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Sample records for environmental meticillin-resistant staphylococcus

  1. Recent initiatives to reduce the spread of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Mark H

    2009-07-01

    Recent initiatives have achieved marked reductions in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemias. However, the relative effectiveness of prevention interventions is unclear. Initiatives to control meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus have tended to ignore the benefits of altering antimicrobial prescribing.

  2. The impact of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on patients with advanced cancer and their family members: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Aoife; Larkin, Philip; O'Sullivan, Niamh

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the impact of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on patients with advanced cancer, such as its impact on the quality of life of this vulnerable group. To date, research on meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the palliative care setting has had a quantitative focus. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of a meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus diagnosis on patients and their carers. This article reports upon a qualitative interview study of nine patients with advanced cancer and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and nine family members (n = 18). Framework analysis was used to analyse the data. Patients and family members of patients with advanced cancer either admitted to the specialist palliative care unit or receiving palliative care in the hospital setting, who had a laboratory confirmed diagnosis of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation, were considered for inclusion in the study. Four themes were identified using framework analysis: reactions to receiving a meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus diagnosis, the need for effective communication of the meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus diagnosis, the enigmatic nature of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and lessons to guide the future care of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus patients. This article indicates that meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus can have a significant impact on advanced cancer patients and their families. This impact may be underestimated, but early and careful face-to-face explanation about meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its implications can help patients and their families to cope better with it. These findings should be considered when developing policy relating to meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus management and infection control in specialist palliative care settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius: clinical challenge and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Frank, Linda A; Loeffler, Anette

    2012-08-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) has emerged as a major therapeutic challenge for small animal veterinarians over the past 10 years and continues to spread worryingly in many countries. This review focuses on the clinical aspects of MRSP infections seen in patients with skin disease and on currently available treatment options. In addition, it discusses the implications for in-contact people, other animals and the environment, because infection control strategies are likely to have a significant impact on treatment success and prevention of spread. There is currently no indication that MRSP is more virulent than meticillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius, and reported infections have mostly been treated successfully, although possibly with a longer time to resolution than infections with more susceptible S. pseudintermedius. However, in vitro testing of MRSP isolates indicates resistance to most or all antibacterial agents licensed for use in pets. Based on susceptibility results, the most useful systemic antimicrobials may include chloramphenicol, rifampicin, amikacin, clindamycin and/or minocycline. Adverse effects of some of these medications may limit their usefulness. While in vitro susceptibility to vancomycin and linezolid is reported by some laboratories, use of these drugs in animals is strongly discouraged because of ethical considerations. Aggressive topical therapy has been effective as the only treatment in certain cases. Awareness, continued research and comprehensive management of infections are required by veterinary practitioners not only to help treat infected animals but also to limit the spread and prevent the establishment of this highly drug-resistant and zoonotic pathogen in veterinary facilities and in the community.

  4. Prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) from skin and carriage sites of dogs after treatment of their meticillin-resistant or meticillin-sensitive staphylococcal pyoderma.

    PubMed

    Beck, Karri M; Waisglass, Stephen E; Dick, Hani L N; Weese, J Scott

    2012-08-01

    Meticillin-resistant staphylococci are significant pathogens in veterinary dermatology, yet longitudinal studies of the impact of routine antimicrobial therapy on emergence or resolution of resistance are lacking. To determine the prevalence of meticillin-resistant staphylococci on skin and carriage sites in dogs with bacterial pyoderma and evaluate the prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) colonization after successful treatment of pyoderma. One hundred and seventy-three dogs that presented to a dermatology referral service with pyoderma and 41 healthy control dogs. Skin, nasal and rectal swabs for bacterial culture were collected at the time of referral and after clinical resolution of the pyoderma. Meticillin resistance was confirmed by demonstration of penicillin binding protein 2a antigen. Initially, skin cultures yielded MRSP in 70 (40.5%) dogs, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in three (1.7%) and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus schleiferi ssp. coagulans (MRSScoag) in five (2.9%). Samples collected from the nose and rectum (carriage sites) yielded MRSP in 59 (34.1%) dogs, MRSA in 11 (6.4%) and MRSScoag in seven (4.0%). One hundred and two dogs were available for follow-up cultures after clinical cure. Of 42 dogs initially diagnosed with MRSP pyoderma, MRSP was isolated at follow-up from skin in 19 (45.2%) and carriage sites in 20 (47.6%). Of 60 dogs that did not have MRSP pyoderma initially, MRSP was isolated post-treatment from the skin in 17 (28.3%), and MRSP from carriage sites increased from 7.8% (initially) to 26.7% (P = 0.0022). Colonization by MRSP often persists after resolution of MRSP pyoderma. Acquisition of MRSP during treatment appears to be common. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2012 ESVD and ACVD.

  5. Importance of the environment in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus acquisition: the case for hospital cleaning.

    PubMed

    Dancer, Stephanie J

    2008-02-01

    In the UK, we continue to debate the importance of hospital cleaning in relation to increasing numbers of patients acquiring meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, there is little direct evidence for the effectiveness of cleaning because it has never been afforded scientific status. Hospital hygiene is usually assessed visually, but this does not necessarily correlate with microbiological risk. A more robust case for hospital cleaning can be presented by considering the evidence for all the stages of the staphylococcal transmission cycle between human beings and their environment. Cleaning has already been accepted as an important factor in the control of other hardy environmental pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, norovirus, and Acinetobacter spp. This Review will show why the removal of dirt might have more impact on the control of MRSA than previously thought. Introduction of additional cleaning services is easier than improvements in hand-hygiene compliance.

  6. Household transmission of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and other staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Davis, Meghan F; Iverson, Sally Ann; Baron, Patrick; Vasse, Aimee; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Morris, Daniel O

    2012-09-01

    Although the role of pets in household transmission of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been examined previously, only minor attention has been given to the role of the abiotic household environment independent of, or in combination with, colonisation of pets and human beings to maintain transmission cycles of MRSA within the household. This report reviews published work about household transmission of S aureus and other staphylococci and describes contamination of household environmental surfaces and colonisation of pets and people. Household microbial communities might have a role in transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes and could be reservoirs for recolonisation of people, although additional research is needed regarding strategies for decontamination of household environments. Household-based interventions should be developed to control recurrent S aureus infections in the community, and coordination between medical and veterinary providers could be beneficial. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus contamination of healthcare workers' uniforms in long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Gaspard, P; Eschbach, E; Gunther, D; Gayet, S; Bertrand, X; Talon, D

    2009-02-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other multiply resistant bacteria are frequently isolated in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). This study evaluated the contamination of staff clothing in three LTCFs. Over 500 samples were taken from uniforms and their pockets and these samples showed a high level of MRSA contamination. Wearing plastic aprons and managing pocket contents improved the contamination rate. Our results highlight the continued importance of hand hygiene, since staff have frequent contact with their uniforms and could potentially contaminate their hands before care.

  8. Higher prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among dental students.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ruíz, F J; Carrillo-Espíndola, T Y; Bustos-Martínez, J; Hamdan-Partida, A; Sánchez-Pérez, L; Acosta-Gío, A E

    2014-03-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that more dental students are meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers than non-dental students, 100 dental students with five to six years of exposure to patients and 81 non-dental students were tested for nasal and pharyngeal MRSA carriage by polymerase chain reaction. All 181 students were clinically healthy and none had taken antibiotics. Significantly more dental students (20/100) carried MRSA than non-dental students (5/81) (odds ratio: 4.04; 95% confidence interval: 1.6-12.6; P = 0.0033). Also, more dental students' mobile phones (8/100) carried MRSA. All MRSA isolates were distinguished by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis from epidemiologically significant strains. The results suggest that dental students are occupationally exposed to MRSA. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of octenidine dihydrochloride in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus decolonisation regimens: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Krishna, B V S; Gibb, A P

    2010-03-01

    Decolonisation of patients colonised with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the recommended methods for controlling MRSA in hospitals but there is a limited choice of agents that can be used. Octenidine dihydrochloride is a relatively new antiseptic that has been used for MRSA decolonisation in some countries. On reviewing available literature on its use for MRSA decolonisation, only four observational studies were found. All of these were small studies, which differed in study design. MRSA decolonisation rates of 6-75% have been reported. Patients with wound colonisation were included in these studies but it was not clear if the hair was treated in two of these. Octenidine appears to be as effective as chlorhexidine for MRSA decolonisation with fewer adverse effects, but large randomised trials incorporating octenidine as a skin disinfectant for MRSA decolonisation need to be undertaken to confirm its usefulness in clinical settings. Copyright 2009 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of nasal meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage in a haemodialysis clinic in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Y; Kuwahara-Arai, K; Hori, S; Kikuchi, K; Yanai, M; Hiramatsu, K

    2013-05-01

    Patients and healthcare workers in a Japanese haemodialysis clinic were investigated for nasal carriage of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA carriage was found in 10 (8.9%) of 112 patients in the first year and four (3.9%) of 103 patients in the second year. All isolated MRSA samples carried staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type II or III and classified as clonal complex 5, which were common as healthcare-associated strains. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicated horizontal transmission limited to two pairs of patients in one session. One of 54 healthcare workers carried MRSA genetically unrelated to patients' strains. Infection control measures based on the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's recommendation showed limited spread of MRSA in a haemodialysis room. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: the case for a genotypic definition.

    PubMed

    Otter, J A; French, G L

    2012-07-01

    New distinct strains of community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) have emerged as a cause of infection in previously healthy individuals in community settings. It is important to identify CA-MRSA for clinical management, epidemiological analysis, infection prevention and control, and regulatory reporting, but definitions and nomenclature of these strains are confused. To review attempts to define CA-MRSA and propose a new definition. Non-systematic review. Epidemiological definitions were useful for differentiating CA-MRSA and healthcare-associated (HA)-MRSA strain types in the past. However, although HA-MRSA strain types are rarely transmitted in the community, CA-MRSA strains have started to be transmitted in healthcare facilities, so epidemiological definitions are breaking down. CA-MRSA are community strains of S. aureus that have acquired the meticillin resistance gene, mecA. They are distinct from HA-MRSA and should be defined genetically. This may be done by combining genotypic typing by multi-locus sequence or spa with analysis of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec. Carriage of Panton-Valentine leukocidin or antimicrobial susceptibility profiles can be useful indicators of CA-MRSA but should not be used for their definition. For full assessment of their epidemiology, MRSA infections should be characterized as: (1) caused by HA- or CA-MRSA strain types; (2) acquired in community or healthcare settings; and (3) onset in the community or healthcare facility. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation and infection in Thoroughbred racehorses and veterinarians in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, T; Kinoshita, Y; Niwa, H; Shinzaki, Y; Tamura, N; Hobo, S; Kuwano, A

    2016-05-07

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections have been confirmed in hospitalised Thoroughbred racehorses at the hospitals of two training centres in Japan since 2009. To investigate the source of infection, the authors examined the rate of nasal MRSA colonisation in 600 healthy Thoroughbred racehorses, 53 veterinarians and 16 office staff at the racehorse hospitals of the two training centres. MRSA was not isolated from healthy Thoroughbred racehorses or hospital office staff. However, MRSA was isolated from 16 veterinarians (30.1 per cent), and the colonisation rate was significantly higher in veterinarians than in the office staff of the same hospitals. Also, 10 of the 16 MRSA strains (62.5 per cent) isolated from veterinarians were classified as type II by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing and ST5 by multilocus sequence typing. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that these 10 MRSA strains of SCCmec type II and ST5 were genetically identical or very similar to 9 MRSA strains isolated from infected horses hospitalised at these hospitals between 2009 and 2013. These results indicate that SCCmec type II and ST5 MRSA strains were probably transmitted between veterinarians and infected horses. British Veterinary Association.

  13. Current concepts on the virulence mechanisms of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    David, Michael Z.; Salata, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are prevalent bacterial pathogens that cause both health care and community-associated infections. Increasing resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics has made MRSA a serious threat to public health throughout the world. The USA300 strain of MRSA has been responsible for an epidemic of community-associated infections in the US, mostly involving skin and soft tissue but also more serious invasive syndromes such as pneumonia, severe sepsis and endocarditis. MRSA strains are particularly serious and potentially lethal pathogens that possess virulence mechanisms including toxins, adhesins, enzymes and immunomodulators. One of these is Panton–Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a toxin associated with abscess formation and severe necrotizing pneumonia. Earlier studies suggested that PVL was a major virulence factor in community-associated MRSA infections. However, some recent data have not supported this association while others have, leading to controversy. Therefore, investigators continue to search for additional mechanisms of pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the biological basis of MRSA virulence and explore future directions for research, including potential vaccines and antivirulence therapies under development that might allow clinicians to more successfully treat and prevent MRSA infections. PMID:22745137

  14. Prevalence of and risk factors for isolation of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. from dogs with pyoderma in northern California, USA.

    PubMed

    Eckholm, Nicole G; Outerbridge, Catherine A; White, Stephen D; Sykes, Jane E

    2013-02-01

    Canine pyodermas associated with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. (MRS) have increased in prevalence over the past decade. To compare the prevalence of MRS isolation from dogs with superficial pyoderma at a primary care clinic (PCC) and those at a tertiary care facility (VMTH) in California, USA, and identify associated risk factors. Client-owned dogs from the VMTH (80 dogs) and the PCC (30 dogs). Aerobic bacterial culture and antibiotic susceptibility were performed on swab specimens collected from dogs, and meticillin resistance was determined using microdilution methods according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. A mecA gene PCR assay was used to confirm meticillin resistance when possible. Of 89 staphylococcal isolates from the VMTH, 34 (38.2%) were meticillin resistant. In 31 dogs, pyoderma persisted, and one or more follow-up isolates were obtained. The species isolated and drug susceptibility changed unpredictably during treatment. Of 33 PCC isolates, nine (27.3%) were meticillin resistant. Multiple drug resistance was identified in 41 of 53 (77.3%) MRS isolates from the VMTH and five of nine from the PCC. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR for the detection of meticillin resistance was 34 of 39 (87%) and 86 of 87 (99%), respectively. Risk factors for meticillin resistance for both sites were antibiotic treatment within the last year (P = 0.001), and for VMTH, hospitalization of dogs within the last year (P = 0.001). The prevalence of meticillin resistance was not different between VMTH and PCC isolates (P = 0.29). Previous antimicrobial therapy was an important risk factor for the isolation of MRS at both sites. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  15. In vitro bactericidal activity of blue light (465 nm) phototherapy on meticillin-susceptible and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius.

