several generic categories of transducers to enable identification of chronic failure modes. Transducer vendors were contacted and asked to supply detailed information. The evaluation data generated for each category of transducer were compiled and published in failure design evaluation reports. The evaluation reports also present a review of the failure and design data for the transducers and suggest both design criteria to improve reliability of the transducers and, where necessary, design concepts for required redesign of the transducers. Remedial designs were implemented on a family of pressure transducers and on the oxygen flow transducer. The design concepts were subjected to analysis, breadboard fabrication, and verification testing.

  7. Multilevel complex interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors in the aetiology of anomalies of dental development

    PubMed Central

    Brook, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Dental anomalies are caused by complex interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors during the long process of dental development. This process is multifactorial, multilevel, multidimensional and progressive over time. In this paper the evidence from animal models and from human studies is integrated to outline the current position and to construct and evaluate models, as a basis for future work. Dental development is multilevel entailing molecular and cellular interactions which have macroscopic outcomes. It is multidimensional, requiring developments in the three spatial dimensions and the fourth dimension of time. It is progressive, occurring over a long period, yet with critical stages. The series of interactions involving multiple genetic signalling pathways are also influenced by extracellular factors. Interactions, gradients and spatial field effects of multiple genes, epigenetic and environmental factors all influence the development of individual teeth, groups of teeth and the dentition as a whole. The macroscopic, clinically visible result in humans is a complex unit of four different tooth types formed in morphogenetic fields, in which teeth within each field form directionally and erupt at different times, reflecting the spatio-temporal control of development. Even when a specific mutation of a single gene or one major environmental insult has been identified in a patient with a dental anomaly, detailed investigation of the phenotype often reveals variation between affected individuals in the same family, between dentitions in the same individual and even between different teeth in the same dentition. The same, or closely similar phenotypes, whether anomalies of tooth number or structure, may arise from different aetiologies: not only mutations in different genes but also environmental factors may result in similar phenotypes. Related to the action of a number of the developmental regulatory genes active in odontogenesis, in

  8. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 3rd Grade - Grassflat Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with elementary children in grade three prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area.…

  9. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 6th Grade - River Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with elementary children in grade six prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  10. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 4th Grade - Mangrove Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with elementary children in grade four prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  13. Conceptual Priming for Environmental Sounds and Words: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orgs, Guido; Lange, Kathrin; Dombrowski, Jan-Henryk; Heil, Martin

    2006-01-01

    In this study we examined conceptual priming using environmental sounds and visually displayed words. Priming for sounds and words was observed in response latency as well as in event-related potentials. Reactions were faster when a related word followed an environmental sound and vice versa. Moreover both stimulus types produced an N400-effect…

  14. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 5th Grade - Ecosystems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with elementary children in grade five prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  15. Long-Term Impact of Service Learning in Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFall, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Long-term impacts from a senior course in Environmental Studies were evaluated by a survey of program graduates (36 respondents, 50% response rate) who had participated in the course over an 8-year permiod. Each year, the Senior Seminar used a service-learning pedagogy with a different environmentally focused project ranging from web resource…

  16. Acquisition of Operational Environmental Literacy in Social Studies Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidan, Nuray Kurtdede; Ay, Tugba Selanik

    2016-01-01

    Environmental literacy can be defined as having necessary perceptions and competency of health and environmental systems and as being active in developing necessary acts about them. Individuals are expected to use their knowledge and concepts in daily life. The aim of this study is to determine students' views about operational environmental…

  17. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 1st Grade - Habitats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with elementary children in grade one prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. This…

  18. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 8th Grade - Beach Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with secondary children in grade eight prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  19. Study questions environmental impact of fuel-cell vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2015-09-01

    Fuel-cell electric vehicles are seen by many as an environmentally friendly technology that can reduce greenhousegas emissions by producing no harmful emissions. But a new study has found that overall a fuel cell electric vehicle has about the same negative environmental impact as a luxury sports car.

  20. Social Studies: A Crucial Component of Holistic Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmulewicz, Liza Ireland

    Environmental education ideally involves a holistic integration of all school subjects, but in reality the curriculum structure is very segmented. Traditional approaches to the study of environmental degradation have not recognized the interrelatedness of the system: problems in the biosphere have been addressed from the perspective of the…

  1. Long-Term Impact of Service Learning in Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFall, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Long-term impacts from a senior course in Environmental Studies were evaluated by a survey of program graduates (36 respondents, 50% response rate) who had participated in the course over an 8-year permiod. Each year, the Senior Seminar used a service-learning pedagogy with a different environmentally focused project ranging from web resource…

  2. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. Handbook on Reservoir Releases for Fisheries and Environmental Quality.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    likely to allow development of water re- sources consistent with environmental quality objectives. For example, a tailwater downstream from a peaking...substantial numbers of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and larval fish that may provide a food source for many tailwater organisms. Turbid water ’* may be...AD-A172 710 ENVIRONMENTAL AND WATER QUALITY OPERATIONAL STUDIES is HANDBOOK ON RESERVOIR (U) ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG MS

  3. Francium Spectroscopy for Weak Interaction Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco, Luis

    2014-05-01

    Francium, a radioactive element, is the heaviest alkali. Its atomic and nuclear structure makes it an ideal laboratory to study the weak interaction. Laser trapping and cooling in-line with the superconducting LINAC accelerator at Stony Brook opened the precision study of its atomic structure. I will present our proposal and progress towards weak interaction measurements at TRIUMF, the National Canadian Accelerator in Vancouver. These include the commissioning run of the Francium Trapping Facility, hyperfine anomaly measurements on a chain of Fr isotopes, the nuclear anapole moment through parity non-conserving transitions in the ground state hyperfine manifold. These measurements should shed light on the nucleon-nucleon weak interaction. This work is done by the FrPNC collaboration: S. Aubin College of William and Mary, J. A. Behr TRIUMF, R. Collister U. Manitoba, E. Gomez UASLP, G. Gwinner U. Manitoba, M. R. Pearson TRIUMF, L. A. Orozco UMD, M. Tandecki TRIUMF, J. Zhang UMD Supported by NSF and DOE from the USA; TRIUMF, NRC and NSERC from Canada; and CONACYT from Mexico

  4. The Computational Studies of Plasmon Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demchuk, Antonina; Bolesta, Ivan; Kushnir, Oleksii; Kolych, Ihor

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, an interaction of metal nanoparticles that appears in the extinction spectra was investigated. The mutual coupling between the nanoparticles, the effect of size difference, and the interparticle separation in silver nanoparticle dimers are studied by computer discrete dipole approximation methods. The obtained results show that nanoparticle interaction results in the distinct collective modes, known as the low-energy bonding modes and the higher-energy antibounding modes. The spectral position of the modes is analyzed as a function of the ratio of interparticle distance to particle size that reduces the dependency on the particle size itself. The optical spectra of nanoparticles that form the fractal cluster were investigated. It was found that the number of spectral bands increase with the growth of the number of nanoparticles in the fractal cluster, which are described within the plasmon hybridization model.

  5. Molecular interaction studies using microscale thermophoresis.

    PubMed

    Jerabek-Willemsen, Moran; Wienken, Chistoph J; Braun, Dieter; Baaske, Philipp; Duhr, Stefan

    2011-08-01

    Abstract The use of infrared laser sources for creation of localized temperature fields has opened new possibilities for basic research and drug discovery. A recently developed technology, Microscale Thermophoresis (MST), uses this temperature field to perform biomolecular interaction studies. Thermophoresis, the motion of molecules in temperature fields, is very sensitive to changes in size, charge, and solvation shell of a molecule and thus suited for bioanalytics. This review focuses on the theoretical background of MST and gives a detailed overview on various applications to demonstrate the broad applicability. Experiments range from the quantification of the affinity of low-molecular-weight binders using fluorescently labeled proteins, to interactions between macromolecules and multi-component complexes like receptor containing liposomes. Information regarding experiment and experimental setup is based on the Monolith NT.115 instrument (NanoTemper Technologies GmbH).

  6. The Computational Studies of Plasmon Interaction.

    PubMed

    Demchuk, Antonina; Bolesta, Ivan; Kushnir, Oleksii; Kolych, Ihor

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, an interaction of metal nanoparticles that appears in the extinction spectra was investigated. The mutual coupling between the nanoparticles, the effect of size difference, and the interparticle separation in silver nanoparticle dimers are studied by computer discrete dipole approximation methods. The obtained results show that nanoparticle interaction results in the distinct collective modes, known as the low-energy bonding modes and the higher-energy antibounding modes. The spectral position of the modes is analyzed as a function of the ratio of interparticle distance to particle size that reduces the dependency on the particle size itself. The optical spectra of nanoparticles that form the fractal cluster were investigated. It was found that the number of spectral bands increase with the growth of the number of nanoparticles in the fractal cluster, which are described within the plasmon hybridization model.

  7. Molecular Interaction Studies Using Microscale Thermophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Jerabek-Willemsen, Moran; Wienken, Chistoph J.; Braun, Dieter; Baaske, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The use of infrared laser sources for creation of localized temperature fields has opened new possibilities for basic research and drug discovery. A recently developed technology, Microscale Thermophoresis (MST), uses this temperature field to perform biomolecular interaction studies. Thermophoresis, the motion of molecules in temperature fields, is very sensitive to changes in size, charge, and solvation shell of a molecule and thus suited for bioanalytics. This review focuses on the theoretical background of MST and gives a detailed overview on various applications to demonstrate the broad applicability. Experiments range from the quantification of the affinity of low-molecular-weight binders using fluorescently labeled proteins, to interactions between macromolecules and multi-component complexes like receptor containing liposomes. Information regarding experiment and experimental setup is based on the Monolith NT.115 instrument (NanoTemper Technologies GmbH). PMID:21812660

  8. Interaction study between remoxipride and biperiden.

    PubMed

    Yisak, W; Farde, L; von Bahr, C; Nilsson, L B; Fredriksson, G; Ogenstad, S

    1993-01-01

    Twelve healthy male volunteers took part in a double-blind randomised cross-over study composed of three treatment sessions: remoxipride 100 mg; remoxipride 100 mg plus biperiden 4 mg; and biperiden 4 mg. Plasma and urine concentrations of remoxipride and biperiden, plasma prolactin levels, salivary flow and adverse events were recorded to assess pharmacodynamic interactions. Remoxipride and biperiden had no effect on each other's plasma concentrations. Biperiden did not affect the urinary recovery or renal clearance of remoxipride. Prolactin levels were unaffected by biperiden but increased following remoxipride administration. Differences in prolactin Cmax and tmax following remoxipride versus concomitant (remoxipride + biperiden) treatment were not statistically significant. However, a slight but statistically significant (P = 0.04) increase in prolactin AUC was observed after concomitant treatment. No significant differences could be observed between the recorded salivary flow in all the treatment sessions. Single doses of remoxipride and biperiden showed no pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interaction.

  9. DARPP-32 interaction with adducin may mediate rapid environmental effects on striatal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Engmann, Olivia; Giralt, Albert; Gervasi, Nicolas; Marion-Poll, Lucile; Gasmi, Laila; Filhol, Odile; Picciotto, Marina R.; Gilligan, Diana; Greengard, Paul; Nairn, Angus C.; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment has multiple effects on behaviour, including modification of responses to psychostimulant drugs mediated by striatal neurons. However, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are not known. Here we show that DARPP-32, a hub signalling protein in striatal neurons, interacts with adducins, which are cytoskeletal proteins that cap actin filaments' fast-growing ends and regulate synaptic stability. DARPP-32 binds to adducin MARCKS domain and this interaction is modulated by DARPP-32 Ser97 phosphorylation. Phospho-Thr75-DARPP-32 facilitates β-adducin Ser713 phosphorylation through inhibition of a cAMP-dependent protein kinase/phosphatase-2A cascade. Caffeine or 24-h exposure to a novel enriched environment increases adducin phosphorylation in WT, but not T75A mutant mice. This cascade is implicated in the effects of brief exposure to novel enriched environment on dendritic spines in nucleus accumbens and cocaine locomotor response. Our results suggest a molecular pathway by which environmental changes may rapidly alter responsiveness of striatal neurons involved in the reward system. PMID:26639316

  10. DARPP-32 interaction with adducin may mediate rapid environmental effects on striatal neurons.

    PubMed

    Engmann, Olivia; Giralt, Albert; Gervasi, Nicolas; Marion-Poll, Lucile; Gasmi, Laila; Filhol, Odile; Picciotto, Marina R; Gilligan, Diana; Greengard, Paul; Nairn, Angus C; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine

    2015-12-07

    Environmental enrichment has multiple effects on behaviour, including modification of responses to psychostimulant drugs mediated by striatal neurons. However, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are not known. Here we show that DARPP-32, a hub signalling protein in striatal neurons, interacts with adducins, which are cytoskeletal proteins that cap actin filaments' fast-growing ends and regulate synaptic stability. DARPP-32 binds to adducin MARCKS domain and this interaction is modulated by DARPP-32 Ser97 phosphorylation. Phospho-Thr75-DARPP-32 facilitates β-adducin Ser713 phosphorylation through inhibition of a cAMP-dependent protein kinase/phosphatase-2A cascade. Caffeine or 24-h exposure to a novel enriched environment increases adducin phosphorylation in WT, but not T75A mutant mice. This cascade is implicated in the effects of brief exposure to novel enriched environment on dendritic spines in nucleus accumbens and cocaine locomotor response. Our results suggest a molecular pathway by which environmental changes may rapidly alter responsiveness of striatal neurons involved in the reward system.

