Science.gov

Sample records for environmental interaction studies

  1. Space systems environmental interaction studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, M. A.; Huber, Alan C.; McGarity, John O.; Sperry, David J.; Moran, Scott J.

    1994-08-01

    The preparation of Ground Support Equipment (GSE) hardware and software, as well as, attending to launch support concerns prior to and after APEX launch, constitutes the extent of the effort expended on Task 1 (the Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics (PASP Plus) experiment). Previously written test software was refined and new code generated, in order to accommodate real-time instrument performance monitoring during ground contact periods, and to facilitate the display of historical instrument performance data after a downlink opportunity. Under Task 2, the Charging Hazards and Wake Studies (CHAWS) program, Amptek, Inc. acted largely in a consultative and support role to PL/GPSG during this report period. Under Task 3 (the Space Wave Interactions with Plasmas Experiment (SWIPE)) GSE hardware was completed, and software was written and tested, for the electronics module of the EPI instrument on the OEDIPUS-C program. Two flight boxes are now in-house, fully assembled. Flight software for the constituent elements within the instrument was completed, and instrument functionality was fully exercised and checked. No additional change is envisaged to either hardware or software at this time.

  2. Space systems environmental interaction studies. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M.A.; Huber, A.C.; McGarity, J.O.; Sperry, D.J.; Moran, S.J.

    1993-01-12

    A significant level of effort was expended during the report period, on Task 1 ( the Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics PASP Plus experiment), and on Task 3 (the Space Wave Interactions with Plasmas Experiment SWIPE). A somewhat lower level of effort went into Task 2, the Charging Hazards and Wake Studies CHAWS program. Under Task 1, the APEX system, environmental and comprehensive performance tests were supported. In addition, the hardware and software design for the Ground Support Equipment (GSE) to support launch and on-orbit operations was finalized, assembled, tested and shipped to the satellite control center. On Task 3, hardware was designed and built for the upcoming SWIPE mission on the OEDIPUS-C rocket launch. A good deal of time went into writing instrument software as well. This work is still on-going. Task 2 efforts dealt largely with designing and procuring a state-of-the-art anode array for an enhanced capability instrument, to be used on a future flight opportunity.

  3. Environmental confounding in gene-environment interaction studies.

    PubMed

    Vanderweele, Tyler J; Ko, Yi-An; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2013-07-01

    We show that, in the presence of uncontrolled environmental confounding, joint tests for the presence of a main genetic effect and gene-environment interaction will be biased if the genetic and environmental factors are correlated, even if there is no effect of either the genetic factor or the environmental factor on the disease. When environmental confounding is ignored, such tests will in fact reject the joint null of no genetic effect with a probability that tends to 1 as the sample size increases. This problem with the joint test vanishes under gene-environment independence, but it still persists if estimating the gene-environment interaction parameter itself is of interest. Uncontrolled environmental confounding will bias estimates of gene-environment interaction parameters even under gene-environment independence, but it will not do so if the unmeasured confounding variable itself does not interact with the genetic factor. Under gene-environment independence, if the interaction parameter without controlling for the environmental confounder is nonzero, then there is gene-environment interaction either between the genetic factor and the environmental factor of interest or between the genetic factor and the unmeasured environmental confounder. We evaluate several recently proposed joint tests in a simulation study and discuss the implications of these results for the conduct of gene-environment interaction studies.

  4. Interactions between toxic chemicals and natural environmental factors--a meta-analysis and case studies.

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Ryszard; Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Kramarz, Paulina E; Loureiro, Susana; Scheil, Volker; Kudłek, Joanna; Holmstrup, Martin

    2010-08-15

    The paper addresses problems arising from effects of natural environmental factors on toxicity of pollutants to organisms. Most studies on interactions between toxicants and natural factors, including those completed in the EU project NoMiracle (Novel Methods for Integrated Risk Assessment of Cumulative Stressors in Europe) described herein, showed that effects of toxic chemicals on organisms can differ vastly depending purely on external conditions. We compiled data from 61 studies on effects of temperature, moisture and dissolved oxygen on toxicity of a range of chemicals representing pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, plant protection products of bacterial origin and trace metals. In 62.3% cases significant interactions (p< or =0.05 or less) between natural factors and chemicals were found, reaching 100% for the effect of dissolved oxygen on toxicity of waterborne chemicals. The meta-analysis of the 61 studies showed that the null hypothesis assuming no interactions between toxic chemicals and natural environmental factors should be rejected at p=2.7 x 10(-82) (truncated product method probability). In a few cases of more complex experimental designs, also second-order interactions were found, indicating that natural factors can modify interactions among chemicals. Such data emphasize the necessity of including information on natural factors and their variation in time and across geographic regions in ecological risk assessment. This can be done only if appropriate ecotoxicological test designs are used, in which test organisms are exposed to toxicants at a range of environmental conditions. We advocate designing such tests for the second-tier ecological risk assessment procedures.

  5. Interaction between polygenic risk for cigarette use and environmental exposures in the Detroit neighborhood health study

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, J L; Cerdá, M; Galea, S; Keyes, K M; Aiello, A E; Uddin, M; Wildman, D E; Koenen, K C

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is influenced both by genetic and environmental factors. Until this year, all large-scale gene identification studies on smoking were conducted in populations of European ancestry. Consequently, the genetic architecture of smoking is not well described in other populations. Further, despite a rich epidemiologic literature focused on the social determinants of smoking, few studies have examined the moderation of genetic influences (for example, gene–environment interactions) on smoking in African Americans. In the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study (DNHS), a sample of randomly selected majority African American residents of Detroit, we constructed a genetic risk score (GRS), in which we combined top (P-value <5 × 10−7) genetic variants from a recent meta-analysis conducted in a large sample of African Americans. Using regression (effective n=399), we first tested for association between the GRS and cigarettes per day, attempting to replicate the findings from the meta-analysis. Second, we examined interactions with three social contexts that may moderate the genetic association with smoking: traumatic events, neighborhood social cohesion and neighborhood physical disorder. Among individuals who had ever smoked cigarettes, the GRS significantly predicted the number of cigarettes smoked per day and accounted for ∼3% of the overall variance in the trait. Significant interactions were observed between the GRS and number of traumatic events experienced, as well as between the GRS and average neighborhood social cohesion; the association between genetic risk and smoking was greater among individuals who had experienced an increased number of traumatic events in their lifetimes, and diminished among individuals who lived in a neighborhood characterized by greater social cohesion. This study provides support for the utility of the GRS as an alternative approach to replication of common polygenic variation, and in gene–environment interaction, for

  6. Strontium Isotope Study of Coal Untilization By-products Interacting with Environmental Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J; Stewart, Brian W; Capo, Rosemary C; Chapman, Elizabeth C; Schroeder, Karl T; Brubaker, Tonya M

    2011-09-01

    Sequential leaching experiments on coal utilization by-products (CUB) were coupled with chemical and strontium (Sr) isotopic analyses to better understand the influence of coal type and combustion processes on CUB properties and the release of elements during interaction with environmental waters during disposal. Class C fly ash tended to release the highest quantity of minor and trace elements—including alkaline earth elements, sodium, chromium, copper, manganese, lead, titanium, and zinc—during sequential extraction, with bottom ash yielding the lowest. Strontium isotope ratios ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) in bulk-CUB samples (total dissolution of CUB) are generally higher in class F ash than in class C ash. Bulk-CUB ratios appear to be controlled by the geologic source of the mineral matter in the feed coal, and by Sr added during desulfurization treatments. Leachates of the CUB generally have Sr isotope ratios that are different than the bulk value, demonstrating that Sr was not isotopically homogenized during combustion. Variations in the Sr isotopic composition of CUB leachates were correlated with mobility of several major and trace elements; the data suggest that arsenic and lead are held in phases that contain the more radiogenic (high-{sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) component. A changing Sr isotope ratio of CUB-interacting waters in a disposal environment could forecast the release of certain strongly bound elements of environmental concern. This study lays the groundwork for the application of Sr isotopes as an environmental tracer for CUB–water interaction.

  7. Plant-plant interactions, environmental gradients and plant diversity: a global synthesis of community-level studies

    PubMed Central

    Soliveres, Santiago; Maestre, Fernando T.

    2015-01-01

    Previous syntheses on the effects of environmental conditions on the outcome of plant-plant interactions summarize results from pairwise studies. However, the upscaling to the community-level of such studies is problematic because of the existence of multiple species assemblages and species-specific responses to both the environmental conditions and the presence of neighbors. We conducted the first global synthesis of community-level studies from harsh environments, which included data from 71 alpine and 137 dryland communities. Here we: i) test how important are facilitative interactions as a driver of community structure, ii) evaluate whether the frequency of positive plant-plant interactions across differing environmental conditions and habitats is predictable, and iii) assess whether thresholds in the response of plant-plant interactions to environmental gradients exists between “moderate” and “extreme” stress levels. We also used those community-level studies performed across gradients of at least three points to evaluate how the average environmental conditions, the length of the gradient studied, and the number of points sampled across such gradient affect the form and strength of the facilitation-environment relationship. Over 25% of the species present were more spatially associated to nurse plants than expected by chance in both alpine and dryland areas, illustrating the high importance of positive plant-plant interactions for the maintenance of plant diversity. Facilitative interactions were more frequent, and more related to environmental conditions, in alpine than in dryland areas, perhaps because drylands are generally characterized by a larger variety of environmental stress factors and plant functional traits. The frequency of facilitative interactions in alpine communities peaked at 1000 mm of annual rainfall, and globally decreased with elevation. The frequency of positive interactions in dryland communities decreased globally with water

  8. Relevance of Bt toxin interaction studies for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    De Schrijver, Adinda; De Clercq, Patrick; de Maagd, Ruud A; van Frankenhuyzen, Kees

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, different Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin-encoding genes have been combined or 'stacked' in genetically modified (GM) crops. Synergism between Bt proteins may occur and thereby increase the impact of the stacked GM event on nontarget invertebrates compared to plants expressing a single Bt gene. On the basis of bioassay data available for Bt toxins alone or in combination, we argue that the current knowledge of Bt protein interactions is of limited relevance in environmental risk assessment (ERA).

  9. Environmental interactions in space exploration: Environmental interactions working group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolecki, Joseph C.; Hillard, G. Barry

    1992-01-01

    With the advent of the Space Exploration Initiative, the possibility of designing and using systems on scales heretofore unattempted presents exciting new challenges in systems design and space science. The environments addressed by the Space Exploration Initiative include the surfaces of the Moon and Mars, as well as the varied plasma and field environments which will be encountered by humans and cargo enroute to these destinations. Systems designers will need to understand environmental interactions and be able to model these mechanisms from the earliest conceptual design stages through design completion. To the end of understanding environmental interactions and establishing robotic precursor mission requirements, an Environmental Interactions Working Group was established as part of the Robotic Missions Working Group. The working group is described, and its current activities are updated.

  10. Functional Logistic Regression Approach to Detecting Gene by Longitudinal Environmental Exposure Interaction in a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Peng; Tang, Hongwei; Li, Donghui

    2014-01-01

    Most complex human diseases are likely the consequence of the joint actions of genetic and environmental factors. Identification of gene-environment (GxE) interactions not only contributes to a better understanding of the disease mechanisms, but also improves disease risk prediction and targeted intervention. In contrast to the large number of genetic susceptibility loci discovered by genome-wide association studies, there have been very few successes in identifying GxE interactions which may be partly due to limited statistical power and inaccurately measured exposures. While existing statistical methods only consider interactions between genes and static environmental exposures, many environmental/lifestyle factors, such as air pollution and diet, change over time, and cannot be accurately captured at one measurement time point or by simply categorizing into static exposure categories. There is a dearth of statistical methods for detecting gene by time-varying environmental exposure interactions. Here we propose a powerful functional logistic regression (FLR) approach to model the time-varying effect of longitudinal environmental exposure and its interaction with genetic factors on disease risk. Capitalizing on the powerful functional data analysis framework, our proposed FLR model is capable of accommodating longitudinal exposures measured at irregular time points and contaminated by measurement errors, commonly encountered in observational studies. We use extensive simulations to show that the proposed method can control the Type I error and is more powerful than alternative ad hoc methods. We demonstrate the utility of this new method using data from a case-control study of pancreatic cancer to identify the windows of vulnerability of lifetime body mass index on the risk of pancreatic cancer as well as genes which may modify this association. PMID:25219575

  11. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this gap by conducting a county-level cross-sectional analysis of interactions between Environmental Quality Index (EQI) domain indices on preterm birth in the Unites States from 2000-2005.METHODS: The EQI, a county-level index constructed for the 2000-2005 time period, was constructed from five domain-specific indices (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) using principal component analyses. County-level preterm birth rates (n=3141) were estimated using live births from the National Center for Health Statistics. Linear regression was used to estimate prevalence differences (PD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing worse environmental quality to the better quality for each model for a) each individual domain main effect b) the interaction contrast and c) the two main effects plus interaction effect (i.e. the “net effect”) to show departure from additive interaction for the all U.S counties. Analyses were also performed for subgroupings by four urban/rural strata. RESULTS: We found the suggestion of antagonistic interactions but no synergism, along with several purely additive (i.e., no interaction) associations. In the non-stratified model, we observed antagonistic interac

  12. Cognitive deficits in the elderly: interactive theories and a study of environmental effects on psychometric intelligence.

    PubMed

    Canestrari, R; Godino, A

    1997-08-01

    Problems related to psychometric measures of intelligence are discussed with regard to both the general characteristics and metric properties (validity, reliability and sensibility) of mental tests, and interindividual differences (cultural background, education, life contents and age-cohorts). Currently used standard intelligence tests explore the structure of intelligence only in part, so a distinction must be made between true actual intelligence, potential inheritance of intelligence, and psychometrical or scored intelligence. The correct use of intelligence testing, however, does provide some relevant and objective information regarding the evolution of cognitive structure during adulthood and in relationship to aging. Cognitive performance in the elderly follows a downward curve that is not explained as a result of aging on physiological responses (i.e., reaction time delay, signal-noise ratio in the CNS, degenerative loss of cortical cells, etc.). Biologically based theories of intelligence cannot explain the large individual differences in cognitive abilities observed in subjects who have very similar physical characteristics. Cognitive approaches to intelligence enable us to better understand the causal factors of the cognitive deficits in the elderly, and an interactive model permits us to fully integrate both the individual differences in cognitive abilities and the large consistency in performances. We compared the cognitive performances of two groups of elderly subjects, ranging in age from 65 to 97 years; we observed some statistically significant effects on cognitive deficit that could be explained as fully deriving from emotional and extra-cognitive responses to environmental changes.

  13. The Interacting Axes of Environmental, Health, and Social Justice Cumulative Impacts: A Case Study of the Blueberry River First Nations

    PubMed Central

    Gislason, Maya K; Andersen, Holly K

    2016-01-01

    We consider the case of intensive resource extractive projects in the Blueberry River First Nations in Northern British Columbia, Canada, as a case study. Drawing on the parallels between concepts of cumulative environmental and cumulative health impacts, we highlight three axes along which to gauge the effects of intensive extraction projects. These are environmental, health, and social justice axes. Using an intersectional analysis highlights the way in which using individual indicators to measure impact, rather than considering cumulative effects, hides the full extent by which the affected First Nations communities are impacted by intensive extraction projects. We use the case study to contemplate several mechanisms at the intersection of these axes whereby the negative effects of each not only add but also amplify through their interactions. For example, direct impact along the environmental axis indirectly amplifies other health and social justice impacts separately from the direct impacts on those axes. We conclude there is significant work still to be done to use cumulative indicators to study the impacts of extractive industry projects—like liquefied natural gas—on peoples, environments, and health. PMID:27763548

  14. The Interacting Axes of Environmental, Health, and Social Justice Cumulative Impacts: A Case Study of the Blueberry River First Nations.

    PubMed

    Gislason, Maya K; Andersen, Holly K

    2016-10-18

    We consider the case of intensive resource extractive projects in the Blueberry River First Nations in Northern British Columbia, Canada, as a case study. Drawing on the parallels between concepts of cumulative environmental and cumulative health impacts, we highlight three axes along which to gauge the effects of intensive extraction projects. These are environmental, health, and social justice axes. Using an intersectional analysis highlights the way in which using individual indicators to measure impact, rather than considering cumulative effects, hides the full extent by which the affected First Nations communities are impacted by intensive extraction projects. We use the case study to contemplate several mechanisms at the intersection of these axes whereby the negative effects of each not only add but also amplify through their interactions. For example, direct impact along the environmental axis indirectly amplifies other health and social justice impacts separately from the direct impacts on those axes. We conclude there is significant work still to be done to use cumulative indicators to study the impacts of extractive industry projects-like liquefied natural gas-on peoples, environments, and health.

  15. Developing Students' Environmental Knowledge through Interactive Worksheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantyne, Roy; Witney, Eve; Tulip, David

    1998-01-01

    Environmental education is often characterized by a concern with developing attitudes and behavior rather than developing environmental knowledge and concepts. Students may thus unknowingly hold and later teach environmental misconceptions. Discusses the use of interactive worksheets to provide a time-effective means of developing students'…

  16. Classification and Clustering Methods for Multiple Environmental Factors in Gene-Environment Interaction: Application to the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yi-An; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Smith, Jennifer A; Kardia, Sharon L R; Allison, Matthew; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2016-11-01

    There has been an increased interest in identifying gene-environment interaction (G × E) in the context of multiple environmental exposures. Most G × E studies analyze one exposure at a time, but we are exposed to multiple exposures in reality. Efficient analysis strategies for complex G × E with multiple environmental factors in a single model are still lacking. Using the data from the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we illustrate a two-step approach for modeling G × E with multiple environmental factors. First, we utilize common clustering and classification strategies (e.g., k-means, latent class analysis, classification and regression trees, Bayesian clustering using Dirichlet Process) to define subgroups corresponding to distinct environmental exposure profiles. Second, we illustrate the use of an additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model, instead of the conventional saturated interaction model using product terms of factors, to study G × E with the data-driven exposure subgroups defined in the first step. We demonstrate useful analytical approaches to translate multiple environmental exposures into one summary class. These tools not only allow researchers to consider several environmental exposures in G × E analysis but also provide some insight into how genes modify the effect of a comprehensive exposure profile instead of examining effect modification for each exposure in isolation.

  17. Myocardial infarction in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study: the interaction among environmental, health, social, behavioural and genetic factors

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Tina K; Yonker, James A; Chang, Vicky; Roan, Carol L; Herd, Pamela; Atwood, Craig S

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study examined how environmental, health, social, behavioural and genetic factors interact to contribute to myocardial infarction (MI) risk. Design Survey data collected by Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS), USA, from 1957 to 2011, including 235 environmental, health, social and behavioural factors, and 77 single- nucleotide polymorphisms were analysed for association with MI. To identify associations with MI we utilized recursive partitioning and random forest prior to logistic regression and chi-squared analyses. Participants 6198 WLS participants (2938 men; 3260 women) who (1) had a MI before 72 years and (2) had a MI between 65 and 72 years. Results In men, stroke (LR OR: 5.01, 95% CI 3.36 to 7.48), high cholesterol (3.29, 2.59 to 4.18), diabetes (3.24, 2.53 to 4.15) and high blood pressure (2.39, 1.92 to 2.96) were significantly associated with MI up to 72 years of age. For those with high cholesterol, the interaction of smoking and lower alcohol consumption increased prevalence from 23% to 41%, with exposure to dangerous working conditions, a factor not previously linked with MI, further increasing prevalence to 50%. Conversely, MI was reported in <2.5% of men with normal cholesterol and no history of diabetes or depression. Only stroke (4.08, 2.17 to 7.65) and diabetes (2.71, 1.81 to 4.04) by 65 remained significantly associated with MI for men after age 65. For women, diabetes (5.62, 4.08 to 7.75), high blood pressure (3.21, 2.34 to 4.39), high cholesterol (2.03, 1.38 to 3.00) and dissatisfaction with their financial situation (4.00, 1.94 to 8.27) were significantly associated with MI up to 72 years of age. Conversely, often engaging in physical activity alone (0.53, 0.32 to 0.89) or with others (0.34, 0.21 to 0.57) was associated with the largest reduction in odds of MI. Being non-diabetic with normal blood pressure and engaging in physical activity often lowered prevalence of MI to 0.2%. Only diabetes by 65 (4.25, 2.50 to 7

  18. Environmental Interactions Working Group Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.; Wiskerchen, M.

    1984-01-01

    Interactions between spacecraft systems and the space charged particle environment are reviewed and recommendations are presented for both near-term and far-term research considerations. Transient environment models, large space structures, solar and nuclear power systems/environment interactions, single event upsets, material degradation, and planetary missions are addressed.

  19. Spacecraft Environmental Interactions Technology, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    State of the art of environment interactions dealing with low-Earth-orbit plasmas; high-voltage systems; spacecraft charging; materials effects; and direction of future programs are contained in over 50 papers.

  20. The Interaction of Michigan Environmental Education Curriculum, Science Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge, and Environmental Action Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Angelita P.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main goals of Environmental Education (EE) is to develop people's environmental stewardship, which includes people's capacity to take environmental action--their action competence (AC). The purposes of my study were to characterize the interactions found in an EE curriculum, science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and…

  1. Environmental interactions on Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Gabriel, Stephen B.; Murphy, Gerald B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the key environment/system interactions associated with the Space Station and its companion polar platform and defines the range of test environments that will need to be simulated. These environments include the neutral atmosphere, the ionospheric plasma, natural and man-made particulates, the ambient magnetic field, the South Atlantic Anomaly, and the ram/wake environment. The system/environment interactions include glow, oxygen erosion, drag, radiation effects, induced electric fields, high-voltage solar-array effects, and EMC/EMI associated with plasma/neutral gas operations. The Space Station and its associated systems pose unique demands on the ability to simulate these effects; synergistic effects require multiple environments to be simulated simultaneously, and the long life requirements require proper scaling of the exposure time. The analysis of specific effects and the calibration or improvement of ground test techniques will likely require in situ evaluation. Qualification and acceptance testing, because of cost and the impractically of extensive on-orbit analysis/modification, will likely remain ground test objectives except in very rare cases.

  2. Genotype environmental interaction: A case study for douglas-fir in Western Oregon. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.K.

    1992-12-01

    Unrecognized genotype x environment interactions can bias genetic-gain predictions and models for predicting growth dynamics or species perturbations by global climate change. The study tested six sets of families in 10 plantation sites in a 78-thousand-hectare breeding zone. Plantation differences accounted for 71 percent of sums of squares (15-year heights), replications an additional 4.4 percent, families 1.9 percent, the first principal component of interaction effects 3.5 percent, and the second principal component 1.2 percent. Results in the study in a larger survey (87 sets in 10 breeding zones) were similar: 51 percent of sets indicated significant g star e.

  3. Interactions between environmental factors can hide isolation by distance patterns: a case study of Ctenomys rionegrensis in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Kittlein, Marcelo J; Gaggiotti, Oscar E

    2008-01-01

    Identifying the factors responsible for the structuring of genetic diversity is of fundamental importance for biodiversity conservation. However, arriving at such understanding is difficult owing to the many factors involved and the potential interactions between them. Here, we present an example of how such interactions can preclude us from arriving at a complete characterization of the demographic history and genetic structure of a species. Ctenomys rionegrensis is a species with restricted dispersal abilities and, as such, should exhibit an isolation by distance (IBD) pattern, which previous studies were unable to uncover. It was therefore concluded that this species underwent a recent population expansion. Using a novel hierarchical Bayesian method, we show that the inability to detect the IBD pattern is due to the interaction between elevation and geographical distance. We posit that populations in low areas suffer periodic floods that may reduce local population sizes, increasing genetic drift, a process that masks the effect of distance on genetic differentiation. Our results do not refute the possibility that the populations of C. rionegrensis underwent a recent population expansion but they indicate that an alternative scenario described by a metapopulation model at or near migration-drift equilibrium cannot be excluded either. PMID:18682369

  4. Environmental interaction implications for large space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E.; Fischbein, W.; Stauber, M. C.; Suh, P. K.

    1979-01-01

    Large Space Systems (LSS) comprise a new class of spacecraft, the design and performance of which may be seriously affected by a variety of environmental interactions. The special concerns associated with spacecraft charging and plasma interactions from the LSS designer's viewpoint are addressed. Survivability of these systems under combined solar U.V., particle radiation and repeated electrical discharges is of primary importance. Additional questions regard the character of electrical discharges over very large areas, the effects of high current/voltage systems and magnitude of induced structural disturbances. A concept is described for a large scale experiment platform.

  5. Reprint of Recent coastal environmental management based on new concept of Satoumi which promotes land-ocean interaction: A case study in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Osamu; Kokubu, Hideki

    2016-12-01

    Environmental conservation and management policy first emphasized on water pollution control in Japan. However, this kind of passive conservation policy is gradually being shifted to an active approach such as Satoumi, which includes the restoration of biodiversity, biological productivity, habitat and a well-balanced nutrient cycle between land and sea. Many Satoumi creation activities were also characterized by activities which promote interactions between land and sea. In this paper, a case study of Ago Bay in Shima City, Mie Prefecture, Japan, is introduced in which land-sea interaction at two sites was improved by promoting water exchange across dikes constructed for land development and land reclamation. Tidal flat restoration experiments conducted in Ago Bay clearly showed that the promotion of tidal exchange between the sea and wetland area on the inner side of dikes improved both deteriorated sediment quality and macro-benthos conditions. Along with the results of this case study, future tidal flat restoration in Japan is also discussed.

  6. Recent coastal environmental management based on new concept of Satoumi which promotes land-ocean interaction: A case study in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Osamu; Kokubu, Hideki

    2016-12-01

    Environmental conservation and management policy first emphasized on water pollution control in Japan. However, this kind of passive conservation policy is gradually being shifted to an active approach such as Satoumi, which includes the restoration of biodiversity, biological productivity, habitat and a well-balanced nutrient cycle between land and sea. Many Satoumi creation activities were also characterized by activities which promote interactions between land and sea. In this paper, a case study of Ago Bay in Shima City, Mie Prefecture, Japan, is introduced in which land-sea interaction at two sites was improved by promoting water exchange across dikes constructed for land development and land reclamation. Tidal flat restoration experiments conducted in Ago Bay clearly showed that the promotion of tidal exchange between the sea and wetland area on the inner side of dikes improved both deteriorated sediment quality and macro-benthos conditions. Along with the results of this case study, future tidal flat restoration in Japan is also discussed.

  7. Environmental interactions in Space Exploration: Announcement of the formation of an Environmental Interactions Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolecki, Joseph C.; Hillard, G. Barry

    1991-01-01

    With the advent of the Space Exploration Initiative, the possibility of designing and using systems on scales not heretofore attempted presents exciting new challenges in systems design and space science. The environments addressed by the Space Exploration Initiative include the surfaces of the Moon and Mars, as well as the varied plasma and field environments which will be encountered by humans and cargo enroute to these destinations. Systems designers will need to understand environmental interactions and be able to model these mechanisms from the earliest conceptual design stages through design completion. To the end of understanding environmental interactions and establishing robotic precursor mission requirements, an Environmental Interactions Working Group has been established as part of the Robotic Missions Working Group. The current paper describes the working group and gives an update of its current activities. Working group charter and operation are reviewed, background information on the environmental interactions and their characteristics is offered, and the current status of the group's activities is presented along with anticipations for the future.

  8. The Generation R Study: A Review of Design, Findings to Date, and a Study of the 5-HTTLPR by Environmental Interaction from Fetal Life Onward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiemeier, Henning; Velders, Fleur P.; Szekely, Eszter; Roza, Sabine J.; Dieleman, Gwen; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; White, Tonya J. H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Hofman, Albert; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Hudziak, James J.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: First, we give an overview of child psychiatric research in the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life forward. Second, we examine within Generation R whether the functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the promoter of the serotonin transporter gene interacts with prenatal maternal chronic difficulties, prenatal…

  9. Interacting Cracks in an Environmentally Assisted Fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levandovsky, Artem; Balazs, Anna

    2006-03-01

    We perform the study of environmentally assisted fracture within the framework of a lattice model. Formation of an ensemble of environmentally assisted microcracks, their coalescence and formation of crack ``avalanches'' lead to a very rich dynamical picture. Under specific condition crack healing can occur due to cohesive forces, which hold material together and tend to pull atoms together even if they are separated by a crack over several lattice units. We investigate the dynamical interplay between crack formation, arrest, healing and re-cracking. The goal here is to provide an understanding of the conditions leading to the phenomena of crack healing that happens along with the crack formation. We study the morphology of crack patterns with the intentions to establish a way to enhance the healing property of a material sample.

  10. Gene-environment studies: any advantage over environmental studies?

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Hemminki, Kari

    2007-07-01

    Gene-environment studies have been motivated by the likely existence of prevalent low-risk genes that interact with common environmental exposures. The present study assessed the statistical advantage of the simultaneous consideration of genes and environment to investigate the effect of environmental risk factors on disease. In particular, we contemplated the possibility that several genes modulate the environmental effect. Environmental exposures, genotypes and phenotypes were simulated according to a wide range of parameter settings. Different models of gene-gene-environment interaction were considered. For each parameter combination, we estimated the probability of detecting the main environmental effect, the power to identify the gene-environment interaction and the frequency of environmentally affected individuals at which environmental and gene-environment studies show the same statistical power. The proportion of cases in the population attributable to the modeled risk factors was also calculated. Our data indicate that environmental exposures with weak effects may account for a significant proportion of the population prevalence of the disease. A general result was that, if the environmental effect was restricted to rare genotypes, the power to detect the gene-environment interaction was higher than the power to identify the main environmental effect. In other words, when few individuals contribute to the overall environmental effect, individual contributions are large and result in easily identifiable gene-environment interactions. Moreover, when multiple genes interacted with the environment, the statistical benefit of gene-environment studies was limited to those studies that included major contributors to the gene-environment interaction. The advantage of gene-environment over plain environmental studies also depends on the inheritance mode of the involved genes, on the study design and, to some extend, on the disease prevalence.

  11. A Twin and Adoption Study of Reading Achievement: Exploration of Shared-Environmental and Gene-Environment-Interaction Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Legrand, Lisa N.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Existing behavior-genetic research implicates substantial influence of heredity and modest influence of shared environment on reading achievement and reading disability. Applying DeFries-Fulker analysis to a combined sample of twins and adoptees (N = 4886, including 266 reading-disabled probands), the present study replicates prior findings of…

  12. Characterisation of terminal sire sheep farm systems, based on a range of environmental factors: a case study in the context of genotype by environment interactions using Charollais lambs.

    PubMed

    McLaren, A; Lambe, N R; Morgan-Davies, C; Mrode, R; Brotherstone, S; Conington, J; Morgan-Davies, J; Bunger, L

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to define different terminal sire flock environments, based on a range of environmental factors, and then investigate the presence of genotype by environment interactions (G×E) between the environments identified. Data from 79 different terminal sire flocks (40 Texel, 21 Charollais and 18 Suffolk), were analysed using principal coordinate and non-hierarchical cluster analyses, the results of which identified three distinct environmental cluster groups. The type of grazing, climatic conditions and the use of vitamins and mineral supplements were found to be the most important factors in the clustering of flocks. The presence of G×E was then investigated using data from the Charollais flocks only. Performance data were collected for 12 181 lambs, between 1990 and 2010, sired by 515 different sires. Fifty six of the sires had offspring in at least two of the three different cluster groups and pedigree information was available for a total of 161 431 animals. Traits studied were the 21-week old weight (21WT), ultrasound muscle depth (UMD) and log transformed backfat depth (LogUFD). Heritabilities estimated for each cluster, for each trait, ranged from 0.32 to 0.45. Genetic correlations estimated between Cluster 1 and Cluster 2 were all found to be significantly lower than unity, indicating the presence of G×E. They were 0.31 (±0.17), 0.68 (±0.14) and 0.18 (±0.21) for 21WT, UMD and LogUFD, respectively. Evidence of sires re-ranking across clusters was also observed. Providing a suitable strategy can be identified, there is potential for the optimisation of future breeding programmes, by taking into account the G×E observed. This would enable farmers to identify and select animals with an increased knowledge as to how they will perform in their specific farm environment thus reducing any unexpected differences in performance.

  13. Space Systems Environmental Interaction Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-12

    dielectric to substrate), by flashover (propagating sub- surface discharge), blowoff (arc to surface ), between surfaces , or between exposed surfaces on...the pulse rate, peak amplitude, rise time and pulse integral of transient electromagnetic signals, by processing the input of up to six Electric Field...Maximum 200 words) Under Task 1, the Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics [PASP Plus] experiment, encompassing moat of Amptek’s effort in the

  14. Space Systems Environmental Interaction Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-12

    designed and built for the upcoming SWIPE mission on the OEDIPUS -C rocket launch. A good deal of time went into writing instrument software as well...21 2: OEDIPUS -C Flight Configuration...22 3: OEDIPUS -C Electronics Module Outline Schematics .............................................. 25 - vi - 1. INTRODUCTION This is

  15. Music and Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Kate; Freedman, Bill

    2004-01-01

    The use of music in environmental education (EE) can help to inform students through ideas incorporated in musical lyrics, while also enhancing interest in environmental topics. Music can also enhance perceptions of the value of the natural world, especially when nature itself is recognized as being musical. This article discusses historical and…

  16. Bacterial interactions with uranium: An environmental perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merroun, Mohamed L.; Selenska-Pobell, Sonja

    2008-12-01

    The presence of actinides in radioactive wastes is of major concern because of their potential for migration from the waste repositories and long-term contamination of the environment. Studies have been and are being made on inorganic processes affecting the migration of radionuclides from these repositories to the environment but it is becoming increasingly evident that microbial processes are of importance as well. Bacteria interact with uranium through different mechanisms including, biosorption at the cell surface, intracellular accumulation, precipitation, and redox transformations (oxidation/reduction). The present study is intended to give a brief overview of the key processes responsible for the interaction of actinides e.g. uranium with bacterial strains isolated from different extreme environments relevant to radioactive repositories. Fundamental understanding of the interaction of these bacteria with U will be useful for developing appropriate radioactive waste treatments, remediation and long-term management strategies as well as for predicting the microbial impacts on the performance of the radioactive waste repositories.

  17. Interactive Learning in an Urban Environmental Education Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yue; Krasny, Marianne; Russ, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Online courses play an increasing role in professional development of environmental educators, yet little information is available on the interactive processes involved in online learning. We examined the relationship of three types of interactions in an urban environmental education online course--participant-participant, participant-instructor,…

  18. University Reorganization Through Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, John C.

    1972-01-01

    A sound program in Environmental Studies may show the way to attack other multidisciplinary problems. Some of these are population problems, urban renewal, black studies, resource utilization, and in-depth regional studies. (Author)

  19. Why study gene-environment interactions?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We examine the reasons for investigating gene-environment interactions and address recent reports evaluating interactions between genes and environmental modulators in relation to cardiovascular disease and its common risk factors. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies focusing on smoking, phy...

  20. MAESPA: a model to study interactions between water limitation, environmental drivers and vegetation function at tree and stand levels, with an example application to [CO2] × drought interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duursma, R. A.; Medlyn, B. E.

    2012-07-01

    Process-based models (PBMs) of vegetation function can be used to interpret and integrate experimental results. Water limitation to plant carbon uptake is a highly uncertain process in the context of environmental change, and many experiments have been carried out that study drought limitations to vegetation function at spatial scales from seedlings to entire canopies. What is lacking in the synthesis of these experiments is a quantitative tool incorporating a detailed mechanistic representation of the water balance that can be used to integrate and analyse experimental results at scales of both the whole-plant and the forest canopy. To fill this gap, we developed an individual tree-based model (MAESPA), largely based on combining the well-known MAESTRA and SPA ecosystem models. The model includes a hydraulically-based model of stomatal conductance, root water uptake routines, drainage, infiltration, runoff and canopy interception, as well as detailed radiation interception and leaf physiology routines from the MAESTRA model. The model can be applied both to single plants of arbitrary size and shape, as well as stands of trees. The utility of this model is demonstrated by studying the interaction between elevated [CO2] (eCa) and drought. Based on theory, this interaction is generally expected to be positive, so that plants growing in eCa should be less susceptible to drought. Experimental results, however, are varied. We apply the model to a previously published experiment on droughted cherry, and show that changes in plant parameters due to long-term growth at eCa (acclimation) may strongly affect the outcome of Ca × drought experiments. We discuss potential applications of MAESPA and some of the key uncertainties in process representation.

  1. MAESPA: a model to study interactions between water limitation, environmental drivers and vegetation function at tree and stand levels, with an example application to [CO2] × drought interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duursma, R. A.; Medlyn, B. E.

    2012-02-01

    Process-based models (PBMs) of vegetation function can be used to interpret and integrate experimental results. Water limitation to plant carbon uptake is a highly uncertain process in the context of environmental change, and many experiments have been carried out that study drought limitations to vegetation function at spatial scales from seedlings to entire canopies. What is lacking in the synthesis of these experiments is a quantitative tool that can be used to integrate and analyse experimental results at scales of both the whole-plant and the forest canopy, and that includes a detailed mechanistic representation of the water balance. To fill this gap, we developed an individual tree-based model (MAESPA), largely based on combining the well-known MAESTRA and SPA ecosystem models. The model includes a hydraulically-based model of stomatal conductance, root water uptake routines, drainage, infiltration, runoff and canopy interception, as well as detailed radiation interception and leaf physiology routines from the MAESTRA model. The model can be applied both to single plants of arbitrary size and shape, as well as stands of trees. The utility of this model is demonstrated by studying the interaction between elevated [CO2] (eCa) and drought. Based on theory, this interaction is generally expected to be positive, so that plants growing in eCa should be less susceptible to drought. Experimental results, however, are varied. We apply the model to a previously published experiment on droughted cherry, and show that changes in plant parameters due to long-term growth at eCa (acclimation) may strongly affect the outcome of Ca × drought experiments. We discuss potential applications of MAESPA and some of the key uncertainties in process representation.

  2. Karst depressions as geoarchaeological archives: revealing the past human-environmental interactions of Zominthos (Crete) through geophysical prospection, geomorphologic studies and mineralogical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siart, C.; Hecht, S.; Holzhauer, I.; Meyer, H. P.; Eitel, B.; Schukraft, G.; Bubenzer, O.; Altherr, R.; Panagiotopoulos, D.

    2009-04-01

    Focusing on the currently uninhabited plateau of Zominthos at 1200 m a.s.l. in Central Crete, which - according to huge archaeological remains - was densely populated during the Minoan era (Neopalatial period, ca. 1650 B.C.), the main objective of the project is to reconstruct the Bronze-Age landscape evolution with special regard to human-environmental interactions. Primary aims are to investigate the general structure of the subsurface karst relief (e.g. dolines, poljes), the amount of overlying loose sediments, their provenance and their geoarchive function, which has not been studied so far. A multi-method approach with combined Earth Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Seismic Refraction Tomography (SRT) perfectly qualifies for this issue, proving that Cretan karst depressions are filled with thick colluvial accumulations up to 20 m below surface. Subsequent to vibra coring of the sedimentary archives, mineralogical analyses and AMS 14C datings were conducted. Heavy mineral analyses (SEM-EDX, EPMA) show that the filled karst hollows include high concentrations of autochthonous materials. This suggests massive neotectonic activity, formerly existing but currently absent klippes of different petrography and aeolian input during the Holocene. The latter is supported by the detection of volcanogenic tephra in the cores, which absolutely correlates to the chemical composition of Santorini rhyodacites (Minoan eruption 3.6 ka). As such minerals have never been found at altitudes above 1000 m a.s.l. on Crete before, the spatial fallout of the ash needs to be revised with respect to a distribution further south of Santorini. Corresponding pyroxenes and glass shards were detected in a depth of up to 10 m below surface and thus prove the geomorphodynamic activity since the Bronze-Age, which lead to the radical change of the palaeolandscape induced by anthropogenic land use and soil erosion. The environmental transformation is confirmed by maximum radiocarbon ages of 4991

  3. Environmental Health: Threats and their Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Holdstock, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Improvements in the provision of an acceptable standard of health care, particularly in the developing world, will be undermined by three ongoing processes: ongoing armed conflicts; the threat of global warming due to rising levels of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide emitted by developed countries; and by rapidly rising populations. The key features of these three threats are summarised, and it is shown that interactions between them increase both the likelihood of their occurrence and the probable harm that they will cause. Some of the interactions are described, with ways of providing health care taking into account the threats and their interactions, and the paradox is emphasised that better health care in the developing world will further increase population growth followed by increased greenhouse gas emissions. Improved education for women and free and unlimited access to modern methods of contraception are vital. PMID:21572838

  4. Cephradine antacids interaction studies.

    PubMed

    Arayne, M Saeed; Sultana, Najma; Afzal, M

    2007-07-01

    The present work comprises of interaction studies of cephradine with antacids. Cephradine is included among the first generation cephalosporin, which is active against a wide range of Gram positive and Gram-negative bacteria including penicillinase-producing staphylococci. Since the presence of complexing ligand may affect the bioavailability of a drug in blood or tissues, therefore, in order to study the probable interaction of cephradine with antacids all the reaction conditions were simulated to natural environments. Antacids are commonly used in patients complaining of GI irritations. The behavior of cephradine in presence of seven antacids i.e., simethicone, magaldrate, magnesium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium trisilicate, sodium bicarbonate and aluminium hydroxide was studied by using standard dissolution apparatus. Cephradine was monitored both by UV and by high performance liquid chromatography. The results revealed that antacids containing polyvalent cations retarded the in vitro availability of cephradine. Moreover, these studies indicated that cephradine was strongly adsorbed on antacids; magnesium trisilicate and simeco tablets (powdered) exhibited relatively higher adsorption capacities.

  5. Environmental and radiological safety studies: interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, April 1- June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1982-09-01

    Although existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator designs have proved more than adequately safe, more information is continually sought about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work here includes studies of the effects on the heat sources on terrestrial and aquatic environments and also of the effects of the heat sources on various simulated environments. This progress report presents recent data from environmental chamber and aquatic experiments and gives the present status of the experiments.

  6. Environmental and radiological safety studies: interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, July 1-September 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1982-12-01

    Although existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator designs have proved more than adequately safe, more information is continually sought about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work here includes studies of the effects on the heat sources of terrestrial and aquatic environments and also of the effects of the heat sources on various simulated environments. This progress report presents recent data from environmental chamber and aquatic experiments and gives the present status of the experiments.

  7. Environmental and radiological safety studies. Interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, July 1-September 25, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.

    1981-11-01

    Although existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator designs have proved more than adequately safe, more information is continually sought about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work here includes studies of the effects on the heat sources of terrestrial and aquatic environments and also of the effects of the heat sources on various simulated environments. This progress report presents recent data from environmental chamber and aquatic experiments and gives the present status of the experiments.

  8. Environmental and radiological safety studies: Interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, September 26-December 25, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.

    1982-02-01

    Although existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator designs have proved more than adequately safe, more information is continually sought about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work here includes studies of the effects on the heat sources of terrestrial and aquatic environments and also of the effect of the heat sources on various simulated environments. This progress report presents recent data from environmental chamber and aquatic experiments and gives the present status of the experiments.

  9. Critical Density Interaction Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P; Baldis, H A; Cheung, P; Rozmus, W; Kruer, W; Wilks, S; Crowley, S; Mori, W; Hansen, C

    2001-02-14

    Experiments have been performed to study the propagation of intense laser pulses to high plasma densities. The issue of self-focusing and filamentation of the laser pulse as well as developing predictive capability of absorption processes and x-ray conversion efficiencies is important for numerous programs at the Laboratory, particularly Laser Program (Fast Ignitor and direct-drive ICF) and D&NT (radiography, high energy backlighters and laser cutting). Processes such as resonance absorption, profile modification, linear mode conversion, filamentation and stimulated Brillouin scattering can occur near the critical density and can have important effects on the coupling of laser light to solid targets. A combination of experiments have been used to study the propagation of laser light to high plasma densities and the interaction physics of intense laser pulses with solid targets. Nonparaxial fluid codes to study nonstationary behavior of filamentation and stimulated Brillouin scattering at high densities have also been developed as part of this project.

  10. Environmental interactions of the Space Station Freedom electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Lu, Cheng-Yi

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom operates in a low earth orbit (LEO) environment. Such operation results in different potential interactions with the Space Station systems including the Electric Power System (EPS). These potential interactions result in environmental effects which include neutral species effects such as atomic oxygen erosion, effects of micrometeoroid and orbital debris impacts, plasma effects, ionizing radiation, and induced contamination degradation effects. The EPS design and its interactions with the LEO environment are briefly described and the results of analyses and testing programs planned and performed thus far to resolve environmental concerns related to the EPS and its function in LEO environment.

  11. Environmental interactions of the Space Station Freedom electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Lu, C. Y.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom will be operating in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. LEO environment operation results in different potential interactions with the Space Station systems including the Electric Power Systems (EPS). These potential interactions result in environmental effects which include neutral species effects such as atomic oxygen erosion, effects of micrometeroid and orbital debris impacts, plasma effects, ionizing radiation effects, and induced contamination degradation effects. The EPS design and its interactions with the LEO environment are described. The results of analyses and testing programs planned and performed thus far to resolve the environmental concerns related to the EPS and its function in the LEO environment are discussed.

  12. Arc electrode interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, X.; Berns, D.; Heberlein, J.

    1994-01-01

    The project consisted of two parts: (1) the cathode interaction studies which were a continuation of previous work and had the objective of increasing our understanding of the microscopic phenomena controlling cathode erosion in arc jet thrusters, and (2) the studies of the anode attachment in arc jet thrusters. The cathode interaction studies consisted of (1) a continuation of some modeling work in which the previously derived model for the cathode heating was applied to some specific gases and electrode materials, and (2) experimental work in which various diagnostics was applied to the cathode. The specific diagnostics used were observation of the cathode tip during arcing using a Laser Strobe Video system in conjunction with a tele-microscope, a monochromator with an optical multichannel analyzer for the determination of the cathode temperature distribution, and various ex situ materials analysis methods. The emphasis of our effort was shifted to the cathode materials analysis because a parallel project was in place during the second half of 1993 with a visiting scientist pursuing arc electrode materials studies. As a consequence, the diagnostic investigations of the arc in front of the cathode had to be postponed to the first half of 1994, and we are presently preparing these measurements. The results of last year's study showed some unexpected effects influencing the cathode erosion behavior, such as increased erosion away from the cathode tip, and our understanding of these effects should improve our ability to control cathode erosion. The arc jet anode attachment studies concentrated on diagnostics of the instabilities in subsonic anode attachment arc jet thrusters, and were supplemental measurements to work which was performed by one of the authors who spent the summer as an intern at NASA Lewis Research Center. A summary of the results obtained during the internship are included because they formed an integral part of the study. Two tasks for 1994, the

  13. Contamination Effects Due to Space Environmental Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip T.; Paquin, Krista C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and particulate contaminants are commonly generated from the orbital spacecraft operations that are under the influence of the space environment. Once generated, these contaminants may attach to the surfaces of the spacecraft or may remain in the vicinity of the spacecraft. In the event these contaminants come to rest on the surfaces of the spacecraft or situated in the line-of-sight of the observation path, they will create various degrees of contamination effect which may cause undesirable effects for normal spacecraft operations, There will be circumstances in which the spacecraft may be subjected to special space environment due to operational conditions. Interactions between contaminants and special space environment may alter or greatly increase the contamination effect due to the synergistic effect. This paper will address the various types of contamination generation on orbit, the general effects of the contamination on spacecraft systems, and the typical impacts on the spacecraft operations due to the contamination effect. In addition, this paper will explain the contamination effect induced by the space environment and will discuss the intensified contamination effect resulting from the synergistic effect with the special space environment.

  14. AN INTEGRATED NETWORK APPROACH TO IDENTIFYING BIOLOGICAL PATHWAYS AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE INTERACTIONS IN COMPLEX DISEASES

    PubMed Central

    DARABOS, CHRISTIAN; QIU, JINGYA; MOORE, JASON H.

    2015-01-01

    Complex diseases are the result of intricate interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. In previous studies, we used epidemiological and genetic data linking environmental exposure or genetic variants to phenotypic disease to construct Human Phenotype Networks and separately analyze the effects of both environment and genetic factors on disease interactions. To better capture the intricacies of the interactions between environmental exposure and the biological pathways in complex disorders, we integrate both aspects into a single “tripartite” network. Despite extensive research, the mechanisms by which chemical agents disrupt biological pathways are still poorly understood. In this study, we use our integrated network model to identify specific biological pathway candidates possibly disrupted by environmental agents. We conjecture that a higher number of co-occurrences between an environmental substance and biological pathway pair can be associated with a higher likelihood that the substance is involved in disrupting that pathway. We validate our model by demonstrating its ability to detect known arsenic and signal transduction pathway interactions and speculate on candidate cell-cell junction organization pathways disrupted by cadmium. The validation was supported by distinct publications of cell biology and genetic studies that associated environmental exposure to pathway disruption. The integrated network approach is a novel method for detecting the biological effects of environmental exposures. A better understanding of the molecular processes associated with specific environmental exposures will help in developing targeted molecular therapies for patients who have been exposed to the toxicity of environmental chemicals. PMID:26776169

  15. Lunar and Martian environmental interactions with nuclear power system radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Gaier, James R.; Katzan, Cynthia M.

    1992-01-01

    Future NASA space missions include a permanent manned presence on the moon and an expedition to the planet Mars. Such steps will require careful consideration of environmental interactions in the selection and design of required power systems. Several environmental constituents may be hazardous to performance integrity. Potential threats common to both the moon and Mars are low ambient temperatures, wide daily temperature swings, solar flux, and large quantities of dust. The surface of Mars provides the additional challenges of dust storms, winds, and a carbon dioxide atmosphere. In this review, the anticipated environmental interactions with surface power system radiators are described, as well as the impacts of these interactions on radiator durability, which were identified at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  16. Lunar and Martian environmental interactions with nuclear power system radiators

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Davis, M.E.; Gaier, J.R.; Katzan, C.M.

    1994-09-01

    In the foreseeable future, NASA space milestones include a permanent manned presence on the Moon and an expedition to the planet Mars. Such steps will require careful consideration of environmental interactions in the selection and design of required power systems. Several environmental constituents may be hazardous to performance integrity. Potential threats common to both the Moon and Mars are low ambient temperatures, wide daily temperature swings, solar flux, and large quantities of dust. The surface of Mars provides the additional challenges of dust storms, winds, and a carbon dioxide atmosphere. In this review, the anticipated environmental interactions with surface power system radiators are described, as well as the impacts of these interactions on radiator durability, which have been identified at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  17. Predator diversity and environmental change modify the strengths of trophic and nontrophic interactions.

    PubMed

    Sentis, Arnaud; Gémard, Charlène; Jaugeon, Baptiste; Boukal, David S

    2016-11-10

    Understanding the dependence of species interaction strengths on environmental factors and species diversity is crucial to predict community dynamics and persistence in a rapidly changing world. Nontrophic (e.g. predator interference) and trophic components together determine species interaction strengths, but the effects of environmental factors on these two components remain largely unknown. This impedes our ability to fully understand the links between environmental drivers and species interactions. Here, we used a dynamical modelling framework based on measured predator functional responses to investigate the effects of predator diversity, prey density, and temperature on trophic and nontrophic interaction strengths within a freshwater food web. We found that (i) species interaction strengths cannot be predicted from trophic interactions alone, (ii) nontrophic interaction strengths vary strongly among predator assemblages, (iii) temperature has opposite effects on trophic and nontrophic interaction strengths, and (iv) trophic interaction strengths decrease with prey density, whereas the dependence of nontrophic interaction strengths on prey density is concave up. Interestingly, the qualitative impacts of temperature and prey density on the strengths of trophic and nontrophic interactions were independent of predator identity, suggesting a general pattern. Our results indicate that taking multiple environmental factors and the nonlinearity of density-dependent species interactions into account is an important step towards a better understanding of the effects of environmental variations on complex ecological communities. The functional response approach used in this study opens new avenues for (i) the quantification of the relative importance of the trophic and nontrophic components in species interactions and (ii) a better understanding how environmental factors affect these interactions and the dynamics of ecological communities.

  18. Interactive Declustering of Spatial Environmental Data for Geostatistical Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher P. Oertel; John R. Giles; Stanley M. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Clustered sampling often results during environmental site investigations when localized areas are over-sampled due to specific concerns in those areas or due to monitoring programs focused on specific zones. An interactive, nearest-neighbor method for efficient spatial declustering has been developed as part of the ongoing monitoring and assessment of Cs-137 concentrations in soils at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site. Insitu field measurements of Cs-137 have been obtained with a field gamma-ray spectrometer using a sampling layout with points concentrated around several former nuclear processing facilities. The spatial declustering process allows for more useful and productive geostatistical studies focused on characterization of spatial dependence and subsequent spatial estimation to generate maps that depict Cs-137 concentrations across the site.

  19. Arsenic and dichlorvos: Possible interaction between two environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Flora, Swaran J S

    2016-05-01

    Metals are ubiquitously present in the environment and pesticides are widely used throughout the world. Environmental and occupational exposure to metal along with pesticide is an area of great concern to both the public and regulatory authorities. Our major concern is that combination of these toxicant present in environment may elicit toxicity either due to additive or synergistic interactions or 'joint toxic actions' among these toxicants. It poses a rising threat to human health. Water contamination particularly ground water contamination with arsenic is a serious problem in today's scenario since arsenic is associated with several kinds of health problems, such arsenic associated health anomalies are commonly called as 'Arsenism'. Uncontrolled use and spillage of pesticides into the environment has resulted in alarming situation. Moreover serious concerns are being addressed due to their persistence in the environmental matrices such as air, soil and surface water runoff resulting in continuous exposure of these harmful chemicals to human beings and animals. Bio-availability of these environmental toxicants has been enhanced much due to anthropological activities. Dreadfully very few studies are available on combined exposures to these toxicants on the animal or human system. Studies on the acute and chronic exposure to arsenic and DDVP are well reported and well defined. Arsenic is a common global ground water contaminant while dichlorvos is one of the most commonly and widely employed organophosphate based insecticide used in agriculture, horticulture etc. There is thus a real situation where a human may get exposed to these toxicants while working in a field. This review highlights the individual and combined exposure to arsenic and dichlorvos on health.

  20. Intersection of participation and environmental factors: a complex interactive process.

    PubMed

    Noreau, Luc; Boschen, Kathryn

    2010-09-01

    The objective was to review contemporary and historical rehabilitation-focused literature on conceptualizations of the environment, broadly defined, and environmental measures. Data sources included historical nonempirical American-based literature from 1935 to the present and descriptive and empirical rehabilitation articles worldwide, retrieved from computerized databases predominantly from past 10 years depicting a participation-environment association. Literature selection required relevance to 3 combined topics: physical disability rehabilitation, participation/community integration, and impact of environmental barriers and facilitators. The ultimate focus was on spinal cord injury for recent literature and measures reviewed. Data extraction was based on author-assessed relevance to both participation and environmental considerations. Nonempirical literature from last three quarters of a century suggests an environmental impact on participation, focusing on "person-environment fit." Recent empirical evidence supports environmental contributions to participation, but the magnitude of the contribution is low. Despite the obvious theoretic impact of the environment, scientific demonstration of environmental contribution to participation restriction or facilitation has yet to be achieved. Participation-environment interaction could be illustrated better by (1) taking into account critical elements in environmental measures (eg, comprehensiveness of approach to environment, scales describing spectrum of environmental influence, subjective vs objective perspectives), (2) addressing the concept of participation in a dimension-specific approach, and (3) avoiding environmental features in construction of participation measures.

