Science.gov

Sample records for environmental marketing claims

  1. 16 CFR 260.7 - Environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental marketing claims. 260.7... USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.7 Environmental marketing claims. Guidance about the use of environmental marketing claims is set forth in this section. Each guide is followed by...

  2. 16 CFR 260.7 - Environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental marketing claims. 260.7... USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.7 Environmental marketing claims. Guidance about the use of environmental marketing claims is set forth in this section. Each guide is followed by...

  3. 77 FR 62121 - Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ....'' \\2\\ In October 2010, the Commission proposed changes to the 1998 Guides. 75 FR 63552 (Oct. 15, 2010... Marketing Claims; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 197 / Thursday, October 11, 2012 / Rules... Marketing Claims AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Adoption of Revised Guides. SUMMARY: The...

  4. Nutrition and health claims as marketing tools.

    PubMed

    van Buul, Vincent J; Brouns, Fred J P H

    2015-01-01

    European regulations mandate that only substantiated and approved statements can be used as nutrition- and health-related claims in food marketing. A thorough understanding of consumer perceptions of these approved claims is needed to assess their impact on both the purchase intention of functional foods and the development of innovative functional food concepts. In this paper, a conceptual framework on the European consumers' perception of nutrition and health claims on these functional foods is proposed. Through a literature review, common independent variables are structured, and an analysis of these variables shows that nutrition and health claims are mostly only perceived positive by specific target consumers (who need the product, accept the ingredient, understand the benefit, and trust the brand). These consumers indicate that the products with substantiated and approved claims help them in reaching overall health goals. This increased expectation in functional efficacy may mediate an increase in repurchase intent, overall liking, and the amount consumers are willing to spend. Other consumers, however, may have adverse reactions towards nutrition and health claims on functional foods. Implications for the consumer and the industry are discussed. PMID:24364816

  5. Nutrition and health claims as marketing tools.

    PubMed

    van Buul, Vincent J; Brouns, Fred J P H

    2015-01-01

    European regulations mandate that only substantiated and approved statements can be used as nutrition- and health-related claims in food marketing. A thorough understanding of consumer perceptions of these approved claims is needed to assess their impact on both the purchase intention of functional foods and the development of innovative functional food concepts. In this paper, a conceptual framework on the European consumers' perception of nutrition and health claims on these functional foods is proposed. Through a literature review, common independent variables are structured, and an analysis of these variables shows that nutrition and health claims are mostly only perceived positive by specific target consumers (who need the product, accept the ingredient, understand the benefit, and trust the brand). These consumers indicate that the products with substantiated and approved claims help them in reaching overall health goals. This increased expectation in functional efficacy may mediate an increase in repurchase intent, overall liking, and the amount consumers are willing to spend. Other consumers, however, may have adverse reactions towards nutrition and health claims on functional foods. Implications for the consumer and the industry are discussed.

  6. Using Medicaid claims to construct dental service market areas.

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, M L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To use Medicaid claims data to construct patient origin-based market areas for dental services and compare constructed market areas with those based on the practice county. DATA SOURCES: North Carolina Medicaid claims, eligibility, and provider files, the Cooperative Health Information Systems' dentist licensure files, and the Log Into North Carolina data. STUDY DESIGN: A visit-level file was created from the Medicaid claims data and aggregated by provider practice county and patient county of residence. Using the aggregated file and an algorithm based on the Elzinga-Hogarty approach, patient travel patterns were used to construct mutually exclusive patient origin market areas. DATA ANALYSIS: Market area characteristics were compared across definitions using Pearson correlation coefficients. In addition, estimations of provider participation were performed using market area characteristics as control variables. The beta coefficients associated with market area characteristics were compared across market area definitions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Medicaid claims data, when combined with provider licensure files, can be used to construct market areas based on patient origin data. However, measures of market area characteristics are correlated highly between the two types of market areas studied. Furthermore, beta coefficients on market area variables in models of provider participation are similar in sign, significance, and magnitude across market definitions. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with market areas constructed using patient origin data, county-based market areas adequately proxy for dental markets. Using the county as the market area also avoids the time and computational costs associated with using a patient origin-based approach and facilitates the use of widely available data. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10591272

  7. Free market environmentalism

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.L.; Leal, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Free Market Environmentalism by Terry L. Anderson and Donald R. Leal is a call to action rather than an empirical study. These authors argue that the environment and the market are inextricably connected in a positive rather than negative way. In their view, individual property owners, who are in a position and have an incentive to obtain time- and place-specific information about their resource endowments, are better suited than centralized bureaucracies to manage resources. Government should strive as much as possible to encourage and facilitate the working of the market through the enforcement of property rights, including clearly specified titles, strict liability rules and adjudication of disputed property rights in court. Markets could then be created in a variety of environmental policy domains. For example, Yellowstone National park currently has a problem with migrating bison who wander off the park premises and infect the cattle of adjoining ranches with deadly viruses. To Anderson and Leal, this problem could be solved if park officials owned the bison and could be sued for damages. Overfishing could be solved through the allocation of property rights to specific people who would be allowed to trade their rights. This property rights model is applied to a wide variety of environmental circumstances and problems including land policy, outdoor recreation, energy development, groundwater pollution, garbage disposal, and global warming.

  8. Accuracy of Marketing Claims by Providers of Stereotactic Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Amol K.; Lam, Edwin; Makary, Martin A.; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Herman, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Direct-to-consumer advertising by industry has been criticized for encouraging overuse of unproven therapies, but advertising by health care providers has not been as carefully scrutinized. Stereotactic radiation therapy is an emerging technology that has sparked controversy regarding the marketing campaigns of some manufacturers. Given that this technology is also being heavily advertised on the Web sites of health care providers, the accuracy of providers' marketing claims should be rigorously evaluated. Methods: We reviewed the Web sites of all US hospitals and private practices that provide stereotactic radiation using two leading brands of stereotactic radiosurgery technology. Centers were identified by using data from the manufacturers. Centers without Web sites were excluded. The final study population consisted of 212 centers with online advertisements for stereotactic radiation. Web sites were evaluated for advertisements that were inconsistent with advertising guidelines provided by the American Medical Association. Results: Most centers (76%) had individual pages dedicated to the marketing of their brand of stereotactic technology that frequently contained manufacturer-authored images (50%) or text (55%). Advertising for the treatment of tumors that have not been endorsed by professional societies was present on 66% of Web sites. Centers commonly claimed improved survival (22%), disease control (20%), quality of life (17%), and toxicity (43%) with stereotactic radiation. Although 40% of Web sites championed the center's regional expertise in delivering stereotactic treatments, only 15% of Web sites provided data to support their claims. Conclusion: Provider advertisements for stereotactic radiation were prominent and aggressive. Further investigation of provider advertising, its effects on quality of care, and potential oversight mechanisms is needed. PMID:23633973

  9. A Critical Review of the Marketing Claims of Infant Formula Products in the United States.

    PubMed

    Belamarich, Peter F; Bochner, Risa E; Racine, Andrew D

    2016-05-01

    A highly competitive infant formula market has resulted in direct-to-consumer marketing intended to promote the sale of modified formulas that claim to ameliorate common infant feeding problems. The claims associated with these marketing campaigns are not evaluated with reference to clinical evidence by the Food and Drug Administration. We aimed to describe the language of claims made on formula labels and compare it with the evidence in systematic reviews. Of the 22 product labels we identified, 13 product labels included claims about colic and gastrointestinal symptoms. There is insufficient evidence to support the claims that removing or reducing lactose, using hydrolyzed or soy protein or adding pre-/probiotics to formula benefits infants with fussiness, gas, or colic yet claims like "soy for fussiness and gas" encourage parents who perceive their infants to be fussy to purchase modified formula. Increased regulation of infant formula claims is warranted. PMID:26054781

  10. A Critical Review of the Marketing Claims of Infant Formula Products in the United States.

    PubMed

    Belamarich, Peter F; Bochner, Risa E; Racine, Andrew D

    2016-05-01

    A highly competitive infant formula market has resulted in direct-to-consumer marketing intended to promote the sale of modified formulas that claim to ameliorate common infant feeding problems. The claims associated with these marketing campaigns are not evaluated with reference to clinical evidence by the Food and Drug Administration. We aimed to describe the language of claims made on formula labels and compare it with the evidence in systematic reviews. Of the 22 product labels we identified, 13 product labels included claims about colic and gastrointestinal symptoms. There is insufficient evidence to support the claims that removing or reducing lactose, using hydrolyzed or soy protein or adding pre-/probiotics to formula benefits infants with fussiness, gas, or colic yet claims like "soy for fussiness and gas" encourage parents who perceive their infants to be fussy to purchase modified formula. Increased regulation of infant formula claims is warranted.

  11. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... issues related to environmental claims. Claims for property damage, personal injury, or death arising in... Torts Branch of DOJ. Such claims arising overseas must be reported to the Command Claims Service with... is not usually feasible because settlement of property damage claims must cover all...

  12. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... issues related to environmental claims. Claims for property damage, personal injury, or death arising in... Torts Branch of DOJ. Such claims arising overseas must be reported to the Command Claims Service with... is not usually feasible because settlement of property damage claims must cover all...

  13. Environmental Issues in the Land Claims: One of a Series of Articles on the Native Land Claims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Guy

    As one in a series of eight articles written by different professionals concerned with Alaska Native land claims, this article focuses on the debate of environmental issues prior to passage of the Alaska Land Claims Settlement Act. Designed to stimulate careful political/historical reading and discussion at an advanced secondary or adult level,…

  14. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Unique issues related to environmental claims... issues related to environmental claims. Claims for property damage, personal injury, or death arising in... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the...

  15. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unique issues related to environmental claims... issues related to environmental claims. Claims for property damage, personal injury, or death arising in... reported by USARCS to the Environmental Law Division of the Army Litigation Center and the...

  16. An investigation of environmental racism claims: testing environmental management approaches with a geographic information system.

    PubMed

    Macey, G P; Her, X; Reibling, E T; Ericson, J

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the concept of an environmental racism claim through the use of several environmental management tools. The EPAs Toxics Release Inventory, Cumulative Exposure Project, and the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services' Hot Zone Census Tract Assessment were combined with racial and socioeconomic data to test claims that minorities in South Central Los Angeles are disproportionately exposed to environmental lead. Multivariate analysis indicated that race is strongly associated with the number of cases of elevated blood lead levels in South Central, irrespective of poverty status. Proximity to point sources, a common focal point for studies of environmental racism, was not a contributing factor to health outcomes. Proximity to transportation corridors was consistently the strongest indicator of environmental lead exposure, while median home values were significantly and positively related to elevated blood lead levels. Implications for environmental justice advocates and social and environmental scientists are discussed.

  17. Online E-cigarette Marketing Claims: A Systematic Content and Legal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Elizabeth G.; Berman, Micah; Hemmerich, Natalie; Carlson, Cristen; Htut, SuSandi; Slater, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), or e-cigarettes, are heavily marketed online. The purpose of our study was to perform a systematic identification and evaluation of claims made within ENDS retailer and manufacturer websites, and the legal status of such claims. Methods We employed a systematic search protocol with popular search engines using 6 terms: (1) e-cigarettes; (2) e-cigs; (3) e-juice; (4) e-liquid; (5) e-hookah; and (6) vape pen. We analyzed English-language websites where ENDS are sold for implicit and explicit health-related claims. A legal analysis determined whether such claims are permissible under the US Food and Drug Administration’s regulations. Results The vast majority of ENDS manufacturer (N = 78) and retailer (N = 32) websites made at least one health-related claim (77% and 65%, respectively). Modified risk claims and secondhand smoke-related claims were most prevalent, with an average of 2 claims per site. Conclusions Health-related claims are plentiful within ENDS manufacturer and retailer websites. Results demonstrate that these sites focus on potential benefits while minimizing or eliminating information about possible harmful effects of ENDS. These claims are subject to the current regulatory authority by the FDA, and pose a risk of misinforming consumers. PMID:27446984

  18. Is Free-Market Environmentalism "Mainstream"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry L.; Shaw, Jane S.

    2000-01-01

    Explains free-market environmentalism, demonstrating how it is integral to environmental economics. Discusses issues such as market and government failures; the "tragedy of the commons"; and how to avoid said tragedy, focusing on the role of private property rights. Provides suggestions for history, social studies, and economics teachers on…

  19. Health benefits and health claims of probiotics: bridging science and marketing.

    PubMed

    Rijkers, Ger T; de Vos, Willem M; Brummer, Robert-Jan; Morelli, Lorenzo; Corthier, Gerard; Marteau, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Health claims for probiotics are evaluated by the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies of the European Food Safety Authority. Despite a substantial amount of basic and clinical research on the beneficial effects of probiotics, all of the evaluated claim applications thus far have received a negative opinion. With the restrictions on the use of clinical endpoints, validated biomarkers for gut health and immune health in relation to reduction in disease risk are needed. Clear-cut criteria for design as well as evaluation of future studies are needed. An open dialogue between basic and clinical scientists, regulatory authorities, food and nutrition industry, and consumers could bridge the gap between science and marketing of probiotics.

  20. 16 CFR 260.7 - Environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... disposable diaper that bears the legend, “This diaper can be composted where solid waste composting... substantiate that the diaper can be converted safely to usable compost in solid waste composting...

  1. Male enhancement Nutraceuticals in the Middle East market: Claim, pharmaceutical quality and safety assessments.

    PubMed

    ElAgouri, Ghada; ElAmrawy, Fatema; ElYazbi, Ahmed; Eshra, Ahmed; Nounou, Mohamed I

    2015-08-15

    The global market is invaded by male enhancement nutraceuticals claimed to be of natural origin sold with a major therapeutic claim. Most of these products have been reported by international systems like the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We hypothesize that these products could represent a major threat to the health of the consumers. In this paper, pharmaceutical evaluation of some of these nutraceutical products sold in Egypt under the therapeutic claim of treating erectile dysfunction, are discussed along with pharmacological evaluation to investigate their safety and efficacy parameters. Samples were analyzed utterly using conventional methods, i.e.: HPLC, HPTLC, NIR, content uniformity and weight variation and friability. The SeDeM system was used for quality assessment. On the basis of the results of this research, the sampled products are adulterated and totally heterogeneous in their adulterant drug content and pharmaceutical quality. These products represent a major safety threat for the consumers in Egypt and the Middle East, especially; the target audience is mostly affected with heart and blood pressure problems seeking natural and safe alternatives to the well-established Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors (PDE-5Is).

  2. Environmental controls: Market incentives v. direct regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kosobud, R.F.; Atallah, D.S.

    1996-12-31

    Cap-and-trade environmental markets, where the commodities are tradable pollution rights, are being introduced in several closely watched applications as a potentially more cost-effective way of cleaning up the environment than direct or command-and-control (CAC) regulation. In this study, we examine the evidence on control cost savings provided by price and transactions data from the first few years of activity in two markets designed to reduce atmospheric pollution. Some observers of both markets have argued that prices for tradable permits lower than expected, and transactions fewer than expected, are evidence that the markets are not achieving the hoped for savings. It was found, on the contrary, that observed prices point toward more flexible and improved pollution control choices and that the number of transactions has been steadily increasing as market incentives are incorporated into enterprise decisions. These new markets during their first few years are generating, according to our estimates, control cost savings in the neighborhood of one to two billion dollars annually. However, there is evidence that the markets have not yet reached their full potential. In the course of this study, several obstacles to market performance were found that are worthy of attention by policy makers. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Pitfalls and opportunities for environmental marketers.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, R J

    1992-01-01

    Issues such as global warming, ozone depletion, insufficient landfill capacity, and excess packaging are foremost on the minds of consumers. Companies face a myriad of environmental challenges, but they also recognize the opportunities to be gained by implementing responsible marketing action plans. PMID:10120306

  4. 16 CFR 260.15 - Renewable energy claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Renewable energy claims. 260.15 Section 260... OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.15 Renewable energy claims. (a) It is deceptive to misrepresent, directly or by implication, that a product or package is made with renewable energy or that...

  5. 16 CFR 260.15 - Renewable energy claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Renewable energy claims. 260.15 Section 260... OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.15 Renewable energy claims. (a) It is deceptive to misrepresent, directly or by implication, that a product or package is made with renewable energy or that...

  6. Essays on refining markets and environmental policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladunjoye, Olusegun Akintunde

    This thesis is comprised of three essays. The first two essays examine empirically the relationship between crude oil price and wholesale gasoline prices in the U.S. petroleum refining industry while the third essay determines the optimal combination of emissions tax and environmental research and development (ER&D) subsidy when firms organize ER&D either competitively or as a research joint venture (RJV). In the first essay, we estimate an error correction model to determine the effects of market structure on the speed of adjustment of wholesale gasoline prices, to crude oil price changes. The results indicate that market structure does not have a strong effect on the dynamics of price adjustment in the three regional markets examined. In the second essay, we allow for inventories to affect the relationship between crude oil and wholesale gasoline prices by allowing them to affect the probability of regime change in a Markov-switching model of the refining margin. We find that low gasoline inventory increases the probability of switching from the low margin regime to the high margin regime and also increases the probability of staying in the high margin regime. This is consistent with the predictions of the competitive storage theory. In the third essay, we extend the Industrial Organization R&D theory to the determination of optimal environmental policies. We find that RJV is socially desirable. In comparison to competitive ER&D, we suggest that regulators should encourage RJV with a lower emissions tax and higher subsidy as these will lead to the coordination of ER&D activities and eliminate duplication of efforts while firms internalize their technological spillover externality.

  7. 16 CFR 260.11 - Ozone-safe and ozone-friendly claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... friendly to, the ozone layer or the atmosphere. Example 1: A product is labeled “ozone-friendly.” The claim... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ozone-safe and ozone-friendly claims. 260.11... THE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.11 Ozone-safe and ozone-friendly claims. It...

  8. 16 CFR 260.11 - Ozone-safe and ozone-friendly claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... friendly to, the ozone layer or the atmosphere. Example 1: A product is labeled “ozone-friendly.” The claim... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ozone-safe and ozone-friendly claims. 260.11... THE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.11 Ozone-safe and ozone-friendly claims. It...

  9. Essays on environmental regulations in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanming

    Reducing the Greenhouse Gas pollution and promoting energy efficiency among consumers' energy use have been major public policy issues recently. Currently, both the United States and the European Union have set up explicit percentage requirements that require energy generators or consumers to undertake a certain percentage of their energy production or consumption from renewable sources. To achieve their renewable targets, the Tradable Green Certificates (TGC) system has been introduced in their electricity markets. Moreover, in order to promote energy conservation and achieve energy efficiency targets, price policies and price changes derived from environmental regulations have played a more important role in reducing electricity consumption. My research studies problems associated with these policy implementations. In Chapter 1, I analyze a competitive electricity market with two countries operated under a common TGC system. By using geometric illustrations, I compare the two countries' welfare when the renewable quota is chosen optimally under the common certificate market with three different situations. The policy recommendation is that when the value of damage parameter is sufficiently small, full integration with a TGC market is welfare superior to full integration of an all fossil-fuel based market with an optimal emissions standard. In Chapter 2, by analyzing a stylized theoretical model and numerical examples, I investigate the performance of the optimal renewables policy under full separation and full integration scenarios for two countries' electricity markets operated under TGC systems. In my third chapter, I look at residential electricity consumption responsiveness to increases of electricity price in the U.S. and the different effect of a price increase on electricity use for states of different income levels. My analysis reveals that raising the energy price in the short run will not give consumers much incentive to adjust their appliances and make

  10. Clean fuel for demanding environmental markets

    SciTech Connect

    Josewicz, W.; Natschke, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Acurex Environmental Corporation is bringing Clean Fuel to the environmentally demand Krakow market, through the cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy. Clean fuel is a proprietary clean burning coal-based energy source intended for use in stoves and hand stoked boilers. Clean Fuel is a home heating fuel that is similar in form and function to raw coal, but is more environmentally friendly and lower in cost. The heating value of Clean Fuel is 24,45 kJ/kg. Extensive sets of confirmation runs were conducted in the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy in the Krakow laboratories. It demonstrated up to 54 percent reduction of particulate matter emission, up to 35 percent reduction of total hydrocarbon emissions. Most importantly, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (toxic and carcinogens compounds) emissions were reduced by up to 85 percent, depending on species measured. The above comparison was made against premium chunk coal that is currently available in Krakow for approximately $83 to 93/ton. Clean Fuel will be made available in Krakow at a price approximately 10 percent lower than that of the premium chunk coal.

  11. Legal action against health claims on foods and beverages marketed to youth.

    PubMed

    Rutkow, Lainie; Vernick, Jon S; Edwards, Danielle M; Rodman, Sarah O; Barry, Colleen L

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity among US children raises numerous health concerns. One pathway to reduce childhood obesity is by decreasing energy intake through the ingestion of fewer calories. Yet, food and beverage manufacturers often promote energy-dense items for children via varied health claims. Deceptive health claims are prohibited, and may be addressed through litigation or governmental regulatory efforts. While the amount of legal action against these potentially deceptive claims has increased, no comprehensive assessment has been conducted. This article, which analyzes litigation and governmental regulatory activities, considers key factors that may influence decisions to take legal action against potentially deceptive health claims on foods and beverages, including scientific support, forum selection, selection of plaintiffs, and potential public health impact.

  12. Legal action against health claims on foods and beverages marketed to youth.

    PubMed

    Rutkow, Lainie; Vernick, Jon S; Edwards, Danielle M; Rodman, Sarah O; Barry, Colleen L

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity among US children raises numerous health concerns. One pathway to reduce childhood obesity is by decreasing energy intake through the ingestion of fewer calories. Yet, food and beverage manufacturers often promote energy-dense items for children via varied health claims. Deceptive health claims are prohibited, and may be addressed through litigation or governmental regulatory efforts. While the amount of legal action against these potentially deceptive claims has increased, no comprehensive assessment has been conducted. This article, which analyzes litigation and governmental regulatory activities, considers key factors that may influence decisions to take legal action against potentially deceptive health claims on foods and beverages, including scientific support, forum selection, selection of plaintiffs, and potential public health impact. PMID:25602904

  13. Developing markets for forest environmental services: an opportunity for promoting equity while securing efficiency?

    PubMed

    Landell-Mills, Natasha

    2002-08-15

    Market-based approaches to environmental management are all the rage. Claims that market mechanisms can encourage environmental protection and promote greater economic efficiency while saving taxpayers' money are tantalizing. In the forestry sector, policy makers are widely heeding this advice and shrinking command-and-control systems in favour of incentive mechanisms that seek to align private enthusiasm with the public good. In some cases, governments are even promoting the creation of markets where none existed before. In others, markets are evolving of their own accord. In such times of change, it is difficult to stand back and take stock. Yet, it is during such times that guidance is most needed. In the rush to introduce market-based solutions to environmental problems, a particular concern is how markets are impacting on the poor. In this paper an effort is made to draw on a recent review of markets for four forest environmental services (biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration, watershed protection and landscape beauty) to draw out preliminary insights into how markets are performing with respect to their impacts on the poor. The evidence suggests a need for caution. While the potential benefits are significant, the poor face an uphill battle in realizing them. Key constraints facing the poor include a lack of property rights over forest resources and their environmental services; inadequate skills and education; poor market information; lack of market contacts; inadequate communication infrastructure; inappropriate contract design; and lack of access to financial resources. To tackle these, four potential ways forward are highlighted: (1) assign property rights to forest assets and their related environmental services in ways that respect customary arrangements and poor people's tenure; (2) strengthen capacity for market participation, e.g. through training and education; (3) invest in the provision of market information, advice and, essentially, a

  14. 16 CFR 260.8 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... compliance with section 5(a) of the FTC Act as that Act applies to environmental marketing claims. 7 16 CFR 1... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental assessment. 260.8 Section 260... OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.8 Environmental assessment. (a) National Environmental...

  15. 32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the United States based on contamination by toxic substances found in the air or the ground must be... geographical jurisdiction over the claim and USARCS. Claims for personal injury from contamination frequently arise at an area that is the subject of claims for cleanup of the contamination site. The cleanup...

  16. Nonlinear Pricing in Energy and Environmental Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Koichiro

    This dissertation consists of three empirical studies on nonlinear pricing in energy and environmental markets. The first investigates how consumers respond to multi-tier nonlinear price schedules for residential electricity. Chapter 2 asks a similar research question for residential water pricing. Finally, I examine the effect of nonlinear financial rewards for energy conservation by applying a regression discontinuity design to a large-scale electricity rebate program that was implemented in California. Economic theory generally assumes that consumers respond to marginal prices when making economic decisions, but this assumption may not hold for complex price schedules. The chapter "Do Consumers Respond to Marginal or Average Price? Evidence from Nonlinear Electricity Pricing" provides empirical evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal price when faced with nonlinear electricity price schedules. Nonlinear price schedules, such as progressive income tax rates and multi-tier electricity prices, complicate economic decisions by creating multiple marginal prices for the same good. Evidence from laboratory experiments suggests that consumers facing such price schedules may respond to average price as a heuristic. I empirically test this prediction using field data by exploiting price variation across a spatial discontinuity in electric utility service areas. The territory border of two electric utilities lies within several city boundaries in southern California. As a result, nearly identical households experience substantially different nonlinear electricity price schedules. Using monthly household-level panel data from 1999 to 2008, I find strong evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal or expected marginal price. I show that even though this sub-optimizing behavior has a minimal impact on individual welfare, it can critically alter the policy implications of nonlinear pricing. The second chapter " How Do

  17. Environmental Careers: A Pilot Employment Market Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Robin; And Others

    In June 1994, Merritt College, in Oakland, California, conducted a study to determine career employment prospects for high school graduates and community college students in programs in the college's Environmental Sciences (ES) department and tech prep program. A sample of 178 organizations from the environmental industry was developed and divided…

  18. The international market for environmental goods and services

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, W.; Sobin, R.