    PubMed

    Schnedeker, Amy H; Cole, Lynette K; Lorch, Gwendolen; Diaz, Sandra F; Bonagura, John; Daniels, Joshua B

    2017-10-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is the most common cause of bacterial skin infections in dogs. Meticillin-resistant infections have become more common and are challenging to treat. Blue light phototherapy may be an option for treating these infections. The objective of this study was to measure the in vitro bactericidal activity of 465 nm blue light on meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MSSP) and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). We hypothesized that irradiation with blue light would kill MSSP and MRSP in a dose-dependent fashion in vitro as previously reported for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In six replicate experiments, each strain [MSSP, n = 1; MRSP ST-71 (KM1381) n = 1; and MRSA (BAA-1680) n = 1] were cultivated on semisolid media, irradiated using a 465 nm blue light phototherapeutic device at the cumulative doses of 56.25, 112.5 and 225 J/cm(2) and incubated overnight at 35°C. Controls were not irradiated. Colony counts (CC) were performed manually. Descriptive statistics were performed and treatment effects assessed using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank-sum test. Bonferroni-corrected rank-sum tests were performed for post hoc analysis when significant differences were identified. There was a significant decrease in CC with blue light irradiation at all doses for MRSA (P = 0.0006) but not for MSSP (P = 0.131) or MRSP (P = 0.589). Blue light phototherapy significantly reduced CC of MRSA, but not of MSSP or MRSP. The mechanism for the relative photosensitivity of the MRSA isolate is unknown, but is hypothesized to be due to an increased concentration of porphyrin in S. aureus relative to S. pseudintermedius, which would modulate blue light absorption. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  16. Global initiative for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia (GLIMP): an international, observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Aliberti, Stefano; Reyes, Luis F; Faverio, Paola; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Dore, Simone; Rodriguez, Alejandro H; Soni, Nilam J; Restrepo, Marcos I

    2016-12-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a major global health problem and pathogens such as meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become of particular concern in the management of lower respiratory tract infections. However, few data are available on the worldwide prevalence and risk factors for MRSA pneumonia. We aimed to determine the point prevalence of MRSA pneumonia and identify specific MRSA risk factors in community-dwelling patients hospitalised with pneumonia. We did an international, multicentre study of community-dwelling, adult patients admitted to hospital with pneumonia who had microbiological tests taken within 24 h of presentation. We recruited investigators from 222 hospitals in 54 countries to gather point-prevalence data for all patients admitted with these characteristics during 4 days randomly selected during the months of March, April, May, and June in 2015. We assessed prevalence of MRSA pneumonia and associated risk factors through logistic regression analysis. 3702 patients hospitalised with pneumonia were enrolled, with 3193 patients receiving microbiological tests within 24 h of admission, forming the patient population. 1173 (37%) had at least one pathogen isolated (culture-positive population). The overall prevalence of confirmed MRSA pneumonia was 3·0% (n=95), with differing prevalence between continents and countries. Three risk factors were independently associated with MRSA pneumonia: previous MRSA infection or colonisation (odds ratio 6·21, 95% CI 3·25-11·85), recurrent skin infections (2·87, 1·10-7·45), and severe pneumonia disease (2·39, 1·55-3·68). This multicountry study shows low prevalence of MRSA pneumonia and specific MRSA risk factors among community-dwelling patients hospitalised with pneumonia. None. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Activity of the antiseptic polyhexanide against meticillin-susceptible and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Fabry, W; Reimer, C; Azem, T; Aepinus, C; Kock, H J; Vahlensieck, W

    2013-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens, with increasing emergence of meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains. This is associated not only with multiresistance to antibiotics but also with increasing resistance to topical antibiotics and antiseptics. As the antiseptic polyhexanide has only a low risk of emergence of resistant strains, the aim of the study was to obtain data on the sensitivity of S. aureus towards polyhexanide. The effect of polyhexanide was tested against 80 meticillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and 80 MRSA strains from sporadic cases as well as against 6 MRSA outbreak strains. The clonal diversity of the 166 strains was proven by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined by the serial broth microdilution technique according to DIN 58940. Time-kill studies were performed for reference strains MSSA ATCC 29213 and MRSA ATCC 33591. MICs and MBCs in the range of 0.5-2mg/L were found. According to a created epidemiological cut-off (ECOFF) value of 4mg/L, all strains were regarded as susceptible to polyhexanide, including MRSA epidemic strains and MSSA and MRSA sporadic strains with various antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Addition of up to 4% albumin to the test medium did not change the MICs and MBCs. Time-kill studies showed reduction rates of 4log10CFU/mL for 200mg/L and 5log10CFU/mL for 400mg/L polyhexanide within 5-30min. It is concluded that polyhexanide is suitable for topical eradication of S. aureus. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Review of a three-year meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus screening programme.

    PubMed

    Collins, J; Raza, M; Ford, M; Hall, L; Brydon, S; Gould, F K

    2011-06-01

    The Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (NuTH) implemented a seek and destroy (S&D) programme in 2006 to minimise meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonisation and/or infection of patients. Using a phased introduction, all patient specialties were included in the scheme by September 2008, well in advance of the mandatory Department of Health, England (DoH) requirement for all patients to be screened. NuTH screens nose, throat and perineum samples from approximately 15,000 patients per month using a chromogenic culture method, showing a mean MRSA prevalence of 2.4%. Provision of seven-day microbiology and infection control services ensured that the turnaround time to prescribing decolonisation therapy was <24 h. Analysis of 168,073 results identified the necessity for inclusion of all three screening sites to maximise recovery of MRSA. Appraisal of the S&D policy demonstrated that MRSA detection rates did not increase despite an exponential increase in workload owing to mandatory inclusion of low risk areas in the screening programme. Review of data during a typical one-month period indicated that only seven day-case patients would not have been identified as MRSA carriers using our targeted S&D approach compared with the DoH universal screening. Detection of these additional patients incurred total laboratory costs of £20,000 and generated a further 4200 associated negative screens in one month alone. Our study indicates that a screening strategy based upon clinical risk is more pragmatic and more cost-effective than the universal programme currently required in England.

  19. New insights into meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pathogenesis, treatment and resistance.

    PubMed

    Gould, Ian M; David, Michael Z; Esposito, Silvano; Garau, Javier; Lina, Gerard; Mazzei, Teresita; Peters, Georg

    2012-02-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains one of the principal multiply resistant bacterial pathogens causing serious healthcare-associated and community-onset infections. This paper reviews recent studies that have elucidated the virulence strategies employed by MRSA, key clinical trials of agents used to treat serious MRSA infections, and accumulating data regarding the implications of antibacterial resistance in MRSA for clinical success during therapy. Recent pre-clinical data support a species-specific role for Panton-Valentine leukocidin in the development of acute severe S. aureus infections and have elucidated other virulence mechanisms, including novel modes of internalisation, varying post-invasion strategies (featuring both upregulation and downregulation of virulence factors) and phenotypic switching. Recent double-blind, randomised, phase III/IV clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of linezolid and telavancin in hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and complicated skin and skin-structure infections (cSSSIs) caused by MRSA. Tigecycline was non-inferior to imipenem/cilastatin in non-ventilator-associated HAP but was inferior in ventilator-associated pneumonia and has shown a higher rate of death than comparators on meta-analysis. Ceftaroline was clinically and microbiologically non-inferior to vancomycin/aztreonam in the treatment of MRSA cSSSI. Key resistance issues include a rise in vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations in MRSA, reports of clonal isolates with linezolid resistance mediated by acquisition of the chloramphenicol/florfenicol resistance gene, and case reports of daptomycin resistance resulting in clinical failure. Novel antimicrobial targets must be identified with some regularity or we will face the risk of untreatable S. aureus infections. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhanced surveillance of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in a London teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Jeyaratnam, D; Edgeworth, J D; French, G L

    2006-08-01

    In 2001, the UK Department of Health introduced mandatory surveillance of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemias (blood-culture-positive episodes) in English hospitals. We performed enhanced surveillance in their hospital between April 2001 and March 2003 to determine the epidemiology of MRSA bacteraemia across different specialities. There were 267 MRSA-blood-culture-positive episodes, giving a rate of 0.37 per 1000 occupied bed-days (OBD). Thirty-three (12.4%) episodes were false positives due to contaminants and 15 (5.6%) originated in the community or at another institution. Thirty-one (11.6%) episodes were in outpatients or occurred after recent discharge and were designated 'hospital associated'. The remaining 188 cases were clinically significant hospital-acquired episodes in inpatients, with a rate of 0.26 per 1000 OBDs. The highest rates were in the intensive therapy unit (ITU; 2.74 per 1000 OBDs) and the high-dependency unit (HDU; 1.68 per 1000 OBDs). Fifty-five non-ITU, non-HDU episodes occurred in patients who had been discharged from ITU or HDU prior to the development of bacteraemia but during the same admission. The number of MRSA bacteraemias related to ITU/HDU suggests that these wards may be hubs of MRSA infection. Haematology, oncology and renal (HOR) patients had the greatest number of hospital-associated episodes. The most common source of MRSA bacteraemia was a vascular access device (VAD) (108 episodes, 57%, 64% of which were central lines). The high bacteraemia rates in ITU, HDU and HOR patients were associated with high usage of VADs. The majority of episodes occurred in patients who were newly colonized with MRSA after admission. Thus, in this hospital, VADs and stays in ITU or HDU are important risk factors for bacteraemia, and VAD care and prevention of cross-infection are priorities for intervention. We recommend that the mandatory national surveillance scheme should collect additional data on MRSA bacteraemia to

  1. Update on the prevention and control of community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA).

    PubMed

    Skov, Robert; Christiansen, Keryn; Dancer, Stephanie J; Daum, Robert S; Dryden, Matthew; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Lowy, Franklin D

    2012-03-01

    The rapid dissemination of community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) since the early 2000s and the appearance of new successful lineages is a matter of concern. The burden of these infections varies widely between different groups of individuals and in different regions of the world. Estimating the total burden of disease is therefore problematic. Skin and soft-tissue infections, often in otherwise healthy young individuals, are the most common clinical manifestation of these infections. The antibiotic susceptibilities of these strains also vary, although they are often more susceptible to 'traditional' antibiotics than related hospital-acquired strains. Preventing the dissemination of these organisms throughout the general population requires a multifaceted approach, including screening and decolonisation, general hygiene and cleaning measures, antibiotic stewardship programmes and, in the future, vaccination. The current evidence on the prevention and control of CA-MRSA is appraised and summarised in this review.

  2. Outbreak of Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a regional burns unit.

    PubMed

    Teare, L; Shelley, O P; Millership, S; Kearns, A

    2010-11-01

    Over a 16 month period, 30 individuals (19 patients, one relative and 10 members of staff) on a regional burns and plastics unit became colonised or infected with a single strain of Panton-Valentine leucocidin-producing meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-MRSA). The strain was resistant to ciprofloxacin, neomycin and gentamicin and belonged to a community-associated MRSA lineage known to be circulating in the UK. The outbreak occurred in four stages, the first being in burns outpatients, the second and third being on the burns unit itself and the final stage on a plastics ward. In spite of closing the affected unit and deep cleaning, including steam cleaning and hydrogen peroxide treatment, the outbreak continued. It was not until staff carriage was fully addressed that the outbreak was controlled.

  3. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: spread of specific lineages among patients in different wards at a Brazilian teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, F S; Schuenck, R P; Ferreira, D C; da Costa, C R; Nouér, S A; dos Santos, K R N

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to characterize meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) lineages circulating in a Brazilian teaching hospital. MRSA isolates from nasal swabs were evaluated to assess antimicrobial susceptibility, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), Panton-Valentine leucocidin status, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile and multi-locus sequence type (MLST) analysis. Eighty-three MRSA isolates were analysed. SCCmec III (43.4%) and IV (49.4%) were predominant. ST1-IV (USA400) was more common in internal medicine (P = 0.002) whereas 'clone M' (SCCmec III) was more common in the medical and surgical intensive care unit (P = 0.004), and all isolates were ST5-IV (USA800) in dermatology (P < 0.001). These data improved the understanding of the MRSA epidemiology inside the hospital and helped to establish effective control measures.

  4. The identification and epidemiology of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile in patient rooms and the ward environment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research has indicated that the environment may play an important role in the transmission of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium difficile in healthcare facilities. Despite the significance of this finding, few data exist from longitudinal studies investigating MRSA and C. difficile contamination, concurrently, in both patient rooms and the general ward environment. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of MRSA and C. difficile contamination in patient rooms and the ward environment and identify risk factors associated with a surface being contaminated with these pathogens. Methods Environmental surfaces in patient rooms and the general environment in the medical and surgical wards of a community hospital were sampled six times over a 15 week period. Sterile electrostatic cloths were used for sampling and information pertaining to the surface sampled was recorded. MRSA isolates and C. difficile specimens were obtained from hospitalized patients. Enrichment culture was performed and spa typing or ribotyping was conducted for MRSA or C. difficile, respectively. Exact logistic regression models were constructed to examine risk factors associated with MRSA and C. difficile contamination. Results Sixteen (41%) patient rooms had ≥ 1 surfaces contaminated with MRSA and/or C. difficile. For 218 surfaces investigated, 3.2% and 6.4% were contaminated with MRSA or C. difficile, respectively. Regression models indicated that surfaces in rooms exposed to a C. difficile patient had significantly increased odds of being contaminated with C. difficile, compared to surfaces in unexposed patient rooms. Additionally, compared to plastic surfaces, cork surfaces had significantly increased odds of being contaminated with C. difficile. For 236 samples collected from the ward environment, MRSA and C. difficile were recovered from 2.5% and 5.9% of samples, respectively. Overall, the majority of MRSA and C. difficile

  5. Systematic patients' hand disinfection: impact on meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection rates in a community hospital.

    PubMed

    Gagné, D; Bédard, G; Maziade, P J

    2010-08-01

    The role of patients and their relatives as unidentified transient meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers and sources of dissemination in healthcare institutions has not been systematically addressed. Patients' and their relatives' hands may represent a substantial and 'unaccounted for' mode of transmission. This study aimed to verify this hypothesis in our 250-bed community hospital. The trial consisted of a systematic waterless washing and gel rinse disinfection of all patients' and visiting relatives' hands for a period of one year, along with retrospective comparison of the nosocomial infection rates. Under the supervision of infection control personnel, a team of four full-time and four part-time attendants was trained to meet all patients and visiting relatives and encourage them to clean their hands with an alcohol gel rinse twice a day on every weekday. Rates of MRSA infections per thousand admissions, cost-benefit analysis and staff hand hygiene compliance were audited throughout. From the comparative year, the rate of MRSA nosocomial infections per thousand admissions decreased by 51%. Assuming that the incidence of MRSA was maintained from comparative to study year, the intervention may have prevented 51 cases of MRSA infection and resulted in substantial savings. While focusing extensively on staff behaviour to prevent MRSA transmission, we may have overlooked hand hygiene practices by patients and their relatives as a potential mode of transmission. Systematic hand hygiene of patients and relatives appears to be an inexpensive and highly effective preventive measure against MRSA nosocomial transmission.

  6. Antibiotic susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: An international survey.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Viñas, Marina; Conly, John; Francois, Patrice; Aschbacher, Richard; Blanc, Dominique S; Coombs, Geoffrey; Daikos, George; Dhawan, Benu; Empel, Joanna; Etienne, Jerome; Figueiredo, Agnes Marie Sá; George Golding Cnisp; Han, Lizhong; Kim, Hong Bin; Köck, Robin; Larsen, Anders; Layer, Franziska; Lo, Janice; Maeda, Tadashi; Mulvey, Michael; Pantosti, Annalisa; Saga, Tomoo; Schrenzel, Jacques; Simor, Andrew; Skov, Robert; Van Rijen, Miranda; Wang, Hui; Zakaria, Zunita; Harbarth, Stephan

    2014-03-01

    The antibiotic susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates reported from 17 countries in the Americas, Europe and, Australia-Asia were analysed. Among a total of 3236 non-duplicate isolates, the lowest susceptibility was observed to erythromycin in all regions. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin showed large variation (25%, 75% and 84% in the Americas, Europe and Australia-Asia, respectively). Two vancomycin-intermediate PVL-positive MRSA isolates were reported, one from Hong Kong and the other from The Netherlands. Resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and linezolid was <1%. Among 1798 MRSA isolates from 13 countries that were tested for the requested 10 non-β-lactam antibiotics, 49.4% were multisusceptible. However, multiresistant isolates (resistant to at least three classes of non-β-lactam antibiotics) were reported from all regions. Sequence type 30 (ST30) was reported worldwide, whereas ST80 and ST93 were exclusive to Europe and Australia, respectively. USA300 and related clones (ST8) are progressively replacing the ST80 clone in several European countries. Eight major clusters were discriminated by multilocus variable-number tandem repeat assay (MLVA), showing a certain geographic specificity. PVL-positive MRSA isolates frequently remain multisusceptible to non-β-lactam agents, but multiresistance is already prevalent in all regions. Surveillance of MRSA susceptibility patterns should be monitored to provide clinicians with the most current information regarding changes in resistance patterns.

  7. Cross-border comparison of the admission prevalence and clonal structure of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Köck, R; Brakensiek, L; Mellmann, A; Kipp, F; Henderikx, M; Harmsen, D; Daniels-Haardt, I; von Eiff, C; Becker, K; Hendrix, M G R; Friedrich, A W

    2009-04-01

    Since patient exchange between hospitals sharing a common catchment area might favour regional spread of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the reliable detection of patients colonised at admission is crucial. Thus, hospitals in the Dutch-German border area EUREGIO MRSA-net aim at synchronising their local MRSA standards in order to prevent unidentified inter-hospital as well as cross-border spread. This assumes enhanced knowledge of MRSA prevalence and risk factors associated with MRSA carriage at admission. We conducted nasal MRSA screening of all inpatients admitted to 39 German hospitals (in the period 1 November to 30 November 2006) and to one Dutch hospital (in the period 1 July to 30 September 2007) in the EUREGIO MRSA-net. A total of 390 MRSA cases were detected among 25,540 patients screened. The admission prevalence was 1.6 MRSA/100 patients (6.5% of all S. aureus) in the German and 0.5 MRSA/100 patients (1.4% of all S. aureus) in the Dutch part of the border region. Overall, the predominating S. aureus protein A gene (spa) sequence types were t003, t032 and t011. One isolate (t044) carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) encoding genes. Altogether, 79% and 67% of all MRSA patients in the German and Dutch regions respectively, were identifiable by the classical nosocomial risk factors assessed. In patients lacking all risk factors assessed, spa types t011 and t034 were predominant (P<0.001).