  1. Studies on Strong Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coriano, Claudio

    Five studies, four in Quantum field theory and one in fermionic molecular dynamics are presented. In the first study, introduced in chapter one and developed in chapter two of this dissertation, we formulate an extension of QCD sum rules to Compton scattering of the pion at intermediate energy. The chapter is based on the research paper Fixed angle pion Compton scattering and QCD sum rules by Prof. George Sterman and the author, which has been submitted for publication as a regular article. In chapter 3 we discuss the relation between traditional bosonic exchange models of nuclear strong interaction and soliton models, in the particular case of the sine-Gordon model. The chapter is based on the research paper "Scattering in soliton models and bosonic exchange descriptions", by R. R. Parwani, H. Yamagishi, I. Zahed and the author, and is published in Phys. Rev. D 45 (1992), 2542. A preprint of this paper (Preprint 1) has been included as an Appendix to the Chapter. In Chapter 4 we discuss aspects of the propagation of quantized fields in classical backgrounds, using the light-cone expansion of the propagator. The chapter is based on the research papers "Electrodynamics in the presence of an axion", published by the author in Modern Physics Letters A 7 (1992), 1253, and on the paper "Singularity of Green's function and the effective action in massive Yang Mills theories, by Prof. H. Yamagishi and the author. This last paper is published in Physical Review D 41 (1990), 3226 and its reprint appears in the final part of the Chapter (Reprint 1). In chapter 5, entitled "On the time dependent Rayleigh-Ritz equations", we discuss aspects of the variational approach to fermionic molecular dynamics. This investigation by R. Parwani, H. Yamagishi and the author has been published in Nucl. Physics A 522 (1991), 591. A preprint of this research paper has been inserted in the final part of the Chapter (Preprint 2).

  2. Bulletin Boards for Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford; Seim, Stuart S.

    The bulletin board and activity ideas presented in this handbook offer some attractive ways of exploring and studying various environmental issues. They stress the concept that man is but one element in the whole chain of being. Each chapter, devoted to one element apiece, begins with an overview of the natural resource situation and/or problem…

  3. Environmental and radiological safety studies: interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, April 1-June 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.

    1981-09-01

    The containers for /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources in radioisotope thermoelectric generators are designed with large safety factors to ensure they will withstand reentry from orbit and impact with the earth and safely contain the nuclear fuel until it is recovered. Existing designs have proved more than adequately safe, but the Space and Terrestrial Division of the Department of Energy Office of Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects continually seeks more information about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work discussed here includes studies of the effects on the heat source of terrestrial and aquatic environments to obtain data for design of even safer systems. This report includes data from environmental chamber experiments that simulate terrestrial conditions, experiments to measure PuO/sub 2/ dissolution rates, soil column experiments to measure sorption of plutonium by soils, and several aquatic experiments.

  4. An Interactive Environmental Science Course for Education Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, Suzanne K.; Slattery, William

    2006-01-01

    An interactive environmental science course was designed to provide a set of learning experiences that connect chemistry, geology, biology, physics, and math with the future careers as teachers. The environment deals with many factors contributing with the quality of life, such as the air, the water and the protective shelter of the atmosphere.

  5. Monographs in Environmental Education and Environmental Studies. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Arthur B., Ed.

    The first section of this document contains definitional papers prepared by three sections of the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAEE). They are: (1) "The Challenges of K-12 Environmental Education" (Harold Hungerford and Trudi Volk); (2) "'Environmental Studies': Towards a Definition" (Royal Harde);…

  6. Environmental Studies and Utilitarian Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Brian G.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental ethicists have focused much attention on the limits of utilitarianism and have generally defined "environmental ethics" in a manner that treats utilitarian environmental ethics as an oxymoron. This is unfortunate because utilitarian ethics can support strong environmental policies, and environmental ethicists have not yet produced a…

  7. Environmental Studies and Utilitarian Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Brian G.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental ethicists have focused much attention on the limits of utilitarianism and have generally defined "environmental ethics" in a manner that treats utilitarian environmental ethics as an oxymoron. This is unfortunate because utilitarian ethics can support strong environmental policies, and environmental ethicists have not yet produced a…

  8. Interaction Forces Drive the Environmental Transmission of Pathogenic Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Aubert, Dominique; Puech, Pierre-Henri; Hohweyer, Jeanne; Azas, Nadine; Villena, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Toxoplasma gondii are pathogens that are resistant to a number of environmental factors and pose significant risks to public health worldwide. Their environmental transmission is closely governed by the physicochemical properties of their cysts (Giardia) and oocysts (Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma), allowing their transport, retention, and survival for months in water, soil, vegetables, and mollusks, which are the main reservoirs for human infection. Importantly, the cyst/oocyst wall plays a key role in that regard by exhibiting a complex polymeric coverage that determines the charge and hydrophobic characteristics of parasites' surfaces. Interaction forces between parasites and other environmental particles may be, in a first approximation, evaluated following the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory of colloidal stability. However, due to the molecular topography and nano- to microstructure of the cyst/oocyst surface, non-DVLO hydrophobic forces together with additional steric attractive and/or repulsive forces may play a pivotal role in controlling the parasite behavior when the organism is subjected to various external conditions. Here, we review several parameters that enhance or hinder the adhesion of parasites to other particles and surfaces and address the role of fast-emerging techniques for mapping the cyst/oocyst surface, e.g., by measuring its topology and the generated interaction forces at the nano- to microscale. We discuss why characterizing these interactions could be a crucial step for managing the environmental matrices at risk of microbial pollution. PMID:22156429

  9. Environmental and radiological safety studies: interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, January 1-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Waterbury, G.R.

    1981-09-01

    The containers for /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat souces in radioisotope thermoelectric generators are designed with large safety factors to ensure that they will withstand reentry from orbit and impact with the earth and safely contain the nuclear fuel until it is recovered. Existing designs have proved more than adequately safe, but the Space and Terrestrial Division of the Department of Energy Office of Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects continually seeks more information about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work discussed here includes studies of the effects on the heat source of terrestrial and aquatic environments to obtain data for design of even safer systems. The data obtained in several ongoing experiments are presented; these data tables will be updated quarterly. Discussions of experimental details are minimized and largely repetitive in succeeding reports. Compilations of usable data generated in each experiment are emphasized. These compilations include data from environmental chamber experiments that simulate terrestrial conditions, experiments to measure PuO/sub 2/ dissolution rates soil column experiments to measure sorption of plutonium by soils, and several aquatic experiments.

  10. Environmental and radiological safety studies. Interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, July 1-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Waterbury, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    The containers for /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources in radioisotope thermoelectric generators are designed with large safety factors to ensure that they will withstand reentry from orbit and impact with the earth and safely contain the nuclear fuel until it is recovered. Existing designs have proved more than adequately safe, but the Space and Terrestrial Division of the Department of Energy Office of Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects continually seeks more information about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work discussed here includes studies of the effects on the heat source of terrestrial and aquatic environments to obtain data for design of even safer systems. The data obtained in several ongoing experiments are presented; these data tables will be updated quarterly. Discussions of experimental details are minimized and largely repetitive in succeeding reports. Compilations of usable data generated in each experiment are emphasized. These compilations include data from environmental chamber experiments that simulate terrestrial conditions, experiments to measure PuO/sub 2/ dissolution rates, soil column experiments to measure sorption of plutonium by soils, and several aquatic experiments.

  11. 25 CFR 211.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental studies. 211.7 Section 211.7 Indians BUREAU... DEVELOPMENT General § 211.7 Environmental studies. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that all environmental studies are prepared as required by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and...

  12. 25 CFR 211.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Environmental studies. 211.7 Section 211.7 Indians BUREAU... DEVELOPMENT General § 211.7 Environmental studies. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that all environmental studies are prepared as required by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and...

  13. 25 CFR 211.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental studies. 211.7 Section 211.7 Indians BUREAU... DEVELOPMENT General § 211.7 Environmental studies. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that all environmental studies are prepared as required by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and...

  14. 25 CFR 211.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental studies. 211.7 Section 211.7 Indians BUREAU... DEVELOPMENT General § 211.7 Environmental studies. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that all environmental studies are prepared as required by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and...

  15. 25 CFR 211.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental studies. 211.7 Section 211.7 Indians BUREAU... DEVELOPMENT General § 211.7 Environmental studies. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that all environmental studies are prepared as required by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and...

  16. The Contribution of Environmental Studies Curricula to Environmental Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, Jean

    Current studies indicate that college environmental-science curriculums are often inadequate and not meaningful to college students. Yet climate change, depletion of natural resources, and loss of habitat due to human activities are among critical environmental issues. It is important that college students are prepared to address these issues after graduation. This case study attempted to discover the ways that college students perceived how participation in environmental science courses contributed to their environmental decision making and ecological intelligence. The population consisted of 15 sophomore, junior, and senior students randomly selected from a list of science students provided by the registrar. The conceptual framework that guided this study includes 5 components of ecological intelligence: biodiversity, ecological literacy, decision making skills, understanding sustainability, and systems thinking. The data collected over a period of 3 months from focus groups, individual interviews, and student discussions were transcribed and coded using typological analysis to identify students' perspectives on environmental science courses. Findings showed that college science curriculums need to incorporate students' prior environmental experiences into science courses. They should also focus on providing hands on experiences that promote application of knowledge to address environmental problems. This study may promote the implementation of integrated college science curriculums that encourage environmental, interdisciplinary, and personalized learning experiences. Implications for positive social change include college environmental studies and curricula that motivate students and engage their interest in participating in environmental activities.

  17. Environmental Identity Development through Social Interactions, Action, and Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Sarah Riggs

    2015-01-01

    This article uses sociocultural identity theory to explore how practice, action, and recognition can facilitate environmental identity development. Recognition, a construct not previously explored in environmental identity literature, is particularly examined. The study is based on a group of diverse teens who traveled to South Asia to participate…

  18. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brusseau, Mark L.; Artiola, Janick F.; Maier, Raina M.; Gandolfi, A. Jay

    2014-01-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation, and decision-making and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with environmental contamination sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites. PMID:25173762

  19. EnviroNET: An online environmental interactions resource

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauriente, Michael

    1991-01-01

    EnviroNET is a centralized depository for technical information on environmentally induced interactions likely to be encountered by spacecraft in both low-altitude and high-altitude orbits. It provides a user-friendly, menu-driven format on networks that are connected globally and is available 24 hours a day - every day. The service pools space data collected over the years by NASA, USAF, other government research facilities, industry, universities, and the European Space Agency. This information contains text, tables and over one hundred high resolution figures and graphs based on empirical data. These graphics can be accessed while still in the chapters, making it easy to flip from text to graphics and back. Interactive graphics programs are also available on space debris, the neutral atmosphere, magnetic field, and ionosphere. EnviroNET can help designers meet tough environmental flight criteria before committing to flight hardware built for experiments, instrumentation, or payloads.

  20. Thermal analysis in environmental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smykatz-Kloss, W.; Heil, A.; Kaeding, L.; Roller, E.

    Thermal analysis offers suitable methods for environmental studies. Impurities of toxic elements in minerals, rocks, and raw materials can be determined by DTA, TG, CSA-CWA or EGA techniques (S in clays and coals, Cr or Cd in oxides and sulphides etc.). The DTA of the illite or smectite crystallinity shows to be a good controlling measure for barrier clays around waste disposals. The DTA/TG investigation of organo-clay mineral complexes contributes to the estimation of erosion tendencies in agricultural environments. This is discussed for several pesticide-bentonite complexes.

  1. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, M.; Brusseau, M. L. L.; Artiola, J. F.; Maier, R. M.; Gandolfi, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation and decision-making, and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with contaminated sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites.

  2. Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Education: Environmental Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koether, Marina C.; McGarey, Donald; Patterson, Mark; Williams, Daniel J.

    2002-08-01

    With an NSF grant for an Interdisciplinary Environmental Program, faculty at Kennesaw State University (two chemists, a biologist, and a geographer) collaborated to develop and teach an environmental chemistry laboratory course and an environmental science capstone course. This article describes the details and results of these efforts.

  3. Effects of interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors on moose resource selection and environmental stress

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Heng; Fryxell, John M.; Liu, Hui; Dou, Hongliang; Ma, Yingjie; Jiang, Guangshun

    2017-01-01

    Resource selection of herbivores is a complex ecological process that operates in relation to biological or non-biological factors, which may affect the feeding and movement, and subsequently their spatial distribution and environmental stress. Here, we estimated moose (Alces alces cameloides) resource selection for habitat variables and the effect of interspecific interactions related to roe deer (Capreolus pygargus bedfordi) on its population distribution and environmental stress in the Khingan Mountain region of northeast China at local and regional scales. Different response patterns of moose resource selection, spatial distribution, and environmental stress to interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors were shown at the two scales. A general ecological chain, response of moose to interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors, was exhibited at the regional scale, and at the local scale, heterogeneous responses, linkages of habitat selection and environmental stress of moose population might be driven by different interspecific interaction patterns. Our study firstly suggested that moose resource selection, food availability, diet quality, population density and environmental stress indicators were impacted by interactions with the distribution of other sympatric herbivore species and showed differences in ecological response chains at various spatial scales. These findings are useful for sympatric herbivore assembly conservation, habitat quality monitoring and management. PMID:28128311

  4. Effects of interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors on moose resource selection and environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Bao, Heng; Fryxell, John M; Liu, Hui; Dou, Hongliang; Ma, Yingjie; Jiang, Guangshun

    2017-01-27

    Resource selection of herbivores is a complex ecological process that operates in relation to biological or non-biological factors, which may affect the feeding and movement, and subsequently their spatial distribution and environmental stress. Here, we estimated moose (Alces alces cameloides) resource selection for habitat variables and the effect of interspecific interactions related to roe deer (Capreolus pygargus bedfordi) on its population distribution and environmental stress in the Khingan Mountain region of northeast China at local and regional scales. Different response patterns of moose resource selection, spatial distribution, and environmental stress to interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors were shown at the two scales. A general ecological chain, response of moose to interspecific interaction-linked habitat factors, was exhibited at the regional scale, and at the local scale, heterogeneous responses, linkages of habitat selection and environmental stress of moose population might be driven by different interspecific interaction patterns. Our study firstly suggested that moose resource selection, food availability, diet quality, population density and environmental stress indicators were impacted by interactions with the distribution of other sympatric herbivore species and showed differences in ecological response chains at various spatial scales. These findings are useful for sympatric herbivore assembly conservation, habitat quality monitoring and management.

  5. Environmental variability uncovers disruptive effects of species' interactions on population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Gudmundson, Sara; Eklöf, Anna; Wennergren, Uno

    2015-08-07

    How species respond to changes in environmental variability has been shown for single species, but the question remains whether these results are transferable to species when incorporated in ecological communities. Here, we address this issue by analysing the same species exposed to a range of environmental variabilities when (i) isolated or (ii) embedded in a food web. We find that all species in food webs exposed to temporally uncorrelated environments (white noise) show the same type of dynamics as isolated species, whereas species in food webs exposed to positively autocorrelated environments (red noise) can respond completely differently compared with isolated species. This is owing to species following their equilibrium densities in a positively autocorrelated environment that in turn enables species-species interactions to come into play. Our results give new insights into species' response to environmental variation. They especially highlight the importance of considering both species' interactions and environmental autocorrelation when studying population dynamics in a fluctuating environment.

  6. Environmental variability uncovers disruptive effects of species' interactions on population dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Gudmundson, Sara; Eklöf, Anna; Wennergren, Uno

    2015-01-01

    How species respond to changes in environmental variability has been shown for single species, but the question remains whether these results are transferable to species when incorporated in ecological communities. Here, we address this issue by analysing the same species exposed to a range of environmental variabilities when (i) isolated or (ii) embedded in a food web. We find that all species in food webs exposed to temporally uncorrelated environments (white noise) show the same type of dynamics as isolated species, whereas species in food webs exposed to positively autocorrelated environments (red noise) can respond completely differently compared with isolated species. This is owing to species following their equilibrium densities in a positively autocorrelated environment that in turn enables species–species interactions to come into play. Our results give new insights into species' response to environmental variation. They especially highlight the importance of considering both species' interactions and environmental autocorrelation when studying population dynamics in a fluctuating environment. PMID:26224705

  7. Amphibians as models for studying environmental change.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, William A

    2007-01-01

    The use of amphibians as models in ecological research has a rich history. From an early foundation in studies of amphibian natural history sprang generations of scientists who used amphibians as models to address fundamental questions in population and community ecology. More recently, in the wake of an environment that human disturbances rapidly altered, ecologists have adopted amphibians as models for studying applied ecological issues such as habitat loss, pollution, disease, and global climate change. Some of the characteristics of amphibians that make them useful models for studying these environmental problems are highlighted, including their trophic importance, environmental sensitivity, research tractability, and impending extinction. The article provides specific examples from the recent literature to illustrate how studies on amphibians have been instrumental in guiding scientific thought on a broad scale. Included are examples of how amphibian research has transformed scientific disciplines, generated new theories about global health, called into question widely accepted scientific paradigms, and raised awareness in the general public that our daily actions may have widespread repercussions. In addition, studies on amphibian declines have provided insight into the complexity in which multiple independent factors may interact with one another to produce catastrophic and sometimes unpredictable effects. Because of the complexity of these problems, amphibian ecologists have been among the strongest advocates for interdisciplinary research. Future studies of amphibians will be important not only for their conservation but also for the conservation of other species, critical habitats, and entire ecosystems.

  8. MODELING THE INTERACTION OF AGROCHEMICALS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interactions between agrochemicals and organo-mineral surfaces were studied using molecular mechanical conformational calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine), 2,4-D (1, 2-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), and DD...

  9. Environmental interactions and the SP-100 power system

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Civil Space Technology Initiative High-Capacity-Power Environmental Interactions Program has made great progress in defining and evaluating the interactions of the SP-100 power system with its expected ambient environments. The NASCAP/LEO and POLAR computer codes demonstrated that local electric fields at the user interface module are high. Therefore, particular attention must be paid to geometries and materials in this region to prevent arcing at conductor-insulator junctions in low Earth orbit. NASCAP/LEO and EPSAT computer models revealed that SP-100 payloads float about 100 V negative of the LEO plasma. In addition, ground tests and modeling done for the Space Station Freedom Electrical Grounding Tiger Team found that dielectric coatings often break down at such voltages in a plasma. Thus, surface coatings for SP-100 payloads should be carefully selected. Sputtering may also be a concern for long-duration missions in LEO at these voltages. Much work has been done on a sputtering model to evaluate surface material loss rates on SP-100 payloads. In ground plasma chamber tests of cables and cable insulators at SP-100 voltages, parasitic power losses due to the plasma current collected from possible pinholes or coating defects were quantified and shown to be small. Modeling revealed that the power loss from currents to other surfaces is also small. The atomic oxygen durability of SP-100 materials and coatings continues to be investigated in ground tests. In the upcoming Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-3) Shuttle flight experiment, a host of SP-100 materials will be evaluated for atomic oxygen durability in LEO. Finally, an evaluation of the interactions of the SP-100 power system with lunar and planetary environments has started. At a workshop on chemical and electrical interactions on Mars recently held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, many of primary interactions were identified.

  10. Biological and environmental interactions of emerging two-dimensional nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongying; Zhu, Wenpeng; Qiu, Yang; Yi, Xin; von dem Bussche, Annette; Kane, Agnes; Gao, Huajian; Koski, Kristie; Hurt, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials have become a major focus in materials chemistry research worldwide with substantial efforts centered on synthesis, property characterization, and technological application. These high-aspect ratio sheet-like solids come in a wide array of chemical compositions, crystal phases, and physical forms, and are anticipated to enable a host of future technologies in areas that include electronics, sensors, coatings, barriers, energy storage and conversion, and biomedicine. A parallel effort has begun to understand the biological and environmental interactions of synthetic nanosheets, both to enable the biomedical developments and to ensure human health and safety for all application fields. This review covers the most recent literature on the biological responses to 2D materials and also draws from older literature on natural lamellar minerals to provide additional insight into the essential chemical behaviors. The article proposes a framework for more systematic investigation of biological behavior in the future, rooted in fundamental materials chemistry and physics. That framework considers three fundamental interaction modes: (i) chemical interactions and phase transformations, (ii) electronic and surface redox interactions, and (iii) physical and mechanical interactions that are unique to near-atomically-thin, high-aspect-ratio solids. Two-dimensional materials are shown to exhibit a wide range of behaviors, which reflect the diversity in their chemical compositions, and many are expected to undergo reactive dissolution processes that will be key to understanding their behaviors and interpreting biological response data. The review concludes with a series of recommendations for high-priority research subtopics at the “bio-nanosheet” interface that we hope will enable safe and successful development of technologies related to two-dimensional nanomaterials. PMID:26923057

  11. Studies of food drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Aman, Syed Faisal; Hassan, Fouzia; Naqvi, Baqar S; Hasan, Syed Muhammmad Farid

    2010-07-01

    Medicines can treat and alleviate many diseases provided that they must be taken properly to ensure that they are safe and useful. One issue related with the medicines is that whether to take on empty stomach or with food. The present work gives information regarding food-drug interactions that were studied by collecting seventy five prescriptions from various hospitals. In most of the collected prescriptions, food-drug interactions were detected using the literature available. It was also found that only few studies have been carried out so far on the effect of food on drug disposition in the Asian population. Thus more studies on food-drug interactions particularly in the local population is recommended in order to determine the effect of food and food components on drug disposition and to the kinetics of the drugs which has not yet well highlighted in this part of the world.

  12. An age-size reaction norm yields insight into environmental interactions affecting life-history traits: a factorial study of larval development in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Conan; Rotiberg, Bernard D

    2013-07-01

    Environmental factors frequently act nonindependently to determine growth and development of insects. Because age and size at maturity strongly influence population dynamics, interaction effects among environmental variables complicate the task of predicting dynamics of insect populations under novel conditions. We reared larvae of the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) under three factors relevant to changes in climate and land use: food level, water depth, and temperature. Each factor was held at two levels in a fully crossed design, for eight experimental treatments. Larval survival, larval development time, and adult size (wing length) were measured to indicate the importance of interaction effects upon population-level processes. For age and size at emergence, but not survival, significant interaction effects were detected for all three factors, in addition to sex. Some of these interaction effects can be understood as consequences of how the different factors influence energy usage in the context of a nonindependent relationship between age and size. Experimentally assessing interaction effects for all potential future sets of conditions is intractable. However, considering how different factors affect energy usage within the context of an insect's evolved developmental program can provide insight into the causes of complex environmental effects on populations.

  13. Environmental Issues, A Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bettye G.

    Background information, discussion topics and questions, and suggested readings and references are compiled in this booklet dealing with environmental issues. Designed for integration into the senior high school curriculum, the issues and units are titled: (1) The Earth Develops Its Atmosphers, (2) Energy and Materials: Fundamentals, (3)…

  14. Studying strategic interaction under environmental and economic uncertainties among water users in the Zambezi River Basin - From descriptive analysis to institutional design for better transboundary management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, L.; Siegfried, T. U.; Bernauer, T.

    2009-12-01

    The Zambezi River Basin (ZRB) is one of the largest freshwater catchments in Africa and worldwide. Consumptive water use in the ZRB is currently estimated at 15 - 20 percent of total runoff. This suggests many development possibilities, particularly for irrigated agriculture and hydropower production. The key drivers in the basin are population development on the demand side as well as uncertain impacts from climate change for supply. Development plans of the riparian countries suggest that consumptive water use might increase up to 40 percent of total runoff by 2025. This suggests that expanding water use in the Zambezi basin could become a source of disputes among the eight riparian countries. We study the surface water allocation in the basin by means of a couple hydrological-economic modeling approach. A conceptual lumped-parameter rainfall-runoff model for the ZRB was constructed and calibrated on the best available runoff data for the basin. Water users are modeled based on an agent-based framework and implemented as distributed sequential decision makers that act in an uncertain environment. Given the current non-cooperative status quo, we use the stochastic optimization technique of reinforcement learning to model the individual agents’ behavior. Their goals include the maximization of a) their long-term reward as conditioned on the state of the multi-agent system and b) the immediate reward obtained from operational decisions of reservoirs and water diversions under their control. We feed a wide range of water demand drivers as well as climate change predictions into the model and assess agents’ responses and the resulting implications for runoff at key points in the water catchment, including Victoria Falls, Kariba reservoir, Kafue Gorge, and Cahora Bassa reservoir in the downstream. It will be shown that considerable benefits exist if the current non-cooperative regime is replaced by a basin-wide, coordinated allocation strategy that regulates water

  15. Environmental Reference Series, Earth and Environmental Studies, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutub, Musa, Comp.

    Compiled in this reference work are bibliographic citations for books and articles dealing with the earth and environmental studies. Specific categories are geology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy. Items are indexed only by title but information about author, source, and date of publication is also noted. (BL)

  16. Environmental Contracting: A Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 [Ref. 4] provided the impetus for cradle-to-grave accountability of hazardous materials by industry...Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA, a.k.a. the 1984 RCRA Amendments) and various...Office, Washington, DC, 1976. 4. United States Code. Environmental Policy: Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA).

  17. When environmental factors become stressors: interactive effects of vermetid gastropods and sedimentation on corals.

    PubMed

    Zill, Julie A; Gil, Michael A; Osenberg, Craig W

    2017-03-01

    Environmental stressors often interact, but most studies of multiple stressors have focused on combinations of abiotic stressors. Here we examined the potential interaction between a biotic stressor, the vermetid snail Ceraesignum maximum, and an abiotic stressor, high sedimentation, on the growth of reef-building corals. In a field experiment, we subjected juvenile massive Porites corals to four treatments: (i) neither stressor, (ii) sedimentation, (iii) vermetids or (iv) both stressors. Unexpectedly, we found no effect of either stressor in isolation, but a significant decrease in coral growth in the presence of both stressors. Additionally, seven times more sediment remained on corals in the presence (versus absence) of vermetids, likely owing to adhesion of sediments to corals via vermetid mucus. Thus, vermetid snails and high sedimentation can interact to drive deleterious effects on reef-building corals. More generally, our study illustrates that environmental factors can combine to have negative interactive effects even when individual effects are not detectable. Such 'ecological surprises' may be easily overlooked, leading to environmental degradation that cannot be anticipated through the study of isolated factors.

  18. 25 CFR 212.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental studies. 212.7 Section 212.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT General § 212.7 Environmental studies. The provisions of § 211.7 of this...

  19. 25 CFR 212.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Environmental studies. 212.7 Section 212.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT General § 212.7 Environmental studies. The provisions of § 211.7 of this...

  20. 25 CFR 212.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental studies. 212.7 Section 212.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT General § 212.7 Environmental studies. The provisions of § 211.7 of this...

  1. 25 CFR 212.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental studies. 212.7 Section 212.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT General § 212.7 Environmental studies. The provisions of § 211.7 of this...

  2. 25 CFR 212.7 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental studies. 212.7 Section 212.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT General § 212.7 Environmental studies. The provisions of § 211.7 of this...

  3. 25 CFR 225.24 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental studies. 225.24 Section 225.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.24 Environmental studies. (a) The Secretary...

  4. 25 CFR 225.24 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Environmental studies. 225.24 Section 225.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.24 Environmental studies. (a) The Secretary...

  5. 25 CFR 225.24 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental studies. 225.24 Section 225.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.24 Environmental studies. (a) The Secretary...

  6. 25 CFR 225.24 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental studies. 225.24 Section 225.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.24 Environmental studies. (a) The Secretary...

  7. 25 CFR 225.24 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental studies. 225.24 Section 225.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.24 Environmental studies. (a) The Secretary...

  8. The Environmental Action and Philosophy Matrix: An Exploratory Study of the Environmental Attitudes of Recreation Management and Environmental Studies Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Jeremy R.; Simpson, Steven; Elfessi, Abdulaziz M.

    2011-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis of the environmental philosophies of college undergraduates enrolled in a Midwestern university. Two courses were used for the research, one from a recreation management curriculum and the other from environmental studies. The study utilized a survey instrument called the Environmental Action and Philosophy…

  9. Extraterrestrial Studies Using Nuclear Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides were used to study the recent histories of the aubrite Norton County and the pallasite Brenham using calculated production rates. Calculations were done of the rates for making cosmogenic noble-gas isotopes in the Jovian satellite Europa by the interactions of galactic cosmic rays and especially trapped Jovian protons. Cross sections for the production of cosmogenic nuclides were reported and plans made to measure additional cross sections. A new code, MCNPX, was used to numerically simulate the interactions of cosmic rays with matter and the subsequent production of cosmogenic nuclides. A review was written about studies of extraterrestrial matter using cosmogenic radionuclides. Several other projects were done. Results are reviewed here with references to my recent publications for details.

  10. Indigenous Studies Speaks to Environmental Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Laurie; Middleton, Beth Rose; Gilmer, Robert; Grossman, Zoltán; Janis, Terry; Lucero, Stephanie; Morgan, Tukoroirangi; Watson, Annette

    2013-11-01

    This article describes the increasing connections between the fields of Indigenous studies and environmental management and examines some of the ways that an Indigenous studies perspective can guide thinking about environmental management. Indigenous groups have been involved in the management of environmental and natural resources on their lands since time immemorial. Indigenous groups have also become increasingly involved in Western practices of environmental management with the advent of co-management institutions, subsistence boards, traditional ecological knowledge forums, and environmental issues affecting Indigenous resources. Thus, it is an important time for scholarship that explores how Indigenous groups are both shaping and being affected by processes of environmental management. This article summarizes key findings and themes from eight papers situated at the intersection of these two fields of study and identify means by which environmental managers can better accommodate Indigenous rights and perspectives. It is the authors’ hope that increased dialog between Indigenous studies and environmental management can contribute to the building of sustainable and socially just environmental management practices.

  11. IRAS study of interacting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allam, S.

    1998-04-01

    Interacting galaxies are ideal laboratories for studying the influence of gravitational forces on galaxies. From theoretical and observational studies, we know how sensitive galaxies are to tidal interaction, from the formation of tidal tails, bridges, bursts of star formation up to a complete merging of the galaxies. The Far Infrared (FIR) properties of interacting galaxies give information on the dynamical and physical properties of these systems. Several earlier studies using the IRAS point source catalogue (IPSC) and IRAS Faint Source Survey (FSS), showed that the FIR emission from interacting/merging galaxies is enhanced with respect to isolated non-interacting galaxies; moreover, that high density environments have more influence in producing enhanced FIR emission over isolated interacting systems. In general the ratio of FIR to optical luminosity in interacting systems was found to be enhanced. It is regarded as an increased star formation (SF) rate in these systems. Later on, due to the rather high IPSC detection threshold, and its low resolution, several contradictory results have been reported. In this thesis the FIR emission from interacting galaxies is studied by using the high resolution IRAS software introduced by Bontekoe et al. (1994). This soft ware package uses a Maximum Entropy method (hereafter MaxEnt). The MaxEnt formulation is rooted in Bayesian probability theory. The raw IRAS data contains the Point Spread Function (PSF) of both the telescope mirror (60 cm --> 1 arcmin at 60 μm) and the PSF of the detectors (≃ 5 arcmin). Since there is much redundancy in the data, the MaxEnt routine can be used to remove the 5 arcmin PSF from the detectors. For many interacting galaxies this is enough to resolve them. The size of the images was chosen such that the objects could be studied including their surroundings. The absolute position calibration and flux estimates for the MaxEnt images are described in Allam et al. (1996). Because of the high

  12. Environmental controls, morphodynamic processes, and ecogeomorphic interactions of barchan to parabolic dune transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Na; Baas, Andreas C. W.

    2017-02-01

    The transformation of barchans into parabolic dunes has been observed in various dune systems around the world. Precise details of how environmental controls influence the dune transformation and stabilisation mechanism, however, remain poorly understood. A 'horns-anchoring' mechanism and a 'nebkhas-initiation' mechanism have previously been proposed and selected environmental controls on the transformation have been explored by some modelling efforts, but the morphodynamic processes and eco-geomorphic interactions involved are unclear and comparison between different dune systems is challenging. This study extends a cellular automaton model, informed by empirical data from fieldwork and remote sensing, to fully explore how vegetation characteristics, boundary conditions, and wind regime influence the transformation process and the resulting dune morphologies. A 'dynamic growth function' is introduced for clump-like perennials to differentiate between growing and non-growing seasons and to simulate the development of young plants into mature plants over multiple years. Modelling results show that environmental parameters interact with each other in a complex manner to impact the transformation process. The study finds a fundamental power-law relation between a non-dimensional parameter group, so-called the 'dune stabilising index' (S*), and the normalised migration distance of the transforming dune, which can be used to reconstruct paleo-environmental conditions and monitor the impacts of changes in climate or land-use on a dune system. Four basic eco-geomorphic interaction zones are identified which bear different functionality in the barchan to parabolic dune transformation. The roles of different environmental controls in changing the eco-geomorphic interaction zones, transforming processes, and resulting dune morphologies are also clarified.

  13. Environmental Enrichments for a Group of Captive Macaws: Low Interaction Does Not Mean Low Behavioral Changes.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Jéssica; Maia, Caroline Marques; Santos, Eliana Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enrichment has been widely used to improve conditions for nonhuman animals in captivity. However, there is no consensus about the best way to evaluate the success of enrichments. This study evaluated whether the proportion of time spent interacting with enrichments indicated the proportion of overall behavioral changes. Six environmental enrichments were introduced in succession to 16 captive macaws, and interaction of the animals with them as well as the behaviors of the group were recorded before and during the enrichments. All of the enrichments affected the proportions of time spent in different behaviors. Macaws interacted more with certain items (hibiscus and food tree) than with others (a toy or swings and stairs), but introduction of the enrichments that invoked the least interaction caused as many behavioral changes as those that invoked the most. Moreover, feeding behavior was only affected by the enrichment that invoked the least interaction, a change not detected by a general analysis of enrichment effects. In conclusion, little interaction with enrichment does not mean little change in behavior, and the effects of enrichments are more complex than previously considered.

  14. Summer Undergraduate Research Program: Environmental studies

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. The students are offered research topics at the Medical University in the scientific areas of pharmacology and toxicology, epidemiology and risk assessment, environmental microbiology, and marine sciences. Students are also afforded the opportunity to work with faculty at the University of Charleston, SC, on projects with an environmental theme. Ten well-qualified students from colleges and universities throughout the eastern United States were accepted into the program.

  15. Interactions between environmental changes and brain plasticity in birds.

    PubMed

    Barnea, Anat

    2009-09-01

    Neurogenesis and neuronal recruitment occur in many vertebrates, including humans. Most of the new neurons die before reaching their destination. Those which survive migrate to various brain regions, replace older ones and connect to existing circuits. Evidence suggests that this replacement is related to acquisition of new information. Therefore, neuronal replacement can be seen as a form of brain plasticity that enables organisms to adjust to environmental changes. However, direct evidence of a causal link between replacement and learning remains elusive. Our hypothesis is that increased neuronal recruitment is associated with increase in memory load. Moreover, since neuronal recruitment is part of a turnover process, we assume that the same conditions that favor survival of some neurons induce the death of others. I present studies that investigated the effect of various behaviors and environmental conditions (food-hoarding, social change, reproductive cycle) on neuronal recruitment and survival in adult avian brains, and discuss how these phenomena relate to the life of animals. I offer a frame and rationale for comparing neuronal replacement in the adult brain, in order to uncover the pressures, rules, and mechanisms that govern its constant rejuvenation. The review emphasizes the importance of using various approaches (behavioral, anatomical, cellular and hormonal) in neuroethological research, and the need to study natural populations, in order to fully understand how neurogenesis and neuronal replacement contribute to life of animals. Finally, the review indicates to future directions and ends with the hope that a better understanding of adult neuronal replacement will lead to medical applications.

  16. Do Interactions Between Gut Ecology and Environmental Chemicals Contribute to Obesity and Diabetes?

    PubMed Central

    Snedeker, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Gut microbiota are important factors in obesity and diabetes, yet little is known about their role in the toxicodynamics of environmental chemicals, including those recently found to be obesogenic and diabetogenic. Objectives: We integrated evidence that independently links gut ecology and environmental chemicals to obesity and diabetes, providing a framework for suggesting how these environmental factors may interact with these diseases, and identified future research needs. Methods: We examined studies with germ-free or antibiotic-treated laboratory animals, and human studies that evaluated how dietary influences and microbial changes affected obesity and diabetes. Strengths and weaknesses of studies evaluating how environmental chemical exposures may affect obesity and diabetes were summarized, and research gaps on how gut ecology may affect the disposition of environmental chemicals were identified. Results: Mounting evidence indicates that gut microbiota composition affects obesity and diabetes, as does exposure to environmental chemicals. The toxicology and pharmacology literature also suggests that interindividual variations in gut microbiota may affect chemical metabolism via direct activation of chemicals, depletion of metabolites needed for biotransformation, alteration of host biotransformation enzyme activities, changes in enterohepatic circulation, altered bioavailability of environmental chemicals and/or antioxidants from food, and alterations in gut motility and barrier function. Conclusions: Variations in gut microbiota are likely to affect human toxicodynamics and increase individual exposure to obesogenic and diabetogenic chemicals. Combating the global obesity and diabetes epidemics requires a multifaceted approach that should include greater emphasis on understanding and controlling the impact of interindividual gut microbe variability on the disposition of environmental chemicals in humans. PMID:22042266

  17. Water-module interaction studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mon, G.; Wen, L.; Ross, R., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanisms by which moisture enters photovoltaic modules and techniques for reducing such interactions are reported. Results from a study of the effectiveness of various module sealants are given. Techniques for measuring the rate and quantity of moisture ingress are discussed. It is shown that scribe lines and porous frit bridging conductors provide preferential paths for moisture ingress and that moisture diffusion by surface/interfacial paths is considerably more rapid than diffusion by bulk paths, which implies that thin-film substrate and supersubstrate modules are much more vulnerable to moist environments than are bulk-encapsulated crystalline-silicon modules. Design approaches that reduce moisture entry are discussed.

  18. Environmental Studies and Environmental Careers. ERIC/CSMEE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.

    Increased concern with the environment has increased opportunities for employment in the environmental job market. This digest helps clarify the meaning of environmental employment and discusses aspects of its present state. An examination of trends in environmental employment indicates a growing demand for new jobs in environmental fields created…

  19. SEPAC data analysis in support of the environmental interaction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chin S.

    1991-01-01

    Data analyses of the Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) data and computer modeling were conducted to investigate spacecraft environmental effects associated with injection of electron beams, plasma clouds, and neutral gas clouds from the Shuttle orbiter. The data analysis indicates that Extremely Low Frequency oscillations from 150 to 200 Hz were seen in the Langmuir probe current when the beam was fired in a continuous mode. The strongest oscillations occurred when the ambient pressure was augmented by neutral gas releases from the SEPAC plasma accelerator magnetoplasma-dynamic (MPD) arcjet. To understand the dependence of spacecraft charging potential on beam density and other plasma parameters, a two-dimensional electrostatic particle code was used to simulate the injection of electron beams from an infinite conductor into a plasma. The simulations show that the conductor charging potential depends critically on the reflection coefficient of the conductor surface, which is defined as the percentage of incident particles reflected by the conductor. The ionization effects on spacecraft charging were examined by including interactions of electrons with neutral gas. The simulations show that the conductor charging potential decreases with increasing neutral background density due to the production of secondary electrons near the conductor surface. The simulations also indicate that the beam radius is generally proportional to the beam electron gyroradius when the conductor is charged to a large potential. It appears that the charge buildup at the beam stagnation point causes the beam radial expansion. A survey of the simulation results suggests that the ratio of the beam radius to the beam electron gyroradius increases with the square root of beam density and decreases inversely with beam injection velocity. These results are useful for explaining the spacecraft charging phenomena observed during SEPAC experiments from Spacelab 1.

  20. Outdoor Activities for Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford E.

    This booklet is a compilation of field-tested outdoor activities introducing basic projects for small group or individualized study in monitoring certain aspects of the environment. Its purpose is to provide teachers with new ways to involve children directly in meaningful and developmental learning activities and to help students become more…

  1. The effect of positive interactions on temporal turnover of community composition along an environmental gradient.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youshi; Yang, Zhiyong; Zhou, Shurong; Soininen, Janne; Ai, Dexiecuo; Li, Yali; Chu, Chengjin

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the interplay between negative and positive interactions simultaneously shapes community structure and composition. However, few studies have attempted to examine the effect of facilitation on compositional changes in communities through time. Additionally, due to the difficulties in collecting the long-term data, it would be useful to indicate the rate of temporal turnover using a readily obtainable metric. Using an individual-based model incorporating plant strategies, we examined the role of facilitation on the temporal turnover of communities located at different positions along an environmental gradient for three model scenarios: CM without facilitation; CFM-U, a unimodal relationship between facilitation and environmental severity; and CFM-L, a positively linear relationship between facilitation and environmental severity. Our results demonstrated that facilitation could increase, decrease or have no remarkable effect on temporal turnover. The specific outcome depended on the location of the focal community across the environmental gradient and the model employed. Compared with CM, the inclusion of positive interactions (i.e. CFM-U and CFM-L), at intermediate environmental stress levels (such as S = 0.7 and 0.8) resulted in lower Bray-Curtis similarity values; at other severity levels, facilitation slowed down (such as S = 0.3 and 0.4 at low to medium stress levels, and S = 0.9 at high stress levels) or had only a subtle effect (such as at S = 0.1) on temporal turnover. We also found that the coefficient of variation (CV) in species abundances and the rate of temporal variability showed a significant quadratic relationship. Our theoretical analysis contributes to the understanding of factors driving temporal turnover in biotic communities, and presents a potential metric (i.e. CV in species abundances) assessing the consequences of ongoing environmental change on community structure.

  2. Genetic and environmental control of host-gut microbiota interactions

    PubMed Central

    Org, Elin; Parks, Brian W.; Joo, Jong Wha J.; Emert, Benjamin; Schwartzman, William; Kang, Eun Yong; Mehrabian, Margarete; Pan, Calvin; Knight, Rob; Gunsalus, Robert; Drake, Thomas A.; Eskin, Eleazar; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2015-01-01

    Genetics provides a potentially powerful approach to dissect host-gut microbiota interactions. Toward this end, we profiled gut microbiota using 16s rRNA gene sequencing in a panel of 110 diverse inbred strains of mice. This panel has previously been studied for a wide range of metabolic traits and can be used for high-resolution association mapping. Using a SNP-based approach with a linear mixed model, we estimated the heritability of microbiota composition. We conclude that, in a controlled environment, the genetic background accounts for a substantial fraction of abundance of most common microbiota. The mice were previously studied for response to a high-fat, high-sucrose diet, and we hypothesized that the dietary response was determined in part by gut microbiota composition. We tested this using a cross-fostering strategy in which a strain showing a modest response, SWR, was seeded with microbiota from a strain showing a strong response, A×B19. Consistent with a role of microbiota in dietary response, the cross-fostered SWR pups exhibited a significantly increased response in weight gain. To examine specific microbiota contributing to the response, we identified various genera whose abundance correlated with dietary response. Among these, we chose Akkermansia muciniphila, a common anaerobe previously associated with metabolic effects. When administered to strain A×B19 by gavage, the dietary response was significantly blunted for obesity, plasma lipids, and insulin resistance. In an effort to further understand host-microbiota interactions, we mapped loci controlling microbiota composition and prioritized candidate genes. Our publicly available data provide a resource for future studies. PMID:26260972

  3. Cascading effects of predator-detritivore interactions depend on environmental context in a Tibetan alpine meadow.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinwei; Griffin, John N; Sun, Shucun

    2014-05-01

    Studies of grazing food webs show that species traits can interact with environmental factors to determine the strength of trophic cascades, but analogous context dependencies in detrital food webs remain poorly understood. In predator-detritivore-plant interaction chains, predators are expected to indirectly suppress plant biomass by reducing the density of plant-facilitating detritivores. However, this outcome can be reversed where above-ground predators drive burrowing detritivores to lower soil levels, strengthening their plant-facilitating effects. Here, we show that these trait-mediated indirect interactions further depend on environmental context in a Tibetan alpine meadow. In our study system, undulating topography generates higher (dry soil) patches interspersed with lower (wet soil) patches. Because the ability of detritivores to form deep burrows is likely to be limited by oxygen availability in low patches (wet soil), we hypothesized that (i) burrowing detritivores would undergo a vertical habitat shift, allowing them to more effectively avoid predation, in high - but not low - patches, and (ii) this shift would transmit positive effects of predators to plants in high patches by improving conditions in the lower soil layer. We tested these hypotheses using complementary field and glasshouse experiments examining whether the cascading effects of above-ground predatory beetles (presence/absence) on the density and behaviour of tunnel-forming detritivorous beetles, soil properties, and plant growth varied with patch type (low/high). Results revealed that predatory beetles did not reduce the density of detritivores in either patch type but had context-dependent trait-mediated effects, increasing the tunnelling depth of detritivores, improving soil conditions and ultimately increasing plant biomass in the high but not low patches. This study adds to an emerging predictive framework linking predators to plants in detritus food webs, demonstrating that these

  4. Environmental Connections: A Teacher's Guide to Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deBettencourt, Kathleen B.; Feeney, Matthew; Barone, A. Nicole; White, Keith

    This guide assists teachers who teach an environmental science course or include environmental topics in their curriculum. The guide is intended to help educators and students find resources that enable them to examine issues in greater depth. A brief summary of a number of environmental issues that are often mentioned in textbooks, in the media,…

  5. Theoretical studies of molecular interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, W.A. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    This research program is directed at extending fundamental knowledge of atoms and molecules including their electronic structure, mutual interaction, collision dynamics, and interaction with radiation. The approach combines the use of ab initio methods--Hartree-Fock (HF) multiconfiguration HF, configuration interaction, and the recently developed quantum Monte Carlo (MC)--to describe electronic structure, intermolecular interactions, and other properties, with various methods of characterizing inelastic and reaction collision processes, and photodissociation dynamics. Present activity is focused on the development and application of the QMC method, surface catalyzed reactions, and reorientation cross sections.

  6. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report.

  7. Inferring interactions in complex microbial communities from nucleotide sequence data and environmental parameters

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Yu; Sikorski, Johannes; Bonkowski, Michael; Fiore-Donno, Anna-Maria; Kandeler, Ellen; Marhan, Sven; Boeddinghaus, Runa S.; Solly, Emily F.; Schrumpf, Marion; Schöning, Ingo; Wubet, Tesfaye; Buscot, Francois; Overmann, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Interactions occur between two or more organisms affecting each other. Interactions are decisive for the ecology of the organisms. Without direct experimental evidence the analysis of interactions is difficult. Correlation analyses that are based on co-occurrences are often used to approximate interaction. Here, we present a new mathematical model to estimate the interaction strengths between taxa, based on changes in their relative abundances across environmental gradients. PMID:28288199

  8. Epigenetic, Genetic and Environmental Interactions in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma from Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Fazlur Rahman; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar; Laskar, Ruhina Shirin; Mondal, Rosy

    2013-01-01

    Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) develops as a result of complex epigenetic, genetic and environmental interactions. Epigenetic changes like, promoter hypermethylation of multiple tumour suppressor genes are frequent events in cancer, and certain habit-related carcinogens are thought to be capable of inducing aberrant methylation. However, the effects of environmental carcinogens depend upon the level of metabolism by carcinogen metabolizing enzymes. As such key interactions between habits related factors and carcinogen metabolizing gene polymorphisms towards modulating promoter methylation of genes are likely. However, this remains largely unexplored in ESCC. Here, we studied the interaction of various habits related factors and polymorphism of GSTM1/GSTT1 genes towards inducing promoter hypermethylation of multiple tumour suppressor genes. Methodology/Principal Findings The study included 112 ESCC cases and 130 age and gender matched controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) was used to explore high order interactions. Tobacco chewing and smoking were the major individual risk factors of ESCC after adjusting for all potential confounding factors. With regards to methylation status, significantly higher methylation frequencies were observed in tobacco chewers than non chewers for all the four genes under study (p<0.01). In logistic regression analysis, betel quid chewing, alcohol consumption and null GSTT1 genotypes imparted maximum risk for ESCC without promoter hypermethylation. Whereas, tobacco chewing, smoking and GSTT1 null variants were the most important risk factors for ESCC with promoter hypermethylation. MDR analysis revealed two predictor models for ESCC with promoter hypermethylation (Tobacco chewing/Smoking/Betel quid chewing/GSTT1 null) and ESCC without promoter hypermethylation (Betel quid chewing/Alcohol/GSTT1) with TBA of 0.69 and 0

  9. Interactions between Financial and Environmental Networks in OECD Countries.

    PubMed

    Ruzzenenti, Franco; Joseph, Andreas; Ticci, Elisa; Vozzella, Pietro; Gabbi, Giampaolo

    2015-01-01

    We analysed a multiplex of financial and environmental networks between OECD countries from 2002 to 2010. Foreign direct investments and portfolio investment showing the flows in equity securities, short-term, long-term and total debt, these securities represent the financial layers; emissions of NOx, PM10, SO2, CO2 equivalent and the water footprint associated with international trade represent the environmental layers. We present a new measure of cross-layer correlations between flows in different layers based on reciprocity. For the assessment of results, we implement a null model for this measure based on the exponential random graph theory. We find that short-term financial flows are more correlated with environmental flows than long-term investments. Moreover, the correlations between reverse financial and environmental flows (i.e. the flows of different layers going in opposite directions) are generally stronger than correlations between synergic flows (flows going in the same direction). This suggests a trade-off between financial and environmental layers, where, more financialised countries display higher correlations between outgoing financial flows and incoming environmental flows than from lower financialised countries. Five countries are identified as hubs in this finance-environment multiplex: The United States, France, Germany, Belgium-Luxembourg and United Kingdom.

  10. Interactions between Financial and Environmental Networks in OECD Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ruzzenenti, Franco; Joseph, Andreas; Ticci, Elisa; Vozzella, Pietro; Gabbi, Giampaolo

    2015-01-01

    We analysed a multiplex of financial and environmental networks between OECD countries from 2002 to 2010. Foreign direct investments and portfolio investment showing the flows in equity securities, short-term, long-term and total debt, these securities represent the financial layers; emissions of NOx, PM10, SO2, CO2 equivalent and the water footprint associated with international trade represent the environmental layers. We present a new measure of cross-layer correlations between flows in different layers based on reciprocity. For the assessment of results, we implement a null model for this measure based on the exponential random graph theory. We find that short-term financial flows are more correlated with environmental flows than long-term investments. Moreover, the correlations between reverse financial and environmental flows (i.e. the flows of different layers going in opposite directions) are generally stronger than correlations between synergic flows (flows going in the same direction). This suggests a trade-off between financial and environmental layers, where, more financialised countries display higher correlations between outgoing financial flows and incoming environmental flows than from lower financialised countries. Five countries are identified as hubs in this finance-environment multiplex: The United States, France, Germany, Belgium-Luxembourg and United Kingdom. PMID:26375393

  11. Environmental influences on virus-host interactions in an Australian subtropical reservoir.

    PubMed

    Säwström, Christin; Pollard, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Viral and prokaryotic interactions in freshwaters have been investigated worldwide but there are few temporal studies in the tropics and none in the sub-tropics. In this 10-month study, we examined temporal changes in virus-host interactions and viral life cycles (lytic versus lysogenic) in relation to the prevailing environmental conditions in a subtropical water reservoir (Wivenhoe) in southeast Queensland, Australia. Heterotrophic prokaryotes and picocyanobacteria were positively correlated with concentrations of viruses throughout the study, indicating the presence of both bacteriophages and cyanophages in the reservoir. The percentage of heterotrophic prokaryotes and picocyanobacteria containing intracellular viruses (FVIC) ranged between 0.2% and 2.4% and did not vary significantly over the 10-month study, whereas lysogenic heterotrophic prokaryotes were only detected in the drier months of June and July. Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that the oxidative-reduction potential (ORP) of the water reservoir influenced the concentrations of viruses, heterotrophic prokaryotes and picocyanobacteria significantly, with low ORP offering a favourable environment for these components. There was a negative relationship between FVIC and rainfall suggesting the associated run-off altered virus-host interactions. Overall, our study provides novel information and inferences on how virus-host interactions in subtropical freshwaters might respond to changes in precipitation predicted to occur with global climate change.

  12. Environmental factors and interactions affecting the temporal abundance of juvenile flatfish in the Thames Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, M.; Attrill, M. J.; Thomas, R. M.

    2000-05-01

    Samples taken regularly from the intake screens of West Thurrock power station between January 1977 and November 1992 were used to investigate the factors controlling flatfish abundance (flounder: Platichthys flesus; dab: Limanda limanda; plaice: Pleuronectes platessa; sole: Solea solea) in the middle Thames estuary. Most sampled fish were age-0. All species followed regular patterns of seasonal occurrence, had distinctive seasonal abundance peaks and demonstrated only minimal temporal overlap. Multiple-regression models were used to study the relationship between physico-chemical variables, physico-chemical variable interactions, trends and seasonal factors on fluctuations in flatfish sample abundance. Flounder abundance was significantly influenced by temperature, suspended solids, oxygen-flow and oxygen-temperature interactions, trend and seasonal variables. Dab abundance was significantly related to suspended solids, oxygen-flow, oxygen-temperature and flow-chlorinity interactions, Crangon crangon abundance and seasonal variables. Sole abundance was controlled only by seasonal variables, whilst plaice abundance could not be adequately explained by the available physico-chemical data. The combination of variables affecting flatfish abundance indicates species using the estuary were affected by a complex set of events within the estuary. The interactions between routinely measured environmental variables further suggest that estuarine monitoring studies must attempt to understand the nature of possible interactions between variables if an improved understanding of the changes in estuarine fish communities resulting from human activity is to be gained.

  13. Environmental constraints upon locomotion and predator-prey interactions in aquatic organisms: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Domenici, P; Claireaux, G; McKenzie, D J

    2007-11-29

    Environmental constraints in aquatic habitats have become topics of concern to both the scientific community and the public at large. In particular, coastal and freshwater habitats are subject to dramatic variability in various environmental factors, as a result of both natural and anthropogenic processes. The protection and sustainable management of all aquatic habitats requires greater understanding of how environmental constraints influence aquatic organisms. Locomotion and predator-prey interactions are intimately linked and fundamental to the survival of mobile aquatic organisms. This paper summarizes the main points from the review and research articles which comprise the theme issue 'Environmental constraints upon locomotion and predator-prey interactions in aquatic organisms'. The articles explore how natural and anthropogenic factors can constrain these two fundamental activities in a diverse range of organisms from phytoplankton to marine mammals. Some major environmental constraints derive from the intrinsic properties of the fluid and are mechanical in nature, such as viscosity and flow regime. Other constraints derive from direct effects of factors, such as temperature, oxygen content of the water or turbidity, upon the mechanisms underlying the performance of locomotion and predator-prey interactions. The effect of these factors on performance at the tissue and organ level is reflected in constraints upon performance of the whole organism. All these constraints can influence behaviour. Ultimately, they can have an impact on ecological performance. One issue that requires particular attention is how factors such as temperature and oxygen can exert different constraints on the physiology and behaviour of different taxa and the ecological implications of this. Given the multiplicity of constraints, the complexity of their interactions, and the variety of biological levels at which they can act, there is a clear need for integration between the fields of

  14. Reaction norm model with unknown environmental covariate to analyze heterosis by environment interaction.

    PubMed

    Su, G; Madsen, P; Lund, M S

    2009-05-01

    Crossbreeding is currently increasing in dairy cattle production. Several studies have shown an environment-dependent heterosis [i.e., an interaction between heterosis and environment (H x E)]. An H x E interaction is usually estimated from a few discrete environment levels. The present study proposes a reaction norm model to describe H x E interaction, which can deal with a large number of environment levels using few parameters. In the proposed model, total heterosis consists of an environment-independent part, which is described as a function of heterozygosity, and an environment-dependent part, which is described as a function of heterozygosity and environmental value (e.g., herd-year effect). A Bayesian approach is developed to estimate the environmental covariates, the regression coefficients of the reaction norm, and other parameters of the model simultaneously in both linear and nonlinear reaction norms. In the nonlinear reaction norm model, the H x E is approximated using linear splines. The approach was tested using simulated data, which were generated using an animal model with a reaction norm for heterosis. The simulation study includes 4 scenarios (the combinations of moderate vs. low heritability and moderate vs. low herd-year variation) of H x E interaction in a nonlinear form. In all scenarios, the proposed model predicted total heterosis very well. The correlation between true heterosis and predicted heterosis was 0.98 in the scenarios with low herd-year variation and 0.99 in the scenarios with moderate herd-year variation. This suggests that the proposed model and method could be a good approach to analyze H x E interactions and predict breeding values in situations in which heterosis changes gradually and continuously over an environmental gradient. On the other hand, it was found that a model ignoring H x E interaction did not significantly harm the prediction of breeding value under the simulated scenarios in which the variance for environment

  15. [Ecological studies in environmental health: Beyond epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Becerra, Luis C; Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos E; Idrovo, Álvaro J

    2015-08-01

    Ecological studies provide important and frequent sources of evidence of environmental health, since their unit of analysis is populations. This review summarizes the foundations of ecological studies with the premise that they can be performed using quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods. It presents the logic behind their design, their role in exploring causality, the variables and categories of analysis and the design principles and techniques used to collect data. Examples of ecological studies performed in Latin America are then presented, as well as some common methodological problems and options to address them. Lastly, the relevance of quantitative and qualitative ecological studies to environmental health as a way to overcome the dominance of conceptual and methodological individualism is highlighted, though ecological studies alone do not suffice for studying population health.