    1994-12-31

    Markets for environmental products and services are growing in most regions of the world. Some believe this growth will present major new opportunities for exports and export-related job growth, while also improving the environment. Others fear that commercial objectives will overshadow environmental goals; the danger is that inappropriate technologies will be transferred, especially to developing countries with limited experience in environmental management. These tensions are apparent as the US, Germany, Japan, and other industrialized countries shape policies for development assistance and export promotion. The challenge will be to assure that the commercial aspects of these policies contribute to development that is environmentally sound.

  19. The environmental technology market in Latin America: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Valverde-Bermudez, J.

    1996-12-31

    Latin America has experienced dramatic changes during the last fifteen years. These changes range from the return of democratic governance, economic reform, and stabilization to the embrace of free trade and an increasingly acute sense of the need for environmental regulation, protection, and remediation. This new concern for the environment represents a dramatic shift in the perceptions and policies of many countries in the Western Hemisphere. Environmental issues have evolved from being an almost peripheral concern 10 years ago to a top priority item in most governments` agenda today. More importantly, the business sector has come to realize the potential value of the market for environmental goods and services, and many business concerns are actively pursuing this new market. This paper will provide a general overview of the approach several Latin American countries are taking with respect to environmental protection and remediation. In this discussion, special attention will be paid to economic reform and legislative processes.

  20. 78 FR 33839 - Access by United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Contractors to Information Claimed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... Activities Air, and Title II Emission Standards for Moving Sources, and Act To Prevent Pollution From Ships... (CAA) Titles I and II and the Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships (APPS) that may be claimed as, or may..., importers and distributors of motor vehicle and engine emission control equipment and parts; and any...

  1. Protecting environmental flows through enhanced water licensing and water markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfani, T.; Binions, O.; Harou, J. J.

    2015-02-01

    To enable economically efficient future adaptation to water scarcity some countries are revising water management institutions such as water rights or licensing systems to more effectively protect ecosystems and their services. However, allocating more flow to the environment can mean less abstraction for economic production, or the inability to accommodate new entrants (diverters). Modern licensing arrangements should simultaneously enhance environmental flows and protect water abstractors who depend on water. Making new licensing regimes compatible with tradable water rights is an important component of water allocation reform. Regulated water markets can help decrease the societal cost of water scarcity whilst enforcing environmental and/or social protections. In this article we simulate water markets under a regime of fixed volumetric water abstraction licenses with fixed minimum flows or under a scalable water license regime (using water "shares") with dynamic environmental minimum flows. Shares allow adapting allocations to available water and dynamic environmental minimum flows vary as a function of ecological requirements. We investigate how a short-term spot market manifests within each licensing regime. We use a river-basin-scale hydroeconomic agent model that represents individual abstractors and can simulate a spot market under both licensing regimes. We apply this model to the Great Ouse River basin in eastern England with public water supply, agricultural, energy and industrial water-using agents. Results show the proposed shares with dynamic environmental flow licensing system protects river flows more effectively than the current static minimum flow requirements during a dry historical year, but that the total opportunity cost to water abstractors of the environmental gains is a 10-15% loss in economic benefits.

  2. Energy and environmental efficiency in competitive power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, W.M.

    1995-02-01

    For years the electric utility industry operated as a regulated monopoly, largely immune to market forces except those of competing fuels. That era came to an end with the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) of 1974, which created a market for non-utility generated power. Within twenty years, non-regulated, non-utility generators had become the primary supplier of new energy resources. Their market power is matched by their political power, as evidenced in the Energy Policy Act of 1994 (EPAct), which requires open access to utility transmission lines to facilitate inter-utility bulk power sales. The conventional wisdom is that active wholesale power markets with competition among alternative generators will lead to lower power-development costs and cheaper retail power prices. The trend towards alternative bulk power sources at low prices intersects with large retail power customers` interest in accessing alternative power supplies. In most cases, these alternatives to local utilities are at a lower cost than retail rates. For the most part, proponents of generation competition have remained silent about potential environmental consequences. However, skeptics of increased competition, including major environmental groups, cite environmental impacts among their concerns. This report examines these concerns.

  3. Claim and Continuous Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulová, Iveta; Meravá, Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    The claim will always represent the kind of information that is annoying to recipients. Systematic work with claims has a positive value for the company. Addressing the complaint has a positive effect on continuous improvement. This paper was worked out with the support of VEGA No.1/0229/08 Perspectives of quality management development in coherence with requirements of Slovak republic market.

  4. Environmental market factors associated with physician career satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Mazurenko, Olena; Menachemi, Nir

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that physician career satisfaction is declining, but no study has examined the relationship between market factors and physician career satisfaction. Using a theoretical framework, we examined how various aspects of the market environment (e.g., munificence, dynamism, complexity) are related to overall career satisfaction. Nationally representative data from the 2008 Health Tracking Physician Survey were combined with environmental market variables from the 2008 Area Resource File. After controlling for physician and practice characteristics, at least one variable each representing munificence, dynamism, and complexity was associated with satisfaction. An increase in the market number of primary care physicians per capita was positively associated with physician career satisfaction (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.13 to 3.9) whereas an increase in the number of specialists per capita was negatively associated with physician satisfaction (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.97). Moreover, an increase in poverty rates was negatively associated with physician career satisfaction (OR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.01). Lastly, physicians practicing in states with a malpractice crisis (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.68 to 0.96) and/or those who perceived high competition in their markets (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.95) had lower odds of being satisfied. A better understanding of an organization's environment could assist healthcare managers in shaping their policies and strategies to increase physician satisfaction. PMID:23087994

  5. 75 FR 63551 - Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... or practice is unfair or deceptive. \\1\\ The Commission issued the Green Guides in 1992 (57 FR 36363 (Aug. 13, 1992)), and subsequently revised them in 1996 (61 FR 53311 (Oct. 11, 1996)) and 1998 (63 FR...''), Comment 533431-00041 at 7. \\8\\ 72 FR 66091 (Nov. 27, 2007). This review has taken some time because,...

  6. 16 CFR 260.5 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reliable scientific evidence, defined as tests, analyses, research, studies or other evidence based on the... Statement on the Advertising Substantiation Doctrine. 49 FR 30999 (1984); appended to Thompson Medical...

  7. 16 CFR 260.5 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... reliable scientific evidence, defined as tests, analyses, research, studies or other evidence based on the... Statement on the Advertising Substantiation Doctrine. 49 FR 30999 (1984); appended to Thompson Medical...

  8. 16 CFR 260.5 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reliable scientific evidence, defined as tests, analyses, research, studies or other evidence based on the... Statement on the Advertising Substantiation Doctrine. 49 FR 30999 (1984); appended to Thompson Medical...

  9. Environmental Assessment for power marketing policy for Southwestern Power Administration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) needs to renew expiring power sales contracts with new term (10 year) sales contracts. The existing contracts have been in place for several years and many will expire over the next ten years. Southwestern completed an Environmental Assessment on the existing power allocation in June, 1979 (a copy of the EA is attached), and there are no proposed additions of any major new generation resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters, beyond those included in the existing power allocation. Impacts from a no action plan, proposed alternative, and market power for less than 10 years are described.

  10. [The unbearable lightness of aluminum: the social and environmental impacts of Brazil's insertion in the primary aluminum global market].

    PubMed

    Henriques, Alen Batista; Porto, Marcelo Firpo Souza

    2013-11-01

    This article assesses aluminum production in Brazil and its social, environmental and public health impacts. The effects of the aluminum production chain challenge the idea of sustainable growth affirmed by business groups that operate in the sector. This article upholds the theory that the insertion of Brazil in the global aluminum market is part of a new configuration of the International Division of Labor (IDL), the polluting economic and highly energy dependent activities of which - as is the case of aluminum - have been moving to peripheral nations or emerging countries. The laws in such countries are less stringent, and similarly the environmental movements and the claims of the affected populations in the territories prejudiced in their rights to health, a healthy environment and culture are less influential. The competitiveness of this commodity is guaranteed in the international market, from the production of external factors such as environmental damage, deforestation, emissions of greenhouse gases and scenarios of environmental injustice. This includes undertakings in the construction of hydroelectric dams that expose traditional communities to situations involving the loss of their territories. PMID:24196888

  11. [The unbearable lightness of aluminum: the social and environmental impacts of Brazil's insertion in the primary aluminum global market].

    PubMed

    Henriques, Alen Batista; Porto, Marcelo Firpo Souza

    2013-11-01

    This article assesses aluminum production in Brazil and its social, environmental and public health impacts. The effects of the aluminum production chain challenge the idea of sustainable growth affirmed by business groups that operate in the sector. This article upholds the theory that the insertion of Brazil in the global aluminum market is part of a new configuration of the International Division of Labor (IDL), the polluting economic and highly energy dependent activities of which - as is the case of aluminum - have been moving to peripheral nations or emerging countries. The laws in such countries are less stringent, and similarly the environmental movements and the claims of the affected populations in the territories prejudiced in their rights to health, a healthy environment and culture are less influential. The competitiveness of this commodity is guaranteed in the international market, from the production of external factors such as environmental damage, deforestation, emissions of greenhouse gases and scenarios of environmental injustice. This includes undertakings in the construction of hydroelectric dams that expose traditional communities to situations involving the loss of their territories.

  12. Privatizing policy: Market solutions to energy and environmental problems

    SciTech Connect

    Stroup, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses how and why privatization can improve policy, not only in terms of managing production, but also in terms of regulation. Three major aspects of privatization are discussed. The importance for the environment of economic efficiency and prosperity is examined. The role of private law and a rights-based policy for controlling pollution is considered. Finally the claim that privatization would replace farsighted government decisions with shortsighted decisions by owners is examined. 83 refs., 2 figs.

  13. 38 CFR 14.665 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the reasonable market value of the article or articles. (3) A statement as to any claims or... if such claim is complete in all respects and conduct such investigation as is necessary to establish... concerning any offer of settlement the carrier may have made. The completed investigation, original claim...

  14. Integrating Marketing and Environmental Studies through an Interdisciplinary, Experiential, Service-Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiese, Nila M.; Sherman, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates an interdisciplinary, experiential service-learning project that combined environmental studies and marketing courses at a liberal arts college over a 2-year period. The inherent tensions between these two disciplines regarding issues of environmental protection and conservation make this project's contribution…

  15. Market effects of environmental regulation: coal, railroads, and the 1990 Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Busse, M.R.; Keohane, N.O.

    2007-01-01

    Many environmental regulations encourage the use of 'clean' inputs. When the suppliers of such an input have market power, environmental regulation will affect not only the quantity of the input used but also its price. We investigate the effect of the Title IV emissions trading program for sulfur dioxide on the market for low-sulfur coal. We find that the two railroads transporting coal were able to price discriminate on the basis of environmental regulation and geographic location. Delivered prices rose for plants in the trading program relative to other plants, and by more at plants near a low-sulfur coal source.

  16. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  17. Can Market Capitalism Be Greened? Environmental Education Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Deb J.; Tulloch, Lynley

    2013-01-01

    Widespread recognition of the detrimental effects that human activities have had on nature and its ecosystems can now be found in every domain of public policy. Since the inception of international accords in the 1970s provoked greater engagement by nations in environmental amelioration measures, "education" has been lauded as an important panacea…

  18. On the battleground of environmental and competition policy: The renewable electricity market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meszaros, Matyas Tamas

    Renewable energy sources have become increasingly important in the efforts to provide energy security and to fight global warming. In the last decade environmental policy has increased the support for renewable electricity. At the same time the electricity sector was often subject of antitrust investigation because of relevant market concentration, and market power. This dissertation looks at the renewable electricity market to analyze the effect of environmental policy on competition. The first chapter provides a short introduction into the regulatory schemes of electricity markets. The second chapter analyzes the demand side of the electricity market. The estimations show that there was no significant change in the income and price elasticity in the electricity consumption of the US households between 1993 an 2001, although there was several policy initiatives to increase energy efficiency and decrease consumption. The third chapter derives a theoretical model where the feed-in tariff and the tradable green certificate system can be analyzed under oligopolistic market structure. The results of the model suggest that the introduction of the environmentally friendly regulatory schemes can decrease the electricity prices compared to the case when there is no support for renewable energy. The other findings of this model is that the price of electricity rises when the requirement for renewable energy increases. In the fourth chapter a simulation model of the UK electricity market is used to test the effect of mergers and acquisitions under the environmental support scheme. The results emphasize the importance of the capacity limit, because it can constrain the strategic action of the electricity producers. The results of the simulation also suggest that the increasing concentration can increase the production and lower the price of electricity and renewable energy certificates in the British Renewable Obligation system.

  19. Tough environmental rules spur water/wastewater market changes

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    Driven by complex and technical laws, plus anticipated new rules and legislation when the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act are ultimately reauthorized, the $3.5 billion water and wastewater industry is going through dramatic changes. While capital spending will increase by only 16.6 percent between 1993 and 1997, equipment and instrument spending will increase by 21.1 percent. The move away from end-of-pipe to in-process treatment, and ultimately to pollution prevention, means a new logic is involved in this market. Recycling, reuse, and recovery of water is an important focus in many industrial facilities - and the line between water treatment and wastewater treatment has blurred with this new approach. Water treatment capital spending in the US was more than $7.3 billion in 1993, and may total more than $8.6 billion in 1997. As water and wastewater treatment processes and products becomes more sophisticated, and industry becomes more concerned with human exposure to toxics and trace contaminants, the demand for better measurement and analysis will continue. Water impurities vary with the source of water supply. Surface waters, characteristically high in dissolved oxygen (DO) and organic and inorganic sediment, are low on total solids and hardness. Groundwater is usually high in carbon dioxide, total solids and hardness, but low in sediment. Certain chemical characteristics significant in water plant operation are subject to measurement automatically with electrodes placed in the line of flow, or by intermittent sampling. 5 tabs.

  20. Low-rank coal study. Volume 4. Regulatory, environmental, and market analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The regulatory, environmental, and market constraints to development of US low-rank coal resources are analyzed. Government-imposed environmental and regulatory requirements are among the most important factors that determine the markets for low-rank coal and the technology used in the extraction, delivery, and utilization systems. Both state and federal controls are examined, in light of available data on impacts and effluents associated with major low-rank coal development efforts. The market analysis examines both the penetration of existing markets by low-rank coal and the evolution of potential markets in the future. The electric utility industry consumes about 99 percent of the total low-rank coal production. This use in utility boilers rose dramatically in the 1970's and is expected to continue to grow rapidly. In the late 1980's and 1990's, industrial direct use of low-rank coal and the production of synthetic fuels are expected to start growing as major new markets.

  1. Environmental and economic analyses of waste disposal options for traditional markets in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Aye, Lu . E-mail: lua@unimelb.edu.au; Widjaya, E.R.

    2006-07-01

    Waste from traditional markets in Indonesia is the second largest stream of municipal solid waste after household waste. It has a higher organic fraction and may have greater potential to be managed on a business scale compared to household wastes. The attributed reason is that in general the wastes generated from traditional markets are more uniform, more concentrated and less hazardous than waste from other sources. This paper presents the results of environmental and economic assessments to compare the options available for traditional market waste disposal in Indonesia. The options compared were composting in labour intensive plants, composting in a centralised plant that utilised a simple wheel loader, centralised biogas production and landfill for electricity production. The current open dumping practice was included as the baseline case. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was used for environmental analysis. All options compared have lower environmental impacts than the current practice of open dumping. The biogas production option has the lowest environmental impacts. A cost-benefit analysis, which considered greenhouse gas savings, was used for the economic assessment. It was found that composting at a centralised plant is the most economically feasible option under the present Indonesian conditions. The approach reported in this study could be applied for 'a pre-feasibility first cut comparison' that includes environmental aspects in a decision-making framework for developing countries even though European emission factors were used.

  2. Market assessment of environmental issues affecting coal use for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-20

    This is a market assessment of environmental issues affecting coal use through 2020. It was prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratories for the Fossil Energy R&D Program. It is based on interviews of representatives of 8 coal, coal technology, electricity and environmental groups concerned with the future of energy and the environment. Interviewees generally agreed that the U.S. and other countries would continue to need to use coal into the middle of the next century. The size of the market for coal would be determined by the ability of coal and coal technologies to meet environmental requirements at costs that would compete with natural gas. Outside the U.S., three interviewees suggested that there is a market for low cost coal technologies that will reduce the environmental impact of coal use, particularly in developing countries that have few alternative sources of energy. The principal environmental concerns mentioned in these interviews were: efficiency and carbon, air toxics, and NO{sub x}. Several also mentioned potential modifications to the SO{sub x} standards, a fine particulate standard, bottom and fly ash, and methane from coalbeds.

  3. Environmental and economic analyses of waste disposal options for traditional markets in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Aye, Lu; Widjaya, E R

    2006-01-01

    Waste from traditional markets in Indonesia is the second largest stream of municipal solid waste after household waste. It has a higher organic fraction and may have greater potential to be managed on a business scale compared to household wastes. The attributed reason is that in general the wastes generated from traditional markets are more uniform, more concentrated and less hazardous than waste from other sources. This paper presents the results of environmental and economic assessments to compare the options available for traditional market waste disposal in Indonesia. The options compared were composting in labour intensive plants, composting in a centralised plant that utilised a simple wheel loader, centralised biogas production and landfill for electricity production. The current open dumping practice was included as the baseline case. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was used for environmental analysis. All options compared have lower environmental impacts than the current practice of open dumping. The biogas production option has the lowest environmental impacts. A cost-benefit analysis, which considered greenhouse gas savings, was used for the economic assessment. It was found that composting at a centralised plant is the most economically feasible option under the present Indonesian conditions. The approach reported in this study could be applied for 'a pre-feasibility first cut comparison' that includes environmental aspects in a decision-making framework for developing countries even though European emission factors were used.

  4. Environmental and economic analyses of waste disposal options for traditional markets in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Aye, Lu; Widjaya, E R

    2006-01-01

    Waste from traditional markets in Indonesia is the second largest stream of municipal solid waste after household waste. It has a higher organic fraction and may have greater potential to be managed on a business scale compared to household wastes. The attributed reason is that in general the wastes generated from traditional markets are more uniform, more concentrated and less hazardous than waste from other sources. This paper presents the results of environmental and economic assessments to compare the options available for traditional market waste disposal in Indonesia. The options compared were composting in labour intensive plants, composting in a centralised plant that utilised a simple wheel loader, centralised biogas production and landfill for electricity production. The current open dumping practice was included as the baseline case. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was used for environmental analysis. All options compared have lower environmental impacts than the current practice of open dumping. The biogas production option has the lowest environmental impacts. A cost-benefit analysis, which considered greenhouse gas savings, was used for the economic assessment. It was found that composting at a centralised plant is the most economically feasible option under the present Indonesian conditions. The approach reported in this study could be applied for 'a pre-feasibility first cut comparison' that includes environmental aspects in a decision-making framework for developing countries even though European emission factors were used. PMID:16288859

  5. Analyzing interaction of electricity markets and environmental policies using equilibrium models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yihsu

    Around the world, the electric sector is evolving from a system of regulated vertically-integrated monopolies to a complex system of competing generation companies, unregulated traders, and regulated transmission and distribution. One emerging challenge faced by environmental policymakers and electricity industry is the interaction between electricity markets and environmental policies. The objective of this dissertation is to examine these interactions using large-scale computational models of electricity markets based on noncooperative game theory. In particular, this dissertation is comprised of four essays. The first essay studies the interaction of the United States Environmental Protection Agency NOx Budget Program and the mid-Atlantic electricity market. This research quantifies emissions, economic inefficiencies, price distortions, and overall social welfare under various market assumptions using engineering-economic models. The models calculate equilibria for imperfectly competitive markets---Cournot oligopoly---considering the actual landscape of power plants and transmission lines, and including the possibility of market power in the NOx allowances market. The second essay extends the results from first essay and models imperfectly competitive markets using a Stackelberg or leader-follower formulation. A leader in the power and NO x markets is assumed to have perfect foresight of its rivals' responses. The rivals' best response functions are explicitly embedded in the leader's constraints. The solutions quantify the extent to which a leader in the markets can extract economic rents on the expense of its followers. The third essay investigates the effect of implementing the European Union (EU) CO2 Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) on wholesale power prices in the Western European electricity market. This research uses theoretical and computational modeling approaches to quantify the degree to which CO2 costs were passed on to power prices, and quantifies the

  6. Pollution prevention as a market-enhancing strategy: a storehouse of economical and environmental opportunities.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, J S

    1992-01-01

    EPA's (Environmental Protection Agency) Green Lights Program for energy-efficient lighting illustrates the economic benefits and the market-transforming value of a pollution prevention philosophy. Using technologies available today, and assuming current prices, this program is expected to reduce air pollution 5%, while saving the nation's businesses up to 20 billion in electric bills every year. However, these pollution prevention and savings estimates may be low. As Green Lights transforms the market for lighting services by creating a higher demand for better technologies at lower costs, the program will likely achieve even larger pollution reductions and electricity savings. PMID:11607262

  7. Pollution prevention as a market-enhancing strategy: a storehouse of economical and environmental opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, J S

    1992-02-01

    EPA's (Environmental Protection Agency) Green Lights Program for energy-efficient lighting illustrates the economic benefits and the market-transforming value of a pollution prevention philosophy. Using technologies available today, and assuming current prices, this program is expected to reduce air pollution 5%, while saving the nation's businesses up to 20 billion in electric bills every year. However, these pollution prevention and savings estimates may be low. As Green Lights transforms the market for lighting services by creating a higher demand for better technologies at lower costs, the program will likely achieve even larger pollution reductions and electricity savings.

  8. Weighing the Claims in Diet Ads

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplements for weight loss. These sites are a marketing ploy created to sell acai berry supplements.  Tainted ... on health claims? Get Email Updates Blog Feed Facebook YouTube Twitter The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is ...

  9. Sales of environmental products and services in the Mexican market. How to sell in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, A.

    1994-12-31

    The seven major fields in the Mexican environmental market are: solid waste management; air pollution control; hazardous waste management; waste water treatment and water pollution control; recycling; remediation and site cleanup; and consulting services. According to Mexican authorities, the total value of imports of environmental goods and services in 1992 was more than $1 billion dollars; it is expected to increase to more than $2.2 billion dollars by 1995, with an average rate of 30% growth per year. The still growing and the large size of the Mexican industrial sector, the privatization of hundreds of state enterprises, the government`s economics reform program, the expanded needs of the public sector, the enforcement of the existing environmental regulations, the creation of new regulations, and the new environmental mentality of many of the public and private institutions and companies are the result of the values mentioned above.

  10. Soybean Trade: Balancing Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of an Intercontinental Market.

    PubMed

    Boerema, Annelies; Peeters, Alain; Swolfs, Sanne; Vandevenne, Floor; Jacobs, Sander; Staes, Jan; Meire, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The trade in soybean, an important animal feed product, exemplifies the environmental and socio-economic impact of global markets and global agricultural policy. This paper analyses the impact of increasing production of soybean in the exporting countries (deforestation and grassland conversion) as well as in importing regions (decrease in permanent grassland by substitution of grass as feed). Ecosystem services monetary values were used to calculate the environmental and socio-economic impact of observed land use changes. This is balanced against the economic value of the global soybean trade. The results prove that consumption choices in one region have real effects on the supply of ecosystem services at a large spatial scale. Conclusively, solutions to make this global market more sustainable are discussed. PMID:27244079

  11. Soybean Trade: Balancing Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of an Intercontinental Market

    PubMed Central

    Boerema, Annelies; Peeters, Alain; Swolfs, Sanne; Vandevenne, Floor; Jacobs, Sander; Staes, Jan; Meire, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The trade in soybean, an important animal feed product, exemplifies the environmental and socio-economic impact of global markets and global agricultural policy. This paper analyses the impact of increasing production of soybean in the exporting countries (deforestation and grassland conversion) as well as in importing regions (decrease in permanent grassland by substitution of grass as feed). Ecosystem services monetary values were used to calculate the environmental and socio-economic impact of observed land use changes. This is balanced against the economic value of the global soybean trade. The results prove that consumption choices in one region have real effects on the supply of ecosystem services at a large spatial scale. Conclusively, solutions to make this global market more sustainable are discussed. PMID:27244079

  12. Marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care). PMID:20836416

  13. Small Claims Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKitric, Eloise; Davis, Janet

    The study examined individuals and companies who used small claims courts and the results of decisions reached in small claims cases. A review of studies including an empirical study of two Ohio small claims courts monitored for 12 months made it clear that small claims courts need to be examined to determine if utilization and accessibility to…

  14. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  15. Sustainability: Measure it before you claim it

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability: Measure it before You Claim itSubhas K. SikdarAssociate Director for ScienceNational Risk Management Research LaboratoryU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyCincinnati, OH 45268Sikdar.subhas@epa.govABSTRACTSustainability is claimed too often without a rational veri...

  16. 40 CFR 211.205 - Special claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.205 Special claims. (a) Any manufacturer wishing to make claims regarding the acoustic effectiveness of a device, other than the Noise...

  17. 40 CFR 211.205 - Special claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.205 Special claims. (a) Any manufacturer wishing to make claims regarding the acoustic effectiveness of a device, other than the Noise...

  18. 40 CFR 211.205 - Special claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.205 Special claims. (a) Any manufacturer wishing to make claims regarding the acoustic effectiveness of a device, other than the Noise...