  8. Use of Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the development of vancomycin resistance in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Mei, Qing; Ye, Ying; Zhu, Yu-lin; Cheng, Jun; Yang, Hai-fei; Liu, Yan-yan; Li, Hong-ru; Li, Jia-bin

    2015-06-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were performed for various vancomycin dosage regimens to evaluate the potential for development of vancomycin resistance in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). When the target of free AUC(24)/MIC≥200 was considered (where AUC(24) is the area under the drug concentration-time curve in a 24-h interval and MIC is the minimum inhibitory concentration), a standard dose regimen (1000 mg every 12 h) yielded unacceptable simulated outcomes in patients with normal renal function; in particular, the probability of target attainment (PTA) was only 30.5% at an MIC of 1mg/L. For the same dosage regimens and the mutant prevention concentration (MPC)-based pharmacokinetic target (total AUC(24)/MPC>15), the cumulative fraction of response exceeded 80% for all renal function strata; low values of PTA (<80%) were obtained only for isolates with MPCs of ≥22.4 mg/L, which consisted of all 21 strains of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) and a handful of non-hVISA strains with MICs of 2mg/L (32%; 16/50). Based on the current status of vancomycin resistance, we conclude that total AUC(24)/MPC>15, derived from in vivo experiments, is more suitable to predict the development of vancomycin resistance. In clinical practice, individualised vancomycin therapy should be considered to minimise selection of resistance mutations.

  9. Spa typing and identification of pvl genes of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from a Libyan hospital in Tripoli.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed O; Baptiste, Keith E; Daw, Mohamed A; Elramalli, Asma K; Abouzeed, Yousef M; Petersen, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the molecular characteristics of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from clinical sources in Tripoli, Libya. A total of 95 MRSA strains collected at the Tripoli medical Centre were investigated by spa typing and identification of the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (pvl) genes. A total of 26 spa types were characterized and distributed among nine clonal complexes; CC5 (n=32), CC80 (n=18), CC8 (n=17) and CC22 (n=12) were the most prevalent clonal complexes. In total, 34% of the isolates were positive for PVL. This study demonstrated the presence of CA-MRSA and pvl positive strains in hospital settings and underlines the importance of using molecular typing to investigate the epidemiology of MRSA. Preventative measures and surveillance systems are needed to control and minimize the spread of MRSA in the Libyan health care system. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Burden of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections at a Swiss University hospital: excess length of stay and costs.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Viñas, M; De Angelis, G; Rohner, P; Safran, E; Stewardson, A; Fankhauser, C; Schrenzel, J; Pittet, D; Harbarth, S

    2013-06-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections increase hospital costs primarily by prolonging patient length of stay (LOS). To estimate the health-economic burden of MRSA infections at a Swiss University hospital using different analytical approaches. Excess LOS was estimated by: (i) multistate modelling comparing MRSA-infected and MRSA-free patients with MRSA infection as time-dependent exposure; (ii) matching MRSA-infected patients with a cohort of MRSA-uninfected patients. The economic impact was assessed by: (i) comparing cost estimates between MRSA-infected and MRSA-free patients and multiplying excess LOS by bed-day cost; (ii) comparing real costs between MRSA-infected and MRSA-colonized non-infected patients. The crude mean LOS was 37.3, 33.0 and 8.8 days for MRSA-infected, MRSA-colonized and MRSA-free patients, respectively. Excess LOS attributable to MRSA infection was 11.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.9-15] or 15.3 days according to multistate modelling and matched analysis, respectively. The likelihood of discharge after MRSA infection was significantly reduced (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.59-0.81). Average bed-day costs for MRSA-infected patients were 1.49- and 1.26-fold higher than for the general population hospitalized in acute wards and MRSA-colonized patients, respectively. MRSA infection resulted in an average additional cost of about 800 Swiss francs per day. This analysis emphasizes the financial impact of MRSA infections, demonstrates the importance of accounting for time-dependent bias and confirms that multistate modelling is a valid strategy for estimating excess LOS and costs after MRSA infection. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Decolonisation of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in adopted children with cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Bos, Maria; Hopman, Joost; Stuiver, Martijn M; Voss, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the percentage success and to investigate influencing factors of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) decolonisation treatment in children with cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) who are adopted to The Netherlands. This was a historic cohort study in nine Dutch hospitals with a CLP treatment centre of children who were adopted from abroad in 2005-2012 who had CLP and MRSA carriage upon arrival in The Netherlands. A total of 55 adopted children with CLP and MRSA carriage were eligible for the study. Most children were adopted from China and had cheilognathopalatoschisis. Fourteen children were not treated for MRSA carriage, of whom six became MRSA-negative spontaneously. Forty-one children received decolonisation treatment (either topical treatment and disinfectant body wash or these combined with oral antibiotics). Overall, eighteen children [44%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 29-59%] became MRSA-negative after treatment. Treatment success was higher (56%; 95% CI 33-77%) in the group of children treated according to the Dutch guideline for treatment of MRSA carriage (odds ratio=6.1, 95% CI 4.4-26.4; p=0.017). In conclusion, MRSA decolonisation treatment in adopted children with CLP was successful in 44% of cases and the success percentage was higher in the group of children treated in accordance with the national guideline for treatment of MRSA carriage. However, given the percentage of children who turned MRSA-negative without treatment, waiting for spontaneous clearance of MRSA carriage can be advised after careful consideration of the benefits and risks of decolonisation treatment. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of meticillin-resistant and meticillin-susceptible isolates of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from cases of canine pyoderma in Australia.

    PubMed

    Siak, Meng; Burrows, Amanda K; Coombs, Geoffrey W; Khazandi, Manouchehr; Abraham, Sam; Norris, Jacqueline M; Weese, J Scott; Trott, Darren J

    2014-09-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) has recently emerged as a worldwide cause of canine pyoderma. In this study, we characterized 22 S. pseudintermedius isolates cultured from 19 dogs with pyoderma that attended a veterinary dermatology referral clinic in Australia in 2011 and 2012. Twelve isolates were identified as MRSP by mecA real-time PCR and phenotypic resistance to oxacillin. In addition to β-lactam resistance, MRSP isolates were resistant to erythromycin (91.6 %), gentamicin (83.3 %), ciprofloxacin (83.3 %), chloramphenicol (75 %), clindamycin (66 %), oxytetracycline (66 %) and tetracycline (50 %), as shown by disc-diffusion susceptibility testing. Meticillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius isolates only showed resistance to penicillin/ampicillin (90 %) and tetracycline (10 %). PFGE using the SmaI restriction enzyme was unable to type nine of the 12 MRSP isolates. However the nine isolates provided the same PFGE pulsotype using the Cfr91 restriction enzyme. Application of the mec-associated direct repeat unit (dru) typing method identified the nine SmaI PFGE-untypable isolates as dt11cb, a dru type that has only previously been associated with MRSP sequence type (ST)45 isolates that possess a unique SCCmec element. The dt11cb isolates shared a similar multidrug-resistant antibiogram phenotype profile, whereas the other MRSP isolates, dt11a, dt11af (dt11a-associated) and dt10h, were resistant to fewer antibiotic classes and had distinct PFGE profiles. This is the first report of MRSP causing pyoderma in dogs from Australia. The rapid intercontinental emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant MRSP strains confirms the urgent need for new treatment modalities for recurrent canine pyoderma in veterinary practice. © 2014 The Authors.

  13. [Nasal carriage of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among health care personnel in Abidjan (Côte d'lvoire)].

    PubMed

    Akoua Koffi, C; Dje, K; Toure, R; Guessennd, N; Acho, B; Faye Kette, H; Loukou, Y G; Dosso, M

    2004-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of méticillino-résistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among health care personnel in Abidjan teaching hospitals as well as their resistance profile against other antibiotics, 592 health care personnel from various surgical and medical services: the intensive care unit, gynaecology and obstetrics and third-degree burns services of the Cocody, Treichville and Yopougon Teaching Hospitals were included. The previous nasal pits of each subject included were swabbed. The isolation of S. aureus strains was run in a Chapman medium followed by Identification based on morphological and biochemical characteristics. The resistance profile of the strains to antibiotics was determined by standard Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and a 1 microg disc of oxacillin was used for the detection of meticillin-resistance S. aureus strains according to NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) guidelines. 269 members of the studied personnel were carriers of S. aureus, either a rate of portage of 45.4%. Among the 269 S. aureus isolates, 38.7% were MRSA strains and the carriage rate of MRSA in the population was 17.8%. The health care personnel working in surgery was the more colonized (36.7%) follow-up of those of the medical services (31.4%) and of the the intensive care unit (12.4%). A variable proportion of strains of MRSA also expressed resistances to the other families of antibiotics: 27% to aminosids of which 13.5% of phénotype kanamycine, tobramycine, gentamycine (KTG), 58.7% to macrolids and related (MLS), 37.5% to fluoroquinolons, 14.4% to cyclines and 40% to the cotrimoxazole. This confirms their multi-resistant character. The prevalence of MRSA carriage among health care personnel is high; this personnel constitutes an infectious risk for the hospitalized patients who are so exposed to nosocomial infections caused by MRSA.

  14. Molecular characterization and clonal diversity of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the community in Spain: emergence of clone sequence type 72.

    PubMed

    Potel, C; Rey, S; Otero, S; Rubio, J; Álvarez, M

    2016-08-01

    Sequence type 72 meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ST72 MRSA) was recently detected in our hospital. Although in Europe this clone is rarely isolated, it is the leading cause of community-associated MRSA infections in Korea, spreading also into hospitals, where it has also emerged as the main MRSA clone recovered from raw meat. We studied MRSA isolated from outpatients in Spain during a nine-year period. More than 70% of the isolates belonged to predominant clones found in hospitals. There was a significant increase in the ST72 prevalence. It appears that boundaries of dominance among MRSA clones have become blurred, demanding continuous surveillance.

  15. Characterisation of clinical meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis demonstrating high levels of linezolid resistance (>256 μg/ml) resulting from transmissible and mutational mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Emma M; Fitzgibbon, Siobhan; Clair, James; Coffey, Aidan; O'Mahony, Jim M

    2015-07-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), one of the leading etiological agents of nosocomial infections poses a significant economic burden globally. Introduced in 2000, linezolid (LZD) has become an important antibiotic, used in nearly seventy countries worldwide to treat infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens such as meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species along with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Resistance to LZD in clinical settings remains rare. Here, we report the emergence of meticillin resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE) clinical isolates from two voluntary general acute hospitals exhibiting higher than typically reported levels of LZD resistance (MIC>256 μg/ml). The MRSE ST-2 clone isolated from eight patients (2010-2011) not only possessed resistance-conferring mutations such as G2576T in domain V of 23S rRNA gene (as determined by HRM-PCR analysis) and R172C substitution in the ribosomal protein L3, but also carried the cfr gene (the only known transmissible mechanism of LZD resistance). All isolates possessed several key biofilm-associated genes (such as icaA, icaD, aap and atlE) and resistance to multiple clinically significant antibiotics was recorded. This study reports the earliest incidence (2010) of clinical MRSE in the Republic of Ireland demonstrating multiple LZD resistance mechanisms both mutational and potentially transmissible, and characterises this emerging resistance from a molecular perspective.

  16. Screening, isolation, and decolonisation strategies in the control of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in intensive care units: cost effectiveness evaluation.

    PubMed

    Robotham, Julie V; Graves, Nicholas; Cookson, Barry D; Barnett, Adrian G; Wilson, Jennie A; Edgeworth, Jonathan D; Batra, Rahul; Cuthbertson, Brian H; Cooper, Ben S

    2011-10-05

    To assess the cost effectiveness of screening, isolation, and decolonisation strategies in the control of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in intensive care units. Economic evaluation based on a dynamic transmission model. England and Wales. Population Theoretical population of patients on an intensive care unit. Infections, deaths, costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), incremental cost effectiveness ratios for alternative strategies, and net monetary benefits. All decolonisation strategies improved health outcomes and reduced costs. Although universal decolonisation (regardless of MRSA status) was the most cost effective in the short term, strategies using screening to target MRSA carriers may be preferred owing to the reduced risk of selecting for resistance. Among such targeted strategies, universal admission and weekly screening with polymerase chain reaction coupled with decolonisation using nasal mupirocin was the most cost effective. This finding was robust to the size of intensive care units, prevalence of MRSA on admission, proportion of patients classified as high risk, and precise value of willingness to pay for health benefits. All strategies using isolation but not decolonisation improved health outcomes but costs were increased. When the prevalence of MRSA on admission to the intensive care unit was 5% and the willingness to pay per QALY gained was between £20,000 (€23,000; $32,000) and £30,000, the best such strategy was to isolate only those patients at high risk of carrying MRSA (either pre-emptively or after identification by admission and weekly screening for MRSA using chromogenic agar). Universal admission and weekly screening using polymerase chain reaction based detection of MRSA coupled with isolation was unlikely to be cost effective unless prevalence was high (10% of patients colonised with MRSA on admission). MRSA control strategies that use decolonisation are likely to be cost saving in an intensive care unit

  17. Comparison of strategies to reduce meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus rates in surgical patients: a controlled multicentre intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Andie S; Cooper, Ben S; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Chalfine, Annie; Daikos, George L; Fankhauser, Carolina; Carevic, Biljana; Lemmen, Sebastian; Martínez, José Antonio; Masuet-Aumatell, Cristina; Pan, Angelo; Phillips, Gabby; Rubinovitch, Bina; Goossens, Herman; Brun-Buisson, Christian; Harbarth, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of two strategies (enhanced hand hygiene vs meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening and decolonisation) alone and in combination on MRSA rates in surgical wards. Design Prospective, controlled, interventional cohort study, with 6-month baseline, 12-month intervention and 6-month washout phases. Setting 33 surgical wards of 10 hospitals in nine countries in Europe and Israel. Participants All patients admitted to the enrolled wards for more than 24 h. Interventions The two strategies compared were (1) enhanced hand hygiene promotion and (2) universal MRSA screening with contact precautions and decolonisation (intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine bathing) of MRSA carriers. Four hospitals were assigned to each intervention and two hospitals combined both strategies, using targeted MRSA screening. Outcome measures Monthly rates of MRSA clinical cultures per 100 susceptible patients (primary outcome) and MRSA infections per 100 admissions (secondary outcome). Planned subgroup analysis for clean surgery wards was performed. Results After adjusting for clustering and potential confounders, neither strategy when used alone was associated with significant changes in MRSA rates. Combining both strategies was associated with a reduction in the rate of MRSA clinical cultures of 12% per month (adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR) 0.88, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.98). In clean surgery wards, strategy 2 (MRSA screening, contact precautions and decolonisation) was associated with decreasing rates of MRSA clinical cultures (15% monthly decrease, aIRR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.97) and MRSA infections (17% monthly decrease, aIRR 0.83, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.99). Conclusions In surgical wards with relatively low MRSA prevalence, a combination of enhanced standard and MRSA-specific infection control approaches was required to reduce MRSA rates. Implementation of single interventions was not effective, except in clean surgery wards where MRSA

  18. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole versus vancomycin for severe infections caused by meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bishara, Jihad; Yahav, Dafna; Goldberg, Elad; Neuberger, Ami; Ghanem-Zoubi, Nesrin; Dickstein, Yaakov; Nseir, William; Dan, Michael; Leibovici, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Objective To show non-inferiority of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole compared with vancomycin for the treatment of severe infections due to meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Design Parallel, open label, randomised controlled trial. Setting Four acute care hospitals in Israel. Participants Adults with severe infections caused by MRSA susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and vancomycin. Patients with left sided endocarditis, meningitis, chronic haemodialysis, and prolonged neutropenia were excluded. Interventions Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 320 mg/1600 mg twice daily versus vancomycin 1 g twice daily for a minimum of seven days and then by indication. Main outcome measures The primary efficacy outcome was treatment failure assessed at day 7, consisting of death, persistence of haemodynamic instability or fever, stable or worsening Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, and persistence of bacteraemia. The primary safety outcome was all cause mortality at day 30. Non-inferiority was defined by a difference of less than 15% for treatment failure. Results 252 patients were included in the trial, of whom 91 (36%) had bacteraemia. No significant difference in treatment failure was seen for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (51/135, 38%) versus vancomycin (32/117, 27%)—risk ratio 1.38 (95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.99). However, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole did not meet the non-inferiority criterion—absolute difference 10.4% (95% confidence interval −1.2% to 21.5%). For patients with bacteraemia, the risk ratio was 1.40 (0.91 to 2.16). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was significantly associated with treatment failure (adjusted odds ratio 2.00, 1.09 to 3.65). The 30 day mortality rate was 32/252 (13%), with no significant difference between arms. Among patients with bacteraemia, 14/41 (34%) treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and 9/50 (18%) with vancomycin died (risk ratio 1.90, 0

  19. Assessing the probability of acquisition of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a dog using a nested stochastic simulation model and logistic regression sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Heller, J; Innocent, G T; Denwood, M; Reid, S W J; Kelly, L; Mellor, D J

    2011-05-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important nosocomial and community-acquired pathogen with zoonotic potential. The relationship between MRSA in humans and companion animals is poorly understood. This study presents a quantitative exposure assessment, based on expert opinion and published data, in the form of a second order stochastic simulation model with accompanying logistic regression sensitivity analysis that aims to define the most important factors for MRSA acquisition in dogs. The simulation model was parameterised using expert opinion estimates, along with published and unpublished data. The outcome of the model was biologically plausible and found to be dominated by uncertainty over variability. The sensitivity analysis, in the form of four separate logistic regression models, found that both veterinary and non-veterinary routes of acquisition of MRSA are likely to be relevant for dogs. The effects of exposure to, and probability of, transmission of MRSA from the home environment were ranked as the most influential predictors in all sensitivity analyses, although it is unlikely that this environmental source of MRSA is independent of alternative sources of MRSA (human and/or animal). Exposure to and transmission from MRSA positive family members were also found to be influential for acquisition of MRSA in pet dogs, along with veterinary clinic attendance and, while exposure to and transmission from the veterinary clinic environment was also found to be influential, it was difficult to differentiate between the importance of independent sources of MRSA within the veterinary clinic. The implementation of logistic regression analyses directly to the input/output relationship within the simulation model presented in this paper represents the application of a variance based sensitivity analysis technique in the area of veterinary medicine and is a useful means of ranking the relative importance of input variables.