  11. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: Progress report, 2016.

    PubMed

    United Nations Environment Programme Environmental Effects Assessment Panel

    2017-02-15

    The Parties to the Montreal Protocol are informed by three Panels of experts. One of these is the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP), which deals with two focal issues. The first focus is the effects of UV radiation on human health, animals, plants, biogeochemistry, air quality, and materials. The second focus is on interactions between UV radiation and global climate change and how these may affect humans and the environment. When considering the effects of climate change, it has become clear that processes resulting in changes in stratospheric ozone are more complex than previously believed. As a result of this, human health and environmental issues will be longer-lasting and more regionally variable. Like the other Panels, the EEAP produces a detailed report every four years; the most recent was published as a series of seven papers in 2015 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2015, 14, 1-184). In the years in between, the EEAP produces less detailed and shorter Progress Reports of the relevant scientific findings. The most recent of these was for 2015 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2016, 15, 141-147). The present Progress Report for 2016 assesses some of the highlights and new insights with regard to the interactive nature of the direct and indirect effects of UV radiation, atmospheric processes, and climate change. The more detailed Quadrennial Assessment will be made available in 2018.

  12. The interaction of genetics and environmental toxicants in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: results from animal models.

    PubMed

    Sher, Roger B

    2017-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease that results in the progressive death of motor neurons, leading to paralysis and eventual death. There is presently no cure for ALS, and only two drugs are available, neither of which provide significant extension of life. The wide variation in onset and progression of the disease, both in sporadic and even in strongly penetrant monogenic familial forms of ALS, indicate that in addition to background genetic variation impacting the disease process, environmental exposures are likely contributors. Epidemiological evidence worldwide implicates exposures to bacterial toxins, heavy metals, pesticides, and trauma as probable environmental factors. Here, we review current advances in gene-environment interactions in ALS animal models. We report our recent discoveries in a zebrafish model of ALS in relation to exposure to the cyanobacterial toxin BMAA, and discuss several results from mouse models that show interactions with exposure to mercury and statin drugs, both leading to acceleration of the disease process. The increasing research into this combinatorial gene-environment process is just starting, but shows early promise to uncover the underlying biochemical pathways that instigate the initial motor neuron defects and lead to their rapidly progressive dysfunction.

  13. Genetic and environmental influences interact with age and sex in shaping the human methylome

    PubMed Central

    van Dongen, Jenny; Nivard, Michel G.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Helmer, Quinta; Dolan, Conor V.; Ehli, Erik A.; Davies, Gareth E.; van Iterson, Maarten; Breeze, Charles E.; Beck, Stephan; Hoen, Peter A.C.'t; Pool, René; van Greevenbroek, Marleen M.J.; Stehouwer, Coen D.A.; Kallen, Carla J.H. van der; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Zhernakova, Sasha; Tigchelaar, Ettje F.; Beekman, Marian; Deelen, Joris; van Heemst, Diana; Veldink, Jan H.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Hofman, Bert A.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Jhamai, P. Mila; Verbiest, Michael; Verkerk, Marijn; van der Breggen, Ruud; van Rooij, Jeroen; Lakenberg, Nico; Mei, Hailiang; Bot, Jan; Zhernakova, Dasha V.; van't Hof, Peter; Deelen, Patrick; Nooren, Irene; Moed, Matthijs; Vermaat, Martijn; Luijk, René; Bonder, Marc Jan; van Dijk, Freerk; van Galen, Michiel; Arindrarto, Wibowo; Kielbasa, Szymon M.; Swertz, Morris A.; van Zwet, Erik W.; Isaacs, Aaron; Franke, Lude; Suchiman, H. Eka; Jansen, Rick; van Meurs, Joyce B.; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2016-01-01

    The methylome is subject to genetic and environmental effects. Their impact may depend on sex and age, resulting in sex- and age-related physiological variation and disease susceptibility. Here we estimate the total heritability of DNA methylation levels in whole blood and estimate the variance explained by common single nucleotide polymorphisms at 411,169 sites in 2,603 individuals from twin families, to establish a catalogue of between-individual variation in DNA methylation. Heritability estimates vary across the genome (mean=19%) and interaction analyses reveal thousands of sites with sex-specific heritability as well as sites where the environmental variance increases with age. Integration with previously published data illustrates the impact of genome and environment across the lifespan at methylation sites associated with metabolic traits, smoking and ageing. These findings demonstrate that our catalogue holds valuable information on locations in the genome where methylation variation between people may reflect disease-relevant environmental exposures or genetic variation. PMID:27051996

  14. Interactions of environmental factors influencing pupal coloration in swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus.

    PubMed

    Hiraga, Sota

    2006-08-01

    The swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus Linné [Lepidoptera: Papilionidae] exhibits pupal protective color polyphenism. Interactions of various environmental factors on pupal coloration were analyzed in non-diapausing individuals. Under sufficient light (200lux), most pupating larvae became green pupae when the surface of the pupation site was smooth, while they became brown when the surface was rough. Tactile signals are the positive environmental factors causing induction of the brown pupal coloration. In dark boxes, the induction of the brown pupal coloration was easily induced even on a smooth surface, suggesting that light suppresses induction of brown coloration. Different colors of pupation sites did not affect pupal coloration under sufficient light. Environmental factors received during a critical period both before girdling and after girdling affected pupal coloration. When tactile signals received from rough surfaces reach threshold levels during pupation, brown pupal coloration is determined. Larvae reared under a daily periodicity of natural light formed a girdle at midnight, subsequently, the prepupae received strong daylight the following day. Under natural light most larvae produced brown pupae on rough surfaces and green pupae on smooth surfaces.

  15. Developing site-specific interactive environmental management tools: An exciting method of communicating training, procedures, and other information

    SciTech Connect

    Jaeckels, J.M.

    1999-07-01

    Environmental managers are faced with numerous programs that must be communicated throughout their organizations. Among these are regulatory training programs, internal environmental policy, regulatory guidance/procedures and internal guidance/procedures. Traditional methods of delivering this type of information are typically confined to written materials and classroom training. There are many challenges faced by environmental managers with these traditional approaches including: determining if recipients of written plans or procedures are reading and comprehending the information; scheduling training sessions to reach all affected people across multiple schedules/shifts; and maintaining adequate training records. In addition, current trends toward performance-based or competency-based training requires a more consistent method of measuring and documenting performance. The use of interactive computer applications to present training or procedural information is a new and exciting tool for delivering environmental information to employees. Site-specific pictures, text, sound, and even video can be combined with multimedia software to create informative and highly interactive applications. Some of the applications that can be produced include integrated environmental training, educational pieces, and interactive environmental procedures. They can be executed from a CD-ROM, hard drive, network or a company Intranet. Collectively, the authors refer to these as interactive environmental management tools (IEMTs). This paper focuses on site-specific, interactive training as an example of an IEMT. Interactive training not only delivers a highly effective message, but can also be designed to focus on site-specific environmental issues that are unique to each company. Interactive training also lends itself well to automated record keeping functions and to reaching all affected employees.

  16. Association mapping of loci controlling genetic and environmental interaction of soybean flowering time under various photo-thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Mao, Tingting; Li, Jinyu; Wen, Zixiang; Wu, Tingting; Wu, Cunxiang; Sun, Shi; Jiang, Bingjun; Hou, Wensheng; Li, Wenbin; Song, Qijian; Wang, Dechun; Han, Tianfu

    2017-05-26

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is a short day plant. Its flowering and maturity time are controlled by genetic and environmental factors, as well the interaction between the two factors. Previous studies have shown that both genetic and environmental factors, mainly photoperiod and temperature, control flowering time of soybean. Additionally, these studies have reported gene × gene and gene × environment interactions on flowering time. However, the effects of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in response to photoperiod and temperature have not been well evaluated. The objectives of the current study were to identify the effects of loci associated with flowering time under different photo-thermal conditions and to understand the effects of interaction between loci and environment on soybean flowering. Different photoperiod and temperature combinations were obtained by adjusting sowing dates (spring sowing and summer sowing) or day-length (12 h, 16 h). Association mapping was performed on 91 soybean cultivars from different maturity groups (MG000-VIII) using 172 SSR markers and 5107 SNPs from the Illumina SoySNP6K iSelectBeadChip. The effects of the interaction between QTL and environments on flowering time were also analysed using the QTXNetwork. Large-effect loci were detected on Gm 11, Gm 16 and Gm 20 as in previous reports. Most loci associated with flowering time are sensitive to photo-thermal conditions. Number of loci associated with flowering time was more under the long day (LD) than under the short day (SD) condition. The variation of flowering time among the soybean cultivars mostly resulted from the epistasis × environment and additive × environment interactions. Among the three candidate loci, i.e. Gm04_4497001 (near GmCOL3a), Gm16_30766209 (near GmFT2a and GmFT2b) and Gm19_47514601 (E3 or GmPhyA3), the Gm04_4497001 may be the key locus interacting with other loci for controlling soybean flowering time. The effects of loci associated

  17. Integrating international relations and environmental science course concepts through an interactive world politics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, K. H.; Kesgin, B.

    2012-12-01

    During the fall 2012 semester, students in two introductory courses at Susquehanna University - EENV:101 Environmental Science and POLI:131 World Affairs - will participate together in an online international relations simulation called Statecraft (www.statecraftsim.com). In this strategy game, students are divided into teams representing independent countries, and choose their government type (democracy, constitutional monarchy, communist totalitarian, or military dictatorship) and two country attributes (industrial, green, militaristic, pacifist, or scientific), which determine a set of rules by which that country must abide. Countries interact over issues such as resource distribution, war, pollution, immigration, and global climate change, and must also keep domestic political unrest to a minimum in order to succeed in the game. This simulation has typically been run in political science courses, as the goal is to allow students to experience the balancing act necessary to maintain control of global and domestic issues in a dynamic, diverse world. This semester, environmental science students will be integrated into the simulation, both as environmental advisers to each country and as independent actors representing groups such as Greenpeace, ExxonMobil, and UNEP. The goal in integrating the two courses in the simulation is for the students in each course to gain both 1) content knowledge of certain fundamental material in the other course, and 2) a more thorough, applied understanding of the integrated nature of the two subjects. Students will gain an appreciation for the multiple tradeoffs that decision-makers must face in the real world (economy, resources, pollution, health, defense, etc.). Environmental science students will link these concepts to the traditional course material through a "systems thinking" approach to sustainability. Political science students will face the challenges of global climate change and gain an understanding of the nature of

  18. An environmental analysis of genes associated with schizophrenia: hypoxia and vascular factors as interacting elements in the neurodevelopmental model.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Kastner, R; van Os, J; Esquivel, G; Steinbusch, H W M; Rutten, B P F

    2012-12-01

    Investigating and understanding gene-environment interaction (G × E) in a neurodevelopmentally and biologically plausible manner is a major challenge for schizophrenia research. Hypoxia during neurodevelopment is one of several environmental factors related to the risk of schizophrenia, and links between schizophrenia candidate genes and hypoxia regulation or vascular expression have been proposed. Given the availability of a wealth of complex genetic information on schizophrenia in the literature without knowledge on the connections to environmental factors, we now systematically collected genes from candidate studies (using SzGene), genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and copy number variation (CNV) analyses, and then applied four criteria to test for a (theoretical) link to ischemia-hypoxia and/or vascular factors. In all, 55% of the schizophrenia candidate genes (n=42 genes) met the criteria for a link to ischemia-hypoxia and/or vascular factors. Genes associated with schizophrenia showed a significant, threefold enrichment among genes that were derived from microarray studies of the ischemia-hypoxia response (IHR) in the brain. Thus, the finding of a considerable match between genes associated with the risk of schizophrenia and IHR and/or vascular factors is reproducible. An additional survey of genes identified by GWAS and CNV analyses suggested novel genes that match the criteria. Findings for interactions between specific variants of genes proposed to be IHR and/or vascular factors with obstetric complications in patients with schizophrenia have been reported in the literature. Therefore, the extended gene set defined here may form a reasonable and evidence-based starting point for hypothesis-based testing of G × E interactions in clinical genetic and translational neuroscience studies.

  19. Interactions of microorganisms with rare earth ions and their utilization for separation and environmental technology.

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, rare earth elements (REEs) have been widely used in various modern technological devices and the global demand for REE has been increasing. The increased demand for REEs has led to environmental exposure or water pollution from rare earth metal mines and various commercial products. Therefore, the development of a safe technology for the separation and adsorption of REEs is very important from the perspective of green chemistry and environmental pollution. In this review, the application and mechanisms of microorganisms for the removal and extraction of REEs from aqueous solutions are described. In addition, the advantages in using microorganisms for REE adsorption and future studies on this topic are discussed.

  20. Environmental ethics and professional practice: A case study of an environmental challenge for century 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, C.

    1995-12-01

    Objective resolution of environmental issues involves questions of facts and values, and, for environmental issues to be resolved ethically, a proper synthesis of environmental facts with questions of ethics must occur. In this case study, the proposal by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to use the Yucca Mountain site in southwest Nevada as a deep geologic repository for the permanent disposal of the nation`s high-level nuclear waste is examined in part in the context of the {open_quotes}Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice for Environmental Professionals{close_quotes} adopted by the National Association of Environmental Professionals (NAEP). Current plans are that a repository at the Yucca Mountain site would begin functioning in 2010 and would be sealed after about 150 years. The requirement that a geologic repository must isolate nuclear waste from the environment for at least 10,000 years poses unique challenges to environmental professionals. This case study also analyzes the challenges in terms of the implications of a new federal Executive Order on Ecosystem Management and corresponding internal orders within all federal agencies to conform to the Executive Order. The imposition of the principles and practices of ecosystem-based resource management on federal agencies provides an opportunity to also address, in the context of the DOE Yucca Mountain Project, (1) the ecosystem approach to environmental management, (2) concepts of holistic resource management planning, and (3) the concepts of sustainability and biodiversity. Within this framework there are important implications for environmental ethics and professional practice that must remain at the forefront of concerns of the NAEP over the next two decades.