  16. Unraveling the environmental and genetic interactions in atherosclerosis: Central role of the gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Org, Elin; Mehrabian, Margarete; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have convincingly linked gut microbiota to traits relevant to atherosclerosis, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and inflammation, and have revealed novel disease pathways involving microbe-derived metabolites. These results have important implications for understanding how environmental and genetic factors act together to influence cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Thus, dietary constituents are not only absorbed and metabolized by the host but they also perturb the gut microbiota, which in turn influence host metabolism and inflammation. It also appears that host genetics helps to shape the gut microbiota community. Here, we discuss challenges in understanding these interactions and the role they play in CVD. PMID:26071662

  17. Unraveling the environmental and genetic interactions in atherosclerosis: Central role of the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Org, Elin; Mehrabian, Margarete; Lusis, Aldons J

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have convincingly linked gut microbiota to traits relevant to atherosclerosis, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and inflammation, and have revealed novel disease pathways involving microbe-derived metabolites. These results have important implications for understanding how environmental and genetic factors act together to influence cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Thus, dietary constituents are not only absorbed and metabolized by the host but they also perturb the gut microbiota, which in turn influence host metabolism and inflammation. It also appears that host genetics helps to shape the gut microbiota community. Here, we discuss challenges in understanding these interactions and the role they play in CVD.

  18. Pathways of Understanding: the Interactions of Humanity and Global Environmental Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Harold K.; Katzenberger, John; Lousma, Jack; Mooney, Harold A.; Moss, Richard H.; Kuhn, William; Luterbacher, Urs; Wiegandt, Ellen

    1992-01-01

    How humans, interacting within social systems, affect and are affected by global change is explored. Recognizing the impact human activities have on the environment and responding to the need to document the interactions among human activities, the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) commissioned a group of 12 scientists to develop a framework illustrating the key human systems that contribute to global change. This framework, called the Social Process Diagram, will help natural and social scientists, educators, resource managers and policy makers envision and analyze how human systems interact among themselves and with the natural system. The Social Process Diagram consists of the following blocks that constitute the Diagram's structural framework: (1) fund of knowledge and experience; (2) preferences and expectations; (3) factors of production and technology; (4) population and social structure; (5) economic systems; (6) political systems and institutions; and (7) global scale environmental processes. To demonstrate potential ways the Diagram can be used, this document includes 3 hypothetical scenarios of global change issues: global warming and sea level rise; the environmental impact of human population migration; and energy and the environment. These scenarios demonstrate the Diagram's usefulness for visualizing specific processes that might be studied to evaluate a particular global change issues. The scenario also shows that interesting and unanticipated questions may emerge as links are explored between categories on the Diagram.

  19. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  20. Jupiter Environmental Research & Field Studies Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttemeyer, Bob

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development and workings of the Jupiter Environmental Research and Field Studies Academy that focuses on enabling both teachers and students to participate in real-life learning experiences. Discusses qualifications for admittance, curriculum, location, ongoing projects, students, academics, preparation for life, problem solving, and…

  1. A CASE STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL DATA MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to support our ongoing research in watershed ecology and global climate change, we gather and analyze environmental data from several government agencies. This case study demonstrates a researcher’s approach to accessing, organizing, and using intersectoral data. T...

  2. Stakeholder Interaction in Participatory Land Restoration in Iceland: Environmental Officers' Challenges and Strategies.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Brita; Hallgren, Lars; Aradóttir, Ása L

    2015-08-01

    Participatory approaches involve stakeholder interaction but environmental agency employees engaged in participatory undertakings often lack training for interaction tasks. This study explored how district officers at the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland (SCSI) experienced and dealt with stakeholder interaction in participatory land restoration. We made semi-structured interviews with all district officers with at least 1-year experience; seven in total. A thematic content analysis revealed five challenges facing the officers in their interaction activities and seven strategies that they used to deal with these challenges. The core challenge was to establish and maintain contacts with farmers and other stakeholders as it enabled the SCSI to support and influence their land restoration practices. Other challenges were to: accomplish SCSI's objectives; represent the SCSI and the government; have adequate skills, knowledge, and background; and deal with one's own emotions. Four of the strategies seemed to promote collaboration: create win-win scenarios; "go local"; direct and positive communication; and motivation and knowledge sharing. The other strategies: supportive district officer team; self-reliance and personal background; and self-control supported the officers in their interaction tasks. Factors undermining their collaboration efforts included insufficient time and other resources, an unsupportive organizational culture and a legal duty to assess the condition of vegetation cover on farmland. Increased resource allocation to the SCSI's local operations, more attention to emotional issues, and efforts to develop a more flexible and learning organizational culture that supports collaboration could counteract these factors.

  3. Stakeholder Interaction in Participatory Land Restoration in Iceland: Environmental Officers' Challenges and Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglund, Brita; Hallgren, Lars; Aradóttir, Ása L.

    2015-08-01

    Participatory approaches involve stakeholder interaction but environmental agency employees engaged in participatory undertakings often lack training for interaction tasks. This study explored how district officers at the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland (SCSI) experienced and dealt with stakeholder interaction in participatory land restoration. We made semi-structured interviews with all district officers with at least 1-year experience; seven in total. A thematic content analysis revealed five challenges facing the officers in their interaction activities and seven strategies that they used to deal with these challenges. The core challenge was to establish and maintain contacts with farmers and other stakeholders as it enabled the SCSI to support and influence their land restoration practices. Other challenges were to: accomplish SCSI's objectives; represent the SCSI and the government; have adequate skills, knowledge, and background; and deal with one's own emotions. Four of the strategies seemed to promote collaboration: create win-win scenarios; "go local"; direct and positive communication; and motivation and knowledge sharing. The other strategies: supportive district officer team; self-reliance and personal background; and self-control supported the officers in their interaction tasks. Factors undermining their collaboration efforts included insufficient time and other resources, an unsupportive organizational culture and a legal duty to assess the condition of vegetation cover on farmland. Increased resource allocation to the SCSI's local operations, more attention to emotional issues, and efforts to develop a more flexible and learning organizational culture that supports collaboration could counteract these factors.

  4. Environmental and radiological-safety studies: interaction of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, January 1-March 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, G.M.; Patterson, J.H.

    1982-06-01

    Although existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator designs have proved more than adequately safe, more information is continually sought about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work here includes studies of the effects on the heat sources of terrestrial and aquatic environments and also of the effects of the heat sources on various simulated environments. This progress report presents recent data from environmental chamber and aquatic experiments and gives the present status of the experiments.

  5. SEPAC data analysis in support of the environmental interaction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chin S.

    1990-01-01

    Injections of nonrelativistic electron beams from an isolated equipotential conductor into a uniform background of plasma and neutral gas were simulated using a two dimensional electrostatic particle code. The ionization effects of spacecraft charging are examined by including interactions of electrons with neutral gas. The simulations show that the conductor charging potential decreases with increasing neutral background density due to the production of secondary electrons near the conductor surface. In the spacecraft wake, the background electrons accelerated towards the charged space craft produced an enhancement of secondary electrons and ions. Simulations run for longer times indicate that the spacecraft potential is further reduced and short wavelength beam-plasma oscillations appear. The results are applied to explain the space craft charging potential measured during the SEPAC experiments from Spacelab 1. A second paper is presented in which a two dimensional electrostatic particle code was used to study the beam radial expansion of a nonrelativistic electron beam injected from an isolated equipotential conductor into a background plasma. The simulations indicate that the beam radius is generally proportional to the beam electron gyroradius when the conductor is charged to a large potential. The simulations also suggest that the charge buildup at the beam stagnation point causes the beam radial expansion. From a survey of the simulation results, it is found that the ratio of the beam radius to the beam electron gyroradius increases with the square root of beam density and decreases inversely with beam injection velocity. This dependence is explained in terms of the ratio of the beam electron Debye length to the ambient electron Debye length. These results are most applicable to the SEPAC electron beam injection experiments from Spacelab 1, where high charging potential was observed.

  6. Habitat Study. Transect Study. [Environmental Education Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    These three documents outline teaching activities intended to involve children with their environment. Suggested preliminary studies to motivate and familiarize elementary school students with some characteristics of organisms and their physical environment are followed by descriptions of class activities that may be undertaken in the field.…

  7. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Handcock, Rebecca N.; Swain, Dave L.; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J.; Patison, Kym P.; Wark, Tim; Valencia, Philip; Corke, Peter; O'Neill, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle. PMID:22412327

  8. Environmental factors as modulators of neurodegeneration: insights from gene-environment interactions in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Mo, Christina; Hannan, Anthony J; Renoir, Thibault

    2015-05-01

    Unlike many other neurodegenerative diseases with established gene-environment interactions, Huntington's disease (HD) is viewed as a disorder governed by genetics. The cause of the disease is a highly penetrant tandem repeat expansion encoding an extended polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. In the year 2000, a pioneering study showed that the disease could be delayed in transgenic mice by enriched housing conditions. This review describes subsequent human and preclinical studies identifying environmental modulation of motor, cognitive, affective and other symptoms found in HD. Alongside the behavioral observations we also discuss potential mechanisms and the relevance to other neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. In mouse models of HD, increased sensorimotor and cognitive stimulation can delay or ameliorate various endophenotypes. Potential mechanisms include increased trophic support, synaptic plasticity, adult neurogenesis, and other forms of experience-dependent cellular plasticity. Subsequent clinical investigations support a role for lifetime activity levels in modulating the onset and progression of HD. Stress can accelerate memory and olfactory deficits and exacerbate cellular dysfunctions in HD mice. In the absence of effective treatments to slow the course of HD, environmental interventions offer feasible approaches to delay the disease, however further preclinical and human studies are needed in order to generate clinical recommendations. Environmental interventions could be combined with future pharmacological therapies and stimulate the identification of enviromimetics, drugs which mimic or enhance the beneficial effects of cognitive stimulation and physical activity.

  9. High-Frequency Sound Interaction in Ocean Sediments: Modeling Environmental Controls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    High-Frequency Sound Interaction in Ocean Sediments: Modeling Environmental Controls Michael Richardson Kevin Briggs Dawn Lavoie Dale Bibee Naval...SUBTITLE High-Frequency Sound Interaction in Ocean Sediments: Modeling Environmental Controls 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...rectangle centered at 30° 07.23’N; 85° 47.54’W was sampled using normal-incidence echo sounding , side-scan sonar, bottom photography with stereo and

  10. Interactions of aging and environmental agents: the gerontological perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    This article attempts to briefly review the current status of knowledge of biogerontology as a basis for a beginning set of discussions on the potential roles of environmental agents in the modulation of rates of aging in man. The article has tried to summarize what the toxicologist should know about gerontology, whereas a companion review, by Dr. Jerry Williams, summarizes what the gerontologist should know about toxicity. The review begins by defining some basic terminology, including introduction of the term gerontogens for those putative environmental agents that may in fact modulate the times of onset and/or rates of development of specific aspects of the senescent phenotype. That phenotype is then briefly described from the level of populations to the level of molecules, including an organ systems approach with emphasis on what is observed in humans. Among the important points that emerge from this description are: the variety of phenotypic alterations; the multiplicity of phenotypic alterations in any one aged individual; the special vulnerability in humans of the arterial system; the loss of proliferative homeostasis; the decline in the efficiency of enzyme adaptation; the decline in protein synthesis; the increasing evidence of post-translational modifications of proteins and DNA; the evidence for chromosomal instability (and, therefore, the potential importance of environmental clastogens). Arguments for a genetic basis for differential rates of aging are then developed, and a number of genotropic theories of aging are tabulated. It is concluded that no single theory is supported by a preponderance of evidence. 155 references.

  11. Environmental Education for the Masses: Lessons from a Large, General Enrollment Environmental Studies Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wixon, Devin L.; Balser, Teri C.

    2012-01-01

    One critical tool for creating an environmentally literate citizenry is to reach students other than those in environmental-related majors in the form of the university-level large introductory environmental studies course. In this study, we relate student academic background to initial and final environmental awareness results. We found that…

  12. Mucociliary Interaction in the Tracheobronchial Tree and Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlesinger, Richard B.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the interaction of the various factors involved in the normal functioning of the mucociliary system of the human respiratory tract. The mucociliary system constitutes a major mammalian defense against dangerous inhaled particles by acting to collect, transport, and eventually eliminate such materials from the tracheobronchial tree. (JR)

  13. Micro-Environmental Signature of The Interactions between Druggable Target Protein, Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV, and Anti-Diabetic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Mallick, Bidyut; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Sharma, Garima; Jagga, Supriya; Doss, C George Priya; Nam, Ju-Suk; Lee, Sang-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Objective Druggability of a target protein depends on the interacting micro-environment between the target protein and drugs. Therefore, a precise knowledge of the interacting micro-environment between the target protein and drugs is requisite for drug discovery process. To understand such micro-environment, we performed in silico interaction analysis between a human target protein, Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV (DPP-4), and three anti-diabetic drugs (saxagliptin, linagliptin and vildagliptin). Materials and Methods During the theoretical and bioinformatics analysis of micro-environmental properties, we performed drug-likeness study, protein active site predictions, docking analysis and residual interactions with the protein-drug interface. Micro-environmental landscape properties were evaluated through various parameters such as binding energy, intermolecular energy, electrostatic energy, van der Waals’+H-bond+desolvo energy (EVHD) and ligand efficiency (LE) using different in silico methods. For this study, we have used several servers and software, such as Molsoft prediction server, CASTp server, AutoDock software and LIGPLOT server. Results Through micro-environmental study, highest log P value was observed for linagliptin (1.07). Lowest binding energy was also observed for linagliptin with DPP-4 in the binding plot. We also identified the number of H-bonds and residues involved in the hydrophobic interactions between the DPP-4 and the anti-diabetic drugs. During interaction, two H-bonds and nine residues, two H-bonds and eleven residues as well as four H-bonds and nine residues were found between the saxagliptin, linagliptin as well as vildagliptin cases and DPP-4, respectively. Conclusion Our in silico data obtained for drug-target interactions and micro-environmental signature demonstrates linagliptin as the most stable interacting drug among the tested anti-diabetic medicines. PMID:28367418

  14. The environmental interactions of tidal and wave energy generation devices

    SciTech Connect

    Frid, Chris; Andonegi, Eider; Judd, Adrian; Rihan, Dominic; Rogers, Stuart I.; Kenchington, Ellen

    2012-01-15

    Global energy demand continues to grow and tidal and wave energy generation devices can provide a significant source of renewable energy. Technological developments in offshore engineering and the rising cost of traditional energy means that offshore energy resources will be economic in the next few years. While there is now a growing body of data on the ecological impacts of offshore wind farms, the scientific basis on which to make informed decisions about the environmental effects of other offshore energy developments is lacking. Tidal barrages have the potential to cause significant ecological impacts particularly on bird feeding areas when they are constructed at coastal estuaries or bays. Offshore tidal stream energy and wave energy collectors offer the scope for developments at varying scales. They also have the potential to alter habitats. A diversity of designs exist, including floating, mid-water column and seabed mounted devices, with a variety of moving-part configurations resulting in a unique complex of potential environmental effects for each device type, which are discussed to the extent possible. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We review the environmental impacts of tidal barrages and fences, tidal stream farms and wave energy capture devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impacts on habitats, species and the water column, and effects of noise and electromagnetic fields are considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tidal barrages can cause significant impacts on bird feeding areas when constructed at coastal estuaries or bays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wave energy collectors can alter water column and sea bed habitats locally and over large distances.

  15. Environmental injustice: case studies from the South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifuentes, Enrique; Frumkin, Howard

    2007-10-01

    We selected three case studies to illustrate environmental injustice issues in the South. These examples relate to migrant agricultural workers, the maquiladora industry and artisanal mining, while reviewing some of the major mechanisms involved, e.g. multinational corporations, the development of free trade zones, multilateral free trade agreements and the export of hazards. A series of strategies are discussed in order to address environmental injustice and health disparities that exist on a global scale. Some of the recommendations involve policy initiatives; others, such as research and mentorship, fall within the traditional domain of public health practice. In this paper, special attention is given to concerned environmental and occupational health professionals using evidence-based data for advocacy. For lasting changes to be made, however, stronger institutions and legislation are required. Those who have the 'right to know' about environmental injustice issues include communities of concern, workers' representatives and lawyers. Government officials and company officials may eventually work on the basis of conflict resolution, compensation and remediation, to quote some examples. Systematic approaches to protect both the environment and public health must be updated.

  16. Environmental Studies at the Guiana Space Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Sandrine

    2013-09-01

    The Environmental Commitment of the French Space Agency at the Guiana Space Centre (CNES / CSG) specifies that the environmental protection is a major stake. Consequently, CNES participates in numerous space programs that contribute significantly to a better knowledge, management and protection of our environment at a global scale.The studies and researches that are done at CNES / CSG meet several objectives:* Assessment of safety and environmental effects and risk related to the effects overflowing due to a pollution caused by ground and flight activities* Improvement of the studies related to the knowledge of the environment (flora and fauna monitoring).* Risk assessment and management which may affect the safety of people , property, and protection of public health and environment * Verification of the compliance of the results of impact studies of launch vehicle in flight phase provided by the launch operator (Technical Regulation) with the French Safety Operational Acts.In this note, study and research programs are presented. They allow a better knowledge of the surrounding environment and of impacts caused by the industrial activities done in Guiana Space Center.

  17. Environmental awareness -- An interactive multimedia CD-ROM

    SciTech Connect

    Huntelmann, A.; Petruk, M.W.

    1998-07-01

    As corporations move to new and innovative ways of structuring high-performance work teams, effective training is being recognized as a key to insuring success. Time and scheduling constraints tend to limit the effectiveness of traditional approaches to training. This has led Edmonton Power Inc. to explore the use of CD-ROM based multimedia as a means of delivering individualized instruction in an effective and timely manner. This session will demonstrate a multimedia CD-ROM based course on Environmental Awareness designed for workers in the electrical utilities industry. The objective of the course is to make workers aware of their roles and responsibilities with respect to their impact on the environment. This session will also describe the instructional design strategy underlying this approach to training and will present some preliminary findings with respect to the effectiveness of this approach. Individuals who are interested in improving the effectiveness of their environmental training program as well as individuals who are interested in understanding the strengths of multimedia CD-ROM based training will find this session useful and informative.

  18. Environmental Studies on Titanium Aluminide Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, William J.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Smialek, James L.; Brady, Michael P.

    2005-01-01

    Titanium aluminides are attractive alternatives to superalloys in moderate temperature applications (600 to 850 C) by virtue of their high strength-to-density ratio (high specific strength). These alloys are also more ductile than competing intermetallic systems. However, most Ti-based alloys tend to degrade through interstitial embrittlement and rapid oxidation during exposure to elevated temperatures. Therefore, their environmental behavior must be thoroughly investigated before they can be developed further. The goals of titanium aluminide environmental studies at the NASA Lewis Research Center are twofold: characterize the degradation mechanisms for advanced structural alloys and determine what means are available to minimize degradation. The studies to date have covered the alpha 2 (Ti3Al), orthorhombic (Ti2AlNb), and gamma (TiAl) classes of alloys.

  19. Environmental dependency of amphibian–ranavirus genotypic interactions: evolutionary perspectives on infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Echaubard, Pierre; Leduc, Joel; Pauli, Bruce; Chinchar, V Gregory; Robert, Jacques; Lesbarrères, David

    2014-01-01

    The context-dependent investigations of host–pathogen genotypic interactions, where environmental factors are explicitly incorporated, allow the assessment of both coevolutionary history and contemporary ecological influences. Such a functional explanatory framework is particularly valuable for describing mortality trends and identifying drivers of disease risk more accurately. Using two common North American frog species (Lithobates pipiens and Lithobates sylvaticus) and three strains of frog virus 3 (FV3) at different temperatures, we conducted a laboratory experiment to investigate the influence of host species/genotype, ranavirus strains, temperature, and their interactions, in determining mortality and infection patterns. Our results revealed variability in host susceptibility and strain infectivity along with significant host–strain interactions, indicating that the outcome of an infection is dependent on the specific combination of host and virus genotypes. Moreover, we observed a strong influence of temperature on infection and mortality probabilities, revealing the potential for genotype–genotype–environment interactions to be responsible for unexpected mortality in this system. Our study thus suggests that amphibian hosts and ranavirus strains genetic characteristics should be considered in order to understand infection outcomes and that the investigation of coevolutionary mechanisms within a context-dependent framework provides a tool for the comprehensive understanding of disease dynamics. PMID:25469155

  20. Polyyne electronic and vibrational properties under environmental interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanko, Marius; Cahangirov, Seymur; Shi, Lei; Rohringer, Philip; Lapin, Zachary J.; Novotny, Lukas; Ayala, Paola; Pichler, Thomas; Rubio, Angel

    2016-11-01

    Recently the novel system of linear carbon chains inside double-walled carbon nanotubes has extended the length of s p1 hybridized carbon chains from 44 to thousands of atoms [Shi et al., Nat. Mater. 15, 634 (2016), 10.1038/nmat4617]. The optoelectronic properties of these ultralong chains are poorly described by current theoretical models, which are based on short chain experimental data and assume a constant environment. As such, a physical understanding of the system in terms of charge transfer and van der Waals interactions is widely missing. We provide a reference for the intrinsic Raman frequency of polyynes in vacuo and explicitly describe the interactions between polyynes and carbon nanotubes. We find that van der Waals interactions strongly shift this frequency, which has been neither expected nor described for other intramolecular C-C stretching vibrations. As a consequence of charge transfer from the tube to the chain, the Raman response of long chains is qualitatively different from the known phonon dispersion of polymers close to the Γ point. Based on these findings we show how to correctly interpret the Raman data, considering the nanotube's properties. This is essential for its use as an analytical tool to optimize the growth process for future applications.

  1. Course Descriptions in Environmental Studies Part One: Historical Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Donald; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents descriptions (syllabi, outlines, goals) of selected environmental studies courses which approach the discipline from an historical and humanistic perspective. Areas explored in the courses include human ecology, American environmental history, environmental politics, and others. (JN)

  2. An interactive environmental model for economic growth: evidence from a panel of countries.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Suresh; Hishan, Sanil S; Nabi, Agha Amad; Arshad, Zeeshan; Kanjanapathy, Malini; Zaman, Khalid; Khan, Faisal

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to determine an interactive environmental model for economic growth that would be supported by the "sustainability principles" across the globe. The study examines the relationship between environmental pollutants (i.e., carbon dioxide emission, sulfur dioxide emission, mono-nitrogen oxide, and nitrous oxide emission); population growth; energy use; trade openness; per capita food production; and it's resulting impact on the real per capita GDP and sectoral growth (i.e., share of agriculture, industry, and services in GDP) in a panel of 34 high-income OECD, high-income non-OECD, and Europe and Central Asian countries, for the period of 1995-2014. The results of the panel fixed effect regression show that per capita GDP are influenced by sulfur dioxide emission, population growth, and per capita food production variability, while energy and trade openness significantly increases per capita income of the region. The results of the panel Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) show that carbon dioxide emission significantly decreases the share of agriculture and industry in GDP, while it further supports the share of services sector to GDP. Both the sulfur dioxide and mono-nitrogen oxide emission decreases the share of services in GDP; nitrous oxide decreases the share of industry in GDP; while mono-nitrogen oxide supports the industrial activities. The following key growth-specific results has been obtained from the panel SUR estimation, i.e., (i) Both the food production per capita and trade openness significantly associated with the increasing share of agriculture, (ii) food production and energy use significantly increases the service sectors' productivity; (iii) food production decreases the industrial activities; (iv) trade openness decreases the share of services to GDP while it supports the industrial share to GDP; and finally, (v) energy demand decreases along with the increase agricultural share in the region. The results emphasize the need for

  3. Environmental Studies Continuum K-12. Interdisciplinary Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrasher, William; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist curriculum developers, subject area specialists, and teachers in identifying environmental activities and learning aids appropriate for various grade levels. The guide attempts to integrate all grade levels by using the same conceptual scheme throughout the primary, intermediate, middle, and secondary levels. This…

  4. Environmental interactions of hydrazine fuels in soil/water systems. Final report, March 1985-September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Street, J.; Johnston, C.; Mansell, R.; Bloom, S.

    1988-10-01

    Because the Air Force is the primary user of the rocket fuels, hydrazine (Hz), monomethylhydrazine (MMH), and 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), it is responsible for the environmental implications associated with the transport, storage, and handling of these fuels. During handling, hydrazine fuels could inadvertently be released to the atmosphere and the surrounding aqueous and terrestrial environments. The studies are divided into the following five areas: aqueous and soil suspension studies, surface interaction studies, biological interaction studies, soil column studies, and soil transport modeling. The objective of this work is to determine the fate of hydrazine fuel released into an aqueous or soil environment. Aqueous degradation studies reveal that the extent of hydrazine degradation and the products formed are highly dependent upon several variables. Among these include the type of container used in the studies, the presence of certain metal ions, the ionic strength, the presence and type of pH buffer, the temperature, the presence of bacteria, and the amount of dissolved oxygen. Aqueous hydrazine degradation is particularly rapid in quartz vessels with copper ions ions and oxygen present. Degradation also increases with increasing ionic strength, pH buffer concentration, temperature, and bacteria content.

  5. SEPAC data analysis in support of the environmental interaction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. S.

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is to conduct data analyses of SEPAC data and computer modeling to investigate spacecraft environment effects associated with injection of electron beam, plasma clouds, and neutral gas clouds from the Shuttle Orbiter. To understand the dependence of spacecraft charging potential on beam density and other plasma parameters, a two dimensional electrostatic particle code was used to simulate the injection of electron beams from an infinite conductor into a plasma. The ionization effects on spacecraft charging are examined by including interactions of electrons with neutral gases. A survey of the simulation results is presented and discussed.

  6. Genetic variation of apolipoproteins, diet and other environmental interactions; an updated review.

    PubMed

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Peñalvo, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the recent findings from studies investigating the potential environmental modulation of the genetic variation of apolipoprotein genes on metabolic traits. We reviewed nutrigenetic studies evaluating variations on apolipoproteins-related genes and its associated response to nutrients (mostly dietary fatty acids) or any other dietary or environmental component. Most revised research studied single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and specific nutrients through small intervention studies, and only few interactions have been replicated in large and independent populations (as in the case of -265T > C SNP in APOA2 gene). Although current knowledge shows that variations on apolipoprotein genes may contribute to the different response on metabolic traits due to dietary interventions, evidence is still scarce and results are inconsistent. Success in this area will require going beyond the limitations of current experimental designs and explore the hypotheses within large populations. Some of these limitations are being covered by the rapidly advance in high-throughput technologies and large scale-genome wide association studies.

  7. Midpoint attractors and species richness: Modelling the interaction between environmental drivers and geometric constraints.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Robert K; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Ashton, Louise A; Beck, Jan; Brehm, Gunnar; Fayle, Tom M; Fiedler, Konrad; Forister, Matthew L; Kessler, Michael; Kitching, Roger L; Klimes, Petr; Kluge, Jürgen; Longino, John T; Maunsell, Sarah C; McCain, Christy M; Moses, Jimmy; Noben, Sarah; Sam, Katerina; Sam, Legi; Shapiro, Arthur M; Wang, Xiangping; Novotny, Vojtech

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a novel framework for conceptualising, quantifying and unifying discordant patterns of species richness along geographical gradients. While not itself explicitly mechanistic, this approach offers a path towards understanding mechanisms. In this study, we focused on the diverse patterns of species richness on mountainsides. We conjectured that elevational range midpoints of species may be drawn towards a single midpoint attractor - a unimodal gradient of environmental favourability. The midpoint attractor interacts with geometric constraints imposed by sea level and the mountaintop to produce taxon-specific patterns of species richness. We developed a Bayesian simulation model to estimate the location and strength of the midpoint attractor from species occurrence data sampled along mountainsides. We also constructed midpoint predictor models to test whether environmental variables could directly account for the observed patterns of species range midpoints. We challenged these models with 16 elevational data sets, comprising 4500 species of insects, vertebrates and plants. The midpoint predictor models generally failed to predict the pattern of species midpoints. In contrast, the midpoint attractor model closely reproduced empirical spatial patterns of species richness and range midpoints. Gradients of environmental favourability, subject to geometric constraints, may parsimoniously account for elevational and other patterns of species richness.

  8. Studies on the Environmental Improvement in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogaki, Mitsuharu; Yoshizumi, Koji; Motonaka, Junko; Yabutani, Tomoki; Nakamoto, Yumi; Stanescu, Rodica; Plesca, Marinela

    In Romania, the communist planned economy system was in place for 42 years but ended due to a revolution in 1989. An environmental administration was started 1990. In order to assist with environment related activities, one of the authors worked in Bucharest for two years from March 2002 to March 2004 as a JICA (Japan International Cooperation Activity) member. One of the most important problems regarding environmental protection in Romania is waste management. In Japan, the regulations and penalties system of waste management have been used for a long time. However, there are many serious problems with the system, such as a decrease in waste disposal facilities and illegally disposed waste. The authors studied a new plan that uses a certification system in order to promote recycling industries. This system is both efficient and inexpensive so it is possible that this method of waste management could be transmitted to Romania.

  9. Molecular evidence of an interaction between prenatal environmental exposures and birth outcomes in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Frederica P; Rauh, Virginia; Whyatt, Robin M; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Bernert, John T; Tu, Yi-Hsuan; Andrews, Howard; Ramirez, Judyth; Qu, Lirong; Tang, Deliang

    2004-01-01

    Inner-city, minority populations are high-risk groups for adverse birth outcomes and also are more likely to be exposed to environmental contaminants, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in urban air. In a sample of nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women, we evaluated the effects on birth outcomes of prenatal exposure to ETS, using questionnaire data and plasma cotinine as a biomarker of exposure, and environmental PAHs using BaP-DNA adducts as a molecular dosimeter. We previously reported that among African Americans, high prenatal exposure to PAHs estimated by prenatal personal air monitoring was associated with lower birth weight (p = 0.003) and smaller head circumference (p = 0.01) after adjusting for potential confounders. In the present analysis, self-reported ETS was associated with decreased head circumference (p = 0.04). BaP-DNA adducts were not correlated with ETS or dietary PAHs. There was no main effect of BaP-DNA adducts on birth outcomes. However, there was a significant interaction between the two pollutants such that the combined exposure to high ETS and high adducts had a significant multiplicative effect on birth weight (p = 0.04) and head circumference (p = 0.01) after adjusting for ethnicity, sex of newborns, maternal body mass index, dietary PAHs, and gestational age. This study provides evidence that combined exposure to environmental pollutants at levels currently encountered in New York City adversely affects fetal development. PMID:15064172

  10. The Interplay among Environmental Attitudes, Pro-Environmental Behavior, Social Identity, and Pro-Environmental Institutional Climate. A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prati, Gabriele; Albanesi, Cinzia; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    By using a panel design in a sample of 298 undergraduate/master students at an Italian public university, the present study aimed to test longitudinally the interplay among environmental attitudes, pro-environmental behavior, social identity, and pro-environmental institutional climate. The relationships were tested with cross-lagged analysis…

  11. Environmentally responsive material to address human-system interaction in the automotive cockpit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehkopf, Jackie D.; Barbat, Saeed D.; Goldman, Neil M.; Samus, Marsha A.; Gold, Harris

    2001-06-01

    There is significant human-system interaction in an automotive cockpit, and for particular components this interaction can be ever-present while being transient in nature. It is envisioned that environmentally responsive materials can be used in some components to accommodate personal and transient differences in the desired human-system interaction. Systems containing responsive gels have been developed to provide user activation and adjustment of the physical properties of a particular interior automotive component. Proprietary reverse viscosification gel formulations were developed that are thermally responsive. Formulations were modified to adjust the dynamic modulus and viscosity in terms of magnitude, amount of change over the viscosification transition, and the temperature over which the transition occurs. Changes in the physical properties of two orders of magnitude and more were achieved over a narrow transition region. Preliminary human factors assessment indicates that this order of magnitude of change is desirable. As the system of responsive gel, encapsulating material and activation mechanism is developed further, additional human factors studies will refine the desired physical properties and thermal activation mechanism. Ultimately, this system will have to perform over the broad range of temperatures imposed on interior automotive components and exhibit long-term durability chemically, physically and mechanically.

  12. Microbial interactions with chromium: basic biological processes and applications in environmental biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Corona, J F; Romo-Rodríguez, P; Santos-Escobar, F; Espino-Saldaña, A E; Hernández-Escoto, H

    2016-12-01

    Chromium (Cr) is a highly toxic metal for microorganisms as well as plants and animal cells. Due to its widespread industrial use, Cr has become a serious pollutant in diverse environmental settings. The hexavalent form of the metal, Cr(VI), is considered a more toxic species than the relatively innocuous and less mobile Cr(III) form. The study of the interactions between microorganisms and Cr has been helpful to unravel the mechanisms allowing organisms to survive in the presence of high concentrations of Cr(VI) and to detoxify and remove the oxyanion. Various mechanisms of interactions with Cr have been identified in diverse species of bacteria and fungi, including biosorption, bioaccumulation, reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and chromate efflux. Some of these systems have been proposed as potential biotechnological tools for the bioremediation of Cr pollution using bioreactors or by in situ treatments. In this review, the interactions of microorganisms with Cr are summarised, emphasising the importance of new research avenues using advanced methodologies, including proteomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic analyses, as well as the use of techniques based on X-ray absorption spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  13. When nanoparticles meet biofilms—interactions guiding the environmental fate and accumulation of nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ikuma, Kaoru; Decho, Alan W.; Lau, Boris L. T.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria are essential components of all natural and many engineered systems. The most active fractions of bacteria are now recognized to occur as biofilms, where cells are attached and surrounded by a secreted matrix of “sticky” extracellular polymeric substances. Recent investigations have established that significant accumulation of nanoparticles (NPs) occurs in aquatic biofilms. These studies point to the emerging roles of biofilms for influencing partitioning and possibly transformations of NPs in both natural and engineered systems. While attached biofilms are efficient “sponges” for NPs, efforts to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms guiding interactions between NPs and biofilms have just begun. In this mini review, special attention is focused on NP–biofilm interactions within the aquatic environment. We highlight key physical, chemical, and biological processes that affect interactions and accumulation of NPs by bacterial biofilms. We posit that these biofilm processes present the likely possibility for unique biological and chemical transformations of NPs. Ultimately, the environmental fate of NPs is influenced by biofilms, and therefore requires a more in-depth understanding of their fundamental properties. PMID:26136732

  14. Study of Compton vs. Photoelectric Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gronberg, J B; Johnson, S C; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Beiersdorfer, P

    2004-07-09

    We have studied how often incoming photons interact via a Compton interaction and/or a photoelectric interaction as a function of energy and detector material Results are using a 1m{sup 3} detector, and discrete energy photons from 0.1 MeV up to 10 MeV. Essentially all of the lower energy photons interact at least once in a detector of this size. This is not the case at higher energies. Each detector, photon energy combination was simulated with 2000 photons.

  15. Interactive Videodisc Case Studies for Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Harless, William G.; Zier, Marcia A.; Duncan, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    The TIME Project of the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications is using interactive videodisc, microprocessor and voice recognition technology to create patient simulations for use in the training of medical students. These interactive case studies embody dramatic, lifelike portrayals of the social and medical conditions of a patient and allow uncued, verbal intervention by the student for independent clinical decisions.

  16. Social Interaction: Reality Oriented Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Tom

    1984-01-01

    Reasons why elementary teachers should use social interaction activities as the core of their social studies program are discussed. The two main vehicles for involving children in guided and purposeful social interaction are the real classroom social system and simulated real-life social activities. (RM)

  17. Lung tumorigenic interactions in strain A/J mice of five environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed Central

    Nesnow, S; Mass, M J; Ross, J A; Galati, A J; Lambert, G R; Gennings, C; Carter, W H; Stoner, G D

    1998-01-01

    The binary, ternary, quaternary, and quintary interactions of a five-component mixture of carcinogenic environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using response surface analyses are described. Initially, lung tumor dose-response curves in strain A/J mice for each of the individual PAHs benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F), dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBA), 5-methylchrysene (5MC), and cyclopenta[cd]pyrene (CPP) were obtained. From these data, doses were selected for the quintary mixture study based on toxicity, survival, range of response, and predicted tumor yields. The ratios of doses among PAHs were designed to simulate PAH ratios found in environmental air and combustion samples. Quintary mixtures of B[a]P, B[b]F, DBA, 5MC, and CPP were administered to male strain A/J mice in a 2(5) factorial 32-dose group dosing scheme (combinations of five PAHs each at either high or low doses) and lung adenomas were scored. Comparison of observed lung adenoma formation with that expected from additivity identified both greater than additive and less than additive interactions that were dose related i.e., greater than additive at lower doses and less than additive at higher doses. To identify specific interactions, a response surface analysis using response addition was applied to the tumor data. This response surface model contained five dose, ten binary, ten ternary, five quaternary, and one quintary parameter. This analysis produced statistically significant values of 16 parameters. The model and model parameters were evaluated by estimating the dose-response relationships for each of the five PAHs. The predicted dose-response curves for all five PAHs indicated a good estimation. The binary interaction functions were dominated for the most part by DBA and were inhibitory. The response surface model predicted, to a significant degree, the observed lung tumorigenic responses of the quintary mixtures. These data suggest that although interactions between

  18. The relationship between corporate environmental performance and environmental disclosure: an empirical study in China.

    PubMed

    Meng, X H; Zeng, S X; Shi, Jonathan J; Qi, G Y; Zhang, Z B

    2014-12-01

    Based on a content analysis of 533 Chinese listed companies, this study examines how corporate environmental performance affects not only the level of detail of a company's environmental disclosures, but also what information is disclosed. The results show that (1) both poor and good performers have more disclosure than the median (i.e., "mixed") performers, which provides empirical evidence to support a nonlinear relationship between corporate environmental performance and environmental disclosure; (2) poor performers disclose more soft information on environmental performance than good performers, and good performers disclose more solid information; and (3) although poor performers increase disclosure after being exposed as environmental violators, they avoid disclosing negative environmental information, such as the violation and the associated penalties. This study provides additional evidence for a nonlinear relationship between environmental performance and disclosure in emerging markets, and suggests environmental disclosure may not be a valid signal to differentiate good performers from poor performers in contemporary China.

  19. Interaction between intention and environmental constraints on the fractal dynamics of human performance.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Auriel; Coey, Charles A; Romero, Veronica; Malone, MaryLauren; Richardson, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated whether the influence of available task constraints on power-law scaling might be moderated by a participant's task intention. Participants performed a simple rhythmic movement task with the intention of controlling either movement period or amplitude, either with or without an experimental stimulus designed to constrain period. In the absence of the stimulus, differences in intention did not produce any changes in power-law scaling. When the stimulus was present, however, a shift toward more random fluctuations occurred in the corresponding task dimension, regardless of participants' intentions. More importantly, participants' intentions interacted with available task constraints to produce an even greater shift toward random variation when the task dimension constrained by the stimulus was also the dimension the participant intended to control. Together, the results suggest that intentions serve to more tightly constrain behavior to existing environmental constraints, evidenced by changes in the fractal scaling of task performance.

  20. Calcium-magnesium Aluminosilicate (CMAS) Interactions with Advanced Environmental Barrier Coating Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesner, Valerie L.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2015-01-01

    Particulates, like sand and volcanic ash, threaten the development of robust environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) that protect next-generation silicon-based ceramic matrix composite (CMC) turbine engine components from harsh combustion environments during service. The siliceous particulates transform into molten glassy deposits of calcium-magnesium aluminosilicate (CMAS) when ingested by an aircraft engine operating at temperatures above 1200C. In this study, a sample of desert sand was melted into CMAS glass to evaluate high-temperature interactions between the sand glass and an advanced EBC material. Desert sand glass was added to the surface of hot-pressed EBC substrates, which were then heated in air at temperatures ranging from 1200C to 1500C. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy were used to evaluate microstructure and phase compositions of specimens and the CMASEBC interface after heat treatments.

  1. International Aspects of Environmental Education. Monographs in Environmental Education and Environmental Studies. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, John H., Ed.; And Others

    This document contains four sections which deal with various aspects of international environmental education. Section 1 includes papers that describe environmental education projects and programs in South America, Europe, India, Scotland, the Arab states, and the Sudan. An additional article in this chapter compares the environmental education…

  2. Community Environmental Study Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Environmental Sciences Foundation, Inc., Minneapolis.

    This booklet contains the final report of an environmental education project designed to make use of the local community as an environmental learning resource. This three year program was developed by the Minnesota Environmental Science Foundation, Inc. in conjunction with three local school systems. The booklet is divided into five major…

  3. A Citizen-Science Study Documents Environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A citizen-science study was conducted in two low-income, flood-prone communities in Atlanta, Georgia, in order to document environmental exposures and the prevalence of occupant asthma. Teams consisting of a public-health graduate student and a resident from one of the two communities administered a questionnaire, inspected residences for mold growth, and collected a dust sample for quantifying mold contamination. The dust samples were analyzed for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). Most residents (76%) were renters. The median duration of residence was 2.5 years. Although only 12% of occupants reported a history of flooding, 46% reported at least one water leak. Homes with visible mold (35%) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean ERMI values compared to homes without (14.0 versus 9.6). The prevalence of self-reported, current asthma among participants was 14%. In logistic regression models controlling for indoor smoking, among participants residing at their current residence for two years or less, a positive association was observed between asthma and the homes' ERMI values (adjusted odds ratio per unit increase in ERMI = 1.12, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.01-1.25; two-tailed P = 0.04). Documentation of the exposures and asthma prevalence has been presented to the communities and public officials. Community-based organizations have taken responsibility for planning and implementing activities in response to the st

  4. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental quality domains (air, water, land, sociodemographic and built environment) on preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this ...

  5. Plant species distributions along environmental gradients: do belowground interactions with fungi matter?

    PubMed Central

    Pellissier, Loïc; Pinto-Figueroa, Eric; Niculita-Hirzel, Hélène; Moora, Mari; Villard, Lucas; Goudet, Jérome; Guex, Nicolas; Pagni, Marco; Xenarios, Ioannis; Sanders, Ian; Guisan, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of plants along environmental gradients is constrained by abiotic and biotic factors. Cumulative evidence attests of the impact of biotic factors on plant distributions, but only few studies discuss the role of belowground communities. Soil fungi, in particular, are thought to play an important role in how plant species assemble locally into communities. We first review existing evidence, and then test the effect of the number of soil fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) on plant species distributions using a recently collected dataset of plant and metagenomic information on soil fungi in the Western Swiss Alps. Using species distribution models (SDMs), we investigated whether the distribution of individual plant species is correlated to the number of OTUs of two important soil fungal classes known to interact with plants: the Glomeromycetes, that are obligatory symbionts of plants, and the Agaricomycetes, that may be facultative plant symbionts, pathogens, or wood decayers. We show that including the fungal richness information in the models of plant species distributions improves predictive accuracy. Number of fungal OTUs is especially correlated to the distribution of high elevation plant species. We suggest that high elevation soil show greater variation in fungal assemblages that may in turn impact plant turnover among communities. We finally discuss how to move beyond correlative analyses, through the design of field experiments manipulating plant and fungal communities along environmental gradients. PMID:24339830

  6. Study of physical interaction mefenamic acid - isonicotinamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuyun, Yonelian; Nugrahani, Ilma

    2015-09-01

    Solid-solid interaction in the form of physics and chemistry can occur in a combination of active ingredients with the active ingredient or active ingredients with excipients in a pharmaceutical preparation. Physical interactions can be classified into physical interaction system eutectic, peritectic, and molecular compounds based on the phase diagram of a mixture of two-component systems. The physical interaction between mefenamic acid and isonicotinamide not been reported previously. This study aims to examine the type of interaction of mefenamic acid (MA) with isonicotinamide (INA) and its interaction with the isolation methods by solvent drop grinding as the simplest method and easy to do. PXRD data showed the interaction of MA:INA mixture contained no new peaks, so the indicated MA:INA only form of eutectic interaction. There was founded new endothermic peak for DTA data at 149.5°C (SDG-Ethanol) and 148.4°C (SDG-EtAct). The results of infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated a shift in the NH stretch 3367 cm-1 to 3359 cm-1; and 3185 cm-1 to 3178 cm-1.

  7. Joint HVAC transmission EMF environmental study

    SciTech Connect

    Stormshak, F.; Thompson, J. )

    1992-05-01

    This document describes the rationale, procedures, and results of a carefully controlled study conducted to establish whether chronic exposure of female (ewe) Suffolk lambs to the environment of a 500-kV 60-Hz transmission line would affect various characteristics of growth, endocrine function, and reproductive development. This experiment used identical housing and management schemes for control and line-exposed ewes, thus minimizing these factors as contributors to between-group experimental error. Further, throughout the 10-month duration of this study, changes in electric and magnetic fields, audible noise, and weather conditions were monitored continuously by a computerized system. Such measurements provided the opportunity to identify any relationship between environmental factors and biological responses. Because of reports in the literature that electric and magnetic fields alter concentrations of melatonin in laboratory animals, the primary objective of this study was to ascertain whether a similar effect occurs in lambs exposed to a 500-kV a-c line in a natural setting. In addition, onset of puberty, changes in body weight, wool growth, and behavior were monitored. To determine whether the environment of a 500-kV line caused stress in the study animals, serum levels of cortisol were measured. The study was conducted at Bonneville Power Administration's Ostrander Substation near Estacada, Oregon.

  8. Love Canal: environmental and toxicological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    The New York State Department of Health has been involved at the Love Canal since 1978. The State has carried out numerous environmental and toxicological studies. The major purposes for these studies were to define how Love Canal contaminants might be escaping into the environment at large, what paths contaminant migration might take, and what toxicological effects Love Canal chemicals might have individually and together. Although underground contaminant migration was hypothesized along swales and underground utility bedding, these mechanisms have been proven not to be operative except for some migration along the utility bedding under Frontier Avenue. In general no underground migration has occurred outside the confines of the three city blocks that contain the Love Canal referred to as the ''first ring''. Studies have been confused by apparent burial of waste materials in areas proximate but not directly connected to the Love Canal. Migration of Love Canal leachate has occurred through storm sewers. Love Canal contaminants have reached creeks to the north and the Niagara River to the south through storm sewer transport. In spite of finding 2, 3, 7, 8 tetrachlorodibenzoparadioxin (TCDD), toxicological studies in situ and through exposure to volatile components in Love Canal soils do not indicate unusual toxicity. Animal studies continue in an attempt to determine the teratogenic and fetotoxic potential of Love Canal chemicals under different routes of exposure.

  9. Protein-Inhibitor Interaction Studies Using NMR

    PubMed Central

    Ishima, Rieko

    2015-01-01

    Solution-state NMR has been widely applied to determine the three-dimensional structure, dynamics, and molecular interactions of proteins. The designs of experiments used in protein NMR differ from those used for small-molecule NMR, primarily because the information available prior to an experiment, such as molecular mass and knowledge of the primary structure, is unique for proteins compared to small molecules. In this review article, protein NMR for structural biology is introduced with comparisons to small-molecule NMR, such as descriptions of labeling strategies and the effects of molecular dynamics on relaxation. Next, applications for protein NMR are reviewed, especially practical aspects for protein-observed ligand-protein interaction studies. Overall, the following topics are described: (1) characteristics of protein NMR, (2) methods to detect protein-ligand interactions by NMR, and (3) practical aspects of carrying out protein-observed inhibitor-protein interaction studies. PMID:26361636

  10. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2015

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels that regularly informs the Parties (countries) to the Montreal Protocol on the effects of ozone depletion and the consequences of climate change interactions with respect to human health, animals, plants, bi...

  11. The role of cis-zeatin-type cytokinins in plant growth regulation and mediating responses to environmental interactions

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Martin; Brütting, Christoph; Canales, Ivan Meza; Großkinsky, Dominik K.; Vankova, Radomira; Baldwin, Ian T.; Meldau, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinins (CKs) are well-established as important phytohormonal regulators of plant growth and development. An increasing number of studies have also reveal the function of these hormones in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. While the function of certain CK classes, including trans-zeatin and isopentenyladenine-type CKs, have been studied in detail, the role of cis-zeatin-type CKs (cZs) in plant development and in mediating environmental interactions is less well defined. Here we provide a comprehensive summary of the current knowledge about abundance, metabolism and activities of cZs in plants. We outline the history of their analysis and the metabolic routes comprising cZ biosynthesis and degradation. Further we provide an overview of changes in the pools of cZs during plant development and environmental interactions. We summarize studies that investigate the role of cZs in regulating plant development and defense responses to pathogen and herbivore attack and highlight their potential role as “novel” stress-response markers. Since the functional roles of cZs remain largely based on correlative data and genetic manipulations of their biosynthesis, inactivation and degradation are few, we suggest experimental approaches using transgenic plants altered in cZ levels to further uncover their roles in plant growth and environmental interactions and their potential for crop improvement. PMID:25998904

  12. Analyzing interaction of electricity markets and environmental policies using equilibrium models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yihsu

    Around the world, the electric sector is evolving from a system of regulated vertically-integrated monopolies to a complex system of competing generation companies, unregulated traders, and regulated transmission and distribution. One emerging challenge faced by environmental policymakers and electricity industry is the interaction between electricity markets and environmental policies. The objective of this dissertation is to examine these interactions using large-scale computational models of electricity markets based on noncooperative game theory. In particular, this dissertation is comprised of four essays. The first essay studies the interaction of the United States Environmental Protection Agency NOx Budget Program and the mid-Atlantic electricity market. This research quantifies emissions, economic inefficiencies, price distortions, and overall social welfare under various market assumptions using engineering-economic models. The models calculate equilibria for imperfectly competitive markets---Cournot oligopoly---considering the actual landscape of power plants and transmission lines, and including the possibility of market power in the NOx allowances market. The second essay extends the results from first essay and models imperfectly competitive markets using a Stackelberg or leader-follower formulation. A leader in the power and NO x markets is assumed to have perfect foresight of its rivals' responses. The rivals' best response functions are explicitly embedded in the leader's constraints. The solutions quantify the extent to which a leader in the markets can extract economic rents on the expense of its followers. The third essay investigates the effect of implementing the European Union (EU) CO2 Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) on wholesale power prices in the Western European electricity market. This research uses theoretical and computational modeling approaches to quantify the degree to which CO2 costs were passed on to power prices, and quantifies the

  13. Spacecraft environmental interactions: A joint Air Force and NASA research and technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, C. P.; Purvis, C. K.; Hudson, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    A joint Air Force/NASA comprehensive research and technology program on spacecraft environmental interactions to develop technology to control interactions between large spacecraft systems and the charged-particle environment of space is described. This technology will support NASA/Department of Defense operations of the shuttle/IUS, shuttle/Centaur, and the force application and surveillance and detection missions, planning for transatmospheric vehicles and the NASA space station, and the AFSC military space system technology model. The program consists of combined contractual and in-house efforts aimed at understanding spacecraft environmental interaction phenomena and relating results of ground-based tests to space conditions. A concerted effort is being made to identify project-related environmental interactions of concern. The basic properties of materials are being investigated to develop or modify the materials as needed. A group simulation investigation is evaluating basic plasma interaction phenomena to provide inputs to the analytical modeling investigation. Systems performance is being evaluated by both groundbased tests and analysis.

  14. Environmental responses, not species interactions, determine synchrony of dominant species in semiarid grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Tredennick, Andrew T.; de Mazancourt, Claire; Loreau, Michel; Adler, Peter B.

    2017-01-01

    Temporal asynchrony among species helps diversity to stabilize ecosystem functioning, but identifying the mechanisms that determine synchrony remains a challenge. Here, we refine and test theory showing that synchrony depends on three factors: species responses to environmental variation, interspecific interactions, and demographic stochasticity. We then conduct simulation experiments with empirical population models to quantify the relative influence of these factors on the synchrony of dominant species in five semiarid grasslands. We found that the average synchrony of per capita growth rates, which can range from 0 (perfect asynchrony) to 1 (perfect synchrony), was higher when environmental variation was present (0.62) rather than absent (0.43). Removing interspecific interactions and demographic stochasticity had small effects on synchrony. For the dominant species in these plant communities, where species interactions and demographic stochasticity have little influence, synchrony reflects the covariance in species’ responses to the environment. PMID:28144939

  15. Environmental responses, not species interactions, determine synchrony of dominant species in semiarid grasslands.

    PubMed

    Tredennick, Andrew T; de Mazancourt, Claire; Loreau, Michel; Adler, Peter B

    2017-02-01

    Temporal asynchrony among species helps diversity to stabilize ecosystem functioning, but identifying the mechanisms that determine synchrony remains a challenge. Here, we refine and test theory showing that synchrony depends on three factors: species responses to environmental variation, interspecific interactions, and demographic stochasticity. We then conduct simulation experiments with empirical population models to quantify the relative influence of these factors on the synchrony of dominant species in five semiarid grasslands. We found that the average synchrony of per capita growth rates, which can range from 0 (perfect asynchrony) to 1 (perfect synchrony), was higher when environmental variation was present (0.62) rather than absent (0.43). Removing interspecific interactions and demographic stochasticity had small effects on synchrony. For the dominant species in these plant communities, where species interactions and demographic stochasticity have little influence, synchrony reflects the covariance in species responses to the environment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Interactions of biotic and abiotic environmental factors in an ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, and the potential for selection mosaics

    PubMed Central

    Piculell, Bridget J; Hoeksema, Jason D; Thompson, John N

    2008-01-01

    Background Geographic selection mosaics, in which species exert different evolutionary impacts on each other in different environments, may drive diversification in coevolving species. We studied the potential for geographic selection mosaics in plant-mycorrhizal interactions by testing whether the interaction between bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) and one of its common ectomycorrhizal fungi (Rhizopogon occidentalis Zeller and Dodge) varies in outcome, when different combinations of plant and fungal genotypes are tested under a range of different abiotic and biotic conditions. Results We used a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment to test the main and interactive effects of plant lineage (two maternal seed families), fungal lineage (two spore collections), soil type (lab mix or field soil), and non-mycorrhizal microbes (with or without) on the performance of plants and fungi. Ecological outcomes, as assessed by plant and fungal performance, varied widely across experimental environments, including interactions between plant or fungal lineages and soil environmental factors. Conclusion These results show the potential for selection mosaics in plant-mycorrhizal interactions, and indicate that these interactions are likely to coevolve in different ways in different environments, even when initially the genotypes of the interacting species are the same across all environments. Hence, selection mosaics may be equally as effective as genetic differences among populations in driving divergent coevolution among populations of interacting species. PMID:18507825

  17. CONSIDERATION OF CHILDREN'S DISTINCTIVE SUSCEPTIBILITY IN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consideration of children's distinctive susceptibility in environmental health studies.
    Pauline Mendola (US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)

    Children are a particularly susceptible subpopulation with ...

  18. Metabolomics Reveals Cryptic Interactive Effects of Species Interactions and Environmental Stress on Nitrogen and Sulfur Metabolism in Seagrass.