  20. Identification of novel vga(A)-carrying plasmids and a Tn5406-like transposon in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis of human and animal origin.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Carmen; Aspiroz, Carmen; Rezusta, Antonio; Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Simon, Carmen; Gómez, Paula; Ortega, Carmelo; Revillo, Maria José; Zarazaga, Myriam; Torres, Carmen

    2012-10-01

    Nine staphylococcal strains of human and animal origin with a lincomycin-resistant/erythromycin-susceptible phenotype and carrying vga genes were characterised to determine the genetic elements involved in the dissemination of these uncommon resistance genes. These strains were typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and/or spa typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility was studied by disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. Presence of the genes lnu(A), lnu(B), vga(A), vga(A)v, vga(B), vga(C), vga(E), lsa(B) and cfr was studied by PCR. Transformation experiments were carried out in all strains, and the plasmid or chromosomal gene location was determined by Southern blot analysis. Genetic environments of the vga genes were analysed by PCR mapping or inverse PCR and sequencing. Five meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 strains and three Staphylococcus epidermidis strains harboured the gene vga(A), and one MRSA-ST8 strain contained the gene vga(A)v. One MRSA-ST398 strain, which also contained the gene lnu(A), showed the highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to lincomycin. The vga(A)v-positive strain presented lower MIC values than the vga(A)-positive strains. Presence of the pVGA plasmid was confirmed in two MRSA-ST398 strains. Four novel vga(A)-carrying plasmids were detected: pUR2355 (in two MRSA and one meticillin-susceptible S. epidermidis); pUR4128 (one MRSA); pUR3036 [one meticillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE)]; and pUR3937 (one MRSE). The plasmid pUR4128 was very similar to pUR2355. Plasmids pUR3036 and pUR3937 were related and were very similar to plasmid pSE-12228-06. The gene vga(A)v was located in a transposon analogous to Tn5406. Therefore, four novel vga(A)-carrying plasmids and a variant of Tn5406 were identified in this study.

  1. Gloves, gowns and masks for reducing the transmission of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the hospital setting.

    PubMed

    López-Alcalde, Jesús; Mateos-Mazón, Marta; Guevara, Marcela; Conterno, Lucieni O; Solà, Ivan; Cabir Nunes, Sheila; Bonfill Cosp, Xavier

    2015-07-16

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; also known as methicillin-resistant S aureus) is a common hospital-acquired pathogen that increases morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Its control continues to be an unresolved issue in many hospitals worldwide. The evidence base for the effects of the use of gloves, gowns or masks as control measures for MRSA is unclear. To assess the effectiveness of wearing gloves, a gown or a mask when contact is anticipated with a hospitalised patient colonised or infected with MRSA, or with the patient's immediate environment. We searched the Specialised Registers of three Cochrane Groups (Wounds Group on 5 June 2015; Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group on 9 July 2013; and Infectious Diseases Group on 5 January 2009); CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 6); DARE, HTA, NHS EED, and the Methodology Register (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 6); MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations (1946 to June week 1 2015); EMBASE (1974 to 4 June 2015); Web of Science (WOS) Core Collection (from inception to 7 June 2015); CINAHL (1982 to 5 June 2015); British Nursing Index (1985 to 6 July 2010); and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Database (1639 to 11 June 2015). We also searched three trials registers (on 6 June 2015), references list of articles, and conference proceedings. We finally contacted relevant individuals for additional studies. Studies assessing the effects on MRSA transmission of the use of gloves, gowns or masks by any person in the hospital setting when contact is anticipated with a hospitalised patient colonised or infected with MRSA, or with the patient's immediate environment. We did not assess adverse effects or economic issues associated with these interventions.We considered any comparator to be eligible. With regard to study design, only randomised controlled trials (clustered or not) and the following non-randomised experimental studies were eligible: quasi

  2. Sequence type 72 community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus emerged as a predominant clone of nasal colonization in newly admitted patients.

    PubMed

    Park, S Y; Chung, D R; Yoo, J R; Baek, J Y; Kim, S H; Ha, Y E; Kang, C-I; Peck, K R; Lee, N Y; Song, J-H

    2016-08-01

    Current knowledge of community-associated (CA) meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in hospitalized patients is incomplete. Genotypic characteristics of 637 nasal MRSA isolates from newly admitted patients in South Korea were investigated. Sequence type (ST) 72 accounted for 52.1%, 46.3%, and 52.8% of the isolates during the periods of 2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2013-2014, respectively. Instead of classic MRSA clones responsible for healthcare-associated infections, including ST5 and ST239, MRSA with community genotype ST72 was the predominant strain in newly admitted patients regardless of age and home province of the patients. Active strategies are needed to prevent healthcare-associated infection by CA-MRSA. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Daily bathing with octenidine on an intensive care unit is associated with a lower carriage rate of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Spencer, C; Orr, D; Hallam, S; Tillmanns, E

    2013-02-01

    Routine daily bathing of intensive care (ICU) patients with topical chlorhexidine reduces meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquisition. The aim of this study was to investigate whether repeated five-day cycles of daily topical octenidine could result in a similar effect. This was a two-year retrospective, uncontrolled study in a mixed medical and surgical ICU/high dependency unit, demonstrating a 76% reduction in MRSA acquisition but no significant reduction in all ICU-acquired bacteraemias. Chlorhexidine use is increasing but resistance is being reported. This pilot study found a similar reduction in MRSA acquisition with octenidine as an alternative to chlorhexidine. Further study is required to establish causality. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from foot ulcers in diabetic patients in a Chinese care hospital: risk factors for infection and prevalence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Hua; Sun, Zi-Lin; Guo, Yi-Jing; Yang, Bing-Quan; Yuan, Yang; Wei, Qiong; Ye, Kuan-Ping

    2010-10-01

    A retrospective case-control study of 118 (male : female, 68 : 50) Chinese type 2 diabetic patients with foot ulcers (Wagner's grade 3-5) was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in relation to the original community or hospital parameters. Ulcer specimens were processed for Gram staining, aerobic culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Staphylococcus species were tested for meticillin resistance using oxacillin. S. aureus was the most frequent pathogen (25.6 %) in diabetic patient specimens (160 isolates), and a high proportion of S. aureus isolates were MRSA (63.4 %). A high percentage of S. aureus isolates (65.4 %) satisfied the definition for hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) infection. The size of ulcers [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.61; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.22-2.12] and osteomyelitis (adjusted OR 18.51, 95 % CI 2.50-137.21) were independent predictors of MRSA infection. The HA-MRSA group had a significantly different distribution from the community-associated MRSA group with respect to age, history of diabetes and length of hospital stay (all P<0.001). Neuropathy, vascular disease (all P=0.049) and osteomyelitis (P=0.026) were the most common underlying conditions observed in the HA-MRSA group. This study contributes to the establishment of precautions against the emergence of MRSA including MRSA acquired from different sources among the Chinese population with diabetic foot ulcers based on their original or clinical parameters.

  5. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) contamination of ambulance cars after short term transport of MRSA-colonised patients is restricted to the stretcher.

    PubMed

    Eibicht, S J; Vogel, U

    2011-07-01

    Cabin surfaces of ambulance cars transporting hospitalised patients are at risk of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) contamination. In this study ambulance cars were analysed for the presence of MRSA immediately after transport of MRSA-colonised or -infected patients (two sites at the stretcher, three sites at the interior walls). Eighty-nine of 100 transport events, which fulfilled the inclusion criterion of transport time less than 20 min, were further analysed. Eight ambulance cars (9%) were contaminated (90% confidence interval: 4-14%). Transport time of 11-20 min did not result in a higher contamination rate than shorter transport time of 1-10 min. MRSA was detected only on the stretcher, i.e. the headrest and the handles. Cabin walls were not contaminated. In conclusion, ambulance cars were contaminated with MRSA even at short transport times. Disinfection after short-term transport of MRSA-positive patients should be restricted to surfaces in close vicinity to the patient's position. Consecutive investigation of 60 transport events in the absence of MRSA notification did not reveal any MRSA, but meticillin-susceptible S. aureus was detected in 12 cars, predominantly at handles and headrests. This finding highlights the importance of disinfection of surfaces in the vicinity of patients irrespective of the MRSA status. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence and characteristics of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in humans in contact with farm animals, in livestock, and in food of animal origin, Switzerland, 2009.

    PubMed

    Huber, H; Koller, S; Giezendanner, N; Stephan, R; Zweifel, C

    2010-04-22

    A total of 2,662 samples, collected from March to September 2009 in Switzerland, were tested for the presence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The collection comprised nasal swabs from 148 pig farmers, 133 veterinarians, 179 slaughterhouse employees, 800 pigs, 300 calves, 400 cattle, 100 pooled neck skin swabs from chicken carcasses, and 460 food samples of animal origin. Moreover, 142 S. aureus strains, isolated from bovine mastitis milk, were included in the study. Twenty samples (< 1%; four veterinarians, 10 pigs, three calves, one young bull, and two mastitis milk samples) tested positive for MRSA. Genotyping of the MRSA strains was performed by multilocus sequence typing, spa- and SCCmec-typing, and revealed ST398 (n=18), ST8 (n=1), ST 1 (n=1), spa types t011 (n=7), t034 (n=11), t064 (n=1), t127 (n=1), and SCCmec types IV (n=4) and V (n=16). The 20 MRSA strains were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using the restriction enzyme EagI. Supplementary PCR reactions were performed to investigate the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin and staphylococcal enterotoxins A to D.

  7. An in vitro study to determine the minimal bactericidal concentration of sodium hypochlorite (bleach) required to inhibit meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains isolated from canine skin.

    PubMed

    Pariser, Marlene; Gard, Sharon; Gram, Dunbar; Schmeitzel, Lynn

    2013-12-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) is becoming a more common pathogen in animals treated in veterinary hospitals, raising concerns for transmission and possible contamination of the hospital itself. The identification of effective agents for the decontamination of veterinary patients and hospitals is crucial. Sodium hypochlorite (6.15%) or 'bleach' is an inexpensive and frequently used decontamination agent in human and veterinary hospitals and an adjunctive treatment for human patients. There are no published data on the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of sodium hypochlorite (6.15%) for MRSP. The objective of this study was to determine the MBC of sodium hypochlorite (6.15%) against MRSP strains isolated from canine skin. In this in vitro study, 12 canine skin isolates were obtained from the Antech Diagnostics microbiology department. Twofold serial dilutions of sodium hypochlorite (6.15%) were allowed to react with each of the MRSP strains for 15 min, followed by overnight incubation on agar plates. Colonies on each plate were counted. This process was repeated in triplicate. The overall MBC for the canine skin-isolated MRSP strains was 1:32, but most strains had an MBC between 1:64 and 1:128 dilution. This study shows that sodium hypochlorite (6.15%) is an effective agent for decontamination at easily achievable concentrations. © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  8. IB-367 pre-treatment improves the in vivo efficacy of teicoplanin and daptomycin in an animal model of wounds infected with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Cirioni, Oscar; Silvestri, Carmela; Pierpaoli, Elisa; Barucca, Alessandra; Kamysz, Wojciech; Ghiselli, Roberto; Scalise, Alessandro; Brescini, Lucia; Castelli, Pamela; Orlando, Fiorenza; Kamysz, Elzbieta; Guerrieri, Mario; Giacometti, Andrea; Provinciali, Mauro

    2013-10-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are known as immunomodulators and antibiotic enhancers. We report that administration of an antimicrobial peptide, IB-367, was efficacious in increasing the antimicrobial activity of daptomycin and teicoplanin in a mouse model of wound infection caused by meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Mice were assigned to seven groups: an IB-367 pre-treated group with no antibiotics given after challenge, two IB-367 pre-treated groups plus daptomycin or teicoplanin given after challenge, two groups treated with daptomycin or teicoplanin only after challenge, and two control groups without infection or that did not receive any treatment. The main outcome measures were quantitative bacterial culture and analysis of natural killer (NK) cytotoxicity and leukocyte phenotype. The wound, established through the panniculus carnosus muscle of mice, was infected by MRSA. Bacterial cultures of mice receiving antibiotics alone showed a -2 log decrease, whilst those for IB-367 plus daptomycin or teicoplanin showed a -4 log decrease. IB-367 plus daptomycin showed the highest efficacy. The higher antimicrobial effect exerted by IB-367 was associated with increased levels of NK cytotoxicity but not of NK cell number. IB-367 increased the number of both CD11b and Gr-1 cells 3 days after MRSA challenge, whereas both of these leukocyte populations were reduced at 10 days after challenge. Our data suggest that a combination of IB-367 with antibiotic exerts a therapeutic effect and may be useful for the management of staphylococcal wounds.

  9. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 is an increasing cause of disease in people with no livestock contact in Denmark, 1999 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jesper; Petersen, Andreas; Sørum, Marit; Stegger, Marc; van Alphen, Lieke; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Knudsen, Lisbet Krause; Larsen, Lars Stehr; Feingold, Beth; Price, Lance Bradley; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Larsen, Anders Rhod; Skov, Robert Leo

    2015-01-01

    Livestock constitutes a potential reservoir of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates belonging to a recently derived lineage within clonal complex 398 (MRSA CC398-IIa). Since its discovery in the early 2000s, this lineage has become a major cause of human disease in Europe, posing a serious public health challenge in countries with intensive livestock production. To retrace the history of human colonisation and infection with MRSA CC398-IIa in Denmark, we conducted a nationwide, retrospective study of MRSA isolates collected from 1999 to 2011. Among 7,429 MRSA isolates screened, we identified 416 MRSA CC398-IIa isolates. Of these, 148 were from people with infections, including 51 from patients reporting no livestock exposure. The first cases of MRSA CC398-IIa infection in Denmark occurred in 2004. Subsequently, the incidence of MRSA CC398-IIa infection showed a linear annual increase of 66% from 2004 to 2011 (from 0.09 to 1.1 per 100,000 person-years). There were clear temporal and spatial relationships between MRSA CC398-IIa-infected patients with and without livestock exposure. These findings suggest substantial dissemination of MRSA CC398-IIa from livestock or livestock workers into the Danish community and underscore the need for strategies to control its spread both on and off the farm.

  10. What are the drivers of the UK media coverage of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the inter-relationships and relative influences?

    PubMed

    Boyce, T; Murray, E; Holmes, A

    2009-12-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in the UK receives intense media attention. The nature of coverage, political responses and solutions offered has been questioned and the relationship between health professionals, the media and government policy needs greater understanding. We identified 2880 articles on MRSA published in 12 UK newspapers between 1994 and 2005, compared with 21 articles in six major US newspapers. To investigate the relative influences and relationships further, 68 weeks of coverage from 1990 to 2004 were analysed. The dates were selected based on publication dates of the ten most frequently cited articles on MRSA according the ISI Web of Science portal of Department of Health press releases on MRSA since 1997. Within this period, 351 news articles were published with members of the public and politicians representing 60% of sources quoted. Scientific articles, even those with the highest number of citations, have negligible influence on newspaper coverage. Simple solutions quoted in the newspaper articles focused almost exclusively on cleaning. The UK press exhibits a high interest in MRSA compared with that of the USA. Healthcare workers, experts and professional bodies have criticised the nature of media reporting, but have had little influence or involvement in the press. This may facilitate journalists, celebrities, the public and politicians to drive these stories unchecked and allow politics to address only the simplistic solutions generated.

  11. Investigation into the potential of sub-lethal photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) to reduce susceptibility of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to antibiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, C. M.; Donnelly, R. F.; Tunney, M. M.