  1. Evidence of gene-environment interactions between common breast cancer susceptibility loci and established environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Nickels, Stefan; Truong, Thérèse; Hein, Rebecca; Stevens, Kristen; Buck, Katharina; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Schmidt, Martina; Häberle, Lothar; Vrieling, Alina; Gaudet, Mia; Figueroa, Jonine; Schoof, Nils; Spurdle, Amanda B; Rudolph, Anja; Fasching, Peter A; Hopper, John L; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Southey, Melissa C; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Fletcher, Olivia; Gibson, Lorna; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Peto, Julian; Humphreys, Manjeet K; Wang, Jean; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E; Lanng, Charlotte; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Bernstein, Leslie; Clarke, Christina A; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Harth, Volker; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Lambrechts, Diether; Smeets, Dominiek; Neven, Patrick; Paridaens, Robert; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Obi, Nadia; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Vachon, Celine M; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Offit, Kenneth; John, Esther M; Miron, Alexander; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Liu, Jianjun; Cox, Angela; Cramp, Helen; Connley, Dan; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy; Dunning, Alison M; Shah, Mitul; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Newcomb, Polly; Titus, Linda; Egan, Kathleen; Cahoon, Elizabeth K; Rajaraman, Preetha; Sigurdson, Alice J; Doody, Michele M; Guénel, Pascal; Pharoah, Paul D P; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Hall, Per; Easton, Doug F; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Milne, Roger L; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Various common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer; however, it is unclear how they combine with lifestyle/environmental risk factors to influence risk. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess gene-environment interaction for risk of breast cancer. Data from 24 studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were pooled. Using up to 34,793 invasive breast cancers and 41,099 controls, we examined whether the relative risks associated with 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms were modified by 10 established environmental risk factors (age at menarche, parity, breastfeeding, body mass index, height, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy use, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, physical activity) in women of European ancestry. We used logistic regression models stratified by study and adjusted for age and performed likelihood ratio tests to assess gene-environment interactions. All statistical tests were two-sided. We replicated previously reported potential interactions between LSP1-rs3817198 and parity (Pinteraction = 2.4 × 10(-6)) and between CASP8-rs17468277 and alcohol consumption (Pinteraction = 3.1 × 10(-4)). Overall, the per-allele odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for LSP1-rs3817198 was 1.08 (1.01-1.16) in nulliparous women and ranged from 1.03 (0.96-1.10) in parous women with one birth to 1.26 (1.16-1.37) in women with at least four births. For CASP8-rs17468277, the per-allele OR was 0.91 (0.85-0.98) in those with an alcohol intake of <20 g/day and 1.45 (1.14-1.85) in those who drank ≥ 20 g/day. Additionally, interaction was found between 1p11.2-rs11249433 and ever being parous (Pinteraction = 5.3 × 10(-5)), with a per-allele OR of 1.14 (1.11-1.17) in parous women and 0.98 (0.92-1.05) in nulliparous women. These data provide first strong evidence that the risk of breast cancer associated with some common genetic variants may vary with environmental risk factors.

  2. Evidence of Gene–Environment Interactions between Common Breast Cancer Susceptibility Loci and Established Environmental Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nickels, Stefan; Truong, Thérèse; Hein, Rebecca; Stevens, Kristen; Buck, Katharina; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Schmidt, Martina; Häberle, Lothar; Vrieling, Alina; Gaudet, Mia; Figueroa, Jonine; Schoof, Nils; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Rudolph, Anja; Fasching, Peter A.; Hopper, John L.; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Southey, Melissa C.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Fletcher, Olivia; Gibson, Lorna; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Wang, Jean; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Lanng, Charlotte; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Bernstein, Leslie; Clarke, Christina A.; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Harth, Volker; The GENICA Network; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; kConFab; Group, AOCS Management; Lambrechts, Diether; Smeets, Dominiek; Neven, Patrick; Paridaens, Robert; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Obi, Nadia; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine M.; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Offit, Kenneth; John, Esther M.; Miron, Alexander; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Liu, Jianjun; Cox, Angela; Cramp, Helen; Connley, Dan; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Newcomb, Polly; Titus, Linda; Egan, Kathleen; Cahoon, Elizabeth K.; Rajaraman, Preetha; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Doody, Michele M.; Guénel, Pascal; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Hall, Per; Easton, Doug F.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Milne, Roger L.; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Various common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer; however, it is unclear how they combine with lifestyle/environmental risk factors to influence risk. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess gene-environment interaction for risk of breast cancer. Data from 24 studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were pooled. Using up to 34,793 invasive breast cancers and 41,099 controls, we examined whether the relative risks associated with 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms were modified by 10 established environmental risk factors (age at menarche, parity, breastfeeding, body mass index, height, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy use, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, physical activity) in women of European ancestry. We used logistic regression models stratified by study and adjusted for age and performed likelihood ratio tests to assess gene–environment interactions. All statistical tests were two-sided. We replicated previously reported potential interactions between LSP1-rs3817198 and parity (Pinteraction = 2.4×10−6) and between CASP8-rs17468277 and alcohol consumption (Pinteraction = 3.1×10−4). Overall, the per-allele odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for LSP1-rs3817198 was 1.08 (1.01–1.16) in nulliparous women and ranged from 1.03 (0.96–1.10) in parous women with one birth to 1.26 (1.16–1.37) in women with at least four births. For CASP8-rs17468277, the per-allele OR was 0.91 (0.85–0.98) in those with an alcohol intake of <20 g/day and 1.45 (1.14–1.85) in those who drank ≥20 g/day. Additionally, interaction was found between 1p11.2-rs11249433 and ever being parous (Pinteraction = 5.3×10−5), with a per-allele OR of 1.14 (1.11–1.17) in parous women and 0.98 (0.92–1.05) in nulliparous women. These data provide first strong evidence that the risk of breast cancer associated with some common genetic variants may vary with environmental risk factors

  3. Spacelab data analysis and interactive control study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, T. D.; Drake, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    The study consisted of two main tasks, a series of interviews of Spacelab users and a survey of data processing and display equipment. Findings from the user interviews on questions of interactive control, downlink data formats, and Spacelab computer software development are presented. Equipment for quick look processing and display of scientific data in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) was surveyed. Results of this survey effort are discussed in detail, along with recommendations for NASA development of several specific display systems which meet common requirements of many Spacelab experiments.

  4. Study of Laser Interaction with Thin Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, C D; Cutter, K P; Fochs, S N; Pax, P H; Rotter, M D; Rubenchik, A M; Yamamoto, R M

    2009-03-06

    For many targets of interest, the thickness is small compared to the conduction length during the engagement. In addition, the laser-material interaction region can be treated as flat. We have studied this regime with our 25 kW solid-state laser. We have demonstrated that airflow can reduce by approximately 40% the energy required to break through a thin target. This reduction is caused by the bulging of the softened material and the tearing and removal of the material by aerodynamic forces. We present elastic modeling which explains these results.

  5. Interactions between a pollinating seed predator and its host plant: the role of environmental context within a population

    PubMed Central

    Kula, Abigail A R; Castillo, Dean M; Dudash, Michele R; Fenster, Charles B

    2014-01-01

    Plant–insect interactions often are important for plant reproduction, but the outcome of these interactions may vary with environmental context. Pollinating seed predators have positive and negative effects on host plant reproduction, and the interaction outcome is predicted to vary with density or abundance of the partners. We studied the interaction between Silene stellata, an herbaceous perennial, and Hadena ectypa, its specialized pollinating seed predator. Silene stellata is only facultatively dependent upon H. ectypa for pollination because other nocturnal moth co-pollinators are equally effective at pollen transfer. We hypothesized that for plants without conspecific neighbors, H. ectypa would have higher visitation rates compared to co-pollinators, and the plants would experience lower levels of H. ectypa pollen deposition. We predicted similar oviposition throughout the study site but greater H. ectypa predation in the area without conspecific neighbors compared to plants embedded in a naturally high density area. We found that H. ectypa had consistently higher visitation than moth co-pollinators in all host plant contexts. However, H. ectypa pollinator importance declined in areas with low conspecific density because of reduced pollen deposition, resulting in lower seed set. Conversely, oviposition was similar across the study site independent of host plant density. Greater likelihood of very high fruit predation combined with lower pollination by H. ectypa resulted in reduced S. stellata female reproductive success in areas with low conspecific density. Our results demonstrate local context dependency of the outcomes of pollinating seed predator interactions with conspecific host plant density within a population. PMID:25165527

  6. The mode of action (MOA) approach reveals interactive effects of environmental pharmaceuticals on Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Franzellitti, Silvia; Buratti, Sara; Valbonesi, Paola; Fabbri, Elena

    2013-09-15

    Aquatic organisms are unintentionally exposed to a large number of pharmaceutical residues in their natural habitats. Ecotoxicological studies have agreed that these compounds are not harmful to aquatic organisms, as their environmental concentrations are typically too low. However, recent reports have shown biological effects at such low concentrations when biological endpoints related to the therapeutic effects are assessed. Therefore, conservation of molecular targets is now addressed as a key aspect for the development of more efficient test strategies for pharmaceutical environmental risk assessment, providing the rationale for the mode of action (MOA) approach. In the present study the MOA approach was used to investigate the interactive effects of fluoxetine (FX) and propranolol (PROP) on the Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Indeed, organisms in the environment are exposed to pharmaceutical mixtures throughout their lifetime, and particular combinations may be of concern. The antidepressant FX increases serotonin (5-HT) levels in the synaptic cleft by inhibiting 5-HT reuptake. PROP, a prototypical β-adrenoceptor antagonist, also blocks 5-HT1 receptors, which are negatively coupled to cAMP-mediated signaling. Cell signaling alterations potentially triggered by 5-HT1 receptor occupation were therefore assessed after a 7-day mussel exposure to FX or PROP, alone or in combination, each at 0.3 ng/L concentration. FX decreased cAMP levels and PKA activities in digestive gland and mantle/gonads, in agreement with an increased occupation of 5-HT1 receptors. PROP caused a decrease in cAMP levels and PKA activities in digestive gland and an increase in cAMP levels in mantle/gonads, consistent with a differential expression of adrenergic and 5-HT receptors in the two tissues. Co-exposure to FX and PROP provides significant indications for antagonistic effects of the pharmaceuticals, consistent with a direct (PROP) and indirect (FX) action on the same

  7. Modeling of environmental and genetic interactions with AMBROSIA, an information-theoretic model synthesis method.

    PubMed

    Chanda, P; Zhang, A; Ramanathan, M

    2011-10-01

    To develop a model synthesis method for parsimoniously modeling gene-environmental interactions (GEI) associated with clinical outcomes and phenotypes. The AMBROSIA model synthesis approach utilizes the k-way interaction information (KWII), an information-theoretic metric capable of identifying variable combinations associated with GEI. For model synthesis, AMBROSIA considers relevance of combinations to the phenotype, it precludes entry of combinations with redundant information, and penalizes for unjustifiable complexity; each step is KWII based. The performance and power of AMBROSIA were evaluated with simulations and Genetic Association Workshop 15 (GAW15) data sets of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). AMBROSIA identified parsimonious models in data sets containing multiple interactions with linkage disequilibrium present. For the GAW15 data set containing 9187 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, the parsimonious AMBROSIA model identified nine RA-associated combinations with power >90%. AMBROSIA was compared with multifactor dimensionality reduction across several diverse models and had satisfactory power. Software source code is available from http://www.cse.buffalo.edu/DBGROUP/bioinformatics/resources.html. AMBROSIA is a promising method for GEI model synthesis.

  8. Modeling of environmental and genetic interactions with AMBROSIA, an information-theoretic model synthesis method

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, P; Zhang, A; Ramanathan, M

    2011-01-01

    To develop a model synthesis method for parsimoniously modeling gene–environmental interactions (GEI) associated with clinical outcomes and phenotypes. The AMBROSIA model synthesis approach utilizes the k-way interaction information (KWII), an information-theoretic metric capable of identifying variable combinations associated with GEI. For model synthesis, AMBROSIA considers relevance of combinations to the phenotype, it precludes entry of combinations with redundant information, and penalizes for unjustifiable complexity; each step is KWII based. The performance and power of AMBROSIA were evaluated with simulations and Genetic Association Workshop 15 (GAW15) data sets of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). AMBROSIA identified parsimonious models in data sets containing multiple interactions with linkage disequilibrium present. For the GAW15 data set containing 9187 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, the parsimonious AMBROSIA model identified nine RA-associated combinations with power >90%. AMBROSIA was compared with multifactor dimensionality reduction across several diverse models and had satisfactory power. Software source code is available from http://www.cse.buffalo.edu/DBGROUP/bioinformatics/resources.html. AMBROSIA is a promising method for GEI model synthesis. PMID:21427755

  9. Studying Environmental Moves and Relocations: A Research Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Robert J.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research on man-environment relations and initiates the process of formulating a research paradigm for studying environmental moves and readjustments. Uses a renovated academic center as a specimen case. (JR)

  10. Battery study for the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Stephen F.; Otzinger, B.; Perrone, D.; Distefano, Sal; Halpert, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the battery study for the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) Pathfinder are presented. Topics covered include: MESUR pathfinder introduction; power subsystem concept; battery technology selection; mission battery performance; cell/battery baseline design; charge methodology; and proposed testing.