    PubMed

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Castorani, Max C N; Glud, Ronnie N; Canfield, Donald E; Holmer, Marianne

    2016-11-01

    Eutrophication of estuaries and coastal seas is accelerating, increasing light stress on subtidal marine plants and changing their interactions with other species. To date, we have limited understanding of how such variations in environmental and biological stress modify the impact of interactions among foundational species and eventually affect ecosystem health. Here, we used metabolomics to assess the impact of light reductions on interactions between the seagrass Zostera marina, an important habitat-forming marine plant, and the abundant and commercially important blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Plant performance varied with light availability but was unaffected by the presence of mussels. Metabolomic analysis, on the other hand, revealed an interaction between light availability and presence of M. edulis on seagrass metabolism. Under high light, mussels stimulated seagrass nitrogen and energy metabolism. Conversely, in low light mussels impeded nitrogen and energy metabolism, and enhanced responses against sulfide toxicity, causing inhibited oxidative energy metabolism and tissue degradation. Metabolomic analysis thereby revealed cryptic changes to seagrass condition that could not be detected by traditional approaches. Our findings suggest that coastal eutrophication and associated reductions in light may shift seagrass-bivalve interactions from mutualistic to antagonistic, which is important for conservation management of seagrass meadows.

  19. MODELING THE INTERACTION OF AGROCHEMICALS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL SURFACES: PESTICIDES ON RUTILE AND ORGANO-RUTILE SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-bonded interactions between model pesticides and organo-mineral surfaces have been studied using molecular mechanical conformational calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. The minimum energy conformations and relative binding energies for the interaction of atrazine...

  20. SPIV study of two interactive fire whirls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartl, Katherine; Smits, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Fire whirls are buoyancy-driven standing vortex structures that often form in forest fires. Capable of lifting and ejecting flaming debris, fire whirls can hasten the spread of fire lines and start fires in new places. Here we study the interaction of two jets in an externally applied circulation as an introduction to the study of two interacting fire whirls. To study this interaction we use two burner flames supplied with DME and induce swirl by entraining air through a split cylinder that surrounds both burners. Three components of velocity are measured using Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry both inside and outside the fire whirl core, at the base, midsection, and above the top of the fire whirls. The effects on the height and circulation on the distance between the burners, the rate of fuel supplied to the burners, and the gap size, are examined.

  1. Cancer risk and the complexity of the interactions between environmental and host factors: HENVINET interactive diagrams as simple tools for exploring and understanding the scientific evidence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Development of graphical/visual presentations of cancer etiology caused by environmental stressors is a process that requires combining the complex biological interactions between xenobiotics in living and occupational environment with genes (gene-environment interaction) and genomic and non-genomic based disease specific mechanisms in living organisms. Traditionally, presentation of causal relationships includes the statistical association between exposure to one xenobiotic and the disease corrected for the effect of potential confounders. Methods Within the FP6 project HENVINET, we aimed at considering together all known agents and mechanisms involved in development of selected cancer types. Selection of cancer types for causal diagrams was based on the corpus of available data and reported relative risk (RR). In constructing causal diagrams the complexity of the interactions between xenobiotics was considered a priority in the interpretation of cancer risk. Additionally, gene-environment interactions were incorporated such as polymorphisms in genes for repair and for phase I and II enzymes involved in metabolism of xenobiotics and their elimination. Information on possible age or gender susceptibility is also included. Diagrams are user friendly thanks to multistep access to information packages and the possibility of referring to related literature and a glossary of terms. Diagrams cover both chemical and physical agents (ionizing and non-ionizing radiation) and provide basic information on the strength of the association between type of exposure and cancer risk reported by human studies and supported by mechanistic studies. Causal diagrams developed within HENVINET project represent a valuable source of information for professionals working in the field of environmental health and epidemiology, and as educational material for students. Introduction Cancer risk results from a complex interaction of environmental exposures with inherited gene

  2. Interdisciplinary Studies of Magma-Tectonic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaFemina, Peter; Stix, John; Saballos, Armando

    2013-08-01

    The Pan-American Advanced Studies Institute (PASI) Magma-Tectonic Interactions in the Americas brought together researchers, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students from every country in the Americas with active volcanoes and one participant from Iceland. Lecturers presented the latest geochemical and geophysical approaches to studying magma-tectonic interactions. Participants were introduced to the tectonics and volcanism of Nicaragua through a daylong field trip and given opportunities to collect and analyze their own data, including seismic, geodetic, and geochemical data, at the Cerro Negro volcano.

  3. Jubba Environmental and Socio-economic Studies (JESS). Volume 2. Environmental studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Jubba Environmental and Socio-economic Studies (JESS) investigated conditions in the Jubba Valley of southern Somalia. Projections from that baseline information were intended to elucidate changes likely to occur as a result of construction of a high dam near Baardheere and related developments. In particular, JESS was required to suggest ways of mitigating adverse impacts, enhancing potentially good impacts, and to draw up a program for future environmental and socio-economic monitoring. The report contains an analysis of the Terrestrial Ecology Baseline Studies (TEBS) section of the JESS project. Human use of biological resources is examined from the perspectives of land use, forestry, rangelands, and biological conservation. TEBS activities are used as the basis for a future monitoring program of terrestrial ecology.

  4. Podcasts as Tools in Introductory Environmental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vatovec, Christine; Balser, Teri

    2009-01-01

    Technological tools have increasingly become a part of the college classroom, often appealing to teachers because of their potential to increase student engagement with course materials. Podcasts in particular have gained popularity as tools to better inform students by providing access to lectures outside of the classroom. In this paper, we argue that educators should expand course materials to include prepublished podcasts to engage students with both course topics and a broader skill set for evaluating readily available media. We present a pre- and postassignment survey evaluation assessing student preferences for using podcasts and the ability of a podcast assignment to support learning objectives in an introductory environmental studies course. Overall, students reported that the podcasts were useful tools for learning, easy to use, and increased their understanding of course topics. However, students also provided insightful comments on visual versus aural learning styles, leading us to recommend assigning video podcasts or providing text-based transcripts along with audio podcasts. A qualitative analysis of survey data provides evidence that the podcast assignment supported the course learning objective for students to demonstrate critical evaluation of media messages. Finally, we provide recommendations for selecting published podcasts and designing podcast assignments. PMID:23653686

  5. RISK COMMUNICATION IN ACTION: ENVIRONMENTAL CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook discusses a variety of data visualization and data interpretation tools that municipal, state and federal government agencies and others hve successfully used in environmental risk communication programs. The handbook presents a variety of tools used by several diff...

  6. Land Ocean Interaction: processes, functioning and environmental management: a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin; Leeks, Graham J L; Millward, Geoff E; Harris, John R W; Huthnance, John M; Rees, John G

    2003-10-01

    The hydrochemical and physical functioning of UK river basins, estuaries and coastal waters through to the open sea are outlined in relation to British environmental research over the last ten or more years. An overview of a considerable body of published work is presented in the context of current findings and future research challenges. This is linked to this special issue of Science of the Total Environment 'Land Ocean Interaction: processes, functioning and environmental management: a UK perspective' for which this contribution provides a conclusion.

  7. Interactive Higher Education Instruction to Advance STEM Instruction in the Environmental Sciences - the Brownfield Action Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, J. C.; Bower, P.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that presently there are over half a million brownfields in the United States, but this number only includes sites for which an Environmental Site Assessment has been conducted. The actual number of brownfields is certainly in the millions and constitutes one of the major environmental issues confronting all communities today. Taught in part or entirely online for more than 15 years in environmental science, engineering, and hydrology courses at over a dozen colleges, universities, and high schools in the United States, Brownfield Action (BA) is an interactive, web-based simulation that combines scientific expertise, constructivist education philosophy, and multimedia to advance the teaching of environmental science (Bower et al., 2011, 2014; Liddicoat and Bower, 2015). In the online simulation and classroom, students form geotechnical consulting companies with a peer chosen at random to solve a problem in environmental forensics. The BA model contains interdisciplinary scientific and social information that are integrated within a digital learning environment that encourages students to construct their knowledge as they learn by doing. As such, the approach improves the depth and coherence of students understanding of the course material. Like real-world environmental consultants and professionals, students are required to develop and apply expertise from a wide range of fields, including environmental science and engineering as well as journalism, medicine, public health, law, civics, economics, and business management. The overall objective is for students to gain an unprecedented appreciation of the complexity, ambiguity, and risk involved in any environmental issue, and to acquire STEM knowledge that can be used constructively when confronted with such an issue.

  8. Two Superfund environmental justice case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschhorn, J.S.

    1997-12-31

    One of the environmental contributions of the Clinton Administration was Executive Order No. 12898 on Environmental Justice issued in 1994. Environmental justice has received considerable attention in EPA`s Superfund program. Many Superfund sites are located in or close by residential areas composed populated by ethnic minorities and people of the lowest economic status. Over the years, minority communities have often asserted that they have been treated more unfairly than predominantly white, middle class communities, with respect to the quality of environmental cleanups and the relocation of residents. The environmental justice claim is also that these communities have been intentionally placed in harm`s way because of historical racial prejudice and injustice, meaning that either polluting industrial facilities were intentionally placed in minority neighborhoods or that residential areas for minority workers were built close to industrial facilities. This paper presents discussions of two Superfund sites where environmental justice issues have been very important, and it analyzes how specific parts of the Executive Order have been complied with in EPA`s Superfund program.

  9. National Environmental Change Information System Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Ritschard, R.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Hatch, U.

    2001-01-01

    The Global Hydrology and Climate Center and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a fact-finding case study for the Data Management Working Group (DMWG), now referred to as the Data and Information Working Group (DIWG), of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) to determine the feasibility of an interagency National Environmental Change Information System (NECIS). In order to better understand the data and information needs of policy and decision makers at the national, state, and local level, the DIWG asked the case study team to choose a regional water resources issue in the southeastern United States that had an impact on a diverse group of stakeholders. The southeastern United States was also of interest because the region experiences interannual climatic variations and impacts due to El Nino and La Nina. Jointly, with input from the DIWG, a focus on future water resources planning in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River basins of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida was selected. A tristate compact and water allocation formula is currently being negotiated between the states and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) that will affect the availability of water among competing uses within the ACF River basin. All major reservoirs on the ACF are federally owned and operated by the U.S. Army COE. A similar two-state negotiation is ongoing that addresses the water allocations in the adjacent Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT) River basin, which extends from northwest Georgia to Mobile Bay. The ACF and ACT basins are the subject of a comprehensive river basin study involving many stakeholders. The key objectives of this case study were to identify specific data and information needs of key stakeholders in the ACF region, determine what capabilities are needed to provide the most practical response to these user requests, and to identify any limitations in the use of federal data and information. The NECIS case study followed the terms of reference

  10. A Study of MX Environmental Management Information System (MXEMIS) Needs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (MXEMIS) NEEDS by Ronald Webster Ralph Mitchell Valorie Young -J : 2 34 LA--. Approved for public release...System (SAIFS) The MX Management Information System (MX MIS) The Mobilization Early Warning System (MEWS) The Computer-Aided Environmental Baseline...26 REFERENCES DISTRIBUTION I5 S’ t A STUDY OF MX ENVIRONMENTAL 2 EXISTING SYSTEMS CLASSIFICATION MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (MXEMIS

  11. Case Studies in Environmental Adult and Popular Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clover, Darlene E., Ed.; Follen, Shirley, Ed.

    Following an introduction by Darlene E. Clover and Rene Karottki, this booklet provides 16 case studies about nonformal environmental adult education: "Environment and Development in Argentina: Innovative Experiences in Adult Learning" (Raul A. Montenegro); "Learning for Environmental Action: Environmental Adult and Popular Education in Canada"…

  12. Use of Genetic Effects and Genotype by Environmental Interactions for the Classification of Mexican Races of Maize

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes, Tarcicio S.; Goodman, Major M.; Casas, Eduardo D.; Rawlings, John O.

    1978-01-01

    To examine the questions of whether the additive and dominance effects present for morphological characters in racial crosses are of sufficient consistency and magnitude to allow such genetic effects to be used for racial classification, we used a diallel experiment among the 25 well-defined Mexican races of maize, which include the ancestral stocks of most commercial and genetic maize types. With such an experiment, genetic effects and genotype by environmental interactions for one or more characters can be used to measure genetic and adaptational or environmental similarity. We used average parental effects (general combining abilities), specific effects, and genotype by environmental effects of 21 characters from the diallel (grown at three locations) to group the Mexican races of maize. The groupings based upon average genetic effects and upon genotype by environmental interactions are more satisfactory than groupings based upon specific effects. The standard errors for genetic distances based upon specific (largely dominance) effects seem to be too high for practical use. Principal components analyses of the same data suggest a similar conclusion.—The groupings based upon average genetic effects are in general agreement with previous studies, with the exception of Maíz Dulce, which is grouped with the Cónicos, rather than being isolated from the other Mexican races of maize. PMID:17248866

  13. An Oral Contraceptive Drug Interaction Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradstreet, Thomas E.; Panebianco, Deborah L.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on a two treatment, two period, two treatment sequence crossover drug interaction study of a new drug and a standard oral contraceptive therapy. Both normal theory and distribution-free statistical analyses are provided along with a notable amount of graphical insight into the dataset. For one of the variables, the decision on…

  14. NACASETAC BAY: AN INTERACTIVE CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This interactive case study or "game" was created to provide a "hands on" experience in the application of a weight of evidence approach to sediment assessment. The game proceeds in two phases. In each phase the players work together as a group. A scenario is presented, and the g...

  15. Genotype-Based Bayesian Analysis of Gene-Environment Interactions with Multiple Genetic Markers and Misclassification in Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lobach, Iryna; Fan, Ruzong

    2015-01-01

    A key component to understanding etiology of complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, alcohol dependence, is to investigate gene-environment interactions. This work is motivated by the following two concerns in the analysis of gene-environment interactions. First, multiple genetic markers in moderate linkage disequilibrium may be involved in susceptibility to a complex disease. Second, environmental factors may be subject to misclassification. We develop a genotype based Bayesian pseudolikelihood approach that accommodates linkage disequilibrium in genetic markers and misclassification in environmental factors. Since our approach is genotype based, it allows the observed genetic information to enter the model directly thus eliminating the need to infer haplotype phase and simplifying computations. Bayesian approach allows shrinking parameter estimates towards prior distribution to improve estimation and inference when environmental factors are subject to misclassification. Simulation experiments demonstrated that our method produced parameter estimates that are nearly unbiased even for small sample sizes. An application of our method is illustrated using a case-control study of interaction between early onset of drinking and genes involved in dopamine pathway. PMID:26180529

  16. Genotype-Based Bayesian Analysis of Gene-Environment Interactions with Multiple Genetic Markers and Misclassification in Environmental Factors.

    PubMed

    Lobach, Iryna; Fan, Ruzong

    A key component to understanding etiology of complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, alcohol dependence, is to investigate gene-environment interactions. This work is motivated by the following two concerns in the analysis of gene-environment interactions. First, multiple genetic markers in moderate linkage disequilibrium may be involved in susceptibility to a complex disease. Second, environmental factors may be subject to misclassification. We develop a genotype based Bayesian pseudolikelihood approach that accommodates linkage disequilibrium in genetic markers and misclassification in environmental factors. Since our approach is genotype based, it allows the observed genetic information to enter the model directly thus eliminating the need to infer haplotype phase and simplifying computations. Bayesian approach allows shrinking parameter estimates towards prior distribution to improve estimation and inference when environmental factors are subject to misclassification. Simulation experiments demonstrated that our method produced parameter estimates that are nearly unbiased even for small sample sizes. An application of our method is illustrated using a case-control study of interaction between early onset of drinking and genes involved in dopamine pathway.

  17. Identifying environmental sounds: a multimodal mapping study

    PubMed Central

    Tomasino, Barbara; Canderan, Cinzia; Marin, Dario; Maieron, Marta; Gremese, Michele; D'Agostini, Serena; Fabbro, Franco; Skrap, Miran

    2015-01-01

    Our environment is full of auditory events such as warnings or hazards, and their correct recognition is essential. We explored environmental sounds (ES) recognition in a series of studies. In study 1 we performed an Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of neuroimaging experiments addressing ES processing to delineate the network of areas consistently involved in ES processing. Areas consistently activated in the ALE meta-analysis were the STG/MTG, insula/rolandic operculum, parahippocampal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally. Some of these areas truly reflect ES processing, whereas others are related to design choices, e.g., type of task, type of control condition, type of stimulus. In study 2 we report on 7 neurosurgical patients with lesions involving the areas which were found to be activated by the ALE meta-analysis. We tested their ES recognition abilities and found an impairment of ES recognition. These results indicate that deficits of ES recognition do not exclusively reflect lesions to the right or to the left hemisphere but both hemispheres are involved. The most frequently lesioned area is the hippocampus/insula/STG. We made sure that any impairment in ES recognition would not be related to language problems, but reflect impaired ES processing. In study 3 we carried out an fMRI study on patients (vs. healthy controls) to investigate how the areas involved in ES might be functionally deregulated because of a lesion. The fMRI evidenced that controls activated the right IFG, the STG bilaterally and the left insula. We applied a multimodal mapping approach and found that, although the meta-analysis showed that part of the left and right STG/MTG activation during ES processing might in part be related to design choices, this area was one of the most frequently lesioned areas in our patients, thus highlighting its causal role in ES processing. We found that the ROIs we drew on the two clusters of activation found in the left and in

  18. Environmental Studies and Environmental Science at GCE '0' and 'A' Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayford, Christopher G.

    1983-01-01

    Reports on environmental studies/science at General Certificate of Examination (GCE) ordinary ("0") and advanced ("A") levels. Questionnaires were used to survey teachers (focusing on their professional training and why they teach environmental studies/science courses) and to determine the relationship between environmental…

  19. Interactions with lectins and agglutination profiles of clinical, food, and environmental isolates of Listeria.

    PubMed Central

    Facinelli, B; Giovanetti, E; Casolari, C; Varaldo, P E

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of preliminary trials with 14 collection strains of Listeria, five lectins (Canavalia ensiformis, concanavalin A; Griffonia simplicifolia lectin I; Helix pomatia agglutinin; Ricinus communis agglutinin; and Triticum vulgaris wheat germ agglutinin) were selected to set up a microtiter agglutination assay. The lectin agglutination profiles of 174 clinical, food, and environmental strains of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, and Listeria seeligeri were investigated. Data on the standard determination of the antigenic structure were available for clinical strains; nonclinical isolates were assigned to serogroup 1 or 4 with commercial antisera. The listeria-lectin interaction was related to serological type rather than species; in particular, the strains assigned to serogroup 1 or belonging to serovars 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, 3a, 3b, and 7 were never agglutinated by G. simplicifolia lectin I. The five-lectin set proved to be capable of detecting differences between serologically identical isolates of L. monocytogenes. Of the 150 isolates of this species, 144 were distributed over 15 different lectin agglutination profiles and 6 autoagglutinated, the overall typeability being 96%. However, the profiles encountered among L. monocytogenes isolates were not randomly distributed. With strains assigned to serogroup 1 or belonging to serovars 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, and 3b, the clinical isolates fell into only two of the eight patterns recorded overall; with strains of serogroup 4 and serovar 4b, food and environmental isolates were distributed over eight of the nine patterns found in total, while clinical isolates were distributed over five patterns. In a comparative study of 15 epidemiologically relevant isolates of L. monocytogenes from five distinct outbreaks, strains with identical phage types and/or DNA fingerprints displayed identical lectin profiles. The heterogeneity of agglutination profiles may form the basis of a new approach to L. monocytogenes typing

  20. The harbour of Elaia: A palynological archive for human environmental interactions during the last 7500 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumilovskikh, Lyudmila S.; Seeliger, Martin; Feuser, Stefan; Novenko, Elena; Schlütz, Frank; Pint, Anna; Pirson, Felix; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-10-01

    Elaia, the harbour city for ancient Pergamon (western Turkey), was investigated using geoarchaeological methods. The rise and fall of Elaia were closely linked to the flourishing period of Pergamon, which ruled wide parts of today's western Turkey in Hellenistic times. In the framework of this research, the palynological analysis of a 9 m sediment core, Ela-70, retrieved from the enclosed harbour of the city, was carried out to reconstruct the vegetation and environmental history of the wider Gulf of Elaia region. An age-depth model, based on 11 calibrated radiocarbon ages, starting from 7.5 ka BP, provides the basis for the high resolution study of sediments from the Hellenistic period, as well as before and after. The lower part of the pollen diagram is characterised by high percentages of deciduous oaks and pines, suggesting the dominance of open forests close to the coring site. The change from oak forests to a cultural landscape, with olive, pistachio, walnut, and grape, started around 850 BC, reaching a maximum ca. 250 BC, and continuing to ca. AD 800. This period is characterised by increase of fire activity, soil erosion intensity, and pastoral farming. Such long-lasting intensive land use likely led to the climax ecosystem turnover from open deciduous oak forests to pine stands, while salt marshes developed around the coring site. The discovery of the dinoflagellate cysts of Peridinium ponticum, a Black Sea endemic species, in the harbour of Elaia evidences maritime trade between the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea; its first occurrence coincides with the time of the Mithridatic Wars (1st century BC). In conclusion, palynological data, in addition to historical and archaeological records, provide a deeper insight into human environmental interactions, as derived from the geoarchaeological archive of the harbour of Elaia.

  1. A Study of Multiplicities in Hadronic Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Estrada Tristan, Nora Patricia; /San Luis Potosi U.

    2006-02-01

    Using data from the SELEX (Fermilab E781) experiment obtained with a minimum-bias trigger, we study multiplicity and angular distributions of secondary particles produced in interactions in the experimental targets. We observe interactions of {Sigma}{sup -}, proton, {pi}{sup -}, and {pi}{sup +}, at beam momenta between 250 GeV/c and 650 GeV/c, in copper, polyethylene, graphite, and beryllium targets. We show that the multiplicity and angular distributions for meson and baryon beams at the same momentum are identical. We also show that the mean multiplicity increases with beam momentum, and presents only small variations with the target material.

  2. Systems interaction study of a Westinghouse PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, R.; Hanan, N.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Xue, D.; Bozoki, G.; Fresco, A.; Papazoglou, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents methods and findings of a systems interaction study of Indian Point 3. The study was carried out in support of the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue A-17 on Systems Interactions. Fault tree methods were employed. Among the study's findings is a single active failure in the low pressure injection function; this discovery led to a plant modification. In addition to providing support to the staff in resolving USI A-17, the project discovered an important new class of failure modes which led the utility to implement a hardware modification. The scope of the project is indicated, key features of the method are highlighted findings are discussed, and comments are offered on the usefulness of this type of, principal study. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Interaction of gravity with other environmental factors in growth and development: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Hoson, T

    1999-01-01

    The life of plants and other organisms is governed by the constant force of gravity on earth. The mechanism of graviperception, signal transduction, and gravireaction is one of the major themes in space biology. When gravity controls each step of the life cycle such as growth and development, it does not work alone but operates with the interaction of other environmental factors. In order to understand the role of gravity in regulation of the life cycle, such interactions also should be clarified. Under microgravity conditions in space, various changes are brought about in the process of growth and development. Some changes would be advantageous to organisms, but others would be unfavorable. For overcoming such disadvantages, it may be required to exploit some other environmental factors which substitute for gravity in some properties. In terrestrial plants, gravity can be replaced by light under certain conditions. The gravity-substituting factors may play a principal role in future space development.

  4. Tritium environmental transport studies at TFTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, P. D.; Dolan, T. J.; Longhurst, G. R.

    1993-06-01

    Environmental tritium concentrations will be measured near the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to help validate dynamic models of tritium transport in the environment. For model validation the database must contain sequential measurements of tritium concentrations in key environmental compartments. Since complete containment of tritium is an operational goal, the supplementary monitoring program should be able to glean useful data from an unscheduled acute release. Portable air samplers will be used to take samples automatically every 4 hours for a week after an acute release, thus obtaining the time resolution needed for code validation. Samples of soil, vegetation, and foodstuffs will be gathered daily at the same locations as the active air monitors. The database may help validate the plant/soil/air part of tritium transport models and enhance environmental tritium transport understanding for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER).

  5. SPS ionosphere/microwave beam interactions: Arecibo experimental studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, L.M.

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of this program is to determine the environmental impacts associated with the operation of the proposed SPS microwave power transmission system. It is expected that thermal effects will provide the dominant force driving the nonlinear ionosphere/microwave beam interactions. Collisional damping of radio waves, producing ohmic heating of the ionospheric plasma, depends inversely on the square of the radio wave frequency. Therefore, equivalent heating and equivalent thermal forces can be generated at lower radiated power densities by using lower radio wave frequencies. This principle is fundamental to a large part of the experimental program. An understanding of the physics of the specific interactions excited by the SPS microwave beam is also an important part of the assessment program. This program is designed to determine instability thresholds, the growth rates and spatial extent of the resultant ionospheric disturbances, and the frequency and power dependences of the interactions. How these interactions are affected by variations in the natural ionospheric conditions, how different instabilities occurring simultaneously may affect each other, and how distinct microwave beams might mutually interact are studied. Status of the program is described. (WHK)

  6. Environmental conditions and biotic interactions influence ecosystem structure and function in a drying stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludlam, J.P.; Magoulick, D.D.

    2010-01-01

    Benthic consumers influence stream ecosystem structure and function, but these interactions depend on environmental context. We experimentally quantified the effects of central stoneroller minnows (Campostoma anomalum (Rafinesque) and Meek's crayfish (Orconectes meeki meeki (Faxon)) on benthic communities using electric exclusion quadrats in Little Mulberry Creek before (June) and during (August) seasonal stream drying. Unglazed ceramic tiles were deployed in June and August to measure periphyton and invertebrate abundance, and leafpack decomposition and primary production were also measured in August. Relationships between stoneroller and crayfish density and the size of consumer effects were evaluated with multiple linear regression models. Average chlorophyll a abundance was greater on exposed than exclusion tiles in August, but not in June. Sediment dry mass, periphyton ash-free dry mass (AFDM), and chironomid densities on tiles did not differ among treatments in either period. Leaf packs decayed faster in exposed than exclusion treatments (kexposed = 0.038 ?? 0.013, kexclusion = 0.007 ?? 0.002), but consumer effects were stronger in some pools than others. Leafpack invertebrate biomass and abundance and tile primary productivity did not differ among treatments. Consumer effects on chlorophyll a were related to crayfish and stoneroller density, and effects on chironomid density were related to stoneroller density. These results contrast with a previous exclusion experiment in Little Mulberry Creek that demonstrated strong consumer effects. The influence of stream drying on consumer effects appears to have been reduced by strong spates, underscoring the importance of conducting multi-year studies to determine the magnitude of variability in ecological interactions. ?? US Government: USGS 2010.

  7. The role of environmental heterogeneity in meta-analysis of gene-environment interactions with quantitative traits.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Taylor, Jeremy M G; Rice, Kenneth M; Wen, Xiaoquan; Rice, John D; Stringham, Heather M; Boehnke, Michael

    2014-07-01

    With challenges in data harmonization and environmental heterogeneity across various data sources, meta-analysis of gene-environment interaction studies can often involve subtle statistical issues. In this paper, we study the effect of environmental covariate heterogeneity (within and between cohorts) on two approaches for fixed-effect meta-analysis: the standard inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis and a meta-regression approach. Akin to the results in Simmonds and Higgins (), we obtain analytic efficiency results for both methods under certain assumptions. The relative efficiency of the two methods depends on the ratio of within versus between cohort variability of the environmental covariate. We propose to use an adaptively weighted estimator (AWE), between meta-analysis and meta-regression, for the interaction parameter. The AWE retains full efficiency of the joint analysis using individual level data under certain natural assumptions. Lin and Zeng (2010a, b) showed that a multivariate inverse-variance weighted estimator retains full efficiency as joint analysis using individual level data, if the estimates with full covariance matrices for all the common parameters are pooled across all studies. We show consistency of our work with Lin and Zeng (2010a, b). Without sacrificing much efficiency, the AWE uses only univariate summary statistics from each study, and bypasses issues with sharing individual level data or full covariance matrices across studies. We compare the performance of the methods both analytically and numerically. The methods are illustrated through meta-analysis of interaction between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in FTO gene and body mass index on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol data from a set of eight studies of type 2 diabetes.

  8. Assessing Environmental Controls and Biogeochemical Consequences of Virus-Host Interactions in Marine Eukaryotic Picophytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, A. E.; Worden, A. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities in marine systems and propagate through lysis of their prokaryotic or eukaryotic hosts. Viruses infecting marine phytoplankton can be significant agents of mortality and disrupt the canonical flow of carbon and nutrients through the microbial loop via the "viral shunt." A large proportion of the ocean's primary production is contributed by photosynthetic eukaryotes, which are important members of the picophytoplankton size class. The smallest picoeukaryote Ostreococcus represents a diverse and widely distributed genus. While the genomes of several viruses infecting the coastal species Ostreococcus lucimarinus have been sequenced, the dependence of viral infection dynamics on environmental parameters such as light and nutrient availability has not been characterized. Therefore, the goal of this study is to determine how light synchronization and nutrient availability modulate the infection of three O. lucimarinus viruses. Viruses were introduced to mid-exponentially-growing O. lucimarinus cultures at different points during a 14:10h light:dark cycle and the infections were followed through a lysis event. Additionally, viral infection dynamics were quantified for cultures of O. lucimarinus under either nutrient-replete or nutrient-deplete conditions. Preliminary results suggest that both light and nutrient availability influence viral infection dynamics, and that low nutrient availability may dampen the severity of infection. This work provides insight to the role of light and nutrient availability in controlling viral replication in an ecologically important picophytoplankton. Considering virus-host interactions is therefore critical for understanding marine plankton-driven biogeochemical processes.

  9. Social niche specialization under constraints: personality, social interactions and environmental heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Ferrari, Caterina; Réale, Denis

    2013-05-19

    Several personality traits are mainly expressed in a social context, and others, which are not restricted to a social context, can be affected by the social interactions with conspecifics. In this paper, we focus on the recently proposed hypothesis that social niche specialization (i.e. individuals in a population occupy different social roles) can explain the maintenance of individual differences in personality. We first present ecological and social niche specialization hypotheses. In particular, we show how niche specialization can be quantified and highlight the link between personality differences and social niche specialization. We then review some ecological factors (e.g. competition and environmental heterogeneity) and the social mechanisms (e.g. frequency-dependent, state-dependent and social awareness) that may be associated with the evolution of social niche specialization and personality differences. Finally, we present a conceptual model and methods to quantify the contribution of ecological factors and social mechanisms to the dynamics between personality and social roles. In doing so, we suggest a series of research objectives to help empirical advances in this research area. Throughout this paper, we highlight empirical studies of social niche specialization in mammals, where available.

  10. Gold Creek: Preserving an Environmental Studies Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Suzanne

    In response to a Board of Trustees request for information and recommendations concerning the future use of the Gold Creek property owned by the Los Angeles Community College District, this report emphasizes that the use of this site for instructional field experiences enhances the quality of environmental education for the district's diverse…

  11. A Manual for Conducting Environmental Impact Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, L. Ellis, Jr.; And Others

    This report presents methodologies for measuring the anticipated environmental impact of proposed highways at the conceptual, location, and design planning stages. An interdisciplinary team approach is recommended. The research emphasizes the systematic collection and evaluation of data on various types of impacts, including those related to…

  12. Environmental Studies. Plano Outdoor Learning Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    This curriculum guide for the Plano Intermediate School District (Texas) Outdoor Learning Center is divided into three major sections. Section I provides information on the numbered stations/posts found along the perimeter and inner trails of the center and includes brief comments on the philosophy of environmental education and the history…

  13. Graduate Students, Study of Environmental Literacy and Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özgurler, Safa; Cansaran, Arzu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the level of environmental literacy of the graduate students in Amasya University; their approach to environment and environmental issues; and to investigate their beliefs about the sustainable development. The sample of the study is 5 graduate students studying at Amasya University, 3 female and 2 male, in…

  14. Polymers' surface interactions with molten iron: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assadi, M. Hussein N.; Sahajwalla, Veena

    2014-10-01

    Environmental concerns are the chief drive for more innovative recycling techniques for end-of-life polymeric products. One attractive option is taking advantage of C and H content of polymeric waste in steelmaking industry. In this work, we examined the interaction of two high production polymers i.e. polyurethane and polysulfide with molten iron using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. We demonstrate that both polymers can be used as carburizers for molten iron. Additionally, we found that light weight H2 and CHx molecules were released as by-products of the polymer-molten iron interaction. The outcomes of this study will have applications in the carburization of molten iron during ladle metallurgy and waste plastic injection in electric arc furnace.

  15. Evolution of Neogene Mammals in Eurasia: Environmental Forcing and Biotic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortelius, Mikael; Eronen, Jussi T.; Kaya, Ferhat; Tang, Hui; Raia, Pasquale; Puolamäki, Kai

    2014-05-01

    The relative weights of physical forcing and biotic interaction as drivers of evolutionary change have been debated in evolutionary theory. The recent finding that species, genera, clades, and chronofaunas all appear to exhibit a symmetrical pattern of waxing and waning lends support to the view that biotic interactions shape the history of life. Yet, there is similarly abundant evidence that these primary units of biological evolution arise and wane in coincidence with major climatic change. We review these patterns and the process-level explanations offered for them. We also propose a tentative synthesis, characterized by interdependence between physical forcing and biotic interactions. We suggest that species with evolutionary novelties arise predominantly in "species factories" that develop under harsh environmental conditions, under dominant physical forcing, whereas exceptionally mild environments give rise to "oases in the desert," characterized by strong competition and survival of relics.

  16. DNA Interaction Studies of Selected Polyamine Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Szumilak, Marta; Merecz, Anna; Strek, Malgorzata; Stanczak, Andrzej; Inglot, Tadeusz W.; Karwowski, Boleslaw T.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of polyamine conjugates with DNA double helix has been studied. Binding properties were examined by ethidium bromide (EtBr) displacement and DNA unwinding/topoisomerase I/II (Topo I/II) activity assays, as well as dsDNA thermal stability studies and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Genotoxicity of the compounds was estimated by a comet assay. It has been shown that only compound 2a can interact with dsDNA via an intercalative binding mode as it displaced EtBr from the dsDNA-dye complex, with Kapp = 4.26 × 106 M−1; caused an increase in melting temperature; changed the circular dichroism spectrum of dsDNA; converted relaxed plasmid DNA into a supercoiled molecule in the presence of Topo I and reduced the amount of short oligonucleotide fragments in the comet tail. Furthermore, preliminary theoretical study has shown that interaction of the discussed compounds with dsDNA depends on molecule linker length and charge distribution over terminal aromatic chromophores. PMID:27657041

  17. How does human-induced environmental change influence host-parasite interactions?

    PubMed

    Budria, Alexandre; Candolin, Ulrika

    2014-04-01

    Host-parasite interactions are an integral part of ecosystems that influence both ecological and evolutionary processes. Humans are currently altering environments the world over, often with drastic consequences for host-parasite interactions and the prevalence of parasites. The mechanisms behind the changes are, however, poorly known. Here, we explain how host-parasite interactions depend on two crucial steps--encounter rate and host-parasite compatibility--and how human activities are altering them and thereby host-parasite interactions. By drawing on examples from the literature, we show that changes in the two steps depend on the influence of human activities on a range of factors, such as the density and diversity of hosts and parasites, the search strategy of the parasite, and the avoidance strategy of the host. Thus, to unravel the mechanisms behind human-induced changes in host-parasite interactions, we have to consider the characteristics of all three parts of the interaction: the host, the parasite and the environment. More attention should now be directed to unfold these mechanisms, focusing on effects of environmental change on the factors that determine encounter rate and compatibility. We end with identifying several areas in urgent need of more investigations.

  18. Studying Environmental Influence on Motor Development in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl; Krebs, Ruy

    2012-01-01

    There is a good argument that in order to truly understand the influences that shape child motor development, one must consider environmental influences that reflect the multilevel ecological contexts that interact with the changing biological characteristics of the child. Although there are theories typically associated with motor development…

  19. Francium Spectroscopy for Weak Interaction Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco, Luis

    2014-05-01

    Francium, a radioactive element, is the heaviest alkali. Its atomic and nuclear structure makes it an ideal laboratory to study the weak interaction. Laser trapping and cooling in-line with the superconducting LINAC accelerator at Stony Brook opened the precision study of its atomic structure. I will present our proposal and progress towards weak interaction measurements at TRIUMF, the National Canadian Accelerator in Vancouver. These include the commissioning run of the Francium Trapping Facility, hyperfine anomaly measurements on a chain of Fr isotopes, the nuclear anapole moment through parity non-conserving transitions in the ground state hyperfine manifold. These measurements should shed light on the nucleon-nucleon weak interaction. This work is done by the FrPNC collaboration: S. Aubin College of William and Mary, J. A. Behr TRIUMF, R. Collister U. Manitoba, E. Gomez UASLP, G. Gwinner U. Manitoba, M. R. Pearson TRIUMF, L. A. Orozco UMD, M. Tandecki TRIUMF, J. Zhang UMD Supported by NSF and DOE from the USA; TRIUMF, NRC and NSERC from Canada; and CONACYT from Mexico

  20. Interaction study between remoxipride and biperiden.

    PubMed

    Yisak, W; Farde, L; von Bahr, C; Nilsson, L B; Fredriksson, G; Ogenstad, S

    1993-01-01

    Twelve healthy male volunteers took part in a double-blind randomised cross-over study composed of three treatment sessions: remoxipride 100 mg; remoxipride 100 mg plus biperiden 4 mg; and biperiden 4 mg. Plasma and urine concentrations of remoxipride and biperiden, plasma prolactin levels, salivary flow and adverse events were recorded to assess pharmacodynamic interactions. Remoxipride and biperiden had no effect on each other's plasma concentrations. Biperiden did not affect the urinary recovery or renal clearance of remoxipride. Prolactin levels were unaffected by biperiden but increased following remoxipride administration. Differences in prolactin Cmax and tmax following remoxipride versus concomitant (remoxipride + biperiden) treatment were not statistically significant. However, a slight but statistically significant (P = 0.04) increase in prolactin AUC was observed after concomitant treatment. No significant differences could be observed between the recorded salivary flow in all the treatment sessions. Single doses of remoxipride and biperiden showed no pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interaction.

  1. Molecular interaction studies using microscale thermophoresis.

    PubMed

    Jerabek-Willemsen, Moran; Wienken, Chistoph J; Braun, Dieter; Baaske, Philipp; Duhr, Stefan

    2011-08-01

    Abstract The use of infrared laser sources for creation of localized temperature fields has opened new possibilities for basic research and drug discovery. A recently developed technology, Microscale Thermophoresis (MST), uses this temperature field to perform biomolecular interaction studies. Thermophoresis, the motion of molecules in temperature fields, is very sensitive to changes in size, charge, and solvation shell of a molecule and thus suited for bioanalytics. This review focuses on the theoretical background of MST and gives a detailed overview on various applications to demonstrate the broad applicability. Experiments range from the quantification of the affinity of low-molecular-weight binders using fluorescently labeled proteins, to interactions between macromolecules and multi-component complexes like receptor containing liposomes. Information regarding experiment and experimental setup is based on the Monolith NT.115 instrument (NanoTemper Technologies GmbH).

  2. Environmental History: A New Challenge for the Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purmont, Jon E.

    1976-01-01

    Through the use of case studies, the classroom teacher can integrate environmental history into the social studies course, emphasizing the historical nature of environmental problems. Students can then apply the resulting knowledge, sensitivity, and awareness to developing attitudes and strengthening concerns for present and future ecological…

  3. Biofied room integrated with sensor agent robots to interact with residents and acquire environmental information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Fumi; Mita, Akira

    2011-04-01

    Current smart buildings are based on scenarios, so they are not prepared for unexpected events. We focus our attention on high adaptability of living matters to environmental changes. "Biofication of Living Spaces" is the concept of creating pleasant living environments using this high adaptability. Biofied room is integrated with sensor agent robots to interact with residents and acquire environmental information. In this research, we propose a highly adaptive algorithm to control the devices automatically. Based on physiological adaption, we can make the algorithm very flexible. As the first step in this research, a prototype of the sensor agent robot is built. Camera, microphone, proximity sensor, laser range-finder are mounted on the robot. As a sensor agent robot follows the residents, it acquires environmental information, and records the interaction between the robot and human. In a suggested control model, a resident is built in the control loop and his/her uncomfortable feeling plays a role of control signal. Following its signal, devices are controlled. Results obtained from the computer simulation show that models are able to maintain the human comfort feeling adaptively. This research suggests an adaptive, fault-tolerant, and energy-saving control models for building spaces, using simple algorithms based on physiological adaption.

  4. Environmental effects consideration: A case study - Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, William W.; Anderson, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance for serious consideration of environmental effects and associated risks by management early in the development cycle of a facility. A case study on the Space Shuttle provides information with regard to some of the environmental effects issues encountered and the lesson learned. The importance of early management action to enable the acceptance of known environmental risks, or to make program adjustments to avoid their potential consequences, is emphasized.

  5. Interactions of environmental stressors impact survival and development of parasitized larval amphibians.

    PubMed

    Koprivnikar, J

    2010-12-01

    Infected hosts are exposed to many environmental stressors that must be taken into account in order to determine the importance of disease, as various combinations can interact in unpredictable ways. Here, northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) tadpoles, a species in decline, were exposed to stressors singly or in combination. Stressors included infection by Echinostoma trivolvis (a trematode parasite), exposure to predator chemical cues (larval dragonflies), and exposure to varying concentrations of the herbicide atrazine. Parasitism decreased survival only in combination with exposure to 3 microg/L atrazine, with a negative interaction observed for mass as well. Similarly, a negative interaction of parasitism and predation on survival occurred. However, atrazine exposure alone negatively affected the survival, mass, and developmental stage of tadpoles. These results indicate that certain stressor combinations are particularly deleterious for young parasitized tadpoles. Notably, very common low-intensity parasite infection can be particularly harmful in certain situations. Such negative impacts on larval amphibians in certain scenarios may contribute to ongoing amphibian population declines, emphasizing that the combination of environmental stressors must be considered when evaluating the general role of disease in species extinctions.

  6. Bacterial-Fungal Interactions: Hyphens between Agricultural, Clinical, Environmental, and Food Microbiologists

    PubMed Central

    Frey-Klett, P.; Burlinson, P.; Deveau, A.; Barret, M.; Tarkka, M.; Sarniguet, A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Bacteria and fungi can form a range of physical associations that depend on various modes of molecular communication for their development and functioning. These bacterial-fungal interactions often result in changes to the pathogenicity or the nutritional influence of one or both partners toward plants or animals (including humans). They can also result in unique contributions to biogeochemical cycles and biotechnological processes. Thus, the interactions between bacteria and fungi are of central importance to numerous biological questions in agriculture, forestry, environmental science, food production, and medicine. Here we present a structured review of bacterial-fungal interactions, illustrated by examples sourced from many diverse scientific fields. We consider the general and specific properties of these interactions, providing a global perspective across this emerging multidisciplinary research area. We show that in many cases, parallels can be drawn between different scenarios in which bacterial-fungal interactions are important. Finally, we discuss how new avenues of investigation may enhance our ability to combat, manipulate, or exploit bacterial-fungal complexes for the economic and practical benefit of humanity as well as reshape our current understanding of bacterial and fungal ecology. PMID:22126995

  7. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2008.

    PubMed

    Andrady, Anthony; Aucamp, Pieter J; Bais, Alkiviadis; Ballaré, Carlos L; Björn, Lars Olof; Bornman, Janet F; Caldwell, Martyn; Cullen, Anthony P; Erickson, David J; de Gruijl, Frank R; Häder, Donat-P; Ilyas, Mohammad; Kulandaivelu, G; Kumar, H D; Longstreth, Janice; McKenzie, Richard L; Norval, Mary; Paul, Nigel; Redhwi, Halim Hamid; Smith, Raymond C; Solomon, Keith R; Sulzberger, Barbara; Takizawa, Yukio; Tang, Xiaoyan; Teramura, Alan H; Torikai, Ayako; van der Leun, Jan C; Wilson, Stephen R; Worrest, Robert C; Zepp, Richard G

    2009-01-01

    After the enthusiastic celebration of the 20th Anniversary of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in 2007, the work for the protection of the ozone layer continues. The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel is one of the three expert panels within the Montreal Protocol. This EEAP deals with the increase of the UV irradiance on the Earth's surface and its effects on human health, animals, plants, biogeochemistry, air quality and materials. For the past few years, interactions of ozone depletion with climate change have also been considered. It has become clear that the environmental problems will be long-lasting. In spite of the fact that the worldwide production of ozone depleting chemicals has already been reduced by 95%, the environmental disturbances are expected to persist for about the next half a century, even if the protective work is actively continued, and completed. The latest full report was published in Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2007, 6, 201-332, and the last progress report in Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2008, 7, 15-27. The next full report on environmental effects is scheduled for the year 2010. The present progress report 2008 is one of the short interim reports, appearing annually.

  8. Toxic interactions among environmental pollutants: corroborating laboratory observations with human experience.

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, K; Brodeur, J

    1994-01-01

    Combined exposures to multiple chemicals may result in interactions leading to a significant increase or decrease in the overall toxicity of the mixture compared to the summation of the toxicity of the components. A large number of chemical interactions have been described in animal studies by administering high doses of chemicals by routes and scenarios often different from anticipated human exposures. Though limited, there is some evidence for the occurrence of several supra-additive (the combined effects are greater than the simple summation of the individual effects) and infra-additive (the combined effects are smaller than the simple summation of the individual effects) chemical interactions in humans. For example, toxicokinetic interactions between several solvents have been found to occur in the workplace, whereas those involving pesticides have been reported less frequently, especially during accidental exposures. Toxic interactions involving nutritionally important metals and metalloids appear to occur more frequently, since several of them have an important role in a variety of physiological and biochemical processes. On the contrary, there is not much evidence to confirm the occurrence of toxic interactions among the commonly encountered inorganic gaseous pollutants in humans. Overall, the majority of chemical interactions observed in animal studies have neither been investigated in humans nor been extrapolated to humans based on appropriate mechanistic considerations. Future research efforts in the chemical interactions arena should address these issues by focusing on the development of mechanistically and biologically based models that allow predictions of the extent of interactions likely to be observed in humans. PMID:7698071

  9. Hormonal interactions and gene regulation can link monoecy and environmental plasticity to the evolution of dioecy in plants.

    PubMed

    Golenberg, Edward M; West, Nicholas W

    2013-06-01

    Most models for dioecy in flowering plants assume that dioecy arises directly from hermaphroditism through a series of independent feminizing and masculinizing mutations that become chromosomally linked. However, dioecy appears to evolve most frequently through monoecious grades. The major genetic models do not explain the evolution of unisexual flowers in monoecious and submonoecious populations, nor do they account for environmentally induced sexual plasticity. In this review, we explore the roles of environmental stress and hormones on sex determination, and propose a model that can explain the evolution of dioecy through monoecy, and the mechanisms of environmental sex determination. Environmental stresses elicit hormones that allow plants to mediate the negative effects of the stresses. Many of these same hormones are involved in the regulation of floral developmental genes. Recent studies have elucidated the mechanisms whereby these hormones interact and can act as switchpoints in regulatory pathways. Consequently, differential concentrations of plant hormones can regulate whole developmental pathways, providing a mechanism for differential development within isogenic individuals such as seen in monoecious plants. Sex-determining genes in such systems will evolve to generate clusters of coexpressed suites. Coexpression rather than coinheritance of gender-specific genes will define the sexual developmental fate. Therefore, selection for gender type will drive evolution of the regulatory sequences of such genes rather than their synteny. Subsequent mutations to hyper- or hyposensitive alleles within the hormone response pathway can result in segregating dioecious populations. Simultaneously, such developmental systems will remain sensitive to external stimuli that modify hormone responses.

  10. Metabolic Network Modeling of Microbial Interactions in Natural and Engineered Environmental Systems.

    PubMed

    Perez-Garcia, Octavio; Lear, Gavin; Singhal, Naresh

    2016-01-01

    We review approaches to characterize metabolic interactions within microbial communities using Stoichiometric Metabolic Network (SMN) models for applications in environmental and industrial biotechnology. SMN models are computational tools used to evaluate the metabolic engineering potential of various organisms. They have successfully been applied to design and optimize the microbial production of antibiotics, alcohols and amino acids by single strains. To date however, such models have been rarely applied to analyze and control the metabolism of more complex microbial communities. This is largely attributed to the diversity of microbial community functions, metabolisms, and interactions. Here, we firstly review different types of microbial interaction and describe their relevance for natural and engineered environmental processes. Next, we provide a general description of the essential methods of the SMN modeling workflow including the steps of network reconstruction, simulation through Flux Balance Analysis (FBA), experimental data gathering, and model calibration. Then we broadly describe and compare four approaches to model microbial interactions using metabolic networks, i.e., (i) lumped networks, (ii) compartment per guild networks, (iii) bi-level optimization simulations, and (iv) dynamic-SMN methods. These approaches can be used to integrate and analyze diverse microbial physiology, ecology and molecular community data. All of them (except the lumped approach) are suitable for incorporating species abundance data but so far they have been used only to model simple communities of two to eight different species. Interactions based on substrate exchange and competition can be directly modeled using the above approaches. However, interactions based on metabolic feedbacks, such as product inhibition and synthropy require extensions to current models, incorporating gene regulation and compounding accumulation mechanisms. SMN models of microbial interactions can

  11. Metabolic Network Modeling of Microbial Interactions in Natural and Engineered Environmental Systems

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Garcia, Octavio; Lear, Gavin; Singhal, Naresh

    2016-01-01

    We review approaches to characterize metabolic interactions within microbial communities using Stoichiometric Metabolic Network (SMN) models for applications in environmental and industrial biotechnology. SMN models are computational tools used to evaluate the metabolic engineering potential of various organisms. They have successfully been applied to design and optimize the microbial production of antibiotics, alcohols and amino acids by single strains. To date however, such models have been rarely applied to analyze and control the metabolism of more complex microbial communities. This is largely attributed to the diversity of microbial community functions, metabolisms, and interactions. Here, we firstly review different types of microbial interaction and describe their relevance for natural and engineered environmental processes. Next, we provide a general description of the essential methods of the SMN modeling workflow including the steps of network reconstruction, simulation through Flux Balance Analysis (FBA), experimental data gathering, and model calibration. Then we broadly describe and compare four approaches to model microbial interactions using metabolic networks, i.e., (i) lumped networks, (ii) compartment per guild networks, (iii) bi-level optimization simulations, and (iv) dynamic-SMN methods. These approaches can be used to integrate and analyze diverse microbial physiology, ecology and molecular community data. All of them (except the lumped approach) are suitable for incorporating species abundance data but so far they have been used only to model simple communities of two to eight different species. Interactions based on substrate exchange and competition can be directly modeled using the above approaches. However, interactions based on metabolic feedbacks, such as product inhibition and synthropy require extensions to current models, incorporating gene regulation and compounding accumulation mechanisms. SMN models of microbial interactions can

  12. Spacelab data analysis and interactive control study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, T. D.; Drake, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    The study consisted of two main tasks, a series of interviews of Spacelab users and a survey of data processing and display equipment. Findings from the user interviews on questions of interactive control, downlink data formats, and Spacelab computer software development are presented. Equipment for quick look processing and display of scientific data in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) was surveyed. Results of this survey effort are discussed in detail, along with recommendations for NASA development of several specific display systems which meet common requirements of many Spacelab experiments.

  13. Interacting Social and Environmental Predictors for the Spatial Distribution of Conservation Lands

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Robert F.; Leonard, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation decisions should be evaluated for how they meet conservation goals at multiple spatial extents. Conservation easements are land use decisions resulting from a combination of social and environmental conditions. An emerging area of research is the evaluation of spatial distribution of easements and their spatial correlates. We tested the relative influence of interacting social and environmental variables on the spatial distribution of conservation easements by ownership category and conservation status. For the Appalachian region of the United States, an area with a long history of human occupation and complex land uses including public-private conservation, we found that settlement, economic, topographic, and environmental data associated with spatial distribution of easements (N = 4813). Compared to random locations, easements were more likely to be found in lower elevations, in areas of greater agricultural productivity, farther from public protected areas, and nearer other human features. Analysis of ownership and conservation status revealed sources of variation, with important differences between local and state government ownerships relative to non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and among U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) GAP program status levels. NGOs were more likely to have easements nearer protected areas, and higher conservation status, while local governments held easements closer to settlement, and on lands of greater agricultural potential. Logistic interactions revealed environmental variables having effects modified by social correlates, and the strongest predictors overall were social (distance to urban area, median household income, housing density, distance to land trust office). Spatial distribution of conservation lands may be affected by geographic area of influence of conservation groups, suggesting that multi-scale conservation planning strategies may be necessary to satisfy local and regional needs for reserve networks. Our

  14. Interacting Social and Environmental Predictors for the Spatial Distribution of Conservation Lands.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Robert F; Leonard, Paul B

    2015-01-01

    Conservation decisions should be evaluated for how they meet conservation goals at multiple spatial extents. Conservation easements are land use decisions resulting from a combination of social and environmental conditions. An emerging area of research is the evaluation of spatial distribution of easements and their spatial correlates. We tested the relative influence of interacting social and environmental variables on the spatial distribution of conservation easements by ownership category and conservation status. For the Appalachian region of the United States, an area with a long history of human occupation and complex land uses including public-private conservation, we found that settlement, economic, topographic, and environmental data associated with spatial distribution of easements (N = 4813). Compared to random locations, easements were more likely to be found in lower elevations, in areas of greater agricultural productivity, farther from public protected areas, and nearer other human features. Analysis of ownership and conservation status revealed sources of variation, with important differences between local and state government ownerships relative to non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and among U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) GAP program status levels. NGOs were more likely to have easements nearer protected areas, and higher conservation status, while local governments held easements closer to settlement, and on lands of greater agricultural potential. Logistic interactions revealed environmental variables having effects modified by social correlates, and the strongest predictors overall were social (distance to urban area, median household income, housing density, distance to land trust office). Spatial distribution of conservation lands may be affected by geographic area of influence of conservation groups, suggesting that multi-scale conservation planning strategies may be necessary to satisfy local and regional needs for reserve networks. Our

  15. Assemblage organization in stream fishes: effects of environmental variation and interspecific interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, G.D.; Ratajczak, R.E.; Crawford, M. M.; Freeman, Mary C.

    1998-01-01

    We assessed the relative importance of environmental variation, interspecific competition for space, and predator abundance on assemblage structure and microhabitat use in a stream fish assemblage inhabiting Coweeta Creek, North Carolina, USA. Our study encompassed a ten year time span (1983-1992) and included some of the highest and lowest flows in the last 58 years. We collected 16 seasonal samples which included data on: 1) habitat availability (total and microhabitat) and microhabitat diversity, 2) assemblage structure (i.e., the number and abundances of species comprising a subset of the community), and 3) microhabitat use and overlap. We classified habitat availability data on the basis of year, season, and hydrologic period. Hydrologic period (i.e., pre-drought [PR], drought [D], and post-drought [PO]) represented the temporal location of a sample with respect to a four-year drought that occurred during the study. Hydrologic period explained a greater amount of variance in habitat availability data than either season or year. Total habitat availability was significantly greater during PO than in PR or D, although microhabitat diversity did not differ among either seasons or hydrologic periods. There were significantly fewer high-flow events (i.e., > 2.1 m3/s) during D than in either PR or PO periods. We observed a total of 16 species during our investigation, and the total number of species was significantly higher in D than in PR samples. Correlation analyses between the number of species present (total and abundant species) and environmental data yielded limited results, although the total number of species was inversely correlated with total habitat availability. A cluster analysis grouped assemblage structure samples by hydrologic period rather than season or year, supporting the contention that variation in annual flow had a strong impact on this assemblage. The drought had little effect on the numerical abundance of benthic species in this assemblage

  16. Environmental control system transducer development study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brudnicki, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    A failure evaluation of the transducers used in the environmental control systems of the Apollo command service module, lunar module, and portable life support system is presented in matrix form for several generic categories of transducers to enable identification of chronic failure modes. Transducer vendors were contacted and asked to supply detailed information. The evaluation data generated for each category of transducer were compiled and published in failure design evaluation reports. The evaluation reports also present a review of the failure and design data for the transducers and suggest both design criteria to improve reliability of the transducers and, where necessary, design concepts for required redesign of the transducers. Remedial designs were implemented on a family of pressure transducers and on the oxygen flow transducer. The design concepts were subjected to analysis, breadboard fabrication, and verification testing.