    2009-06-01

    In PACT, a combination of a sensitising drug and visible light cause the selective destruction of microbial cells via singlet oxygen production. As singlet oxygen is a non-specific oxidizing agent and is only present during illumination, development of resistance to this treatment is thought to be unlikely. However, in response to oxidative stress, bacteria can up-regulate oxidative stress genes and associated antibiotic resistance genes. The up-regulation of these genes and potential transfer of genetic material may result in a resistant bacterial population. This study determined whether treatment of clinically isolated meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains with sub-lethal doses of methylene blue (MB) and meso-tetra (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetra tosylate (TMP)-PACT resulted in reduced susceptibility to antibiotics and previously lethal PACT. Exposure of strains to sub-lethal doses of photosensitizer in combination with light had no effect on susceptibility to previously lethal photosensitization. Furthermore, exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of both photosensitizers caused no significant changes in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for each strain tested. Any differences in susceptibility were not significant as they did not cross breakpoints between resistant and susceptible for any organism or antibiotic tested. Therefore, PACT remains an attractive alternative option for treatment of MRSA infections.

  12. Two variants of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IVA in community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Chulmin; Shin, Hyun-Ho; Kwon, Eun-Young; Choi, Su-Mi; Kim, Si-Hyun; Park, Sun Hee; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yoo, Jin-Hong; Lee, Dong-Gun; Shin, Wan Shik

    2009-10-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains harbouring staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IVA are known to be more prevalent in South Korea than in other countries. Variations in the SCCmec IVA structure have been identified, including in sequence type (ST) 1 and ST72 strains. This study compared and investigated the genetic characteristics of two subtypes common in South Korea. Type IVA SCCmec of ST1 strains was characterized by type IV features with the linearized pUB110 at the junkyard (J) 3 region. However, that of ST72 strains carried a variant class B mec complex, ccrA2, with an identity of approximately 96 % and the linearized pUB110 at the J3 region. In SCCmec of ST72 strains, the organization of the class B variant and the J3 region may be more similar to that of type IA than to other types, but the ccr type and other J regions seemed to be derived from type IV. These genetic characteristics showed that type IVA appears to result from the dynamic genetic exchange and recombination of SCC DNA.

  13. Susceptibility trends including emergence of linezolid resistance among coagulase-negative staphylococci and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from invasive infections.

    PubMed

    Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Desroches, Marine; Bourgeois-Nicolaos, Nadège; Potier, Julien; Jehl, François; Lina, Gérard; Cattoir, Vincent; Vandenesh, François; Doucet-Populaire, Florence

    2015-12-01

    Multiresistance in staphylococci constitutes a major challenge for the antimicrobial chemotherapy of invasive infections such as bacteraemia or bone and joint infections (BJIs). A nationwide prospective study was performed to detect antimicrobial resistance trends among staphylococci causing invasive infections. Between October 2011 and February 2012, 367 meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 695 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were collected from 37 French hospitals, mainly from bacteraemia (59.9%) and osteoarticular infections (29.0%). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by broth microdilution, and specific screening and confirmation tests were performed to detect heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA). Staphylococcal isolates exhibiting a linezolid MIC>4 mg/L were further characterised to determinate their clonal relationships and the mechanism of resistance. MRSA exhibited additional resistances, including levofloxacin (82% associated resistance), gentamicin (13.6%), fusidic acid (13.6%) and rifampicin (6.5%), compromising oral step-down therapy in BJIs. Only two hVISA strains (0.5%) were identified. Among the CoNS, mainly Staphylococcus epidermidis (506/695; 72.8%), resistance to first- and second-line agents was more common. Linezolid resistance was identified in 10 CoNS (1.4%). The most frequent linezolid resistance mechanism was the G2576T mutation in 23S rDNA (9/10). For the first time in France, the cfr gene was found in five related sequence type 2 (ST2) S. epidermidis from two different hospitals, in association with ribosomal RNA and L3 ribosomal protein mutations. These national data must be considered when selecting empirical treatment for invasive staphylococcal infections. Moreover, the emergence and spread of linezolid-resistant CoNS carrying the cfr gene is of concern.

  14. Cluster randomised controlled trial of an infection control education and training intervention programme focusing on meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nursing homes for older people.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, N S; Gilpin, D F; Tunney, M M; Kearney, M P; Crymble, L; Cardwell, C; Hughes, C M

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this cluster randomised controlled trial was to test the impact of an infection control education and training programme on meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence in nursing homes. Nursing homes were randomised to intervention (infection control education and training programme; N=16) or control (usual practice continued; N=16). Staff in intervention homes were educated and trained (0, 3 and 6 months) in the principles and implementation of good infection control practice with infection control audits conducted in all sites (0, 3, 6 and 12 months) to assess compliance with good practice. Audit scores were fed back to nursing home managers in intervention homes, together with a written report indicating where practice could be improved. Nasal swabs were taken from all consenting residents and staff at 0, 3, 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome was MRSA prevalence in residents and staff, and the secondary outcome was a change in infection control audit scores. In all, 793 residents and 338 staff were recruited at baseline. MRSA prevalence did not change during the study in residents or staff. The relative risk of a resident being colonised with MRSA in an intervention home compared with a control home at 12 months was 0.99 (95% confidence interval: 0.69, 1.42) after adjustment for clustering. Mean infection control audit scores were significantly higher in the intervention homes (82%) compared with the control homes (64%) at 12 months (P<0.0001). Consideration should be given to other approaches which may help to reduce MRSA in this setting. Copyright 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain USA300 resists staphylococcal protein A modulation by antibiotics and antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Cardot Martin, E; Michel, A; Raynal, B; Badiou, C; Laurent, F; Vandenesch, F; Etienne, J; Lina, G; Dumitrescu, O

    2015-01-01

    Community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) causes severe diseases through virulence factors such as staphylococcal protein A (SpA), which favours immune evasion. We have previously shown that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and antibiotics decrease SpA expression in CA-MRSA strains. Here we examined the effects of antibiotics and AMPs, alone and in combination, on SpA expression in various CA-MRSA strains. Six S. aureus isolates corresponding to the major worldwide CA-MRSA clones (ST8-USA300, ST80 and ST30) were selected. Strains were cultured to exponential growth phase and were subsequently incubated with antibiotics (tigecycline, linezolid, clindamycin and vancomycin) at 0.25× MIC or with AMPs [human neutrophil peptide (HNP)-1-3] at the LD50, alone and in combination. After 6h, cultures were assessed for spa mRNA by RT-PCR, whilst SpA protein was measured by specific ELISA after 18h. When used alone, antibiotics (clindamycin, linezolid and tigecycline) or HNPs significantly reduced both SpA production and mRNA levels in ST30 and ST80 strains. When used in combination, HNPs and clindamycin, linezolid or tigecycline synergistically reduced SpA production (6-100-fold) and spa mRNA levels (4-20-fold) in ST80 and ST30 strains. In contrast, for USA300 strains, among all antibiotics, clindamycin alone reduced SpA production (3.5-fold), whereas with combined treatments including HNPs, only a slight reduction in SpA production (1.7-2.2-fold) was observed. In conclusion, antibiotics and AMPs do not modulate SpA expression in USA300, unlike in other CA-MRSA clones. This observation suggests that the virulence and successful spread of USA300 strains is associated with a specific regulatory network.

  16. A multicentre study of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections in China: susceptibility to ceftaroline and molecular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; O'Sullivan, Matthew V N; Mao, Lei-Li; Zhao, Hao-Ran; Zhao, Ying; Wang, He; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2015-04-01

    Ceftaroline is a novel cephalosporin with activity against Gram-positive organisms, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The objective of this study was to investigate the susceptibility to ceftaroline of hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) isolates causing acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (ABSSSIs) in China and to examine their relationship by genotyping. A total of 251 HA-MRSA isolates causing ABSSSIs were collected from a multicentre study involving 56 hospitals in 38 large cities across 26 provinces in mainland China. All isolates were characterised by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, spa typing and detection of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin locus (lukS-PV and lukF-PV). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 14 antimicrobial agents, including ceftaroline, were determined by broth microdilution and were interpreted using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints. The ceftaroline MIC50 and MIC90 values (MICs that inhibit 50% and 90% of the isolates, respectively) were 1 μg/mL and 2 μg/mL, respectively; 33.5% (n=84) of the isolates studied were ceftaroline-non-susceptible, with MICs of 2 μg/mL, but no isolate exhibited ceftaroline resistance (MIC>2 μg/mL). All of the ceftaroline-non-susceptible isolates belonged to the predominant HA-MRSA clones: 95.2% (n=80) from MLST clonal complex 8 (CC8), with the remaining 4.8% (n=4) from CC5. The high rate of non-susceptibility to ceftaroline amongst HA-MRSA causing ABSSSIs in China is concerning.

  17. Compliance with hand hygiene in patients with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing enterobacteria.

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, S; Oberröhrmann, A; Haefner, H; Kopp, R; Schürholz, T; Schwanz, T; Engels, A; Lemmen, S W

    2010-12-01

    Hand hygiene is considered to be the single most effective measure to prevent healthcare-associated infection. Although there have been several reports on hand hygiene compliance, data on patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms in special isolation conditions are lacking. Therefore, we conducted a prospective observational study of indications for, and compliance with, hand hygiene in patients colonised or infected with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enterobacteria in surgical intensive and intermediate care units. Hand disinfectant used during care of patients with MRSA was measured. Observed daily hand hygiene indications were higher in MRSA isolation conditions than in ESBL isolation conditions. Observed compliance rates were 47% and 43% for the MRSA group and 54% and 51% for the ESBL group in the surgical intensive care unit and the intermediate care unit, respectively. Compliance rates before patient contact or aseptic tasks were significantly lower (17-47%) than after contact with patient, body fluid or patient's surroundings (31-78%). Glove usage instead of disinfection was employed in up to 100% before patient contact. However, compliance rates calculated from disinfectant usage were two-fold lower (intensive care: 24% vs 47%; intermediate care: 21% vs 43%). This study is the first to provide data on hand hygiene in patients with MDR bacteria and includes a comparison of observed and calculated compliance. Compliance is low in patients under special isolation conditions, even for the indications of greatest impact in preventing healthcare-associated infections. These data may help to focus measures to reduce transmission of MDR bacteria and improve patient safety.

  18. Natural and ion-exchanged illite clays reduce bacterial burden and inflammation in cutaneous meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in mice

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Caitlin C.; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn

    2016-01-01

    Discoveries associated with antibacterial activity of hydrated clays necessitate assessments of in vivo efficacy, practical use and safety. Surface properties of clays can lead to variations in the composition and abundance of bound compounds or ions, thus affecting antibacterial activity. Since exchangeable metal ions released from the clay surface are responsible for in vitro antibacterial activity, we evaluated the in vivo antibacterial efficacy of four natural clays (one illite clay, two montmorillonite clays and one kaolinite clay) and three ion-exchanged, antibacterial clays against superficial, cutaneous meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in mice. Superficial, cutaneous wounds on the back of SKH1-Elite mice were generated and subsequently infected with MRSA. Following twice daily applications of a hydrated clay poultice to infected wounds for 7 days, we observed significant differences in the in vivo antibacterial efficacy between different types of clays. The natural and ion-exchanged illite clays performed best, as measured by bacterial load, inflammatory response and gross wound morphology with significant decreases in bacterial viability and dermatitis. Topical application of kaolinite clay was the least effective, resulting in the lowest decrease in bacterial load and exhibiting severe dermatitis. These data suggest that specific types of clays may offer a complementary and integrative strategy for topically treating MRSA and other cutaneous infections. However, since natural clays exhibit in vitro antibacterial variability and vary vastly in surface chemistries, adsorptive/absorptive characteristics and structural composition, the properties and characteristics of illite clays could aid in the development of standardized and customized aluminosilicates for topical infections. PMID:26508716

  19. Interaction of chlorhexidine with trisEDTA or miconazole in vitro against canine meticillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from two UK regions.

    PubMed

    Clark, Siân-Marie; Loeffler, Anette; Schmidt, Vanessa M; Chang, Yu-Mei; Wilson, Alison; Timofte, Dorina; Bond, Ross

    2016-10-01

    Topical therapy is an important alternative to systemic antibacterial therapy for treatment of canine superficial pyoderma in light of the emergence of multidrug-resistant staphylococci. Chlorhexidine is widely used in shampoo products alone or in combination with miconazole or tromethamine-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (trisEDTA). Comparisons of these combinations have not been made. To determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of combinations of chlorhexidine/miconazole and chlorhexidine/trisEDTA in vitro in a collection of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP) from northern (NUK) and southeastern (SEUK) United Kingdom (UK) sources. MICs of chlorhexidine, miconazole, trisEDTA and combinations of chlorhexidine/miconazole (1:1) or chlorhexidine/trisEDTA (80:16:1 and 80:5:1) were determined for 196 canine SP isolates from NUK [49 meticillin-resistant (MRSP), 50 meticillin-susceptible (MSSP)] and fom SEUK (48 MRSP, 49 MSSP) using agar dilution. TrisEDTA alone did not inhibit growth. Chlorhexidine/miconazole MICs (median = 0.5 mg/L) were lower than those of either drug alone (P < 0.05) and lower than chlorhexidine/trisEDTA MICs (median = 1 mg/L; P < 0.0005) in each bacterial type and from both regions, except for miconazole in NUK MSSP. An additive interaction was noted between chlorhexidine and miconazole or trisEDTA (80:16:1 ratio) in 79 and 43 isolates, respectively, whereas antagonism between chlorhexidine and trisEDTA was noted for three isolates. NUK isolates were more susceptible than SEUK isolates (P < 0.05), except MRSP exposed to chlorhexidine and the chlorhexidine/trisEDTA (80:16:1) combination. These low MICs are likely to be exceeded by topical therapy. Evaluation of the mechanisms by which chlorhexidine combinations interact to reduce MICs is warranted, in view of increasing concerns of biocide tolerance in staphylococci. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  20. Intracellular, biofilm-inhibitory and membrane-damaging activities of nimbolide isolated from Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae) against meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Prodipta; Acharyya, Saurabh; Banerjee, Anirban; Patra, Amarendra; Thankamani, Karthika; Koley, Hemanta; Bag, Prasanta K

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading aetiologic agent of nosocomial- and community-acquired infectious diseases worldwide. The public health concern regarding staphylococcal infections is inflated by the increasing occurrence of multidrug-resistant strains, e.g. multidrug- and meticillin-resistant S.aureus (MDR MRSA). This study was designed to evaluate the intracellular killing, membrane-damaging and biofilm-inhibitory activities of nimbolide isolated from Azadirachta indica against MDR MRSA. In vitro antibacterial activity of nimbolide was determined by performing MIC, minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill kinetic studies. Bacterial membrane-damaging activity was determined by membrane perturbation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination. Biofilm-inhibitory activities were determined by SEM. Cellular drug accumulation and assessments of intracellular activities were performed using Vero cell culture. SEM revealed that nimbolide caused significant membrane damage and lysis of the S. aureus cells. The biofilm structure was disrupted, and the biofilm formation was greatly reduced in the presence of nimbolide as examined by SEM. The level of accumulation of nimbolide in Vero cells incubated for 24 h is relatively higher than that of ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid (Cc/Ce for nimbolide > ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid). The viable number of intracellular S. aureus was decreased [reduction of ~2 log10 c.f.u. (mg Vero cell protein)-1] in a time-dependent manner in the presence of nimbolide (4× MBC) that was comparable to that of tetracycline and nalidixic acid. The significant intracellular, biofilm-inhibitory and bacterial membrane-damaging activities of nimbolide demonstrated here suggested that it has potential as an effective antibacterial agent for the treatment of severe infections caused by MDR MRSA.

  1. spa typing alone is not sufficient to demonstrate endemic establishment of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a low-prevalence country.