  11. Investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L; Truong, Thérèse; Knight, Julia A; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dunning, Alison M; Shah, Mitul; Munday, Hannah R; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Brand, Judith S; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine M; Hallberg, Emily; Castelao, J Esteban; Carracedo, Angel; Torres, Maria; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Yesilyurt, Betul T; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Engelhardt, Ellen G; Broeks, Annegien; Rutgers, Emiel J; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Cross, Simon; Reed, Malcolm; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Arias Perez, José Ignacio; Provenzano, Elena; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C; Spurdle, Amanda; Häberle, Lothar; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; McLean, Catriona; Baglietto, Laura; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E; Brüning, Thomas; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ashworth, Alan; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Mannermaa, Arto; Swerdlow, Anthony; Giles, Graham G; Brenner, Hermann; Fasching, Peter A; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hopper, John; Benítez, Javier; Cox, Angela; Andrulis, Irene L; Lambrechts, Diether; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Couch, Fergus; Czene, Kamila; Bojesen, Stig E; Easton, Doug F; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Guénel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D P; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2015-03-15

    A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative BC risk are modified by 13 environmental risk factors for BC. Data from 22 studies participating in BCAC were pooled, comprising up to 26,633 cases and 30,119 controls. Interactions between SNPs and environmental factors were evaluated using an empirical Bayes-type shrinkage estimator. Six SNPs showed interactions with associated p-values (pint ) <1.1 × 10(-3) . None of the observed interactions was significant after accounting for multiple testing. The Bayesian False Discovery Probability was used to rank the findings, which indicated three interactions as being noteworthy at 1% prior probability of interaction. SNP rs6828523 was associated with increased ER-negative BC risk in women ≥170 cm (OR = 1.22, p = 0.017), but inversely associated with ER-negative BC risk in women <160 cm (OR = 0.83, p = 0.039, pint = 1.9 × 10(-4) ). The inverse association between rs4808801 and overall BC risk was stronger for women who had had four or more pregnancies (OR = 0.85, p = 2.0 × 10(-4) ), and absent in women who had had just one (OR = 0.96, p = 0.19, pint = 6.1 × 10(-4) ). SNP rs11242675 was inversely associated with overall BC risk in never/former smokers (OR = 0.93, p = 2.8 × 10(-5) ), but no association was observed in current smokers (OR = 1.07, p = 0.14, pint = 3.4 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, recently identified BC susceptibility loci are not strongly modified by established risk factors and the observed potential interactions require confirmation in independent studies. © 2014 UICC.

  12. An investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L.; Truong, Thérèse; Knight, Julia A.; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Munday, Hannah R.; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Brand, Judith S.; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine M.; Hallberg, Emily; Castelao, J. Esteban; Carracedo, Angel; Torres, Maria; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Yesilyurt, Betul T.; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Engelhardt, Ellen G.; Broeks, Annegien; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Cross, Simon; Reed, Malcolm; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Perez, José Ignacio Arias; Provenzano, Elena; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Spurdle, Amanda; Investigators, kConFab; Group, AOCS; Häberle, Lothar; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; McLean, Catriona; Baglietto, Laura; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E.; Brüning, Thomas; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ashworth, Alan; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Mannermaa, Arto; Swerdlow, Anthony; Giles, Graham G.; Brenner, Hermann; Fasching, Peter A.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hopper, John; Benítez, Javier; Cox, Angela; Andrulis, Irene L.; Lambrechts, Diether; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Couch, Fergus; Czene, Kamila; Bojesen, Stig E.; Easton, Doug F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Guénel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative BC risk are modified by 13 environmental risk factors for BC. Data from 22 studies participating in BCAC were pooled, comprising up to 26,633 cases and 30,119 controls. Interactions between SNPs and environmental factors were evaluated using an empirical Bayes-type shrinkage estimator. Six SNPs showed interactions with associated p-values (pint) <1.1×10−3. None of the observed interactions was significant after accounting for multiple testing. The Bayesian False Discovery Probability was used to rank the findings, which indicated three interactions as being noteworthy at 1% prior probability of interaction. SNP rs6828523 was associated with increased ER-negative BC risk in women ≥170cm (OR=1.22, p=0.017), but inversely associated with ER-negative BC risk in women <160cm (OR=0.83, p=0.039, pint=1.9×10−4). The inverse association between rs4808801 and overall BC risk was stronger for women who had had four or more pregnancies (OR=0.85, p=2.0×10−4), and absent in women who had had just one (OR=0.96, p=0.19, pint = 6.1×10−4). SNP rs11242675 was inversely associated with overall BC risk in never/former smokers (OR=0.93, p=2.8×10−5), but no association was observed in current smokers (OR=1.07, p=0.14, pint = 3.4×10−4). In conclusion, recently identified breast cancer susceptibility loci are not strongly modified by established risk factors and the observed potential interactions require confirmation in independent studies. PMID:25227710

  13. Studying Haloanisoles Interaction with Olfactory Receptors.

    PubMed

    Silva Teixeira, Carla S; Silva Ferreira, António C; Cerqueira, Nuno M F S A

    2016-07-20

    the theoretical and experimental results also lead us to study the potential interaction of the haloanisoles, TCA, TBA, and TCP with these ORs. The results have shown that these compounds can compete with other known agonists/antagonists for the access to the binding regions of ORs. These results may partially explain the capability of these compounds to give a musty odor to food and beverages at very low concentrations.

  14. Environmental Education in Finland--A Case Study of Environmental Education in Nature Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeronen, Eila; Jeronen, Juha; Raustia, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    The article aims to introduce Environmental Education (EE) in Finland and to discuss how it has been taken into account in Finnish nature schools. Firstly, we present EE models used in Finland. Thereafter we describe a qualitative case study on EE in nature schools (NS). The aim of the study was to get information for the development of EE. The…

  15. Environmental assessments in the US: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Doesburg, J.M.

    1992-05-01

    The 1990`s is the decade of international environmental activism. The concerns and issues that are the basis of this activism are now extremely important to business. Numerous environmental issue will affect business decisions, and a keen awareness of the implications of those issues may make the difference financial success or ruin. Environmental assessments have become the tool to help business cope with an important environmental concern. This talk is focused on environmental assessments as they are practiced in the United States. Environmental activism has been a factor in business decisions since the passage of the Clean Air Act in 1963. This paper will discuss the current standards of practice in the US, the needs for assessments at industrial facilities, and a case study from a US industrial facility. More than 750,000 commercial real estate transactions take place in the US each year. Each of these transactions has a potential liability for the buyer and lender as a result of environmental impairment caused by hazardous materials located in buildings on sites, in the soil, or in the groundwater. Persons who knowingly or unknowingly acquire environmentally impaired property or who lend the money to purchase that property are liable for the cost of cleanup.

  16. Environmental assessments in the US: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Doesburg, J.M.

    1992-05-01

    The 1990's is the decade of international environmental activism. The concerns and issues that are the basis of this activism are now extremely important to business. Numerous environmental issue will affect business decisions, and a keen awareness of the implications of those issues may make the difference financial success or ruin. Environmental assessments have become the tool to help business cope with an important environmental concern. This talk is focused on environmental assessments as they are practiced in the United States. Environmental activism has been a factor in business decisions since the passage of the Clean Air Act in 1963. This paper will discuss the current standards of practice in the US, the needs for assessments at industrial facilities, and a case study from a US industrial facility. More than 750,000 commercial real estate transactions take place in the US each year. Each of these transactions has a potential liability for the buyer and lender as a result of environmental impairment caused by hazardous materials located in buildings on sites, in the soil, or in the groundwater. Persons who knowingly or unknowingly acquire environmentally impaired property or who lend the money to purchase that property are liable for the cost of cleanup.

  17. Interaction between radiation effects, gravity and other environmental factors in Tribolium confusum.

    PubMed

    Yang, C H; Tobias, C A

    1974-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess homeostatic control systems, which, in responding to changes of the external environment, modify the internal milieu of the organism accordingly, in order to make survival and normal physiological processes possible. This group has studied effects on physiological processes of single and combined environmental factors in the flour beetle, Tribolium confusum. Studies included low- and high-LET radiation, gravity compensation, near-weightlessness in space flight, ambient temperature, atmospheric composition, and magnetic field effects on the growth and development of Tribolium. For somatic effects, there appears to be a "normal physiological range" for each of these environmental variables; moreover, their effects seem independent of each other. When one of the listed environmental factors is near the limits of normal physiological tolerance, however, marked synergism has been observed between the effects of this factor and other environmental stresses. Fertilized Tribolium eggs showed a differential radiosensitivity to external irradiation, and a linear, dose-effect relationship was obtained, as accelerated heavy nitrogen and oxygen ions were used. Synergism was found when Tribolium were irradiated with ionizing radiation and subsequently exposed to temperature either below or above their normal physiological range. Gravity compensation or near-weightlessness in space flight have adverse effects on the development of Tribolium when an ambient temperature is near the higher or lower limit of tolerance. Similar results were observed when pupae were exposed to a combination of oxygen, temperature and magnetic field stresses.

  18. Microwave Studies of Environmental Friendly Ferroelectrics

    PubMed Central

    Mathad, S. N.; Puri, Vijaya

    2014-01-01

    The structural and microwave studies of lead-free barium niobates ceramics prepared by the high temperatures solid state reaction technique are reported. The structural parameters such as the lattice constants, average crystallite size (D), texture coefficients (TC), dislocation density, and microstrain have been determined using X-ray diffraction data. Surface morphological studies were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. The strong absorption bands at ~816 cm−1, 641 cm−1, and 482 cm−1 are associated with the coupling mode between Nb–O stretching modes observed in FTIR studies. The electromagnetic transmittance, absorption, studies of barium niobates in the X band frequency range frequencies using waveguide reflectometer technique are reported. PMID:27433498

  19. Meta-regression of gene-environment interaction in genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoxiao; Shi, Gang; Nehorai, Arye

    2013-12-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have created heightened interest in understanding the effects of gene-environment interaction on complex human diseases or traits. Applying methods for analyzing such interaction can help uncover novel genes and identify environmental hazards that influence only certain genetically susceptible groups. However, the number of interaction analysis methods is still limited, so there is a need to develop more efficient and powerful methods. In this paper, we propose two novel meta-analysis methods of studying gene-environment interaction, based on meta-regression of estimated genetic effects on the environmental factor. The two methods can perform joint analysis of a single nucleotide polymorphism's (SNP) main and interaction effects, or analyze only the effect of the interaction. They can readily estimate any linear or non-linear interactions by simply modifying the gene-environment regression function. Thus, they are efficient methods to be applied to different scenarios. We use numerical examples to demonstrate the performance of our methods. We also compare them with two other methods commonly used in current GWAS, i.e., meta-analysis of SNP main effects (MAIN) and joint meta-analysis of SNP main and interaction effects (JMA). The results show that our methods are more powerful than MAIN when the interaction effect exists, and are comparable to JMAin the linear or quadratic interaction cases. In the numerical examples, we also investigate how the number of the divided groups and the sample size of the studies affect the performance of our methods.

  20. Preferences for dealing with environmental problems: an empirical study of managers in three mainland Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Fryxell, Gerald E; Lo, Carlos W H

    2002-01-01

    This study examines managerial preferences for various policy mechanisms commonly used to address environmental problems using a sample of 653 Chinese managers from firms in Beijing, Dalian and Guangzhou. Overall, these managers appeared to favor regulatory instruments, placing somewhat less faith in market and communicative instruments. However, all measures appear to have ample support within each subgroup. In addition, the influence of two situational factors on these preferences was investigated--the immediacy of environmental impact and diffusion of responsibility. The results of the study indicate that these two factors interact in explaining managerial preferences, but only for the use of market mechanisms.

  1. Cytokines and other immunological biomarkers in children's environmental health studies

    PubMed Central

    Duramad, Paurene; Tager, Ira B.; Holland, Nina T.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental exposures (e.g. pesticides, air pollution, and environmental tobacco smoke) during prenatal and early postnatal development have been linked to a growing number of childhood diseases including allergic disorders and leukemia. Because the immune response plays a critical role in each of these diseases, it is important to study the effects of toxicants on the developing immune system. Children's unique susceptibility to environmental toxicants has become an important focus of the field of immunotoxicology and the use of immune biomarkers in molecular epidemiology of children's environmental health is a rapidly expanding field of research. In this review, we discuss how markers of immune status and immunotoxicity are being applied to pediatric studies, with a specific focus on the various methods used to analyze T-helper-1/2 (Th1/Th2) cytokine profiles. Furthermore, we review recent data on the effects of children's environmental exposures to volatile organic compounds, metals, and pesticides on Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles and the associations of Th1/Th2 profiles with adverse health outcomes such as pediatric respiratory diseases, allergies, cancer and diabetes. Although cytokine profiles are increasingly used in children's studies, there is still a need to acquire distribution data for different ages and ethnic groups of healthy children. These data will contribute to the validation and standardization of cytokine biomarkers for future studies. Application of immunological markers in epidemiological studies will improve the understanding of mechanisms that underlie associations between environmental exposures and immune-mediated disorders. PMID:17624696

  2. Interactivity with the Interactive Whiteboard in Traditional and Innovative Primary Schools: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Koster, Sandra; Volman, Monique; Kuiper, Els

    2013-01-01

    One of the main affordances of the interactive whiteboard (IWB) is its potential for increasing classroom interactivity, yet little is known about the interactivity it supports in schools with different educational concepts. In this study we analysed what types of whole-class interactivity the IWB supports in schools with either a…

  3. Environmental study of miniature slip rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radnik, J. L.

    1967-01-01

    Investigation studied the long term operation of miniature slip ring assembles in high vacuum of space and included the influence of ring, brush, and insulator materials on electrical noise and mechanical wear. Results show that soft metal vapor plating and niobium diselenide miniature slip rings are beneficial.