  19. 40 CFR 211.205 - Special claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.205 Special claims. (a) Any manufacturer wishing to make claims regarding the acoustic effectiveness of a device, other than the Noise...

  20. 40 CFR 13.3 - Interagency claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interagency claims. 13.3 Section 13.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS General § 13.3... will be resolved by negotiation between the agencies or by referral to the General Accounting...

  1. 40 CFR 13.3 - Interagency claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interagency claims. 13.3 Section 13.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS General § 13.3... will be resolved by negotiation between the agencies or by referral to the General Accounting...

  2. 40 CFR 13.3 - Interagency claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interagency claims. 13.3 Section 13.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS General § 13.3... will be resolved by negotiation between the agencies or by referral to the General Accounting...

  3. 40 CFR 13.3 - Interagency claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interagency claims. 13.3 Section 13.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS General § 13.3... will be resolved by negotiation between the agencies or by referral to the General Accounting...

  4. 32 CFR 536.120 - Claims payable as maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims payable as maritime claims. 536.120 Section 536.120 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.120 Claims payable as maritime claims....

  5. 32 CFR 536.120 - Claims payable as maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable as maritime claims. 536.120 Section 536.120 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.120 Claims payable as maritime claims....

  6. Status of nutrition and health claims in Europe.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, Hans; Vos, Ellen; Francl, Sheila; Heinonen, Marina; van Loveren, Henk

    2010-09-01

    Functional foods are closely associated with claims on foods. There are two categories of claims on foods: nutrition claims and health claims. Health claims on (functional) foods must be scientifically substantiated. In December 2006, the European Union published its Regulation 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods. As concerns scientific evaluation, the EU-project PASSCLAIM resulted in a set of criteria for the scientific substantiation of health claims on foods. The European Food Safety Authority provides the scientific advise to the European Commission for health claims submitted under Regulation 1924/2006 and has hitherto published several hundreds of opinions on health claims, part of which are positive, part which are negative and a few with insufficient evidence. Antioxidant claims have been approved for the general function of vitamins but not for direct health effects in humans. Another issue with claims is consumer understanding. Consumers can hardly distinguish between graded levels of evidence, and they do make only little or no distinction between nutrition and health claims. Consumers understand nutrition and health claims different from scientists and regulators. Therefore, innovation in industry can readily proceed via approved nutrition claims and approved health claims. The market and the shelves in the stores will not be empty; rather they will look different in the years to come.

  7. Growth in Biofuels Markets: Long Term Environmental and Socioeconomic Impacts (Final Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Seth D. Meyer; Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes

    2010-12-02

    Over the last several years increasing energy and petroleum prices have propelled biofuels and the feedstocks used to produce them, to the forefront of alternative energy production. This growth has increased the linkages between energy and agricultural markets and these changes around the world are having a significant effect on agricultural markets as biofuels begin to play a more substantial role in meeting the world's energy needs. Biofuels are alternatively seen as a means to reduce carbon emissions, increase energy independence, support rural development and to raise farm income. However, concern has arisen that the new demand for traditional commodities or alternative commodities which compete for land can lead to higher food prices and the environmental effects from expanding crop acreage may result in uncertain changes in carbon emissions as land is converted both in the US and abroad. While a number of studies examine changes in land use and consumption from changes in biofuels policies many lack effective policy representation or complete coverage of land types which may be diverted in to energy feedstock production. Many of these biofuels and renewable energy induced land use changes are likely to occur in developing countries with at-risk consumers and on environmentally sensitive lands. Our research has improved the well known FAPRI-MU modeling system which represents US agricultural markets and policies in great detail and added a new model of land use and commodity markets for major commodity producers, consumers and trade dependent and food insecure countries as well as a rest of the world aggregate. The international modules include traditional annual crop lands and include perennial crop land, pasture land, forest land and other land uses from which land may be drawn in to biofuels or renewable energy feedstock production. Changes in calorie consumption in food insecure countries from changes in renewable energy policy can also be examined with a

  8. Evaluating a Surprising Claim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    2013-11-01

    A television advertisement and a website present an interesting question: can rail company CSX really move a ton of freight 468 miles on a gallon of fuel, or is the claim preposterous? Let us examine the claim, first by understanding what is meant, looking at their data, and then converting units to examine the claim quantitatively.

  9. Evaluating a Surprising Claim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard C.

    2013-01-01

    A television advertisement and a website present an interesting question: can rail company CSX "really" move a ton of freight 468 miles on a gallon of fuel, or is the claim preposterous? Let us examine the claim, first by understanding what is meant, looking at their data, and then converting units to examine the claim quantitatively.

  10. Nutrition Marketing on Children's Foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given the rise in childhood obesity, marketing non-nutrient dense foods to children has instigated a worldwide debate. This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% ...

  11. Development of Environmentally Benign Heat Pump Water Heaters for the US Market

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Wang, Kai; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Roetker, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Improving energy efficiency in water heating applications is important to the nation's energy strategies. Water heating in residential and commercial buildings accounts for about 10% of U.S. buildings energy consumption. Heat pump water heating (HPWH) technology is a significant breakthrough in energy efficiency, as an alternative to electric resistance water heating. Heat pump technology has shown acceptable payback period with proper incentives and successful market penetration is emerging. However, current HPWH require the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP). Furthermore, current system designs depend greatly on the backup resistance heaters when the ambient temperature is below freezing or when hot water demand increases. Finally, the performance of current HPWH technology degrades greatly as the water set point temperature exceeds 330 K. This paper presents the potential for carbon dioxide, CO2, as a natural, environmentally benign alternative refrigerant for HPWH technology. In this paper, we first describe the system design, implications and opportunities of operating a transcritical cycle. Next, a prototype CO2 HPWH design featuring flexible component evaluation capability is described. The experimental setup and results are then illustrated followed by a brief discussion on the measured system performance. The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations for the development of CO2 heat pump water heating technology suitable for the U.S. market.

  12. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 1, Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western`s power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western`s firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action altemative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  13. A conceptual framework for the design of environmental post-market monitoring of genetically modified plants.

    PubMed

    Sanvido, Olivier; Widmer, Franco; Winzeler, Michael; Bigler, Franz

    2005-01-01

    Genetically modified plants (GMPs) may soon be cultivated commercially in several member countries of the European Union (EU). According to EU Directive 2001/18/EC, post-market monitoring (PMM) for commercial GMP cultivation must be implemented, in order to detect and prevent adverse effects on human health and the environment. However, no general PMM strategies for GMP cultivation have been established so far. We present a conceptual framework for the design of environmental PMM for GMP cultivation based on current EU legislation and common risk analysis procedures. We have established a comprehensive structure of the GMP approval process, consisting of pre-market risk assessment (PMRA) as well as PMM. Both programs can be distinguished conceptually due to principles inherent to risk analysis procedures. The design of PMM programs should take into account the knowledge gained during approval for commercialization of a specific GMP and the decisions made in the environmental risk assessments (ERAs). PMM is composed of case-specific monitoring (CSM) and general surveillance. CSM focuses on anticipated effects of a specific GMP. Selection of case-specific indicators for detection of ecological exposure and effects, as well as definition of effect sizes, are important for CSM. General surveillance is designed to detect unanticipated effects on general safeguard subjects, such as natural resources, which must not be adversely affected by human activities like GMP cultivation. We have identified clear conceptual differences between CSM and general surveillance, and propose to adopt separate frameworks when developing either of the two programs. Common to both programs is the need to put a value on possible ecological effects of GMP cultivation. The structure of PMM presented here will be of assistance to industry, researchers, and regulators, when assessing GMPs during commercialization.

  14. 40 CFR 14.11 - Principal types of allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principal types of allowable claims. 14.11 Section 14.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL EMPLOYEE PERSONAL... claim is allowable, the EPA Claims Officer may consider such factors as: The employee's use of the...

  15. Effective information channels for reducing costs of environmentally- friendly technologies: evidence from residential PV markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Varun; Robinson, Scott A.

    2013-03-01

    Realizing the environmental benefits of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require reducing costs associated with perception, informational gaps and technological uncertainties. To identify opportunities to decrease costs associated with residential PV adoption, in this letter we use multivariate regression models to analyze a unique, household-level dataset of PV adopters in Texas (USA) to systematically quantify the effect of different information channels on aspiring PV adopters’ decision-making. We find that the length of the decision period depends on the business model, such as whether the system was bought or leased, and on special opportunities to learn, such as the influence of other PV owners in the neighborhood. This influence accrues passively through merely witnessing PV systems in the neighborhood, increasing confidence and motivation, as well as actively through peer-to-peer communications. Using these insights we propose a new framework to provide public information on PV that could drastically reduce barriers to PV adoption, thereby accelerating its market penetration and environmental benefits. This framework could also serve as a model for other distributed generation technologies.

  16. A Community-Based Social Marketing Campaign at Pacific University Oregon: Recycling, Paper Reduction, and Environmentally Preferable Purchasing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Elaine J.; Fieselman, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to design a community-based social marketing (CBSM) campaign to foster sustainable behavior change in paper reduction, commingled recycling, and purchasing environmentally preferred products (EPP) with faculty and staff at Pacific University Oregon. Design/methodology/approach: A CBSM campaign was developed…

  17. State Your Claim!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thypin, Marilyn; Glasner, Lynne

    A short fictional work for limited English speakers relates a young couple's experience in learning about small claims court through an incident involving damage to the husband's leather jacket. The damage to the jacket occurred when it was left at a dry clearner, but the dry cleaner claims that it sent the jacket to a special cleaner that handles…

  18. Predicting project environmental performance under market uncertainties: case study of oil sands coke.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Jennifer M; Bergerson, Joule A; Kettunen, Janne; MacLean, Heather L

    2013-06-01

    A method combining life cycle assessment (LCA) and real options analyses is developed to predict project environmental and financial performance over time, under market uncertainties and decision-making flexibility. The method is applied to examine alternative uses for oil sands coke, a carbonaceous byproduct of processing the unconventional petroleum found in northern Alberta, Canada. Under uncertainties in natural gas price and the imposition of a carbon price, our method identifies that selling the coke to China for electricity generation by integrated gasification combined cycle is likely to be financially preferred initially, but eventually hydrogen production in Alberta is likely to be preferred. Compared to the results of a previous study that used life cycle costing to identify the financially preferred alternative, the inclusion of real options analysis adds value as it accounts for flexibility in decision-making (e.g., to delay investment), increasing the project's expected net present value by 25% and decreasing the expected life cycle greenhouse gas emissions by 11%. Different formulations of the carbon pricing policy or changes to the natural gas price forecast alter these findings. The combined LCA/real options method provides researchers and decision-makers with more comprehensive information than can be provided by either technique alone. PMID:23675646

  19. Predicting project environmental performance under market uncertainties: case study of oil sands coke.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Jennifer M; Bergerson, Joule A; Kettunen, Janne; MacLean, Heather L

    2013-06-01

    A method combining life cycle assessment (LCA) and real options analyses is developed to predict project environmental and financial performance over time, under market uncertainties and decision-making flexibility. The method is applied to examine alternative uses for oil sands coke, a carbonaceous byproduct of processing the unconventional petroleum found in northern Alberta, Canada. Under uncertainties in natural gas price and the imposition of a carbon price, our method identifies that selling the coke to China for electricity generation by integrated gasification combined cycle is likely to be financially preferred initially, but eventually hydrogen production in Alberta is likely to be preferred. Compared to the results of a previous study that used life cycle costing to identify the financially preferred alternative, the inclusion of real options analysis adds value as it accounts for flexibility in decision-making (e.g., to delay investment), increasing the project's expected net present value by 25% and decreasing the expected life cycle greenhouse gas emissions by 11%. Different formulations of the carbon pricing policy or changes to the natural gas price forecast alter these findings. The combined LCA/real options method provides researchers and decision-makers with more comprehensive information than can be provided by either technique alone.

  20. US Food and Drug Administration regulations governing label claims for food products, including probiotics.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Leila G

    2008-02-01

    The US Congress has granted the Food and Drug Administration the authority to permit manufacturers to use claims in food labels that fit into the following broad categories: health claims, structure/function claims, nutrient content claims, and dietary guidance messages. This article outlines the scope and evolution of these claims and how they are used in the marketing of probiotics. Probiotics are live microorganisms (in most cases, bacteria) that are similar to beneficial microorganisms found in the human gut.

  1. Formalizing Probabilistic Safety Claims

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    A safety claim for a system is a statement that the system, which is subject to hazardous conditions, satisfies a given set of properties. Following work by John Rushby and Bev Littlewood, this paper presents a mathematical framework that can be used to state and formally prove probabilistic safety claims. It also enables hazardous conditions, their uncertainties, and their interactions to be integrated into the safety claim. This framework provides a formal description of the probabilistic composition of an arbitrary number of hazardous conditions and their effects on system behavior. An example is given of a probabilistic safety claim for a conflict detection algorithm for aircraft in a 2D airspace. The motivation for developing this mathematical framework is that it can be used in an automated theorem prover to formally verify safety claims.

  2. 32 CFR 536.129 - Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims. 536.129... Justice § 536.129 Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims. Claims cognizable under Article 139, UCMJ, are limited... person to liability under Article 139, the soldier's conduct must be such as would constitute a...

  3. 32 CFR 536.129 - Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims. 536.129 Section... § 536.129 Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims. Claims cognizable under Article 139, UCMJ, are limited to... to liability under Article 139, the soldier's conduct must be such as would constitute a violation...

  4. Processing dental claims electronically.

    PubMed

    Mylan, V

    1996-01-01

    A reduction of healthcare costs is an important part of the reform our society is demanding. We cannot ignore this. Lowering administrative costs is a particularly good way to reduce health care expenditures since this decreases the cost without compromising the quality of services. Implementing an EDI structure for submitting claims and receiving claim remittance advice is one way to significantly reduce the cost of health care by lowering administrative costs. EDI allows the consumer to receive the same level of health care at a lower cost. To accomplish this goal, the industry must accept some standardization. While providers, dental software vendors, and clearinghouses request an electronic claims system that is uniform-payers (insurance companies, State-administered Medicaid programs, etc.) often insist on proprietary formats that fit their own requirements. This impedes the implementation of a successful electronic interchange of data. Under the leadership of the Canadian Dental Association, payers and dentists in Canada were able to create a superior electronic claim processing network, CDAnet. Providers and payers using CDAnet agree that the system works very well. The Canadian dentist does not pay for this service, and insurance companies benefit significantly. Dentists in the USA do not have a universal electronic claim processing network. A USA dentist who wants to send claims electronically has limited selections and often pays additional fees. Organized dentistry has the best opportunity of establishing electronic data interchange between providers and payers in the USA. The first step is creating a universal electronic claim processing system. This system must protect confidentiality by maintaining data that keeps anonymous provider and patient data. It is the dentist who produces the claim. Dentists must become involved in the decisions affecting electronic claim processing. The proper guidance from organized dentistry will enable providers, payers

  5. Assessing herbal products with health claims.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, Silvia; Gemen, Raymond; Wollgast, Jan; Worth, Andrew; Maragkoudakis, Petros; Caldeira, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Herbs, herbal extracts, or phytochemicals are broadly used as foods, drugs, and as traditional medicines. These are well regulated in Europe, with thorough controls on both safety and efficacy or validity of health claims. However, the distinction between medicines and foods with health claims is not always clear. In addition, there are several cases of herbal products that claim benefits that are not scientifically demonstrated. This review details the European Union (EU) legislative framework that regulates the approval and marketing of herbal products bearing health claims as well as the scientific evidence that is needed to support such claims. To illustrate the latter, we focus on phytoecdysteroid (PE)-containing preparations, generally sold to sportsmen and bodybuilders. We review the limited published scientific evidence that supports claims for these products in humans. In addition, we model the in silico binding between different PEs and human nuclear receptors and discuss the implications of these putative bindings in terms of the mechanism of action of this family of compounds. We call for additional research to validate the safety and health-promoting properties of PEs and other herbal compounds, for the benefit of all consumers.

  6. Unfalsifiability of security claims.

    PubMed

    Herley, Cormac

    2016-06-01

    There is an inherent asymmetry in computer security: Things can be declared insecure by observation, but not the reverse. There is no observation that allows us to declare an arbitrary system or technique secure. We show that this implies that claims of necessary conditions for security (and sufficient conditions for insecurity) are unfalsifiable. This in turn implies an asymmetry in self-correction: Whereas the claim that countermeasures are sufficient is always subject to correction, the claim that they are necessary is not. Thus, the response to new information can only be to ratchet upward: Newly observed or speculated attack capabilities can argue a countermeasure in, but no possible observation argues one out. Further, when justifications are unfalsifiable, deciding the relative importance of defensive measures reduces to a subjective comparison of assumptions. Relying on such claims is the source of two problems: once we go wrong we stay wrong and errors accumulate, and we have no systematic way to rank or prioritize measures.

  7. 16 CFR 260.8 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... compliance with section 5(a) of the FTC Act as that Act applies to environmental marketing claims. 7 16 CFR 1.83. 8 40 CFR 1501.3. 9 16 CFR 1.83(a). (b) The Commission has concluded that the modifications to the... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental assessment. 260.8 Section...

  8. 16 CFR 260.8 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... compliance with section 5(a) of the FTC Act as that Act applies to environmental marketing claims. 7 16 CFR 1.83. 8 40 CFR 1501.3. 9 16 CFR 1.83(a). (b) The Commission has concluded that the modifications to the... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental assessment. 260.8 Section...

  9. 37 CFR 1.75 - Claim(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claim(s). 1.75 Section 1.75... GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification § 1.75 Claim(s). (a.... (35 U.S.C. 6; 15 U.S.C. 1113, 1126)...

  10. 37 CFR 1.75 - Claim(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claim(s). 1.75 Section 1.75... GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification § 1.75 Claim(s). (a.... (35 U.S.C. 6; 15 U.S.C. 1113, 1126)...

  11. 37 CFR 1.75 - Claim(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claim(s). 1.75 Section 1.75... GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification § 1.75 Claim(s). (a.... (35 U.S.C. 6; 15 U.S.C. 1113, 1126)...

  12. 37 CFR 1.75 - Claim(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim(s). 1.75 Section 1.75... GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification § 1.75 Claim(s). (a.... (35 U.S.C. 6; 15 U.S.C. 1113, 1126)...

  13. 37 CFR 1.75 - Claim(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claim(s). 1.75 Section 1.75... GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification § 1.75 Claim(s). (a.... (35 U.S.C. 6; 15 U.S.C. 1113, 1126)...

  14. The claim from adoption.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Thomas Sobirk

    2002-08-01

    In this article several justifications of what I call 'the claim from adoption' are examined. The claim from adoption is that, instead of expending resources on bringing new children into the world using reproductive technology and then caring for these children, we ought to devote these resources to the adoption and care of existing destitute children. Arguments trading on the idea that resources should be directed to adoption instead of assisted reproduction because already existing people can benefit from such a use of resources whereas we cannot benefit individuals by bringing them into existence are rejected. It is then argued that a utilitarian argument proposed by Christian Munthe that supports the claim from adoption in some situations should be rejected because the support it offers does not extend to certain situations in which it seems morally obvious that resources should be expended on adoption rather than assisted reproduction. A version of the Priority View improves upon Munthe's utilitarianism by supporting the claim from adoption in the cases in which Munthe's argument failed. Some allegedly counterintuitive implications of the Priority View are then discussed, and it is concluded that the Priority View is more plausible than utilitarianism. In a concluding section on policy issues it is argued that, even though the claim from adoption can be justified in a variety of situations, it does not follow that, in these situations, governments should direct resources away from assisted reproduction and towards adoption.

  15. The social and environmental context of argan oil production.

    PubMed

    de Waroux, Yann le Polain

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, argan oil has become one of the most expensive cosmetic oils on world markets. This review outlines the social and environmental context of the argan boom, highlighting its consequences on local livelihoods and conservation. It examines the claims that the argan oil boom has benefited the local population and that it encourages the conservation of argan woodlands.

  16. 40 CFR 211.205 - Special claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regarding the acoustic effectiveness of a device, other than the Noise Reduction Rating, must be prepared to... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Special claims. 211.205 Section 211.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT...

  17. 29 CFR 15.41 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... if the claim is cognizable under the Federal Tort Claims Act (28 U.S.C. 2677). (c) A claim for damage... Secretary of Labor ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED STATUTES Claims Arising Out of the Operation of the Job Corps § 15.41 Allowable claims. (a)(1) A claim for damage...

  18. 40 CFR 725.80 - General provisions for confidentiality claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General provisions for confidentiality claims. 725.80 Section 725.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... asserts a claim of confidentiality for information contained in a health and safety study of...

  19. Comparison of the microbiological quality of environmentally friendly and conventionally grown vegetables sold at retail markets in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Kim, Minju; Kim, Eun-Gyeong; Beuchat, Larry R; Kim, Hoikyung

    2014-09-01

    Fresh produce is usually eaten raw without cooking or heating, which may increase the probability of foodborne infection. The microbiological quality of 11 types of fresh, raw vegetables (romaine lettuce, sesame leaves, crown daisy, garlic chives, iceberg lettuce, cabbage, broccoli, leek, chili pepper, capsicum, and zucchini) purchased at retail markets in Iksan, Korea as affected by cultivation method (environmentally friendly vegetables [organic, pesticide-free, and low-pesticide vegetables] and conventionally grown vegetables) and harvest season was determined. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were not detected in all samples of vegetables tested. Aerobic mesophiles (>6 log cfu/g) were detected in environmentally friendly romaine lettuce and crown daisy and environmentally friendly and conventionally grown garlic chives, which also contained coliforms (>3 log cfu/g). Sesame leaf and crown daisy (regardless of cultivation method), as well as conventionally grown romaine lettuce and leek, contained >1 log cfu/g of E. coli. The overall microbiological quality of environmentally friendly and conventionally grown vegetables was not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, there were seasonal effects on populations of coliforms and generic E. coli on vegetables. The greatest numbers of microorganisms were isolated from environmentally friendly or conventionally grown vegetables purchased in winter. The vegetables, regardless of cultivation method or season, should be subjected to appropriate antimicrobial treatment to enhance their microbial safety. PMID:25124136

  20. Unfalsifiability of security claims.

    PubMed

    Herley, Cormac

    2016-06-01

    There is an inherent asymmetry in computer security: Things can be declared insecure by observation, but not the reverse. There is no observation that allows us to declare an arbitrary system or technique secure. We show that this implies that claims of necessary conditions for security (and sufficient conditions for insecurity) are unfalsifiable. This in turn implies an asymmetry in self-correction: Whereas the claim that countermeasures are sufficient is always subject to correction, the claim that they are necessary is not. Thus, the response to new information can only be to ratchet upward: Newly observed or speculated attack capabilities can argue a countermeasure in, but no possible observation argues one out. Further, when justifications are unfalsifiable, deciding the relative importance of defensive measures reduces to a subjective comparison of assumptions. Relying on such claims is the source of two problems: once we go wrong we stay wrong and errors accumulate, and we have no systematic way to rank or prioritize measures. PMID:27217574

  1. Strategic planning for marketers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, I

    1978-12-01

    The merits of strategic planning as a marketing tool are discussed in this article which takes the view that although marketers claim to be future-oriented, they focus too little attention on long-term planning and forecasting. Strategic planning, as defined by these authors, usually encompasses periods of between five and twenty-five years and places less emphasis on the past as an absolute predictor of the future. It takes a more probabilistic view of the future than conventional marketing strategy and looks at the corporation as but one component interacting with the total environment. Inputs are examined in terms of environmental, social, political, technological and economic importance. Because of its futuristic orientation, an important tenant of strategic planning is the preparation of several alternative scenarios ranging from most to least likely. By planning for a wide-range of future market conditions, a corporation is more able to be flexible by anticipating the course of future events, and is less likely to become a captive reactor--as the authors believe is now the case. An example of strategic planning at General Elecric is cited.

  2. 21 CFR 101.71 - Health claims: claims not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health claims: claims not authorized. 101.71 Section 101.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.71...

  3. 21 CFR 101.71 - Health claims: claims not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health claims: claims not authorized. 101.71 Section 101.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.71...

  4. 21 CFR 101.71 - Health claims: claims not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health claims: claims not authorized. 101.71 Section 101.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.71...

  5. 21 CFR 101.71 - Health claims: claims not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Health claims: claims not authorized. 101.71 Section 101.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.71...

  6. 21 CFR 101.71 - Health claims: claims not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Health claims: claims not authorized. 101.71 Section 101.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.71...

  7. Environmental Externalities in Electric Power Markets: Acid Rain, Urban Ozone, and Climate Change

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the emissions resulting from the generation of electricity by utilities and their role in contributing to the environmental problems of acid rain, urban ozone, and climate change.

  8. Diffusion of environmentally-friendly energy technologies: buy versus lease differences in residential PV markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Varun; Sigrin, Benjamin

    2013-03-01

    Diffusion of microgeneration technologies, particularly rooftop photovoltaic (PV), represents a key option in reducing emissions in the residential sector. We use a uniquely rich dataset from the burgeoning residential PV market in Texas to study the nature of the consumer’s decision-making process in the adoption of these technologies. In particular, focusing on the financial metrics and the information decision-makers use to base their decisions upon, we study how the leasing and buying models affect individual choices and, thereby, the adoption of capital-intensive energy technologies. Overall, our findings suggest that the leasing model more effectively addresses consumers’ informational requirements and that, contrary to some other studies, buyers and lessees of PV do not necessarily differ significantly along socio-demographic variables. Instead, we find that the leasing model has opened up the residential PV market to a new, and potentially very large, consumer segment—those with a tight cash-flow situation.