    PubMed

    Fossum Moen, A E; Holberg-Petersen, M; Andresen, L L; Blomfeldt, A

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Norway is low but increasing. Over the last decade, numerous nursing homes have experienced MRSA outbreaks. One genetic lineage, spa type t304, has been identified at multiple nursing homes and has caused large outbreaks lasting for several years. To evaluate whether spa typing is sufficient for the detection of MRSA spread and endemic establishment in a low-prevalence area, using spa type t304 as the test organism. All spa type t304 isolates detected in 1991-2010 in the most densely populated area of Norway were included. Time and place of bacterial sampling were recorded. The isolates were analysed using multi-locus sequence typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing, detection of lukS/F-PV and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In total, 181 spa type t304 isolates were identified in three of 23 municipalities. Most (91%) of the isolates could be linked to 13 nursing homes, eight of which experienced outbreaks. PFGE analysis revealed three PFGE types, consisting of 19 PFGE patterns; 95% of the isolates were PFGE type 2. In total, PFGE types 2 and 3 accounted for 99% of all nursing home isolates, and included isolates from different nursing homes, different outbreaks and different time periods. Additional genetic analyses did not further differentiate between the spa type t304 isolates. MRSA spa type t304 appears to have established itself as an endemic genetic lineage in the study area. spa typing does not provide sufficient resolution when investigating the spread of an endemic-like genetic lineage in a low-prevalence area, and should be supplemented by additional typing techniques. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Whole-genome comparison of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC22 SCCmecIV from people and their in-contact pets.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Anette; McCarthy, Alex; Lloyd, David H; Musilová, Eva; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Lindsay, Jodi A

    2013-10-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections remain important medical and veterinary challenges. The MRSA isolated from dogs and cats typically belong to dominant hospital-associated clones, in the UK mostly EMRSA-15 (CC22 SCCmecIV), suggesting original human-to-animal transmission. Nevertheless, little is known about host-specific genetic variation within the same S. aureus lineage. To identify host-specific variation amongst MRSA CC22 SCCmecIV by comparing isolates from pets with those from in-contact humans using whole-genome microarray. Six pairs of MRSA CC22 SCCmecIV from human carriers (owners and veterinary staff) and their respective infected in-contact pets were compared using a 62-strain whole-genome S. aureus microarray (SAM-62). The presence of putative host-specific genes was subsequently determined in a larger number of human (n = 47) and pet isolates (n = 93) by PCR screening. Variation in mobile genetic elements (MGEs) occurred frequently and appeared largely independent of host and in-contact pair. A plasmid (SAP078A) encoding heavy-metal resistance genes (arsR, arsA, cadA, cadC, mco and copB) was found in three of six human and none of six animal isolates. However, only two of four resistance genes were associated with human hosts (P = 0.015 for arsA and cadA). The variation found amongst MGEs highlights that genetic adaptation in MRSA continues. However, host-specific MGEs were not detected, which supports the hypothesis that pets may not be natural hosts of MRSA CC22 and emphasizes that rigorous hygiene measures are critical to prevent contamination and infection of dogs and cats. The host specificity of individual heavy-metal resistance genes warrants further investigation into different selection pressures in humans and animals. © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  3. [Antibiotics resistance of meticilline-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: detection of the first glycopeptides low sensibility strains in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Mastouri, M; Nour, M; Ben Nejma, M; Bouallegue, O; Hammami, M; Khedher, M

    2006-02-01

    The adaptation of Staphylococcus aureus to the hospital environment led to the acquisition of resistance to all antibiotics available in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated in the F. Bourguiba hospital of Monastir (Tunisia). We determined the antibiotype of all Staphylococcus aureus strains identified. Susceptibility rates to fosfomycin, chloramphenicol, rifampicin and pristinamycin were 7%, 3%, 2% and 0%, respectively. The prevalence of MRSA was 15.5% (96 strains); their susceptible to gentamicin progressively increased. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) of oxacillin, vancomycin and teicoplanin were evaluated for the 96 MRSA strains. We identified two MRSA strains (M4 and M41) showing reduced glycopeptides susceptibility. Further analysis revealed that M4 and M41 harbor the gene encoding the class S and class F proteins specific for the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL). The mecA gene was detected only in strain M41 which harbors the Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome (SCCmec) type III. This is the first reported MRSA showing reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides in Tunisia. Regulatory surveillance of susceptibility to antibiotics is needed to reduce the morbidity and the mortality rates as well as societal costs of S. aureus infections.

  4. Efficacy of two hydrogen peroxide vapour aerial decontamination systems for enhanced disinfection of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Clostridium difficile in single isolation rooms.

    PubMed

    Ali, S; Muzslay, M; Bruce, M; Jeanes, A; Moore, G; Wilson, A P R

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen peroxide vapour (HPV) disinfection systems are being used to reduce patients' exposure to hospital pathogens in the environment. HPV whole-room aerial disinfection systems may vary in terms of operating concentration and mode of delivery. To assess the efficacy of two HPV systems (HPS1 and HPS2) for whole-room aerial disinfection of single isolation rooms (SIRs). Ten SIRs were selected for manual terminal disinfection after patient discharge. Test coupons seeded with biological indicator (BI) organisms [∼10(6) colony-forming units (cfu) of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Klebsiella pneumoniae, or ∼10(5)cfu Clostridium difficile 027 spores] prepared in a soil challenge were placed at five locations per room. For each cycle, 22 high-frequency-touch surfaces in SIRs were sampled with contact plates (∼25cm(2)) before and after HPV decontamination, and BIs were assayed for the persistence of pathogens. Approximately 95% of 214 sites were contaminated with bacteria after manual terminal disinfection, with high numbers present on the SIR floor (238.0-352.5cfu), bed control panel (24.0-33.5cfu), and nurse call button (21.5-7.0cfu). Enhanced disinfection using HPV reduced surface contamination to low levels: HPS1 [0.25cfu, interquartile range (IQR) 0-1.13] and HPS2 (0.5cfu, IQR 0-2.0). Both systems demonstrated similar turnaround times (∼2-2.5h), and no differences were observed in the efficacy of the two systems against BIs (C. difficile ∼5.1log10 reduction; MRSA/K. pneumoniae ∼6.3log10 reduction). Despite different operating concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, MRSA persisted on 27% of coupons after HPV decontamination. Enhanced disinfection with HPV reduces surface contamination left by manual terminal cleaning, minimizing the risks of cross-contamination. The starting concentration and mode of delivery of hydrogen peroxide may not improve the efficacy of decontamination in practice, and therefore the choice of HPV system may

  5. Hospital-wide infection control practice and Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the intensive care unit (ICU): an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Workman, Rella

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To estimate trends in infection/colonisation with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in an intensive care unit (ICU). Design Observational study of results of ICU admission and weekly screens for MRSA. Setting and Participants All ICU admissions in 2001–2012. Interventions ICU admissions were screened for MRSA throughout. In late 2006, screening was extended to the whole hospital and extra measures taken in ICU. Main outcome measures Prevalence of MRSA in ICU admissions and number acquiring MRSA therein. Results In all, 366 of 6565 admissions to ICU were MRSA positive, including 270 of 4466 coming from within the hospital in which prevalence increased with time prior to transfer to ICU. Prevalence in this group was 9.4% (8.2–10.6) in 2001–2006, decreasing to 3.4% (2.3–4.5) in 2007–2009 and 1.3% (0.6–2.0) in 2010–2012, p < 0.001, due to decreased prevalence in those spending >5 days on wards before ICU admission: 18.9% (15.6–22.2) in 2001–2006, 7.1% (4.0–10.2) in 2007–2009 and 1.6% (0.1–3.1) in 2010–2012, p < 0.001. In addition, 201 patients acquired MRSA within ICU, the relative risk being greater when known positives present: 4.34 (3.98–4.70), p < 0.001. Acquisition rate/1000 bed days decreased from 13.3 (11.2–15.4) in 2001–2006 to 3.6 (2.6–4.6) in 2007–2012, p < 0.0001. Of 41 ICU-acquired MRSA bacteraemias, 38 were in 2001–2006. The risk of bacteraemia in those acquiring MRSA decreased from 25% (18.1–31.9) in 2001–2006 to 6.1% (0–12.8) thereafter, p = 0.022. Conclusions Following better hospital-wide infection control, fewer MRSA-positive patients were admitted to ICU with a parallel decrease in acquisition therein. Better practice there reduced the risk of bacteraemia. PMID:25383196

  6. Cost-effectiveness of national mandatory screening of all admissions to English National Health Service hospitals for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a mathematical modelling study.

    PubMed

    Robotham, Julie V; Deeny, Sarah R; Fuller, Chris; Hopkins, Susan; Cookson, Barry; Stone, Sheldon

    2016-03-01

    In December, 2010, National Health Service (NHS) England introduced national mandatory screening of all admissions for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We aimed to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this policy, from a regional or national health-care decision makers' perspective, compared with alternative screening strategies. We used an individual-based dynamic transmission model parameterised with national MRSA audit data to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of admission screening of patients in English NHS hospitals compared with five alternative strategies (including no screening, checklist-activated screening, and high-risk specialty-based screening), accompanied by patient isolation and decolonisation, over a 5 year time horizon. We evaluated strategies for different NHS hospital types (acute, teaching, and specialist), MRSA prevalence, and transmission potentials using probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Compared with no screening, mean cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) of screening all admissions was £89,000-148,000 (range £68,000-222,000), and this strategy was consistently more costly and less effective than alternatives for all hospital types. At a £30,000/QALY willingness-to-pay threshold and current prevalence, only the no-screening strategy was cost effective. The next best strategies were, in acute and teaching hospitals, targeting of high-risk specialty admissions (30-40% chance of cost-effectiveness; mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratios [ICERs] £45,200 [range £35,300-61,400] and £48,000/QALY [£34,600-74,800], respectively) and, in specialist hospitals, screening these patients plus risk-factor-based screening of low-risk specialties (a roughly 20% chance of cost-effectiveness; mean ICER £62,600/QALY [£48,000-89,400]). As prevalence and transmission increased, targeting of high-risk specialties became the optimum strategy at the NHS willingness-to-pay threshold (£30,000/QALY

  7. Results of a multicentre randomised controlled trial of statistical process control charts and structured diagnostic tools to reduce ward-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: the CHART Project.

    PubMed

    Curran, E; Harper, P; Loveday, H; Gilmour, H; Jones, S; Benneyan, J; Hood, J; Pratt, R

    2008-10-01

    Statistical process control (SPC) charts have previously been advocated for infection control quality improvement. To determine their effectiveness, a multicentre randomised controlled trial was undertaken to explore whether monthly SPC feedback from infection control nurses (ICNs) to healthcare workers of ward-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (WA-MRSA) colonisation or infection rates would produce any reductions in incidence. Seventy-five wards in 24 hospitals in the UK were randomised into three arms: (1) wards receiving SPC chart feedback; (2) wards receiving SPC chart feedback in conjunction with structured diagnostic tools; and (3) control wards receiving neither type of feedback. Twenty-five months of pre-intervention WA-MRSA data were compared with 24 months of post-intervention data. Statistically significant and sustained decreases in WA-MRSA rates were identified in all three arms (P<0.001; P=0.015; P<0.001). The mean percentage reduction was 32.3% for wards receiving SPC feedback, 19.6% for wards receiving SPC and diagnostic feedback, and 23.1% for control wards, but with no significant difference between the control and intervention arms (P=0.23). There were significantly more post-intervention 'out-of-control' episodes (P=0.021) in the control arm (averages of 0.60, 0.28, and 0.28 for Control, SPC and SPC+Tools wards, respectively). Participants identified SPC charts as an effective communication tool and valuable for disseminating WA-MRSA data.

  8. Impacts of a long-term programme of active surveillance and chlorhexidine baths on the clinical and molecular epidemiology of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in an Intensive Care Unit in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Sangal, Vartul; Girvan, E Kirsty; Jadhav, Sagar; Lawes, Timothy; Robb, Andrew; Vali, Leila; Edwards, Giles F; Yu, Jun; Gould, Ian M

    2012-10-01

    Evidence is accumulating that active surveillance, when combined with appropriate infection control, is a successful measure for controlling hospital-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this study, the impacts of a long-term control strategy of this type, including the use of chlorhexidine baths, on the clinical and molecular epidemiology of MRSA in the Intensive Care Unit of Aberdeen Royal Infirmary were investigated. Characterisation of 85 sequential index MRSA isolates was performed using phenotypic methods (biotyping), antibiotic susceptibility testing and three genotypic methods (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, spa typing and multilocus sequence typing) over a 4-year period. There was no evidence of loss in effectiveness of the control strategy over the study period. Compliance with screening remained high (>85%) throughout and there was no significant increase in the prevalence of MRSA detected in surveillance (P=0.43 for trend) or clinical cultures (P=0.79). There were no significant trends in rates of other index surveillance organisms (P>0.5). Results of the three typing methods were in general agreement with three prevalent MRSA clones [clonal complex 22 (CC22), CC30 and CC45]. CC22 emerged as the dominant clonal complex alongside a significant decline in CC30 (P=0.002). CC45 was significantly more likely to be positive in glycopeptide resistance screens (P<0.001). There was no increase in antibiotic or chlorhexidine resistance. Long-term chlorhexidine bathing was not associated with any detectable loss of efficacy or increase in resistance in MRSA or with any increase in infection with other organisms. Changing clonal epidemiology occurred with no overall change in the prevalence of MRSA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive S. aureus in general practice patients with skin and soft tissue infections in the northern and southern regions of The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Mithoe, D; Rijnders, M I A; Roede, B M; Stobberingh, E; Möller, A V M

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) and Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-positive S. aureus in general practice (GP) patients with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in the northern (Groningen and Drenthe) and southern (Limburg) regions of The Netherlands. Secondary objectives were to assess the possible risk factors for patients with SSTI caused by S. aureus and PVL-positive S. aureus using a questionnaire-based survey. From 2007 to 2008, wound and nose cultures were obtained from patients with SSTI in general practice. These swabs were analysed for the presence of S. aureus and the antibiotic susceptibility was determined. The presence of the PVL toxin gene was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the genetic background with the use of spa typing. A survey was performed to detect risk factors for S. aureus infection and for the presence of PVL toxin.S. aureus was isolated from 219 out of 314 (70%) patients with SSTI, of which two (0.9%) patients were MRSA-positive. In 25 (11%) patients, the PVL toxin gene was found. A higher prevalence of PVL-positive S. aureus of patients with SSTI was found in the northern region compared to the south (p < 0.05). Regional differences were found in the spa types of PVL-positive S. aureus isolates, and for PVL-negative S. aureus isolates, the genetic background was similar in both regions. The prevalence of CA-MRSA in GP patients with SSTI in The Netherlands is low. Regional differences were found in the prevalence of PVL-positive S. aureus isolates from GP patients with SSTI. Household contacts having similar symptoms were found to be a risk factor for SSTI with S. aureus.

  10. In vitro activity of tea-tree oil against clinical skin isolates of meticillin-resistant and -sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci growing planktonically and as biofilms.

    PubMed

    Brady, Aaron; Loughlin, Ryan; Gilpin, Deirdre; Kearney, Paddy; Tunney, Michael

    2006-10-01

    The susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus [meticillin-resistant (MRSA) and meticillin-sensitive (MSSA)] and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), which respectively form part of the transient and commensal skin flora, to tea-tree oil (TTO) was compared using broth microdilution and quantitative in vitro time-kill test methods. MRSA and MSSA isolates were significantly less susceptible than CoNS isolates, as measured by both MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration. A significant decrease in the mean viable count of all isolates in comparison with the control was seen at each time interval in time-kill assays. However, the only significant difference in the overall mean log10 reduction in viable count between the groups of isolates was between CoNS and MSSA at 3 h, with CoNS isolates demonstrating a significantly lower mean reduction. To provide a better simulation of in vivo conditions on the skin, where bacteria are reported to grow as microcolonies encased in glycocalyx, the bactericidal activity of TTO against isolates grown as biofilms was also compared. Biofilms formed by MSSA and MRSA isolates were completely eradicated following exposure to 5 % TTO for 1 h. In contrast, of the biofilms formed by the nine CoNS isolates tested, only five were completely killed, although a reduction in viable count was apparent for the other four isolates. These results suggest that TTO exerts a greater bactericidal activity against biofilm-grown MRSA and MSSA isolates than against some biofilm-grown CoNS isolates.

  11. Approaching zero: temporal effects of a restrictive antibiotic policy on hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile, extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing coliforms and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Dancer, S J; Kirkpatrick, P; Corcoran, D S; Christison, F; Farmer, D; Robertson, C

    2013-02-01

    A restrictive antibiotic policy banning routine use of ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin was implemented in a 450-bed district general hospital following an educational campaign. Monthly consumption of nine antibiotics was monitored in defined daily doses (DDDs) per 1000 patient-occupied bed-days (1000 pt-bds) 9 months before until 16 months after policy introduction. Hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing coliform cases per month/1000 pt-bds were identified and reviewed throughout the hospital. Between the first and final 6 months of the study, average monthly consumption of ceftriaxone reduced by 95% (from 46.213 to 2.129 DDDs/1000 pt-bds) and that for ciprofloxacin by 72.5% (109.804 to 30.205 DDDs/1000 pt-bds). Over the same periods, hospital-acquisition rates for C. difficile reduced by 77% (2.398 to 0.549 cases/1000 pt-bds), for MRSA by 25% (1.187 to 0.894 cases/1000 pt-bds) and for ESBL-producing coliforms by 17% (1.480 to 1.224 cases/1000 pt-bds). Time-lag modelling confirmed significant associations between ceftriaxone and C. difficile cases at 1 month (correlation 0.83; P<0.005), and between ciprofloxacin and ESBL-producing coliform cases at 2 months (correlation 0.649; P=0.002). An audit performed 3 years after the policy showed sustained reduction in C. difficile rates (0.259 cases/1000 pt-bds), with additional decreases for MRSA (0.409 cases/1000 pt-bds) and ESBL-producing coliforms (0.809 cases/1000 pt-bds). In conclusion, banning two antibiotics resulted in an immediate and profound reduction in hospital-acquired C. difficile, with possible longer-term effects on MRSA and ESBL-producing coliform rates. Antibiotic stewardship is fundamental in the control of major hospital pathogens.