  4. Marine and Environmental Studies Field Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston School Dept., RI.

    This laboratory manual was developed for a field-oriented high school oceanology program. The organization of the units includes a selection of supplementary activities to allow students to explore ocean studies in more depth. Included are 19 units. The units include biological oceanography, physical oceanography, and some social science topics. A…

  5. Environmental Studies in the Florida Keys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probst, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    Students and teachers had the opportunity to study informally the unique and threatened environment comprising the reefs off the Florida Keys. While they all were learning about the ocean life, they were also learning something about the process of learning. (Author/RK)

  6. Case Studies of Environmental Risks to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Lynn R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents case studies on children's exposure to pesticides, including risks through the use of the insecticide aldicarb on bananas, the home use of diazinon, and the use of interior house paint containing mercury. These cases illustrate how regulatory agencies, parents, health-care providers, and others who come into contact with children have…

  7. Environmental Studies in the Florida Keys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probst, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    Students and teachers had the opportunity to study informally the unique and threatened environment comprising the reefs off the Florida Keys. While they all were learning about the ocean life, they were also learning something about the process of learning. (Author/RK)

  8. Case Studies of Environmental Risks to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Lynn R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents case studies on children's exposure to pesticides, including risks through the use of the insecticide aldicarb on bananas, the home use of diazinon, and the use of interior house paint containing mercury. These cases illustrate how regulatory agencies, parents, health-care providers, and others who come into contact with children have…

  9. 30 CFR 256.82 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... needed for assessment and management of impacts on the human, marine and coastal environments which may... and shall monitor the human, marine and coastal environments of such area or region in a manner... productivity of such environments, to establish trends in the areas studies, and to design...

  10. 30 CFR 256.82 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in order to establish information needed for assessment and management of impacts on the human... deemed necessary to establish additional information and shall monitor the human, marine and coastal... studies, and to design experiments identifying the causes of such changes. Findings from such...

  11. 30 CFR 556.82 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... information needed for assessment and management of impacts on the human, marine and coastal environments... additional information and shall monitor the human, marine and coastal environments of such area or region in... experiments identifying the causes of such changes. Findings from such studies shall be used to...

  12. 30 CFR 556.82 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... information needed for assessment and management of impacts on the human, marine and coastal environments... additional information and shall monitor the human, marine and coastal environments of such area or region in... experiments identifying the causes of such changes. Findings from such studies shall be used to...

  13. 30 CFR 556.82 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... information needed for assessment and management of impacts on the human, marine and coastal environments... additional information and shall monitor the human, marine and coastal environments of such area or region in... experiments identifying the causes of such changes. Findings from such studies shall be used to...

  14. Nanoparticle-lipid bilayer interactions studied with lipid bilayer arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bin; Smith, Tyler; Schmidt, Jacob J.

    2015-04-01

    The widespread environmental presence and commercial use of nanoparticles have raised significant health concerns as a result of many in vitro and in vivo assays indicating toxicity of a wide range of nanoparticle species. Many of these assays have identified the ability of nanoparticles to damage cell membranes. These interactions can be studied in detail using artificial lipid bilayers, which can provide insight into the nature of the particle-membrane interaction through variation of membrane and solution properties not possible with cell-based assays. However, the scope of these studies can be limited because of the low throughput characteristic of lipid bilayer platforms. We have recently described an easy to use, parallel lipid bilayer platform which we have used to electrically investigate the activity of 60 nm diameter amine and carboxyl modified polystyrene nanoparticles (NH2-NP and COOH-NP) with over 1000 lipid bilayers while varying lipid composition, bilayer charge, ionic strength, pH, voltage, serum, particle concentration, and particle charge. Our results confirm recent studies finding activity of NH2-NP but not COOH-NP. Detailed analysis shows that NH2-NP formed pores 0.3-2.3 nm in radius, dependent on bilayer and solution composition. These interactions appear to be electrostatic, as they are regulated by NH2-NP surface charge, solution ionic strength, and bilayer charge. The ability to rapidly measure a large number of nanoparticle and membrane parameters indicates strong potential of this bilayer array platform for additional nanoparticle bilayer studies.The widespread environmental presence and commercial use of nanoparticles have raised significant health concerns as a result of many in vitro and in vivo assays indicating toxicity of a wide range of nanoparticle species. Many of these assays have identified the ability of nanoparticles to damage cell membranes. These interactions can be studied in detail using artificial lipid bilayers, which

  15. CyberIntegrator: A Highly Interactive Problem Solving Environment to Support Environmental Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, L.; Minsker, B.; Kooper, R.; Myers, J.; Bajcsy, P.

    2006-12-01

    This work presents CyberIntegrator, a component of the Environmental Cyber-Infrastructure Demonstration (ECID) project at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), which is exploring cyberinfrastructure for environmental observatories with an emphasis on supporting exploratory analysis and end-to-end productivity. CyberIntegrator is a novel workflow-based system that supports interactive workflow creation, connection to external data and event streams, provenance tracking, and incorporation of workflow fragments and functionality from other systems and applications, all of which enable the types of tasks expected in observatories. This presentation describes CyberIntegrator's use in three environmental use cases that reveal its novel aspects. The three environmental use cases are: modeling fecal coliform concentrations in Copano Bay, TX; discovering vegetation variability from large remotely sensed images at the US continental scale; detecting anomalous data from sensors in Corpus Christi Bay, TX. The use cases show how CyberIntegrator supports scientists through: 1. Integration of heterogeneous tools: CyberIntegrator can execute tools from multiple (currently six) heterogeneous software packages while hiding integration complexity. It passes the outputs of a software tool to the input of another tool transparently to an end user. 2. Provenance information gathering: Meta-data about scientific analyses are gathered and stored in a meta- data repository as Resource Description Framework (RDF) triples. The information enables tracking of provenance from data to workflow to publication and provides recommendations to users based on previous community activities. 3. Interactive human-computer interface: CyberIntegrator editor provides a user-friendly interface for browsing registries of data, tools and computational resources; creating workflows in a step-by-step exploration mode; re-using and re-purposing workflows; executing process flows locally or

  16. CMAS Interactions with Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings Deposited via Plasma Spray- Physical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harder, B. J.; Wiesner, V. L.; Zhu, D.; Johnson, N. S.

    2017-01-01

    Materials for advanced turbine engines are expected to have temperature capabilities in the range of 1370-1500C. At these temperatures the ingestion of sand and dust particulate can result in the formation of corrosive glass deposits referred to as CMAS. The presence of this glass can both thermomechanically and thermochemically significantly degrade protective coatings on metallic and ceramic components. Plasma Spray- Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) was used to deposit advanced environmental barrier coating (EBC) systems for investigation on their interaction with CMAS compositions. Coatings were exposed to CMAS and furnace tested in air from 1 to 50 hours at temperatures ranging from 1200-1500C. Coating composition and crystal structure were tracked with X-ray diffraction and microstructure with electron microscopy.

  17. Hypotension and environmental noise: a replication study.

    PubMed

    Lercher, Peter; Widmann, Ulrich; Thudium, Jürg

    2014-08-26

    Up to now, traffic noise effect studies focused on hypertension as health outcome. Hypotension has not been considered as a potential health outcome although in experiments some people also responded to noise with decreases of blood pressure. Currently, the characteristics of these persons are not known and whether this down regulation of blood pressure is an experimental artifact, selection, or can also be observed in population studies is unanswered. In a cross-sectional replication study, we randomly sampled participants (age 20-75, N = 807) from circular areas (radius = 500 m) around 31 noise measurement sites from four noise exposure strata (35-44, 45-54, 55-64, >64 Leq, dBA). Repeated blood pressure measurements were available for a smaller sample (N = 570). Standardized information on socio-demographics, housing, life style and health was obtained by door to door visits including anthropometric measurements. Noise and air pollution exposure was assigned by GIS based on both calculation and measurements. Reported hypotension or hypotension medication past year was the main outcome studied. Exposure-effect relationships were modeled with multiple non-linear logistic regression techniques using separate noise estimations for total, highway and rail exposure. Reported hypotension was significantly associated with rail and total noise exposure and strongly modified by weather sensitivity. Reported hypotension medication showed associations of similar size with rail and total noise exposure without effect modification by weather sensitivity. The size of the associations in the smaller sample with BMI as additional covariate was similar. Other important cofactors (sex, age, BMI, health) and moderators (weather sensitivity, adjacent main roads and associated annoyance) need to be considered as indispensible part of the observed relationship. This study confirms a potential new noise effect pathway and discusses potential patho-physiological routes of actions.

  18. Hypotension and Environmental Noise: A Replication Study

    PubMed Central

    Lercher, Peter; Widmann, Ulrich; Thudium, Jürg

    2014-01-01

    Up to now, traffic noise effect studies focused on hypertension as health outcome. Hypotension has not been considered as a potential health outcome although in experiments some people also responded to noise with decreases of blood pressure. Currently, the characteristics of these persons are not known and whether this down regulation of blood pressure is an experimental artifact, selection, or can also be observed in population studies is unanswered. In a cross-sectional replication study, we randomly sampled participants (age 20–75, N = 807) from circular areas (radius = 500 m) around 31 noise measurement sites from four noise exposure strata (35–44, 45–54, 55–64, >64 Leq, dBA). Repeated blood pressure measurements were available for a smaller sample (N = 570). Standardized information on socio-demographics, housing, life style and health was obtained by door to door visits including anthropometric measurements. Noise and air pollution exposure was assigned by GIS based on both calculation and measurements. Reported hypotension or hypotension medication past year was the main outcome studied. Exposure-effect relationships were modeled with multiple non-linear logistic regression techniques using separate noise estimations for total, highway and rail exposure. Reported hypotension was significantly associated with rail and total noise exposure and strongly modified by weather sensitivity. Reported hypotension medication showed associations of similar size with rail and total noise exposure without effect modification by weather sensitivity. The size of the associations in the smaller sample with BMI as additional covariate was similar. Other important cofactors (sex, age, BMI, health) and moderators (weather sensitivity, adjacent main roads and associated annoyance) need to be considered as indispensible part of the observed relationship. This study confirms a potential new noise effect pathway and discusses potential patho-physiological routes of actions

  19. Gene-environment interaction study for BMI reveals interactions between genetic factors and physical activity, alcohol consumption and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Rask-Andersen, Mathias; Karlsson, Torgny; Ek, Weronica E; Johansson, Åsa

    2017-09-01

    Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of genetic loci to be associated with body mass index (BMI) and risk of obesity. Genetic effects can differ between individuals depending on lifestyle or environmental factors due to gene-environment interactions. In this study, we examine gene-environment interactions in 362,496 unrelated participants with Caucasian ancestry from the UK Biobank resource. A total of 94 BMI-associated SNPs, selected from a previous GWAS on BMI, were used to construct weighted genetic scores for BMI (GSBMI). Linear regression modeling was used to estimate the effect of gene-environment interactions on BMI for 131 lifestyle factors related to: dietary habits, smoking and alcohol consumption, physical activity, socioeconomic status, mental health, sleeping patterns, as well as female-specific factors such as menopause and childbirth. In total, 15 lifestyle factors were observed to interact with GSBMI, of which alcohol intake frequency, usual walking pace, and Townsend deprivation index, a measure of socioeconomic status, were all highly significant (p = 1.45*10-29, p = 3.83*10-26, p = 4.66*10-11, respectively). Interestingly, the frequency of alcohol consumption, rather than the total weekly amount resulted in a significant interaction. The FTO locus was the strongest single locus interacting with any of the lifestyle factors. However, 13 significant interactions were also observed after omitting the FTO locus from the genetic score. Our analyses indicate that many lifestyle factors modify the genetic effects on BMI with some groups of individuals having more than double the effect of the genetic score. However, the underlying causal mechanisms of gene-environmental interactions are difficult to deduce from cross-sectional data alone and controlled experiments are required to fully characterise the causal factors.

  20. Environmental studies group. Annual report for 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, D. C.; Hurley, J. D.

    1980-08-21

    Group projects included radioecological studies of aquatic and terrestrial systems, land management activities, foodstuff monitoring, dust transport studies including fugitive dust measurements and modeling, and several support programs involving evaluation of the plant's ambient air samplers and airborne tritium monitoring techniques. Some salient results from the several project reports include determination of an appropriate model for mechanically generated fugitive dust dispersion, a radionuclide inventory of Smart Ditch Pond (Pond D-1), a coefficient of community determination for two terrestrial sample plots on the plant site buffer zone, a natality and mortality rate determination for fawns in the plant deer herd (including one positive coyote-kill determination), inlet loss and filter paper collection efficiencies for the plant ambient air samplers, and differential tritium sampling measurements of the vapor in Building 771 stack effluent.