  9. Occurrence of Thermotolerant Campylobacter in Raw Poultry Meat, Environmental and Pigeon Stools Collected in Open-Air Markets

    PubMed Central

    Bellio, Alberto; Traversa, Amaranta; Adriano, Daniela; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Colzani, Alberto; Gili, Stefano; Dondo, Alessandro; Gallina, Silvia; Grattarola, Carla; Maurella, Cristiana; Zoppi, Simona; Decastelli, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis for confirmed human cases in European Union during 2011. Poultry meat was very often implicated in Campylobacter infections in humans. In Italy commerce of raw poultry meat is common in open-air markets: these areas can be considered at high risk of bacterial contamination due to the high presence birds like pigeons. The aim of this study was to collect data about the contamination by thermotolerant Campylobacter of raw poultry meat commercialised in open-air markets, of work-surfaces in contact with poultry meat and of pigeon stools sampled in the market areas in Turin, Northern Italy. Between September 2011 and December 2012, 86 raw poultry meat samples, 86 environmental swabs and 108 animal samples were collected in 38 open-air markets. Analysis were carried out according to ISO10272-1:2006 standard. C.coli was detected in 2.3% (2/86) of raw poultry meat samples, whereas no swab (0/86) resulted positive. Of pigeon stool 28% (30/107) was positive for C.jejuni (83.3% C.jejuni subsp. jejuni and 16.7% C.jejuni subsp. doylei). C.jejuni subsp. jejuni was isolated from 1 dead pigeon. Our results showed lower rates of contamination than those reported at retail in Europe. Although samples were collected in areas at high risk of contamination, raw poultry meat and work surfaces reported a low level of presence of thermotolerant Campylobacter. The high percentage of C.jejuni isolated from pigeon stools showed the importance of a continuous application of preventive measures by the food business operators and the surveillance activity by the Competent Authority. PMID:27800355

  10. 32 CFR 750.6 - Claims: Presentment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incident from which the claim arose. The Claim for Damage or Injury, Standard Form 95, shall be used whenever practical for claims under the Federal Tort and Military Claims Acts. Claims under the Personnel... the same incident, each person shall file a claim separately. 2 The Claim for Damage or...

  11. 32 CFR 750.6 - Claims: Presentment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incident from which the claim arose. The Claim for Damage or Injury, Standard Form 95, shall be used whenever practical for claims under the Federal Tort and Military Claims Acts. Claims under the Personnel... the same incident, each person shall file a claim separately. 2 The Claim for Damage or...

  12. 32 CFR 750.6 - Claims: Presentment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incident from which the claim arose. The Claim for Damage or Injury, Standard Form 95, shall be used whenever practical for claims under the Federal Tort and Military Claims Acts. Claims under the Personnel... the same incident, each person shall file a claim separately. 2 The Claim for Damage or...

  13. 32 CFR 750.6 - Claims: Presentment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... incident from which the claim arose. The Claim for Damage or Injury, Standard Form 95, shall be used whenever practical for claims under the Federal Tort and Military Claims Acts. Claims under the Personnel... the same incident, each person shall file a claim separately. 2 The Claim for Damage or...

  14. The United States pork niche market phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Honeyman, M S; Pirog, R S; Huber, G H; Lammers, P J; Hermann, J R

    2006-08-01

    After the broad industrialization of the US pork industry, there has been a development of niche markets for export and domestic pork; that is, there is a pork niche market phenomenon. The US pork niche market phenomenon is characterized, and 2 of the major markets are explained in detail. With the Midwest's tradition of a diversified family-based agriculture and record low hog prices of the late 1990s, the conditions were conducive for this phenomenon to develop. Pork niche markets utilize various sales methods including Internet sales, local abattoir sales, direct marketing, farmer networks, and targeting to organized groups. In 2003, there were approximately 35 to 40 active pork niche marketing efforts in Iowa. The Berkshire breed is an example of a swine breed that has had a recent resurgence because of niche markets. Berkshire pork is known for tenderness and excellent quality. Berkshire registrations have increased 4-fold in the last 10 yr. One of the larger niche marketers of "natural pork" is Niman Ranch Pork, which has more than 400 farmer-producers and processes about 2,500 pigs weekly. Many US consumers of pork are interested in issues concerning the environment, food safety, pig welfare, and pig farm ownership and structure. These consumers may be willing to pay more for pork from farmers who are also concerned about these issues. Small- and medium-sized swine farmers are active in pork niche markets. Niche markets claim product differentiation by superior or unique product quality and social attributes. Quality attributes include certain swine breeds, and meat quality, freshness, taste or flavor, and tenderness. Social or credence attributes often are claimed and include freedom from antibiotics and growth promotants; local family farm production; natural, organic, outdoor, or bedded rearing; humane rearing; known origin; environmentally friendly production; and the absence of animal by-products in the feed. Niche pork markets and alternative swine

  15. The United States pork niche market phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Honeyman, M S; Pirog, R S; Huber, G H; Lammers, P J; Hermann, J R

    2006-08-01

    After the broad industrialization of the US pork industry, there has been a development of niche markets for export and domestic pork; that is, there is a pork niche market phenomenon. The US pork niche market phenomenon is characterized, and 2 of the major markets are explained in detail. With the Midwest's tradition of a diversified family-based agriculture and record low hog prices of the late 1990s, the conditions were conducive for this phenomenon to develop. Pork niche markets utilize various sales methods including Internet sales, local abattoir sales, direct marketing, farmer networks, and targeting to organized groups. In 2003, there were approximately 35 to 40 active pork niche marketing efforts in Iowa. The Berkshire breed is an example of a swine breed that has had a recent resurgence because of niche markets. Berkshire pork is known for tenderness and excellent quality. Berkshire registrations have increased 4-fold in the last 10 yr. One of the larger niche marketers of "natural pork" is Niman Ranch Pork, which has more than 400 farmer-producers and processes about 2,500 pigs weekly. Many US consumers of pork are interested in issues concerning the environment, food safety, pig welfare, and pig farm ownership and structure. These consumers may be willing to pay more for pork from farmers who are also concerned about these issues. Small- and medium-sized swine farmers are active in pork niche markets. Niche markets claim product differentiation by superior or unique product quality and social attributes. Quality attributes include certain swine breeds, and meat quality, freshness, taste or flavor, and tenderness. Social or credence attributes often are claimed and include freedom from antibiotics and growth promotants; local family farm production; natural, organic, outdoor, or bedded rearing; humane rearing; known origin; environmentally friendly production; and the absence of animal by-products in the feed. Niche pork markets and alternative swine

  16. Detection of toxoplasmosis in environmental samples at a wet market of a capital city centre.

    PubMed

    Nimir, Amal R; Linn, Tang Cher

    2011-01-01

    The local Chow Kit market is the largest wet market in the city of Kuala Lumpur. It is very close to the biggest government hospital in the city centre. However, the level of cleanliness in this area is always questionable and a matter of concern. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of T. gondii oocyst in water samples used by hawkers in that market and tissue cysts in rats' brains captured from the same area. Water samples were taken to the parasitology laboratory at the National Universtiy of MalaysiaUniversity and a sugar flotation concentration method was used. Supernatant microscopical examination was then performed. A total of 752 slides were screened for the presence of T. gondii oocyst. A hundred rats wandering in the same area were also captured by the hawkers using mousetraps. After each animal was sacrificed, and an electric microtome was used to cut out serial sections 5 microm thick from the rat brains. The de-waxed tissue sections were stained by the progressive Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain for microscopical examination. A total of 1000 slides were screened under a light microscope to detect the presence of T. gondii brain cysts. All the water samples were found to be negative for T. gondii oocyst. Out of the 100 rats captured, three rats were found to possess T. gondii cysts in their brains. Water samples reflect minimal or no solid food contamination, while the 3% of positive brain cysts influence the researchers to broaden their investigations for future projects.

  17. The use of existing environmental networks for the post-market monitoring of GM crop cultivation in the EU.

    PubMed

    Smets, G; Alcalde, E; Andres, D; Carron, D; Delzenne, P; Heise, A; Legris, G; Martinez Parrilla, M; Verhaert, J; Wandelt, C; Ilegems, M; Rüdelsheim, P

    2014-07-01

    The European Union (EU) Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment requires that both Case-Specific Monitoring (CSM) and General Surveillance (GS) are considered as post-market implementing measures. Whereas CSM is directed to monitor potential adverse effects of GMOs or their use identified in the environmental risk assessment, GS aims to detect un-intended adverse effects of GMOs or their use on human and animal health or the environment. Guidance documents on the monitoring of genetically modified (GM) plants from the Commission and EFSA clarify that, as appropriate, GS can make use of established routine surveillance practices. Networks involved in routine surveillance offer recognised expertise in a particular domain and are designed to collect information on important environmental aspects over a large geographical area. However, as the suitability of existing monitoring networks to provide relevant data for monitoring impacts of GMOs is not known, plant biotechnology companies developed an approach to describe the processes and criteria that will be used for selecting and evaluating existing monitoring systems. In this paper, the availability of existing monitoring networks for this purpose is evaluated. By cataloguing the existing environmental monitoring networks in the EU, it can be concluded that they can only be used, in the context of GMO cultivation monitoring, as secondary tools to collect baseline information. PMID:24836113

  18. The use of existing environmental networks for the post-market monitoring of GM crop cultivation in the EU.

    PubMed

    Smets, G; Alcalde, E; Andres, D; Carron, D; Delzenne, P; Heise, A; Legris, G; Martinez Parrilla, M; Verhaert, J; Wandelt, C; Ilegems, M; Rüdelsheim, P

    2014-07-01

    The European Union (EU) Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment requires that both Case-Specific Monitoring (CSM) and General Surveillance (GS) are considered as post-market implementing measures. Whereas CSM is directed to monitor potential adverse effects of GMOs or their use identified in the environmental risk assessment, GS aims to detect un-intended adverse effects of GMOs or their use on human and animal health or the environment. Guidance documents on the monitoring of genetically modified (GM) plants from the Commission and EFSA clarify that, as appropriate, GS can make use of established routine surveillance practices. Networks involved in routine surveillance offer recognised expertise in a particular domain and are designed to collect information on important environmental aspects over a large geographical area. However, as the suitability of existing monitoring networks to provide relevant data for monitoring impacts of GMOs is not known, plant biotechnology companies developed an approach to describe the processes and criteria that will be used for selecting and evaluating existing monitoring systems. In this paper, the availability of existing monitoring networks for this purpose is evaluated. By cataloguing the existing environmental monitoring networks in the EU, it can be concluded that they can only be used, in the context of GMO cultivation monitoring, as secondary tools to collect baseline information.

  19. Higher Learning and the Labour Market in a Changing World: Environmental Scan for British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In a knowledge-based economy, economic and social well-being depend on the development of human resources, and those with access to education benefit from higher lifetime earnings, lower rates of unemployment and poverty, a greater sense of engagement at work and society, and healthier lifestyles. This environmental scan considers the major…

  20. 40 CFR 13.5 - Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct. 13.5 Section 13.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS General § 13.5 Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct. (a) The...

  1. 40 CFR 13.5 - Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct. 13.5 Section 13.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS General § 13.5 Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct. (a) The...

  2. 40 CFR 13.5 - Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct. 13.5 Section 13.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS General § 13.5 Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct. (a) The Administrator will refer cases of...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 307 - Claim for CERCLA Response Action

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim for CERCLA Response Action B Appendix B to Part 307 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND..., AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) CLAIMS PROCEDURES Pt. 307, App. B Appendix B to Part 307—Claim for...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 307 - Claim for CERCLA Response Action

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claim for CERCLA Response Action B Appendix B to Part 307 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND..., AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) CLAIMS PROCEDURES Pt. 307, App. B Appendix B to Part 307—Claim for...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 307 - Claim for CERCLA Response Action

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claim for CERCLA Response Action B Appendix B to Part 307 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND..., AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) CLAIMS PROCEDURES Pt. 307, App. B Appendix B to Part 307—Claim for...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 307 - Claim for CERCLA Response Action

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claim for CERCLA Response Action B Appendix B to Part 307 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND..., AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) CLAIMS PROCEDURES Pt. 307, App. B Appendix B to Part 307—Claim for...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 307 - Claim for CERCLA Response Action

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claim for CERCLA Response Action B Appendix B to Part 307 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND..., AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) CLAIMS PROCEDURES Pt. 307, App. B Appendix B to Part 307—Claim for...

  8. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections 1-16

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  9. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 4, Appendixes B-D

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  10. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 3, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  11. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. 536... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  12. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims payable under the Military Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  13. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims payable under the Military Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  14. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. 536... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  15. 32 CFR 536.84 - Scope for claims under the Federal Tort Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Scope for claims under the Federal Tort Claims... CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 536.84 Scope for claims under the Federal Tort Claims Act. (a) General. This subpart applies in...

  16. 32 CFR 536.85 - Claims payable under the Federal Tort Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims payable under the Federal Tort Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 536.85 Claims payable under the Federal Tort Claims Act. (a) Unless otherwise prescribed, claims...

  17. 32 CFR 536.85 - Claims payable under the Federal Tort Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims payable under the Federal Tort Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 536.85 Claims payable under the Federal Tort Claims Act. (a) Unless otherwise prescribed, claims...

  18. 32 CFR 536.84 - Scope for claims under the Federal Tort Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Scope for claims under the Federal Tort Claims... CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 536.84 Scope for claims under the Federal Tort Claims Act. (a) General. This subpart applies in...

  19. 32 CFR 536.84 - Scope for claims under the Federal Tort Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope for claims under the Federal Tort Claims... CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 536.84 Scope for claims under the Federal Tort Claims Act. (a) General. This subpart applies in...

  20. 32 CFR 536.85 - Claims payable under the Federal Tort Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable under the Federal Tort Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 536.85 Claims payable under the Federal Tort Claims Act. (a) Unless otherwise prescribed, claims...

  1. Locating Environmental Education between Modern Capitalism and Postmodern Socialism: A Reply to Lucie Sauve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huckle, John

    1999-01-01

    Claims that structural-adjustment programs, deregulation, and opening of markets may be good for international capital, but such processes increase inequalities, encourage people and countries to over-exploit natural resources, and contribute to reductions in spending on social and environmental welfare. (Author/CCM)

  2. A systematic review of the reliability and validity of discrete choice experiments in valuing non-market environmental goods.

    PubMed

    Rakotonarivo, O Sarobidy; Schaafsma, Marije; Hockley, Neal

    2016-12-01

    While discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are increasingly used in the field of environmental valuation, they remain controversial because of their hypothetical nature and the contested reliability and validity of their results. We systematically reviewed evidence on the validity and reliability of environmental DCEs from the past thirteen years (Jan 2003-February 2016). 107 articles met our inclusion criteria. These studies provide limited and mixed evidence of the reliability and validity of DCE. Valuation results were susceptible to small changes in survey design in 45% of outcomes reporting reliability measures. DCE results were generally consistent with those of other stated preference techniques (convergent validity), but hypothetical bias was common. Evidence supporting theoretical validity (consistency with assumptions of rational choice theory) was limited. In content validity tests, 2-90% of respondents protested against a feature of the survey, and a considerable proportion found DCEs to be incomprehensible or inconsequential (17-40% and 10-62% respectively). DCE remains useful for non-market valuation, but its results should be used with caution. Given the sparse and inconclusive evidence base, we recommend that tests of reliability and validity are more routinely integrated into DCE studies and suggest how this might be achieved. PMID:27576151

  3. Characterization and potential environmental implications of select Cu-based fungicides and bactericides employed in U.S. markets.

    PubMed

    Tegenaw, Ayenachew; Tolaymat, Thabet; Al-Abed, Souhail; El Badawy, Amro; Luxton, Todd; Sorial, George; Genaidy, Ash

    2015-02-01

    This exploratory study aimed to examine the extent and mineral speciation of nanosized Cu in two fungicide products (A and B) available in the U.S. markets. Electron microcopy results demonstrated the presence of spherical and polydisperse <100 nm Cu particles in product B. Other elements (e.g., Pb, Na, Ca, and S) were found in both products. Mineral speciation analysis indicated the dominance of spertiniite followed by cornetite and then malachite in product A. In product B, spertiniite and tenorite were the dominant Cu species followed by cornetite and malachite. Tenorite in product B (∼30%, <450 nm) has the potential for stronger toxicological impacts relative to those of other Cu minerals in the tested products. For both products, the particle hydrodynamic diameter was impacted by changes in environmental parameters (pH, ionic strength, and background electrolyte) in Milli-Q water and humic acid suspensions. However, a minimal impact was observed in polyvinylpyrrolidone suspensions. The findings are critically important for estimating the fate and transport of Cu particles in different environmental scenarios as well as allowing a more accurate assessment of their risk that is largely impacted by chemical speciation and size.

  4. Constituting Market Citizenship: Regulatory State, Market Making and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayasuriya, Kanishka

    2015-01-01

    The paper makes three claims: first that regulatory state making and market making in higher education is intertwined through a project of market citizenship that shapes the "publicness" of higher education. Second, we argue that these projects of market citizenship are variegated and in Australia has taken the form of accommodation--via…

  5. Product environmental footprint in policy and market decisions: Applicability and impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Annekatrin; Bach, Vanessa; Finkbeiner, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    In April 2013, the European Commission published the Product and Organisation Environmental Footprint (PEF/OEF) methodology--a life cycle-based multicriteria measure of the environmental performance of products, services, and organizations. With its approach of "comparability over flexibility," the PEF/OEF methodology aims at harmonizing existing methods, while decreasing the flexibility provided by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards regarding methodological choices. Currently, a 3-y pilot phase is running, aiming at testing the methodology and developing product category and organization sector rules (PEFCR/OEFSR). Although a harmonized method is in theory a good idea, the PEF/OEF methodology presents challenges, including a risk of confusion and limitations in applicability to practice. The paper discusses the main differences between the PEF and ISO methodologies and highlights challenges regarding PEF applicability, with a focus on impact assessment. Some methodological aspects of the PEF and PEFCR Guides are found to contradict the ISO 14044 (2006) and ISO 14025 (2006). Others, such as prohibition of inventory cutoffs, are impractical. The evaluation of the impact assessment methods proposed in the PEF/OEF Guide showed that the predefined methods for water consumption, land use, and abiotic resources are not adequate because of modeling artefacts, missing inventory data, or incomplete characterization factors. However, the methods for global warming and ozone depletion perform very well. The results of this study are relevant for the PEF (and OEF) pilot phase, which aims at testing the PEF (OEF) methodology (and potentially adapting it) as well as addressing challenges and coping with them. PMID:25919189

  6. 7 CFR 249.20 - Claims and penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Claims and penalties. 249.20 Section 249.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Miscellaneous...

  7. 7 CFR 249.20 - Claims and penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Claims and penalties. 249.20 Section 249.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Miscellaneous...

  8. 7 CFR 249.20 - Claims and penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims and penalties. 249.20 Section 249.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Miscellaneous...

  9. 16 CFR 260.16 - Renewable materials claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... made with recycled content, recyclable, and biodegradable. Unless the marketer has substantiation for... into bio-plastics, only half of our product is made from petroleum-based materials.” By identifying the... unintended claims that the product is made with recycled content, recyclable, and biodegradable. The...

  10. 16 CFR 260.16 - Renewable materials claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... made with recycled content, recyclable, and biodegradable. Unless the marketer has substantiation for... into bio-plastics, only half of our product is made from petroleum-based materials.” By identifying the... unintended claims that the product is made with recycled content, recyclable, and biodegradable. The...

  11. Market applications of Resistivity, Induced Polarisation, Magnetic Resonance and Electromagnetic methods for Groundwater Investigations, Mining Exploration, Environmental and Engineering Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Manufacturers of geophysical instruments have been facing these past decades the fast evolution of the electronics and of the computer sciences. More automatisms have been introduced into the equipment and into the processing and interpretation software which may let believe that conducting geophysical surveys requires less understanding of the method and less experience than in the past. Hence some misunderstandings in the skills that are needed to make the geophysical results well integrated among the global information which the applied geologist needs to acquire to be successful in his applications. Globally, the demand in geophysical investigation goes towards more penetration depth, requiring more powerful transmitters, and towards a better resolution, requiring more data such as in 3D analysis. Budgets aspects strongly suggest a high efficiency in the field associated to high speed data processing. The innovation is required in all aspects of geophysics to fit with the market needs, including new technological (instruments, software) and methodological (methods, procedures, arrays) developments. The structures in charge of the geophysical work can be public organisations (institutes, ministries, geological surveys,…) or can come from the private sector (large companies, sub-contractors, consultants, …), each one of them getting their own constraints in the field work and in the processing and interpretation phases. In the applications concerning Groundwater investigations, Mining Exploration, Environmental and Engineering surveys, examples of data and their interpretation presently carried out all around the world will be presented for DC Resistivity (Vertical Electrical Sounding, 2D, 3D Resistivity Imaging, Resistivity Monitoring), Induced Polarisation (Time Domain 2D, 3D arrays for mining and environmental), Magnetic Resonance Sounding (direct detection and characterisation of groundwater) and Electromagnetic (multi-component and multi

  12. Policies, programs, and public participation: Environmental and occupational health in the emerging market economies and democracies of central and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, B.S.; Levenstein, C.

    1993-12-31

    The report focuses on material presented at the Third Annual Symposium. The topics considered at this conference included policies and programs in Poland, in other countries in Europe, and in the United States; market economies and democratic political systems including reports on market forces and environmental health, and public participation, democracy in action; methods and applications; studies of environmental contamination and health; and studies of social factors and health. Based on the information given at the conference, the general conclusions were that there is a need to establish new working relationships and strengthen existing ones, to develop and provide educational and informational programs and materials, to find ways to balance environmental protection and economic development, to strengthen democratic institutions and processes, and to undertake new policy initiatives.

  13. Musculoskeletal disorder costs and medical claim filing in the US retail trade sector.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Anasua; Leigh, J Paul

    2011-01-01

    The average costs of Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD) and odds ratios for filing medical claims related to MSD were examined. The medical claims were identified by ICD 9 codes for four US Census regions within retail trade. Large private firms' medical claims data from Thomson Reuters Inc. MarketScan databases for the years 2003 through 2006 were used. Average costs were highest for claims related to lumbar region (ICD 9 Code: 724.02) and number of claims were largest for low back syndrome (ICD 9 Code: 724.2). Whereas the odds of filing an MSD claim did not vary greatly over time, average costs declined over time. The odds of filing claims rose with age and were higher for females and southerners than men and non-southerners. Total estimated national medical costs for MSDs within retail trade were $389 million (2007 USD).

  14. Health care market deviations from the ideal market.

    PubMed

    Mwachofi, Ari; Al-Assaf, Assaf F

    2011-08-01

    A common argument in the health policy debate is that market forces allocate resources efficiently in health care, and that government intervention distorts such allocation. Rarely do those making such claims state explicitly that the market they refer to is an ideal in economic theory which can only exist under very strict conditions. This paper explores the strict conditions necessary for that ideal market in the context of health care as a means of examining the claim that market forces do allocate resources efficiently in health care. PMID:22087373

  15. Health care market deviations from the ideal market.

    PubMed

    Mwachofi, Ari; Al-Assaf, Assaf F

    2011-08-01

    A common argument in the health policy debate is that market forces allocate resources efficiently in health care, and that government intervention distorts such allocation. Rarely do those making such claims state explicitly that the market they refer to is an ideal in economic theory which can only exist under very strict conditions. This paper explores the strict conditions necessary for that ideal market in the context of health care as a means of examining the claim that market forces do allocate resources efficiently in health care.

  16. Health Care Market Deviations from the Ideal Market

    PubMed Central

    Mwachofi, Ari; Al-Assaf, Assaf F.

    2011-01-01

    A common argument in the health policy debate is that market forces allocate resources efficiently in health care, and that government intervention distorts such allocation. Rarely do those making such claims state explicitly that the market they refer to is an ideal in economic theory which can only exist under very strict conditions. This paper explores the strict conditions necessary for that ideal market in the context of health care as a means of examining the claim that market forces do allocate resources efficiently in health care. PMID:22087373

  17. [Detection of Avian Influenza Virus in Environmental Samples Collected from Live Poultry Markets in China during 2009-2013].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Li, Xiaodan; Zou, Shumei; Bo, Hong; Dong, Libo; Gao, Rongbao; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong

    2015-11-01

    Abstract: To investigate the distribution of avian influenza virus in environmental samples from live poultry markets (LPM) in China, samples were collected and tested by nucleic acid during 2009-2013 season. Each sample was tested by real-time RT PCR using flu A specific primers. If any real-time PCR was positive, the sample was inoculated into specific-pathogen-free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs for viral isolation. The results indicated that the positive rate of nucleic acid in enviromental samples exhibited seasonality. The positive rate of nucleic acid was significantly higher in Winter and Spring. The positive rate of nucleic acid in LPM located in the south of China was higher than in northern China. Samples of Sewage for cleaning poultry and chopping board showed that higher positive rate of nucleic acid than other samples. The Subtype identification showed that H5 and H9 were main subtypes in the enviromental samples. Viral isolation indicated H5 subtypes was more than H9 subtypes between 2009 and 2013 while H9 subtypes increased in 2013. Our findings suggested the significance of public health based on LPM surveillance and provided the basis of prevention and early warning for avian flu infection human. PMID:26951005

  18. 33 CFR 25.513 - Amount claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount claimed. 25.513 Section 25.513 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Foreign Claims § 25.513 Amount claimed. The claimant shall state the amount claimed in the currency of...