  12. Understanding factors that impact on health care professionals' risk perceptions and responses toward Clostridium difficile and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a structured literature review.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Emma; Kearney, Nora; Johnston, Bridget; Corlett, Joanne; MacGillivray, Stephen

    2013-05-01

    Clostridium difficile is the most common health care-associated infection. Despite considerable efforts to prevent and manage C difficile, poor clinical practice and nonadherence to policy continues to compromise patient safety. Risk perception research is essential in gaining understanding about how health care professionals respond. A structured literature review examined empirical evidence regarding health care professionals' risk perceptions and responses toward C difficile. Because of limited evidence available, the review was extended to include other health care-associated infections. Only studies related to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) could be identified. Eleven studies were included. Four were specific to C difficile and 7 to MRSA. All studies found that technical understanding of C difficile was poor and that staff were concerned about risks to patients and themselves. Technical understanding for MRSA, however, was good, and staff were less concerned about their own health. Information provision was perceived to be inadequate and untrustworthy, which included the media. Practice in most studies was poor. There is a need to build on the efforts of risk perception research from other disciplines to understand how health care professionals think and make decisions about C difficile. This can help inform the development of effective management and communication strategies to maximize the quality of care provided. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Carriage of meticillin-resistant staphylococci between humans and animals on a small farm.

    PubMed

    Loncaric, Igor; Künzel, Frank; Klang, Andrea; Wagner, Regina; Licka, Theresia; Grunert, Tom; Feßler, Andrea T; Geier-Dömling, Dorothe; Rosengarten, Renate; Müller, Elke; Reissig, Annett; Spergser, Joachim; Schwarz, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Meticillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) are pathogens of increasing importance to human and animal health worldwide. Transmission of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) between animals and humans has been well documented. By contrast, information about transmission of other Staphylococcus spp. is limited. The aim of this study was to screen animals and humans on a small farm for nasal carriage of MRS and to assess interspecies exchange. After detection of MRSA in a lung sample of a deceased cat, which lived on a small mixed farm, nasal swabs were taken within two weeks, four and 16 months from other animals of various species and humans living on the farm. Swabs were cultured for MRS which were then characterized molecularly. MRSA and meticillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MRCoNS), including Staphylococcus haemolyticus, S. epidermidis and S. fleurettii, were isolated from humans and different animal species. Typing of the MRS revealed isolates with the same characteristics in different human and animal hosts. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of carriage of both MRSA and MRCoNS among humans and various animals within a shared environment. The detection of strains with indistinguishable molecular characteristics strongly suggested transmission of these MRS between the various animal species and humans. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  14. Effects of national antibiotic stewardship and infection control strategies on hospital-associated and community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections across a region of Scotland: a non-linear time-series study.

    PubMed

    Lawes, Timothy; Lopez-Lozano, José-María; Nebot, Cesar A; Macartney, Gillian; Subbarao-Sharma, Rashmi; Dare, Ceri Rj; Wares, Karen D; Gould, Ian M

    2015-12-01

    Restriction of antibiotic consumption to below predefined total use thresholds might remove the selection pressure that maintains antimicrobial resistance within populations. We assessed the effect of national antibiotic stewardship and infection prevention and control programmes on prevalence density of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections across a region of Scotland. This non-linear time-series analysis and quasi-experimental study explored ecological determinants of MRSA epidemiology among 1,289,929 hospital admissions and 455,508 adults registered in primary care in northeast Scotland. Interventions included antibiotic stewardship to restrict use of so-called 4C (cephalosporins, co-amoxiclav, clindamycin, and fluoroquinolones) and macrolide antibiotics; a hand hygiene campaign; hospital environment inspections; and MRSA admission screening. Total effects were defined as the difference between scenarios with intervention (observed) and without intervention (predicted from time-series models). The primary outcomes were prevalence density of MRSA infections per 1000 occupied bed days (OBDs) in hospitals or per 10,000 inhabitants per day (IDs) in the community. During antibiotic stewardship, use of 4C and macrolide antibiotics fell by 47% (mean decrease 224 defined daily doses [DDDs] per 1000 OBDs, 95% CI 154-305, p=0·008) in hospitals and 27% (mean decrease 2·52 DDDs per 1000 IDs, 0·65-4·55, p=0·031) in the community. Hospital prevalence densities of MRSA were inversely related to intensified infection prevention and control, but positively associated with MRSA rates in neighbouring hospitals, importation pressures, bed occupancy, and use of fluoroquinolones, co-amoxiclav, and third-generation cephalosporins, or macrolide antibiotics that exceeded hospital-specific thresholds. Community prevalence density was predicted by hospital MRSA rates and above-threshold use of macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and clindamycin. MRSA prevalence

  15. Meticillin resistance in orthopaedic coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections.

    PubMed

    Uçkay, I; Harbarth, S; Ferry, T; Lübbeke, A; Emonet, S; Hoffmeyer, P; Pittet, D

    2011-11-01

    Orthopaedic infections due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and meticillin-resistant strains may be increasing. We assessed secular trends of CoNS infections and factors associated with meticillin resistance by performing a 13-year retrospective cohort study of orthopaedic patients with CoNS infections from January 1995 to December 2007. Of 60 CoNS infections, 57 (95%) were implant-related. Median follow-up after end of treatment was 5.1 years (range: 2.4-13.8). During the study period, 44,237 orthopaedic procedures were performed, 21,299 (48%) with implants. The overall cumulative incidence of CoNS-associated infection was 0.14% and 0.28% for implant-related procedures. There were non-significant changes in the absolute number or cumulative incidence of CoNS infection (chi-squared test, P values for trend: 0.45 and 0.97, respectively). Forty-five episodes (75%) were due to meticillin-resistant strains. The proportion of meticillin resistance remained stable over time (P for trend: 0.65). Whereas few (4/15) meticillin-susceptible strains were associated with prior prophylaxis that covered the causative pathogen, 28/45 meticillin-resistant strains were associated with inadequate prophylaxis (P=0.03). The cumulative incidence of orthopaedic CoNS infection is low and stable in our institution and almost exclusively implant-related. The proportion of meticillin resistance among CoNS has remained stable over the last decade with a favourable clinical outcome. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. First report in South America of companion animal colonization by the USA1100 clone of community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ST30) and by the European clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (ST71).

    PubMed

    Quitoco, Isidório Mebinda Zuco; Ramundo, Mariana Severo; Silva-Carvalho, Maria Cícera; Souza, Raquel Rodrigues; Beltrame, Cristiana Ossaille; de Oliveira, Táya Figueiredo; Araújo, Rodrigo; Del Peloso, Pedro Fernandez; Coelho, Leonardo Rocchetto; Figueiredo, Agnes Marie Sá

    2013-08-27

    Methicillin-resistant staphylococci can colonize and cause diseases in companion animals. Unfortunately, few molecular studies have been carried out in Brazil and other countries with the aim of characterizing these isolates. Consequently, little is known about the potential role of companion animals in transmitting these resistant bacteria to humans. In this work we searched for mecA gene among Staphylococcus isolates obtained from nasal microbiota of 130 healthy dogs and cats attended in a veterinary clinic located in the west region of Rio de Janeiro. The isolates recovered were identified to the species level and characterized using molecular tools. A community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) isolate related to USA1100 (Southwest Pacific clone) and susceptible to all non-β-lactams was detected in a cat (1.7%, 1/60). Another coagulase-positive isolate harboring mecA was recovered from a dog (1.4%, 1/70) and identified as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) related to the European clone (ST71). The two isolates of Staphylococcus conhii subsp. urealyticus (1.4%, 1/70 dogs and 1.7%, 1/60 cats), similarly to the MRSP isolate, also presented high-level multiresistance. The majority of the methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci recovered were Staphylococcus saprophyticus (5.7%, 4/70 dogs and 6.7%, 4/60 cats) and all clustered into the same PFGE type. This work demonstrates that mecA-harboring Staphylococcus isolates are common members of the nasal microbiota of the healthy companion animals studied (9.2%, 12/130 animals), including some high-level multiresistant isolates of S. pseudintermedius and S. conhii subsp. urealyticus. The detection, for the first time in South America, of USA1100-related CA-MRSA and of ST71 MRSP (European clone), colonizing companion animals, is of concern. Both S. pseudintermedius and S. aureus are important agents of infections for animals. The USA1100 CA-MRSA is a causative of severe and

  17. Linezolid-resistant clinical isolates of meticillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci and Enterococcus faecium from China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jia Chang; Hu, Yan Yan; Zhang, Rong; Zhou, Hong Wei; Chen, Gong-Xiang

    2012-11-01

    Seventeen meticillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS), including ten Staphylococcus capitis, four Staphylococcus cohnii, two Staphylococcus haemolyticus and one Staphylococcus sciuri, and an Enterococcus faecium isolate with various levels of linezolid resistance were isolated from intensive care units in a Chinese hospital. PFGE indicated that the four S. cohnii isolates belonged to a clonal strain, and that nine of the S. capitis isolates were indistinguishable (clone A1) and the other one was closely related (clone A2). A G2576T mutation was identified in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene in the E. faecium isolate. Besides the G2576T mutation, a novel C2104T mutation was detected in the nine clone A1 S. capitis isolates. The cfr gene was detected in all the staphylococci except an S. sciuri isolate, whose 23S rRNA gene contained the G2576T mutation. There was a clonal dissemination of linezolid-resistant MRCoNS in intensive care units of our hospital, and this is the first report, to our knowledge, of linezolid-resistant staphylococci and enterococci in China.

  18. The prevalence of carriage of meticillin-resistant staphylococci by veterinary dermatology practice staff and their respective pets.

    PubMed

    Morris, Daniel O; Boston, Raymond C; O'Shea, Kathleen; Rankin, Shelley C

    2010-08-01

    It has been shown that people and pets can harbour identical strains of meticillin-resistant (MR) staphylococci when they share an environment. Veterinary dermatology practitioners are a professional group with a high incidence of exposure to animals infected by Staphylococcus spp. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of carriage of MR Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), MR S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) and MR S. schleiferi (MRSS) by veterinary dermatology practice staff and their personal pets. A swab technique and selective media were used to screen 171 veterinary dermatology practice staff and their respective pets (258 dogs and 160 cats). Samples were shipped by over-night carrier. Human subjects completed a 22-question survey of demographic and epidemiologic data relevant to staphylococcal transmission. The 171 human-source samples yielded six MRSA (3.5%), nine MRSP (5.3%) and four MRSS (2.3%) isolates, while 418 animal-source samples yielded eight MRSA (1.9%) 21 MRSP (5%), and two MRSS (0.5%) isolates. Concordant strains (genetically identical by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) were isolated from human subjects and their respective pets in four of 171 (2.9%) households: MRSA from one person/two pets and MRSP from three people/three pets. In seven additional households (4.1%), concordant strains were isolated from only the pets: MRSA in two households and MRSP in five households. There were no demographic or epidemiologic factors statistically associated with either human or animal carriage of MR staphylococci, or with concordant carriage by person-pet or pet-pet pairs. Lack of statistical associations may reflect an underpowered study. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 ESVD and ACVD.

  19. Does hospital cleanliness correlate with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia rates?

    PubMed

    Green, D; Wigglesworth, N; Keegan, T; Wilcox, M H

    2006-10-01

    Publicly available data for all National Health Service hospitals in England were used to examine whether there is a link between hospital cleanliness and rates of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia. It was not possible to demonstrate a consistent relationship between hospital cleanliness, as measured by weighted Patient Environment Action Team (PEAT) scores, and the incidence of MRSA bacteraemia. The large sizes of the data sets make it unlikely that a true correlation was missed. While a high standard of hospital cleanliness is a worthwhile goal, it is not helpful to repeatedly link MRSA control measures with improvements in standards of environmental cleanliness.

  20. Recommendations for approaches to meticillin-resistant staphylococcal infections of small animals: diagnosis, therapeutic considerations and preventative measures.: Clinical Consensus Guidelines of the World Association for Veterinary Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Morris, Daniel O; Loeffler, Anette; Davis, Meghan F; Guardabassi, Luca; Weese, J Scott

    2017-06-01

    Multiple drug resistance (MDR) in staphylococci, including resistance to the semi-synthetic penicillinase-resistant penicillins such as meticillin, is a problem of global proportions that presents serious challenges to the successful treatment of staphylococcal infections of companion animals. The objective of this document is to provide harmonized recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of meticillin-resistant staphylococcal infections in dogs and cats. The authors served as a Guideline Panel (GP) and reviewed the literature available prior to September 2016. The GP prepared a detailed literature review and made recommendations on selected topics. The World Association of Veterinary Dermatology (WAVD) provided guidance and oversight for this process. A draft of the document was presented at the 8th World Congress of Veterinary Dermatology (May 2016) and was then made available via the World Wide Web to the member organizations of the WAVD for a period of three months. Comments were solicited and posted to the GP electronically. Responses were incorporated by the GP into the final document. Adherence to guidelines for the diagnosis, laboratory reporting, judicious therapy (including restriction of use policies for certain antimicrobial drugs), personal hygiene, and environmental cleaning and disinfection may help to mitigate the progressive development and dissemination of MDR staphylococci. © 2017 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the ESVD and ACVD.

  1. Comparative analysis of phenol-soluble modulin production and Galleria mellonella killing by community-associated and healthcare-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus strains.

    PubMed

    Boakes, Eve; Marbach, Helene; Lynham, Steven; Ward, Malcolm; Edgeworth, Jonathan D; Otter, Jonathan A

    2016-12-01

    Community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) have emerged globally and have been associated with more severe disease than healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA). The purpose of this study was to determine whether laboratory measures of virulence can distinguish dominant CA-MRSA clones from HA-MRSA clones. We compared the production of phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) and ability to kill Galleria mellonella caterpillars for a range of CA- and HA-MRSA strains. Twenty-two HA-MRSA strains [ST22-IV (EMRSA-15), ST36-II (EMRSA-16) and ST239-III] and 26 CA-MRSA strains [ST1-IV (PVL+ USA400), ST1-IV (PVL-), ST8-IV (USA300), ST22-IV (PVL+), ST30-IV, ST59-IV and ST80-IV] were analysed. PSM production was measured using and compared using t-tests and ANOVA. A G mellonella (caterpillar) pathogenicity model was performed, and differences were compared using survival analysis and the log-rank test. There was no significant difference in overall PSM production between HA and CA strains (P=0.090), but there was significant variation between clones (P=0.003). G. mellonella caterpillar killing varied significantly by clone (P<0.001), and overall killing was greater for HA compared with CA clones (P=0.007). The increased acute virulence phenotype of CA-MRSA clones in humans is not associated with increased PSM production in vitro or increased killing in an in vivo caterpillar pathogenicity model.

  2. Comparison of the BD Phoenix system with the cefoxitin disk diffusion test for detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Mencacci, Antonella; Montecarlo, Ines; Gonfia, Francesca; Moretti, Amedeo; Cardaccia, Angela; Farinelli, Senia; Pagliochini, Maria Rita; Giuliani, Angela; Basileo, Michela; Pasticci, Maria Bruna; Bistoni, Francesco

    2009-07-01

    The BD Phoenix system was compared to the cefoxitin disk diffusion test for detection of methicillin (meticillin) resistance in 1,066 Staphylococcus aureus and 1,121 coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS) clinical isolates. The sensitivity for Phoenix was 100%. The specificities were 99.86% for S. aureus and 88.4% for CoNS.

  3. Changing epidemiology of meticillin-resistant S. aureus in Queensland, Australia, 2000-2006: use of passive surveillance of susceptibility phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Nimmo, G R; Fong, J; Paterson, D L; McLaws, M-L

    2008-12-01

    The epidemiology of meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection has changed remarkably in recent years with the appearance of new MRSA strains causing infections in the community. These strains have now begun to cause healthcare-associated infections. The ability to track such changes is necessary to guide clinical and public health action. Here we report passive surveillance of all public laboratory susceptibility data in Queensland to track changes in MRSA phenotypes corresponding to the major epidemic strains from 2000 to 2006. The inpatient rate of MRSA isolation from pus, tissue and fluid (PTF) and blood culture (BC) specimens declined by 26% and 35%, respectively. The rate of isolation of the AUS-2/3-like phenotype (corresponding to ST239-MRSA-III) decreased from 651 to 242 isolates per million accrued patient days in inpatient PTF and BC, whereas that for non-multiresistant MRSA (nmMRSA, corresponding to community MRSA strains) increased from 71 to 315. The overall outpatient rate of MRSA isolation from PTF and BC increased by 224% and 31%, respectively. The rate of AUS-2/3-like isolates in outpatient PTF decreased from 131 to 60 per million outpatient occasions of service while the nmMRSA rate increased from 52 to 490. Surveillance of phenotypes derived from routine susceptibility data is a useful tool for tracking changes in the epidemiology of MRSA over large geographical regions.