  17. Children's environmental knowing: A case study of children's experiences during an environmental education programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Sandra Anne

    This study explores children's experiences during WaterWorlds (pseudonym) a field-based environmental education programme at a marine science centre. The study objectives were to investigate how children understand and interpret their experiences, and how these experiences foster their environmental knowing. To address these objectives, I carried out a case study at a marine science centre in British Columbia. I examined children's WaterWorlds experiences and explored their environmental understandings and commitment to environmental action. I analysed the experiences of children in four separate classes and carried out an in-depth examination of four individual children. Data were collected using informal semi-structured interviews, observations, conversations, researcher journal logs, and student documents including their writing and illustrations. My findings indicate that the WaterWorlds programme experience fosters children's environmental knowing. Participation in WaterWorlds activities led to connection, caring, and concern for other species and in some cases, for the marine environment as a whole. During the programme, children chose the ways they interpreted and expressed their environmental knowledge, ethic of care, advocacy, and commitment to action. This development of each child's self-expression resulted in motivational and powerful learning experiences that inspired and nurtured their connections to the earth. This research provides evidence and examples of how educators can foster children's environmental knowing through multi-disciplinary environmental education experiences. It illustrates that activities such as observing and documenting the lives of other animal species, collecting data and conducting research on those species, and working and learning alongside experts in the field of environmental education are powerful experiences that motivate concern and care for the earth among children.

  18. Land-ocean interaction: processes, functioning and environmental management from a UK perspective: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin; Leeks, Graham J L; Millward, Geoff E; Harris, John R W; Huthnance, John M; Rees, John G

    2003-10-01

    This paper provides a foreword to a special edition of Science of the Total Environment concerned with land-ocean interaction from a UK perspective as linked to processes, functioning and environmental management. The volume structure is presented together with an outline of the nature of the individual papers. The areas covered are: (1) freshwater chemistry, (2) riverine sedimentology, (3) tidal river, estuarine and coastal chemistry, (4) estuarine and coastal sediments and (5) shelf-sea-ocean linkages. The foreword provides as an introductory link to the broader perspectives of contemporary UK research in this area, which comes in a conclusions paper at the end of the volume.

  19. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2015.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels that regularly informs the Parties (countries) to the Montreal Protocol on the effects of ozone depletion and the consequences of climate change interactions with respect to human health, animals, plants, biogeochemistry, air quality, and materials. The Panels provide a detailed assessment report every four years. The most recent 2014 Quadrennial Assessment by the EEAP was published as a special issue of seven papers in 2015 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2015, 14, 1-184). The next Quadrennial Assessment will be published in 2018/2019. In the interim, the EEAP generally produces an annual update or progress report of the relevant scientific findings. The present progress report for 2015 assesses some of the highlights and new insights with regard to the interactive nature of the effects of UV radiation, atmospheric processes, and climate change.

  20. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 6th Grade - River Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with elementary children in grade six prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  1. Acquisition of Operational Environmental Literacy in Social Studies Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidan, Nuray Kurtdede; Ay, Tugba Selanik

    2016-01-01

    Environmental literacy can be defined as having necessary perceptions and competency of health and environmental systems and as being active in developing necessary acts about them. Individuals are expected to use their knowledge and concepts in daily life. The aim of this study is to determine students' views about operational environmental…

  2. Study questions environmental impact of fuel-cell vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2015-09-01

    Fuel-cell electric vehicles are seen by many as an environmentally friendly technology that can reduce greenhousegas emissions by producing no harmful emissions. But a new study has found that overall a fuel cell electric vehicle has about the same negative environmental impact as a luxury sports car.

  3. Long-Term Impact of Service Learning in Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFall, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Long-term impacts from a senior course in Environmental Studies were evaluated by a survey of program graduates (36 respondents, 50% response rate) who had participated in the course over an 8-year permiod. Each year, the Senior Seminar used a service-learning pedagogy with a different environmentally focused project ranging from web resource…

  4. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 8th Grade - Beach Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with secondary children in grade eight prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  5. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 1st Grade - Habitats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with elementary children in grade one prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. This…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  7. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 3rd Grade - Grassflat Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with elementary children in grade three prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area.…

  8. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 4th Grade - Mangrove Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with elementary children in grade four prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  9. Social Studies: A Crucial Component of Holistic Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmulewicz, Liza Ireland

    Environmental education ideally involves a holistic integration of all school subjects, but in reality the curriculum structure is very segmented. Traditional approaches to the study of environmental degradation have not recognized the interrelatedness of the system: problems in the biosphere have been addressed from the perspective of the…

  10. Multilevel complex interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors in the aetiology of anomalies of dental development

    PubMed Central

    Brook, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Dental anomalies are caused by complex interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors during the long process of dental development. This process is multifactorial, multilevel, multidimensional and progressive over time. In this paper the evidence from animal models and from human studies is integrated to outline the current position and to construct and evaluate models, as a basis for future work. Dental development is multilevel entailing molecular and cellular interactions which have macroscopic outcomes. It is multidimensional, requiring developments in the three spatial dimensions and the fourth dimension of time. It is progressive, occurring over a long period, yet with critical stages. The series of interactions involving multiple genetic signalling pathways are also influenced by extracellular factors. Interactions, gradients and spatial field effects of multiple genes, epigenetic and environmental factors all influence the development of individual teeth, groups of teeth and the dentition as a whole. The macroscopic, clinically visible result in humans is a complex unit of four different tooth types formed in morphogenetic fields, in which teeth within each field form directionally and erupt at different times, reflecting the spatio-temporal control of development. Even when a specific mutation of a single gene or one major environmental insult has been identified in a patient with a dental anomaly, detailed investigation of the phenotype often reveals variation between affected individuals in the same family, between dentitions in the same individual and even between different teeth in the same dentition. The same, or closely similar phenotypes, whether anomalies of tooth number or structure, may arise from different aetiologies: not only mutations in different genes but also environmental factors may result in similar phenotypes. Related to the action of a number of the developmental regulatory genes active in odontogenesis, in

  11. Meta-regression of gene-environment interaction in genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoxiao; Shi, Gang; Nehorai, Arye

    2013-12-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have created heightened interest in understanding the effects of gene-environment interaction on complex human diseases or traits. Applying methods for analyzing such interaction can help uncover novel genes and identify environmental hazards that influence only certain genetically susceptible groups. However, the number of interaction analysis methods is still limited, so there is a need to develop more efficient and powerful methods. In this paper, we propose two novel meta-analysis methods of studying gene-environment interaction, based on meta-regression of estimated genetic effects on the environmental factor. The two methods can perform joint analysis of a single nucleotide polymorphism's (SNP) main and interaction effects, or analyze only the effect of the interaction. They can readily estimate any linear or non-linear interactions by simply modifying the gene-environment regression function. Thus, they are efficient methods to be applied to different scenarios. We use numerical examples to demonstrate the performance of our methods. We also compare them with two other methods commonly used in current GWAS, i.e., meta-analysis of SNP main effects (MAIN) and joint meta-analysis of SNP main and interaction effects (JMA). The results show that our methods are more powerful than MAIN when the interaction effect exists, and are comparable to JMAin the linear or quadratic interaction cases. In the numerical examples, we also investigate how the number of the divided groups and the sample size of the studies affect the performance of our methods.

  12. Interactivity with the Interactive Whiteboard in Traditional and Innovative Primary Schools: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Koster, Sandra; Volman, Monique; Kuiper, Els

    2013-01-01

    One of the main affordances of the interactive whiteboard (IWB) is its potential for increasing classroom interactivity, yet little is known about the interactivity it supports in schools with different educational concepts. In this study we analysed what types of whole-class interactivity the IWB supports in schools with either a…

  13. Nanoparticle-lipid bilayer interactions studied with lipid bilayer arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bin; Smith, Tyler; Schmidt, Jacob J.

    2015-04-01

    The widespread environmental presence and commercial use of nanoparticles have raised significant health concerns as a result of many in vitro and in vivo assays indicating toxicity of a wide range of nanoparticle species. Many of these assays have identified the ability of nanoparticles to damage cell membranes. These interactions can be studied in detail using artificial lipid bilayers, which can provide insight into the nature of the particle-membrane interaction through variation of membrane and solution properties not possible with cell-based assays. However, the scope of these studies can be limited because of the low throughput characteristic of lipid bilayer platforms. We have recently described an easy to use, parallel lipid bilayer platform which we have used to electrically investigate the activity of 60 nm diameter amine and carboxyl modified polystyrene nanoparticles (NH2-NP and COOH-NP) with over 1000 lipid bilayers while varying lipid composition, bilayer charge, ionic strength, pH, voltage, serum, particle concentration, and particle charge. Our results confirm recent studies finding activity of NH2-NP but not COOH-NP. Detailed analysis shows that NH2-NP formed pores 0.3-2.3 nm in radius, dependent on bilayer and solution composition. These interactions appear to be electrostatic, as they are regulated by NH2-NP surface charge, solution ionic strength, and bilayer charge. The ability to rapidly measure a large number of nanoparticle and membrane parameters indicates strong potential of this bilayer array platform for additional nanoparticle bilayer studies.The widespread environmental presence and commercial use of nanoparticles have raised significant health concerns as a result of many in vitro and in vivo assays indicating toxicity of a wide range of nanoparticle species. Many of these assays have identified the ability of nanoparticles to damage cell membranes. These interactions can be studied in detail using artificial lipid bilayers, which

  14. An environmental analysis of genes associated with schizophrenia: hypoxia and vascular factors as interacting elements in the neurodevelopmental model.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Kastner, R; van Os, J; Esquivel, G; Steinbusch, H W M; Rutten, B P F

    2012-12-01

    Investigating and understanding gene-environment interaction (G × E) in a neurodevelopmentally and biologically plausible manner is a major challenge for schizophrenia research. Hypoxia during neurodevelopment is one of several environmental factors related to the risk of schizophrenia, and links between schizophrenia candidate genes and hypoxia regulation or vascular expression have been proposed. Given the availability of a wealth of complex genetic information on schizophrenia in the literature without knowledge on the connections to environmental factors, we now systematically collected genes from candidate studies (using SzGene), genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and copy number variation (CNV) analyses, and then applied four criteria to test for a (theoretical) link to ischemia-hypoxia and/or vascular factors. In all, 55% of the schizophrenia candidate genes (n=42 genes) met the criteria for a link to ischemia-hypoxia and/or vascular factors. Genes associated with schizophrenia showed a significant, threefold enrichment among genes that were derived from microarray studies of the ischemia-hypoxia response (IHR) in the brain. Thus, the finding of a considerable match between genes associated with the risk of schizophrenia and IHR and/or vascular factors is reproducible. An additional survey of genes identified by GWAS and CNV analyses suggested novel genes that match the criteria. Findings for interactions between specific variants of genes proposed to be IHR and/or vascular factors with obstetric complications in patients with schizophrenia have been reported in the literature. Therefore, the extended gene set defined here may form a reasonable and evidence-based starting point for hypothesis-based testing of G × E interactions in clinical genetic and translational neuroscience studies.

  15. DARPP-32 interaction with adducin may mediate rapid environmental effects on striatal neurons.

    PubMed

    Engmann, Olivia; Giralt, Albert; Gervasi, Nicolas; Marion-Poll, Lucile; Gasmi, Laila; Filhol, Odile; Picciotto, Marina R; Gilligan, Diana; Greengard, Paul; Nairn, Angus C; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine

    2015-12-07

    Environmental enrichment has multiple effects on behaviour, including modification of responses to psychostimulant drugs mediated by striatal neurons. However, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are not known. Here we show that DARPP-32, a hub signalling protein in striatal neurons, interacts with adducins, which are cytoskeletal proteins that cap actin filaments' fast-growing ends and regulate synaptic stability. DARPP-32 binds to adducin MARCKS domain and this interaction is modulated by DARPP-32 Ser97 phosphorylation. Phospho-Thr75-DARPP-32 facilitates β-adducin Ser713 phosphorylation through inhibition of a cAMP-dependent protein kinase/phosphatase-2A cascade. Caffeine or 24-h exposure to a novel enriched environment increases adducin phosphorylation in WT, but not T75A mutant mice. This cascade is implicated in the effects of brief exposure to novel enriched environment on dendritic spines in nucleus accumbens and cocaine locomotor response. Our results suggest a molecular pathway by which environmental changes may rapidly alter responsiveness of striatal neurons involved in the reward system.

  16. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: Progress report, 2016.

    PubMed

    United Nations Environment Programme Environmental Effects Assessment Panel

    2017-02-15

    The Parties to the Montreal Protocol are informed by three Panels of experts. One of these is the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP), which deals with two focal issues. The first focus is the effects of UV radiation on human health, animals, plants, biogeochemistry, air quality, and materials. The second focus is on interactions between UV radiation and global climate change and how these may affect humans and the environment. When considering the effects of climate change, it has become clear that processes resulting in changes in stratospheric ozone are more complex than previously believed. As a result of this, human health and environmental issues will be longer-lasting and more regionally variable. Like the other Panels, the EEAP produces a detailed report every four years; the most recent was published as a series of seven papers in 2015 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2015, 14, 1-184). In the years in between, the EEAP produces less detailed and shorter Progress Reports of the relevant scientific findings. The most recent of these was for 2015 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2016, 15, 141-147). The present Progress Report for 2016 assesses some of the highlights and new insights with regard to the interactive nature of the direct and indirect effects of UV radiation, atmospheric processes, and climate change. The more detailed Quadrennial Assessment will be made available in 2018.

  17. DARPP-32 interaction with adducin may mediate rapid environmental effects on striatal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Engmann, Olivia; Giralt, Albert; Gervasi, Nicolas; Marion-Poll, Lucile; Gasmi, Laila; Filhol, Odile; Picciotto, Marina R.; Gilligan, Diana; Greengard, Paul; Nairn, Angus C.; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment has multiple effects on behaviour, including modification of responses to psychostimulant drugs mediated by striatal neurons. However, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are not known. Here we show that DARPP-32, a hub signalling protein in striatal neurons, interacts with adducins, which are cytoskeletal proteins that cap actin filaments' fast-growing ends and regulate synaptic stability. DARPP-32 binds to adducin MARCKS domain and this interaction is modulated by DARPP-32 Ser97 phosphorylation. Phospho-Thr75-DARPP-32 facilitates β-adducin Ser713 phosphorylation through inhibition of a cAMP-dependent protein kinase/phosphatase-2A cascade. Caffeine or 24-h exposure to a novel enriched environment increases adducin phosphorylation in WT, but not T75A mutant mice. This cascade is implicated in the effects of brief exposure to novel enriched environment on dendritic spines in nucleus accumbens and cocaine locomotor response. Our results suggest a molecular pathway by which environmental changes may rapidly alter responsiveness of striatal neurons involved in the reward system. PMID:26639316

  18. Developing site-specific interactive environmental management tools: An exciting method of communicating training, procedures, and other information

    SciTech Connect

    Jaeckels, J.M.

    1999-07-01

    Environmental managers are faced with numerous programs that must be communicated throughout their organizations. Among these are regulatory training programs, internal environmental policy, regulatory guidance/procedures and internal guidance/procedures. Traditional methods of delivering this type of information are typically confined to written materials and classroom training. There are many challenges faced by environmental managers with these traditional approaches including: determining if recipients of written plans or procedures are reading and comprehending the information; scheduling training sessions to reach all affected people across multiple schedules/shifts; and maintaining adequate training records. In addition, current trends toward performance-based or competency-based training requires a more consistent method of measuring and documenting performance. The use of interactive computer applications to present training or procedural information is a new and exciting tool for delivering environmental information to employees. Site-specific pictures, text, sound, and even video can be combined with multimedia software to create informative and highly interactive applications. Some of the applications that can be produced include integrated environmental training, educational pieces, and interactive environmental procedures. They can be executed from a CD-ROM, hard drive, network or a company Intranet. Collectively, the authors refer to these as interactive environmental management tools (IEMTs). This paper focuses on site-specific, interactive training as an example of an IEMT. Interactive training not only delivers a highly effective message, but can also be designed to focus on site-specific environmental issues that are unique to each company. Interactive training also lends itself well to automated record keeping functions and to reaching all affected employees.

  19. Genetic and environmental influences interact with age and sex in shaping the human methylome

    PubMed Central

    van Dongen, Jenny; Nivard, Michel G.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Helmer, Quinta; Dolan, Conor V.; Ehli, Erik A.; Davies, Gareth E.; van Iterson, Maarten; Breeze, Charles E.; Beck, Stephan; Hoen, Peter A.C.'t; Pool, René; van Greevenbroek, Marleen M.J.; Stehouwer, Coen D.A.; Kallen, Carla J.H. van der; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Zhernakova, Sasha; Tigchelaar, Ettje F.; Beekman, Marian; Deelen, Joris; van Heemst, Diana; Veldink, Jan H.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Hofman, Bert A.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Jhamai, P. Mila; Verbiest, Michael; Verkerk, Marijn; van der Breggen, Ruud; van Rooij, Jeroen; Lakenberg, Nico; Mei, Hailiang; Bot, Jan; Zhernakova, Dasha V.; van't Hof, Peter; Deelen, Patrick; Nooren, Irene; Moed, Matthijs; Vermaat, Martijn; Luijk, René; Bonder, Marc Jan; van Dijk, Freerk; van Galen, Michiel; Arindrarto, Wibowo; Kielbasa, Szymon M.; Swertz, Morris A.; van Zwet, Erik W.; Isaacs, Aaron; Franke, Lude; Suchiman, H. Eka; Jansen, Rick; van Meurs, Joyce B.; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2016-01-01

    The methylome is subject to genetic and environmental effects. Their impact may depend on sex and age, resulting in sex- and age-related physiological variation and disease susceptibility. Here we estimate the total heritability of DNA methylation levels in whole blood and estimate the variance explained by common single nucleotide polymorphisms at 411,169 sites in 2,603 individuals from twin families, to establish a catalogue of between-individual variation in DNA methylation. Heritability estimates vary across the genome (mean=19%) and interaction analyses reveal thousands of sites with sex-specific heritability as well as sites where the environmental variance increases with age. Integration with previously published data illustrates the impact of genome and environment across the lifespan at methylation sites associated with metabolic traits, smoking and ageing. These findings demonstrate that our catalogue holds valuable information on locations in the genome where methylation variation between people may reflect disease-relevant environmental exposures or genetic variation. PMID:27051996

  20. Integrating international relations and environmental science course concepts through an interactive world politics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, K. H.; Kesgin, B.

    2012-12-01

    During the fall 2012 semester, students in two introductory courses at Susquehanna University - EENV:101 Environmental Science and POLI:131 World Affairs - will participate together in an online international relations simulation called Statecraft (www.statecraftsim.com). In this strategy game, students are divided into teams representing independent countries, and choose their government type (democracy, constitutional monarchy, communist totalitarian, or military dictatorship) and two country attributes (industrial, green, militaristic, pacifist, or scientific), which determine a set of rules by which that country must abide. Countries interact over issues such as resource distribution, war, pollution, immigration, and global climate change, and must also keep domestic political unrest to a minimum in order to succeed in the game. This simulation has typically been run in political science courses, as the goal is to allow students to experience the balancing act necessary to maintain control of global and domestic issues in a dynamic, diverse world. This semester, environmental science students will be integrated into the simulation, both as environmental advisers to each country and as independent actors representing groups such as Greenpeace, ExxonMobil, and UNEP. The goal in integrating the two courses in the simulation is for the students in each course to gain both 1) content knowledge of certain fundamental material in the other course, and 2) a more thorough, applied understanding of the integrated nature of the two subjects. Students will gain an appreciation for the multiple tradeoffs that decision-makers must face in the real world (economy, resources, pollution, health, defense, etc.). Environmental science students will link these concepts to the traditional course material through a "systems thinking" approach to sustainability. Political science students will face the challenges of global climate change and gain an understanding of the nature of

  1. Interactions of microorganisms with rare earth ions and their utilization for separation and environmental technology.

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, rare earth elements (REEs) have been widely used in various modern technological devices and the global demand for REE has been increasing. The increased demand for REEs has led to environmental exposure or water pollution from rare earth metal mines and various commercial products. Therefore, the development of a safe technology for the separation and adsorption of REEs is very important from the perspective of green chemistry and environmental pollution. In this review, the application and mechanisms of microorganisms for the removal and extraction of REEs from aqueous solutions are described. In addition, the advantages in using microorganisms for REE adsorption and future studies on this topic are discussed.

  2. Environmental ethics and professional practice: A case study of an environmental challenge for century 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, C.

    1995-12-01

    Objective resolution of environmental issues involves questions of facts and values, and, for environmental issues to be resolved ethically, a proper synthesis of environmental facts with questions of ethics must occur. In this case study, the proposal by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to use the Yucca Mountain site in southwest Nevada as a deep geologic repository for the permanent disposal of the nation`s high-level nuclear waste is examined in part in the context of the {open_quotes}Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice for Environmental Professionals{close_quotes} adopted by the National Association of Environmental Professionals (NAEP). Current plans are that a repository at the Yucca Mountain site would begin functioning in 2010 and would be sealed after about 150 years. The requirement that a geologic repository must isolate nuclear waste from the environment for at least 10,000 years poses unique challenges to environmental professionals. This case study also analyzes the challenges in terms of the implications of a new federal Executive Order on Ecosystem Management and corresponding internal orders within all federal agencies to conform to the Executive Order. The imposition of the principles and practices of ecosystem-based resource management on federal agencies provides an opportunity to also address, in the context of the DOE Yucca Mountain Project, (1) the ecosystem approach to environmental management, (2) concepts of holistic resource management planning, and (3) the concepts of sustainability and biodiversity. Within this framework there are important implications for environmental ethics and professional practice that must remain at the forefront of concerns of the NAEP over the next two decades.

  3. 77 FR 18271 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory guide; issuance. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing...

  4. 76 FR 50274 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  5. Studying Environmental Moves and Relocations: A Research Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Robert J.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research on man-environment relations and initiates the process of formulating a research paradigm for studying environmental moves and readjustments. Uses a renovated academic center as a specimen case. (JR)

  6. Battery study for the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Stephen F.; Otzinger, B.; Perrone, D.; Distefano, Sal; Halpert, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the battery study for the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) Pathfinder are presented. Topics covered include: MESUR pathfinder introduction; power subsystem concept; battery technology selection; mission battery performance; cell/battery baseline design; charge methodology; and proposed testing.

  7. Interactions between a pollinating seed predator and its host plant: the role of environmental context within a population

    PubMed Central

    Kula, Abigail A R; Castillo, Dean M; Dudash, Michele R; Fenster, Charles B

    2014-01-01

    Plant–insect interactions often are important for plant reproduction, but the outcome of these interactions may vary with environmental context. Pollinating seed predators have positive and negative effects on host plant reproduction, and the interaction outcome is predicted to vary with density or abundance of the partners. We studied the interaction between Silene stellata, an herbaceous perennial, and Hadena ectypa, its specialized pollinating seed predator. Silene stellata is only facultatively dependent upon H. ectypa for pollination because other nocturnal moth co-pollinators are equally effective at pollen transfer. We hypothesized that for plants without conspecific neighbors, H. ectypa would have higher visitation rates compared to co-pollinators, and the plants would experience lower levels of H. ectypa pollen deposition. We predicted similar oviposition throughout the study site but greater H. ectypa predation in the area without conspecific neighbors compared to plants embedded in a naturally high density area. We found that H. ectypa had consistently higher visitation than moth co-pollinators in all host plant contexts. However, H. ectypa pollinator importance declined in areas with low conspecific density because of reduced pollen deposition, resulting in lower seed set. Conversely, oviposition was similar across the study site independent of host plant density. Greater likelihood of very high fruit predation combined with lower pollination by H. ectypa resulted in reduced S. stellata female reproductive success in areas with low conspecific density. Our results demonstrate local context dependency of the outcomes of pollinating seed predator interactions with conspecific host plant density within a population. PMID:25165527

  8. Evidence of Gene–Environment Interactions between Common Breast Cancer Susceptibility Loci and Established Environmental Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nickels, Stefan; Truong, Thérèse; Hein, Rebecca; Stevens, Kristen; Buck, Katharina; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Schmidt, Martina; Häberle, Lothar; Vrieling, Alina; Gaudet, Mia; Figueroa, Jonine; Schoof, Nils; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Rudolph, Anja; Fasching, Peter A.; Hopper, John L.; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Southey, Melissa C.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Fletcher, Olivia; Gibson, Lorna; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Wang, Jean; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Lanng, Charlotte; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Bernstein, Leslie; Clarke, Christina A.; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Harth, Volker; The GENICA Network; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; kConFab; Group, AOCS Management; Lambrechts, Diether; Smeets, Dominiek; Neven, Patrick; Paridaens, Robert; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Obi, Nadia; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine M.; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Offit, Kenneth; John, Esther M.; Miron, Alexander; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Liu, Jianjun; Cox, Angela; Cramp, Helen; Connley, Dan; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Newcomb, Polly; Titus, Linda; Egan, Kathleen; Cahoon, Elizabeth K.; Rajaraman, Preetha; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Doody, Michele M.; Guénel, Pascal; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Hall, Per; Easton, Doug F.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Milne, Roger L.; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Various common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer; however, it is unclear how they combine with lifestyle/environmental risk factors to influence risk. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess gene-environment interaction for risk of breast cancer. Data from 24 studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were pooled. Using up to 34,793 invasive breast cancers and 41,099 controls, we examined whether the relative risks associated with 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms were modified by 10 established environmental risk factors (age at menarche, parity, breastfeeding, body mass index, height, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy use, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, physical activity) in women of European ancestry. We used logistic regression models stratified by study and adjusted for age and performed likelihood ratio tests to assess gene–environment interactions. All statistical tests were two-sided. We replicated previously reported potential interactions between LSP1-rs3817198 and parity (Pinteraction = 2.4×10−6) and between CASP8-rs17468277 and alcohol consumption (Pinteraction = 3.1×10−4). Overall, the per-allele odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for LSP1-rs3817198 was 1.08 (1.01–1.16) in nulliparous women and ranged from 1.03 (0.96–1.10) in parous women with one birth to 1.26 (1.16–1.37) in women with at least four births. For CASP8-rs17468277, the per-allele OR was 0.91 (0.85–0.98) in those with an alcohol intake of <20 g/day and 1.45 (1.14–1.85) in those who drank ≥20 g/day. Additionally, interaction was found between 1p11.2-rs11249433 and ever being parous (Pinteraction = 5.3×10−5), with a per-allele OR of 1.14 (1.11–1.17) in parous women and 0.98 (0.92–1.05) in nulliparous women. These data provide first strong evidence that the risk of breast cancer associated with some common genetic variants may vary with environmental risk factors

  9. Evidence of gene-environment interactions between common breast cancer susceptibility loci and established environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Nickels, Stefan; Truong, Thérèse; Hein, Rebecca; Stevens, Kristen; Buck, Katharina; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Schmidt, Martina; Häberle, Lothar; Vrieling, Alina; Gaudet, Mia; Figueroa, Jonine; Schoof, Nils; Spurdle, Amanda B; Rudolph, Anja; Fasching, Peter A; Hopper, John L; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Southey, Melissa C; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Fletcher, Olivia; Gibson, Lorna; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Peto, Julian; Humphreys, Manjeet K; Wang, Jean; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E; Lanng, Charlotte; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Bernstein, Leslie; Clarke, Christina A; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Harth, Volker; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Lambrechts, Diether; Smeets, Dominiek; Neven, Patrick; Paridaens, Robert; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Obi, Nadia; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Vachon, Celine M; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Offit, Kenneth; John, Esther M; Miron, Alexander; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Liu, Jianjun; Cox, Angela; Cramp, Helen; Connley, Dan; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy; Dunning, Alison M; Shah, Mitul; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Newcomb, Polly; Titus, Linda; Egan, Kathleen; Cahoon, Elizabeth K; Rajaraman, Preetha; Sigurdson, Alice J; Doody, Michele M; Guénel, Pascal; Pharoah, Paul D P; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Hall, Per; Easton, Doug F; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Milne, Roger L; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Various common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer; however, it is unclear how they combine with lifestyle/environmental risk factors to influence risk. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess gene-environment interaction for risk of breast cancer. Data from 24 studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were pooled. Using up to 34,793 invasive breast cancers and 41,099 controls, we examined whether the relative risks associated with 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms were modified by 10 established environmental risk factors (age at menarche, parity, breastfeeding, body mass index, height, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy use, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, physical activity) in women of European ancestry. We used logistic regression models stratified by study and adjusted for age and performed likelihood ratio tests to assess gene-environment interactions. All statistical tests were two-sided. We replicated previously reported potential interactions between LSP1-rs3817198 and parity (Pinteraction = 2.4 × 10(-6)) and between CASP8-rs17468277 and alcohol consumption (Pinteraction = 3.1 × 10(-4)). Overall, the per-allele odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for LSP1-rs3817198 was 1.08 (1.01-1.16) in nulliparous women and ranged from 1.03 (0.96-1.10) in parous women with one birth to 1.26 (1.16-1.37) in women with at least four births. For CASP8-rs17468277, the per-allele OR was 0.91 (0.85-0.98) in those with an alcohol intake of <20 g/day and 1.45 (1.14-1.85) in those who drank ≥ 20 g/day. Additionally, interaction was found between 1p11.2-rs11249433 and ever being parous (Pinteraction = 5.3 × 10(-5)), with a per-allele OR of 1.14 (1.11-1.17) in parous women and 0.98 (0.92-1.05) in nulliparous women. These data provide first strong evidence that the risk of breast cancer associated with some common genetic variants may vary with environmental risk factors.

  10. Environmental Education in Finland--A Case Study of Environmental Education in Nature Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeronen, Eila; Jeronen, Juha; Raustia, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    The article aims to introduce Environmental Education (EE) in Finland and to discuss how it has been taken into account in Finnish nature schools. Firstly, we present EE models used in Finland. Thereafter we describe a qualitative case study on EE in nature schools (NS). The aim of the study was to get information for the development of EE. The…

  11. An investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L.; Truong, Thérèse; Knight, Julia A.; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Munday, Hannah R.; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Brand, Judith S.; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine M.; Hallberg, Emily; Castelao, J. Esteban; Carracedo, Angel; Torres, Maria; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Yesilyurt, Betul T.; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Engelhardt, Ellen G.; Broeks, Annegien; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Cross, Simon; Reed, Malcolm; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Perez, José Ignacio Arias; Provenzano, Elena; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Spurdle, Amanda; Investigators, kConFab; Group, AOCS; Häberle, Lothar; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; McLean, Catriona; Baglietto, Laura; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E.; Brüning, Thomas; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ashworth, Alan; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Mannermaa, Arto; Swerdlow, Anthony; Giles, Graham G.; Brenner, Hermann; Fasching, Peter A.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hopper, John; Benítez, Javier; Cox, Angela; Andrulis, Irene L.; Lambrechts, Diether; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Couch, Fergus; Czene, Kamila; Bojesen, Stig E.; Easton, Doug F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Guénel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative BC risk are modified by 13 environmental risk factors for BC. Data from 22 studies participating in BCAC were pooled, comprising up to 26,633 cases and 30,119 controls. Interactions between SNPs and environmental factors were evaluated using an empirical Bayes-type shrinkage estimator. Six SNPs showed interactions with associated p-values (pint) <1.1×10−3. None of the observed interactions was significant after accounting for multiple testing. The Bayesian False Discovery Probability was used to rank the findings, which indicated three interactions as being noteworthy at 1% prior probability of interaction. SNP rs6828523 was associated with increased ER-negative BC risk in women ≥170cm (OR=1.22, p=0.017), but inversely associated with ER-negative BC risk in women <160cm (OR=0.83, p=0.039, pint=1.9×10−4). The inverse association between rs4808801 and overall BC risk was stronger for women who had had four or more pregnancies (OR=0.85, p=2.0×10−4), and absent in women who had had just one (OR=0.96, p=0.19, pint = 6.1×10−4). SNP rs11242675 was inversely associated with overall BC risk in never/former smokers (OR=0.93, p=2.8×10−5), but no association was observed in current smokers (OR=1.07, p=0.14, pint = 3.4×10−4). In conclusion, recently identified breast cancer susceptibility loci are not strongly modified by established risk factors and the observed potential interactions require confirmation in independent studies. PMID:25227710

  12. Investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L; Truong, Thérèse; Knight, Julia A; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dunning, Alison M; Shah, Mitul; Munday, Hannah R; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Brand, Judith S; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine M; Hallberg, Emily; Castelao, J Esteban; Carracedo, Angel; Torres, Maria; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Yesilyurt, Betul T; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Engelhardt, Ellen G; Broeks, Annegien; Rutgers, Emiel J; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Cross, Simon; Reed, Malcolm; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Arias Perez, José Ignacio; Provenzano, Elena; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C; Spurdle, Amanda; Häberle, Lothar; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; McLean, Catriona; Baglietto, Laura; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E; Brüning, Thomas; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ashworth, Alan; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Mannermaa, Arto; Swerdlow, Anthony; Giles, Graham G; Brenner, Hermann; Fasching, Peter A; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hopper, John; Benítez, Javier; Cox, Angela; Andrulis, Irene L; Lambrechts, Diether; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Couch, Fergus; Czene, Kamila; Bojesen, Stig E; Easton, Doug F; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Guénel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D P; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2015-03-15

    A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative BC risk are modified by 13 environmental risk factors for BC. Data from 22 studies participating in BCAC were pooled, comprising up to 26,633 cases and 30,119 controls. Interactions between SNPs and environmental factors were evaluated using an empirical Bayes-type shrinkage estimator. Six SNPs showed interactions with associated p-values (pint ) <1.1 × 10(-3) . None of the observed interactions was significant after accounting for multiple testing. The Bayesian False Discovery Probability was used to rank the findings, which indicated three interactions as being noteworthy at 1% prior probability of interaction. SNP rs6828523 was associated with increased ER-negative BC risk in women ≥170 cm (OR = 1.22, p = 0.017), but inversely associated with ER-negative BC risk in women <160 cm (OR = 0.83, p = 0.039, pint = 1.9 × 10(-4) ). The inverse association between rs4808801 and overall BC risk was stronger for women who had had four or more pregnancies (OR = 0.85, p = 2.0 × 10(-4) ), and absent in women who had had just one (OR = 0.96, p = 0.19, pint = 6.1 × 10(-4) ). SNP rs11242675 was inversely associated with overall BC risk in never/former smokers (OR = 0.93, p = 2.8 × 10(-5) ), but no association was observed in current smokers (OR = 1.07, p = 0.14, pint = 3.4 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, recently identified BC susceptibility loci are not strongly modified by established risk factors and the observed potential interactions require confirmation in independent studies.

  13. Microwave Studies of Environmental Friendly Ferroelectrics

    PubMed Central

    Mathad, S. N.; Puri, Vijaya

    2014-01-01

    The structural and microwave studies of lead-free barium niobates ceramics prepared by the high temperatures solid state reaction technique are reported. The structural parameters such as the lattice constants, average crystallite size (D), texture coefficients (TC), dislocation density, and microstrain have been determined using X-ray diffraction data. Surface morphological studies were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. The strong absorption bands at ~816 cm−1, 641 cm−1, and 482 cm−1 are associated with the coupling mode between Nb–O stretching modes observed in FTIR studies. The electromagnetic transmittance, absorption, studies of barium niobates in the X band frequency range frequencies using waveguide reflectometer technique are reported. PMID:27433498

  14. Gene-Lifestyle Interactions in Complex Diseases: Design and Description of the GLACIER and VIKING Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kurbasic, Azra; Poveda, Alaitz; Chen, Yan; Ågren, Åsa; Engberg, Elisabeth; Hu, Frank B.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Barroso, Ines; Brändström, Anders; Hallmans, Göran; Renström, Frida; Franks, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Most complex diseases have well-established genetic and non-genetic risk factors. In some instances, these risk factors are likely to interact, whereby their joint effects convey a level of risk that is either significantly more or less than the sum of these risks. Characterizing these gene-environment interactions may help elucidate the biology of complex diseases, as well as to guide strategies for their targeted prevention. In most cases, the detection of gene-environment interactions will require sample sizes in excess of those needed to detect the marginal effects of the genetic and environmental risk factors. Although many consortia have been formed, comprising multiple diverse cohorts to detect gene-environment interactions, few robust examples of such interactions have been discovered. This may be because combining data across studies, usually through meta-analysis of summary data from the contributing cohorts, is often a statistically inefficient approach for the detection of gene-environment interactions. Ideally, single, very large and well-genotyped prospective cohorts, with validated measures of environmental risk factor and disease outcomes should be used to study interactions. The presence of strong founder effects within those cohorts might further strengthen the capacity to detect novel genetic effects and gene-environment interactions. Access to accurate genealogical data would also aid in studying the diploid nature of the human genome, such as genomic imprinting (parent-of-origin effects). Here we describe two studies from northern Sweden (the GLACIER and VIKING studies) that fulfill these characteristics. PMID:25396097

  15. Gene-Lifestyle Interactions in Complex Diseases: Design and Description of the GLACIER and VIKING Studies.

    PubMed

    Kurbasic, Azra; Poveda, Alaitz; Chen, Yan; Agren, Asa; Engberg, Elisabeth; Hu, Frank B; Johansson, Ingegerd; Barroso, Ines; Brändström, Anders; Hallmans, Göran; Renström, Frida; Franks, Paul W

    2014-12-01

    Most complex diseases have well-established genetic and non-genetic risk factors. In some instances, these risk factors are likely to interact, whereby their joint effects convey a level of risk that is either significantly more or less than the sum of these risks. Characterizing these gene-environment interactions may help elucidate the biology of complex diseases, as well as to guide strategies for their targeted prevention. In most cases, the detection of gene-environment interactions will require sample sizes in excess of those needed to detect the marginal effects of the genetic and environmental risk factors. Although many consortia have been formed, comprising multiple diverse cohorts to detect gene-environment interactions, few robust examples of such interactions have been discovered. This may be because combining data across studies, usually through meta-analysis of summary data from the contributing cohorts, is often a statistically inefficient approach for the detection of gene-environment interactions. Ideally, single, very large and well-genotyped prospective cohorts, with validated measures of environmental risk factor and disease outcomes should be used to study interactions. The presence of strong founder effects within those cohorts might further strengthen the capacity to detect novel genetic effects and gene-environment interactions. Access to accurate genealogical data would also aid in studying the diploid nature of the human genome, such as genomic imprinting (parent-of-origin effects). Here we describe two studies from northern Sweden (the GLACIER and VIKING studies) that fulfill these characteristics.

  16. Environmental study of miniature slip rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radnik, J. L.

    1967-01-01

    Investigation studied the long term operation of miniature slip ring assembles in high vacuum of space and included the influence of ring, brush, and insulator materials on electrical noise and mechanical wear. Results show that soft metal vapor plating and niobium diselenide miniature slip rings are beneficial.

  17. Case Studies of Environmental Risks to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Lynn R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents case studies on children's exposure to pesticides, including risks through the use of the insecticide aldicarb on bananas, the home use of diazinon, and the use of interior house paint containing mercury. These cases illustrate how regulatory agencies, parents, health-care providers, and others who come into contact with children have…

  18. Environmental Studies in the Florida Keys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probst, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    Students and teachers had the opportunity to study informally the unique and threatened environment comprising the reefs off the Florida Keys. While they all were learning about the ocean life, they were also learning something about the process of learning. (Author/RK)

  19. 30 CFR 256.82 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... needed for assessment and management of impacts on the human, marine and coastal environments which may... and shall monitor the human, marine and coastal environments of such area or region in a manner... productivity of such environments, to establish trends in the areas studies, and to design...

  20. 30 CFR 256.82 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in order to establish information needed for assessment and management of impacts on the human... deemed necessary to establish additional information and shall monitor the human, marine and coastal... studies, and to design experiments identifying the causes of such changes. Findings from such...

  1. 30 CFR 556.82 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... information needed for assessment and management of impacts on the human, marine and coastal environments... additional information and shall monitor the human, marine and coastal environments of such area or region in... experiments identifying the causes of such changes. Findings from such studies shall be used to...

  2. 30 CFR 556.82 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... information needed for assessment and management of impacts on the human, marine and coastal environments... additional information and shall monitor the human, marine and coastal environments of such area or region in... experiments identifying the causes of such changes. Findings from such studies shall be used to...

  3. 30 CFR 556.82 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... information needed for assessment and management of impacts on the human, marine and coastal environments... additional information and shall monitor the human, marine and coastal environments of such area or region in... experiments identifying the causes of such changes. Findings from such studies shall be used to...

  4. Theophylline and warfarin interaction studies with grepafloxacin.

    PubMed

    Efthymiopoulos, C; Bramer, S L; Maroli, A; Blum, B

    1997-01-01

    Two phase I trials, each involving 16 healthy adult volunteers, were performed to investigate possible interactions between grepafloxacin and theophylline or warfarin. In the theophylline study, grepafloxacin 600 mg was administered once daily for 10 days to 12 volunteers who were receiving a maintenance dose of theophylline. This dose of theophylline was designed to produce mean serum theophylline concentrations of 7.5 mg/L; 4 volunteers received theophylline plus placebo. Pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline were determined before grepafloxacin treatment and on day 10 of grepafloxacin or placebo administration. Peak theophylline concentrations and the area under the concentration-time curve increased significantly during grepafloxacin treatment, and apparent total clearance of theophylline was reduced by approximately 50%. No changes were observed in the placebo group and theophylline appeared to have no effect on the pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin. In the warfarin study, grepafloxacin 600 mg was given once daily for 14 days to volunteers receiving a maintenance dose of warfarin. Warfarin was discontinued during the last 4 days of grepafloxacin administration. The pharmacodynamics of warfarin did not change after administration of grepafloxacin. Similarly, warfarin had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin. We conclude that during treatment with grepafloxacin maintenance, doses of theophylline should be reduced by 50%, and we recommend that serum concentrations of theophylline be monitored during treatment with grepafloxacin. However, no dose adjustment is necessary for grepafloxacin when it is coadministered with theophylline, and dose adjustment does not seem to be required in concomitant treatment with grepafloxacin and warfarin.

  5. Environmental studies group. Annual report for 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, D. C.; Hurley, J. D.

    1980-08-21

    Group projects included radioecological studies of aquatic and terrestrial systems, land management activities, foodstuff monitoring, dust transport studies including fugitive dust measurements and modeling, and several support programs involving evaluation of the plant's ambient air samplers and airborne tritium monitoring techniques. Some salient results from the several project reports include determination of an appropriate model for mechanically generated fugitive dust dispersion, a radionuclide inventory of Smart Ditch Pond (Pond D-1), a coefficient of community determination for two terrestrial sample plots on the plant site buffer zone, a natality and mortality rate determination for fawns in the plant deer herd (including one positive coyote-kill determination), inlet loss and filter paper collection efficiencies for the plant ambient air samplers, and differential tritium sampling measurements of the vapor in Building 771 stack effluent.

  6. Gene-Environment Interactions in Genome-Wide Association Studies: Current Approaches and New Directions

    PubMed Central

    Winham, Stacey J; Biernacka, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Complex psychiatric traits have long been thought to be the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and gene-environment interactions are thought to play a crucial role in behavioral phenotypes and the susceptibility and progression of psychiatric disorders. Candidate gene studies to investigate hypothesized gene-environment interactions are now fairly common in human genetic research, and with the shift towards genome-wide association studies, genome-wide gene-environment interaction studies are beginning to emerge. Methods We summarize the basic ideas behind gene-environment interaction, and provide an overview of possible study designs and traditional analysis methods in the context of genome-wide analysis. We then discuss novel approaches beyond the traditional strategy of analyzing the interaction between the environmental factor and each polymorphism individually. Results Two-step filtering approaches that reduce the number of polymorphisms tested for interactions can substantially increase the power of genome-wide gene-environment studies. New analytical methods including data-mining approaches, and gene-level and pathway-level analyses, also have the capacity to improve our understanding of how complex genetic and environmental factors interact to influence psychological and psychiatric traits. Such methods, however, have not yet been utilized much in behavioral and mental health research. Conclusions Although methods to investigate gene-environment interactions are available, there is a need for further development and extension of these methods to identify gene-environment interactions in the context of genome-wide association studies. These novel approaches need to be applied in studies of psychology and psychiatry. PMID:23808649

  7. Protein-SIP in environmental studies.

    PubMed

    Jehmlich, Nico; Vogt, Carsten; Lünsmann, Vanessa; Richnow, Hans Hermann; von Bergen, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Metaproteomics coupled to stable isotope probing (SIP) was established to detect metabolically active key players in microbial communities. Here, we discuss the current state of protein-based stable isotope probing (protein-SIP) and the perspectives of using different stable isotope atoms (i.e. (13)C, (15)N, (18)O, (34/36)S), multiple isotope labelling, the utilisation of substrates of major abundance and micro-pollutants [pesticides, herbicides and pharmaceuticals present in the environment at very low concentrations (ngμg/L)], and applications in complex model systems and in situ studies in the environment.

  8. CyberIntegrator: A Highly Interactive Problem Solving Environment to Support Environmental Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, L.; Minsker, B.; Kooper, R.; Myers, J.; Bajcsy, P.

    2006-12-01

    This work presents CyberIntegrator, a component of the Environmental Cyber-Infrastructure Demonstration (ECID) project at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), which is exploring cyberinfrastructure for environmental observatories with an emphasis on supporting exploratory analysis and end-to-end productivity. CyberIntegrator is a novel workflow-based system that supports interactive workflow creation, connection to external data and event streams, provenance tracking, and incorporation of workflow fragments and functionality from other systems and applications, all of which enable the types of tasks expected in observatories. This presentation describes CyberIntegrator's use in three environmental use cases that reveal its novel aspects. The three environmental use cases are: modeling fecal coliform concentrations in Copano Bay, TX; discovering vegetation variability from large remotely sensed images at the US continental scale; detecting anomalous data from sensors in Corpus Christi Bay, TX. The use cases show how CyberIntegrator supports scientists through: 1. Integration of heterogeneous tools: CyberIntegrator can execute tools from multiple (currently six) heterogeneous software packages while hiding integration complexity. It passes the outputs of a software tool to the input of another tool transparently to an end user. 2. Provenance information gathering: Meta-data about scientific analyses are gathered and stored in a meta- data repository as Resource Description Framework (RDF) triples. The information enables tracking of provenance from data to workflow to publication and provides recommendations to users based on previous community activities. 3. Interactive human-computer interface: CyberIntegrator editor provides a user-friendly interface for browsing registries of data, tools and computational resources; creating workflows in a step-by-step exploration mode; re-using and re-purposing workflows; executing process flows locally or

  9. Coso geothermal environmental overview study ecosystem quality

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, P.

    1981-09-01

    The Coso Known Geothermal Resource Area is located just east of the Sierra Nevada, in the broad transition zone between the Mohave and Great Basin desert ecosystems. The prospect of large-scale geothermal energy development here in the near future has led to concern for the protection of biological resources. Objectives here are the identification of ecosystem issues, evaluation of the existing data base, and recommendation of additional studies needed to resolve key issues. High-priority issues include the need for (1) site-specific data on the occurrence of plant and animal species of special concern, (2) accurate and detailed information on the nature and extent of the geothermal resource, and (3) implementation of a comprehensive plan for ecosystem protection.

  10. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy for the study of fungi interactions.

    PubMed

    Sempere, F; Santamarina, M P

    2011-03-01

    The application of the cryo-scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy for the study of the interactions at different environmental conditions between Penicillium oxalicum and Fusarium verticillioides is described. A dual microculture was developed for the light microscopy analysis of the interaction. The microscope and macroscopic examinations were compared. Analysis of Petri plates revealed that F. verticillioides was a competitor for space and nutrients while P. oxalicum was a mycoparasite under the microscopic observations.

  11. Acute and environmental toxicity studies with hexazinone

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, G.L. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    The acute toxicity of hexazinone, a herbicide intended for general noncropland areas and selected crop uses (alfalfa and sugarcane), has been evaluated to establish proper handling guidelines and to measure its potential impact on the environment. The material is slightly to moderately toxic when given as a single oral dose; its LD50 in male rats is 1690 mg/kg, in male guinea pigs 860 mg/kg, and in male dogs greater than 3400 mg/kg although in the dog emesis prevented accurate quantitation. When the material is administered intraperitoneally, the LD50 in rats is 530 mg/kg. In both studies, no gross or histologic alterations were apparent. Hexazinone is a moderate to severe eye irritant in the rabbit and produced only mild erythema in rabbit skin at 5278 mg/kg, a dose which did not produce lethality or other clinical signs. Subchronic dermal exposures (10 consecutive doses) to rabbits produced increases in serum alkaline phosphatase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase at the highest levels tested (680 and 770 mg/kg in two separate experiments) with no effects seen at 150 mg/kg. One-hour inhalation exposure of up to 7.48 mg/liter did not produce mortality in rats.

  12. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2011.

    PubMed

    Andrady, Anthony L; Aucamp, Pieter J; Austin, Amy T; Bais, Alkiviadis F; Ballaré, Carlos L; Björn, Lars Olof; Bornman, Janet F; Caldwell, Martyn; Cullen, Anthony P; Erickson, David J; de Gruijl, Frank R; Häder, Donat-P; He, Walter; Ilyas, Mohammad; Longstreth, Janice; Lucas, Robyn; McKenzie, Richard L; Madronich, Sasha; Norval, Mary; Paul, Nigel D; Redhwi, Halim Hamid; Robinson, Sharon; Shao, Min; Solomon, Keith R; Sulzberger, Barbara; Takizawa, Yukio; Tang, Xiaoyan; Torikai, Ayako; van der Leun, Jan C; Williamson, Craig E; Wilson, Stephen R; Worrest, Robert C; Zepp, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    The parties to the Montreal Protocol are informed by three panels of experts. One of these is the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP), which deals with two focal issues. The first focus is the effects of increased UV radiation on human health, animals, plants, biogeochemistry, air quality, and materials. The second focus is on interactions between UV radiation and global climate change and how these may affect humans and the environment. When considering the effects of climate change, it has become clear that processes resulting in changes in stratospheric ozone are more complex than believed previously. As a result of this, human health and environmental problems will be longer-lasting and more regionally variable. Like the other panels, the EEAP produces a detailed report every four years; the most recent was published in 2010 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2011, 10, 173-300). In the years in between, the EEAP produces less detailed and shorter progress reports, which highlight and assess the significance of developments in key areas of importance to the parties. The next full quadrennial report will be published in 2014-2015.

  13. Environmental effects of ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change: progress report, 2009.

    PubMed

    Andrady, Anthony; Aucamp, Pieter J; Bais, Alkiviadis F; Ballaré, Carlos L; Björn, Lars Olof; Bornman, Janet F; Caldwell, Martyn; Cullen, Anthony P; Erickson, David J; deGruijl, Frank R; Häder, Donat-P; Ilyas, Mohammad; Kulandaivelu, G; Kumar, H D; Longstreth, Janice; McKenzie, Richard L; Norval, Mary; Paul, Nigel; Redhwi, Halim Hamid; Smith, Raymond C; Solomon, Keith R; Sulzberger, Barbara; Takizawa, Yukio; Tang, Xiaoyan; Teramura, Alan H; Torikai, Ayako; van der Leun, Jan C; Wilson, Stephen R; Worrest, Robert C; Zepp, Richard G

    2010-03-01

    The parties to the Montreal Protocol are informed by three panels of experts. One of these is the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP), which deals with UV radiation and its effects on human health, animals, plants, biogeochemistry, air quality and materials. Since 2000, the analyses and interpretation of these effects have included interactions between UV radiation and global climate change. When considering the effects of climate change, it has become clear that processes resulting in changes in stratospheric ozone are more complex than believed previously. As a result of this, human health and environmental problems will likely be longer-lasting and more regionally variable. Like the other panels, the EEAP produces a detailed report every four years; the most recent was that for 2006 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2007, 6, 201-332). In the years in between, the EEAP produces a less detailed and shorter progress report, as is the case for this present one for 2009. A full quadrennial report will follow for 2010.

  14. Adsorption of a Protein Monolayer via Hydrophobic Interactions Prevents Nanoparticle Aggregation under Harsh Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez-Medina, Sergio; Blankenburg, Jan; Olson, Jana; Landes, Christy F.; Link, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    We find that citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles aggregate and precipitate in saline solutions below the NaCl concentration of many bodily fluids and blood plasma. Our experiments indicate that this is due to complexation of the citrate anions with Na+ cations in solution. A dramatically enhanced colloidal stability is achieved when bovine serum albumin is adsorbed to the gold nanoparticle surface, completely preventing nanoparticle aggregation under harsh environmental conditions where the NaCl concentration is well beyond the isotonic point. Furthermore, we explore the mechanism of the formation of this albumin ‘corona’ and find that monolayer protein adsorption is most likely ruled by hydrophobic interactions. As for many nanotechnology-based biomedical and environmental applications, particle aggregation and sedimentation are undesirable and could substantially increase the risk of toxicological side-effects, the formation of the BSA corona presented here provides a low-cost bio-compatible strategy for nanoparticle stabilization and transport in highly ionic environments. PMID:23914342

  15. Brownfield Action Online - An Interactive Undergraduate Science Course in Environmental Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, Joseph; Bower, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Brownfield Action (BA) is a web-based, interactive, three dimensional digital space and learning simulation in which students form geotechnical consulting companies and work collectively to explore problems in environmental forensics. Created at Barnard College (BC) in conjunction with the Center for New Media Teaching and Learning at Columbia University, BA has a 12-year history at BC of use in one semester of a two-semester Introduction to Environmental Science course that is taken by more than 100 female undergraduate non-science majors to satisfy their science requirement. The pedagogical methods and design of the BA model are grounded in a substantial research literature focused on the design, use, and effectiveness of games and simulation in education. The successful use of the BA simulation at BC and 14 other institutions in the U.S. is described in Bower et al. (2011 and 2014). Soon to be taught online to non-traditional undergraduate students, BA has 15 modules that include a reconnaissance survey; scale; topographic, bedrock, and water table maps; oral and written reports from residents and the municipal government; porosity and permeability measurements of the regolith (sand) in the area of interest; hydrocarbon chemistry; direction and velocity of groundwater flow; and methods of geophysical exploration (soil gas, ground penetrating radar, magnetic metal detection, excavation, and drilling). Student performance is assessed by weekly exercises and a semester ending Environmental Site Assessment Phase I Report that summarizes the individual and collective discoveries about a contaminated subsurface plume that emanates from a leaking underground storage tank at a gasoline station upgrade from the water well that serves the surrounding community. Texts for the course are Jonathan Harr's A Civil Action and Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, which are accompanied by questions that direct the reading.

  16. Lessons learned from the Children's Environmental Exposure Research Study.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Wing, Steven

    2007-03-01

    We examined 5 different ethical concerns about the Children's Environmental Exposure Research Study and make some recommendations for future studies of exposure to hazardous environmental agents in the home. Researchers should seek community consultation and participation; make participants aware of all the risks associated with the research, including hazards discovered in the home and uncertainties about the risks of agents under investigation; and take steps to ensure that their studies will not have unfair representation of the poor or people of color. Researchers should also avoid even the appearance of a financial conflict of interest in studies that are likely to be controversial and make it clear to all parties that studies will not intentionally expose subjects to hazardous environmental agents.

  17. Multiple parton interaction studies at DØ

    DOE PAGES

    Lincoln, D.