  19. 33 CFR 25.513 - Amount claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount claimed. 25.513 Section 25.513 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Foreign Claims § 25.513 Amount claimed. The claimant shall state the amount claimed in the currency of...

  20. 32 CFR 538.6 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims. 538.6 Section 538.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS MILITARY PAYMENT CERTIFICATES § 538.6 Claims. Claims for conversion of military payment certificates, as well as claims arising out...

  1. 33 CFR 25.403 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims payable. 25.403 Section 25.403 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Military Claims § 25.403 Claims payable. A claim arising at any place caused by military personnel...

  2. 46 CFR 204.2 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Claims payable. 204.2 Section 204.2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE CLAIMS AGAINST THE MARITIME ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 204.2 Claims payable. Claims for death, personal injury,...

  3. 33 CFR 25.403 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims payable. 25.403 Section 25.403 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Military Claims § 25.403 Claims payable. A claim arising at any place caused by military personnel...

  4. 32 CFR 842.94 - Assertable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Property Damage Tort Claims in Favor of the United States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.94 Assertable claims. A claim may be asserted in writing for loss of or damage to government property, against a tort-feasor when: (a) Damage results from negligence and the claim is for: (1) More than...

  5. 33 CFR 25.403 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims payable. 25.403 Section 25.403 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Military Claims § 25.403 Claims payable. A claim arising at any place caused by military personnel...

  6. 32 CFR 537.3 - Claims collectible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Claims for property loss. Claims arising out of a tort under local law for the value of lost or missing... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims collectible. 537.3 Section 537.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF...

  7. 32 CFR 842.94 - Assertable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Property Damage Tort Claims in Favor of the United States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.94 Assertable claims. A claim may be asserted in writing for loss of or damage to government property, against a tort-feasor when: (a) Damage results from negligence and the claim is for: (1) More than...

  8. 32 CFR 842.94 - Assertable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Property Damage Tort Claims in Favor of the United States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.94 Assertable claims. A claim may be asserted in writing for loss of or damage to government property, against a tort-feasor when: (a) Damage results from negligence and the claim is for: (1) More than...

  9. 22 CFR 304.6 - Claims investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Claims investigation. 304.6 Section 304.6 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.6 Claims investigation. (a) When a claim has been filed with the Peace Corps, the General Counsel will...

  10. 46 CFR 204.2 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Claims payable. 204.2 Section 204.2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE CLAIMS AGAINST THE MARITIME ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 204.2 Claims payable. Claims for death, personal injury,...

  11. 22 CFR 304.6 - Claims investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Claims investigation. 304.6 Section 304.6 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.6 Claims investigation. (a) When a claim has been filed with the Peace Corps, the General Counsel will...

  12. 46 CFR 204.2 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Claims payable. 204.2 Section 204.2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE CLAIMS AGAINST THE MARITIME ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 204.2 Claims payable. Claims for death, personal injury,...

  13. 22 CFR 304.6 - Claims investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Claims investigation. 304.6 Section 304.6 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.6 Claims investigation. (a) When a claim has been filed with the Peace Corps, the General Counsel will...

  14. 32 CFR 842.94 - Assertable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Property Damage Tort Claims in Favor of the United States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.94 Assertable claims. A claim may be asserted in writing for loss of or damage to government property, against a tort-feasor when: (a) Damage results from negligence and the claim is for: (1) More than...

  15. 32 CFR 842.94 - Assertable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Property Damage Tort Claims in Favor of the United States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.94 Assertable claims. A claim may be asserted in writing for loss of or damage to government property, against a tort-feasor when: (a) Damage results from negligence and the claim is for: (1) More than...

  16. 32 CFR 537.3 - Claims collectible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Claims for property loss. Claims arising out of a tort under local law for the value of lost or missing... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims collectible. 537.3 Section 537.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF...

  17. 33 CFR 25.403 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims payable. 25.403 Section 25.403 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Military Claims § 25.403 Claims payable. A claim arising at any place caused by military personnel...

  18. 32 CFR 536.28 - Claims acknowledgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims acknowledgment. 536.28 Section 536.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.28 Claims acknowledgment....

  19. 32 CFR 538.6 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims. 538.6 Section 538.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS MILITARY PAYMENT CERTIFICATES § 538.6 Claims. Claims for conversion of military payment certificates, as well as claims arising out...

  20. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  1. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  2. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  3. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  4. [Neutral Medical Claim Management Committee].

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Mitsuru

    2013-03-01

    The Ibaraki Medical Association established the Committee for Alternative Dispute Resolution called the Neutral Medical Claim Management Committee in 2006. Among 64 claims presented to the committee, 29 were settled through mediation or consultation. Patients were generally satisfied that their claims were considered fairly by the committee and that they were able to talk directly with healthcare professionals. However, some did not consider the committee to be completely neutral. The healthcare professionals involved rated the committee highly because they felt that the processes were neutral and no emotional aspects were involved. PMID:23617190

  5. 33 CFR 25.803 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollution Removal Damage Claims § 25.803 Claims payable. A claim for damage to or loss of real or personal... contractors during containment, countermeasures, cleanup, mitigation, and disposal activities under...

  6. 33 CFR 25.803 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pollution Removal Damage Claims § 25.803 Claims payable. A claim for damage to or loss of real or personal... contractors during containment, countermeasures, cleanup, mitigation, and disposal activities under...

  7. 33 CFR 25.803 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pollution Removal Damage Claims § 25.803 Claims payable. A claim for damage to or loss of real or personal... contractors during containment, countermeasures, cleanup, mitigation, and disposal activities under...

  8. 33 CFR 25.803 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pollution Removal Damage Claims § 25.803 Claims payable. A claim for damage to or loss of real or personal... contractors during containment, countermeasures, cleanup, mitigation, and disposal activities under...

  9. 33 CFR 25.803 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pollution Removal Damage Claims § 25.803 Claims payable. A claim for damage to or loss of real or personal... contractors during containment, countermeasures, cleanup, mitigation, and disposal activities under...

  10. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. 536.75 Section 536.75 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act §...

  11. 32 CFR 536.74 - Scope for claims under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope for claims under the Military Claims Act. 536.74 Section 536.74 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act §...

  12. Consumers’ health-related motive orientations and reactions to claims about dietary calcium.

    PubMed

    Hoefkens, Christine; Verbeke, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Health claims may contribute to better informed and healthier food choices and to improved industrial competitiveness by marketing foods that support healthier lifestyles in line with consumer preferences. With the more stringent European Union regulation of nutrition and health claims, insights into consumers' health-related goal patterns and their reactions towards such claims are needed to influence the content of lawful claims. This study investigated how consumers' explicit and implicit health-related motive orientations (HRMOs) together with the type of calcium-claim (nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim) influence perceived credibility and purchasing intention of calcium-enriched fruit juice. Data were collected in April 2006 through a consumer survey with 341 Belgian adults. The findings indicate that stronger implicit HRMOs (i.e., indirect benefits of calcium for personal health) are associated with higher perceived credibility, which is not (yet) translated into a higher purchasing intention. Consumers' explicit HRMOs, which refer to direct benefits or physiological functions of calcium in the body-as legally permitted in current calcium-claims in the EU-do not associate with reactions to the claims. Independently of consumers' HRMOs, the claim type significantly affects the perceived credibility and purchasing intention of the product. Implications for nutrition policy makers and food industries are discussed. PMID:23306190

  13. 76 FR 13600 - Payette National Forest, Idaho, Golden Hand #3 and #4 Lode Mining Claims, Plan of Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Forest Service Payette National Forest, Idaho, Golden Hand 3 and 4 Lode Mining Claims, Plan of Operations... withdrawing the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for The Golden Hand No. 3 and No. 4 Lode Mining Claims Proposed Plan of Operations. The project included mining operations on the lode claims along...

  14. Swedish consumers' cognitive approaches to nutrition claims and health claims

    PubMed Central

    Svederberg, Eva; Wendin, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Aim Studies show frequent use of nutrition claims and health claims in consumers' choice of food products. The aim of the present study was to investigate how consumers' thoughts about these claims and food products are affected by various types of food-related experiences. Material and Methods The data collection comprised 30 individual interviews among Swedish consumers aged 25 to 64 years. Results The results indicated that participants who expressed special concern for their own and their families' health were eager to find out the meaning of concepts and statements made. A lack of understanding and lack of credibility of concepts and expressions often caused suspicion of the product. However, in some cases this was counterbalanced by confidence in manufacturers, retailers, and/or the Swedish food legislation. Discussion and Conclusion To achieve effective written communication of food products' health-conducive properties on food labels, there is a need to consider the importance many consumers attach to understanding the meaning of concepts and expressions used and the importance of credibility in certain expressions. Consumers' varying cognitive approaches are suggested as a basis for pre-tests of nutrition claims and health claims. PMID:21448438

  15. The environmental profile of a community’s health: a cross-sectional study on tobacco marketing in 16 countries

    PubMed Central

    Savell, Emily; Gilmore, Anna B; Sims, Michelle; Mony, Prem K; Koon, Teo; Yusoff, Khalid; Lear, Scott A; Seron, Pamela; Ismail, Noorhassim; Calik, K Burcu Tumerdem; Rosengren, Annika; Bahonar, Ahmad; Kumar, Rajesh; Vijayakumar, Krishnapillai; Kruger, Annamarie; Swidan, Hany; Gupta, Rajeev; Igumbor, Ehimario; Afridi, Asad; Rahman, Omar; Chifamba, Jephat; Zatonska, Katarzyna; Mohan, V; Mohan, Deepa; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Avezum, Alvaro; Poirier, Paul; Orlandini, Andres; Li, Wei; McKee, Martin; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine and compare tobacco marketing in 16 countries while the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control requires parties to implement a comprehensive ban on such marketing. Methods Between 2009 and 2012, a kilometre-long walk was completed by trained investigators in 462 communities across 16 countries to collect data on tobacco marketing. We interviewed community members about their exposure to traditional and non-traditional marketing in the previous six months. To examine differences in marketing between urban and rural communities and between high-, middle- and low-income countries, we used multilevel regression models controlling for potential confounders. Findings Compared with high-income countries, the number of tobacco advertisements observed was 81 times higher in low-income countries (incidence rate ratio, IRR: 80.98; 95% confidence interval, CI: 4.15–1578.42) and the number of tobacco outlets was 2.5 times higher in both low- and lower-middle-income countries (IRR: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.17–5.67 and IRR: 2.52; CI: 1.23–5.17, respectively). Of the 11 842 interviewees, 1184 (10%) reported seeing at least five types of tobacco marketing. Self-reported exposure to at least one type of traditional marketing was 10 times higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries (odds ratio, OR: 9.77; 95% CI: 1.24–76.77). For almost all measures, marketing exposure was significantly lower in the rural communities than in the urban communities. Conclusion Despite global legislation to limit tobacco marketing, it appears ubiquitous. The frequency and type of tobacco marketing varies on the national level by income group and by community type, appearing to be greatest in low-income countries and urban communities. PMID:26668437

  16. Livestock welfare product claims: the emerging social context.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P; Harris, C; Holt, D; Pajor, E A

    2007-09-01

    An increasing number of product claims about food animal welfare or well-being have appeared in the global food industry and global market in recent years. These claims have significant consequences for producers, processors, transporters, retailers, consumers, and the animals themselves. Furthermore, recent restructuring of the global food industry has altered the power relationships of various actors. Regulation of the industry is moving toward greater private control, and the power of retailers has dramatically increased. The changing structure of the industry carries implications both in terms of how standards are created and in terms of the types of standards themselves. The purpose of this article is to provide a greater understanding of how these product claims are made, their implications, and the challenges they present.

  17. Results of Chilean water markets: Empirical research since 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Carl J.

    2004-09-01

    Chile's free-market Water Code turned 20 years old in October 2001. This anniversary was an important milestone for both Chilean and international debates about water policy because Chile has become the world's leading example of the free-market approach to water law and water resources management, the textbook case of treating water rights not merely as private property but also as a fully marketable commodity. The predominant view outside of Chile is that Chilean water markets and the Chilean model of water management have been a success, and this perception has encouraged other countries to follow Chile's lead in water law reform. Much of the debate about Chilean water markets, however, has been based more on theoretical or political beliefs than on empirical study. This paper reverses that emphasis by reviewing the evolution of empirical research about these markets since 1990, when Chile returned to democratic government after 16 years of military rule. During the period since 1990, understanding of how Chilean water markets have worked in practice has gradually improved. There have been two major trends in this research: first, a gradual shift from exaggerated claims of the markets' success toward more balanced assessments of mixed results and, second, a heavy emphasis on the economics of water rights trading with very little attention given to the Water Code's impacts on social equity, river basin management, environmental protection, or resolution of water conflicts. The analysis in this study is qualitative and interdisciplinary, combining law, economics, and institutions.

  18. 38 CFR 3.155 - Informal claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... organization, an attorney, or agent may not be accepted as an informal claim if a power of attorney was not... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Informal claims. 3.155..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Claims § 3.155 Informal claims. (a) Any...

  19. 26 CFR 601.205 - Tort claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tort claims. 601.205 Section 601.205 Internal... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Rulings and Other Specific Matters § 601.205 Tort claims. Claims for property... entitled “Central Office Procedures” and “Claims Regulations” (31 CFR Parts 1 and 3). Such...

  20. 29 CFR 15.41 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED STATUTES (Eff. until... claim for damage to persons or property arising out of an act or omission of a student enrolled in the... of a student enrolled in the Job Corps. (b) A claim for damage to person or property hereunder...

  1. 32 CFR 750.64 - Claim procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... notification of a nonscope claim incident accompanied by a demand for money damages in a sum certain. (c) A... of the Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) or Military Claims Act (MCA) shall be considered automatically... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claim procedures. 750.64 Section 750.64...

  2. 26 CFR 601.205 - Tort claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tort claims. 601.205 Section 601.205 Internal... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Rulings and Other Specific Matters § 601.205 Tort claims. Claims for property... entitled “Central Office Procedures” and “Claims Regulations” (31 CFR Parts 1 and 3). Such...

  3. 32 CFR 750.64 - Claim procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... notification of a nonscope claim incident accompanied by a demand for money damages in a sum certain. (c) A... of the Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) or Military Claims Act (MCA) shall be considered automatically... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim procedures. 750.64 Section 750.64...

  4. 26 CFR 601.205 - Tort claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tort claims. 601.205 Section 601.205 Internal... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Rulings and Other Specific Matters § 601.205 Tort claims. Claims for property... entitled “Central Office Procedures” and “Claims Regulations” (31 CFR Parts 1 and 3). Such...

  5. 32 CFR 536.2 - Claims authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims authorities. 536.2 Section 536.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE... implementing the Federal Tort Claims Act, 28 CFR Part 14. (C) An appendix to 28 CFR Part 14 sets forth...

  6. 24 CFR 17.43 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Allowable claims. (a) A claim may be allowed only if: (1) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly...) of this section, and the other provisions of this subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss of... types of claims may be allowed, unless excluded by §§ 17.44 and 17.45: (1) Property loss or damage...

  7. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CIVILIAN EMPLOYEES ACT § 34.4 Allowable claims. (a) What you can claim. (1) Claims for damage or loss may... for property damage or loss by fire, flood, hurricane, theft, or other serious occurrence may be... a civilian employee outside the U.S. is a local inhabitant. (3) Claims for damage to, or loss...

  8. 40 CFR 152.96 - Claim of data gap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claim of data gap. 152.96 Section 152.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Satisfaction of Data Requirements and Protection of Data...

  9. 40 CFR 303.33 - Filing a claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing a claim. 303.33 Section 303.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS CITIZEN AWARDS FOR INFORMATION ON CRIMINAL VIOLATIONS UNDER...

  10. 40 CFR 303.33 - Filing a claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Filing a claim. 303.33 Section 303.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS CITIZEN AWARDS FOR INFORMATION ON CRIMINAL VIOLATIONS UNDER...

  11. 40 CFR 350.7 - Substantiating claims of trade secrecy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substantiating claims of trade secrecy. 350.7 Section 350.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... by providing a specific answer including, where applicable, specific facts, to each of the...

  12. 16 CFR 260.9 - Free-of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... intentionally to the product. Example 1: A package of t-shirts is labeled “Shirts made with a chlorine-free... significant, amount of the same harmful byproducts associated with chlorine bleaching. The claim overstates...'s manufacture does not cause any of the environmental risks posed by chlorine bleaching....

  13. 16 CFR 260.9 - Free-of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... intentionally to the product. Example 1: A package of t-shirts is labeled “Shirts made with a chlorine-free... significant, amount of the same harmful byproducts associated with chlorine bleaching. The claim overstates...'s manufacture does not cause any of the environmental risks posed by chlorine bleaching....

  14. Exaggerated Claims for Interactive Stories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thue, David; Bulitko, Vadim; Spetch, Marcia; Webb, Michael

    As advertising becomes more crucial to video games' success, developers risk promoting their products beyond the features that they can actually include. For features of interactive storytelling, the effects of making such exaggerations are not well known, as reports from industry have been anecdotal at best. In this paper, we explore the effects of making exaggerated claims for interactive stories, in the context of the theory of advertising. Results from a human user study show that female players find linear and branching stories to be significantly less enjoyable when they are advertised with exaggerated claims.

  15. 32 CFR 536.101 - Settlement authority for claims under the National Guard Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Settlement authority for claims under the National Guard Claims Act. 536.101 Section 536.101 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under...

  16. 32 CFR 536.98 - Claims payable under the National Guard Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims payable under the National Guard Claims Act. 536.98 Section 536.98 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the National Guard...

  17. 32 CFR 536.99 - Claims not payable under the National Guard Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims not payable under the National Guard Claims Act. 536.99 Section 536.99 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the National...

  18. 32 CFR 536.78 - Settlement authority for claims under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Settlement authority for claims under the Military Claims Act. 536.78 Section 536.78 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the...

  19. 32 CFR 536.100 - Applicable law for claims under the National Guard Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicable law for claims under the National Guard Claims Act. 536.100 Section 536.100 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the...

  20. 32 CFR 536.97 - Scope for claims under the National Guard Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope for claims under the National Guard Claims Act. 536.97 Section 536.97 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the National Guard...

  1. 31 CFR 535.222 - Suspension of claims eligible for Claims Tribunal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Claims Tribunal. 535.222 Section 535.222 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 535.222 Suspension of claims eligible for Claims Tribunal. (a) All claims which may be presented to the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal under the terms of Article II of...

  2. 40 CFR 350.16 - Address to send trade secrecy claims and petitions requesting disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Address to send trade secrecy claims and petitions requesting disclosure. 350.16 Section 350.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TRADE SECRECY CLAIMS FOR EMERGENCY PLANNING...

  3. 40 CFR 350.16 - Address to send trade secrecy claims and petitions requesting disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Address to send trade secrecy claims and petitions requesting disclosure. 350.16 Section 350.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TRADE SECRECY CLAIMS FOR EMERGENCY PLANNING...

  4. 40 CFR 350.16 - Address to send trade secrecy claims and petitions requesting disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Address to send trade secrecy claims and petitions requesting disclosure. 350.16 Section 350.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TRADE SECRECY CLAIMS FOR EMERGENCY PLANNING...

  5. 21 CFR 101.73 - Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer. 101.73... claims: dietary lipids and cancer. (a) Relationship between fat and cancer. (1) Cancer is a constellation... abnormal cells. Cancer has many causes and stages in its development. Both genetic and environmental...

  6. 21 CFR 101.73 - Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer. 101.73... claims: dietary lipids and cancer. (a) Relationship between fat and cancer. (1) Cancer is a constellation... abnormal cells. Cancer has many causes and stages in its development. Both genetic and environmental...

  7. 21 CFR 101.73 - Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer. 101.73... claims: dietary lipids and cancer. (a) Relationship between fat and cancer. (1) Cancer is a constellation... abnormal cells. Cancer has many causes and stages in its development. Both genetic and environmental...

  8. 21 CFR 101.73 - Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer. 101.73... claims: dietary lipids and cancer. (a) Relationship between fat and cancer. (1) Cancer is a constellation... abnormal cells. Cancer has many causes and stages in its development. Both genetic and environmental...

  9. 21 CFR 101.73 - Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health claims: dietary lipids and cancer. 101.73... claims: dietary lipids and cancer. (a) Relationship between fat and cancer. (1) Cancer is a constellation... abnormal cells. Cancer has many causes and stages in its development. Both genetic and environmental...

  10. 40 CFR 174.9 - Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions. 174.9 Section 174.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS General Provisions § 174.9 Confidential business information claims for...

  11. 40 CFR 174.9 - Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions. 174.9 Section 174.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS General Provisions § 174.9 Confidential business information claims for...

  12. 40 CFR 174.9 - Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions. 174.9 Section 174.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS General Provisions § 174.9 Confidential business information claims for...

  13. 40 CFR 174.9 - Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions. 174.9 Section 174.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS General Provisions § 174.9 Confidential business information claims for...

  14. 40 CFR 174.9 - Confidential business information claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... claims for plant-incorporated protectant submissions. 174.9 Section 174.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS General Provisions § 174.9 Confidential business information claims for...

  15. Alaska Native Land Claims. [Textbook].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Written for students at the secondary level, this textbook on Alaska Native land claims includes nine chapters, eight appendices, photographs, maps, graphs, bibliography, and an index. Chapters are titled as follows: (1) Earliest Times (Alaska's first settlers, eighteenth century territories, and other claimants); (2) American Indians and Their…

  16. Handling Claims of Constructive Discharge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bare, Eric A.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the factors federal investigators and arbitrators use to distinguish between a voluntary quit and a constructive discharge are examined. Several guidelines university administrators can use to preempt and defend such claims are offered. The best way to avoid constructive discharge, it is suggested,is to conduct supervisory training. (MLW)

  17. Meal Counting and Claiming Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual contains information about the selection and implementation of a meal counting and claiming system for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (BSP). Federal reimbursement is provided for each meal that meets program requirements and is served to an eligible student. Part 1 explains the six elements of…

  18. Characterization and Potential Environmental Implications of Select Cu-Based Fungicides and Bactericides Employed in U.S. Markets

    EPA Science Inventory

    This exploratory study aimed to examine the extent and mineral speciation of nanosized Cu in two fungicide products (A and B) available in the U.S. markets. Electron microcopy results demonstrated the presence of spherical and polydisperse <100 nm Cu particles in product B. Oth...

  19. NutrientNet: An Internet-Based Approach to Teaching Market-Based Policy for Environmental Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, To N.; Woodward, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    NutrientNet is an Internet-based environment in which a class can simulate a market-based approach for improving water quality. In NutrientNet, each student receives a role as either a point source or a nonpoint source polluter, and then the participants are allowed to trade water quality credits to cost-effectively reduce pollution in a…

  20. 76 FR 35086 - Proposed Information Collection (Fully Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims-Applications for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death Pension, and/or Accrued Benefits)) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims--Applications for Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death Pension,...

  1. The effects of natural cigarette claims on adolescents' brand-related beliefs, attitudes, and intentions.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kathleen J; Manning, Kenneth

    2014-09-01

    The marketing of natural cigarettes has been widely criticized by consumer advocates and public policymakers. The present research is designed to inform the ongoing policy debate by examining the effects of natural cigarette claims on adolescents' brand impressions. The authors report the results of an experiment in which high school students viewed images of cigarette packages for three different brands. Findings indicate that including natural claims on cigarette packages can weaken beliefs that the cigarettes cause diseases. Results also reveal that skepticism toward marketing claims may play an important role in undermining brand attitudes and trial intentions toward cigarette brands promoted with natural claims. Policy implications and suggestions for further research are provided. PMID:24628465

  2. Marketing of Food in the Grocery Store Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goals/hypothesis: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or any marketing using health or nutrition information beyond minimum requirements) is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat (approx. 20% daily value), sodium (...

  3. Dirac's Claim and the Chemists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, Ana

    In 1929 Paul A. M. Dirac claimed that ``the underlying physical laws necessary for the mathematical theory of ... the whole of chemistry are thus completely known, and the difficulty is only that the exact application of these laws leads to equations much too complicated to be soluble.'' This sentence of Dirac's is cited frequently by historians and philosophers of chemistry in the context of discussions on the hypothetical reduction of chemistry to physics. But how did chemists themselves react to Dirac's claim? Did they feel threatened by physicists who felt they could do their job better than themselves? Did they feel indifferent, or did they simply not care? Was Dirac's paper often cited by chemists? Why was it cited? In this paper, I provide answers to these questions on the basis of an analysis of citations to Dirac's 1929 paper in the Science Citation Index.

  4. 76 FR 72212 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... conveyance pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601, et seq). The subsurface... published four times in The Delta Discovery. DATES: Any party claiming a property interest in the...

  5. 36 CFR 530.1 - Tort claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Department of Justice in 28 CFR part 14. Information on specific claims procedures can be obtained as follows... Wilson International Center for Scholars) falls within the purview of the Federal Tort Claims...

  6. 33 CFR 25.603 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Not Cognizable Under Other Law § 25.603 Claims payable. A claim for death, personal injury, or damage... member or a civilian employee of the Coast Guard: (a) Incident to the use of a vehicle of the...

  7. 14 CFR 1261.104 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... which the claim is made. For example, borrowed property may be the subject of a claim. (c) Subject to... or provided by the United States, except when the claimant is a civilian employee who is a...

  8. 32 CFR 536.2 - Claims authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... implementing the Federal Tort Claims Act, 28 CFR part 14. (C) An appendix to 28 CFR part 14 sets forth certain.../85256F33005C2B92/(JAGCNETDocID)/HOME?OPENDOCUMENT. Select the link “Claims Resources.” (1) Tort claims. (i) The... Tort Claims Act (FTCA), 28 U.S.C. 1291, 1402, 2401-2402, 2411-2412, and 2671-2680 (see subpart D...