  1. Brownfield Action Online - An Interactive Undergraduate Science Course in Environmental Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, Joseph; Bower, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Brownfield Action (BA) is a web-based, interactive, three dimensional digital space and learning simulation in which students form geotechnical consulting companies and work collectively to explore problems in environmental forensics. Created at Barnard College (BC) in conjunction with the Center for New Media Teaching and Learning at Columbia University, BA has a 12-year history at BC of use in one semester of a two-semester Introduction to Environmental Science course that is taken by more than 100 female undergraduate non-science majors to satisfy their science requirement. The pedagogical methods and design of the BA model are grounded in a substantial research literature focused on the design, use, and effectiveness of games and simulation in education. The successful use of the BA simulation at BC and 14 other institutions in the U.S. is described in Bower et al. (2011 and 2014). Soon to be taught online to non-traditional undergraduate students, BA has 15 modules that include a reconnaissance survey; scale; topographic, bedrock, and water table maps; oral and written reports from residents and the municipal government; porosity and permeability measurements of the regolith (sand) in the area of interest; hydrocarbon chemistry; direction and velocity of groundwater flow; and methods of geophysical exploration (soil gas, ground penetrating radar, magnetic metal detection, excavation, and drilling). Student performance is assessed by weekly exercises and a semester ending Environmental Site Assessment Phase I Report that summarizes the individual and collective discoveries about a contaminated subsurface plume that emanates from a leaking underground storage tank at a gasoline station upgrade from the water well that serves the surrounding community. Texts for the course are Jonathan Harr's A Civil Action and Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, which are accompanied by questions that direct the reading.

  2. Adsorption of a Protein Monolayer via Hydrophobic Interactions Prevents Nanoparticle Aggregation under Harsh Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez-Medina, Sergio; Blankenburg, Jan; Olson, Jana; Landes, Christy F.; Link, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    We find that citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles aggregate and precipitate in saline solutions below the NaCl concentration of many bodily fluids and blood plasma. Our experiments indicate that this is due to complexation of the citrate anions with Na+ cations in solution. A dramatically enhanced colloidal stability is achieved when bovine serum albumin is adsorbed to the gold nanoparticle surface, completely preventing nanoparticle aggregation under harsh environmental conditions where the NaCl concentration is well beyond the isotonic point. Furthermore, we explore the mechanism of the formation of this albumin ‘corona’ and find that monolayer protein adsorption is most likely ruled by hydrophobic interactions. As for many nanotechnology-based biomedical and environmental applications, particle aggregation and sedimentation are undesirable and could substantially increase the risk of toxicological side-effects, the formation of the BSA corona presented here provides a low-cost bio-compatible strategy for nanoparticle stabilization and transport in highly ionic environments. PMID:23914342

  3. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2011.

    PubMed

    Andrady, Anthony L; Aucamp, Pieter J; Austin, Amy T; Bais, Alkiviadis F; Ballaré, Carlos L; Björn, Lars Olof; Bornman, Janet F; Caldwell, Martyn; Cullen, Anthony P; Erickson, David J; de Gruijl, Frank R; Häder, Donat-P; He, Walter; Ilyas, Mohammad; Longstreth, Janice; Lucas, Robyn; McKenzie, Richard L; Madronich, Sasha; Norval, Mary; Paul, Nigel D; Redhwi, Halim Hamid; Robinson, Sharon; Shao, Min; Solomon, Keith R; Sulzberger, Barbara; Takizawa, Yukio; Tang, Xiaoyan; Torikai, Ayako; van der Leun, Jan C; Williamson, Craig E; Wilson, Stephen R; Worrest, Robert C; Zepp, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    The parties to the Montreal Protocol are informed by three panels of experts. One of these is the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP), which deals with two focal issues. The first focus is the effects of increased UV radiation on human health, animals, plants, biogeochemistry, air quality, and materials. The second focus is on interactions between UV radiation and global climate change and how these may affect humans and the environment. When considering the effects of climate change, it has become clear that processes resulting in changes in stratospheric ozone are more complex than believed previously. As a result of this, human health and environmental problems will be longer-lasting and more regionally variable. Like the other panels, the EEAP produces a detailed report every four years; the most recent was published in 2010 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2011, 10, 173-300). In the years in between, the EEAP produces less detailed and shorter progress reports, which highlight and assess the significance of developments in key areas of importance to the parties. The next full quadrennial report will be published in 2014-2015.

  4. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2009.

    PubMed

    Andrady, Anthony; Aucamp, Pieter J; Bais, Alkiviadis F; Ballaré, Carlos L; Björn, Lars Olof; Bornman, Janet F; Caldwell, Martyn; Cullen, Anthony P; Erickson, David J; deGruijl, Frank R; Häder, Donat-P; Ilyas, Mohammad; Kulandaivelu, G; Kumar, H D; Longstreth, Janice; McKenzie, Richard L; Norval, Mary; Paul, Nigel; Redhwi, Halim Hamid; Smith, Raymond C; Solomon, Keith R; Sulzberger, Barbara; Takizawa, Yukio; Tang, Xiaoyan; Teramura, Alan H; Torikai, Ayako; van der Leun, Jan C; Wilson, Stephen R; Worrest, Robert C; Zepp, Richard G

    2010-03-01

    The parties to the Montreal Protocol are informed by three panels of experts. One of these is the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP), which deals with UV radiation and its effects on human health, animals, plants, biogeochemistry, air quality and materials. Since 2000, the analyses and interpretation of these effects have included interactions between UV radiation and global climate change. When considering the effects of climate change, it has become clear that processes resulting in changes in stratospheric ozone are more complex than believed previously. As a result of this, human health and environmental problems will likely be longer-lasting and more regionally variable. Like the other panels, the EEAP produces a detailed report every four years; the most recent was that for 2006 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2007, 6, 201-332). In the years in between, the EEAP produces a less detailed and shorter progress report, as is the case for this present one for 2009. A full quadrennial report will follow for 2010.

  5. Raised Bed Rivers in Japan -historical scenery of the interaction between environmental changes and society-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toshitaka, Kamai

    2010-05-01

    Raised bed river should be a typical artificial landforms caused by the environmental changes in the upstream region of rivers. Typical raised bed rivers have developed in the western part of Japan, especially Kyoto, Osaka, Nara, Shiga region, induced by artificial fixing of alluvial river channels and increasing of bed load in floods. Inter-disciplinal approach of archaeological and geological investigations in southern Kyoto region, Kizu River, revealed that the raising of river bed started from 14th century and accelerated the raising rate from 17th century. The development of upstream mountainous area, deforestation and keeping grass field in long term period, led to increasing landslides and topsoil erosion in the mountainous slope, so that the bare mountains were common scenery around the advanced developed region in Japan during the ages of raised bed rivers from 14th to 19th century. The backgrounds of the beginning of these exhaustive developments in mountainous slope surrounding of urban region should be reflected in the social changes going on 14th century. Social confusion continues to demise of ancient order forced to take the regional social and economic integration and generated the new integrated villages that they interested to increasing food production by cultivation needed to large quantity of grass supplied from surrounding grass (bare) mountains. The classic landscape of raised bed rivers in Japan initiated from the mediaeval ages shows the history of interaction between environmental changes and ancient society.

  6. Protein-SIP in environmental studies.

    PubMed

    Jehmlich, Nico; Vogt, Carsten; Lünsmann, Vanessa; Richnow, Hans Hermann; von Bergen, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Metaproteomics coupled to stable isotope probing (SIP) was established to detect metabolically active key players in microbial communities. Here, we discuss the current state of protein-based stable isotope probing (protein-SIP) and the perspectives of using different stable isotope atoms (i.e. (13)C, (15)N, (18)O, (34/36)S), multiple isotope labelling, the utilisation of substrates of major abundance and micro-pollutants [pesticides, herbicides and pharmaceuticals present in the environment at very low concentrations (ngμg/L)], and applications in complex model systems and in situ studies in the environment.

  7. Evolution and protein interactions of AP2 proteins in Brassicaceae: Evidence linking development and environmental responses.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Liping; Yin, Yue; You, Chenjiang; Pan, Qianli; Xu, Duo; Jin, Taijie; Zhang, Bailong; Ma, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Plants have evolved a large number of transcription factors (TF), which are enriched among duplicate genes, highlighting their roles in complex regulatory networks. The APETALA2/EREBP-like genes constitute a large plant TF family and participate in development and stress responses. To probe the conservation and divergence of AP2/EREBP genes, we analyzed the duplication patterns of this family in Brassicaceae and identified interacting proteins of representative Arabidopsis AP2/EREBP proteins. We found that many AP2/EREBP duplicates generated early in Brassicaceae history were quickly lost, but many others were retained in all tested Brassicaceae species, suggesting early functional divergence followed by persistent conservation. In addition, the sequences of the AP2 domain and exon numbers were highly conserved in rosids. Furthermore, we used 16 A. thaliana AP2/EREBP proteins as baits in yeast screens and identified 1,970 potential AP2/EREBP-interacting proteins, with a small subset of interactions verified in planta. Many AP2 genes also exhibit reduced expression in an anther-defective mutant, providing a possible link to developmental regulation. The putative AP2-interacting proteins participate in many functions in development and stress responses, including photomorphogenesis, flower development, pathogenesis, drought and cold responses, abscisic acid and auxin signaling. Our results present the AP2/EREBP evolution patterns in Brassicaceae, and support a proposed interaction network of AP2/EREBP proteins and their putative interacting proteins for further study. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Applied dendroecology and environmental forensics. Characterizing and age dating environmental releases: fundamentals and case studies

    Treesearch

    Jean-Christophe Balouet; Gil Oudijk; Kevin T. Smith; Ioana Petrisor; Hakan Grudd; Bengt. Stocklassa

    2007-01-01

    Dendroecology, or the use of ring patterns to assess the age of trees and environmental factors controlling their growth, is a well-developed method in climatologic studies. This method holds great potential as a forensic tool for age dating, contamination assessment, and characterization of releases. Moreover, the method is independent of the physical presence of...

  9. Coso geothermal environmental overview study ecosystem quality

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, P.

    1981-09-01

    The Coso Known Geothermal Resource Area is located just east of the Sierra Nevada, in the broad transition zone between the Mohave and Great Basin desert ecosystems. The prospect of large-scale geothermal energy development here in the near future has led to concern for the protection of biological resources. Objectives here are the identification of ecosystem issues, evaluation of the existing data base, and recommendation of additional studies needed to resolve key issues. High-priority issues include the need for (1) site-specific data on the occurrence of plant and animal species of special concern, (2) accurate and detailed information on the nature and extent of the geothermal resource, and (3) implementation of a comprehensive plan for ecosystem protection.

  10. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993]. Summer undergraduate research program: Environmental studies

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. Ten students from throughout the midwestern and eastern areas of the country were accepted into the program. These students selected projects in the areas of marine sciences, biostatistics and epidemiology, and toxicology. The research experience for all these students and their mentors was very positive. The seminars were well attended and the students showed their interest in the presentations and environmental sciences as a whole by presenting the speakers with thoughtful and intuitive questions. This report contains the research project written presentations prepared by the student interns.

  11. Interaction Between Flames and Electric Fields Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Zeng-Guang; Hegde, Uday

    2003-01-01

    The interaction between flames and electric fields has long been an interesting research subject that has theoretical importance as well as practical significance. Many of the reactions in a flame follow an ionic pathway: that is, positive and negative ions are formed during the intermediate steps of the reaction. When an external electric field is applied, the ions move according to the electric force (the Coulomb force) exerted on them. The motion of the ions modifies the chemistry because the reacting species are altered, it changes the velocity field of the flame, and it alters the electric field distribution. As a result, the flame will change its shape and location to meet all thermal, chemical, and electrical constraints. In normal gravity, the strong buoyant effect often makes the flame multidimensional and, thus, hinders the detailed study of the problem.

  12. Study of electron-positron interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Abashian, A.; Gotow, K.; Philonen, L.

    1990-09-15

    For the past seven years, this group has been interested in the study of tests of the Standard Model of Electroweak interactions. The program has centered about the AMY experiment which examines the nature of the final state products in electron-positron collisions in the center of mass energy range near 60 GeV. Results of these measurements have shown a remarkable consistency with the predictions of the minimal model of 3 quark and lepton generations and single charged and neutral intermediate bosons. No new particles or excited states have been observed nor has any evidence for departures in cross sections or angular asymmetries from expectations been observed. These conclusions have been even more firmly established by the higher energy results from the LEP and SLC colliders at center of mass energies of about 90 GeV. Our focus is shifting to the neutrino as a probe to electroweak interactions. The relative merit of attempting to observe neutrinos from point sources versus observing neutrinos generally is not easy to predict. The improved ability to interpret is offset by the probably episodic nature of the emission and irreproducibility of the results. In this phase of development, it is best to be sensitive to both sources of neutrinos. As a second phase of our program at Virginia Tech, we are studying the feasibility of detecting cosmic ray neutrinos in a proposed experiment which we have called NOVA. the results of the test setup will be instrumental in developing an optimum design. A third program we are involved in is the MEGA experiment at Los Alamos, an experiment to place a limit on the rate of muon decay to electron plus photon which is forbidden by the Standard Model.