    2016-04-01

    Here, we present the results of studies of multiparton interactions done by the DØ collaboration using the Fermilab Tevatron at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. We also present three analyses, involving three distinct final signatures: (a) a photon with at least 3 jets ( γ + 3jets), (b) a photon with a bottom or charm quark tagged jet and at least 2 other jets ( γ + b/c + 2jets), and (c) two J/ ψ mesons. The fraction of photon + jet events initiated by double parton scattering is about 20%, while the fraction for events inmore » which two J/ ψ mesons were produced is 30 ± 10. While the two measurements are statistically compatible, the difference might indicate differences in the quark and gluon distribution within a nucleon. Finally, this speculation originates from the fact that photon + jet events are created by collisions with quarks in the initial states, while J/ ψ events are produced preferentially by a gluonic initial state.« less

  18. Multiple parton interaction studies at DØ

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, D.

    2016-04-01

    Here, we present the results of studies of multiparton interactions done by the DØ collaboration using the Fermilab Tevatron at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. We also present three analyses, involving three distinct final signatures: (a) a photon with at least 3 jets ( γ + 3jets), (b) a photon with a bottom or charm quark tagged jet and at least 2 other jets ( γ + b/c + 2jets), and (c) two J/ ψ mesons. The fraction of photon + jet events initiated by double parton scattering is about 20%, while the fraction for events in which two J/ ψ mesons were produced is 30 ± 10. While the two measurements are statistically compatible, the difference might indicate differences in the quark and gluon distribution within a nucleon. Finally, this speculation originates from the fact that photon + jet events are created by collisions with quarks in the initial states, while J/ ψ events are produced preferentially by a gluonic initial state.

  19. Studies of host graft interactions in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liljekvist-Larsson, Ingela; Johansson, Kjell

    2007-09-01

    Progenitor and stem cell transplantation represent therapeutic strategies for retinal disorders that are accompanied by photoreceptor degeneration. The transplanted cells may either replace degenerating photoreceptors or secrete beneficial factors that halt the processes of photoreceptor degeneration. The present study analyzes whether rat retinal progenitor cells differentiated into photoreceptor phenotypic cells in neurospheres have a potential to interact with rat retinal explants. Immunocytochemistry for rhodopsin and synaptophysin indicated photoreceptor cell-like differentiation in neurospheres that were stimulated by basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor. Differentiation into neural phenotypes including photoreceptor cells was effectively blocked by an addition of leukemia inhibitory factor. Grafting of neurospheres onto retinal explants demonstrated a consistent penetration of glial cell processes into the explanted tissue. On the other hand, the incorporation of donor cells into explants was very low. A general finding was that neurospheres grafting was associated with local decrease in Müller cell activation in the explants. Further characterization of these effect(s) could provide further insight into progenitor cell-based therapies of retinal degenerative disorders.

  20. Acute and environmental toxicity studies with hexazinone.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, G L

    1984-08-01

    The acute toxicity of hexazinone, a herbicide intended for general noncropland areas and selected crop uses (alfalfa and sugarcane), has been evaluated to establish proper handling guidelines and to measure its potential impact on the environment. The material is slightly to moderately toxic when given as a single oral dose; its LD50 in male rats is 1690 mg/kg, in male guinea pigs 860 mg/kg, and in male dogs greater than 3400 mg/kg although in the dog emesis prevented accurate quantitation. When the material is administered intraperitoneally, the LD50 in rats is 530 mg/kg. Repeated doses (five oral doses per week for 2 weeks) of 300 mg/kg to rats produced slight weight loss in one of two replicate experiments. In both studies, no gross or histologic alterations were apparent. Hexazinone is a moderate to severe eye irritant in the rabbit and produced only mild erythema in rabbit skin at 5278 mg/kg, a dose which did not produce lethality or other clinical signs. Subchronic dermal exposures (10 consecutive doses) to rabbits produced increases in serum alkaline phosphatase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase at the highest levels tested (680 and 770 mg/kg in two separate experiments) with no effects seen at 150 mg/kg. There were no alterations in livers from treated rabbits examined by light microscopy. No dermal sensitization was produced when concentrations of up to 50% were tested in guinea pigs. One-hour inhalation exposure of up to 7.48 mg/liter did not produce mortality in rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993]. Summer undergraduate research program: Environmental studies

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. Ten students from throughout the midwestern and eastern areas of the country were accepted into the program. These students selected projects in the areas of marine sciences, biostatistics and epidemiology, and toxicology. The research experience for all these students and their mentors was very positive. The seminars were well attended and the students showed their interest in the presentations and environmental sciences as a whole by presenting the speakers with thoughtful and intuitive questions. This report contains the research project written presentations prepared by the student interns.

  2. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems. Workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report.

  3. A Study on the Management Systematize of Environmental Restoration Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoike, Toshiki; Shimazaki, Toshikazu

    In recent years, it has been wrestled an investigation and the soil, groundwater contamination measures business (as follows: the environmental restoration project) that purify it and take measures against about pollution of the soil and groundwater led by a private enterprise. Japan has accumulated rich in restoration projects on the environment. The measures requires a hefty cost, it is clear that variety risks, management techniques are required to establish an efficient environmental restoration projects. In this paper, comparative study of the generation construction and environmentalrestoration projects, said the basic features of environmental restoration projects and trouble cases residents have been there. The types of features of the project for environmental restoration CM and demonstrated the business. To organize a variety of business risks and illustrates the concept of risk management. In addition, the figure of a management system based on its severity and the relationship between each elements and the business.

  4. Gene-Environment Interactions in Genome-Wide Association Studies: Current Approaches and New Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winham, Stacey J.; Biernacka, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Complex psychiatric traits have long been thought to be the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and gene-environment interactions are thought to play a crucial role in behavioral phenotypes and the susceptibility and progression of psychiatric disorders. Candidate gene studies to investigate hypothesized…

  5. Natal dispersal driven by environmental conditions interacting across the annual cycle of a migratory songbird

    PubMed Central

    Studds, Colin E.; Kyser, T. Kurt; Marra, Peter P.

    2008-01-01

    Natal dispersal, the process through which immature individuals permanently depart their natal area in search of new sites, is integral to the ecology and evolution of animals. Insights about the underlying causes of natal dispersal arise mainly from research on species whose short dispersal distances or restricted distributions make them relatively easy to track. However, for small migratory animals, the causes of natal dispersal remain poorly understood because individuals are nearly impossible to track by using conventional mark–recapture approaches. Using stable-hydrogen isotope ratios in feathers of American redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla) captured as immature birds and again as adults, we show that habitat use during the first tropical nonbreeding season appears to interact with latitudinal gradients in spring phenology on the temperate breeding grounds to influence the distance traveled on the initial spring migration and the direction of natal dispersal. In contrast, adult redstarts showed considerable site fidelity between breeding seasons, indicating that environmental conditions did not affect dispersal patterns after the first breeding attempt. Our findings suggest that habitat occupancy during the first nonbreeding season helps determine the latitude at which this species of Neotropical–Nearctic migratory bird breeds throughout its life and emphasize the need to understand how events throughout the annual cycle interact to shape fundamental biological processes. PMID:18287030

  6. Role of Environmental Conditions on the Interaction of L-Arginine with Oxide Mineral Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochko, K.; Jonsson, C. M.; Jonsson, C. L.; Lee, N.; Cleaves, H. J., II; Sverjensky, D. A.; Hazen, R. M.

    2010-04-01

    The current study is focused on surface interactions between L-arginine, the most basic protein amino acid, and rutile in NaCl media over a wide range of solution pH conditions, amino acid concentrations, and solution ionic strengths.

  7. Social Behavior in Interacting Squirrel Monkeys with Differential Nutritional and Environmental Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Patricia F.

    This paper reports an observational study of the effects of handling on the social behavior of squirrel monkeys who received a protein deficient diet. After birth, experimental animals received a low-protein diet for a 6-week period. A subgroup of these animals were handled between 3 and 12 weeks of age. All of the animals interacted (in four…

  8. The identification of complex interactions in epidemiology and toxicology: a simulation study of boosted regression trees

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need to evaluate complex interaction effects on human health, such as those induced by mixtures of environmental contaminants. The usual approach is to formulate an additive statistical model and check for departures using product terms between the variables of interest. In this paper, we present an approach to search for interaction effects among several variables using boosted regression trees. Methods We simulate a continuous outcome from real data on 27 environmental contaminants, some of which are correlated, and test the method’s ability to uncover the simulated interactions. The simulated outcome contains one four-way interaction, one non-linear effect and one interaction between a continuous variable and a binary variable. Four scenarios reflecting different strengths of association are simulated. We illustrate the method using real data. Results The method succeeded in identifying the true interactions in all scenarios except where the association was weakest. Some spurious interactions were also found, however. The method was also capable to identify interactions in the real data set. Conclusions We conclude that boosted regression trees can be used to uncover complex interaction effects in epidemiological studies. PMID:24993424

  9. Plant-pollinator interactions in Crambe abyssinica Hochst. (Brassicaceae) associated with environmental variables.

    PubMed

    Simioni, Lívia C; Mussury, Rosilda M; Mauad, Munir; Dresh, Daiane M; Pereira, Fabricio F; Scalon, Silvana P Q

    2015-03-01

    Despite the economic importance of Crambe abyssinica, the present study is the first report on bees that occur with this species, and could aid in developing alternative methods for controlling insect pests without seriously impacting pollinators. The present study examined the following questions: (1) Which species are potential pollinators of C. abyssinica? (2) How do environmental conditions influence pollinator visitation fluctuations? Insects were sampled on a weekly basis between 08:00 and 16:00 during five weeks of flowering. When the results of analyses of variance were significant, the data was adjusted using regression equations at a 5% level of probability; the environmental variables were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Apis mellifera, Geotrigona mombuca, Exomalopsis (Exomalopsis) fulvofasciata, Plebeia sp. and Dialictus sp. were observed visiting C. abyssinica flowers. A. mellifera and G. mombuca were observed to be potential pollinators, with the former demonstrating visitation peaks during flowering weeks II and IV at 12:00 and 08:00, respectively and the latter visiting during weeks III and IV at 12:00 and 10:00, respectively. Environmental factors such as temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed have different effect on the activity of bees.

  10. Using mouse models of autism spectrum disorders to study the neurotoxicology of gene-environment interactions

    PubMed Central

    Schwartzer, Jared J.; Koenig, Claire M.; Berman, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    To better study the role of genetics in autism, mouse models have been developed which mimic the genetics of specific autism spectrum and related disorders. These models have facilitated research on the role genetic susceptibility factors in the pathogenesis of autism in the absence of environmental factors. Inbred mouse strains have been similarly studied to assess the role of environmental agents on neurodevelopment, typically without the complications of genetic heterogeneity of the human population. What has not been as actively pursued, however, is the methodical study of the interaction between these factors (e.g., gene and environmental interactions in neurodevelopment). This review suggests that a genetic predisposition paired with exposure to environmental toxicants play an important role in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, and may contribute to the largely unexplained rise in the number of children diagnosed with autism worldwide. Specifically, descriptions of the major mouse models of autism and toxic mechanisms of prevalent environmental chemicals are provided followed by a discussion of current and future research strategies to evaluate the role of gene and environment interactions in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:23010509

  11. Nature's Classroom: An Ethnographic Case Study of Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Dorothea Jody

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic case study examines the dynamic relationship between culture and environmental education within the context of a specific Florida-based public education program. The School District of Hillsborough County (SDHC) offers the program through a three-day field trip to the study site, Nature's Classroom, and accompanying classroom…

  12. Soil-on-a-Chip: microfluidic platforms for environmental organismal studies.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Claire E; Grossmann, Guido; i Solvas, Xavier Casadevall; deMello, Andrew J

    2016-01-21

    Soil is the habitat of countless organisms and encompasses an enormous variety of dynamic environmental conditions. While it is evident that a thorough understanding of how organisms interact with the soil environment may have substantial ecological and economical impact, current laboratory-based methods depend on reductionist approaches that are incapable of simulating natural diversity. The application of Lab-on-a-Chip or microfluidic technologies to organismal studies is an emerging field, where the unique benefits afforded by system miniaturisation offer new opportunities for the experimentalist. Indeed, precise spatiotemporal control over the microenvironments of soil organisms in combination with high-resolution imaging has the potential to provide an unprecedented view of biological events at the single-organism or single-cell level, which in turn opens up new avenues for environmental and organismal studies. Herein we review some of the most recent and interesting developments in microfluidic technologies for the study of soil organisms and their interactions with the environment. We discuss how so-called "Soil-on-a-Chip" technology has already contributed significantly to the study of bacteria, nematodes, fungi and plants, as well as inter-organismal interactions, by advancing experimental access and environmental control. Most crucially, we highlight where distinct advantages over traditional approaches exist and where novel biological insights will ensue.

  13. A study of methods for lowering aerial environmental survey cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of methods for lowering the cost of environmental aerial surveys. A wide range of low cost techniques were investigated for possible application to current pressing urban and rural problems. The objective of the study is to establish a definition of the technical problems associated with conducting aerial surveys using various low cost techniques, to conduct a survey of equipment which may be used in low cost systems, and to establish preliminary estimates of cost. A set of candidate systems were selected and described for the environmental survey tasks.

  14. Interactive social neuroscience to study autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Rolison, Max J; Naples, Adam J; McPartland, James C

    2015-03-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate difficulty with social interactions and relationships, but the neural mechanisms underlying these difficulties remain largely unknown. While social difficulties in ASD are most apparent in the context of interactions with other people, most neuroscience research investigating ASD have provided limited insight into the complex dynamics of these interactions. The development of novel, innovative "interactive social neuroscience" methods to study the brain in contexts with two interacting humans is a necessary advance for ASD research. Studies applying an interactive neuroscience approach to study two brains engaging with one another have revealed significant differences in neural processes during interaction compared to observation in brain regions that are implicated in the neuropathology of ASD. Interactive social neuroscience methods are crucial in clarifying the mechanisms underlying the social and communication deficits that characterize ASD.

  15. Space Shuttle interactive meteorological data system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. T.; Fox, R. J.; Benson, J. M.; Rueden, J. P.; Oehlkers, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Although focused toward the operational meteorological support review and definition of an operational meteorological interactive data display systems (MIDDS) requirements for the Space Meteorology Support Group at NASA/Johnson Space Center, the total operational meteorological support requirements and a systems concept for the MIDDS network integration of NASA and Air Force elements to support the National Space Transportation System are also addressed.

  16. Reporting individual results for biomonitoring and environmental exposures: lessons learned from environmental communication case studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Measurement methods for chemicals in biological and personal environmental samples have expanded rapidly and become a cornerstone of health studies and public health surveillance. These measurements raise questions about whether and how to report individual results to study participants, particularly when health effects and exposure reduction strategies are uncertain. In an era of greater public participation and open disclosure in science, researchers and institutional review boards (IRBs) need new guidance on changing norms and best practices. Drawing on the experiences of researchers, IRBs, and study participants, we discuss ethical frameworks, effective methods, and outcomes in studies that have reported personal results for a wide range of environmental chemicals. Belmont Report principles and community-based participatory research ethics imply responsibilities to report individual results, and several recent biomonitoring guidance documents call for individual reports. Meaningful report-back includes contextual information about health implications and exposure reduction strategies. Both narrative and graphs are helpful. Graphs comparing an individual’s results with other participants in the study and benchmarks, such as the National Exposure Report, are helpful, but must be used carefully to avoid incorrect inferences that higher results are necessarily harmful or lower results are safe. Methods can be tailored for specific settings by involving participants and community members in planning. Participants and researchers who have participated in report-back identified benefits: increasing trust in science, retention in cohort studies, environmental health literacy, individual and community empowerment, and motivation to reduce exposures. Researchers as well as participants gained unexpected insights into the characteristics and sources of environmental contamination. Participants are almost universally eager to receive their results and do not regret

  17. Reporting individual results for biomonitoring and environmental exposures: lessons learned from environmental communication case studies.

    PubMed

    Brody, Julia Green; Dunagan, Sarah C; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brown, Phil; Patton, Sharyle; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2014-05-26

    Measurement methods for chemicals in biological and personal environmental samples have expanded rapidly and become a cornerstone of health studies and public health surveillance. These measurements raise questions about whether and how to report individual results to study participants, particularly when health effects and exposure reduction strategies are uncertain. In an era of greater public participation and open disclosure in science, researchers and institutional review boards (IRBs) need new guidance on changing norms and best practices. Drawing on the experiences of researchers, IRBs, and study participants, we discuss ethical frameworks, effective methods, and outcomes in studies that have reported personal results for a wide range of environmental chemicals. Belmont Report principles and community-based participatory research ethics imply responsibilities to report individual results, and several recent biomonitoring guidance documents call for individual reports. Meaningful report-back includes contextual information about health implications and exposure reduction strategies. Both narrative and graphs are helpful. Graphs comparing an individual's results with other participants in the study and benchmarks, such as the National Exposure Report, are helpful, but must be used carefully to avoid incorrect inferences that higher results are necessarily harmful or lower results are safe. Methods can be tailored for specific settings by involving participants and community members in planning. Participants and researchers who have participated in report-back identified benefits: increasing trust in science, retention in cohort studies, environmental health literacy, individual and community empowerment, and motivation to reduce exposures. Researchers as well as participants gained unexpected insights into the characteristics and sources of environmental contamination. Participants are almost universally eager to receive their results and do not regret getting

  18. Environmental performance indicators: an empirical study of Canadian manufacturing firms.

    PubMed

    Henri, Jean-François; Journeault, Marc

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this exploratory study is to examine the importance of measurement and use of environmental performance indicators (EPIs) within manufacturing firms. Two research questions are investigated: (i) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with the importance of measurement of various categories of EPIs? (ii) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with global and specific uses of EPIs? More specifically, this paper examines four uses of EPIs (i.e. to monitor compliance, to motivate continuous improvement, to support decision making, and to provide data for external reporting) as well as four characteristics of firms, namely environmental strategy, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 compliance, size, and ownership. This study contributes to the environmental management accounting literature by collecting and analyzing empirical evidence that provides a better understanding of the associations among firm characteristics and EPIs.

  19. Investigation on the interaction behavior between bisphenol A and pepsin by spectral and docking studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Cao, Jian; Fei, Zhenghao; Wang, Yanqing

    2012-08-01

    In this report, the binding interaction of BPA with pepsin has been explored by spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. Quenching of fluorescence of pepsin with increasing BPA concentration is a useful tool in the analysis of thermodynamic parameters. The results showed that the hydrophobic, steric contacts and hydrogen bonds interactions played major roles in stabilizing the complex. The binding of BPA to pepsin induced some micro-environmental and conformational changes in pepsin. The docking studies results showed that BPA entered into the hydrophobic cavity of pepsin. The interaction of pepsin with BPA occurs in the area between domain I and domain III.

  20. Environmental and genetic risk factors and gene-environment interactions in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Walter, R; Gottlieb, D J; O'Connor, G T

    2000-01-01

    Current understanding of the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a source of substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States, suggests that chronic inflammation leads to the airways obstruction and parenchymal destruction that characterize this condition. Environmental factors, especially tobacco smoke exposure, are known to accelerate longitudinal decline of lung function, and there is substantial evidence that upregulation of inflammatory pathways plays a vital role in this process. Genetic regulation of both inflammatory responses and anti-inflammatory protective mechanisms likely underlies the heritability of COPD observed in family studies. In alpha-1 protease inhibitor deficiency, the only genetic disorder known to cause COPD, lack of inhibition of elastase activity, results in the parenchymal destruction of emphysema. Other genetic polymorphisms have been hypothesized to alter the risk of COPD but have not been established as causes of this condition. It is likely that multiple genetic factors interacting with each other and with a number of environmental agents will be found to result in the development of COPD. PMID:10931792

  1. Influence of Environmental Factors on Phage–Bacteria Interaction and on the Efficacy and Infectivity of Phage P100

    PubMed Central

    Fister, Susanne; Robben, Christian; Witte, Anna K.; Schoder, Dagmar; Wagner, Martin; Rossmanith, Peter

    2016-01-01

    When using bacteriophages to control food-borne bacteria in food production plants and processed food, it is crucial to consider that environmental conditions influence their stability. These conditions can also affect the physiological state of bacteria and consequently host–virus interaction and the effectiveness of the phage ability to reduce bacteria numbers. In this study we investigated the stability, binding, and replication capability of phage P100 and its efficacy to control Listeria monocytogenes under conditions typically encountered in dairy plants. The influences of SDS, Lutensol AO 7, salt, smear water, and different temperatures were investigated. Results indicate that phage P100 is stable and able to bind to the host under most conditions tested. Replication was dependent upon the growth of L. monocytogenes and efficacy was higher when bacterial growth was reduced by certain environmental conditions. In long-term experiments at different temperatures phages were initially able to reduce bacteria up to seven log10 units after 2 weeks at 4°C. However, thereafter, re-growth and development of phage-resistant L. monocytogenes isolates were encountered. PMID:27516757

  2. Gene-environment interaction from international cohorts: impact on development and evolution of occupational and environmental lung and airway disease.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Adam; Christiani, David C

    2015-06-01

    Environmental and occupational pulmonary diseases impose a substantial burden of morbidity and mortality on the global population. However, it has been long observed that only some of those who are exposed to pulmonary toxicants go on to develop disease; increasingly, it is being recognized that genetic differences may underlie some of this person-to-person variability. Studies performed throughout the globe are demonstrating important gene-environment interactions for diseases as diverse as chronic beryllium disease, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, silicosis, asbestosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, and pollution-associated asthma. These findings have, in many instances, elucidated the pathogenesis of these highly complex diseases. At the same time, however, translation of this research into clinical practice has, for good reasons, proceeded slowly. No genetic test has yet emerged with sufficiently robust operating characteristics to be clearly useful or practicable in an occupational or environmental setting. In addition, occupational genetic testing raises serious ethical and policy concerns. Therefore, the primary objective must remain ensuring that the workplace and the environment are safe for all.

  3. Identified molecular mechanism of interaction between environmental risk factors and differential expression genes in cartilage of Kashin-Beck disease.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Yan-Xiang; Zhang, Lian-He; Li, Wen-Rong; Guo, Xiong; Lammi, Mikko J

    2016-12-01

    As environmental risk factors (ERFs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD), it is important to identify the interaction between ERFs and differentially expression genes (DEGs) in KBD. The environmental response genes (ERGs) were analyzed in cartilage of KBD in comparison to normal controls.We searched 5 English and 3 Chinese databases from inception to September 2015, to identify case-control studies that examined ERFs for KBD using integrative meta-analysis and systematic review. Total RNA was isolated from articular cartilage of KBD patients and healthy controls. Human whole genome microarray chip (Agilent) was used to analyze the amplified, labeled, and hybridized total RNA, and the validated microarray data were partially verified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The ERGs were derived from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database. The identified ERGs were subjected to KEGG pathway enrichment, biological process (BP), and interaction network analyses using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) v6.7, and STRING.The trace elements (selenium and iodine), vitamin E, and polluted grains (T-2 toxin/HT-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol, and nivalenol) were identified as the ERFs for KBD using meta-analysis and review. We identified 21 upregulated ERGs and 7 downregulated ERGs in cartilage with KBD compared with healthy controls, which involved in apoptosis, metabolism, and growth and development. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis found that 2 significant pathways were involved with PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and P53 signaling pathway, and gene ontology function analysis found 3 BPs involved with apoptosis, death, and cell death in KBD cartilage.According to previous results and our own research, we suggest that the trace element selenium and vitamin E induce PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and the mycotoxins (T-2 toxin/HT-2 toxin and DON) induce P53 signaling pathway, contributing

  4. Identified molecular mechanism of interaction between environmental risk factors and differential expression genes in cartilage of Kashin–Beck disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Yan-Xiang; Zhang, Lian-He; Li, Wen-Rong; Guo, Xiong; Lammi, Mikko J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As environmental risk factors (ERFs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of Kashin–Beck disease (KBD), it is important to identify the interaction between ERFs and differentially expression genes (DEGs) in KBD. The environmental response genes (ERGs) were analyzed in cartilage of KBD in comparison to normal controls. We searched 5 English and 3 Chinese databases from inception to September 2015, to identify case–control studies that examined ERFs for KBD using integrative meta-analysis and systematic review. Total RNA was isolated from articular cartilage of KBD patients and healthy controls. Human whole genome microarray chip (Agilent) was used to analyze the amplified, labeled, and hybridized total RNA, and the validated microarray data were partially verified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The ERGs were derived from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database. The identified ERGs were subjected to KEGG pathway enrichment, biological process (BP), and interaction network analyses using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) v6.7, and STRING. The trace elements (selenium and iodine), vitamin E, and polluted grains (T-2 toxin/HT-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol, and nivalenol) were identified as the ERFs for KBD using meta-analysis and review. We identified 21 upregulated ERGs and 7 downregulated ERGs in cartilage with KBD compared with healthy controls, which involved in apoptosis, metabolism, and growth and development. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis found that 2 significant pathways were involved with PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and P53 signaling pathway, and gene ontology function analysis found 3 BPs involved with apoptosis, death, and cell death in KBD cartilage. According to previous results and our own research, we suggest that the trace element selenium and vitamin E induce PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and the mycotoxins (T-2 toxin/HT-2 toxin and DON) induce P53 signaling pathway

  5. Interaction between radiation effects, gravity and other environmental factors in Tribolium confusum.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, C. H.; Tobias, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    The development of the flour beetle, Tribolium confusum, was studied through all stages of its life cycle. The results show that for each environmental factor there is a limited range of values within which the organisms are able best to survive and that this optimum range of survival becomes smaller when additional stresses are imposed upon the organism. This has been shown for external temperature, oxygen content of the atmosphere, gravity compensation, and radiation. On Biosatellite II it was shown that Tribolium pupae irradiated in spaceflight exhibited more wing abnormalities than ground controls. Later it was shown that gravity compensation, when combined with irradiation, can induce a similar effect at ground level.

  6. Microbiome-Epigenome Interactions and the Environmental Origins of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fofanova, Tatiana Y.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Kellermayer, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease, which includes Crohn's and ulcerative colitis, has risen alarmingly in the Western and developing world in recent decades. Epidemiological (including monozygotic twin and migrant) studies highlight the substantial role of environment and nutrition in IBD etiology. Here we review the literature supporting the developmental and environmental origins hypothesis of IBD. We also provide a detailed exploration of how the human microbiome and epigenome (primarily through DNA methylation) may be important elements in the developmental origins of IBD in both children and adults. PMID:26308318

  7. Ionosphere/microwave beam interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, W. E.; Duncan, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    The microwave beam of the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) is predicted to interact with the ionosphere producing thermal runaway up to an altitude of about 100 kilometers at a power density threshold of 12 mW/cm sq (within a factor of two). The operation of the SPS at two frequencies, 2450 and 5800 MHz, is compared. The ionosphere interaction is less at the higher frequency, but the tropospheric problem scattering from heavy rain and hail is worse at the higher frequency. Microwave signals from communication satellites were observed to scintillate, but there is some concern that the uplink pilot signal may be distorted by the SPS heated ionosphere. The microwave scintillations are only observed in the tropics in the early evenings near the equinoxes. Results indicate that large phase errors in the uplink pilot signal can be reduced.

  8. Environmental Education and Preservice Teacher Preparation: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.; Braus, Judy; Olivolo, Betty; McKeown-Ice, Rosalyn; Barringer-Smith, Liz

    2004-01-01

    A national study of colleges and universities offering teacher-preparation programs was undertaken to ascertain how environmental education (EE) might be better incorporated into their curricula. Six questions guided the descriptive, explorative mail survery relating to satisfaction and fit into EE with current program offerings, what…

  9. Environmental Studies, Conference Report, Secondary Schools Science Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victoria Education Dept. (Australia).

    In addition to complete texts or summaries of a number of papers considering the scope and relevance of "environmental studies" to the secondary and elementary school programs in Victoria (Australia), many teaching techniques are described. Techniques for measuring carrying capacity of roadways, examining published air pollution data,…

  10. Cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, E.M.; Booth, S.R.

    1994-02-01

    This paper examines cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies including the following: (1) In Situ Air Stripping, (2) Surface Towed Ordinance Locator System, (3) Ditch Witch Horizontal Boring Technology, (4) Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, (5) In Situ Vitrification, (6) Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, (7) In Situ Bioremediation, and (8) SEAMIST Membrane System Technology.

  11. An Environmental Studies Enrichment Program an UNC Pembroke

    SciTech Connect

    Ash, Andrew N.

    2001-12-19

    This document represents a final report of four years of activities at UNC Pembroke concerning DOE grant number DE-FG02-96EW13510, entitled An Environmental Studies Enrichment Program at UNC Pembroke. The four-year cycle has been extremely successful. An overview of the training program is presented and success of program graduates is estimated.

  12. Programs in Environmental Studies Part Three: Special Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Review, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents descriptions of special programs in environmental studies. They include: historical geography (University of Illinois); internship program (Miami University); public service projects (Miami University); philosophy of ecology program (University of Montana); and a research program at the Center for Conservation Biology (Stanford…

  13. Vermont Law School's Unique Master of Studies in Environmental Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suagee, Dean B.

    2003-01-01

    Vermont Law School offers a 1-year master of studies in environmental law for which the only prerequisite is a bachelor's degree. A fellowship program waives tuition and provides stipends for American Indians taking the program. Courses on federal Indian law complement the program. The Native community at nearby Dartmouth College provides social…

  14. Environmental Concern and Sociodemographic Variables: A Study of Statistical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Chenyang; McCright, Aaron M.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of the social bases of environmental concern over the past 30 years have produced somewhat inconsistent results regarding the effects of sociodemographic variables, such as gender, income, and place of residence. The authors argue that model specification errors resulting from violation of two statistical assumptions (interval-level…

  15. 101 Environmental Education Activities. Booklet 6--Social Studies Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Helen, Comp.

    Based on the environment and directed at elementary and intermediate level students, 5 field trips are a significant part of the 12 social studies activities in the sixth booklet by the Upper Mississippi River ECO-Center outlining environmental and outdoor education activities. Most of the activities include objectives, activity description,…

  16. Environmental Reference Series, Earth and Environment Studies, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutub, Musa, Comp.

    Compiled in this reference work are bibliographic citations for books, articles, films, and organizations dealing with the earth and environmental studies. In addition to the above topics of a general nature, specific categories include food, natural resources, origin of life, recycling, and wastes. Items are indexed only by title but information…

  17. Environmental Studies. The Construction of an 'A' Level Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, S. McB.

    In response to the increasing social concern for the quality of the environment and its conservation, and the need to ensure that all pupils in their final years of schooling be brought to share that concern, teachers in Hertfordshire, England, have constructed an 'A' level curriculum or syllabus of environmental studies for the sixth form. Based…

  18. A Curriculum Activities Guide to In-Depth Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This guide is the fourth in a series of four books emphasizing student-oriented problem solving related to environmental matters. It utilizes a three-level activity approach: awareness, transitional, and operational. The intent is to provide investigations that will motivate students to pursue in-depth studies, thus encouraging them to generate…

  19. Effects of high CO2 levels on dynamic photosynthesis: carbon gain, mechanisms, and environmental interactions.

    PubMed

    Tomimatsu, Hajime; Tang, Yanhong

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the photosynthetic responses of terrestrial plants to environments with high levels of CO2 is essential to address the ecological effects of elevated atmospheric CO2. Most photosynthetic models used for global carbon issues are based on steady-state photosynthesis, whereby photosynthesis is measured under constant environmental conditions; however, terrestrial plant photosynthesis under natural conditions is highly dynamic, and photosynthetic rates change in response to rapid changes in environmental factors. To predict future contributions of photosynthesis to the global carbon cycle, it is necessary to understand the dynamic nature of photosynthesis in relation to high CO2 levels. In this review, we summarize the current body of knowledge on the photosynthetic response to changes in light intensity under experimentally elevated CO2 conditions. We found that short-term exposure to high CO2 enhances photosynthetic rate, reduces photosynthetic induction time, and reduces post-illumination CO2 burst, resulting in increased leaf carbon gain during dynamic photosynthesis. However, long-term exposure to high CO2 during plant growth has varying effects on dynamic photosynthesis. High levels of CO2 increase the carbon gain in photosynthetic induction in some species, but have no significant effects in other species. Some studies have shown that high CO2 levels reduce the biochemical limitation on RuBP regeneration and Rubisco activation during photosynthetic induction, whereas the effects of high levels of CO2 on stomatal conductance differ among species. Few studies have examined the influence of environmental factors on effects of high levels of CO2 on dynamic photosynthesis. We identified several knowledge gaps that should be addressed to aid future predictions of photosynthesis in high-CO2 environments.

  20. 75 FR 77897 - Long Walk National Historic Trail Feasibility Study, Abbreviated Final Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... National Park Service Long Walk National Historic Trail Feasibility Study, Abbreviated Final Environmental... National Historic Trail Feasibility Study. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of... Abbreviated Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Long Walk National Historic Trail Feasibility...

  1. Pattern formation--A missing link in the study of ecosystem response to environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Meron, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    Environmental changes can affect the functioning of an ecosystem directly, through the response of individual life forms, or indirectly, through interspecific interactions and community dynamics. The feasibility of a community-level response has motivated numerous studies aimed at understanding the mutual relationships between three elements of ecosystem dynamics: the abiotic environment, biodiversity and ecosystem function. Since ecosystems are inherently nonlinear and spatially extended, environmental changes can also induce pattern-forming instabilities that result in spatial self-organization of life forms and resources. This, in turn, can affect the relationships between these three elements, and make the response of ecosystems to environmental changes far more complex. Responses of this kind can be expected in dryland ecosystems, which show a variety of self-organizing vegetation patterns along the rainfall gradient. This paper describes the progress that has been made in understanding vegetation patterning in dryland ecosystems, and the roles it plays in ecosystem response to environmental variability. The progress has been achieved by modeling pattern-forming feedbacks at small spatial scales and up-scaling their effects to large scales through model studies. This approach sets the basis for integrating pattern formation theory into the study of ecosystem dynamics and addressing ecologically significant questions such as the dynamics of desertification, restoration of degraded landscapes, biodiversity changes along environmental gradients, and shrubland-grassland transitions.

  2. Development and validation of a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic method for determination of aromatic amines in environmental water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, precise, and accurate hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic (HILIC) method has been developed for the determination of 5 aromatic amines in environmental water samples. Chromatography was carried out on a bare silica column, using a mixture of acetonitrile: phosphate buffer (10 mM...

  3. Interaction of ribonucleotides with oxide and silicate minerals under varying environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuillie, C.; Sverjensky, D. A.; Hazen, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Large quantities of nucleic acids are found in natural environments, released after the death of an organism and subsequent cell lysis [1]. Nucleic acids are known to adsorb on mineral surfaces [2, 3, 4], which protect them from degradation, whether enzymatic [5, 6] or UV-mediated [7]. It may then contribute to the extracellular genetic pool available in soils to microorganisms for horizontal gene transfers [8]. In order to better understand the behaviour of extracellular nucleic acids in soils, we have investigated the interactions between nucleotides, 5'-GMP, 5'-CMP, 5'-AMP and 5'-UMP, and α-alumina as a model compound for Al in six-fold coordination in soil minerals. We carried out batch adsorption experiments over a wide range of pH, ionic strength and surface loading. Alumina adsorbs high amounts of nucleotides > 2 μmol/m2. In similar environmental conditions, swelling clays such as nontronite and montmorillonite adsorb less than 0.1 μmol/m2 if the total surface area is taken under consideration. However, if only the edges of clay particles are considered, the amount of nucleotides adsorbed reaches values between 1.2 and 2 μmol/m2 [9], similar to the alumina and consistent with ';oxide-like' surface sites on the edges of the clay particles. Surface complexation modeling enabled us to predict the speciation of the surface species on the alumina, as well as the stoichiometry and thermodynamic equilibrium constants for the adsorption of nucleotides. We used the extended triple-layer model (ETLM), that takes into account the electrical work linked to the desorption of chemisorbed water molecules during the formation of inner-sphere complexes. Two surface species are thought to form on the surface of corundum: a monodentate inner-sphere complex, dominant at pH < 7.5, and a bidentate outer-sphere complex, dominant at higher pH. Both complexes involve interactions between the negatively charged phosphate group and the positively charged surface of alumina. Our

  4. Semiparametric Bayesian analysis of gene-environment interactions with error in measurement of environmental covariates and missing genetic data.

    PubMed

    Lobach, Iryna; Mallick, Bani; Carroll, Raymond J

    2011-01-01

    Case-control studies are widely used to detect gene-environment interactions in the etiology of complex diseases. Many variables that are of interest to biomedical researchers are difficult to measure on an individual level, e.g. nutrient intake, cigarette smoking exposure, long-term toxic exposure. Measurement error causes bias in parameter estimates, thus masking key features of data and leading to loss of power and spurious/masked associations. We develop a Bayesian methodology for analysis of case-control studies for the case when measurement error is present in an environmental covariate and the genetic variable has missing data. This approach offers several advantages. It allows prior information to enter the model to make estimation and inference more precise. The environmental covariates measured exactly are modeled completely nonparametrically. Further, information about the probability of disease can be incorporated in the estimation procedure to improve quality of parameter estimates, what cannot be done in conventional case-control studies. A unique feature of the procedure under investigation is that the analysis is based on a pseudo-likelihood function therefore conventional Bayesian techniques may not be technically correct. We propose an approach using Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling as well as a computationally simple method based on an asymptotic posterior distribution. Simulation experiments demonstrated that our method produced parameter estimates that are nearly unbiased even for small sample sizes. An application of our method is illustrated using a population-based case-control study of the association between calcium intake with the risk of colorectal adenoma development.

  5. Semiparametric Bayesian analysis of gene-environment interactions with error in measurement of environmental covariates and missing genetic data

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Bani; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    Case-control studies are widely used to detect gene-environment interactions in the etiology of complex diseases. Many variables that are of interest to biomedical researchers are difficult to measure on an individual level, e.g. nutrient intake, cigarette smoking exposure, long-term toxic exposure. Measurement error causes bias in parameter estimates, thus masking key features of data and leading to loss of power and spurious/masked associations. We develop a Bayesian methodology for analysis of case-control studies for the case when measurement error is present in an environmental covariate and the genetic variable has missing data. This approach offers several advantages. It allows prior information to enter the model to make estimation and inference more precise. The environmental covariates measured exactly are modeled completely nonparametrically. Further, information about the probability of disease can be incorporated in the estimation procedure to improve quality of parameter estimates, what cannot be done in conventional case-control studies. A unique feature of the procedure under investigation is that the analysis is based on a pseudo-likelihood function therefore conventional Bayesian techniques may not be technically correct. We propose an approach using Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling as well as a computationally simple method based on an asymptotic posterior distribution. Simulation experiments demonstrated that our method produced parameter estimates that are nearly unbiased even for small sample sizes. An application of our method is illustrated using a population-based case-control study of the association between calcium intake with the risk of colorectal adenoma development. PMID:21949562

  6. Environmental process improvement feasibility study and demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Rodger L.

    1994-01-01

    This report is the final product of an environmental study conducted by Western Commercial Space Center, Inc. under contract to Tennessee-Calspan Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research. The purpose of this investigation is to accurately document the current environmental and permitting processes associated with commercial space launch activity at Vandenberg AFB, and make recommendations to streamline those processes. The particular areas of interest focus on: identifying applicable Federal, state, and local laws, Department of Defense directives, and Air force regulations; defining the environmental process on Vandenberg AFB and how it relates with other agencies, including Federal and state regulatory agencies; and defining the air quality permit process. Study investigation results are applied to an example Pilot Space Launch Vehicle (PSLV) planning to launch from Vandenberg AFB. The PSLV space hardware is analyzed with respect to environmental and permitting issues associated with vehicle processing, facilities required (existing or new), and launch. The PSLV verified the earlier findings of the study and gave insight into streamlining recommendations.

  7. Differential susceptibility to environmental influences: Interactions between child temperament and parenting in adolescent alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    RIOUX, CHARLIE; CASTELLANOS-RYAN, NATALIE; PARENT, SOPHIE; VITARO, FRANK; TREMBLAY, RICHARD E.; SÉGUIN, JEAN R.

    2015-01-01

    Temperament and parental practices (PP) are important predictors of adolescent alcohol use (AU); however, less is known about how they combine to increase or decrease risk of AU. This study examined whether age 6 temperament (i.e., impulsivity and inhibitory control) interacted with age 6 coercive PP and/or age 14 parental monitoring to predict AU at 15 years among 209 adolescents. Results showed that low parental monitoring was associated with more frequent AU and that coercive PP interacted with impulsivity to predict AU. This interaction was examined as a function of two models that were not studied before in the prediction of AU: the diathesis–stress model (i.e., impulsive children are more “vulnerable” to adverse PP than those with an easy temperament); and the differential susceptibility model (i.e., impulsive children are also more likely to benefit from good PP). Results supported the differential susceptibility model by showing that impulsive children were not only at higher risk for AU when combined with high coercive PP but also benefit from the absence of coercive PP. This supports the suggestion that the conception of certain temperament characteristics, or in this case impulsivity, as a “vulnerability” for adolescent AU, may need revision because it misrepresents the malleability it may imply. PMID:26030853

  8. Microfluidic Devices for Studying Biomolecular Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Wilbur W.; Garcia, Carlos d.; Henry, Charles S.

    2006-01-01

    Microfluidic devices for monitoring biomolecular interactions have been invented. These devices are basically highly miniaturized liquid-chromatography columns. They are intended to be prototypes of miniature analytical devices of the laboratory on a chip type that could be fabricated rapidly and inexpensively and that, because of their small sizes, would yield analytical results from very small amounts of expensive analytes (typically, proteins). Other advantages to be gained by this scaling down of liquid-chromatography columns may include increases in resolution and speed, decreases in the consumption of reagents, and the possibility of performing multiple simultaneous and highly integrated analyses by use of multiple devices of this type, each possibly containing multiple parallel analytical microchannels. The principle of operation is the same as that of a macroscopic liquid-chromatography column: The column is a channel packed with particles, upon which are immobilized molecules of the protein of interest (or one of the proteins of interest if there are more than one). Starting at a known time, a solution or suspension containing molecules of the protein or other substance of interest is pumped into the channel at its inlet. The liquid emerging from the outlet of the channel is monitored to detect the molecules of the dissolved or suspended substance(s). The time that it takes these molecules to flow from the inlet to the outlet is a measure of the degree of interaction between the immobilized and the dissolved or suspended molecules. Depending on the precise natures of the molecules, this measure can be used for diverse purposes: examples include screening for solution conditions that favor crystallization of proteins, screening for interactions between drugs and proteins, and determining the functions of biomolecules.

  9. The effect of environmental plasma interactions on the performance of the solar sail system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, M.; Laquey, R.; Deforest, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    Interaction between the solar sail and the natural plasma environment were examined for deleterious impacts upon the operation of the sail and its associated payload. Electrostatic charging of the sail in the solar wind and in near earth environment were examined. Deployment problems were studied. An analysis of electromechanical oscillations coupling the sail to the natural plasma was performed. As a result of these studies, it was concluded that none of these effects will have a significant negative impact upon the sail operation. The natural environment will be significantly perturbed and this will preclude measurements of electric and magnetic fields from an attached payload.

  10. Strong Interaction Studies with PANDA at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönning, Karin

    2016-10-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, provides unique possibilities for a new generation of nuclear-, hadron- and atomic physics experiments. The future PANDA experiment at FAIR will offer a broad physics programme with emphasis on different aspects of hadron physics. Understanding the strong interaction in the perturbative regime remains one of the greatest challenges in contemporary physics and hadrons provide several important keys. In these proceedings, PANDA will be presented along with some high-lights of the planned physics programme.

  11. Molecular modeling of interactions in electronic nose sensors for environmental monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shevade, A. V.; Ryan, M. A.; Homer, M. L.; Manfreda, A. M.; Yen, S. -P. S.; Zhou, H.; Manatt, K.

    2002-01-01

    We report a study aimed at understanding analyte interactions with sensors made from polymer-carbon black composite films. The sensors are used in an Electronic Nose (ENose) which is used for monitoring the breathing air quality in human habitats. The model mimics the experimental conditions of the composite film deposition and formation and was developed using molecular modeling and simulation tools. The Dreiding 2.21 Force Field was used for the polymer and analyte molecules while graphite parameters were assigned to the carbon black atoms. The polymer considered for this work is methyl vinyl ether / maleic acid copolymer. The target analytes include both inorganic (NH3) and organic (methanol) types of compound. Results indicate different composite-analyte interaction behavior.

  12. A simple model for studying interacting networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenjia; Jolad, Shivakumar; Schmittmann, Beate; Zia, R. K. P.

    2011-03-01

    Many specific physical networks (e.g., internet, power grid, interstates), have been characterized in considerable detail, but in isolation from each other. Yet, each of these networks supports the functions of the others, and so far, little is known about how their interactions affect their structure and functionality. To address this issue, we consider two coupled model networks. Each network is relatively simple, with a fixed set of nodes, but dynamically generated set of links which has a preferred degree, κ . In the stationary state, the degree distribution has exponential tails (far from κ), an attribute which we can explain. Next, we consider two such networks with different κ 's, reminiscent of two social groups, e.g., extroverts and introverts. Finally, we let these networks interact by establishing a controllable fraction of cross links. The resulting distribution of links, both within and across the two model networks, is investigated and discussed, along with some potential consequences for real networks. Supported in part by NSF-DMR-0705152 and 1005417.

  13. Project Orion, Environmental Control and Life Support System Integrated Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, James F.; Lewis, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Orion is the next vehicle for human space travel. Humans will be sustained in space by the Orion subystem, environmental control and life support (ECLS). The ECLS concept at the subsystem level is outlined by function and technology. In the past two years, the interface definition with other subsystems has increased through different integrated studies. The paper presents the key requirements and discusses three recent studies (e.g., unpressurized cargo) along with the respective impacts on the ECLS design moving forward.

  14. Studies of the toxic interactions of disinfection by-products.

    PubMed Central

    Laurie, R D; Bercz, J P; Wessendarp, T K; Condie, L W

    1986-01-01

    A large number and variety of compounds are formed in the process of chlorinating drinking water. The classes of compounds formed include trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, halophenols, and halopropanones. Many of the compounds have been shown to be toxic and are currently being further evaluated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). One group of the halopropanones found in chlorinated drinking water is the dichloropropanones. The toxicological properties of this group have not been well characterized. In addition, a number of investigators have shown that ketones potentiate the hepatotoxicity of haloalkanes. We conducted a series of studies to explore both the toxicity of the dichloropropanones and their potential interactions with a well-characterized haloalkane, carbon tetrachloride. A variety of toxicological and biochemical endpoints were used to evaluate the toxicity of the dichloropropanones and their interaction with CCl4, including cytochrome P-450 concentration, reduced glutathione levels, pentane generation, serum enzyme activities, and histopathology. Administration of 1,1-dichloropropanone (DCP) resulted in elevated serum enzymes associated with periportal necrosis. Glutathione levels were reduced by the administration of 1,1-DCP; pentane generation was not increased. When 1,1-DCP was given prior to CCl4, the data were consistent with additivity. Administration of 1,3-DCP did not result in elevated serum enzymes, nor was there histopathologic evidence of necrosis. Glutathione levels and pentane generation in the 1,3-DCP-treated groups were the same as those of controls. Inhibition of the toxicologic effects of CCl4 in a dose-related manner was observed when 1,3-DCP was administered prior to CCl4. PMID:3816723

  15. Legitimation processes in environmental dispute resolution: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Lach, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    Expense, limited access, delay, and hesitancy to get involved in substantive decisions hamper the legal system's effectiveness in creating stable environmental dispute settlements. Parties involved in environmental disputes increasingly turn to alternative forums of dispute resolution. Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) includes mediation, arbitration, negotiation, and a growing number of hybrids such as regulated negotiation (reg-neg). While ADR offers disputants considerable flexibility in developing solutions, it does not provide the public any assurances that decisions about public resources made in ADR forums are fair or legitimate. This study examines how environmental dispute resolution participants construct legitimacy for the decisions they make in ADR forums. The author has developed a case study of the 1989 Oregon Timber Summit. Data sources included a complete Summit transcript, eleven in-depth interviews with participants, and 166 newspaper articles related to the Summit. To sort and analyze these textual data, a discourse analysis technique was used. The results suggest that (1) procedural and distributive justice issues influence participants' behavior even in the absence of dispute professionals, and (2) the structure of environmental dispute resolution provides disputants with ways to resist possible manipulation and exploitation by other participants.

  16. Environmental exposure and mitochondrial epigenetics: study design and analytical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Hyang-Min; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2015-01-01

    The environment can influence human health and disease in many harmful ways. Many epidemiological studies have been conducted with the aim of elucidating the association between environmental exposure and human disease at the molecular and pathological levels, and such associations can often be through induced epigenetic changes. One such mechanism for this is through environmental factors increasing oxidative stress in the cell, and this stress can subsequently lead to alterations in DNA molecules. The two cellular organelles that contain DNA are the nucleus and mitochondria, and the latter are particularly sensitive to oxidative stress, with mitochondrial functions often disrupted by increased stress. There has been a substantial increase over the past decade in the number of epigenetic studies investigating the impact of environmental exposures upon genomic DNA, but to date there has been insufficient attention paid to the impact upon mitochondrial epigenetics in studying human disease with exposure to environment. Here, in this review, we will discuss mitochondrial epigenetics with regards to epidemiological studies, with particular consideration given to study design and analytical challenges. Furthermore, we suggest future directions and perspectives in the field of mitochondrial epigenetic epidemiological studies. PMID:24402053

  17. Wildfire Ash: Chemical Composition, Ash-Soil Interactions and Environmental Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Anna; Hamzi, Seham; Wittenberg, Lea

    2015-04-01

    Of the five classical factors of soil formation, climate, parent material, topography, time, organisms, and recently recognized human activity, it is the latter factor which discretely includes fire and post-burn impact. However, it is considered that soil undergoing fire just experience a temporary removal of the top organic horizon, thus slightly modified and often labeled as 'temporarily disturbed' soil or soil 'under restoration/rehabilitation'. In fact the suggested seventh factor, post-burned produced ash, can act both dependently and independently of the other soil forming factors (Levin et al., 2013; Certini 2013). They are interdependent in cases where ash influences occur on time scales similar to 'natural' soil formation (Keesstra et ai., 2014) such as changes in vegetation. On the other hand, in post-fire areas a strong dependency is expected between soil-water retention mechanism, climate and topography. Wild-land fires exert many changes on the physical, chemical, mineralogical, biological, and morphological properties of soil that, in turn, affect the soil's hydrology and nutrient flux, modifying its ability to support vegetation and resist erosion. The ash produced by forest fires is a complex mixture composed of organic and inorganic particles characterized by vary physical-chemical and morphological properties. The importance of this study is straightforwardly related to the frequency and large-scales wildfires in Mediterranean region. In fact, wildfires are major environmental and land management concern in the world, where the number and severity of wildfires has increased during the past decades (Bodi, 2013). Certini (2013) assumed that cumulatively all of the vegetated land is burned in about 31 years annually affecting 330-430 Mha (over 3% of the Earth's surface) and wide range of land cover types worldwide including forests, peatlands, shrublands and grasslands. Whereas, the fire is identified as an important factor in soil formation, the

  18. Physiopathology of blood platelets: a model system for studies of cell-to-cell interaction. Progress report, November 1, 1979-October 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    This report covers the studies on basic mechanisms of cellular interactions, utilizing platelets as a model system and, when possible, concentrating on the influence that environmental factors (nutritional, metabolic, cellular, immunologic and others) have on them. The four major sections include: platelet interaction with tumor cells; a model for the study of cell-to-cell interaction; interaction of platelets with vessel walls; and platelet interactions with immune proteins.

  19. Electrostatic antenna space environment interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, I.

    1981-01-01

    The interactions of the electrostatic antenna with the space environment in both low Earth orbit and geosynchronous orbit are investigated. It is concluded that the electrostatically controlled membrane mirror is a viable concept for space applications. However, great care must be taken to enclose the high voltage electrodes in a Faraday cage structure to separate the high voltage region from the ambient plasma. For this reason, metallized cloth is not acceptable as a membrane material. Conventional spacecraft charging at geosynchronous orbit should not be a problem provided ancillary structures (such as booms) are given nonnegligible conductivity and adequate grounding. Power loss due to plasma electrons entering the high field region is a potentially serious problem. In low earth orbit any opening whatever in the Faraday cage is likely to produce an unacceptable power drain.

  20. Modelling the impact of the environmental scenario on population recovery from chemical stress exposure: a case study using Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Gabsi, Faten; Preuss, Thomas G

    2014-11-01

    Recovery of organisms is an important attribute for evaluating the acceptability of chemicals' effects in ecological risk assessment in Europe. Recovery in the field does not depend on the chemical's properties and type of exposure only, but it is strongly linked to important environmental variables and biological interactions as well. Yet, these remain only marginally considered in the European risk assessment of chemicals. Here, we use individual-based modelling to investigate how the environmental scenario affects Daphnia magna population recovery from chemical exposure. Simulation experiments were performed for chemicals with lethality levels ranging from 40% to 90% at different food and temperature conditions. The same toxicity levels were then tested in combination with biological interactions including predation or competition. Results show that for the same chemical effect strength, populations often exhibited different recovery times in a different environmental context. The interactions between the chemical and the environmental variables were the strongest determinants of population recovery. Most important, biotic interactions even induced opposite effects on recovery at low and at high mortality levels. Results of this study infer that no specific role can be attributed to any abiotic or biotic variable in isolation. We conclude that unless the complex interactive mechanisms between the different factors constituting the full environmental scenario are taken into account in risk assessment, we cannot achieve a complete understanding of recovery processes from chemical effects.

  1. Study of volcano/ice interactions gains momentum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Mary G.; Smellie, John L.; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.; Gulick, Virginia C.; Jakobsson, Sveinn P.; Skilling, Ian P.

    2001-01-01

    Observations of recent volcanic eruptions in Iceland and detailed studies of sub-glacially erupted deposits and the interaction of lava and pyroclastic flows with snow and ice have provided important new data that should lead to significant advances in the understanding of volcano/ice interaction on Earth and Mars. A conference on this subject, the first of its kind, recently brought together geologists, geophysicists, glaciologists, and planetary scientists studying various aspects of volcano-ice interaction.

  2. In vitro toxicity and interactions of environmental contaminants (Arochlor 1254 and mercury) and immunomodulatory agents (lipopolysaccharide and cortisol) on thymocytes from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Gregory G.; Sweet, Leonard I.; Adams, Jean V.; Omann, Geneva M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Meier, Peter G.

    2002-01-01

    The immunotoxicity of chemical combinations commonly encountered by the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) immune system was the focus of this study. It was hypothesised that combinations of an environmental contaminant (mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254) and an immunomodulatory agent (bacterial endotoxin or cortisol) might interact to produce a greater toxicity than that of the environmental contaminant alone at concentrations typically encountered in piscine blood and other tissues. Thus lake trout thymocytes were isolated and treated with mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254 in the presence and absence of cortisol or lipopolysaccharide. Incubations were performed for 6 or 20 h at 4° C or 10° C. Lipopolysaccharide did not affect the toxicity of either contaminant. In contrast, cortisol enhanced the toxicity of both environmental contaminants. Hence, stressors that lead to increased cortisol production, but not lipopolysaccharide directly, may increase the toxicity of mercury and Aroclor 1254 to lake trout thymocytes.