  9. 5 CFR 177.103 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 177... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 177.103 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim... assert a claim under the applicable State law. (d) A claim for loss totally compensated by an...

  10. 33 CFR 25.113 - Contents of claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... General § 25.113 Contents of claim. (a) A claim under the Federal Tort Claims Act must be presented using Standard Form 95, Claim for Damage, Injury, or Death. (b) A claim under any other Act may be presented... the claim; (4) The amount claimed, supported by independent evidence of property damage or...

  11. 32 CFR 750.5 - Claims: Proper claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... General Provisions for Claims § 750.5 Claims: Proper claimants. (a) Damage to property cases. A claim for... each claim individually is within the Tort Claims Unit Norfolk's adjudicating authority limits, they may be processed by the Tort Claims Unit, even if the aggregate of such claims exceeds the Tort......

  12. 33 CFR 25.113 - Contents of claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... General § 25.113 Contents of claim. (a) A claim under the Federal Tort Claims Act must be presented using Standard Form 95, Claim for Damage, Injury, or Death. (b) A claim under any other Act may be presented... the claim; (4) The amount claimed, supported by independent evidence of property damage or...

  13. 32 CFR 750.5 - Claims: Proper claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... General Provisions for Claims § 750.5 Claims: Proper claimants. (a) Damage to property cases. A claim for... each claim individually is within the Tort Claims Unit Norfolk's adjudicating authority limits, they may be processed by the Tort Claims Unit, even if the aggregate of such claims exceeds the Tort......

  14. 32 CFR 750.5 - Claims: Proper claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... General Provisions for Claims § 750.5 Claims: Proper claimants. (a) Damage to property cases. A claim for... each claim individually is within the Tort Claims Unit Norfolk's adjudicating authority limits, they may be processed by the Tort Claims Unit, even if the aggregate of such claims exceeds the Tort......

  15. Comparison of Musculoskeletal Disorder Health Claims Between Construction Floor Layers and a General Working Population

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Ann Marie; Ryan, Daniel; Welch, Laura; Olsen, Margaret A.; Buchholz, Bryan; Evanoff, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Compare rates of medical insurance claims for musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) between workers in a construction trade and a general worker population to determine if higher physical exposures in construction lead to higher rates of claims on personal medical insurance. Methods Health insurance claims between 2006 and 2010 from floor layers were frequency matched by age, gender, eligibility time, and geographic location to claims from insured workers in general industry obtained from MarketScan. We extracted MSD claims and dates of service from six regions of the body: neck, low back, knee, lower extremity, shoulder, and distal arm, and evaluated differences in claim rates. Results Fifty-one percent of floor layers (n=1,475) experienced musculoskeletal claims compared to 39% of MarketScan members (p<0.001). Claim rates were higher for floor layers across all body regions with nearly double the rate ratios for the knee and neck regions (RR: 2.10 and 2.07). The excess risk was greatest for the neck and low back regions; younger workers had disproportionately higher rates in the knee, neck, low back, and distal arm. A larger proportion of floor layers (22%) filed MSD claims in more than one body region compared to general workers (10%; p<0.001). Conclusions Floor layers have markedly higher rates of MSD claims compared to a general worker population, suggesting shifting of medical costs for work-related MSD to personal health insurance. The occurrence of disorders in multiple body regions and among the youngest workers highlights the need for improved work methods and tools for construction workers. PMID:25224720

  16. 78 FR 4191 - Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ...This notice announces final environmental actions taken by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) for projects in the following locations: Eugene, OR and Galveston, TX. The purpose of this notice is to announce publicly the environmental decisions by FTA on the subject projects and to activate the limitation on any claims that may challenge these final environmental...

  17. 27 CFR 72.32 - Interest claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest claimed. 72.32 Section 72.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 72.32 Interest claimed. Any person claiming an interest in...

  18. 38 CFR 14.665 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... writing on VA Form 2-4760, Employee's Claim for Reimbursement for Personal Property Damaged or Lost..., children, father or mother or both, or brothers or sisters or both. Claims of survivors shall be settled... property by patients or domiciliary members, a statement as to whether a claim was filed pursuant to 38...

  19. 38 CFR 14.665 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... writing on VA Form 2-4760, Employee's Claim for Reimbursement for Personal Property Damaged or Lost..., children, father or mother or both, or brothers or sisters or both. Claims of survivors shall be settled... property by patients or domiciliary members, a statement as to whether a claim was filed pursuant to 38...

  20. 38 CFR 14.665 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... writing on VA Form 2-4760, Employee's Claim for Reimbursement for Personal Property Damaged or Lost..., children, father or mother or both, or brothers or sisters or both. Claims of survivors shall be settled... property by patients or domiciliary members, a statement as to whether a claim was filed pursuant to 38...

  1. 32 CFR 1602.24 - Claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claim. 1602.24 Section 1602.24 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.24 Claim. A claim is a request for postponement of induction or classification into a class other than 1-A....

  2. 32 CFR 1602.24 - Claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claim. 1602.24 Section 1602.24 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.24 Claim. A claim is a request for postponement of induction or classification into a class other than 1-A....

  3. 32 CFR 1602.24 - Claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claim. 1602.24 Section 1602.24 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.24 Claim. A claim is a request for postponement of induction or classification into a class other than 1-A....

  4. 32 CFR 1602.24 - Claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claim. 1602.24 Section 1602.24 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.24 Claim. A claim is a request for postponement of induction or classification into a class other than 1-A....

  5. 32 CFR 1602.24 - Claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim. 1602.24 Section 1602.24 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.24 Claim. A claim is a request for postponement of induction or classification into a class other than 1-A....

  6. 76 FR 3156 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... within mining claim recordations AA-32360, AA-32362, AA-32363, AA-32364, and AA-32365; Sec. 10, those lands formerly within mining claim recordation AA- 32365. Containing approximately 155 acres. T. 27 N., R. 47 W., Sec. 34, those lands formerly within mining claim recordations AA-32360, AA-32361, and...

  7. 24 CFR 17.67 - Claims files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claims files. 17.67 Section 17.67... files. Each claims collection officer is responsible for obtaining current credit data about each person against whom a claim is pending in his office. The file shall be kept reasonably up to date by...

  8. 39 CFR 912.1 - Claims responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROPERTY DAMAGE ARISING OUT OF THE OPERATION OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE § 912.1 Claims responsibility. The... Federal Tort Claims Act and 39 U.S.C. 2603, with authority to redelegate the functions to General Counsel... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims responsibility. 912.1 Section 912.1...

  9. 32 CFR 842.118 - Assertable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... party, or the United States asserts a property damage claim under subpart L arising out of the same... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Assertable claims. 842.118 Section 842.118 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE CLAIMS AND...

  10. 39 CFR 912.1 - Claims responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROPERTY DAMAGE ARISING OUT OF THE OPERATION OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE § 912.1 Claims responsibility. The... Federal Tort Claims Act and 39 U.S.C. 2603, with authority to redelegate the functions to General Counsel... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims responsibility. 912.1 Section 912.1...

  11. 39 CFR 912.1 - Claims responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROPERTY DAMAGE ARISING OUT OF THE OPERATION OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE § 912.1 Claims responsibility. The... Federal Tort Claims Act and 39 U.S.C. 2603, with authority to redelegate the functions to General Counsel... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims responsibility. 912.1 Section 912.1...

  12. 39 CFR 912.1 - Claims responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROPERTY DAMAGE ARISING OUT OF THE OPERATION OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE § 912.1 Claims responsibility. The... Federal Tort Claims Act and 39 U.S.C. 2603, with authority to redelegate the functions to General Counsel... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims responsibility. 912.1 Section 912.1...

  13. 38 CFR 21.1030 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Claims and Applications for Educational Assistance Claims § 21.1030 Claims. (a... administered by VA for pursuit of a program of education, he or she must file an application for educational... program of education or place of training after filing his or her first application for...

  14. 32 CFR 536.15 - Claims policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... such claims, the USARCS Area Action Officer (AAO) must coordinate with the field office as to all... assertion of an affirmative claim must be the result of a discussion between the AAO and the field office... hand, where all claims out of an incident can be paid within field authority they should be...

  15. 32 CFR 536.15 - Claims policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... such claims, the USARCS Area Action Officer (AAO) must coordinate with the field office as to all... assertion of an affirmative claim must be the result of a discussion between the AAO and the field office... hand, where all claims out of an incident can be paid within field authority they should be...

  16. 37 CFR 1.436 - The claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The claims. 1.436 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.436 The claims. The requirements as to the content and format of claims are set forth in...

  17. 37 CFR 1.436 - The claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The claims. 1.436 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.436 The claims. The requirements as to the content and format of claims are set forth in...

  18. 37 CFR 1.436 - The claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The claims. 1.436 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.436 The claims. The requirements as to the content and format of claims are set forth in...

  19. 37 CFR 1.436 - The claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The claims. 1.436 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.436 The claims. The requirements as to the content and format of claims are set forth in...

  20. 37 CFR 1.436 - The claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The claims. 1.436 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.436 The claims. The requirements as to the content and format of claims are set forth in...

  1. 46 CFR 327.4 - Claim requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and all other penalty provisions for making false, fictitious, or fraudulent claims, statements or... clinical records of physicians and hospitals related to a seaman's claim for injury, illness, or death... two preceding calendar years. (5) If the claim does not involve a seaman's death, the...

  2. 46 CFR 327.4 - Claim requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and all other penalty provisions for making false, fictitious, or fraudulent claims, statements or... clinical records of physicians and hospitals related to a seaman's claim for injury, illness, or death... two preceding calendar years. (5) If the claim does not involve a seaman's death, the...

  3. 12 CFR 650.40 - Creditor claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creditor claims. 650.40 Section 650.40 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FEDERAL AGRICULTURAL MORTGAGE CORPORATION... or in part any creditor's claim or claim of security, preference, or priority that is not proved...

  4. 28 CFR 345.66 - Claims limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims limitation. 345.66 Section 345.66 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.66 Claims limitation. Claims relating to...

  5. 28 CFR 345.66 - Claims limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims limitation. 345.66 Section 345.66 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.66 Claims limitation. Claims relating to...

  6. 28 CFR 345.66 - Claims limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims limitation. 345.66 Section 345.66 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.66 Claims limitation. Claims relating to...

  7. 5 CFR 180.104 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for which the claim is made. For example, borrowed property may be the subject of a claim. (c) Subject... the claimant is a local inhabitant; or (iii) Any warehouse, office, working area, or other place... Government other than OPM. (11) Borrowed property. Claims may be allowed for borrowed property that has...

  8. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  9. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  10. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  11. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  12. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  13. Why the European Food Safety Authority was right to reject health claims for probiotics.

    PubMed

    Katan, M B

    2012-06-01

    Probiotics are microbes that are claimed to promote health and well-being when added to foods. However, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has so far advised negatively about health claims for probiotics. Companies and scientists have protested against these rejections, sometimes in vigorous language. I argue that EFSA could not have acted differently, given EU regulations and the lack of convincing evidence for some of the claimed effects of probiotics on human health and well-being. One EU regulation that makes it hard to demonstrate the benefits of probiotics is the prohibition of medical claims, i.e. claims that a food prevents or cures a disease. If this prohibition did not exist, manufacturers of nutritional treatments might circumvent the costly procedures required for drugs, and market their products to ill people without thorough proof that they are effective and safe. However, the prohibition is also a legal fiction, because promotion of health and prevention of disease is largely the same thing. EFSA has recently indicated that it will allow health claims based on the ability of probiotics to reduce infections. To a certain extent, this abolishes the distinction between health claims and medical claims. It remains to be seen if probiotics producers can convince EFSA that their products prevent or cure infections and other diseases in humans.

  14. Probiotic Claims for Gastrointestinal Conditions: Stretching the Truth?

    PubMed

    Miller, Larry E

    2014-08-21

    ABSTRACT Probiotics are live micro-organisms that confer a health benefit on the host when administered in adequate dosages and have been extensively studied for treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. While a growing body of evidence from randomized controlled trials supports the use of probiotics for a variety of GI conditions, the media and internet are saturated with advertisements falsely claiming that specific probiotic strains or strain combinations can improve, or even cure, many GI complaints. These unsubstantiated claims regarding probiotic efficacy are rampant and remain largely unregulated. The probiotic industry is strongly encouraged to close the gap between marketing hype and scientific discovery. Additionally, US regulators are encouraged to improve enforcement efforts in response to misleading probiotic advertising. PMID:25144765

  15. 13 CFR 114.103 - Who may file a claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Tort Claims § 114.103 Who may file a claim? (a) If a claim is based on factors listed in the first... entitled to assert the claim under applicable state law. Loss wholly compensated by an insurer with...

  16. Environmental Impact Statements Defended

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Discusses a government report that claims that government decision making has improved since federal agencies have been required to submit any proposed action in the form of an environmental impact statement for comments by the public and other agencies. (MLH)

  17. An analysis of the warning letters issued by the FDA to pharmaceutical manufacturers regarding misleading health outcomes claims

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Satabdi; Patel, Harshali K.; Sansgiry, Sujit S.

    Objective To evaluate the number and type of warning letters issued by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to pharmaceutical manufacturers for promotional violations. Methods Two reviewers downloaded, printed and independently evaluated warning letters issued by the FDA to pharmaceutical manufacturers from years 2003-2008. Misleading claims were broadly classified as clinical, Quality-of-Life (QoL), and economic claims. Clinical claims included claims regarding unsubstantiated efficacy, safety and tolerability, superiority, broadening of indication and/or omission of risk information. QoL claims included unsubstantiated quality of life and/or health-related quality of life claims. Economic claims included any form of claim made on behalf of the pharmaceutical companies related to cost superiority of or cost savings from the drug compared to other drugs in the market. Results In the 6-year study period, 65 warning letters were issued by FDA, which contained 144 clinical, three QoL, and one economic claim. On an average, 11 warning letters were issued per year. Omission of risk information was the most frequently violated claim (30.6%) followed by unsubstantiated efficacy claims (18.6%). Warning letters were primarily directed to manufacturers of cardiovascular (14.6%), anti-microbial (14.6%), and CNS (12.5%) drugs. Majority of the claims referenced in warning letters contained promotional materials directed to physicians (57%). Conclusions The study found that misleading clinical outcome claims formed the majority of the promotional violations, and majority of the claims were directed to physicians. Since inadequate promotion of medications may lead to irrational prescribing, the study emphasizes the importance of disseminating reliable, credible, and scientific information to patients, and more importantly, physicians to protect public health. PMID:24155837

  18. 40 CFR 10.3 - Administrative claims; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative claims; who may file. 10... CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 10.3 Administrative claims; who may file. (a) A claim... by any other person legally entitled to assert such a claim under applicable State law. (d) A...

  19. 42 CFR 424.32 - Basic requirements for all claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... meanings: (i) Claim means a transaction defined at 45 CFR 162.1101(a). (ii) Electronic claim means a claim... electronic claim. (iii) Direct data entry is defined at 45 CFR 162.103. (iv) Electronic media is defined at 45 CFR 160.103. (v) Initial Medicare claim means a claim submitted to Medicare for payment under...

  20. 42 CFR 424.32 - Basic requirements for all claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... meanings: (i) Claim means a transaction defined at 45 CFR 162.1101(a). (ii) Electronic claim means a claim... electronic claim. (iii) Direct data entry is defined at 45 CFR 162.103. (iv) Electronic media is defined at 45 CFR 160.103. (v) Initial Medicare claim means a claim submitted to Medicare for payment under...

  1. 44 CFR 11.19 - Action on approved claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Administrative Claims Under Federal Tort Claims Act § 11.19... execution of (1) a “Claim for Damage or Injury,” Standard Form 95, or a claims settlement agreement, and (2... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Action on approved claim....

  2. 44 CFR 11.19 - Action on approved claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Administrative Claims Under Federal Tort Claims Act § 11.19... execution of (1) a “Claim for Damage or Injury,” Standard Form 95, or a claims settlement agreement, and (2... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Action on approved claim....

  3. 20 CFR 429.103 - Who may file my claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....103 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED STATUTES Claims Against the Government Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 429.103 Who may file my claim? (a) Claims for damage to or loss of property. If you are the owner of...

  4. A Critical Analysis of Claims and Their Authenticity in Indian Drug Promotional Advertisements.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Gurpreet Kaur; Singh, Navyug Raj; Rai, Jaswant; Kaur, Gobindnoor; Kashyap, Resham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Drug promotional advertisements (DPAs) form a major marketing technique of pharmaceutical companies for promoting their products and disseminating ambiguous drug information which can affect prescribing pattern of physicians. Drug information includes product characteristics, various marketing claims with references in support to increase its credibility and authenticity. Material and Methods. An observational study was carried out on fifty printed drug advertisement brochures which were collected from different OPDs of Guru Nanak Dev Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar, India. These advertisements were analyzed and claims were categorized into true, false, exaggerated, vague, and controversial on criteria as reported by Rohraa et al. (2006). References of DPAs in support of the claims were critically analyzed for their retrievability from web and validity pertaining to claims. Results. Out of 209 claims from 50 advertisements, only 46% were found to be true, 21% false, 16% vague, 7% exaggerated, and 10% controversial in nature. Out of 160 references given in support of claims, 49 (30%) of references were irretrievable. Out of 111 (70%) retrievable references, 92 (83%) references were found valid. Conclusion. Drug information provided in the DPAs was biased, incomplete, unauthentic, and unreliable with references exhibiting questionable credibility. PMID:26556557

  5. A Critical Analysis of Claims and Their Authenticity in Indian Drug Promotional Advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, Gurpreet Kaur; Singh, Navyug Raj; Rai, Jaswant; Kaur, Gobindnoor; Kashyap, Resham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Drug promotional advertisements (DPAs) form a major marketing technique of pharmaceutical companies for promoting their products and disseminating ambiguous drug information which can affect prescribing pattern of physicians. Drug information includes product characteristics, various marketing claims with references in support to increase its credibility and authenticity. Material and Methods. An observational study was carried out on fifty printed drug advertisement brochures which were collected from different OPDs of Guru Nanak Dev Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar, India. These advertisements were analyzed and claims were categorized into true, false, exaggerated, vague, and controversial on criteria as reported by Rohraa et al. (2006). References of DPAs in support of the claims were critically analyzed for their retrievability from web and validity pertaining to claims. Results. Out of 209 claims from 50 advertisements, only 46% were found to be true, 21% false, 16% vague, 7% exaggerated, and 10% controversial in nature. Out of 160 references given in support of claims, 49 (30%) of references were irretrievable. Out of 111 (70%) retrievable references, 92 (83%) references were found valid. Conclusion. Drug information provided in the DPAs was biased, incomplete, unauthentic, and unreliable with references exhibiting questionable credibility. PMID:26556557

  6. A Critical Analysis of Claims and Their Authenticity in Indian Drug Promotional Advertisements.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Gurpreet Kaur; Singh, Navyug Raj; Rai, Jaswant; Kaur, Gobindnoor; Kashyap, Resham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Drug promotional advertisements (DPAs) form a major marketing technique of pharmaceutical companies for promoting their products and disseminating ambiguous drug information which can affect prescribing pattern of physicians. Drug information includes product characteristics, various marketing claims with references in support to increase its credibility and authenticity. Material and Methods. An observational study was carried out on fifty printed drug advertisement brochures which were collected from different OPDs of Guru Nanak Dev Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar, India. These advertisements were analyzed and claims were categorized into true, false, exaggerated, vague, and controversial on criteria as reported by Rohraa et al. (2006). References of DPAs in support of the claims were critically analyzed for their retrievability from web and validity pertaining to claims. Results. Out of 209 claims from 50 advertisements, only 46% were found to be true, 21% false, 16% vague, 7% exaggerated, and 10% controversial in nature. Out of 160 references given in support of claims, 49 (30%) of references were irretrievable. Out of 111 (70%) retrievable references, 92 (83%) references were found valid. Conclusion. Drug information provided in the DPAs was biased, incomplete, unauthentic, and unreliable with references exhibiting questionable credibility.

  7. Does workplace health promotion decrease medical claims?

    PubMed

    Wheat, J R; Graney, M J; Shachtman, R H; Ginn, G L; Patrick, D L; Hulka, B S

    1992-01-01

    We examined the relationship between workplace health promotion and medical claims in 38 textile plants, considering also the effects of demographic and contextual variables (i.e., average worker age, sex ratio, racial composition, plant product, and access to medical services). Number of claims per worker varied threefold among plants but was independent of plant workforce's sex ratio, racial composition, and access to medical services. Worker age predicted claims; in a linear regression model, age, sex, race, plant product, and access explained 23% of variance in claims. Health promotion was also related to claims, and its inclusion in the model (with interaction terms involving plant product) explained 54% of variance in claims, with the deletion of race, sex, and access from the reduced model. We concluded that effective health promotion must address the contexts of different types of plant product.

  8. Exaggerated Claims About Earthquake Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafka, Alan L.; Ebel, John E.

    2007-01-01

    The perennial promise of successful earthquake prediction captures the imagination of a public hungry for certainty in an uncertain world. Yet, given the lack of any reliable method of predicting earthquakes [e.g., Geller, 1997; Kagan and Jackson, 1996; Evans, 1997], seismologists regularly have to explain news stories of a supposedly successful earthquake prediction when it is far from clear just how successful that prediction actually was. When journalists and public relations offices report the latest `great discovery' regarding the prediction of earthquakes, seismologists are left with the much less glamorous task of explaining to the public the gap between the claimed success and the sober reality that there is no scientifically proven method of predicting earthquakes.

  9. [Health claims for medical foods].

    PubMed

    Katan, Martijn B

    2013-01-01

    Souvenaid (Nutricia, Zoetermeer, the Netherlands) is a medical food for the dietary management of early Alzheimer's disease. The mix of nutrients in this drink is suggested to have a beneficial effect on cognitive function; such implicit health claims for medical foods are not checked by government agencies. Souvenaid has been investigated in three clinical trials. The first trial showed that Souvenaid produced a significant improvement in delayed verbal recall, but not in other psychological tests. The second and largest trial showed no effect on any outcome. The third trial showed no significant effect at 12 or 24 weeks, but a significant difference in the 24-week time course of the composite memory score. None of these outcomes was clearly specified as a primary outcome at trial registration. In conclusion, there is no convincing proof that Souvenaid benefits cognitive function. Better scrutiny of the efficacy of medical foods is warranted. PMID:23759182

  10. [Health and nutrition claims made on food: what future?].

    PubMed

    Laplace, Jean-Paul

    2006-11-01

    The number of foods bearing health and nutrition claims is growing in line with consumers' expectations. This market offers attractive prospects of profit for industry and commerce. The question is whether such foods really have health effects, and whether the general population or specific groups really benefit from their use. Specific regulations are needed to define the conditions of validation, communication and follow-up of such claims. The European Community's internal market is currently governed by a fragmented set of regulations and enforcement systems. Member states' national regulations differ in substance and application. For these reasons, the European Commission is seeking to create and adopt a common regulation. The following article considers the main stakes relating to consumers' health expectations, public health, and industrial and commercial interests, together with the origins of the concept of "functional foods". In contrast to the 'product based' approach in other cultures (Japan, North America, etc.), Europe has chosen a 'science based' approach focusing on physiological functions. In particular, Europe funded the FUFOSE program (Functional Food Science in Europe) coordinated by ILSI (International Life Science Institute). The bases of true functional food science are considered--how to identify beneficial interactions between food components and specific body functions, and to understand the underlying mechanisms in order to construct hypotheses for testing on volunteers. A methodology based on biological markers has been developed Europe then funded the PASSCLAIM program (Process for the assessment of scientific support for claims on foods) aimed at identifying relationships between a functional effect (normal or enhanced function) and a health benefit or a reduced risk of disease. Selected aspects of these 10-year programs illustrate the scientific bases for a European regulation of nutrition claims and so-called health claims (improved

  11. [Health and nutrition claims made on food: what future?].