  13. Acute and environmental toxicity studies with hexazinone

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, G.L. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    The acute toxicity of hexazinone, a herbicide intended for general noncropland areas and selected crop uses (alfalfa and sugarcane), has been evaluated to establish proper handling guidelines and to measure its potential impact on the environment. The material is slightly to moderately toxic when given as a single oral dose; its LD50 in male rats is 1690 mg/kg, in male guinea pigs 860 mg/kg, and in male dogs greater than 3400 mg/kg although in the dog emesis prevented accurate quantitation. When the material is administered intraperitoneally, the LD50 in rats is 530 mg/kg. In both studies, no gross or histologic alterations were apparent. Hexazinone is a moderate to severe eye irritant in the rabbit and produced only mild erythema in rabbit skin at 5278 mg/kg, a dose which did not produce lethality or other clinical signs. Subchronic dermal exposures (10 consecutive doses) to rabbits produced increases in serum alkaline phosphatase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase at the highest levels tested (680 and 770 mg/kg in two separate experiments) with no effects seen at 150 mg/kg. One-hour inhalation exposure of up to 7.48 mg/liter did not produce mortality in rats.

  14. Natal dispersal driven by environmental conditions interacting across the annual cycle of a migratory songbird

    PubMed Central

    Studds, Colin E.; Kyser, T. Kurt; Marra, Peter P.

    2008-01-01

    Natal dispersal, the process through which immature individuals permanently depart their natal area in search of new sites, is integral to the ecology and evolution of animals. Insights about the underlying causes of natal dispersal arise mainly from research on species whose short dispersal distances or restricted distributions make them relatively easy to track. However, for small migratory animals, the causes of natal dispersal remain poorly understood because individuals are nearly impossible to track by using conventional mark–recapture approaches. Using stable-hydrogen isotope ratios in feathers of American redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla) captured as immature birds and again as adults, we show that habitat use during the first tropical nonbreeding season appears to interact with latitudinal gradients in spring phenology on the temperate breeding grounds to influence the distance traveled on the initial spring migration and the direction of natal dispersal. In contrast, adult redstarts showed considerable site fidelity between breeding seasons, indicating that environmental conditions did not affect dispersal patterns after the first breeding attempt. Our findings suggest that habitat occupancy during the first nonbreeding season helps determine the latitude at which this species of Neotropical–Nearctic migratory bird breeds throughout its life and emphasize the need to understand how events throughout the annual cycle interact to shape fundamental biological processes. PMID:18287030

  15. Acute and environmental toxicity studies with hexazinone.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, G L

    1984-08-01

    The acute toxicity of hexazinone, a herbicide intended for general noncropland areas and selected crop uses (alfalfa and sugarcane), has been evaluated to establish proper handling guidelines and to measure its potential impact on the environment. The material is slightly to moderately toxic when given as a single oral dose; its LD50 in male rats is 1690 mg/kg, in male guinea pigs 860 mg/kg, and in male dogs greater than 3400 mg/kg although in the dog emesis prevented accurate quantitation. When the material is administered intraperitoneally, the LD50 in rats is 530 mg/kg. Repeated doses (five oral doses per week for 2 weeks) of 300 mg/kg to rats produced slight weight loss in one of two replicate experiments. In both studies, no gross or histologic alterations were apparent. Hexazinone is a moderate to severe eye irritant in the rabbit and produced only mild erythema in rabbit skin at 5278 mg/kg, a dose which did not produce lethality or other clinical signs. Subchronic dermal exposures (10 consecutive doses) to rabbits produced increases in serum alkaline phosphatase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase at the highest levels tested (680 and 770 mg/kg in two separate experiments) with no effects seen at 150 mg/kg. There were no alterations in livers from treated rabbits examined by light microscopy. No dermal sensitization was produced when concentrations of up to 50% were tested in guinea pigs. One-hour inhalation exposure of up to 7.48 mg/liter did not produce mortality in rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Lessons learned from the Children's Environmental Exposure Research Study.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Wing, Steven

    2007-03-01

    We examined 5 different ethical concerns about the Children's Environmental Exposure Research Study and make some recommendations for future studies of exposure to hazardous environmental agents in the home. Researchers should seek community consultation and participation; make participants aware of all the risks associated with the research, including hazards discovered in the home and uncertainties about the risks of agents under investigation; and take steps to ensure that their studies will not have unfair representation of the poor or people of color. Researchers should also avoid even the appearance of a financial conflict of interest in studies that are likely to be controversial and make it clear to all parties that studies will not intentionally expose subjects to hazardous environmental agents.

  17. A Study on the Management Systematize of Environmental Restoration Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoike, Toshiki; Shimazaki, Toshikazu

    In recent years, it has been wrestled an investigation and the soil, groundwater contamination measures business (as follows: the environmental restoration project) that purify it and take measures against about pollution of the soil and groundwater led by a private enterprise. Japan has accumulated rich in restoration projects on the environment. The measures requires a hefty cost, it is clear that variety risks, management techniques are required to establish an efficient environmental restoration projects. In this paper, comparative study of the generation construction and environmentalrestoration projects, said the basic features of environmental restoration projects and trouble cases residents have been there. The types of features of the project for environmental restoration CM and demonstrated the business. To organize a variety of business risks and illustrates the concept of risk management. In addition, the figure of a management system based on its severity and the relationship between each elements and the business.

  18. Gene-Lifestyle Interactions in Complex Diseases: Design and Description of the GLACIER and VIKING Studies.

    PubMed

    Kurbasic, Azra; Poveda, Alaitz; Chen, Yan; Agren, Asa; Engberg, Elisabeth; Hu, Frank B; Johansson, Ingegerd; Barroso, Ines; Brändström, Anders; Hallmans, Göran; Renström, Frida; Franks, Paul W

    2014-12-01

    Most complex diseases have well-established genetic and non-genetic risk factors. In some instances, these risk factors are likely to interact, whereby their joint effects convey a level of risk that is either significantly more or less than the sum of these risks. Characterizing these gene-environment interactions may help elucidate the biology of complex diseases, as well as to guide strategies for their targeted prevention. In most cases, the detection of gene-environment interactions will require sample sizes in excess of those needed to detect the marginal effects of the genetic and environmental risk factors. Although many consortia have been formed, comprising multiple diverse cohorts to detect gene-environment interactions, few robust examples of such interactions have been discovered. This may be because combining data across studies, usually through meta-analysis of summary data from the contributing cohorts, is often a statistically inefficient approach for the detection of gene-environment interactions. Ideally, single, very large and well-genotyped prospective cohorts, with validated measures of environmental risk factor and disease outcomes should be used to study interactions. The presence of strong founder effects within those cohorts might further strengthen the capacity to detect novel genetic effects and gene-environment interactions. Access to accurate genealogical data would also aid in studying the diploid nature of the human genome, such as genomic imprinting (parent-of-origin effects). Here we describe two studies from northern Sweden (the GLACIER and VIKING studies) that fulfill these characteristics.

  19. Gene-Lifestyle Interactions in Complex Diseases: Design and Description of the GLACIER and VIKING Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kurbasic, Azra; Poveda, Alaitz; Chen, Yan; Ågren, Åsa; Engberg, Elisabeth; Hu, Frank B.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Barroso, Ines; Brändström, Anders; Hallmans, Göran; Renström, Frida; Franks, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Most complex diseases have well-established genetic and non-genetic risk factors. In some instances, these risk factors are likely to interact, whereby their joint effects convey a level of risk that is either significantly more or less than the sum of these risks. Characterizing these gene-environment interactions may help elucidate the biology of complex diseases, as well as to guide strategies for their targeted prevention. In most cases, the detection of gene-environment interactions will require sample sizes in excess of those needed to detect the marginal effects of the genetic and environmental risk factors. Although many consortia have been formed, comprising multiple diverse cohorts to detect gene-environment interactions, few robust examples of such interactions have been discovered. This may be because combining data across studies, usually through meta-analysis of summary data from the contributing cohorts, is often a statistically inefficient approach for the detection of gene-environment interactions. Ideally, single, very large and well-genotyped prospective cohorts, with validated measures of environmental risk factor and disease outcomes should be used to study interactions. The presence of strong founder effects within those cohorts might further strengthen the capacity to detect novel genetic effects and gene-environment interactions. Access to accurate genealogical data would also aid in studying the diploid nature of the human genome, such as genomic imprinting (parent-of-origin effects). Here we describe two studies from northern Sweden (the GLACIER and VIKING studies) that fulfill these characteristics. PMID:25396097

  20. Plant-pollinator interactions in Crambe abyssinica Hochst. (Brassicaceae) associated with environmental variables.

    PubMed

    Simioni, Lívia C; Mussury, Rosilda M; Mauad, Munir; Dresh, Daiane M; Pereira, Fabricio F; Scalon, Silvana P Q

    2015-03-01

    Despite the economic importance of Crambe abyssinica, the present study is the first report on bees that occur with this species, and could aid in developing alternative methods for controlling insect pests without seriously impacting pollinators. The present study examined the following questions: (1) Which species are potential pollinators of C. abyssinica? (2) How do environmental conditions influence pollinator visitation fluctuations? Insects were sampled on a weekly basis between 08:00 and 16:00 during five weeks of flowering. When the results of analyses of variance were significant, the data was adjusted using regression equations at a 5% level of probability; the environmental variables were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Apis mellifera, Geotrigona mombuca, Exomalopsis (Exomalopsis) fulvofasciata, Plebeia sp. and Dialictus sp. were observed visiting C. abyssinica flowers. A. mellifera and G. mombuca were observed to be potential pollinators, with the former demonstrating visitation peaks during flowering weeks II and IV at 12:00 and 08:00, respectively and the latter visiting during weeks III and IV at 12:00 and 10:00, respectively. Environmental factors such as temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed have different effect on the activity of bees.

  1. Role of Environmental Conditions on the Interaction of L-Arginine with Oxide Mineral Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochko, K.; Jonsson, C. M.; Jonsson, C. L.; Lee, N.; Cleaves, H. J., II; Sverjensky, D. A.; Hazen, R. M.

    2010-04-01

    The current study is focused on surface interactions between L-arginine, the most basic protein amino acid, and rutile in NaCl media over a wide range of solution pH conditions, amino acid concentrations, and solution ionic strengths.

  2. Social Behavior in Interacting Squirrel Monkeys with Differential Nutritional and Environmental Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Patricia F.

    This paper reports an observational study of the effects of handling on the social behavior of squirrel monkeys who received a protein deficient diet. After birth, experimental animals received a low-protein diet for a 6-week period. A subgroup of these animals were handled between 3 and 12 weeks of age. All of the animals interacted (in four…

  3. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems. Workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report.

  4. Potential Interactions Between Genetic Polymorphisms of the Transforming Growth Factor-β Pathway and Environmental Factors in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Zuo, S; Xiong, J; Wei, Y; Chen, D; Chen, F; Liu, K; Wu, T; Hu, Y; Guo, W

    2015-07-01

    Evidence has accumulated that multiple polymorphisms in the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β pathway and renin-angiotensin system play important roles in determining susceptibility to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Few studies have considered interactions between these gene polymorphisms and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and complex gene-environment interactions in AAA. Six SNPs located in TGFB, TGFBR1, TGFBR2 and AGTR1 were selected. Genotyping of blood samples and collection of lifestyle factors were performed in 155 unrelated participants with AAAs and 310 non-AAA controls. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to assess the effects of SNPs on the risk of AAA. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) was used to evaluate gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Participants carrying TGFB1 rs1800469 TT (odds ratio [OR] 1.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.85) or AGTR1 rs12695895 TT (OR 4.21, 95% CI 1.41-12.53) genotypes had a higher risk of AAA than those with the common CC genotype. The gene-gene interaction of AGTR1 rs5182, TGFBR1 rs1626340, and TGFB1 rs1800469 was found to be the best model according to the results of the GMDR analysis (cross validation consistency [CVC]) 10/10; p = .010). Smoking, dyslipidemia, and rs1800469 together contributed to the risk of AAA, which demonstrated a potential and complex gene-environment interaction among the three variants that might affect AAA risk (CVC 6/10; p = .001). In this study of the Chinese population, homozygosity of TGFB1 rs1800469-T and AGTR1 rs12695895-T might be associated with increased risk of AAA. The complex gene-gene and gene-environment interactions might contribute to the risk of AAA. As a small study, the preliminary results need extensive validation and replication in larger populations. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  5. Gene-Environment Interactions in Genome-Wide Association Studies: Current Approaches and New Directions

    PubMed Central

    Winham, Stacey J; Biernacka, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Complex psychiatric traits have long been thought to be the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and gene-environment interactions are thought to play a crucial role in behavioral phenotypes and the susceptibility and progression of psychiatric disorders. Candidate gene studies to investigate hypothesized gene-environment interactions are now fairly common in human genetic research, and with the shift towards genome-wide association studies, genome-wide gene-environment interaction studies are beginning to emerge. Methods We summarize the basic ideas behind gene-environment interaction, and provide an overview of possible study designs and traditional analysis methods in the context of genome-wide analysis. We then discuss novel approaches beyond the traditional strategy of analyzing the interaction between the environmental factor and each polymorphism individually. Results Two-step filtering approaches that reduce the number of polymorphisms tested for interactions can substantially increase the power of genome-wide gene-environment studies. New analytical methods including data-mining approaches, and gene-level and pathway-level analyses, also have the capacity to improve our understanding of how complex genetic and environmental factors interact to influence psychological and psychiatric traits. Such methods, however, have not yet been utilized much in behavioral and mental health research. Conclusions Although methods to investigate gene-environment interactions are available, there is a need for further development and extension of these methods to identify gene-environment interactions in the context of genome-wide association studies. These novel approaches need to be applied in studies of psychology and psychiatry. PMID:23808649

  6. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy for the study of fungi interactions.