  3. Interactions of Environmental Factors and APOA1-APOC3-APOA4-APOA5 Gene Cluster Gene Polymorphisms with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanhua; Yu, Yaqin; Zhao, Tiancheng; Wang, Shibin; Fu, Yingli; Qi, Yue; Yang, Guang; Yao, Wenwang; Su, Yingying; Ma, Yue; Shi, Jieping; Jiang, Jing; Kou, Changgui

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study investigated the prevalence and risk factors for Metabolic syndrome. We evaluated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the apolipoprotein APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster and the MetS risk and analyzed the interactions of environmental factors and APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster polymorphisms with MetS. Methods A study on the prevalence and risk factors for MetS was conducted using data from a large cross-sectional survey representative of the population of Jilin Province situated in northeastern China. A total of 16,831 participations were randomly chosen by multistage stratified cluster sampling of residents aged from 18 to 79 years in all nine administrative areas of the province. Environmental factors associated with MetS were examined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses based on the weighted sample data. A sub-sample of 1813 survey subjects who met the criteria for MetS patients and 2037 controls from this case-control study were used to evaluate the association between SNPs and MetS risk. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes, and SNP genotyping was determined by MALDI-TOF-MS. The associations between SNPs and MetS were examined using a case-control study design. The interactions of environmental factors and APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster polymorphisms with MetS were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results The overall adjusted prevalence of MetS was 32.86% in Jilin province. The prevalence of MetS in men was 36.64%, which was significantly higher than the prevalence in women (29.66%). MetS was more common in urban areas (33.86%) than in rural areas (31.80%). The prevalence of MetS significantly increased with age (OR = 8.621, 95%CI = 6.594–11.272). Mental labor (OR = 1.098, 95%CI = 1.008–1.195), current smoking (OR = 1.259, 95%CI = 1.108–1.429), excess salt intake (OR = 1.252, 95%CI = 1.149–1.363), and a fruit and dairy intake less

  4. Colonization of abandoned land by Juniperus thurifera is mediated by the interaction of a diverse dispersal assemblage and environmental heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Escribano-Avila, Gema; Sanz-Pérez, Virginia; Pías, Beatriz; Virgós, Emilio; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Land abandonment is one of the most powerful global change drivers in developed countries where recent rural exodus has been the norm. Abandonment of traditional land use practices has permitted the colonization of these areas by shrub and tree species. For fleshy fruited species the colonization of new areas is determined by the dispersal assemblage composition and abundance. In this study we showed how the relative contribution to the dispersal process by each animal species is modulated by the environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure. This complex interaction caused differential patterns on the seed dispersal in both, landscape patches in which the process of colonization is acting nowadays and mature woodlands of Juniperus thurifera, a relict tree distributed in the western Mediterranean Basin. Thrushes (Turdus spp) and carnivores (red fox and stone marten) dispersed a high amount of seeds while rabbits and sheeps only a tiny fraction. Thrushes dispersed a significant amount of seeds in new colonization areas, however they were limited by the presence of high perches with big crop size. While carnivores dispersed seeds to all studied habitats, even in those patches where no trees of J. thurifera were present, turning out to be critical for primary colonization. The presence of Pinus and Quercus was related to a reduced consumption of J. thurifera seeds while the presence of fleshy fruited shrubs was related with higher content of J. thurifera seeds in dispersers' faeces. Therefore environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure had a great influence on dispersers feeding behaviour, and should be considered in order to accurately describe the role of seed dispersal in ecological process, such as regeneration and colonization. J. thurifera expansion is not seed limited thanks to its diverse dispersal community, hence the conservation of all dispersers in an ecosystem enhance ecosystems services and resilience.

  5. Colonization of Abandoned Land by Juniperus thurifera Is Mediated by the Interaction of a Diverse Dispersal Assemblage and Environmental Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Escribano-Avila, Gema; Sanz-Pérez, Virginia; Pías, Beatriz; Virgós, Emilio; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Land abandonment is one of the most powerful global change drivers in developed countries where recent rural exodus has been the norm. Abandonment of traditional land use practices has permitted the colonization of these areas by shrub and tree species. For fleshy fruited species the colonization of new areas is determined by the dispersal assemblage composition and abundance. In this study we showed how the relative contribution to the dispersal process by each animal species is modulated by the environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure. This complex interaction caused differential patterns on the seed dispersal in both, landscape patches in which the process of colonization is acting nowadays and mature woodlands of Juniperus thurifera, a relict tree distributed in the western Mediterranean Basin. Thrushes (Turdus spp) and carnivores (red fox and stone marten) dispersed a high amount of seeds while rabbits and sheeps only a tiny fraction. Thrushes dispersed a significant amount of seeds in new colonization areas, however they were limited by the presence of high perches with big crop size. While carnivores dispersed seeds to all studied habitats, even in those patches where no trees of J. thurifera were present, turning out to be critical for primary colonization. The presence of Pinus and Quercus was related to a reduced consumption of J. thurifera seeds while the presence of fleshy fruited shrubs was related with higher content of J. thurifera seeds in dispersers’ faeces. Therefore environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure had a great influence on dispersers feeding behaviour, and should be considered in order to accurately describe the role of seed dispersal in ecological process, such as regeneration and colonization. J. thurifera expansion is not seed limited thanks to its diverse dispersal community, hence the conservation of all dispersers in an ecosystem enhance ecosystems services and resilience. PMID:23071692

  6. Study of the space environmental effects on spacecraft engineering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Susan K.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1995-01-01

    The issue of the effects of the space environment on spacecraft needs to be understood for the long term exposure of structures in space. In order to better understand the effect of these hostile phenomena on spacecraft, several types of studies are worth performing in order to simulate at some level the effect of the environment. For example the effect of protons and electrons impacting structural materials are easily simulated through experiments using the Van de Graff and Pelletron accelerators currently housed at MSFC. Proton fluxes with energies of 700 KeV - 2.5 MeV can be generated and used to impinge on sample targets to determine the effects of the particles. Also the Environmental Effects Facility at MSFC has the capability to generate electron beams with energies from 700 KeV to 2.5 MeV. These facilities will be used in this research to simulate space environmental effects from energetic particles. Ultraviolet radiation, particularly less than 400 nm wavelength, is less well characterized at this time. The Environmental Effects Facility has a vacuum system dedicated to studying the effects of ultraviolet radiation on specific surface materials. This particular system was assembled in a previous study in order to perform a variety of experiments on materials proposed for the Space Station. That system has continued to function as planned and has been used in carrying out portions of the proposed study.

  7. Fluorescence Studies of Protein Crystallization Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc L.; Smith, Lori; Forsythe, Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    We are investigating protein-protein interactions in under- and over-saturated crystallization solution conditions using fluorescence methods. The use of fluorescence requires fluorescent derivatives where the probe does not markedly affect the crystal packing. A number of chicken egg white lysozyme (CEWL) derivatives have been prepared, with the probes covalently attached to one of two different sites on the protein molecule; the side chain carboxyl of ASP 101, within the active site cleft, and the N-terminal amine. The ASP 101 derivatives crystallize while the N-terminal amine derivatives do not. However, the N-terminal amine is part of the contact region between adjacent 43 helix chains, and blocking this site does would not interfere with formation of these structures in solution. Preliminary FRET data have been obtained at pH 4.6, 0.1M NaAc buffer, at 5 and 7% NaCl, 4 C, using the N-terminal bound pyrene acetic acid (PAA, Ex 340 nm, Em 376 nm) and ASP 101 bound Lucifer Yellow (LY, Ex 425 nm, Em 525 nm) probe combination. The corresponding Csat values are 0.471 and 0.362 mg/ml (approximately 3.3 and approximately 2.5 x 10 (exp 5) M respectively), and all experiments were carried out at approximately Csat or lower total protein concentration. The data at both salt concentrations show a consistent trend of decreasing fluorescence yield of the donor species (PAA) with increasing total protein concentration. This decrease is apparently more pronounced at 7% NaCl, consistent with the expected increased intermolecular interactions at higher salt concentrations (reflected in the lower solubility). The estimated average distance between protein molecules at 5 x 10 (exp 6) M is approximately 70 nm, well beyond the range where any FRET can be expected. The calculated RO, where 50% of the donor energy is transferred to the acceptor, for the PAA-CEWL * LY-CEWL system is 3.28 nm, based upon a PAA-CEWL quantum efficiency of 0.41.

  8. Uranium interaction with two multi-resistant environmental bacteria: Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Isabelle; Untereiner, Guillaume; Jaillard, Danielle; Gouget, Barbara; Chapon, Virginie; Carriere, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Depending on speciation, U environmental contamination may be spread through the environment or inversely restrained to a limited area. Induction of U precipitation via biogenic or non-biogenic processes would reduce the dissemination of U contamination. To this aim U oxidation/reduction processes triggered by bacteria are presently intensively studied. Using X-ray absorption analysis, we describe in the present article the ability of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris, highly resistant to a variety of metals and metalloids or to organic pollutants, to withstand high concentrations of U and to immobilize it either through biosorption or through reduction to non-uraninite U(IV)-phosphate or U(IV)-carboxylate compounds. These bacterial strains are thus good candidates for U bioremediation strategies, particularly in the context of multi-pollutant or mixed-waste contaminations.

  9. Uranium Interaction with Two Multi-Resistant Environmental Bacteria: Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    PubMed Central

    Llorens, Isabelle; Untereiner, Guillaume; Jaillard, Danielle; Gouget, Barbara; Chapon, Virginie; Carriere, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Depending on speciation, U environmental contamination may be spread through the environment or inversely restrained to a limited area. Induction of U precipitation via biogenic or non-biogenic processes would reduce the dissemination of U contamination. To this aim U oxidation/reduction processes triggered by bacteria are presently intensively studied. Using X-ray absorption analysis, we describe in the present article the ability of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris, highly resistant to a variety of metals and metalloids or to organic pollutants, to withstand high concentrations of U and to immobilize it either through biosorption or through reduction to non-uraninite U(IV)-phosphate or U(IV)-carboxylate compounds. These bacterial strains are thus good candidates for U bioremediation strategies, particularly in the context of multi-pollutant or mixed-waste contaminations. PMID:23251623

  10. Determinants of Internet Use for Interactive Learning: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castaño, Jonatan; Duart, Josep M.; Sancho-Vinuesa, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The use of the Internet in higher education teaching can facilitate the interactive learning process and thus improve educational outcomes. The aim of the study presented here is to explore which variables are linked to higher intensity of Internet-based interactive educational practices. The study is based on data obtained from an online survey…

  11. Interactions among Online Learners: A Quantitative Interdisciplinary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Pawan; Jain, Sachin; Jain, Smita

    2011-01-01

    This study concerns the design and development of online instruction and specifically targets interaction and communication between online learners. Facilitating appropriate and meaningful interactions in designing instruction is a major goal for anyone developing a course, especially an online class. The data for this study came from the online…

  12. Will environmental interventions affect the level of mastery motivation among children with disabilities? A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Waldman-Levi, Amiya; Erez, Asnat Bar-Haim

    2015-03-01

    Children with developmental disabilities tend to demonstrate lower levels of mastery motivation in comparison with typically developing children. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of physical and social environmental interventions on the mastery motivation of children with disabilities. Participants included 19 children (from two classes) with disabilities between the ages of 2-4 years from an educational rehabilitation centre. The Individualized Assessment of Mastery Motivation was used to assess the level of mastery motivation; the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale - Revised and the Teacher-Child Interaction Observation were used to assess the physical and social environments. A counterbalance study design was used such that the children from the two classes received two phases of intervention, social and physical environmental interventions. The study's results point to the advantage of the social intervention, over the physical one, in improving the child's mastery motivation. However, the results lend support for the efficacy of using both aspects of environmental changes to the overall persistent score. The study findings, although preliminary, demonstrate the efficacy of providing both social and physical environmental interventions to improve mastery motivation.

  13. Study of interaction of ceruloplasmin with serprocidins.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, A V; Ageeva, K V; Kostevich, V A; Berlov, M N; Runova, O L; Zakharova, E T; Vasilyev, V B

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes formation of complexes of ceruloplasmin (CP) with such proteins of the serprocidin family as azurocidin (CAP37), neutrophilic elastase (NE), cathepsin G (CG), and proteinase 3 (PR3). We present evidence that serprocidins form complexes with CP at a molar ratio 1 : 1. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, a serine protease inhibitor, did not prevent the interaction of serprocidins with CP in the course of SDS-free disc electrophoresis. CP affected the activities of NE, CG, and PR3 as a competitive inhibitor with K(i) ~ 1 μM. Inhibitory effect of CP depended on ionic strength of the solution and was negligible at NaCl concentrations above 300 mM. In the mode of competitive inhibitors serprocidins suppressed oxidase activity of CP towards p-phenylenediamine. CAP37 displayed the strongest inhibitory effect (K(i) ~ 20 nM). Upon adding various serprocidins to human, rat, rabbit, dolphin, dog, horse, and mouse plasma only CAP37 would form a complex with CP. Synthetic peptide RKARPRQFPRRR (5-13, 61-63 CAP37) displaced CAP37 from its complex with CP. Adding CAP37 to the triple complex formed by CP, lactoferrin, and myeloperoxidase resulted in displacement of the latter from the complex. The dissociation constant of CAP37 with immobilized CP was 13 nM. Therefore, among serprocidins CAP37 can be regarded as the specific partner of CP.

  14. Environmental Enrichment, Age, and PPARα Interact to Regulate Proliferation in Neurogenic Niches

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Martín, Margarita; Rivera, Patricia; Blanco, Eduardo; Lorefice, Clara; Decara, Juan; Pavón, Francisco J.; Serrano, Antonia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) ligands have been shown to modulate recovery after brain insults such as ischemia and irradiation by enhancing neurogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the genetic deletion of PPARα receptors on the proliferative rate of neural precursor cells (NPC) in the adult brain. The study was performed in aged Pparα−/− mice exposed to nutritional (treats) and environmental (games) enrichments for 20 days. We performed immunohistochemical analyses of cells containing the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU+) and the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (Dcx+) in the main neurogenic zones of the adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ), subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ), and/or hypothalamus. Results indicated a reduction in the number of BrdU+ cells in the neurogenic zones analyzed as well as Dcx+ cells in the SGZ during aging (2, 6, and 18 months). Pparα deficiency alleviated the age-related reduction of NPC proliferation (BrdU+ cells) in the SVZ of the 18-months-old mice. While no genotype effect on NPC proliferation was detected in the SGZ during aging, an accentuated reduction in the number of Dcx+ cells was observed in the SGZ of the 6-months-old Pparα−/− mice. Exposing the 18-months-old mice to nutritional and environmental enrichments reversed the Pparα−/−-induced impairment of NPC proliferation in the neurogenic zones analyzed. The enriched environment did not modify the number of SGZ Dcx+ cells in the 18 months old Pparα−/− mice. These results identify PPARα receptors as a potential target to counteract the naturally observed decline in adult NPC proliferation associated with aging and impoverished environments. PMID:27013951

  15. Environmental Enrichment, Age, and PPARα Interact to Regulate Proliferation in Neurogenic Niches.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martín, Margarita; Rivera, Patricia; Blanco, Eduardo; Lorefice, Clara; Decara, Juan; Pavón, Francisco J; Serrano, Antonia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) ligands have been shown to modulate recovery after brain insults such as ischemia and irradiation by enhancing neurogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the genetic deletion of PPARα receptors on the proliferative rate of neural precursor cells (NPC) in the adult brain. The study was performed in aged Pparα(-/-) mice exposed to nutritional (treats) and environmental (games) enrichments for 20 days. We performed immunohistochemical analyses of cells containing the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU+) and the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (Dcx+) in the main neurogenic zones of the adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ), subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ), and/or hypothalamus. Results indicated a reduction in the number of BrdU+ cells in the neurogenic zones analyzed as well as Dcx+ cells in the SGZ during aging (2, 6, and 18 months). Pparα deficiency alleviated the age-related reduction of NPC proliferation (BrdU+ cells) in the SVZ of the 18-months-old mice. While no genotype effect on NPC proliferation was detected in the SGZ during aging, an accentuated reduction in the number of Dcx+ cells was observed in the SGZ of the 6-months-old Pparα(-/-) mice. Exposing the 18-months-old mice to nutritional and environmental enrichments reversed the Pparα(-/-)-induced impairment of NPC proliferation in the neurogenic zones analyzed. The enriched environment did not modify the number of SGZ Dcx+ cells in the 18 months old Pparα(-/-) mice. These results identify PPARα receptors as a potential target to counteract the naturally observed decline in adult NPC proliferation associated with aging and impoverished environments.

  16. Environmental protection facilities safety study: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    The purpose of this Safety Study is to examine the existing facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant that are dedicated to environmental protection. Seven separate, numbered facilities and five unnumbered continuous air sampling stations are identified as the fixed facilities to protect the environment. Each is examined from the standpoint of hazardous materials, monitoring and protection systems, confinement systems, ventilation systems, criticality control systems, fire protection systems, waste disposal systems, and safety systems.

  17. Environmentally benign synthesis and antimicrobial study of novel chalcogenophosphates.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Shubhanjan; Mukherjee, Sayani; Sen, Sukanta K; Hajra, Alakananda

    2014-05-01

    We report in this work an environmentally benign zinc mediated synthesis of aryl and benzyl phosphorochalcogenoates in ethanol within a short reaction time. In vitro antimicrobial study along with statistical analysis and seed germination assay were performed. These chalcogenophosphates possess strong antimicrobial activity against the reference strains. The antibacterial activity was determined against four standard strains (Bacilus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The antifungal activity was evaluated against one fungal strain Candida albicans.

  18. Differential Susceptibility and the Early Development of Aggression: Interactive Effects of Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia and Environmental Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Sulik, Michael J.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Edwards, Alison; Eggum, Natalie D.; Liew, Jeffrey; Sallquist, Julie; Popp, Tierney K.; Smith, Cynthia L.; Hart, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to predict the development of aggressive behavior from young children's respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and environmental quality. In a longitudinal sample of 213 children, baseline RSA, RSA suppression in response to a film of crying babies, and a composite measure of environmental quality (incorporating…

  19. Interdisciplinary Project-Based Learning through an Environmental Water Quality Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhl, Lorie; Yearsley, Kaye; Silva, Andrew J.

    1997-12-01

    An interdisciplinary environmental water quality study was designed and conducted to enhance training and employability of chemical and environmental technician students in associate degree programs. Four project objectives were identified as a means to enhance the educational experience and employability of our students: provide experience on analytical instrumentation for organic compounds (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, GC/MS), require interdisciplinary group interactions and problem solving, provide experience with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) procedures, and require cooperation with state agencies/private organizations. Students worked in groups that included representatives from both programs to develop project objectives and a Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) following EPA standards. Input from personnel at Idaho's Department of Environmental Quality and Bureau of Laboratories and from volunteers in an environmental "watch dog" organization called the Henry's Fork Foundation aided students in the development and implementation of their SAP. Subsequently, groups sampled sections of the Henry's Fork River and analyzed for organic, inorganic, and fecal contaminants. Analysis included EPA method 525.2 for pesticides using GC/MS. Data from all river segments was shared and each group submitted a final report analyzing results. Surveys completed by students and instructors indicate that the project is a successful teaching method allowing introduction of new skills as well as review of important technical and employability skills.

  20. Fluorimetric study on the interaction between Norfloxacin and Proflavine hemisulphate.

    PubMed

    More, Vishalkumar R; Anbhule, Prashant V; Lee, Sang H; Patil, Shivajirao R; Kolekar, Govind B

    2011-07-01

    The interaction between Norfloxacin (NF) and Proflavine hemisulphate (PF) was investigated by spectroscopic tools like UV-VIS absorption and Fluorescence spectroscopy. It was proved that fluorescence quenching of NF by PF is due to the formation of NF-PF complex which was supported by UV-VIS absorption study. The study of thermodynamic parameters suggested that the key interacting forces are hydrogen bond and van der Waal's interactions and the binding interaction was spontaneous. The distance r between NF and PF was obtained according to the Förster's theory of non-radiative energy transfer. The fluorescence quenching mechanism was applied to estimate PF directly from pharmaceutical samples.

  1. Environmental fate and aquatic toxicology studies on phthalate esters

    SciTech Connect

    Group, E.F. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    A comprehensive environmental fate and effects testing program, sponsored by the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA) Phthalate Esters Program Panel, has been completed. Based on the results, a preliminary safety assessment has shown that all of the 14 commercially important phthalates tested have sufficiently high safety factors to demonstrate low potential for adverse environmental effects. This program comprised acute toxicity studies on nine representative species of aquatic life, chronic reproduction studies on Daphnia magna, biodegradation (fate) testing, and physicochemical property (mobility) determinations on 14 phthalate esters. The objectives of this program were to determine for each test compound: The concentration at which effects on aquatic life might occur, the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic life, and the relative persistence in the environment. These data would provide the basis for an environmental safety assessment and would identify potential effects that might require further investigation. A total of 195 individual studies were carried out. Tests on a wide variety of aquatic organisms representing different food chain levels in both fresh and salt water environments showed that no single test species was unusually sensitive to the test materials. The higher molecular weight (longer side-chain) phthalates exhibited no toxic effects up to their limits of water solubility in the test systems. Even though the lower molecular weight, more water-soluble phthalates produced toxic effects below their limits of water solubility, no product exhibited unusually severe effects of concern.

  2. Environmental fate and aquatic toxicology studies on phthalate esters.

    PubMed

    Group, E F

    1986-03-01

    A comprehensive environmental fate and effects testing program, sponsored by the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA) Phthalate Esters Program Panel, has been completed. Based on the results, a preliminary safety assessment has shown that all of the 14 commercially important phthalates tested have sufficiently high safety factors to demonstrate low potential for adverse environmental effects. This program comprised acute toxicity studies on nine representative species of aquatic life, chronic reproduction studies on Daphnia magna, biodegradation (fate) testing, and physicochemical property (mobility) determinations on 14 phthalate esters. The objectives of this program were to determine for each test compound: The concentration at which effects on aquatic life might occur, the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic life, and the relative persistence in the environment. These data would provide the basis for an environmental safety assessment and would identify potential effects that might require further investigation. A total of 195 individual studies were carried out. Tests on a wide variety of aquatic organisms representing different food chain levels in both fresh and salt water environments showed that no single test species was unusually sensitive to the test materials. The higher molecular weight (longer side-chain) phthalates exhibited no toxic effects up to their limits of water solubility in the test systems. Even though the lower molecular weight, more water-soluble phthalates produced toxic effects below their limits of water solubility, no product exhibited unusually severe effects of concern.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Electric and hybrid vehicles environmental control subsystem study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.

  4. Curriculum Activities Guide to Populations and Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1980

    This curriculum guide uses the study of individual systems to build a basis for students to understand larger systems. Using sites in the school yard and the community, students investigate insect, bird, and dog populations, as well as one physical system, weather, as entry points to the broader subject of how natural systems interact. The degree…

  5. Computational Studies of Strongly Interacting Ultracold Atoms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    are studied synergistically. We quantified effects of many-body correlations in trapped atomic Bose gases; developed auxiliary-field quantum Monte...are studied synergistically. We quantified effects of many-body correlations in trapped atomic Bose gases; developed auxiliary-field quantum Monte...in the following categories: Wirawan Purwanto, Shiwei Zhang, "Correlation effects in the ground state of trapped atomic Bose gases," Phys. Rev. A 72

  6. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1)

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

    2014-10-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. - Highlights: • We optimized a novel assay for determination of Oatp1d1 interactors • Oatp1d1 is the first SLC characterized fish xenobiotic transporter • PFOS, nonylphenol, diclofenac, EE2, caffeine are high affinity Oatp1d1substrates • PFOA, chlorpyrifos

  7. Interactions of Isophorone Derivatives with DNA: Spectroscopic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Deiana, Marco; Matczyszyn, Katarzyna; Massin, Julien; Olesiak-Banska, Joanna; Andraud, Chantal; Samoc, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Interactions of three new isophorone derivatives, Isoa Isob and Isoc with salmon testes DNA have been investigated using UV-Vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic methods. All the studied compounds interact with DNA through intercalative binding mode. The stoichiometry of the isophorone/DNA adducts was found to be 1:1. The fluorescence quenching data revealed a binding interaction with the base pairs of DNA. The CD data indicate that all the investigated isophorones induce DNA modifications. PMID:26069963

  8. Environmental Influences on Pigeonpea-Fusarium udum Interactions and Stability of Genotypes to Fusarium Wilt

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mamta; Ghosh, Raju; Telangre, Rameshwar; Rathore, Abhishek; Saifulla, Muhammad; Mahalinga, Dayananda M.; Saxena, Deep R.; Jain, Yogendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt (Fusarium udum Butler) is an important biotic constraint to pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) production worldwide. Breeding for fusarium wilt resistance continues to be an integral part of genetic improvement of pigeonpea. Therefore, the study was aimed at identifying and validating resistant genotypes to fusarium wilt and determining the magnitude of genotype × environment (G × E) interactions through multi-environment and multi-year screening. A total of 976 genotypes including germplasm and breeding lines were screened against wilt using wilt sick plot at Patancheru, India. Ninety two genotypes resistant to wilt were tested for a further two years using wilt sick plot at Patancheru. A Pigeonpea Wilt Nursery (PWN) comprising of 29 genotypes was then established. PWN was evaluated at nine locations representing different agro-climatic zones of India for wilt resistance during two crop seasons 2007/08 and 2008/09. Genotypes (G), environment (E), and G × E interactions were examined by biplot which partitioned the main effect into G, E, and G × E interactions with significant levels (p ≤ 0.001) being obtained for wilt incidence. The genotype contributed 36.51% of resistance variation followed by the environment (29.32%). A GGE biplot integrated with a boxplot and multiple comparison tests enabled us to identify seven stable genotypes (ICPL 20109, ICPL 20096, ICPL 20115, ICPL 20116, ICPL 20102, ICPL 20106, and ICPL 20094) based on their performance across diverse environments. These genotypes have broad based resistance and can be exploited in pigeonpea breeding programs. PMID:27014287

  9. Environmental Influences on Pigeonpea-Fusarium udum Interactions and Stability of Genotypes to Fusarium Wilt.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mamta; Ghosh, Raju; Telangre, Rameshwar; Rathore, Abhishek; Saifulla, Muhammad; Mahalinga, Dayananda M; Saxena, Deep R; Jain, Yogendra K

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt (Fusarium udum Butler) is an important biotic constraint to pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) production worldwide. Breeding for fusarium wilt resistance continues to be an integral part of genetic improvement of pigeonpea. Therefore, the study was aimed at identifying and validating resistant genotypes to fusarium wilt and determining the magnitude of genotype × environment (G × E) interactions through multi-environment and multi-year screening. A total of 976 genotypes including germplasm and breeding lines were screened against wilt using wilt sick plot at Patancheru, India. Ninety two genotypes resistant to wilt were tested for a further two years using wilt sick plot at Patancheru. A Pigeonpea Wilt Nursery (PWN) comprising of 29 genotypes was then established. PWN was evaluated at nine locations representing different agro-climatic zones of India for wilt resistance during two crop seasons 2007/08 and 2008/09. Genotypes (G), environment (E), and G × E interactions were examined by biplot which partitioned the main effect into G, E, and G × E interactions with significant levels (p ≤ 0.001) being obtained for wilt incidence. The genotype contributed 36.51% of resistance variation followed by the environment (29.32%). A GGE biplot integrated with a boxplot and multiple comparison tests enabled us to identify seven stable genotypes (ICPL 20109, ICPL 20096, ICPL 20115, ICPL 20116, ICPL 20102, ICPL 20106, and ICPL 20094) based on their performance across diverse environments. These genotypes have broad based resistance and can be exploited in pigeonpea breeding programs.

  10. Our School at Blair Grocery: A Case Study in Promoting Environmental Action through Critical Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceaser, Donovon

    2012-01-01

    Despite wide agreement on the goals of environmental education (EE), the promotion of action is still considered contentious. Critical environmental education (critical EE) teaches students to combine critical reflection with the ability to engage in local action to address social/environmental problems. This article examines a critical urban…

  11. Electricity generation and environmental externalities: Case studies, September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-28

    Electricity constitutes a critical input in sustaining the Nation`s economic growth and development and the well-being of its inhabitants. However, there are byproducts of electricity production that have an undesirable effect on the environment. Most of these are emissions introduced by the combustion of fossil fuels, which accounts for nearly 70 percent of the total electricity generated in the United States. The environmental impacts (or damages) caused by these emissions are labeled environmental ``externalities.`` Included in the generic term ``externality`` are benefits or costs resulting as an unintended byproduct of an economic activity that accrue to someone other than the parties involved in the activity. This report provides an overview of the economic foundation of externalities, the Federal and State regulatory approaches, and case studies of the impacts of the externality policies adopted by three States.

  12. Study of soliton interactions in sodium vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolfi, D. W.; Hahn, E. L.

    1980-04-01

    Collision properties of optical solitons are studied experimentally using the technique of self-induced transparency. Numerical plane-wave simulations of collisions using parameters for the input pulses and the atomic system appropriate to the actual experimental situation are presented and compared to matching analytic solutions derived previously by other workers. Experimental studies of overtaking collisions in sodium vapor are presented for the first time and found to be in qualitative agreement with numerical results at intermediate optical absorption. At higher absorption, dynamic transverse effects cause a rapid attenuation of the pulses which prevents the observation of complete collisions. Attempts to compensate for losses by focusing the input beam are described.

  13. Theoretical Studies of Atom Surface Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    on Electron Stimulated Desorption 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side if necessary and Identify by block nualber) Theoretical Study Kinetic Theorm...roughly giveti by S.. by averaging thle homionuclea. diatomiic bond lengths.’ If thie molecule remains undiss6eiated, Ems c2/S , () then e2/S, is the

  14. An appraisal of biological responses and network of environmental interactions in non-mining and mining impacted coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Christabelle E G; Malik, Ashish; Jineesh, V K; Fernandes, Sheryl O; Das, Anindita; Pandey, Sunita S; Kanolkar, Geeta; Sujith, P P; Velip, Dhillan M; Shaikh, Shagufta; Helekar, Samita; Gonsalves, Maria Judith; Nair, Shanta; LokaBharathi, P A

    2015-08-01

    The coastal waters of Goa and Ratnagiri lying on the West coast of India are influenced by terrestrial influx. However, Goa is influenced anthropogenically by iron-ore mining, while Ratnagiri is influenced by deposition of heavy minerals containing iron brought from the hinterlands. We hypothesize that there could be a shift in biological response along with changes in network of interactions between environmental and biological variables in these mining and non-mining impacted regions, lying 160 nmi apart. Biological and environmental parameters were analyzed during pre-monsoon season. Except silicates, the measured parameters were higher at Goa and related significantly, suggesting bacteria centric, detritus-driven region. At Ratnagiri, phytoplankton biomass related positively with silicate suggesting a region dominated by primary producers. This dominance perhaps got reflected as a higher tertiary yield. Thus, even though the regions are geographically proximate, the different biological response could be attributed to the differences in the web of interactions between the measured variables.

  15. Space station environmental control and life support systems conceptual studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, W. R.; Powell, L. E.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the establishment of a permanent manned Space Station requires the development of a comprehensive approach which combines new technologies and existing spacecraft subsystem capabilities into an optimum design. The present paper is concerned with studies which were conducted in connection with the development of the regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) for the Space Station. Attention is given to the current state of the ECLSS subsystems and system level analytical selection and group studies related to the integrated system conceptual design.

  16. Application of ERTS imagery to environmental studies of Lake Champlain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, A. O.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS Imagery has provided data relating to a number of environmental and limnological concerns such as water quality, lake flooding and lake ice formation. Pollution plume data provided by ERTS was recently used in the Supreme Court case involving the States of Vermont and New York and a paper company. Flooding of lowland tracts has been a major concern due to a repetitive pattern of high lake levels over the past three years, and ERTS imagery is being used to construct the first series of flood maps of the affected areas. Lake ice development and turbidity patterns have also been studied from ERTS, since these have significance for shore erosion studies.

  17. Ocean dynamics studies. [of current-wave interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Both the theoretical and experimental investigations into current-wave interactions are discussed. The following three problems were studied: (1) the dispersive relation of a random gravity-capillary wave field; (2) the changes of the statistical properties of surface waves under the influence of currents; and (3) the interaction of capillary-gravity with the nonuniform currents. Wave current interaction was measured and the feasibility of using such measurements for remote sensing of surface currents was considered. A laser probe was developed to measure the surface statistics, and the possibility of using current-wave interaction as a means of current measurement was demonstrated.

  18. Structural study of surfactant-dependent interaction with protein

    SciTech Connect

    Mehan, Sumit; Aswal, Vinod K.; Kohlbrecher, Joachim

    2015-06-24

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the complex structure of anionic BSA protein with three different (cationic DTAB, anionic SDS and non-ionic C12E10) surfactants. These systems form very different surfactant-dependent complexes. We show that the structure of protein-surfactant complex is initiated by the site-specific electrostatic interaction between the components, followed by the hydrophobic interaction at high surfactant concentrations. It is also found that hydrophobic interaction is preferred over the electrostatic interaction in deciding the resultant structure of protein-surfactant complexes.

  19. Asymmetric forest transition driven by the interaction of socioeconomic development and environmental heterogeneity in Central America.

    PubMed

    Redo, Daniel J; Grau, H Ricardo; Aide, T Mitchell; Clark, Matthew L

    2012-06-05

    Forest transitions (FT) have been observed in many developed countries and more recently in the developing world. However, our knowledge of FT from tropical regions is mostly derived from case studies from within a particular country, making it difficult to generalize findings across larger regions. Here we overcome these difficulties by conducting a recent (2001-2010) satellite-based analysis of trends in forest cover across Central America, stratified by biomes, which we related to socioeconomic variables associated with human development. Results show a net decrease of woody vegetation resulting from 12,201 km(2) of deforestation of moist forests and 6,825 km(2) of regrowth of conifer and dry forests. The Human Development Index was the socioeconomic variable best associated with forest cover change. The least-developed countries, Nicaragua and Guatemala, experienced both rapid deforestation of moist forests and significant recovery of conifer and dry forests. In contrast, the most developed countries, Panama and Costa Rica, had net woody vegetation gain and a more stable forest cover configuration. These results imply a good agreement with FT predictions of forest change in relation to socioeconomic development, but strong asymmetry in rates and directions of change largely dependent upon the biome where change is occurring. The FT model should be refined by incorporating ecological and socioeconomic heterogeneity, particularly in multicountry and regional studies. These asymmetric patterns of forest change should be evaluated when developing strategies for conserving biodiversity and environmental services.

  20. High throughput imaging and analysis for biological interpretation of agricultural plants and environmental interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Hyundae; Benac, Jasenka; Riggsbee, Daniel; Koutsky, Keith

    2014-03-01

    High throughput (HT) phenotyping of crops is essential to increase yield in environments deteriorated by climate change. The controlled environment of a greenhouse offers an ideal platform to study the genotype to phenotype linkages for crop screening. Advanced imaging technologies are used to study plants' responses to resource limitations such as water and nutrient deficiency. Advanced imaging technologies coupled with automation make HT phenotyping in the greenhouse not only feasible, but practical. Monsanto has a state of the art automated greenhouse (AGH) facility. Handling of the soil, pots water and nutrients are all completely automated. Images of the plants are acquired by multiple hyperspectral and broadband cameras. The hyperspectral cameras cover wavelengths from visible light through short wave infra-red (SWIR). Inhouse developed software analyzes the images to measure plant morphological and biochemical properties. We measure phenotypic metrics like plant area, height, and width as well as biomass. Hyperspectral imaging allows us to measure biochemcical metrics such as chlorophyll, anthocyanin, and foliar water content. The last 4 years of AGH operations on crops like corn, soybean, and cotton have demonstrated successful application of imaging and analysis technologies for high throughput plant phenotyping. Using HT phenotyping, scientists have been showing strong correlations to environmental conditions, such as water and nutrient deficits, as well as the ability to tease apart distinct differences in the genetic backgrounds of crops.

  1. Interaction of genetic predisposition and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of idiopathic orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Jacob, G.; Pohar, B.; Robertson, D.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The hemodynamic and autonomic abnormalities in idiopathic orthostatic intolerance (IOI) have been studied extensively. However, the mechanisms underlying these abnormalities are not understood. If genetic predisposition were important in the pathogenesis of IOI, monozygotic twins of patients with IOI should have similar hemodynamic and autonomic abnormalities. METHODS: We studied two patients with IOI and their identical twins. Both siblings in the first twin pair had orthostatic symptoms, significant orthostatic tachycardia, increased plasma norepinephrine levels with standing, and a greater than normal decrease in systolic blood pressure with trimethaphan infusion. RESULTS: Both siblings had a normal response of plasma renin activity to upright posture. In the second twin pair, only one sibling had symptoms of orthostatic intolerance, an orthostatic tachycardia, and raised plasma catecholamines with standing. The affected sibling had inappropriately low plasma renin activity with standing and was 8-fold more sensitive to the pressor effect of phenylephrine than the unaffected sibling. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that in some patients, IOI seems to be strongly influenced by genetic factors. In others, however, IOI may be mainly caused by nongenetic factors. These findings suggest that IOI is heterogenous, and that both genetic and environmental factors contribute individually or collectively to create the IOI phenotype.

  2. Plant-plant interactions in a subtropical mangrove-to-marsh transition zone: effects of environmental drivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Krauss, Ken W.; Cormier, Nicole; Day, Richard H.; Biagas, Janelda M.; Allain, Larry K.

    2015-01-01

    Questions Does the presence of herbaceous vegetation affect the establishment success of mangrove tree species in the transition zone between subtropical coastal mangrove forests and marshes? How do plant–plant interactions in this transition zone respond to variation in two primary coastal environmental drivers? Location Subtropical coastal region of the southern United States. Methods We conducted a greenhouse study to better understand how abiotic factors affect plant species interactions in the mangrove-to-marsh transition zone, or ecotone. We manipulated salinity (fresh, brackish or salt water) and hydrologic conditions (continuously saturated or 20-cm tidal range) to simulate ecotonal environments. Propagules of the mangroves Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa were introduced to mesocosms containing an established marsh community. Both mangrove species were also introduced to containers lacking other vegetation. We monitored mangrove establishment success and survival over 22 mo. Mangrove growth was measured as stem height and above-ground biomass. Stem height, stem density and above-ground biomass of the dominant marsh species were documented. Results Establishment success of A. germinans was reduced under saturated saltwater conditions, but establishment of L. racemosa was not affected by experimental treatments. There was complete mortality of A. germinans in mesocosms under freshwater conditions, and very low survival of L. racemosa. In contrast, survival of both species in monoculture under freshwater conditions exceeded 62%. The marsh species Distichlis spicata and Eleocharis cellulosa suppressed growth of both mangroves throughout the experiment, whereas the mangroves did not affect herbaceous species growth. The magnitude of growth suppression by marsh species varied with environmental conditions; suppression was often higher in saturated compared to tidal conditions, and higher in fresh and salt water compared to

  3. Seating Position and Interaction in Triads: A Field Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, C. Harris; Stang, David J.

    1976-01-01

    Relationships between seating position, length of acquaintance between subjects, observer bias toward the experimental outcome, and interaction rates are examined in a field study. Subjects with greatest visual centrality spoke most often. Length of acquaintance between subjects was unrelated to interaction rates. (Author/DEP)

  4. A Usability Study of Interactive Web-Based Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Tulay; Pinar, Musa

    2011-01-01

    This research advances the understanding of the usability of marketing case study modules in the area of interactive web-based technologies through the assignment of seven interactive case modules in a Principles of Marketing course. The case modules were provided for marketing students by the publisher, McGraw Hill Irwin, of the…

  5. Teacher Adoption of Interactive Whiteboards: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosevear, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    This case study investigated the process of adopting and integrating interactive whiteboards into the daily practice of teachers and compared the findings to relevant theoretical models. Participants were drawn from a small international school in Damascus, Syria, where interactive whiteboards were introduced for the first time. The findings…

  6. Using Facebook Data to Analyze Learner Interaction during Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Back, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Although study abroad is viewed as an ideal environment for interaction in the target language, research in this area has relied mostly upon self-reported data, which pose challenges regarding recall bias and participant commitment. This article shows how Facebook data can be used to analyze naturally occurring learner interactions during study…

  7. SAXS studies of ion-nucleic acid interactions.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Lois

    2011-01-01

    Positively charged ions, atoms, or molecules compensate the high negative charge of the nucleic acid backbone. Their presence is critical to the biological function of DNA and RNA. This review focuses on experimental studies probing (a) interactions between small ions and nucleic acids and (b) ion-mediated interactions between nucleic acid duplexes. Experimental results on these simple model systems can be compared with specific theoretical models to validate their predictions. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) provides unique insight into these interactions. Anomalous SAXS reports the spatial correlations of condensed (e.g., locally concentrated) counterions to individual DNA or RNA duplexes. SAXS very effectively reports interactions between nucleic acid helices, which range from strongly repulsive to strongly attractive depending on the ionic species present. The sign and strength of interparticle interactions are easily deduced from dramatic changes in the scattering profiles of interacting duplexes.

  8. The Materials Used and the Pupils Involved in Environmental Studies and Environmental Science at GCE 'O' and 'A' Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayford, Christopher

    1984-01-01

    Discusses types of students and materials and resources used in O- and A-level environmental studies and environmental science courses. Indicates that these subjects are very susceptable to the attitudes of teachers (as shown by their willingness to produce satisfactory materials) and by the motivation of students. (JN)

  9. Environmental Education Curriculum Guide - K-Grade 5. [Ah-Nei, The Special Classroom Environmental Education Study Area].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Land Management (Dept. of Interior), Billings, MT.

    This is a curriculum guide for environmental education designed for use in grades K-5. While the guide is designed to be used in a Montana environmental education study area, most activities can be used directly in other locations; others can be adapted. Included are: (1) a discussion of ecological terms, (2) a list of vocabulary words, (3)…

  10. An environmental radionuclide baseline study near three Canadian naval ports

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, E.J.; Cole, D. )

    1999-07-01

    This paper summarizes an environmental radionuclide baseline study undertaken for the Department of National Defence in Canada. The purpose of the project was to establish levels of radionuclides present in the environment around areas where nuclear propelled vessels may be berthed. Specifically, this report describes environmental baselines near Halifax (Nova Scotia), Esquimalt (British Columbia), and Nanoose Bay (British Columbia). Valued ecosystem component samples were taken from dairy farms, beef producers, market gardens, vegetables, tree fruits and berries within the study areas, as well as marine bivalves (mussels and clams), salmon, seaweed, and food from native fisheries. Numerous naturally occurring isotopes were detected and quantified. The only non-naturally occurring isotope positively identified was in the form of trace quantities of [sup 131]I, measured in the Halifax study zone (attributed to local hospital cancer therapy). [sup 137]Cs is the only other anthropogenic radionuclide detected. Its origin may be the combination of fallout from the Chernobyl accident and fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. The results indicate that nuclear-powered vessels have not resulted in activity levels that would contribute a significant radiation exposure to the public, the biota, and the environment within the three study zones.

  11. Neurodevelopmental Plasticity in Pre- and Postnatal Environmental Interactions: Implications for Psychiatric Disorders from an Evolutionary Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-A; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Goto, Yukiori

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are disadvantageous behavioral phenotypes in humans. Accordingly, a recent epidemiological study has reported decreased fecundity in patients with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. Moreover, the fecundity of the relatives of these patients is not exceedingly higher compared to the fecundity of the relatives of normal subjects. Collectively, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among humans is expected to decrease over generations. Nevertheless, in reality, the prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in humans either have been constant over a long period of time or have even increased more recently. Several attempts to explain this fact have been made using biological mechanisms, such as de novo gene mutations or variants, although none of these explanations is fully comprehensive. Here, we propose a hypothesis towards understanding the biological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders from evolutionary perspectives. This hypothesis considers that behavioral phenotypes associated with psychiatric disorders might have emerged in the evolution of organisms as a neurodevelopmental adaptation against adverse environmental conditions associated with stress. PMID:26060583

  12. Neurodevelopmental Plasticity in Pre- and Postnatal Environmental Interactions: Implications for Psychiatric Disorders from an Evolutionary Perspective.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-A; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Goto, Yukiori

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are disadvantageous behavioral phenotypes in humans. Accordingly, a recent epidemiological study has reported decreased fecundity in patients with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. Moreover, the fecundity of the relatives of these patients is not exceedingly higher compared to the fecundity of the relatives of normal subjects. Collectively, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among humans is expected to decrease over generations. Nevertheless, in reality, the prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in humans either have been constant over a long period of time or have even increased more recently. Several attempts to explain this fact have been made using biological mechanisms, such as de novo gene mutations or variants, although none of these explanations is fully comprehensive. Here, we propose a hypothesis towards understanding the biological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders from evolutionary perspectives. This hypothesis considers that behavioral phenotypes associated with psychiatric disorders might have emerged in the evolution of organisms as a neurodevelopmental adaptation against adverse environmental conditions associated with stress.

  13. The fate of siderophores: antagonistic environmental interactions in exudate-mediated micronutrient uptake.

    PubMed

    Harrington, James M; Duckworth, Owen W; Haselwandter, Kurt

    2015-06-01

    Organisms acquire metals from the environment by releasing small molecules that solubilize and promote their specific uptake. The best known example of this nutrient uptake strategy is the exudation of siderophores, which are a structurally-diverse class of molecules that are traditionally viewed as being integral to iron uptake. Siderophores have been proposed to act through a variety of processes, but their effectiveness can be mitigated by a variety of chemical and physical processes of both biotic and abiotic origin. Processes that occur at the surface of minerals can degrade or sequester siderophores, preventing them from fulfilling their function of returning metals to the organism. In addition, biotic processes including enzymatic degradation of the siderophore and piracy of the metal or of the siderophore complex also disrupt iron uptake. Some organisms have adapted their nutrient acquisition strategies to address these potential pitfalls, producing multiple siderophores and other exudates that take advantage of varying kinetic and thermodynamic factors to allow the continued uptake of metals. A complete understanding of the factors that contribute to metal uptake in nature will require a concerted effort to study processes identified in laboratory systems in the context of more complicated environmental systems.

  14. Interactive effects of environmental change and management strategies on regional forest carbon emissions.

    PubMed

    Hudiburg, Tara W; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Thornton, Peter E; Law, Beverly E

    2013-11-19

    Climate mitigation activities in forests need to be quantified in terms of the long-term effects on forest carbon stocks, accumulation, and emissions. The impacts of future environmental change and bioenergy harvests on regional forest carbon storage have not been quantified. We conducted a comprehensive modeling study and life-cycle assessment of the impacts of projected changes in climate, CO2 concentration, and N deposition, and region-wide forest management policies on regional forest carbon fluxes. By 2100, if current management strategies continue, then the warming and CO2 fertilization effect in the given projections result in a 32-68% increase in net carbon uptake, overshadowing increased carbon emissions from projected increases in fire activity and other forest disturbance factors. To test the response to new harvesting strategies, repeated thinnings were applied in areas susceptible to fire to reduce mortality, and two clear-cut rotations were applied in productive forests to provide biomass for wood products and bioenergy. The management strategies examined here lead to long-term increased carbon emissions over current harvesting practices, although semiarid regions contribute little to the increase. The harvest rates were unsustainable. This comprehensive approach could serve as a foundation for regional place-based assessments of management effects on future carbon sequestration by forests in other locations.

  15. Environmental Viral Genomes Shed New Light on Virus-Host Interactions in the Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Yosuke; Watai, Hiroyasu; Honda, Takashi; Mihara, Tomoko; Omae, Kimiho; Roux, Simon; Blanc-Mathieu, Romain; Yamamoto, Keigo; Hingamp, Pascal; Sako, Yoshihiko; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Goto, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Metagenomics has revealed the existence of numerous uncharacterized viral lineages, which are referred to as viral “dark matter.” However, our knowledge regarding viral genomes is biased toward culturable viruses. In this study, we analyzed 1,600 (1,352 nonredundant) complete double-stranded DNA viral genomes (10 to 211 kb) assembled from 52 marine viromes. Together with 244 previously reported uncultured viral genomes, a genome-wide comparison delineated 617 genus-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for these environmental viral genomes (EVGs). Of these, 600 OTUs contained no representatives from known viruses, thus putatively corresponding to novel viral genera. Predicted hosts of the EVGs included major groups of marine prokaryotes, such as marine group II Euryarchaeota and SAR86, from which no viruses have been isolated to date, as well as Flavobacteriaceae and SAR116. Our analysis indicates that marine cyanophages are already well represented in genome databases and that one of the EVGs likely represents a new cyanophage lineage. Several EVGs encode many enzymes that appear to function for an efficient utilization of iron-sulfur clusters or to enhance host survival. This suggests that there is a selection pressure on these marine viruses to accumulate genes for specific viral propagation strategies. Finally, we revealed that EVGs contribute to a 4-fold increase in the recruitment of photic-zone viromes compared with the use of current reference viral genomes. IMPORTANCE Viruses are diverse and play significant ecological roles in marine ecosystems. However, our knowledge of genome-level diversity in viruses is biased toward those isolated from few culturable hosts. Here, we determined 1,352 nonredundant complete viral genomes from marine environments. Lifting the uncertainty that clouds short incomplete sequences, whole-genome-wide analysis suggests that these environmental genomes represent hundreds of putative novel viral genera. Predicted

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF OZONE DEPLETION AND ITS INTERACTIONS WITH CLIMATE CHANGE: PROGRESS REPORT 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    The measures needed for the protection of the Earth's ozone layer are decided regularly by the Parties to the Montreal Protocol. This progress report is the 2004 update by the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel.

  17. Study of the space environmental effects on spacecraft engineering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Susan K.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1995-01-01

    The space environment in which the Space Station Freedom and other space platforms will orbit is truly a hostile environment. For example, the current estimates of the integral fluence for electrons above 1 Mev at 2000 nautical miles is above 2 x 10(exp 10) electrons/sq cm/day. and the proton integral fluence is above 1 x 109 protons/sq cm/day. At the 200 - 400 nautical miles, which is more representative of the altitude which will provide the environment for the Space Station, each of these fluences will be proportionately less; however, the data indicates that the radiation environment will obviously have an effect on structural materials exposed to the environment for long durations. The effects of this combined environment is the issue which needs to be understood for the long term exposure of structures in space. In order to better understand the effect of these hostile phenomena on spacecraft, several types of studies are worth performing in order to simulate at some level the effect of the environment. For example the effect of protons and electrons impacting structural materials are easily simulated through experiments using the Van de Graff and Pelletron accelerators currently housed in the Environmental Effects Facility at MSFC. Proton fluxes with energies of 700 Kev-2.5 Mev can be generated and used to impinge on sample targets to determine the effects of the particles. Also the Environmental Effects Facility has the capability to generate electron beams with energies from 700 Kev to 2.5 Mev. These facilities will be used in this research to simulate space environmental effects from energetic particles. Ultraviolet radiation, particularly in the ultraviolet (less than 400 nm wavelength) is less well characterized at this time. The Environmental Effects Facility has a vacuum system dedicated to studying the effects of ultraviolet radiation on specific surface materials. This particular system was assembled in a previous study (NAS8-38609) in order to

  18. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

  19. [Electron microscopic study of pathogenic bacteria on environmental objects].

    PubMed

    Pavlova, I B; Lenchenko, E M

    1998-01-01

    The morphological picture of different bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Yersinia enterocolitica O3, Y.pseudotuberculosis 1, Y.frederiksenii, Y.intermedia, Y.kristensenii) on environmental objects was studied with the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Bacteria adhered to the surface of pieces of fodder, egg shell, cabbage leaves and form microcolonies, whose morphology was similar to colonies, grown on nutrient media. The cells produced extracellular substances, seen in SEM as integuments. These integuments were gourd to protect the population from the action of unfavorable factors.

  20. Fluorescence spectroscopic study on the interaction of resveratrol with lipoxygenase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, María del Carmen; Duque, Antonio Luis; Macías, Pedro

    2010-09-01

    The interaction of lipoxygenase with (E)-resveratrol was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The data obtained revealed that the quenching of intrinsic fluorescence of lipoxygenase is produced by the formation of a complex lipoxygenase-(E)-resveratrol. From the value obtained for the binding constant, according to the Stern-Volmer modified equation, was deduced the existence of static quenching mechanism and, as consequence, the existence of a strong interaction between (E)-resveratrol and lipoxygenase. The values obtained for the thermodynamic parameter Δ H (-3.58 kJ mol -1) and Δ S (87.97 J mol -1K -1) suggested the participation of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds in the stabilization of the complex ligand-protein. From the static quenching we determined that only exist one independent binding site. Based on the Förster energy transfer theory, the distance between the acceptor ((E)-resveratrol) and the donor (Trp residues of lipoxygenase) was calculated to be 3.42 nm. Finally, based on the information obtained from the evaluation of synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy, we deduced that the interaction of (E)-resveratrol with lipoxygenase produces micro-environmental and conformational alterations of protein in the binding region.

  1. Using a Web Browser for Environmental and Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. Dale; Stackhouse, Paul; Mangosing, Daniel; Smith, G. Louis

    2005-01-01

    A new web browser for viewing and manipulating meteorological data sets is located on a web server at NASA, Langley Research Center. The browser uses a live access server (LAS) developed by the Thermal Modeling and Analysis Project at NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. LAS allows researchers to interact directly with the data to view, select, and subset the data in terms of location (latitude, longitude) and time such as day, month, or year. In addition, LAS can compare two data sets and can perform averages and variances, LAS is used here to show how it functions as an internet/web browser for use by the scientific and educational community. In particular its versatility in displaying and manipulating data sets of atmospheric measurements in the earth's radiation budget (ERB) or energy balance, which includes measurements of absorbed solar radiation, reflected shortwave radiation (RSW), thermal outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation is demonstrated. These measurements are from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) experiment and the surface radiation budget (SRB) experiment.

  2. Using a Web Browser for Environmental and Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. Dale; Stackhouse, Paul; Mangosing, Daniel; Smith, G. Louis

    2002-01-01

    A new web browser for viewing and manipulating meteorological data sets is located on a web server at NASA, Langley Research Center. The browser uses a live access server (LAS) developed by the Thermal Modeling and Analysis Project at NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. LAS allows researchers to interact directly with the data to view, select, and subset the data in terms of location (latitude, longitude) and time such as day, month, or year. In addition, LAS can compare two data sets and can perform averages and variances, LAS is used here to show how it functions as an internet/web browser for use by the scientific and educational community. In particular its versatility in displaying and manipulating data sets of atmospheric measurements in the earth s radiation budget (ERB) or energy balance, which includes measurements of absorbed solar radiation, reflected shortwave radiation (RSW), thermal outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation is demonstrated. These measurements are from the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) experiment and the surface radiation budget (SRB) experiment.

  3. Influence of environmental parameters and of their interactions on the release of metal(loid)s from a construction material in hydraulic engineering.

    PubMed

    Schmukat, A; Duester, L; Goryunova, E; Ecker, D; Heininger, P; Ternes, T A

    2016-03-05

    Besides the leaching behaviour of a construction material under standardised test-specific conditions with laboratory water, for some construction materials it is advisable to test their environmental behaviour also under close to end use conditions. The envisaged end use combined with the product characteristics (e.g. mineral phases) is decisive for the choice of environmental factors that may change the release of substance that potentially cause adverse environmental effects (e.g. fertilisation or ecotoxicity). At the moment an experimental link is missing between mono-factorial standardised test systems and non standardised complex incubation experiments such as mesocosms which are closer to environmental conditions. Multi-factorial batch experiments may have the potential to close the gap. To verify this, batch experiments with copper slag were performed which is used as armour stones in hydraulic engineering. Design of experiments (DoE) was applied to evaluate the impact of pH, ionic strength, temperature and sediment content on the release of As, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn. The study shows that release and sediment-eluent partitioning of metal(loid)s are impacted by interactions between the studied factors. Under the prevalent test conditions sediment acts as a sink enhancing most strongly the release of elements from the material.

  4. Pre-operational radio-environmental studies of Plant Vogtle

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.; Sigg, R.A.