    PubMed

    Laplace, Jean-Paul

    2006-11-01

    The number of foods bearing health and nutrition claims is growing in line with consumers' expectations. This market offers attractive prospects of profit for industry and commerce. The question is whether such foods really have health effects, and whether the general population or specific groups really benefit from their use. Specific regulations are needed to define the conditions of validation, communication and follow-up of such claims. The European Community's internal market is currently governed by a fragmented set of regulations and enforcement systems. Member states' national regulations differ in substance and application. For these reasons, the European Commission is seeking to create and adopt a common regulation. The following article considers the main stakes relating to consumers' health expectations, public health, and industrial and commercial interests, together with the origins of the concept of "functional foods". In contrast to the 'product based' approach in other cultures (Japan, North America, etc.), Europe has chosen a 'science based' approach focusing on physiological functions. In particular, Europe funded the FUFOSE program (Functional Food Science in Europe) coordinated by ILSI (International Life Science Institute). The bases of true functional food science are considered--how to identify beneficial interactions between food components and specific body functions, and to understand the underlying mechanisms in order to construct hypotheses for testing on volunteers. A methodology based on biological markers has been developed Europe then funded the PASSCLAIM program (Process for the assessment of scientific support for claims on foods) aimed at identifying relationships between a functional effect (normal or enhanced function) and a health benefit or a reduced risk of disease. Selected aspects of these 10-year programs illustrate the scientific bases for a European regulation of nutrition claims and so-called health claims (improved

  12. Health Insurance Claim Review Using Information Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jeong-Sik; Speedie, Stuart M.; Yoon, Hojung; Lee, Jiseon

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this paper is to describe the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA)'s payment request (PARE) system that plays the role of the gateway for all health insurance claims submitted to HIRA, and the claim review support (CRS) system that supports the work of claim review experts in South Korea. Methods This study describes the two systems' information technology (IT) infrastructures, their roles, and quantitative analysis of their work performance. It also reports the impact of these systems on claims processing by analyzing the health insurance claim data submitted to HIRA from April 1 to June 30, 2011. Results The PARE system returned to healthcare providers 2.7% of all inpatient claims (97,930) and 0.1% of all outpatient claims (317,007) as un-reviewable claims. The return rate was the highest for the hospital group as 0.49% and the lowest rate was found in clinic group. The CRS system's detection rate of the claims with multiple errors in inpatient and outpatient areas was 23.1% and 2.9%, respectively. The highest rate of error detection occurred at guideline check-up stages in both inpatient and outpatient groups. Conclusions The study found that HIRA's two IT systems had a critical role in reducing heavy administrative workloads through automatic data processing. Although the return rate of the problematic claims to providers and the error detection rate by two systems was low, the actual count of the returned claims was large. The role of IT will become increasingly important in reducing the workload of health insurance claims review. PMID:23115745

  13. Class 1 overview of cultural resources for the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.; Walitschek, D.A.; Shogren, L.; Mathews, J.E.; Verhaaren, B.T.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in Utah and Colorado and the Gunnison River (Blue Mesa Reservoir to Crystal Dam) in Colorado. All previous archaeological surveys and previously recorded prehistoric and historic sites, structures, and features were inventoried and plotted on maps (only survey area maps are included in this report). The surveys were classified by their level of intensity, and the sites were classified according to their age, type, and contents. These data (presented here in tabular form) permit a general assessment of the character and distribution of archaeological remains in the study areas, as well as an indication of the sampling basis for such an assessment. To provide an adequate context for the descriptions of the archaeological and historic sites, this report also presents overviews of the environmental setting and the regional prehistory, history, and ethnography for each study area.

  14. Social Welfare and the Market Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joel I.

    1992-01-01

    Reports on a study that questions whether private enterprise can maintain quality while reducing costs of providing social welfare services. Reviews three aspects of privatization: (1) competitive markets; (2) rationality; and (3) cost reduction. Concludes by questioning a central claim of economic theory: that free markets and private firms are…

  15. STOPPING DECEPTIVE HEALTH CLAIMS: THE NEED FOR A PRIVATE RIGHT OF ACTION UNDER FEDERAL LAW.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Diane; Schwartz, Jack

    2016-01-01

    This Article offers a thorough analysis of an important public health issue, namely how to confront the growing problem of deceptive claims regarding foods and dietary supplements, including increasingly prevalent but unverifiable claims. The authors call for the creation of a limited private right of action under the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Act for deceptive health-related claims for these products. The proposal responds to the growing market for these products and the inadequacy of current laws and enforcement actions to prevent such claims. In crafting the limited private right of action, the authors attempt to enhance consumer protection without undermining federal agency primacy in enforcement. The Article ends with an appendix setting forth proposed language for a statutory amendment to the FTC Act incorporating the authors' proposal. PMID:27263263

  16. STOPPING DECEPTIVE HEALTH CLAIMS: THE NEED FOR A PRIVATE RIGHT OF ACTION UNDER FEDERAL LAW.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Diane; Schwartz, Jack

    2016-01-01

    This Article offers a thorough analysis of an important public health issue, namely how to confront the growing problem of deceptive claims regarding foods and dietary supplements, including increasingly prevalent but unverifiable claims. The authors call for the creation of a limited private right of action under the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Act for deceptive health-related claims for these products. The proposal responds to the growing market for these products and the inadequacy of current laws and enforcement actions to prevent such claims. In crafting the limited private right of action, the authors attempt to enhance consumer protection without undermining federal agency primacy in enforcement. The Article ends with an appendix setting forth proposed language for a statutory amendment to the FTC Act incorporating the authors' proposal.

  17. Health claims on food products in Southeast Asia: regulatory frameworks, barriers, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Tan, Karin Y M; van der Beek, Eline M; Chan, M Y; Zhao, Xuejun; Stevenson, Leo

    2015-09-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations aims to act as a single market and allow free movement of goods, services, and manpower. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the current regulatory framework for health claims in Southeast Asia and to highlight the current barriers and opportunities in the regulatory frameworks in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. To date, 5 countries in Southeast Asia, i.e., Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, have regulations and guidelines to permit the use of health claims on food products. There are inconsistencies in the regulations and the types of evidence required for health claim applications in these countries. A clear understanding of the regulatory frameworks in these countries may help to increase trade in this fast-growing region and to provide direction for the food industry and the regulatory community to develop and market food products with better nutritional quality tailored to the needs of Southeast Asian consumers.

  18. 32 CFR 536.115 - Claims procedures for claims arising overseas under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... otherwise allowed under the FCA or MCA. For example, receiving state claims offices in Germany require that....S. involvement. If the filing period is about to expire for claims arising in Germany, have...

  19. 32 CFR 536.115 - Claims procedures for claims arising overseas under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... otherwise allowed under the FCA or MCA. For example, receiving state claims offices in Germany require that....S. involvement. If the filing period is about to expire for claims arising in Germany, have...

  20. 32 CFR 536.115 - Claims procedures for claims arising overseas under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... otherwise allowed under the FCA or MCA. For example, receiving state claims offices in Germany require that....S. involvement. If the filing period is about to expire for claims arising in Germany, have...

  1. 32 CFR 536.115 - Claims procedures for claims arising overseas under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... otherwise allowed under the FCA or MCA. For example, receiving state claims offices in Germany require that....S. involvement. If the filing period is about to expire for claims arising in Germany, have...

  2. 32 CFR 536.115 - Claims procedures for claims arising overseas under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... otherwise allowed under the FCA or MCA. For example, receiving state claims offices in Germany require that....S. involvement. If the filing period is about to expire for claims arising in Germany, have...

  3. Standard claims and appeals forms. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-09-25

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its adjudication regulations and the appeals regulations and rules of practice of the Board of Veterans' Appeals (Board) to require that all claims governed by VA's adjudication regulations be filed on standard forms prescribed by the Secretary, regardless of the type of claim or posture in which the claim arises. This rulemaking also eliminates the constructive receipt of VA reports of hospitalization or examination and other medical records as informal claims for increase or to reopen while retaining the retroactive effective date assignment for awards for claims for increase which are filed on a standard form within 1 year of such hospitalization, examination, or treatment. This final rule also implements the concept of an intent to file a claim for benefits, which operates similarly to the current informal claim process, but requires that the submission establishing a claimant's effective date of benefits must be received in one of three specified formats. Finally, these amendments will provide that VA will accept an expression of dissatisfaction or disagreement with an adjudicative determination by the agency of original jurisdiction(AOJ) as a Notice of Disagreement (NOD) only if it is submitted on a standardized form provided by VA for the purpose of appealing the decision, in cases where such a form is provided. Although a standardized NOD form will only initially be provided in connection with decisions on compensation claims, VA may require a standard NOD form for any type of claim for VA benefits if, in the future, it develops and provides a standardized NOD form for a particular benefit. The purpose of these amendments is to improve the quality and timeliness of the processing of veterans' claims for benefits by standardizing the claims and appeals processes through the use of forms. PMID:25255502

  4. 13 CFR 108.1710 - SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA authority to collect or compromise its claims. 108.1710 Section 108.1710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies...

  5. 48 CFR 1652.204-72 - Filing health benefit claims/court review of disputed claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FEHB claims under authority of Federal statute (chapter 89, title 5, United States Code). A covered... of the Carrier's request) for submitting the information; and (iv) State the consequences of failure... claims/court review of disputed claims. 1652.204-72 Section 1652.204-72 Federal Acquisition...

  6. 48 CFR 1652.204-72 - Filing health benefit claims/court review of disputed claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FEHB claims under authority of Federal statute (chapter 89, title 5, United States Code). A covered... of the Carrier's request) for submitting the information; and (iv) State the consequences of failure... claims/court review of disputed claims. 1652.204-72 Section 1652.204-72 Federal Acquisition...

  7. 48 CFR 1652.204-72 - Filing health benefit claims/court review of disputed claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FEHB claims under authority of Federal statute (chapter 89, title 5, United States Code). A covered... of the Carrier's request) for submitting the information; and (iv) State the consequences of failure... claims/court review of disputed claims. 1652.204-72 Section 1652.204-72 Federal Acquisition...

  8. 32 CFR 536.77 - Applicable law for claims under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) The United States will only be liable for the portion of loss or damage attributable to the fault of the United States or its employees. Joint and several liability is inapplicable. (v) No allowance will... ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military...

  9. 32 CFR 536.74 - Scope for claims under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... claims against the United States for death or personal injury, or damage to, or loss or destruction of..., Glossary). (b) A tort claim arising in the United States, its commonwealths, territories, and possessions may be settled under this subpart if the Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) does not apply to the type...

  10. 32 CFR 536.74 - Scope for claims under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... claims against the United States for death or personal injury, or damage to, or loss or destruction of..., Glossary). (b) A tort claim arising in the United States, its commonwealths, territories, and possessions may be settled under this subpart if the Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) does not apply to the type...

  11. 28 CFR 801.1 - Claims filed under the Federal Tort Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... such administrative claims are contained in 28 CFR part 14. The provisions in this part supplement the general provisions in order to describe specific procedures to follow when filing a claim with the Court... Claims Act. 801.1 Section 801.1 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION...

  12. 28 CFR 801.1 - Claims filed under the Federal Tort Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... such administrative claims are contained in 28 CFR part 14. The provisions in this part supplement the general provisions in order to describe specific procedures to follow when filing a claim with the Court... Claims Act. 801.1 Section 801.1 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION...

  13. 28 CFR 801.1 - Claims filed under the Federal Tort Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... such administrative claims are contained in 28 CFR part 14. The provisions in this part supplement the general provisions in order to describe specific procedures to follow when filing a claim with the Court... Claims Act. 801.1 Section 801.1 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION...

  14. 28 CFR 801.1 - Claims filed under the Federal Tort Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... such administrative claims are contained in 28 CFR part 14. The provisions in this part supplement the general provisions in order to describe specific procedures to follow when filing a claim with the Court... Claims Act. 801.1 Section 801.1 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION...

  15. 49 CFR 1037.3 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.3 Claims. (a) In computing the amount of the loss for which the carrier will pay there will be deducted from the gross amount of the ascertained actual loss one-fourth of 1 percent of the established loading weight to...

  16. 49 CFR 1037.3 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.3 Claims. (a) In computing the amount of the loss for which the carrier will pay there will be deducted from the gross amount of the ascertained actual loss one-fourth of 1 percent of the established loading weight to...

  17. 37 CFR 1.164 - Claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Plant Patents § 1.164 Claim. The claim shall be in formal terms to the new and distinct variety of the specified plant as described...

  18. 37 CFR 1.164 - Claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Plant Patents § 1.164 Claim. The claim shall be in formal terms to the new and distinct variety of the specified plant as described...

  19. 47 CFR 1.1120 - Error claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Error claims. 1.1120 Section 1.1120 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1120 Error claims. (a) Applicants who wish...

  20. 47 CFR 1.1120 - Error claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Error claims. 1.1120 Section 1.1120 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1120 Error claims. (a) Applicants who wish...

  1. 47 CFR 1.1120 - Error claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Error claims. 1.1120 Section 1.1120 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1120 Error claims. (a) Applicants who wish...

  2. 45 CFR 504.1 - Claim defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECEIPT, ADMINISTRATION, AND PAYMENT OF CLAIMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF... Vietnam conflict but were subsequently determined to have been interned, in hiding, or captured by a... military servicemen held as prisoners of war by forces hostile to the United States. (b) A...

  3. 45 CFR 504.1 - Claim defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECEIPT, ADMINISTRATION, AND PAYMENT OF CLAIMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF... Vietnam conflict but were subsequently determined to have been interned, in hiding, or captured by a... military servicemen held as prisoners of war by forces hostile to the United States. (b) A...

  4. 45 CFR 504.1 - Claim defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECEIPT, ADMINISTRATION, AND PAYMENT OF CLAIMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF... Vietnam conflict but were subsequently determined to have been interned, in hiding, or captured by a... military servicemen held as prisoners of war by forces hostile to the United States. (b) A...

  5. 45 CFR 504.1 - Claim defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECEIPT, ADMINISTRATION, AND PAYMENT OF CLAIMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF... Vietnam conflict but were subsequently determined to have been interned, in hiding, or captured by a... military servicemen held as prisoners of war by forces hostile to the United States. (b) A...

  6. 45 CFR 504.1 - Claim defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECEIPT, ADMINISTRATION, AND PAYMENT OF CLAIMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF... Vietnam conflict but were subsequently determined to have been interned, in hiding, or captured by a... military servicemen held as prisoners of war by forces hostile to the United States. (b) A...

  7. Internet Survey of Nutrition Claim Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camire, Mary E.; Dougherty, Michael P.

    2005-01-01

    Consumer interest in healthy foods has spurred approval of several health claims for foods and dietary supplements. Although undergraduate and graduate food science curricula address food laws and regulations, nutrition claims may not be fully addressed. We posted a survey on the Internet for 2 mo for food industry professionals and others…

  8. 49 CFR 1037.3 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.3 Claims. (a) In... invisible loss and waste; provided, however, that where grain and grain products heat in transit and... for said loss, then the ascertained actual amount of the invisible loss due to heating of the...

  9. 49 CFR 1037.3 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.3 Claims. (a) In... invisible loss and waste; provided, however, that where grain and grain products heat in transit and... for said loss, then the ascertained actual amount of the invisible loss due to heating of the...

  10. 40 CFR 35.6600 - Contractor claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Procurement Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6600 Contractor claims. (a) General... against the recipient under a contract, provided: (1) The claim arises from work within the scope of...

  11. 29 CFR 15.42 - Claim procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Federal Tort Claims Act, as amended, for money damages against the United States for injury to or loss of... responsibility of the United States for the personal injury or the damages claimed. (b) Death. In support of a... other evidence or information which may have a bearing on either the responsibility of the United......

  12. 20 CFR 422.130 - Claim procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES General Procedures § 422.130 Claim procedure. (a) General. The Social Security Administration provides facilities for the public to... station of the Social Security Administration, from the Division of Foreign Claims, Post Office Box...

  13. 29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... service with the Department and: (l) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent... the other provisions of this subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss, of personal property incident... authorized places. Claims may be allowable for damage to, or loss of, property arising from fire,...

  14. 18 CFR 1308.6 - Fraudulent claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraudulent claims. 1308.6 Section 1308.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY CONTRACT DISPUTES General Matters § 1308.6 Fraudulent claims. (a) If a Contractor is unable to support any part of...

  15. 18 CFR 1308.6 - Fraudulent claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fraudulent claims. 1308.6 Section 1308.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY CONTRACT DISPUTES General Matters § 1308.6 Fraudulent claims. (a) If a Contractor is unable to support any part of...

  16. 18 CFR 1308.6 - Fraudulent claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fraudulent claims. 1308.6 Section 1308.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY CONTRACT DISPUTES General Matters § 1308.6 Fraudulent claims. (a) If a Contractor is unable to support any part of...

  17. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Government claims. 460.21 Section 460.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses,...

  18. 16 CFR 460.19 - Savings claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME... records showing proof for claims, the three years will begin again each time you make the claim. Federal Trade Commission staff members can check these records at any time, but they must give you...

  19. 16 CFR 460.22 - Tax claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tax claims. 460.22 Section 460.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.22 Tax claims. Do not say or imply that your product qualifies for a tax benefit unless it is true....

  20. 16 CFR 460.22 - Tax claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tax claims. 460.22 Section 460.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.22 Tax claims. Do not say or imply that your product qualifies for a tax benefit unless it is true....

  1. 16 CFR 460.22 - Tax claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tax claims. 460.22 Section 460.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.22 Tax claims. Do not say or imply that your product qualifies for a tax benefit unless it is true....

  2. 16 CFR 460.19 - Savings claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME... records showing proof for claims, the three years will begin again each time you make the claim. Federal Trade Commission staff members can check these records at any time, but they must give you...

  3. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Government claims. 460.21 Section 460.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses,...

  4. 16 CFR 460.19 - Savings claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME... records showing proof for claims, the three years will begin again each time you make the claim. Federal Trade Commission staff members can check these records at any time, but they must give you...

  5. 16 CFR 460.22 - Tax claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tax claims. 460.22 Section 460.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.22 Tax claims. Do not say or imply that your product qualifies for a tax benefit unless it is true....

  6. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Government claims. 460.21 Section 460.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses,...

  7. 16 CFR 460.19 - Savings claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME... records showing proof for claims, the three years will begin again each time you make the claim. Federal Trade Commission staff members can check these records at any time, but they must give you...

  8. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Government claims. 460.21 Section 460.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses,...

  9. 16 CFR 460.22 - Tax claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tax claims. 460.22 Section 460.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.22 Tax claims. Do not say or imply that your product qualifies for a tax benefit unless it is true....

  10. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Government claims. 460.21 Section 460.21 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses,...

  11. 16 CFR 460.19 - Savings claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME... records showing proof for claims, the three years will begin again each time you make the claim. Federal Trade Commission staff members can check these records at any time, but they must give you...

  12. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the debtor or any party having an interest in the claim to the USAID Office of Inspector General... the Department of Justice (DOJ), and/or returning it to the CFO for further action. (b) The CFO will... presentation of a false claim or misrepresentation on the part of the debtor or any party having an interest...

  13. Psychotropic medication claims among religious clergy.

    PubMed

    Frenk, Steven M; Mustillo, Sarah A; Foy, Steven L; Arroyave, Whitney D; Hooten, Elizabeth G; Lauderback, Kari H; Meador, Keith G

    2013-03-01

    This study examined psychotropic medication claims in a sample of Protestant clergy. It estimated the proportion of clergy in the sample who had a claim for psychotropic medication (i.e., anti-depressants and anxiolytics) in 2005 and examined associations between sociodemographic characteristics, occupational distress and having a claim. Protestant clergy (n = 749) from nine denominations completed a mail survey and provided access to their pharmaceutical records. Logistic regression models assessed the effect of sociodemographic characteristics and occupational distress on having a claim. The descriptive analysis revealed that 16 % (95 % Confidence interval [CI] 13.3 %-18.5 %) of the clergy in the sample had a claim for psychotropic medication in 2005 and that, among clergy who experienced frequent occupational distress, 28 % (95 % CI 17.5 %-37.5 %) had a claim. The regression analysis found that older clergy, female clergy, and those who experienced frequent occupational distress were more likely to have a claim. Due to recent demographic changes in the clergy population, including the increasing mean age of new clergy and the growing number of female clergy, the proportion of clergy having claims for psychotropic medication may increase in the coming years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the use of psychotropic medication among clergy.

  14. 49 CFR 1037.3 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.3 Claims. (a) In computing the amount of the loss for which the carrier will pay there will be deducted from the gross amount of the ascertained actual loss one-fourth of 1 percent of the established loading weight to...

  15. 32 CFR 750.64 - Claim procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... claimant may amend a claim at any time prior to final action. Amendments will be submitted in writing and... not in the scope of their employment at the time of the incident. If a tender of payment under this section is not accepted by the claimant in full satisfaction of the claim, no award will be made, and...

  16. 49 CFR 1018.32 - Bankruptcy claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bankruptcy claims. 1018.32 Section 1018.32... § 1018.32 Bankruptcy claims. When the Board receives information that a debtor has filed a petition in bankruptcy or is the subject of a bankruptcy proceeding, it shall suspend all collection actions against...

  17. 49 CFR 1018.32 - Bankruptcy claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bankruptcy claims. 1018.32 Section 1018.32... § 1018.32 Bankruptcy claims. When the Board receives information that a debtor has filed a petition in bankruptcy or is the subject of a bankruptcy proceeding, it shall suspend all collection actions against...

  18. 32 CFR 732.19 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE Medical and Dental Care From Nonnaval Sources § 732.19 Claims. (a) Member's responsibility. Members receiving... identified in § 732.20. A complete claim includes: (1) NAVMED 6320/10, Statement of Civilian...

  19. 32 CFR 732.19 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE Medical and Dental Care From Nonnaval Sources § 732.19 Claims. (a) Member's responsibility. Members receiving... identified in § 732.20. A complete claim includes: (1) NAVMED 6320/10, Statement of Civilian...

  20. 5 CFR 180.107 - Claims procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Claims procedure. 180.107 Section 180.107 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYEES' PERSONAL PROPERTY... General Counsel, Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E Street NW., Washington, DC 20415. Claims shall...

  1. 24 CFR 203.371 - Partial claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Claim Procedure § 203.371 Partial claim. (a... not exceeded the equivalent of 12 monthly mortgage payments; (3) The mortgagor is able to...

  2. 49 CFR 22.69 - Claim process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claim process. 22.69 Section 22.69 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) Loan Administration § 22.69 Claim process. After reasonable efforts have been exhausted to collect on a delinquent debt,...

  3. 49 CFR 22.69 - Claim process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Claim process. 22.69 Section 22.69 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) Loan Administration § 22.69 Claim process. After reasonable efforts have been exhausted to collect on a delinquent debt,...

  4. 29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Department and: (l) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent or wrongful act or... subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss, of personal property incident to service with the Department... excluded: (1) Property or damage in quarters or other authorized places. Claims may be allowable for...

  5. 44 CFR 295.33 - Supplementing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplementing claims. 295.33 Section 295.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CERRO GRANDE FIRE ASSISTANCE CERRO GRANDE FIRE ASSISTANCE Claims Evaluation §...

  6. 44 CFR 295.33 - Supplementing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supplementing claims. 295.33 Section 295.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CERRO GRANDE FIRE ASSISTANCE CERRO GRANDE FIRE ASSISTANCE Claims Evaluation §...

  7. Long-Term Urban Market Dynamics Reveal Increased Bushmeat Carcass Volume despite Economic Growth and Proactive Environmental Legislation on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Drew T; Woloszynek, Stephen; Morra, Wayne A; Honarvar, Shaya; Linder, Joshua M; Gonder, Mary Katherine; O'Connor, Michael P; Hearn, Gail W

    2015-01-01

    Bushmeat hunting is extensive in west and central Africa as both a means for subsistence and for commercial gain. Commercial hunting represents one of the primary threats to wildlife in the region, and confounding factors have made it challenging to examine how external factors influence the commercial bushmeat trade. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea is a small island with large tracts of intact forest that support sizeable populations of commercially valuable vertebrates, especially endemic primates. The island also has a low human population and has experienced dramatic economic growth and rapid development since the mid-1990's. From October 1997 - September 2010, we monitored the largest bushmeat market on Bioko in Malabo, recording over 197,000 carcasses for sale. We used these data to analyze the dynamics of the market in relation to political events, environmental legislation, and rapid economic growth. Our findings suggest that bushmeat hunting and availability increased in parallel with the growth of Equatorial Guinea's GDP and disposable income of its citizens. During this 13-year study, the predominant mode of capture shifted from trapping to shotguns. Consequently, carcass volume and rates of taxa typically captured with shotguns increased significantly, most notably including intensified hunting of Bioko's unique and endangered monkey fauna. Attempts to limit bushmeat sales, including a 2007 ban on primate hunting and trade, were only transiently effective. The hunting ban was not enforced, and was quickly followed by a marked increase in bushmeat hunting compared to hunting rates prior to the ban. Our results emphasize the negative impact that rapid development and unenforced legislation have had on Bioko's wildlife, and demonstrate the need for strong governmental support if conservation strategies are to be successful at preventing extinctions of tropical wildlife.

  8. Long-Term Urban Market Dynamics Reveal Increased Bushmeat Carcass Volume despite Economic Growth and Proactive Environmental Legislation on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Drew T.; Woloszynek, Stephen; Morra, Wayne A.; Honarvar, Shaya; Linder, Joshua M.; Gonder, Mary Katherine; O’Connor, Michael P.; Hearn, Gail W.