    PubMed

    Sempere, F; Santamarina, M P

    2011-03-01

    The application of the cryo-scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy for the study of the interactions at different environmental conditions between Penicillium oxalicum and Fusarium verticillioides is described. A dual microculture was developed for the light microscopy analysis of the interaction. The microscope and macroscopic examinations were compared. Analysis of Petri plates revealed that F. verticillioides was a competitor for space and nutrients while P. oxalicum was a mycoparasite under the microscopic observations.

  7. Theophylline and warfarin interaction studies with grepafloxacin.

    PubMed

    Efthymiopoulos, C; Bramer, S L; Maroli, A; Blum, B

    1997-01-01

    Two phase I trials, each involving 16 healthy adult volunteers, were performed to investigate possible interactions between grepafloxacin and theophylline or warfarin. In the theophylline study, grepafloxacin 600 mg was administered once daily for 10 days to 12 volunteers who were receiving a maintenance dose of theophylline. This dose of theophylline was designed to produce mean serum theophylline concentrations of 7.5 mg/L; 4 volunteers received theophylline plus placebo. Pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline were determined before grepafloxacin treatment and on day 10 of grepafloxacin or placebo administration. Peak theophylline concentrations and the area under the concentration-time curve increased significantly during grepafloxacin treatment, and apparent total clearance of theophylline was reduced by approximately 50%. No changes were observed in the placebo group and theophylline appeared to have no effect on the pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin. In the warfarin study, grepafloxacin 600 mg was given once daily for 14 days to volunteers receiving a maintenance dose of warfarin. Warfarin was discontinued during the last 4 days of grepafloxacin administration. The pharmacodynamics of warfarin did not change after administration of grepafloxacin. Similarly, warfarin had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin. We conclude that during treatment with grepafloxacin maintenance, doses of theophylline should be reduced by 50%, and we recommend that serum concentrations of theophylline be monitored during treatment with grepafloxacin. However, no dose adjustment is necessary for grepafloxacin when it is coadministered with theophylline, and dose adjustment does not seem to be required in concomitant treatment with grepafloxacin and warfarin.

  8. Study made of interaction between sound fields and structural vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, R. H.; Smith, P. W., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Study analyzes structural vibrations and the interactions between them and sound fields. It outlines a conceptual framework to analyze the vibrations of systems and their interactions, incorporating the results of earlier studies and establishing a unified basis for continuing research.

  9. Nature's Classroom: An Ethnographic Case Study of Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Dorothea Jody

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic case study examines the dynamic relationship between culture and environmental education within the context of a specific Florida-based public education program. The School District of Hillsborough County (SDHC) offers the program through a three-day field trip to the study site, Nature's Classroom, and accompanying classroom…

  10. Nature's Classroom: An Ethnographic Case Study of Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Dorothea Jody

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic case study examines the dynamic relationship between culture and environmental education within the context of a specific Florida-based public education program. The School District of Hillsborough County (SDHC) offers the program through a three-day field trip to the study site, Nature's Classroom, and accompanying classroom…

  11. Soil-on-a-Chip: microfluidic platforms for environmental organismal studies.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Claire E; Grossmann, Guido; i Solvas, Xavier Casadevall; deMello, Andrew J

    2016-01-21

    Soil is the habitat of countless organisms and encompasses an enormous variety of dynamic environmental conditions. While it is evident that a thorough understanding of how organisms interact with the soil environment may have substantial ecological and economical impact, current laboratory-based methods depend on reductionist approaches that are incapable of simulating natural diversity. The application of Lab-on-a-Chip or microfluidic technologies to organismal studies is an emerging field, where the unique benefits afforded by system miniaturisation offer new opportunities for the experimentalist. Indeed, precise spatiotemporal control over the microenvironments of soil organisms in combination with high-resolution imaging has the potential to provide an unprecedented view of biological events at the single-organism or single-cell level, which in turn opens up new avenues for environmental and organismal studies. Herein we review some of the most recent and interesting developments in microfluidic technologies for the study of soil organisms and their interactions with the environment. We discuss how so-called "Soil-on-a-Chip" technology has already contributed significantly to the study of bacteria, nematodes, fungi and plants, as well as inter-organismal interactions, by advancing experimental access and environmental control. Most crucially, we highlight where distinct advantages over traditional approaches exist and where novel biological insights will ensue.

  12. Interaction of Physical and Chemical Processes Controlling the Environmental Fate and Transport of Lampricides Through Stream-Hyporheic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hixson, J.; Ward, A. S.; Schmadel, N.; McConville, M.; Remucal, C.

    2016-12-01

    The transport and fate of contaminants of emerging concern through the environment is complicated by the heterogeneity of natural systems and the unique reaction pathways of individual compounds. Our current evaluation of risk is often simplified to controls assumed to be homogeneous in space and time. However, we know spatial heterogeneity and time-variable reaction rates complicate predictions of environmental transport and fate, and therefore risk. These complications are the result of the interactions between the physical and chemical systems and the time-variable equilibrium that exists between the two. Compounds that interact with both systems, such as photolytic compounds, require that both components are fully understood in order to predict transport and fate. Release of photolytic compounds occurs through both unintentional releases and intentional loadings. Evaluating risks associated with unintentional releases and implementing best management practices for intentional releases requires an in-depth understanding of the sensitivity of photolytic compounds to external controls. Lampricides, such as 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), are broadly applied in the Great Lakes system to control the population of invasive sea lamprey. Over-dosing can yield fish kills and other detrimental impacts. Still, planning accounts for time of passage and dilution, but not the interaction of the physical and chemical systems (i.e., storage in the hyporheic zone and time-variable decay rates). In this study, we model a series of TFM applications to test the efficacy of dosing as a function of system characteristics. Overall, our results demonstrate the complexity associated with photo-sensitive compounds through stream-hyporheic systems, and highlight the need to better understand how physical and chemical systems interact to control transport and fate in the environment.

  13. [Study on environmental characteristics of coal smoke fluorosis areas].

    PubMed

    Cao, S R

    1991-05-01

    Typical samples of coal, the components and contents of coal smoke as well as the concentration of fluoride, SO2, IP, CO in indoor and outdoor air in fluorosis areas of the Three Gorges region were studied with the advanced methods of analysis in the past three years. Problems, such as the fluoride level of other polluted environmental samples, the distribution of different size particles in air, the total amount of inhabitants' fluoride intake and their intake pathways in the above mentioned areas were also studied in detail. A fundamental understanding of the environmental characteristics of these areas has thus been obtained.

  14. A study of methods for lowering aerial environmental survey cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of methods for lowering the cost of environmental aerial surveys. A wide range of low cost techniques were investigated for possible application to current pressing urban and rural problems. The objective of the study is to establish a definition of the technical problems associated with conducting aerial surveys using various low cost techniques, to conduct a survey of equipment which may be used in low cost systems, and to establish preliminary estimates of cost. A set of candidate systems were selected and described for the environmental survey tasks.

  15. Reporting individual results for biomonitoring and environmental exposures: lessons learned from environmental communication case studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Measurement methods for chemicals in biological and personal environmental samples have expanded rapidly and become a cornerstone of health studies and public health surveillance. These measurements raise questions about whether and how to report individual results to study participants, particularly when health effects and exposure reduction strategies are uncertain. In an era of greater public participation and open disclosure in science, researchers and institutional review boards (IRBs) need new guidance on changing norms and best practices. Drawing on the experiences of researchers, IRBs, and study participants, we discuss ethical frameworks, effective methods, and outcomes in studies that have reported personal results for a wide range of environmental chemicals. Belmont Report principles and community-based participatory research ethics imply responsibilities to report individual results, and several recent biomonitoring guidance documents call for individual reports. Meaningful report-back includes contextual information about health implications and exposure reduction strategies. Both narrative and graphs are helpful. Graphs comparing an individual’s results with other participants in the study and benchmarks, such as the National Exposure Report, are helpful, but must be used carefully to avoid incorrect inferences that higher results are necessarily harmful or lower results are safe. Methods can be tailored for specific settings by involving participants and community members in planning. Participants and researchers who have participated in report-back identified benefits: increasing trust in science, retention in cohort studies, environmental health literacy, individual and community empowerment, and motivation to reduce exposures. Researchers as well as participants gained unexpected insights into the characteristics and sources of environmental contamination. Participants are almost universally eager to receive their results and do not regret

  16. Reporting individual results for biomonitoring and environmental exposures: lessons learned from environmental communication case studies.

    PubMed

    Brody, Julia Green; Dunagan, Sarah C; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brown, Phil; Patton, Sharyle; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2014-05-26

    Measurement methods for chemicals in biological and personal environmental samples have expanded rapidly and become a cornerstone of health studies and public health surveillance. These measurements raise questions about whether and how to report individual results to study participants, particularly when health effects and exposure reduction strategies are uncertain. In an era of greater public participation and open disclosure in science, researchers and institutional review boards (IRBs) need new guidance on changing norms and best practices. Drawing on the experiences of researchers, IRBs, and study participants, we discuss ethical frameworks, effective methods, and outcomes in studies that have reported personal results for a wide range of environmental chemicals. Belmont Report principles and community-based participatory research ethics imply responsibilities to report individual results, and several recent biomonitoring guidance documents call for individual reports. Meaningful report-back includes contextual information about health implications and exposure reduction strategies. Both narrative and graphs are helpful. Graphs comparing an individual's results with other participants in the study and benchmarks, such as the National Exposure Report, are helpful, but must be used carefully to avoid incorrect inferences that higher results are necessarily harmful or lower results are safe. Methods can be tailored for specific settings by involving participants and community members in planning. Participants and researchers who have participated in report-back identified benefits: increasing trust in science, retention in cohort studies, environmental health literacy, individual and community empowerment, and motivation to reduce exposures. Researchers as well as participants gained unexpected insights into the characteristics and sources of environmental contamination. Participants are almost universally eager to receive their results and do not regret getting

  17. Multiple parton interaction studies at DØ

    DOE PAGES

    Lincoln, D.

    2016-04-01

    Here, we present the results of studies of multiparton interactions done by the DØ collaboration using the Fermilab Tevatron at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. We also present three analyses, involving three distinct final signatures: (a) a photon with at least 3 jets ( γ + 3jets), (b) a photon with a bottom or charm quark tagged jet and at least 2 other jets ( γ + b/c + 2jets), and (c) two J/ ψ mesons. The fraction of photon + jet events initiated by double parton scattering is about 20%, while the fraction for events inmore » which two J/ ψ mesons were produced is 30 ± 10. While the two measurements are statistically compatible, the difference might indicate differences in the quark and gluon distribution within a nucleon. Finally, this speculation originates from the fact that photon + jet events are created by collisions with quarks in the initial states, while J/ ψ events are produced preferentially by a gluonic initial state.« less

  18. Multiple parton interaction studies at DØ

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, D.

    2016-04-01

    Here, we present the results of studies of multiparton interactions done by the DØ collaboration using the Fermilab Tevatron at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. We also present three analyses, involving three distinct final signatures: (a) a photon with at least 3 jets ( γ + 3jets), (b) a photon with a bottom or charm quark tagged jet and at least 2 other jets ( γ + b/c + 2jets), and (c) two J/ ψ mesons. The fraction of photon + jet events initiated by double parton scattering is about 20%, while the fraction for events in which two J/ ψ mesons were produced is 30 ± 10. While the two measurements are statistically compatible, the difference might indicate differences in the quark and gluon distribution within a nucleon. Finally, this speculation originates from the fact that photon + jet events are created by collisions with quarks in the initial states, while J/ ψ events are produced preferentially by a gluonic initial state.

  19. Studies of host graft interactions in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liljekvist-Larsson, Ingela; Johansson, Kjell

    2007-09-01

    Progenitor and stem cell transplantation represent therapeutic strategies for retinal disorders that are accompanied by photoreceptor degeneration. The transplanted cells may either replace degenerating photoreceptors or secrete beneficial factors that halt the processes of photoreceptor degeneration. The present study analyzes whether rat retinal progenitor cells differentiated into photoreceptor phenotypic cells in neurospheres have a potential to interact with rat retinal explants. Immunocytochemistry for rhodopsin and synaptophysin indicated photoreceptor cell-like differentiation in neurospheres that were stimulated by basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor. Differentiation into neural phenotypes including photoreceptor cells was effectively blocked by an addition of leukemia inhibitory factor. Grafting of neurospheres onto retinal explants demonstrated a consistent penetration of glial cell processes into the explanted tissue. On the other hand, the incorporation of donor cells into explants was very low. A general finding was that neurospheres grafting was associated with local decrease in Müller cell activation in the explants. Further characterization of these effect(s) could provide further insight into progenitor cell-based therapies of retinal degenerative disorders.

  20. Study of electron and neutrino interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Abashian, A.

    1997-03-18

    This is the final report for the DOE-sponsored experimental particle physics program at Virginia Tech to study the properties of the Standard Model of strong and electroweak interactions. This contract (DE-AS05-80ER10713) covers the period from August 1, 1980 to January 31, 1993. Task B of this contract, headed by Professor Alexander Abashian, is described in this final report. This program has been pursued on many fronts by the researchers-in a search for axions at SLAC, in electron-positron collisions in the AMY experiment at the TRISTAN collider in Japan, in measurements of muon decay properties in the MEGA and RHO experiments at the LAMPF accelerator, in a detailed analysis of scattering effects in the purported observation of a 17 keV neutrino at Oxford, in a search for a disoriented chiral condensate with the MiniMax experiment at Fermilab, and in an R&D program on resistive plate counters that could find use in low-cost high-quality charged particle detection at low rates.