    1989-05-01

    This baseline study evaluates radioactivity in the environment near Plant Vogtle before initial reactor startup in 1987. These data will distinguish between any future radio-environmental effects from SRS and Plant Vogtle. Alpha, beta, and gamma-spectrometric methods analyzed river, stream, sediment, and soil samples. The study detected manmade radionuclides {sup 3}H, {sup 60}Co, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu. However, all concentration levels are extremely low and are consistent with levels expected from fallout and from SRS operations in its early years. The measurements begun in this study continue to be used to monitor Vogtle post-startup effluents. 12 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Lessons learned for the National Children's Study from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, Carole A; Collman, Gwen W; Fields, Nigel; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2005-10-01

    This mini-monograph was developed to highlight the experiences of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research, focusing particularly on several areas of interest for the National Children's Study. These include general methodologic issues for conducting longitudinal birth cohort studies and community-based participatory research and for measuring air pollution exposures, pesticide exposures, asthma, and neurobehavioral toxicity. Rather than a detailed description of the studies in each of the centers, this series of articles is intended to provide information on the practicalities of conducting such intensive studies and the lessons learned. This explication of lessons learned provides an outstanding opportunity for the planners of the National Children's Study to draw on past experiences that provide information on what has and has not worked when studying diverse multiracial and multiethnic groups of children with unique urban and rural exposures. The Children's Centers have addressed and overcome many hurdles in their efforts to understand the link between environmental exposures and health outcomes as well as interactions between exposures and a variety of social and cultural factors. Some of the major lessons learned include the critical importance of long-term studies for assessing the full range of developmental consequences of environmental exposures, recognition of the unique challenges presented at different life stages for both outcome and exposure measurement, and the importance of ethical issues that must be dealt with in a changing medical and legal environment. It is hoped that these articles will be of value to others who are embarking on studies of children's environmental health.

  6. A Study of the Environmental Risk Perceptions and Environmental Awareness Levels of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anilan, Burcu

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive research was conducted to determine the levels of environmental risk perceptions and environmental awareness of high school students in Eskisehir. High school students in the towns Tepebasi and Odunpazari in the 2010-2011 school years constitute the universe of the research. The sample of the research is composed of 413 high…

  7. Eye-based Direct Interaction for Environmental Control in Heterogeneous Smart Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corno, Fulvio; Gale, Alastair; Majaranta, Päivi; Räihä, Kari-Jouko

    environmental control is the control, operation, and monitoring of an environment via intermediary technology such as a computer. Typically this means control of a domestic home.Within the scope of COGAIN, this environmental control concerns the control of the personal environment of a person (with or without a disability). This defines environmental control as the control of a home or domestic setting and those objects that are within that setting. Thus, we may say that environmental control systems enable anyone to operate a wide range of domestic appliances and other vital functions in the home by remote control. In recent years the problem of self-sufficiency for older people and people with a disability has attracted increasing attention and resources. The search for new solutions that can guarantee greater autonomy and a better quality of life has begun to exploit easily available state-of-the-art technology. Personal environmental control can be considered to be a comprehensive and effective aid, adaptable to the functional possibilities of the user and to their desired actions.

  8. Use of time to pregnancy to study environmental exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, D.D.; Wilcox, A.J.; Weinberg, C.R.

    1986-09-01

    There is need in reproductive epidemiology for sensitive and convenient screening tools that can be used to study environmental and occupational exposures. The measurement of fecundability (the probability of pregnancy in each cycle) by ascertaining how long it takes couples to conceive, may be useful for this purpose. Theoretically, exposures that interfere with any of the biologic processes involved in achieving pregnancy could lower fecundability among exposed men or women. To evaluate problems with collecting data on time to pregnancy, telephone interviews were conducted with nearly 700 pregnant women who reported having planned their pregnancies. Power curves were developed based on the distribution of time to pregnancy in the interviewed population. These curves indicate that relatively small sample sizes are sufficient for investigating an exposure. For example, the authors estimate that to detect a given 50% drop in mean fecundability with 80% power would require data from 55 exposed and 55 unexposed women who are pregnant. Disadvantages of using time to pregnancy as a reproductive endpoint include susceptibility to selection bias and need for data on several potential confounding variables. The next step in evaluating time to pregnancy as a reproductive endpoint is to apply it in studies of environmental or occupational exposures.

  9. Ecotoxicology of glutaraldehyde: review of environmental fate and effects studies.

    PubMed

    Leung, H W

    2001-05-01

    Glutaraldehyde is a biocide used in many industrial applications with potential releases to the environment. This review discusses the environmental fate and effects data on this important biocide. Information drawn from this review indicates that glutaraldehyde is acutely toxic to aquatic organisms. Glutaraldehyde is equally toxic to warm water and cold water fish, but is slightly more toxic to freshwater fish than salt water fish. The acute toxicity of glutaraldehyde for avian species is comparable to that for mammalian species. The toxicity of glutaraldehyde is not appreciably increased with repeated long-term exposures. Results from environmental partitioning studies indicate that glutaraldehyde tends to remain in the aquatic compartment and has little tendency to bioaccumulate. Aqueous solutions of glutaraldehyde are stable at room temperature under acidic to neutral conditions, and to sunlight, but unstable at elevated temperatures, and under alkaline conditions. Glutaraldehyde is readily biodegradable in the freshwater environment and has the potential to biodegrade in the marine environment. Aquatic metabolism studies suggest that glutaraldehyde, under aerobic conditions, is metabolized to CO(2) via glutaric acid as an intermediate. Under anaerobic conditions, glutaraldehyde is metabolized to 1,5-pentanediol. Pretreatment with sodium bisulfite is the best method for inactivating glutaraldehyde prior to disposal to treatment systems.

  10. 3M corporate incinerator environmental monitoring study and risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.B.; Elnabarawy, M.T.; Pilney, J.

    1998-12-31

    A one-year multi-media environmental monitoring study was performed around the 3M Cottage Grove Facility. Particulate metals from the 3M Corporate hazardous waste incinerator were the focus of the study. Two environmental media were of primary interest: area soil sampling was conducted to investigate the impact of past incinerator emissions on the environment, and ambient air monitoring was conducted to address current impacts. Over 180 soil samples were taken from both agricultural and forested land in the vicinity of the Facility. More than 25 chemical parameters were then quantified in the samples. The potential impacts of past emissions from the incinerator were assessed by comparing chemical concentrations from locations where incinerator impacts were expected to be greatest (based on air dispersion modeling) to chemical concentrations in matched samples from sites expected to be least impacted. The ambient air monitoring network consisted of six stations. Source-receptor modeling was used to determine the most likely contribution of the incinerator and six additional major area sources for the air monitoring (i.e. filter) data at each station. The model provided a best-fit analysis regarding the likely contributions of each source to the sample results. The results of these evaluations lead to the conclusion that the current emissions from this Facility do not present an unacceptable risk to human health.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM CASE STUDIES: DEMONSTRATING PROGRAM OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This bookle...

  12. Environmental Technology Verification Program - ETV - Case Studies: Demonstrating Program Outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This cd con...

  13. The Role of Field Study in Humanistic and Interdisciplinary Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alagona, Peter S.; Simon, Gregory L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that field courses can improve college students' interest and engagement not only in the environmental sciences, but also in the environmental humanities--including environmental history, philosophy, and literature. We base this argument on five years of experience teaching an environmental studies field course through the…

  14. Environmental Literacy among Preservice Social Studies Teachers: A Review of the Nigerian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunyemi, Biodun; Ifegbesan, Ayodeji

    2011-01-01

    This mini-survey assessed the environmental literacy level of preservice teachers in a Nigerian university through 199 social studies teacher-trainees. It found a high level of awareness/knowledge on local environmental problems but low level on global environmental issues. Although a positive disposition toward environmental issues was…

  15. Prediction of Disease-Related Interactions between MicroRNAs and Environmental Factors Based on a Semi-Supervised Classifier

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xing; Liu, Ming-Xi; Cui, Qing-Hua; Yan, Gui-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Accumulated evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) can functionally interact with a number of environmental factors (EFs) and their interactions critically affect phenotypes and diseases. Therefore, in-silico inference of disease-related miRNA-EF interactions is becoming crucial not only for the understanding of the mechanisms by which miRNAs and EFs contribute to disease, but also for disease diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. In this paper, we analyzed the human miRNA-EF interaction data and revealed that miRNAs (EFs) with similar functions tend to interact with similar EFs (miRNAs) in the context of a given disease, which suggests a potential way to expand the current relation space of miRNAs, EFs, and diseases. Based on this observation, we further proposed a semi-supervised classifier based method (miREFScan) to predict novel disease-related interactions between miRNAs and EFs. As a result, the leave-one-out cross validation has shown that miREFScan obtained an AUC of 0.9564, indicating that miREFScan has a reliable performance. Moreover, we applied miREFScan to predict acute promyelocytic leukemia-related miRNA-EF interactions. The result shows that forty-nine of the top 1% predictions have been confirmed by experimental literature. In addition, using miREFScan we predicted and publicly released novel miRNA-EF interactions for 97 human diseases. Finally, we believe that miREFScan would be a useful bioinformatic resource for the research about the relationships among miRNAs, EFs, and human diseases. PMID:22937049

  16. Development and validation of a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic method for determination of aromatic amines in environmental water.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruiping; Zhang, Yi; Lee, Charles C; Lu, Rongrong; Huang, Yingping

    2010-03-12

    A simple, precise, and accurate hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic (HILIC) method has been developed for the determination of five aromatic amines in environmental water samples. Chromatography was carried out on a bare silica column, using a mixture of acetonitrile and a buffer of NaH(2)PO(4)-H(3)PO(4) (pH 1.5, containing 10mM NaH(2)PO(4)) (85:15, v/v) as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL min(-1). Aromatic amines were detected by UV absorbance at 254 nm. The linear range of amines was good (r(2)>0.998) and limit of detection (LOD) within 0.02-0.2 mg L(-1) (S/N=3). The retention mechanism for the analytes under the optimum conditions was determined to be a combination of adsorption, partition and ionic interactions. The proposed method was applied to the environmental water samples. Aromatic amines were isolated from aqueous samples using solid-phase extraction (SPE) with Oasis HLB cartridges. Recoveries of greater than 75% with precision (RSD) less than 12% were obtained at amine concentrations of 5-50 microg L(-1) from 100mL river water and influents from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The present HILIC technique proved to be a viable method for the analysis of aromatic amines in the environmental water samples.

  17. Satellite Imaging in the Study of Pennsylvania's Environmental Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nous, Albert P.

    This document focuses on using satellite images from space in the classroom. There are two types of environmental satellites routinely broadcasting: (1) Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES), and (2) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). Imaging and visualization techniques provide students with a better…

  18. Consilient Research Approaches in Studying Gene x Environment Interactions in Alcohol Research

    PubMed Central

    Sher, Kenneth J.; Dick, Danielle M.; Crabbe, John C.; Hutchison, Kent E.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    This review article discusses the importance of identifying gene-environment interactions for understanding the etiology and course of alcohol use disorders and related conditions. A number of critical challenges are discussed including the fact that there is no organizing typology for classifying different types of environmental exposures, many key human environmental risk factors for alcohol dependence have no clear equivalents in other species, much of the genetic variance of alcohol dependence in human is not “alcohol specific”, and the potential range of gene-environment interactions that could be considered is so vast that maintaining statistical control of Type 1 errors is a daunting task. Despite these and other challenges, there appears to be a number of promising approaches that could be taken in order to achieve consilience and ecologically valid translation between human alcohol dependence and animal models. Foremost among these is to distinguish environmental exposures that are thought to have enduring effects on alcohol use motivation (and self-regulation) from situational environmental exposures that facilitate the expression of such motivations but do not, by themselves, have enduring effects. In order to enhance consilience, various domains of human approach motivation should be considered so that relevant environmental exposures can be sampled as well as the appropriate species to study them in (i.e., where such motivations are ecologically relevant). Foremost among these are social environments which are central to the initiation and escalation of human alcohol consumption. The value of twin studies, human laboratory studies, and pharmacogenetic studies is also highlighted. PMID:20148780

  19. Experimental studies of pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics carried out at New Mexico State University in 1991 under a great from the US Department of Energy. Most of these studies have involved investigations of various pion-nucleus interactions. The work has been carried out both with the LAMPF accelerator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and with the cyclotron at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) near Zurich, Switzerland. Part of the experimental work involves measurements of new data on double-charge-exchange scattering, using facilities at LAMPF which we helped modify, and on pion absorption, using a new detector system at PSI that covers nearly the full solid-angle region which we helped construct. Other work involved preparation for future experiments using polarized nuclear targets and a new high-resolution spectrometer system for detecting {pi}{sup 0} mesons. We also presented several proposals for works to be done in future years, involving studies related to pi-mesonic atoms, fundamental pion-nucleon interactions, studies of the difference between charged and neutral pion interactions with the nucleon, studies of the isospin structure of pion-nucleus interactions, and pion scattering from polarized {sup 3}He targets. This work is aimed at improving our understanding of the pion-nucleon interaction, of the pion-nucleus interaction mechanism, and of nuclear structure.

  20. Speciation of cisplatin in environmental water samples by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vidmar, Janja; Martinčič, Anže; Milačič, Radmila; Ščančar, Janez

    2015-06-01

    Cisplatin is still widely used for treatment of numerous types of tumours. Different speciation methods have been applied to study behaviour of the intact drug and its individual biotransformation species in various clinical samples. These methods are mainly based on electrophoresis, size exclusion (SEC) or ion chromatography (IC) techniques coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), which is a common technique for separation of polar substances, was rarely applied for separation of cisplatin and its hydrolysed metabolites. There is also a lack of information available on the occurrence of cisplatin and its hydrolysed complexes in the environmental waters. In the present study the concentrations of Pt were determined in hospital wastewaters by ICP-MS. A procedure for separation of cisplatin and its aqueous hydrolysed complexes by the use of HILIC column was optimized. Quantification of separated Pt species was performed by isotope dilution (ID)-ICP-MS procedure. Low limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were obtained for cisplatin and its hydrolysed complexes ranging from 0.0273 to 0.1726 ng Pt/mL and from 0.0909 to 0.5753 ng Pt/mL, respectively. Good repeatability of the procedure with relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than ±2.3% was obtained. The column recoveries, which ranged from 95 to 101%, indicated that the procedure developed enabled quantitative speciation analysis of aqueous cisplatin complexes. The ZIC-HILIC-ID-ICP-MS procedure was successfully applied in speciation of cisplatin in spiked hospital wastewater samples.

  1. Environmental factors influencing older adults’ walking for transportation: a study using walk-along interviews

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Current knowledge on the relationship between the physical environment and walking for transportation among older adults (≥ 65 years) is limited. Qualitative research can provide valuable information and inform further research. However, qualitative studies are scarce and fail to include neighborhood outings necessary to study participants’ experiences and perceptions while interacting with and interpreting the local social and physical environment. The current study sought to uncover the perceived environmental influences on Flemish older adults’ walking for transportation. To get detailed and context-sensitive environmental information, it used walk-along interviews. Methods Purposeful convenience sampling was used to recruit 57 older adults residing in urban or semi-urban areas. Walk-along interviews to and from a destination (e.g. a shop) located within a 15 minutes’ walk from the participants’ home were conducted. Content analysis was performed using NVivo 9 software (QSR International). An inductive approach was used to derive categories and subcategories from the data. Results Data were categorized in the following categories and subcategories: access to facilities (shops & services, public transit, connectivity), walking facilities (sidewalk quality, crossings, legibility, benches), traffic safety (busy traffic, behavior of other road users), familiarity, safety from crime (physical factors, other persons), social contacts, aesthetics (buildings, natural elements, noise & smell, openness, decay) and weather. Conclusions The findings indicate that to promote walking for transportation a neighborhood should provide good access to shops and services, well-maintained walking facilities, aesthetically appealing places, streets with little traffic and places for social interaction. In addition, the neighborhood environment should evoke feelings of familiarity and safety from crime. Future quantitative studies should investigate if (changes

  2. The pragmatics of therapeutic interaction: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Lepper, Georgia

    2009-10-01

    The research reported in this article aims to demonstrate a method for the systematic study of the therapist/patient interaction in psychoanalytic psychotherapy, drawing upon the tradition and methods of 'pragmatics'--the study of language in interaction. A brief introduction to the discipline of pragmatics demonstrates its relevance to the contemporary focus of clinical theory on the here-and-now dynamics of the relationship between analyst and patient. This is followed by a detailed study of five segments from the transcript of a therapeutic dialogue, drawn from a brief psychoanalytic psychotherapy, in which therapist and patient negotiate the meaning of the patient's symptom: Is it psychosomatic? The research seeks to show how the therapeutic process can be observed and studied as an interactional achievement, grounded in general and well-studied procedures through which meaning is intersubjectively developed and shared. Implications of the analysis for clinical theory and practice, and further research, are discussed.

  3. Integration of environmental simulation models with satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems technologies: case studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steyaert, Louis T.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Brown, Jesslyn F.; Reed, Bradley C.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental modelers are testing and evaluating a prototype land cover characteristics database for the conterminous United States developed by the EROS Data Center of the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Nebraska Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies. This database was developed from multi temporal, 1-kilometer advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data for 1990 and various ancillary data sets such as elevation, ecological regions, and selected climatic normals. Several case studies using this database were analyzed to illustrate the integration of satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems technologies with land-atmosphere interactions models at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. The case studies are representative of contemporary environmental simulation modeling at local to regional levels in global change research, land and water resource management, and environmental simulation modeling at local to regional levels in global change research, land and water resource management and environmental risk assessment. The case studies feature land surface parameterizations for atmospheric mesoscale and global climate models; biogenic-hydrocarbons emissions models; distributed parameter watershed and other hydrological models; and various ecological models such as ecosystem, dynamics, biogeochemical cycles, ecotone variability, and equilibrium vegetation models. The case studies demonstrate the important of multi temporal AVHRR data to develop to develop and maintain a flexible, near-realtime land cover characteristics database. Moreover, such a flexible database is needed to derive various vegetation classification schemes, to aggregate data for nested models, to develop remote sensing algorithms, and to provide data on dynamic landscape characteristics. The case studies illustrate how such a database supports research on spatial heterogeneity, land use, sensitivity analysis, and scaling issues

  4. Diversity and interactions of microbial functional genes under differing environmental conditions: insights from a membrane bioreactor and an oxidation ditch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yu; Hu, Man; Wen, Xianghua; Wang, Xiaohui; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    The effect of environmental conditions on the diversity and interactions of microbial communities has caused tremendous interest in microbial ecology. Here, we found that with identical influents but differing operational parameters (mainly mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) concentrations, solid retention time (SRT) and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations), two full-scale municipal wastewater treatment systems applying oxidation ditch (OD) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) processes harbored a majority of shared genes (87.2%) but had different overall functional gene structures as revealed by two datasets of 12-day time-series generated by a functional gene array-GeoChip 4.2. Association networks of core carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling genes in each system based on random matrix theory (RMT) showed different topological properties and the MBR nodes showed an indication of higher connectivity. MLSS and DO were shown to be effective in shaping functional gene structures of the systems by statistical analyses. Higher MLSS concentrations resulting in decreased resource availability of the MBR system were thought to promote positive interactions of important functional genes. Together, these findings show the differences of functional potentials of some bioprocesses caused by differing environmental conditions and suggest that higher stress of resource limitation increased positive gene interactions in the MBR system.

  5. Diversity and interactions of microbial functional genes under differing environmental conditions: insights from a membrane bioreactor and an oxidation ditch

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yu; Hu, Man; Wen, Xianghua; Wang, Xiaohui; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    The effect of environmental conditions on the diversity and interactions of microbial communities has caused tremendous interest in microbial ecology. Here, we found that with identical influents but differing operational parameters (mainly mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) concentrations, solid retention time (SRT) and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations), two full-scale municipal wastewater treatment systems applying oxidation ditch (OD) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) processes harbored a majority of shared genes (87.2%) but had different overall functional gene structures as revealed by two datasets of 12-day time-series generated by a functional gene array-GeoChip 4.2. Association networks of core carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling genes in each system based on random matrix theory (RMT) showed different topological properties and the MBR nodes showed an indication of higher connectivity. MLSS and DO were shown to be effective in shaping functional gene structures of the systems by statistical analyses. Higher MLSS concentrations resulting in decreased resource availability of the MBR system were thought to promote positive interactions of important functional genes. Together, these findings show the differences of functional potentials of some bioprocesses caused by differing environmental conditions and suggest that higher stress of resource limitation increased positive gene interactions in the MBR system. PMID:26743465

  6. Analytical evaluation of laboratories wishing to perform environmental characterization studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lauenstein, G.G.; Cantillo, A.Y.

    1997-07-01

    Laboratories competing to analyze bivalve mollusks under contract to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration`s Mussel Watch Project were required to undergo analytical tests of their ability to quantify environmental contaminants as part of the contract evaluation process. During the 1989 selection process laboratories that appeared to qualify on the basis of their written proposals were provided a gravimetrically prepared solution with unknown quantities of an undefined number of organic contaminants that are regularly quantified for the Mussel Watch Project. In 1994, competing laboratories were once again tested but this time using matrix materials for the quantification of both trace elements and organic contaminants. Three laboratory groups participated in the exercises. For the 1989 gravimetrically prepared solutions, all participating laboratories were able to identify the contaminants present and in all but two cases were able to report values to within {+-}25% of the known values. In 1994, all laboratories were within the acceptance criteria for the quantification of trace elements in the homogenate sample. Analytical laboratory testing is an important first step to ensure that environmental characterization studies are successful.

  7. Environmental stability study of holographic solar spectrum splitting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysler, Benjamin D.; Ayala Pelaez, Silvana; Wu, Yuechen; Vorndran, Shelby D.; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2016-09-01

    In this study the impact of outdoor temperature variations and solar illumination exposure on spectral filter material and holographic optical elements is examined. Although holographic components have been shown to be useful for solar spectrum splitting designs, relatively little quantitative data exist to demonstrate the extent to which these materials can withstand outdoor conditions. As researchers seek to investigate practical spectrum splitting designs, the environmental stability of holographic materials should be considered as an important factor. In the experiment presented, two holographic materials, Covestro Bayfol HX photopolymer and dichromated gelatin, and 3M reflective polymer filter materials are exposed to outdoor conditions for a period of several months. The environmental effect on absorption, spectral and angular bandwidth, peak efficiency, and Bragg matching conditions for the holograms are examined. Spectral bandwidth and transmittance of the 3M reflective filter material are also monitored. Holographic gratings are recorded, measured, and mounted on glass substrates and then sealed with a glass cover plate. The test samples are then mounted on a photovoltaic panel to simulate realistic temperature conditions and placed at an outdoor test facility in Tucson, Arizona. A duplicate set of holograms and 3M filter material is stored as a control group and periodically compared over the test period.

  8. Electrochemical photodegradation study of semiconductor pigments: influence of environmental parameters.

    PubMed

    Anaf, Willemien; Trashin, Stanislav; Schalm, Olivier; van Dorp, Dennis; Janssens, Koen; De Wael, Karolien

    2014-10-07

    Chemical transformations in paintings often induce discolorations, disturbing the appearance of the image. For an appropriate conservation of such valuable and irreplaceable heritage objects, it is important to have a good know-how on the degradation processes of the (historical) materials: which pigments have been discolored, what are the responsible processes, and which (environmental) conditions have the highest impact on the pigment degradation and should be mitigated. Pigment degradation is already widely studied, either by analyzing historical samples or by accelerated weathering experiments on dummies. However, in historic samples several processes may have taken place, increasing the complexity of the current state, while aging experiments are time-consuming due to the often extended aging period. An alternative method is proposed for a fast monitoring of degradation processes of semiconductor pigments, using an electrochemical setup mimicking the real environment and allowing the identification of harmful environmental parameters for each pigment. Examples are given for the pigments cadmium yellow (CdS) and vermilion (α-HgS).

  9. Space Operations Center, shuttle interaction study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The implication of using the Shuttle with the SOC, including constraints that the Shuttle places upon the SOC design is studied. The considerations involved in the use of the Shuttle as a part of the SOC concept, and the constraints to the SOC imposed by the Shuttle in its interactions with the SOC, and on the design or technical solutions which allow satisfactory accomplishment of the interactions are identified.

  10. Membrane–drug interactions studied using model membrane systems

    PubMed Central

    Knobloch, Jacqueline; Suhendro, Daniel K.; Zieleniecki, Julius L.; Shapter, Joseph G.; Köper, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    The direct interaction of drugs with the cell membrane is often neglected when drug effects are studied. Systematic investigations are hindered by the complexity of the natural membrane and model membrane systems can offer a useful alternative. Here some examples are reviewed of how model membrane architectures including vesicles, Langmuir monolayers and solid supported membranes can be used to investigate the effects of drug molecules on the membrane structure, and how these interactions can translate into effects on embedded membrane proteins. PMID:26586998

  11. Environmental heterogeneity generates opposite gene-by-environment interactions for two fitness-related traits within a population.

    PubMed

    Culumber, Zachary W; Schumer, Molly; Monks, Scott; Tobler, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Theory predicts that environmental heterogeneity offers a potential solution to the maintenance of genetic variation within populations, but empirical evidence remains sparse. The live-bearing fish Xiphophorus variatus exhibits polymorphism at a single locus, with different alleles resulting in up to five distinct melanistic "tailspot" patterns within populations. We investigated the effects of heterogeneity in two ubiquitous environmental variables (temperature and food availability) on two fitness-related traits (upper thermal limits and body condition) in two different tailspot types (wild-type and upper cut crescent). We found gene-by-environment (G × E) interactions between tailspot type and food level affecting upper thermal limits (UTL), as well as between tailspot type and thermal environment affecting body condition. Exploring mechanistic bases underlying these G × E patterns, we found no differences between tailspot types in hsp70 gene expression despite significant overall increases in expression under both thermal and food stress. Similarly, there was no difference in routine metabolic rates between the tailspot types. The reversal of relative performance of the two tailspot types under different environmental conditions revealed a mechanism by which environmental heterogeneity can balance polymorphism within populations through selection on different fitness-related traits.

  12. A Model Supported Interactive Virtual Environment for Natural Resource Sharing in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbalios, N.; Ioannidou, I.; Tzionas, P.; Paraskeuopoulos, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a realistic 3D model supported virtual environment for environmental education, that highlights the importance of water resource sharing by focusing on the tragedy of the commons dilemma. The proposed virtual environment entails simulations that are controlled by a multi-agent simulation model of a real ecosystem consisting…

  13. Thermoregulatory responses to environmental toxicants: The interaction of thermal stress and toxicant exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, Lisa R.

    2008-11-15

    Thermal stress can have a profound impact on the physiological responses that are elicited following environmental toxicant exposure. The efficacy by which toxicants enter the body is directly influenced by thermoregulatory effector responses that are evoked in response to high ambient temperatures. In mammals, the thermoregulatory response to heat stress consists of an increase in skin blood flow and moistening of the skin surface to dissipate core heat to the environment. These physiological responses may exacerbate chemical toxicity due to increased permeability of the skin, which facilitates the cutaneous absorption of many environmental toxicants. The core temperature responses that are elicited in response to high ambient temperatures, toxicant exposure or both can also have a profound impact on the ability of an organism to survive the insult. In small rodents, the thermoregulatory response to thermal stress and many environmental toxicants (such as organophosphate compounds) is often biphasic in nature, consisting initially of a regulated reduction in core temperature (i.e., hypothermia) followed by fever. Hypothermia is an important thermoregulatory survival strategy that is used by small rodents to diminish the effect of severe environmental insults on tissue homeostasis. The protective effect of hypothermia is realized by its effects on chemical toxicity as molecular and cellular processes, such as lipid peroxidation and the formation of reactive oxygen species, are minimized at reduced core temperatures. The beneficial effects of fever are unknown under these conditions. Perspective is provided on the applicability of data obtained in rodent models to the human condition.

  14. Energy & Environmental Issues Interactive CD-ROM. Version 2.0. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee.

    This CD-ROM presents various energy and environmental topics. "Great Energy Debate" uses video clips to explore the pros and cons of solar, coal, nuclear, and oil energy sources. "Energy Plant Tour" presents a virtual tour through a plant that converts solid waste into energy. "How Stuff Works" explains energy…

  15. Fear Perceptions in Public Parks: Interactions of Environmental Concealment, the Presence of People Recreating, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Lisa J.; Ellis, Gary D.; Ruddell, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the effect of concealment (environmental cues), presence or absence of people recreating (social cues), and gender on individuals' fear of crime in a community park setting. Using a 7-point single-item indicator, 732 participants from two samples (540 park visitors and 192 college students) rated their estimates of fear of…

  16. Thermoregulatory responses to environmental toxicants: the interaction of thermal stress and toxicant exposure.

    PubMed

    Leon, Lisa R

    2008-11-15

    Thermal stress can have a profound impact on the physiological responses that are elicited following environmental toxicant exposure. The efficacy by which toxicants enter the body is directly influenced by thermoregulatory effector responses that are evoked in response to high ambient temperatures. In mammals, the thermoregulatory response to heat stress consists of an increase in skin blood flow and moistening of the skin surface to dissipate core heat to the environment. These physiological responses may exacerbate chemical toxicity due to increased permeability of the skin, which facilitates the cutaneous absorption of many environmental toxicants. The core temperature responses that are elicited in response to high ambient temperatures, toxicant exposure or both can also have a profound impact on the ability of an organism to survive the insult. In small rodents, the thermoregulatory response to thermal stress and many environmental toxicants (such as organophosphate compounds) is often biphasic in nature, consisting initially of a regulated reduction in core temperature (i.e., hypothermia) followed by fever. Hypothermia is an important thermoregulatory survival strategy that is used by small rodents to diminish the effect of severe environmental insults on tissue homeostasis. The protective effect of hypothermia is realized by its effects on chemical toxicity as molecular and cellular processes, such as lipid peroxidation and the formation of reactive oxygen species, are minimized at reduced core temperatures. The beneficial effects of fever are unknown under these conditions. Perspective is provided on the applicability of data obtained in rodent models to the human condition.

  17. Structural Stability, Transitions, and Interactions within SoxYZCD-Thiosulphate from Sulfurimonas denitrificans: An In Silico Molecular Outlook for Maintaining Environmental Sulphur Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Arundhati

    2016-01-01

    Thiosulphate oxidation (an essential mechanism) serves to maintain the global sulphur cycle. Earlier experimental and computational studies dealt with environmental thiosulphate oxidation but none dealt with thiosulphate oxidation from deep ocean belts. Wet-laboratory experimental research shows that epsilon-proteobacteria Sulfurimonas denitrificans possess sox (sulphur-oxidizing) operon and perform thiosulphate oxidation efficiently underneath the oceans. From this specific sox operon, SoxCD complex recycles the thiosulphate-bound SoxY from SoxYZ complex to balance the environmental sulphur cycle. So, four chief proteins were variedly modeled and relevant simulated interactive structures were obtained. The final simulated tetraprotein complex (SoxYZCD) from docked SoxYZ and SoxCD complexes was disclosed to be a highly interactive one with predominant ionic residues. Free energy of folding, solvent accessibility, and conformational shifts (coil-like conformation to helices and sheets) were observed in SoxYZ complex after interacting with SoxCD. The stability of the complex (SoxYZCD) after simulation was also observed through the electrostatic surface potential values. These evaluations were rationalized via biostatistics. This aids SoxCD for recycling SoxY along with thiosulphate, which remains interconnected by four H-bonds with SoxY. Therefore, this novel exploration is endowed with the detailed molecular viewpoint for maintaining the sulphur cycle (globally) including the ocean belts. PMID:27777586

  18. Gender interaction in coed physical education: a study in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Koca, Canan

    2009-01-01

    Although there has been a long-standing debate about whether a single-sex or mixed-sex environment is better for students in many Western countries, coeducation is one of the taken-for-granted issues in the modern Turkish education system. This study examined commonly expressed concerns about gender equity in a mixed-sex environment within the context of physical education (PE) in Turkey. The purpose of the study was to examine teacher-student interaction in the coed PE classroom, focusing on gender-stereotyped beliefs. Participants consisted of two PE teachers and 37 eighth-grade students from a private school situated in suburban Ankara Turkey. The modified observational instrument with the combination of Teacher-Student Interaction (TSI) and Interactions for Sex Equity in Classroom Teaching Observation System (INTERSECT) was used to assess teacher-student interaction in the classroom. In order to understand students' and teachers' gender-stereotyped beliefs, individual interviews were also conducted. The findings of this study indicated that both male and female PE teachers interact more frequently with boys, and this interaction was influenced by gender-stereotyped beliefs of both teachers and students. In sum, similar to many other western countries, the movement toward coeducation in Turkey has not automatically brought equal opportunities for girls or boys in PE.

  19. Potential drug interactions with statins: Estonian register-based study

    PubMed Central

    Volmer, Daisy; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Zharkovsky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In Estonia, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are widely used to modify lipid levels but there are no current data on additional medicines prescribed alongside the statins. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of potential clinically relevant interactions at a national level among an outpatient population treated with statins between January and June 2008, based on the prescription database of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund. This retrospective prevalence study included 203,646 outpatients aged 50 years or older, of whom 29,367 received statin therapy. The study analysed individuals who had used at least one prescription medicine for a minimum of 7 days concomitantly with statins. Potential drug interactions were analysed using Epocrates online, Stockley’s Drug Interactions, and the drug interaction database developed in Estonia. Statins metabolised by the CYP3A4 isoenzyme were prescribed to 64% of all statin users. Medicines known to have potentially clinically significant interactions with statins were prescribed to 4.6% of patients. The drugs prescribed concomitantly most often with simvastatin were warfarin (5.7%) and amiodarone (3.9%), whereas digoxin (1.2%) and ethinylestradiol (2%) were prescribed with atorvastatin. Potential interactions were not detected in the treatment regimens of rosuvastatin, pravastatin, and fluvastatin users. PMID:28352703

  20. A Genome-wide Trans-ethnic Interaction Study Links the PIGR ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Air pollution is a worldwide contributor to cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity. Traffic air pollution is a ubiquitous source of air pollution in developed nations, and is associated with multiple cardiovascular outcomes such as: coronary atherosclerosis, peripheral arterial disease, and myocardial infarction. Despite the recognition of the importance of both genetic and environmental exposures to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, studies of these two contributors jointly are rare. We performed a genome-wide interaction study (GWIS) to examine gene-traffic exposure interactions associated with coronary atherosclerosis. Using race-stratified cohorts of 554 African-Americans (AA) and 1623 European-Americans (EA) from a cardiac catheterization cohort (CATHGEN), we identify gene-by-traffic exposure interactions associated with the number of significantly diseased coronary vessels as a measure of chronic atherosclerosis. We found five suggestive (P<1x10-5) interactions in the AA GWIS, of which two (rs1856746 and rs2791713) replicated in the EA cohort (P < 0.05). Both SNPs are in the PIGR-FCAMR locus and are eQTLs in lymphocytes. The protein products of both PIGR and FCAMR are implicated in inflammatory processes. In the EA GWIS, there were three suggestive interactions; none of these replicated in the AA GWIS. All three were intergenic; the most significant interaction was in a regulatory region associated with SAMSN1, a gene previously associate

  1. Persistent Environmental Pollutants and Couple Fecundity: The LIFE Study

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Sweeney, Anne M.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Gore-Langton, Robert E.; Maisog, José; Kim, Sungduk; Chen, Zhen; Barr, Dana B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggesting that persistent environmental pollutants may be reproductive toxicants underscores the need for prospective studies of couples for whom exposures are measured. Objectives: We examined the relationship between selected persistent pollutants and couple fecundity as measured by time to pregnancy. Methods: A cohort of 501 couples who discontinued contraception to become pregnant was prospectively followed for 12 months of trying to conceive or until a human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) test confirmed pregnancy. Couples completed daily journals on lifestyle and provided biospecimens for the quantification of 9 organochlorine pesticides, 1 polybrominated biphenyl, 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers, 36 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 7 perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in serum. Using Cox models for discrete time, we estimated fecundability odds ratios (FORs) and 95% CIs separately for each partner’s concentrations adjusting for age, body mass index, serum cotinine, serum lipids (except for PFCs), and study site (Michigan or Texas); sensitivity models were further adjusted for left truncation or time off of contraception (≤ 2 months) before enrollment. Results: The adjusted reduction in fecundability associated with standard deviation increases in log-transformed serum concentrations ranged between 18% and 21% for PCB congeners 118, 167, 209, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide in females; and between 17% and 29% for p,p´-DDE and PCB congeners 138, 156, 157, 167, 170, 172, and 209 in males. The strongest associations were observed for PCB 167 (FOR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.64, 0.97) in females and PCB 138 (FOR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.98) in males. Conclusions: In this couple-based prospective cohort study with preconception enrollment and quantification of exposures in both female and male partners, we observed that a subset of persistent environmental chemicals were associated with reduced fecundity. PMID:23151773

  2. A novel gas-vacuum interface for environmental molecular beam studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Sofia M.; Kong, Xiangrui; Papagiannakopoulos, Panos; Thomson, Erik S.; Pettersson, Jan B. C.

    2017-03-01

    Molecular beam techniques are commonly used to obtain detailed information about reaction dynamics and kinetics of gas-surface interactions. These experiments are traditionally performed in vacuum and the dynamic state of surfaces under ambient conditions is thereby excluded from detailed studies. Herein we describe the development and demonstration of a new vacuum-gas interface that increases the accessible pressure range in environmental molecular beam (EMB) experiments. The interface consists of a grating close to a macroscopically flat surface, which allows for experiments at pressures above 1 Pa including angularly resolved measurements of the emitted flux. The technique is successfully demonstrated using key molecular beam experiments including elastic helium and inelastic water scattering from graphite, helium and light scattering from condensed adlayers, and water interactions with a liquid 1-butanol surface. The method is concluded to extend the pressure range and flexibility in EMB studies with implications for investigations of high pressure interface phenomena in diverse fields including catalysis, nanotechnology, environmental science, and life science. Potential further improvements of the technique are discussed.

  3. Inbreeding depression increases with environmental stress: an experimental study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fox, Charles W; Reed, David H

    2011-01-01

    Inbreeding-environment interactions occur when inbreeding leads to differential fitness loss in different environments. Inbred individuals are often more sensitive to environmental stress than are outbred individuals, presumably because stress increases the expression of deleterious recessive alleles or cellular safeguards against stress are pushed beyond the organism's physiological limits. We examined inbreeding-environment interactions, along two environmental axes (temperature and rearing host) that differ in the amount of developmental stress they impose, in the seed-feeding beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We found that inbreeding depression (inbreeding load, L) increased with the stressfulness of the environment, with the magnitude of stress explaining as much as 66% of the variation in inbreeding depression. This relationship between L and developmental stress was not explainable by an increase in phenotypic variation in more stressful environments. To examine the generality of this experimental result, we conducted a meta-analysis of the available data from published studies looking at stress and inbreeding depression. The meta-analysis confirmed that the effect of the environment on inbreeding depression scales linearly with the magnitude of stress; a population suffers one additional lethal equivalent, on average, for each 30% reduction in fitness induced by the stressful environment. Studies using less-stressful environments may lack statistical power to detect the small changes in inbreeding depression. That the magnitude of inbreeding depression scales with the magnitude of the stress applied has numerous repercussions for evolutionary and conservation genetics and may invigorate research aimed at finding the causal mechanism involved in such a relationship.

  4. Interaction of environmental moisture with powdered green tea formulations: effect on catechin chemical stability.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, J; Ferruzzi, M G; Taylor, L S; Mauer, L J

    2008-06-11

    Green tea and tea catechins must be stable in finished products to deliver health benefits; however, they may be adversely affected by tea processing/storage conditions and the presence of other components. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of storage relative humidity (RH) and addition of other ingredients on catechin stability in simulated dry beverage mixtures. Samples of green tea powder alone and mixed with sucrose, citric acid, and/or ascorbic acid were prepared and stored in desiccators at 22 degrees C and 0-85% RH for up to 3 months. Epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin gallate were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Formulation and the interaction of formulation and RH significantly promoted catechin degradation ( P < 0.0001). The chemical degradation of total and individual catechins in green tea powder formulations was significantly increased ( P < 0.0001) by exposure to increasing RH, and the degradation was exacerbated at > or = 58% RH by the presence of powdered citric acid and at > or = 75% RH by the presence of ascorbic acid. Catechins degraded the most in formulations containing both acids. Although catechin chemical stability was maintained at < or = 43% RH in all samples stored at 22 degrees C for 3 months, caking was observed in samples at these relative humidities. These results are the first to demonstrate that addition of other dry components to tea powders may affect catechin stability in finished dry blends and highlight the importance of considering the complex interplay between a multicomponent system and its environment for developing stable products.

  5. Environmental contaminant studies by the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hill, E.F.; Stickel, W.H.; Stickel, L.F.; Kenaga, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    Evaluation of the effects of environmental contaminants on wildlife is geared to interpreting events in the field, especially population effects, and both field and laboratory studies are planned for this purpose; procedures are adapted to specific problems and therefore do not include strict protocols or routine testing. Field evaluations include measurements of cholinesterase inhibition in brain or blood, search for dead or disabled animals, study of nesting success of birds, and general ecological observations. Residue analyses are used in evaluating organochlorine chemicals; samples may include whole bodies for determining level of exposure, brains for mortality diagnosis, whole blood for certain special studies, and eggs to help in evaluation of possible reproductive effects. Bird counts, singing-male census counts, small mamrnal trapping, and cage-in-field tests have proven to be ineffective or misleading and are not considered suitable for field evaluations under most circumstances. Usefulness of simulated field trials is limited to very special situations. Experimental studies that help predict and interpret field effects include determinations of lethal diagnostic levels, comparative lethal dietary toxicity tests, tests of secondary poisoning measurement of residue loss rates, measurement of blood enzymes, tests of behavioral effects, and studies of reproductive effects.

  6. Study on Circular Complex viewed from Environmental Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeguchi, Tomoo; Adachi, Katsushige; Yoshikawa, Akira; Hiratsuka, Akira; Tsujino, Ryoji; Iguchi, Manabu

    In machining processes, cutting fluids are generally used for cooling and lubricating workpieces at the point cutting. However, these fluids frequently include chlorine, sulfur, phosphorus, or other additives. The chemicals not only become a mist affecting the health of workers engaged in the processing but also make the workshop environment worse. In particular, the chlorine becomes one of the causes of global warming by treating waste oil under high temperature conditions. It is furthermore said that huge cost beyond the purchase cost of oil occurs and dioxins (carcinogen) usually exist in the waste oil. Therefore, an environmentally-friendly cooling-air cutting system is required from the standpoint of green manufacturing. This system has been noted as a technique to solve the issues against the environment mentioned above. In the cooling-air cutting processing, the amount of CO2 emission shows a low value compared with the dry cutting one which uses oil. It is therefore thought that the cooling-air cutting system is a very important processing technique as an environmental countermeasure. At present, in strictly economic and environmental situations, the compatibility of the betterment of production efficiency with the improvement of environment is a subject in the actual spot of a cut processing. This study deals with the test results of cooling-air drilling performance from the viewpoint of taking green manufacturing into account. The workpiece made of die steel SKDll was manufactured by the cooling-air drilling performance at a revolution of 840 rpm and a temperature of -20°C with a high-speed steel drill (SKH56). The results were compared with those for the dry cutting performance. The main results obtained in this study are as follows: 1) The tool life for cooling-air drilling performance was about 6 times as long as that for the dry cutting performance. 2) The chip temperature for cooling-air drilling was 220°C lower than that for the dry cutting

  7. A large scale flume for hydro-environmental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Giráldez, Juan Vicente; Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; Casalí, Javier; Hermosín, Maria del Carmen; Mateos, Luciano

    2013-04-01

    The understanding of key hydrologic processes such as, water erosion, rill network development or agrochemical transport, requires controlled experiments at the appropriate scale. This is the reason for experimentation at flume scale in hydro-environmental research, used for many decades in this field. This communication presents a research infrastructure, recently completed in its first stage, consisting of a large flume for studying soil water erosion, sediment transport, and environmental processes such as the transport of different substances (salts, fertilizers, herbicides, carbon, …) rather dissolved or absorbed with the sediment. It is located at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture (CSIC) in Córdoba, Spain. The flume is 0.6 m deep, 12 m long, and 6 m wide. It may be divided longitudinally into three channels (6 m long, 1 m wide). The slope of the flume can be regulated from 0 % to 20 %. The device allows studying free surface flows over movable beds with different conditions of sediment transport by supplying clear or sediment-laden water from its head system. The head system consists of three triangular weirs for accurate measurement of water flow, three stilling tanks at the entrance of the flume, and three vibratory hoppers for applying sediments at pre-set rates. The water can be re-circulated, the maximum inflow is then about 30 l s-1, or evacuated, then the inflow is limited to about 20 l s-1. The infrastructure is within a shelter with an area of 400 m2 and height 8.7 m. The area of the shelter allows in-door mechanical preparation of soil and sediments. The height of the shelter will allow the installation of the rainfall simulator and a light rail crane in a second stage, not started yet. Several experiments have been planned at IAS-CSIC already, particularly investigation of the water erosion and sediment transport processes in concentrated flows under different soil conditions, as well as hydrodynamics aspects of suspended and bed

  8. Environmentally Responsible Aviation N plus 2 Advanced Vehicle Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Aaron; Harris, Christopher A.; Komadina, Steven C.; Wang, Donny P.; Bender, Anne M.

    2013-01-01

    This is the Northrop Grumman final report for the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) N+2 Advanced Vehicle Study performed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Northrop Grumman developed advanced vehicle concepts and associated enabling technologies with a high potential for simultaneously achieving significant reductions in emissions, airport area noise, and fuel consumption for transport aircraft entering service in 2025. A Preferred System Concept (PSC) conceptual design has been completed showing a 42% reduction in fuel burn compared to 1998 technology, and noise 75dB below Stage 4 for a 224- passenger, 8,000 nm cruise transport aircraft. Roadmaps have been developed for the necessary technology maturation to support the PSC. A conceptual design for a 55%-scale demonstrator aircraft to reduce development risk for the PSC has been completed.

  9. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry to determine artificial sweeteners in environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Salas, Daniela; Borrull, Francesc; Fontanals, Núria; Marcé, Rosa Maria

    2015-06-01

    Artificial sweeteners are food additives employed as sugar substitutes which are now considered to be emerging organic contaminants. In the present study, a method is developed for the determination of a group of artificial sweeteners in environmental waters. Considering the polar and hydrophilic character of these compounds, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography is proposed for their separation as an alternative to traditional reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Two stationary phases with different chemistry were compared for this purpose. For the detection of the analytes, high-resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap) was employed to take advantage of its benefits in terms of reliable quantification and confirmation for the measurement of accurate masses. Solid-phase extraction was chosen as the sample treatment, in which the extract in a mixture of NH4OH:MeOH:ACN (1:4:15) was directly injected into the chromatographic system, simplifying the analytical procedure. The optimized method was validated on river and waste water samples. For example, in the case of effluent water samples, limits of detection ranged from 0.002 to 0.7 μg/L and limits of quantification ranged from 0.004 to 1.5 μg/L. Apparent (whole method) recoveries ranged from 57 to 74% with intra-day precision (%RSD, n = 5) ranging from 6 to 25%. The method was successfully applied to water samples from different rivers in Catalonia and different waste water treatment plants in Tarragona. Acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharine and sucralose were found in several samples.

  10. Social signal processing for studying parent-infant interaction.

    PubMed

    Avril, Marie; Leclère, Chloë; Viaux, Sylvie; Michelet, Stéphane; Achard, Catherine; Missonnier, Sylvain; Keren, Miri; Cohen, David; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Studying early interactions is a core issue of infant development and psychopathology. Automatic social signal processing theoretically offers the possibility to extract and analyze communication by taking an integrative perspective, considering the multimodal nature and dynamics of behaviors (including synchrony). This paper proposes an explorative method to acquire and extract relevant social signals from a naturalistic early parent-infant interaction. An experimental setup is proposed based on both clinical and technical requirements. We extracted various cues from body postures and speech productions of partners using the IMI2S (Interaction, Multimodal Integration, and Social Signal) Framework. Preliminary clinical and computational results are reported for two dyads (one pathological in a situation of severe emotional neglect and one normal control) as an illustration of our cross-disciplinary protocol. The results from both clinical and computational analyzes highlight similar differences: the pathological dyad shows dyssynchronic interaction led by the infant whereas the control dyad shows synchronic interaction and a smooth interactive dialog. The results suggest that the current method might be promising for future studies.

  11. Social signal processing for studying parent–infant interaction

    PubMed Central

    Avril, Marie; Leclère, Chloë; Viaux, Sylvie; Michelet, Stéphane; Achard, Catherine; Missonnier, Sylvain; Keren, Miri; Cohen, David; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Studying early interactions is a core issue of infant development and psychopathology. Automatic social signal processing theoretically offers the possibility to extract and analyze communication by taking an integrative perspective, considering the multimodal nature and dynamics of behaviors (including synchrony). This paper proposes an explorative method to acquire and extract relevant social signals from a naturalistic early parent–infant interaction. An experimental setup is proposed based on both clinical and technical requirements. We extracted various cues from body postures and speech productions of partners using the IMI2S (Interaction, Multimodal Integration, and Social Signal) Framework. Preliminary clinical and computational results are reported for two dyads (one pathological in a situation of severe emotional neglect and one normal control) as an illustration of our cross-disciplinary protocol. The results from both clinical and computational analyzes highlight similar differences: the pathological dyad shows dyssynchronic interaction led by the infant whereas the control dyad shows synchronic interaction and a smooth interactive dialog. The results suggest that the current method might be promising for future studies. PMID:25540633

  12. Toddler Techies: A Study of Young Children's Interaction with Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Kirsten; Blashki, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an ethnographic study of children's behavioural interaction with multimedia within a familiar context. The rationale for such a study was to provide data and evaluation of the capabilities of young children in an expressly modified multimedia environment and to determine the usefulness of employing technology as an adjunct…

  13. Interactive Expertise: Studies in Distributed Working Intelligence. Research Bulletin 83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engestrom, Yrjo

    The four studies presented show how expertise, from the cultural-historical theory of activity, is constructed interactively in everyday problem situations. They also demonstrate that purely situational analyses of discourse are insufficient as attempts to explain expertise. The four studies are presented as individual chapters: (1) Expertise as…

  14. The Philosophy of Local Studies in the Interactive Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Peter H.; Macafee, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    The authors examine strategic priorities for local studies libraries in the context of the interactive Web. They examine the implications for access, investigations and the needs of different users. The philosophy that has previously guided local studies is articulated as a number of maxims, taking into account also social inclusion and lifelong…

  15. Study of /sup 12/C interactions at HISS

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, H.J.

    1982-12-01

    Single-particle inclusive measurements in high-energy nuclear physics have provided the foundation for a number of models of interacting nuclear fluids. Such measurements yield information on the endpoints of the evolution of highly excited nuclear systems. However, they suffer from the fact that observed particles can be formed in a large number of very different evolutionary paths. To learn more about how interactions proceed we have performed a series of experiments in which all fast nuclear fragments are analyzed for each individual interaction. These experiments were performed at the LBL Bevalac HISS (Heavy Ion Spectrometer System) facility where we studied the interaction of 1 GeV/nuc 12C nuclei with targets of C, CH/sub 2/, Cu, and U. In this paper we describe HISS and present some preliminary results of the experiment.

  16. Evidence of gene-environment interaction for two genes on chromosome 4 and environmental tobacco smoke in controlling the risk of nonsyndromic cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Schwender, Holger; Ruczinski, Ingo; Murray, Jeffrey C; Marazita, Mary L; Munger, Ronald G; Hetmanski, Jacqueline B; Parker, Margaret M; Wang, Ping; Murray, Tanda; Taub, Margaret; Li, Shuai; Redett, Richard J; Fallin, M Daniele; Liang, Kung Yee; Wu-Chou, Yah Huei; Chong, Samuel S; Yeow, Vincent; Ye, Xiaoqian; Wang, Hong; Huang, Shangzhi; Jabs, Ethylin W; Shi, Bing; Wilcox, Allen J; Jee, Sun Ha; Scott, Alan F; Beaty, Terri H

    2014-01-01

    Nonsyndromic cleft palate (CP) is one of the most common human birth defects and both genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to its etiology. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using 550 CP case-parent trios ascertained in an international consortium. Stratified analysis among trios with different ancestries was performed to test for GxE interactions with common maternal exposures using conditional logistic regression models. While no single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) achieved genome-wide significance when considered alone, markers in SLC2A9 and the neighboring WDR1 on chromosome 4p16.1 gave suggestive evidence of gene-environment interaction with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among 259 Asian trios when the models included a term for GxE interaction. Multiple SNPs in these two genes were associated with increased risk of nonsyndromic CP if the mother was exposed to ETS during the peri-conceptual period (3 months prior to conception through the first trimester). When maternal ETS was considered, fifteen of 135 SNPs mapping to SLC2A9 and 9 of 59 SNPs in WDR1 gave P values approaching genome-wide significance (10(-6)interaction. SNPs rs3733585 and rs12508991 in SLC2A9 yielded P = 2.26×10(-7) in a test for GxETS interaction. SNPs rs6820756 and rs7699512 in WDR1 also yielded P = 1.79×10(-7) and P = 1.98×10(-7) in a 1 df test for GxE interaction. Although further replication studies are critical to confirming these findings, these results illustrate how genetic associations for nonsyndromic CP can be missed if potential GxE interaction is not taken into account, and this study suggest SLC2A9 and WDR1 should be considered as candidate genes for CP.

  17. A unified approach to computer analysis and modeling of spacecraft environmental interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, I.; Mandell, M. J.; Cassidy, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    A new, coordinated, unified approach to the development of spacecraft plasma interaction models is proposed. The objective is to eliminate the unnecessary duplicative work in order to allow researchers to concentrate on the scientific aspects. By streamlining the developmental process, the interchange between theories and experimentalists is enhanced, and the transfer of technology to the spacecraft engineering community is faster. This approach is called the UNIfied Spacecraft Interaction Model (UNISIM). UNISIM is a coordinated system of software, hardware, and specifications. It is a tool for modeling and analyzing spacecraft interactions. It will be used to design experiments, to interpret results of experiments, and to aid in future spacecraft design. It breaks a Spacecraft Ineraction analysis into several modules. Each module will perform an analysis for some physical process, using phenomenology and algorithms which are well documented and have been subject to review. This system and its characteristics are discussed.

  18. Plasmonics for the study of metal ion-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Giuseppe; Spoto, Giuseppe

    2013-02-01

    The study of metal-protein interactions is an expanding field of research investigated by bioinorganic chemists as it has wide applications in biological systems. Very recently, it has been reported that it is possible to study metal-protein interactions by immobilizing biomolecules on metal surfaces and applying experimental approaches based on plasmonics which have usually been used to investigate protein-protein interactions. This is possible because the electronic structure of metals generates plasmons whose properties can be exploited to obtain information from biomolecules that interact not only with other molecules but also with ions in solution. One major challenge of such approaches is to immobilize the protein to be studied on a metal surface with preserved native structure. This review reports and discusses all the works that deal with such an expanding new field of application of plasmonics with specific attention to surface plasmon resonance, highlighting the advantages and drawbacks of such approaches in comparison with other experimental techniques traditionally used to study metal-protein interactions.

  19. The DOE Office of Environmental Management International Collaboration Program Overview: Interactions, Agreements, and Future Direction

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, James C.; Fox, Kevin M.; Jannik, Gerald T.; Farfan, Eduardo B.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Roach, Jay; Aloy, A. S.; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Lopukh, D. B.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Han, Ana M.

    2010-02-10

    As the lead U.S. agency for the environmental cleanup, the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) carries out international activities in support of U.S. policies and objectives regarding accelerated risk reduction and remediation of the environmental legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons program and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. To achieve this, EM pursues collaborations with foreign government organizations, educational institutions, and private industry to assist in identifying technologies and promote international collaborations that leverage resources and link international experience and expertise. An initiative of the International Program is to link international experience and expertise to the technical needs of the overall EM mission and to foster further collaboration with international partners to promote those needs. This paper will provide an overview of the current international program and how it plans to leverage existing, and when necessary, new international partnerships to support the overall EM cleanup mission. In addition it will examine the future vision of the international program to promote the EM mission through a focus on transformational solutions, science, and technology development.

  20. Environmental Bioinorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro

    1974-01-01

    Discusses some important aspects of bioinorganic chemistry, including interactions of organisms with metallic and nonmetallic elements and compounds. Indicates that many environmental problems are created by human exploitation of nature and technologies if studied from a bioinorganic chemical viewpoint. (CC)