    2015-01-01

    Bushmeat hunting is extensive in west and central Africa as both a means for subsistence and for commercial gain. Commercial hunting represents one of the primary threats to wildlife in the region, and confounding factors have made it challenging to examine how external factors influence the commercial bushmeat trade. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea is a small island with large tracts of intact forest that support sizeable populations of commercially valuable vertebrates, especially endemic primates. The island also has a low human population and has experienced dramatic economic growth and rapid development since the mid-1990’s. From October 1997 – September 2010, we monitored the largest bushmeat market on Bioko in Malabo, recording over 197,000 carcasses for sale. We used these data to analyze the dynamics of the market in relation to political events, environmental legislation, and rapid economic growth. Our findings suggest that bushmeat hunting and availability increased in parallel with the growth of Equatorial Guinea’s GDP and disposable income of its citizens. During this 13-year study, the predominant mode of capture shifted from trapping to shotguns. Consequently, carcass volume and rates of taxa typically captured with shotguns increased significantly, most notably including intensified hunting of Bioko's unique and endangered monkey fauna. Attempts to limit bushmeat sales, including a 2007 ban on primate hunting and trade, were only transiently effective. The hunting ban was not enforced, and was quickly followed by a marked increase in bushmeat hunting compared to hunting rates prior to the ban. Our results emphasize the negative impact that rapid development and unenforced legislation have had on Bioko’s wildlife, and demonstrate the need for strong governmental support if conservation strategies are to be successful at preventing extinctions of tropical wildlife. PMID:26230504

  9. Long-Term Urban Market Dynamics Reveal Increased Bushmeat Carcass Volume despite Economic Growth and Proactive Environmental Legislation on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Drew T; Woloszynek, Stephen; Morra, Wayne A; Honarvar, Shaya; Linder, Joshua M; Gonder, Mary Katherine; O'Connor, Michael P; Hearn, Gail W

    2015-01-01

    Bushmeat hunting is extensive in west and central Africa as both a means for subsistence and for commercial gain. Commercial hunting represents one of the primary threats to wildlife in the region, and confounding factors have made it challenging to examine how external factors influence the commercial bushmeat trade. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea is a small island with large tracts of intact forest that support sizeable populations of commercially valuable vertebrates, especially endemic primates. The island also has a low human population and has experienced dramatic economic growth and rapid development since the mid-1990's. From October 1997 - September 2010, we monitored the largest bushmeat market on Bioko in Malabo, recording over 197,000 carcasses for sale. We used these data to analyze the dynamics of the market in relation to political events, environmental legislation, and rapid economic growth. Our findings suggest that bushmeat hunting and availability increased in parallel with the growth of Equatorial Guinea's GDP and disposable income of its citizens. During this 13-year study, the predominant mode of capture shifted from trapping to shotguns. Consequently, carcass volume and rates of taxa typically captured with shotguns increased significantly, most notably including intensified hunting of Bioko's unique and endangered monkey fauna. Attempts to limit bushmeat sales, including a 2007 ban on primate hunting and trade, were only transiently effective. The hunting ban was not enforced, and was quickly followed by a marked increase in bushmeat hunting compared to hunting rates prior to the ban. Our results emphasize the negative impact that rapid development and unenforced legislation have had on Bioko's wildlife, and demonstrate the need for strong governmental support if conservation strategies are to be successful at preventing extinctions of tropical wildlife. PMID:26230504

  10. The class certification of medical monitoring claims.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, Pankaj

    2002-10-01

    The tort claim of medical monitoring has produced a disarrayed set of state and federal court opinions. The procedural dimensions of this claim are as vexing as the related substantive issues with which courts and commentators have long been grappling. Ordinarily, mass tort actions, typically involving claims for money damages, are certified under Rule 23(b)(3), which class category requires the right to notice and to opt out of a proceeding, and the fulfillment of "predominance" and "superiority" requirements. Such features are absent in Rule 23's mandatory classes. Nevertheless, this Note argues that it is appropriate for claims exclusively for medical monitoring to be certified as a mandatory class action under Rule 23(b)(2) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure or its state law counterparts. Given that a medical monitoring fund is an equitable remedy, nonpreclusive of a future damages claim, and groupwide in nature, the (b)(2) class category adequately protects the due process rights of class plaintiffs.

  11. To Market, to Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    The institution is part of a national market and its presidential options are dictated by that market, the reputation, the challenges of the position, and the relative compensation for the opportunity to lead the organization. Many in academe are uncomfortable with the idea that hiring in higher education should be governed by the laws of supply…

  12. 24 CFR 17.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 17.3 Section 17.3 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Claims Against Government Under Federal Tort Claims Act Procedures § 17.3 Administrative claim; who may...

  13. 34 CFR 35.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 35.3 Section 35.3... § 35.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for injury to or loss of property may be... assert such a claim under applicable state law. (d) A claim for loss wholly compensated by an...

  14. 44 CFR 11.12 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 11.12 Section 11.12 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Administrative Claims Under Federal Tort Claims Act § 11.12 Administrative claim; who may file. (a)...

  15. 10 CFR 1014.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 1014.3 Section 1014.3... § 1014.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for injury to or loss of property may be... to assert such a claim under the applicable State law. (d) A claim for a loss that was...

  16. 14 CFR 15.5 - Administrative claim, who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative claim, who may file. 15.5... claim, who may file. (a) A claim for injury to, or loss of, property may be presented by the owner of... assert such a claim under applicable State law. (d) A claim for loss wholly compensated by an...

  17. 45 CFR 35.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 35.3 Section... AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT Procedures § 35.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for injury to or... person legally entitled to assert such a claim under applicable state law. (d) A claim for loss...

  18. 40 CFR 1620.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for damage to or loss of property may be presented by the owner of the property, or his or... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Administrative claim; who may...

  19. 32 CFR 750.44 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Military Claims Act § 750.44 Claims not payable. (a) Any claim for damage, loss, destruction, injury, or... Chapter. (4) Federal Tort Claims Act. 28 U.S.C. 2671, 2672, and 2674-2680. (5) International Agreements...) Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act. 33 U.S.C. 901-950. (e) Any claim for damage to or loss...

  20. 40 CFR 1620.10 - Action on approved claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.10 Action on approved claim. (a) Payment of a... Damage, Injury or Death); a claims settlement agreement; and a Standard Form 1145 (Voucher for Payment... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Action on approved claim....

  1. 32 CFR 842.96 - Asserting the claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Property Damage Tort Claims in Favor of the United States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.96 Asserting the claim. The base SJA asserts the claim against the tort-feasor by mailing, certified... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Asserting the claim. 842.96 Section...

  2. 40 CFR 1620.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for damage to or loss of property may be presented by the owner of the property, or his or... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Administrative claim; who may...

  3. 40 CFR 1620.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for damage to or loss of property may be presented by the owner of the property, or his or... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Administrative claim; who may...

  4. 29 CFR 15.4 - Administrative claim; where to file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED STATUTES Claims Against the Government Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 15.4 Administrative... executed “Claim for Damage, Injury, or Death” on Standard Form 95, or other written notification of...

  5. 40 CFR 1620.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for damage to or loss of property may be presented by the owner of the property, or his or... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative claim; who may...

  6. 38 CFR 14.617 - Disposition of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SERVICES, GENERAL COUNSEL, AND MISCELLANEOUS CLAIMS Administrative Settlement of Tort Claims Arising in Foreign Countries § 14.617 Disposition of claims. (a) Disposition of claims arising in Philippines. All... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposition of claims....

  7. 40 CFR 1620.10 - Action on approved claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.10 Action on approved claim. (a) Payment of a... Damage, Injury or Death); a claims settlement agreement; and a Standard Form 1145 (Voucher for Payment... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Action on approved claim....

  8. 14 CFR § 1261.312 - Action on approved claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Claims Against NASA or Its Employees for Damage to or Loss of Property or... claimant a Voucher for Payment of Tort Claims (NASA Form 616) if the claim has been acted upon pursuant to 42 U.S.C. 2473(c)(13), or a Voucher for Payment under Federal Tort Claims Act (Standard Form 1145)...

  9. 40 CFR 1620.10 - Action on approved claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.10 Action on approved claim. (a) Payment of a... Damage, Injury or Death); a claims settlement agreement; and a Standard Form 1145 (Voucher for Payment... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Action on approved claim....

  10. 40 CFR 1620.10 - Action on approved claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.10 Action on approved claim. (a) Payment of a... Damage, Injury or Death); a claims settlement agreement; and a Standard Form 1145 (Voucher for Payment... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Action on approved claim....

  11. 5 CFR 177.110 - Action on approved claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 177.110 Action on approved claim. (a) Payment of a... Damage, Injury or Death); a claims settlement agreement; and a Standard Form 1145 (Voucher for Payment... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Action on approved claim. 177.110...

  12. 32 CFR 842.96 - Asserting the claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Property Damage Tort Claims in Favor of the United States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.96 Asserting the claim. The base SJA asserts the claim against the tort-feasor by mailing, certified... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Asserting the claim. 842.96 Section...

  13. 32 CFR 842.96 - Asserting the claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Property Damage Tort Claims in Favor of the United States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.96 Asserting the claim. The base SJA asserts the claim against the tort-feasor by mailing, certified... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asserting the claim. 842.96 Section...

  14. 46 CFR 204.4 - Time limitations on claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 204.4 Time limitations on claims. (a) A claim... Standard Form 95, “Claims for Damage, Injury, or Death,” or written notification of an incident, together with a claim for money damages in a sum certain, for death, personal injury, or damage to or loss...

  15. 32 CFR 750.26 - The administrative claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The administrative claim. 750.26 Section 750.26 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Federal Tort Claims Act § 750.26 The administrative claim. (a) Proper claimant. See § 750.5 of this...

  16. 32 CFR 750.26 - The administrative claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The administrative claim. 750.26 Section 750.26 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Federal Tort Claims Act § 750.26 The administrative claim. (a) Proper claimant. See § 750.5 of this...

  17. 32 CFR 842.96 - Asserting the claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Property Damage Tort Claims in Favor of the United States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.96 Asserting the claim. The base SJA asserts the claim against the tort-feasor by mailing, certified... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Asserting the claim. 842.96 Section...

  18. 38 CFR 14.604 - Filing a claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., GENERAL COUNSEL, AND MISCELLANEOUS CLAIMS Federal Tort Claims § 14.604 Filing a claim. (a) Each person who... his or her employment, will be furnished a copy of SF 95, Claim for Damage, Injury, or Death. The... the information prescribed by 28 CFR 14.4 to the extent applicable. If a claim is presented to...

  19. 38 CFR 14.617 - Disposition of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICES, GENERAL COUNSEL, AND MISCELLANEOUS CLAIMS Administrative Settlement of Tort Claims Arising in Foreign Countries § 14.617 Disposition of claims. (a) Disposition of claims arising in Philippines. All... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposition of claims....

  20. 14 CFR 1261.312 - Action on approved claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CLAIMS (GENERAL) Claims Against NASA or Its Employees for Damage to or Loss of Property or Personal... Voucher for Payment of Tort Claims (NASA Form 616) if the claim has been acted upon pursuant to 42 U.S.C. 2473(c)(13), or a Voucher for Payment under Federal Tort Claims Act (Standard Form 1145) if the...

  1. 32 CFR 757.4 - Claims that may be collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims that may be collected. 757.4 Section 757.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS AFFIRMATIVE CLAIMS REGULATIONS Property Damage Claims § 757.4 Claims that may be collected. (a) Against...

  2. 32 CFR 757.4 - Claims that may be collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims that may be collected. 757.4 Section 757.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS AFFIRMATIVE CLAIMS REGULATIONS Property Damage Claims § 757.4 Claims that may be collected. (a) Against...

  3. 32 CFR 750.44 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Military Claims Act § 750.44 Claims not payable. (a) Any claim for damage, loss, destruction, injury, or... Chapter. (4) Federal Tort Claims Act. 28 U.S.C. 2671, 2672, and 2674-2680. (5) International Agreements...) Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act. 33 U.S.C. 901-950. (e) Any claim for damage to or loss...

  4. 29 CFR 15.4 - Administrative claim; where to file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED STATUTES (Eff. until 7-12-12) Claims Against the Government Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 15... section, a properly executed “Claim for Damage, Injury, or Death” on Standard Form 95, or other...

  5. 32 CFR 750.26 - The administrative claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The administrative claim. 750.26 Section 750.26 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Federal Tort Claims Act § 750.26 The administrative claim. (a) Proper claimant. See § 750.5 of this...

  6. 38 CFR 14.604 - Filing a claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., GENERAL COUNSEL, AND MISCELLANEOUS CLAIMS Federal Tort Claims § 14.604 Filing a claim. (a) Each person who... his or her employment, will be furnished a copy of SF 95, Claim for Damage, Injury, or Death. The... the information prescribed by 28 CFR 14.4 to the extent applicable. If a claim is presented to...

  7. 38 CFR 14.604 - Filing a claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., GENERAL COUNSEL, AND MISCELLANEOUS CLAIMS Federal Tort Claims § 14.604 Filing a claim. (a) Each person who... his or her employment, will be furnished a copy of SF 95, Claim for Damage, Injury, or Death. The... the information prescribed by 28 CFR 14.4 to the extent applicable. If a claim is presented to...

  8. 38 CFR 14.617 - Disposition of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SERVICES, GENERAL COUNSEL, AND MISCELLANEOUS CLAIMS Administrative Settlement of Tort Claims Arising in Foreign Countries § 14.617 Disposition of claims. (a) Disposition of claims arising in Philippines. All... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposition of claims....

  9. 14 CFR 1261.312 - Action on approved claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CLAIMS (GENERAL) Claims Against NASA or Its Employees for Damage to or Loss of Property or Personal... Voucher for Payment of Tort Claims (NASA Form 616) if the claim has been acted upon pursuant to 42 U.S.C. 2473(c)(13), or a Voucher for Payment under Federal Tort Claims Act (Standard Form 1145) if the...

  10. 10 CFR 14.11 - Who may file a claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who may file a claim. 14.11 Section 14.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Filing Procedures and Requirements § 14.11 Who may file a claim. (a) A claim for damage to or loss of property may be presented by...

  11. 32 CFR 842.96 - Asserting the claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Property Damage Tort Claims in Favor of the United States (31 U.S.C. 3701, 3711-3719) § 842.96 Asserting the claim. The base SJA asserts the claim against the tort-feasor by mailing, certified... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Asserting the claim. 842.96 Section...

  12. 40 CFR 1620.2 - Administrative claim; when presented.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.2 Administrative claim; when presented. (a... legal representative, an executed Standard Form 95 (Claim for Damage, Injury or Death), or other written notification of an incident, accompanied by a claim for money damages stating a sum certain (a specific...

  13. 32 CFR 757.4 - Claims that may be collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims that may be collected. 757.4 Section 757.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS AFFIRMATIVE CLAIMS REGULATIONS Property Damage Claims § 757.4 Claims that may be collected. (a) Against...

  14. 32 CFR 750.44 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Military Claims Act § 750.44 Claims not payable. (a) Any claim for damage, loss, destruction, injury, or... Chapter. (4) Federal Tort Claims Act. 28 U.S.C. 2671, 2672, and 2674-2680. (5) International Agreements...) Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act. 33 U.S.C. 901-950. (e) Any claim for damage to or loss...

  15. 38 CFR 14.617 - Disposition of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SERVICES, GENERAL COUNSEL, AND MISCELLANEOUS CLAIMS Administrative Settlement of Tort Claims Arising in Foreign Countries § 14.617 Disposition of claims. (a) Disposition of claims arising in Philippines. All... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposition of claims....

  16. 46 CFR 204.4 - Time limitations on claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 204.4 Time limitations on claims. (a) A claim... Standard Form 95, “Claims for Damage, Injury, or Death,” or written notification of an incident, together with a claim for money damages in a sum certain, for death, personal injury, or damage to or loss...

  17. 32 CFR 536.6 - The Army claims mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true The Army claims mission. 536.6 Section 536.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.6 The Army claims mission. (a) Promptly...

  18. 32 CFR 536.6 - The Army claims mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true The Army claims mission. 536.6 Section 536.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.6 The Army claims mission. (a) Promptly...

  19. 32 CFR 536.21 - Annual claims award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Annual claims award. 536.21 Section 536.21 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.21 Annual claims award. The Commander USARCS...

  20. 32 CFR 536.4 - Designation of claims attorneys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Designation of claims attorneys. 536.4 Section 536.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.4 Designation of claims attorneys. (a)...

  1. 32 CFR 536.20 - Claims assistance visits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims assistance visits. 536.20 Section 536.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.20 Claims assistance visits. Members of USARCS...

  2. 32 CFR 536.18 - Cross-servicing of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Cross-servicing of claims. 536.18 Section 536.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.18 Cross-servicing of claims. (a) Where...

  3. 32 CFR 537.19 - Demands arising from maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Demands arising from maritime claims. 537.19 Section 537.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.19 Demands arising from maritime claims. (a) It is essential that Army claims personnel...

  4. 46 CFR 204.4 - Time limitations on claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time limitations on claims. 204.4 Section 204.4 Shipping... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 204.4 Time limitations on claims. (a) A claim... Standard Form 95, “Claims for Damage, Injury, or Death,” or written notification of an incident,...

  5. 32 CFR 842.110 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... International Agreements Claims Act. (4) The Air Force Admiralty Claims Act and the Admiralty Extensions Act. (5...) Claims for a maritime occurrence covered under U.S. admiralty laws. (o) Claims for: (1) Any tax or... interference with contract rights. (s) Claims that result wholly from the negligent or wrongful act of...

  6. 37 CFR 360.14 - Copies of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies of claims. 360.14... Claims § 360.14 Copies of claims. A claimant shall, for each claim submitted to the Copyright Royalty Board by hand delivery or by mail, file an original and one copy of the claim to satellite...

  7. 32 CFR 536.6 - The Army claims mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The Army claims mission. 536.6 Section 536.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.6 The Army claims mission. (a) Promptly...

  8. 32 CFR 536.6 - The Army claims mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true The Army claims mission. 536.6 Section 536.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.6 The Army claims mission. (a) Promptly...

  9. 32 CFR 536.6 - The Army claims mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The Army claims mission. 536.6 Section 536.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.6 The Army claims mission. (a) Promptly...

  10. Livestock Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  11. Evaluating promotional claims as false or misleading.

    PubMed

    Brushwood, David B; Knox, Caitlin A; Liu, Wei; Jenkins, Kevin A

    2013-11-01

    In light of the "false or misleading" standard resulting from the recent legal ruling, it can be concluded that a true claim is one that is both factually and analytically true. Factual truth could be based on the accuracy of the information and the sufficiency of the information. Analytical truth could be based on the scientific foundation for the claim and whether the information within the claim is presented in a balanced way. Regarding the assessment of whether a truthful claim is misleading, the evaluator could consider the relevance, consistency, and context of the information. Standards are important in medication use and medication regulation. Health care professionals who must decide whether a claim is truthful and not misleading will rely on guidance from FDA in determining how to evaluate promotional claims. As the court suggested in the case reviewed here, FDA could take the lead and provide guidance "in differentiating between misleading and false promotion, exaggerations and embellishments, and truthful or non-misleading information." Existing FDA regulations provide a foundation for such guidance. The next step for the agency would be to expand existing guidance to specifically describe how an off-label claim can be identified as either false or misleading. PMID:24128969

  12. Can we compare the environmental performance of this product to that one? An update on the development of product category rules and future challenges toward alignment

    EPA Science Inventory

    When used to compare the relative environmental benefits of different products, life cycle-based, quantitative environmental claims, such as carbon footprints and environmental product declarations require common rules in order for claims to be comparable within a category. Produ...

  13. Insurance coverage for employment-related claims

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuermann, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    This article analyzes the principal coverage issues arising under CGL policies for employment-related claims. Section I discusses the bases of the duty to defend and the duty to idemnify in the key CGL policy provisions at issue, including the bodily injury and personal injury coverages. Section II examines the three provisions in CGL policies typically raised as defenses to coverage for employment-related claims and two public policy considerations that may affect claims for coverage. The duty to defend is given closer crutiny in section III. Finally, in section IV the effects of settlement on coverage are discussed. 106 refs.

  14. 29 CFR 15.200 - What is a claim under the MPCECA and who may file such a claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED CLAIMS STATUTES Claims Under the Military Personnel and Civilian... claim under the MPCECA for damage or loss is allowable only if the property involved was being used... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is a claim under the MPCECA and who may file such...

  15. 29 CFR 15.200 - What is a claim under the MPCECA and who may file such a claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED CLAIMS STATUTES Claims Under the Military Personnel and Civilian... claim under the MPCECA for damage or loss is allowable only if the property involved was being used... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true What is a claim under the MPCECA and who may file such...

  16. 14 CFR 1261.107 - Evidence in support of claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MONETARY CLAIMS (GENERAL) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.107 Evidence in support of claim. (a... repair for property which has been repaired, or one or more written estimates of the cost of repairs...

  17. 37 CFR 104.41 - Procedure for filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADMINISTRATION LEGAL PROCESSES Tort Claims § 104.41 Procedure for filing claims... Tort Claims Act (28 U.S.C. 2672) and the corresponding Department of Justice regulations (28 CFR...

  18. 37 CFR 360.25 - Copies of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 360.25 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SUBMISSION OF ROYALTY CLAIMS FILING OF CLAIMS TO ROYALTY FEES COLLECTED UNDER COMPULSORY LICENSE Digital Audio... claim to digital audio recording devices and media royalty payments....

  19. 37 CFR 360.25 - Copies of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 360.25 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SUBMISSION OF ROYALTY CLAIMS FILING OF CLAIMS TO ROYALTY FEES COLLECTED UNDER COMPULSORY LICENSE Digital Audio... claim to digital audio recording devices and media royalty payments....

  20. 37 CFR 360.25 - Copies of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 360.25 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SUBMISSION OF ROYALTY CLAIMS FILING OF CLAIMS TO ROYALTY FEES COLLECTED UNDER COMPULSORY LICENSE Digital Audio... claim to digital audio recording devices and media royalty payments....

  1. 37 CFR 360.25 - Copies of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 360.25 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SUBMISSION OF ROYALTY CLAIMS FILING OF CLAIMS TO ROYALTY FEES COLLECTED UNDER COMPULSORY LICENSE Digital Audio... claim to digital audio recording devices and media royalty payments....

  2. 37 CFR 360.25 - Copies of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 360.25 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SUBMISSION OF ROYALTY CLAIMS FILING OF CLAIMS TO ROYALTY FEES COLLECTED UNDER COMPULSORY LICENSE Digital Audio... claim to digital audio recording devices and media royalty payments....

  3. 40 CFR 307.20 - Who may present claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) CLAIMS PROCEDURES Eligible Claimants; Allowable Claims; Preauthorization § 307.20 Who... parties subject to an agreement reached pursuant to section 122(b)(1) of CERCLA. (b) Claims presented...

  4. 40 CFR 307.20 - Who may present claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) CLAIMS PROCEDURES Eligible Claimants; Allowable Claims; Preauthorization § 307.20 Who... parties subject to an agreement reached pursuant to section 122(b)(1) of CERCLA. (b) Claims presented...

  5. 40 CFR 307.20 - Who may present claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) CLAIMS PROCEDURES Eligible Claimants; Allowable Claims; Preauthorization § 307.20 Who... parties subject to an agreement reached pursuant to section 122(b)(1) of CERCLA. (b) Claims presented...

  6. 9 CFR 51.30 - Claims for indemnity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.30 Claims for indemnity. (a) Claims for indemnity for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed because of brucellosis must be made using an indemnity claim form...

  7. 12 CFR 627.2740 - Creditors' claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... receiver shall allow any claim that is timely received and proved to the receiver's satisfaction. The... priority which is not proved to the receiver's satisfaction or is not timely received and shall notify...

  8. 16 CFR 260.7 - Compostable Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... are available. Example 5: A manufacturer sells a disposable diaper that states, “This diaper can be... composting facilities are available as claimed and the manufacturer has substantiation that the diaper can...

  9. 16 CFR 260.7 - Compostable Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... are available. Example 5: A manufacturer sells a disposable diaper that states, “This diaper can be... composting facilities are available as claimed and the manufacturer has substantiation that the diaper can...

  10. 32 CFR 732.19 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Eligibility Reporting System (DEERS) eligibility check must be performed on claims to all claimants required to be enrolled in DEERS. (ii) Care rendered was due to a bona fide emergency. (Note: When...

  11. 32 CFR 732.19 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Eligibility Reporting System (DEERS) eligibility check must be performed on claims to all claimants required to be enrolled in DEERS. (ii) Care rendered was due to a bona fide emergency. (Note: When...

  12. 32 CFR 732.19 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Eligibility Reporting System (DEERS) eligibility check must be performed on claims to all claimants required to be enrolled in DEERS. (ii) Care rendered was due to a bona fide emergency. (Note: When...

  13. Manufacturer moves to settle Norplant claims.

    PubMed

    1999-11-01

    This article is about the decision made by Wyeth-Ayerst to settle lawsuit claims filed by more than 36,000 American women concerning the use of the Norplant contraceptive implant system. The settlement, estimated at $50 million, would end 5 years of litigation involving Norplant. The plaintiff's lawyers claimed that the company downplayed such side effects as irregular menstrual bleeding, nausea, headaches, and depression. Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories and parent company American Home Products Corp. have denied any wrongdoing and claimed that the side effects were described in the product label. The agreement to settle the Norplant claims were described as purely a business decision by Wyeth-Ayerst North America president Joseph Mahady. PMID:12295328

  14. 78 FR 64002 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... for conveyance pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601, et seq.). The... decision will also be published once a week for four ] consecutive weeks in the Delta Discovery. DATES:...

  15. FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... blood-forming system. back to top Regulation of Stem Cells FDA regulates stem cells in the U.S. to ...

  16. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... occurred. (7) Claims for automobiles, only when required to perform official business or parked on a... amount allowed is the value of the vehicle at the time of loss as determined by the National...

  17. 20 CFR 410.705 - Duplicate claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... shown, the Office of Workers' Compensation Programs shall proceed under DOL's regulations at 20 CFR part...-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Rules for the Review of Denied and Pending Claims Under the Black...

  18. 20 CFR 410.705 - Duplicate claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shown, the Office of Workers' Compensation Programs shall proceed under DOL's regulations at 20 CFR part...-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Rules for the Review of Denied and Pending Claims Under the Black...

  19. 77 FR 20046 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... described below pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) (43 U.S.C. 1601, et seq.). The lands being approved for conveyance are lands originally selected under ANCSA in the withdrawal area...

  20. 32 CFR 750.43 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vehicles designed especially for military use. Activities incident to combat, whether or not in time of war, and use of DON personnel during civil disturbances are excluded. (b) Specific claims payable....