  4. Rapid differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and other coagulase-negative staphylococci and meticillin susceptibility testing directly from growth-positive blood cultures by multiplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Jukes, Leanne; Mikhail, Jane; Bome-Mannathoko, Naledi; Hadfield, Stephen J; Harris, Llinos G; El-Bouri, Khalid; Davies, Angharad P; Mack, Dietrich

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated a multiplex real-time PCR method specific for the mecA, femA-SA and femA-SE genes for rapid identification of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and non-S. epidermidis coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), and meticillin susceptibility testing directly in positive blood cultures that grew Gram-positive cocci in clusters. A total of 100 positive blood cultures produced: 39 S. aureus [12 meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 31% of all the S. aureus]; 30 S. epidermidis (56.6% of the CoNS), 8 Staphylococcus capitis (15.1%), 3 Staphylococcus saprophyticus (5.7%), 4 Staphylococcus hominis (7.5%), 3 Staphylococcus haemolyticus (5.7%), 2 Staphylococcus warneri (3.8%), 1 Staphylococcus cohnii (1.9%) and 2 unidentified Staphylococcus spp. (3.8%); and 1 Micrococcus luteus in pure culture. Two blood cultures had no growth on subculture and five blood cultures grew mixed CoNS. For the 95 blood cultures with pure growth or no growth on subculture, there was very good agreement between real-time PCR and the BD Phoenix identification system for staphylococcal species categorization in S. aureus, S. epidermidis and non-S. epidermidis CoNS and meticillin-resistance determination (Cohen's unweighted kappa coefficient κ=0.882). All MRSA and meticillin-susceptible S. aureus were correctly identified by mecA amplification. PCR amplification of mecA was more sensitive for direct detection of meticillin-resistant CoNS in positive blood cultures than testing with the BD Phoenix system. There were no major errors when identifying staphylococcal isolates and their meticillin susceptibility within 2.5 h. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical benefit of using such a rapid test on the consumption of glycopeptide antibiotics and the alteration of empiric therapy in the situation of positive blood cultures growing staphylococci, and the respective clinical outcomes.

  5. Evaluation of Xpert MRSA Gen 3 and BD MAX MRSA XT for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus screening in a routine diagnostic setting in a low-prevalence area.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Xiaohui Chen; Madsen, Tina Vasehus; Engberg, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Screening and pre-emptive isolation of at-risk patients are important aspects of the Danish approach to the prevention of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus (MRSA) infection, but screening with conventional culture can take up to 3 days for results to become available with attendant costs and disadvantages of prolonged isolation. We sought to evaluate the accuracy, time to availability of results and potential economic benefits of two next-generation MRSA screening assays, Xpert MRSA Gen 3 (GX MRSA) and BD MAX MRSA XT, in a setting of a consolidated laboratory serving a number of hospitals with a low prevalence of MRSA and using enrichment culture as a reference method. Four hundred and forty-seven screening samples together with 49 previously positive MRSA samples were evaluated. Xpert MRSA Gen 3 demonstrated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 88.2, 97.9, 62.5 and 99.5 %, respectively, and for BD MAX MRSA XT, they were 88.2, 97.4, 57.7 and 99.5 %, respectively. Hands-on time was 8.8 and 21.6 min, respectively, for the Xpert MRSA Gen 3 and BD MAX MRSA XT PCR assays when five samples were handled simultaneously. The mean laboratory turnaround time was 2.9 (1-6) hours for the Xpert MRSA Gen 3 assay, 6.5 (2-46) hours for BD MAX MRSA XT and 49.6 (42-122) hours for enriched culture. Despite laboratory costs being higher for the rapid PCR assays, when the costs of isolation are taken into account, the assays offer the potential for significant cost savings.

  6. Relevant Role of Fibronectin-Binding Proteins in Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm-Associated Foreign-Body Infections▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Irigaray, Marta; Valle, Jaione; Merino, Nekane; Latasa, Cristina; García, Begoña; Ruiz de los Mozos, Igor; Solano, Cristina; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Penadés, José R.; Lasa, Iñigo

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can establish chronic infections on implanted medical devices due to its capacity to form biofilms. Analysis of the factors that assemble cells into a biofilm has revealed the occurrence of strains that produce either a polysaccharide intercellular adhesin/poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PIA/PNAG) exopolysaccharide- or a protein-dependent biofilm. Examination of the influence of matrix nature on the biofilm capacities of embedded bacteria has remained elusive, because a natural strain that readily converts between a polysaccharide- and a protein-based biofilm has not been studied. Here, we have investigated the clinical methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain 132, which is able to alternate between a proteinaceous and an exopolysaccharidic biofilm matrix, depending on environmental conditions. Systematic disruption of each member of the LPXTG surface protein family identified fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs) as components of a proteinaceous biofilm formed in Trypticase soy broth-glucose, whereas a PIA/PNAG-dependent biofilm was produced under osmotic stress conditions. The induction of FnBP levels due to a spontaneous agr deficiency present in strain 132 and the activation of a LexA-dependent SOS response or FnBP overexpression from a multicopy plasmid enhanced biofilm development, suggesting a direct relationship between the FnBP levels and the strength of the multicellular phenotype. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that cells growing in the FnBP-mediated biofilm formed highly dense aggregates without any detectable extracellular matrix, whereas cells in a PIA/PNAG-dependent biofilm were embedded in an abundant extracellular material. Finally, studies of the contribution of each type of biofilm matrix to subcutaneous catheter colonization revealed that an FnBP mutant displayed a significantly lower capacity to develop biofilm on implanted catheters than the isogenic PIA/PNAG-deficient mutant. PMID:19581398

  7. Relevant role of fibronectin-binding proteins in Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-associated foreign-body infections.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Irigaray, Marta; Valle, Jaione; Merino, Nekane; Latasa, Cristina; García, Begoña; Ruiz de Los Mozos, Igor; Solano, Cristina; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Penadés, José R; Lasa, Iñigo

    2009-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can establish chronic infections on implanted medical devices due to its capacity to form biofilms. Analysis of the factors that assemble cells into a biofilm has revealed the occurrence of strains that produce either a polysaccharide intercellular adhesin/poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PIA/PNAG) exopolysaccharide- or a protein-dependent biofilm. Examination of the influence of matrix nature on the biofilm capacities of embedded bacteria has remained elusive, because a natural strain that readily converts between a polysaccharide- and a protein-based biofilm has not been studied. Here, we have investigated the clinical methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain 132, which is able to alternate between a proteinaceous and an exopolysaccharidic biofilm matrix, depending on environmental conditions. Systematic disruption of each member of the LPXTG surface protein family identified fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs) as components of a proteinaceous biofilm formed in Trypticase soy broth-glucose, whereas a PIA/PNAG-dependent biofilm was produced under osmotic stress conditions. The induction of FnBP levels due to a spontaneous agr deficiency present in strain 132 and the activation of a LexA-dependent SOS response or FnBP overexpression from a multicopy plasmid enhanced biofilm development, suggesting a direct relationship between the FnBP levels and the strength of the multicellular phenotype. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that cells growing in the FnBP-mediated biofilm formed highly dense aggregates without any detectable extracellular matrix, whereas cells in a PIA/PNAG-dependent biofilm were embedded in an abundant extracellular material. Finally, studies of the contribution of each type of biofilm matrix to subcutaneous catheter colonization revealed that an FnBP mutant displayed a significantly lower capacity to develop biofilm on implanted catheters than the isogenic PIA/PNAG-deficient mutant.

  8. High prevalence of Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus in environmental samples of a Tunisian hospital.

    PubMed

    Dziri, Raoudha; Klibi, Naouel; Lozano, Carmen; Ben Said, Leila; Bellaaj, Ridha; Tenorio, Carmen; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Ben Slama, Karim; Torres, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of detection of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) in environmental samples of 17 services in a Tunisian hospital, determining the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypes of recovered isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first study that determines the prevalence of CoNS with correlation of antibiotic resistance in the hospital environment in Tunisia. CoNS were obtained from 83 of the 200 tested samples (41.5%). Staphylococcus haemolyticus was the most prevalent species (45.8%), followed by S. saprophyticus (36.1%). The remaining CoNS species detected were S. epidermidis, S. cohnii, S. warneri, S. sciuri, S. simulans, S. pasteuri, S. arlettae, and S. xilosus. Methicillin-resistant CoNS were detected in 20 of the 200 tested samples (10%), and the mecA gene was demonstrated in 18 S. haemolyticus, one S. epidermidis and one S. saprophyticus isolates. Methicillin susceptible isolates were detected in 63 samples (31.5%). Antimicrobial resistance genes detected were as follows (number of isolates): erythromycin [msr(A) (n = 32); erm(C) (n = 8)], tetracycline [tet(K) and/or tet(M) (n = 21)], gentamicin [aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia (n = 16)], kanamycin [(aph(3')-IIIa (n = 19)], tobramycin [ant(4')-Ia (n = 14)], and streptomycin [ant(6')-Ia (n = 3)]. The high frequency of detection of multi-drug-resistant CoNS in the hospital environment, especially S. haemolyticus and S. saprophyticus, is of relevance and could be due to cross-transmission between patients, staff, and environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of environmental cleaning in the control of hospital-acquired infection.

    PubMed

    Dancer, S J

    2009-12-01

    Increasing numbers of hospital-acquired infections have generated much attention over the last decade. The public has linked the so-called 'superbugs' with their experience of dirty hospitals but the precise role of environmental cleaning in the control of these organisms remains unknown. Until cleaning becomes an evidence-based science, with established methods for assessment, the importance of a clean environment is likely to remain speculative. This review will examine the links between the hospital environment and various pathogens, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, norovirus, Clostridium difficile and acinetobacter. These organisms may be able to survive in healthcare environments but there is evidence to support their vulnerability to the cleaning process. Removal with, or without, disinfectants, appears to be associated with reduced infection rates for patients. Unfortunately, cleaning is often delivered as part of an overall infection control package in response to an outbreak and the importance of cleaning as a single intervention remains controversial. Recent work has shown that hand-touch sites are habitually contaminated by hospital pathogens, which are then delivered to patients on hands. It is possible that prioritising the cleaning of these sites might offer a useful adjunct to the current preoccupation with hand hygiene, since hand-touch sites comprise the less well-studied side of the hand-touch site equation. In addition, using proposed standards for hospital hygiene could provide further evidence that cleaning is a cost-effective intervention for controlling hospital-acquired infection.

  10. Treatment of microbiologically polluted aquaculture waters by a novel photochemical technique of potentially low environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Magaraggia, Michela; Faccenda, Filippo; Gandolfi, Andrea; Jori, Giulio

    2006-09-01

    The applicability of a novel procedure for the disinfection of microbiologically polluted waters from fish-farming ponds, based on the combined action of visible light (including sunlight) and porphyrin-type photosensitising agents, has been investigated using (a) cell cultures of a Gram-positive bacterium (meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), a Gram-negative bacterium (Escherichia coli) and a fungal pathogen (Saprolegnia spp.); (b) pilot aquaculture plants involving either spontaneously or artificially Saprolegnia-infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The results obtained by using two cationic porphyrins, namely a tetra-substituted N-methyl-pyridyl-porphine (C1) and its analogue where one N-methyl group had been replaced by a N-tetradecyl chain (C14), and low intensity visible light irradiation showed an extensive (up to 6-7 log) decrease in the bacterial/fungal population after short incubation and irradiation times in the presence of micromolar photosensitiser concentrations. Moreover, C14 showed some toxic effect also in the absence of light. Extension of these studies to the pilot plants indicated that both C1 + light and C14 can prevent Saprolegnia infections or promote the cure of saprolegniasis in infected trout by treatments with submicromolar porphyrin doses. The procedure appears to be of low cost and to have a low environmental impact.

  11. Novel ABC Transporter Gene, vga(C), Located on a Multiresistance Plasmid from a Porcine Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 Strain ▿

    PubMed Central

    Kadlec, Kristina; Schwarz, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    A novel ABC transporter gene, vga(C), was identified on the 14,365-bp multiresistance plasmid pKKS825 in a porcine methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolate of sequence type 398. The vga(C) gene encodes a 523-amino-acid protein which confers resistance not only to streptogramin A antibiotics but also to lincosamides and pleuromutilins. Plasmid pKKS825 also carries the resistance genes aadD, tet(L), and dfrK, which may enable the coselection of vga(C) under selective pressure by kanamycin/neomycin, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim. PMID:19470508

  12. Evaluation of the affinity of various species and strains of Staphylococcus to adhere to equine corneocytes.

    PubMed

    Akridge, Heather D; Rankin, Shelley C; Griffeth, Gregory C; Boston, Raymond C; Callori, Nancy E; Morris, Daniel O

    2013-10-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain USA 500 predominately colonizes horses and people working with them. Previous studies demonstrate that some Staphylococcus species exhibit higher affinity for corneocytes of specific mammalian species. The objective was to determine the relative affinities of various MRSA strains, meticillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains and a meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MSSP) for equine corneocytes. We hypothesized that MRSA strain USA 500 would exhibit greater adhesion than other staphylococcal strains tested. Epidemic MRSA strains (USA 100, USA 300, USA 500 and USA 800), two MSSA control strains and an MSSP field strain were tested on corneocytes from 15 client-owned horses. Isolates were incubated with corneocytes in conditions (bacterial concentration of 10(8) colony-forming units/mL for 45 min) recently shown to maximize adherence of S. aureus without competitive interference. A validated image-analysis system was used to quantify the cell surface density of bacterial adhesion. The MSSP strain adhered with significantly higher affinity (P < 0.0015) to corneocytes than did MSSA strains. All MRSA strains other than USA 500 had significantly higher affinity than MSSA strains (P range <0.03 to <0.0015). There were no statistical differences in adhesion between strain USA 500 and the other MRSA strains tested. Meticillin-resistant S. aureus strain USA 500 did not adhere more robustly than other strains of Staphylococcus; therefore, its affinity to colonize horses may not be solely attributed to corneocyte adhesion. Additional studies are required to explain the epidemiological role of this strain as the predominant cause of colonization and infections of horses in North America. © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  13. Environmental Staphylococcus aureus contamination in a Tunisian hospital.

    PubMed

    Gharsa, Haythem; Dziri, Raoudha; Klibi, Naouel; Chairat, Sarra; Lozano, Carmen; Torres, Carmen; Bellaaj, Ridha; Slama, Karim Ben

    2016-12-01

    One hundred hospital environment samples were obtained in 2012 in a Tunisian hospital and tested for Staphylococcus aureus recovery. Antimicrobial resistance profile and virulence gene content were determined. Multilocus-sequence-typing (MLST), spa-typing, agr-typing and SmaI-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed. Two methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates typed as: ST247-t052-SCCmecI-agrI were recovered from the intensive care unit (ICU). Ten samples contained methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and these samples were collected in different services, highlighting the presence of the tst gene encoding the toxic shock syndrome toxin as well as the lukED, hla, hlb, hld and hlgv virulence genes in some of the isolates. In conclusion, we have shown that the hospital environment could be a reservoir contributing to dissemination of virulent S. aureus and MRSA.

  14. Measuring the effect of enhanced cleaning in a UK hospital: a prospective cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Dancer, Stephanie J; White, Liza F; Lamb, Jim; Girvan, E Kirsty; Robertson, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Background Increasing hospital-acquired infections have generated much attention over the last decade. There is evidence that hygienic cleaning has a role in the control of hospital-acquired infections. This study aimed to evaluate the potential impact of one additional cleaner by using microbiological standards based on aerobic colony counts and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus including meticillin-resistant S. aureus. Methods We introduced an additional cleaner into two matched wards from Monday to Friday, with each ward receiving enhanced cleaning for six months in a cross-over design. Ten hand-touch sites on both wards were screened weekly using standardised methods and patients were monitored for meticillin-resistant S. aureus infection throughout the year-long study. Patient and environmental meticillin-resistant S. aureus isolates were characterised using molecular methods in order to investigate temporal and clonal relationships. Results Enhanced cleaning was associated with a 32.5% reduction in levels of microbial contamination at hand-touch sites when wards received enhanced cleaning (P < 0.0001: 95% CI 20.2%, 42.9%). Near-patient sites (lockers, overbed tables and beds) were more frequently contaminated with meticillin-resistant S. aureus/S. aureus than sites further from the patient (P = 0.065). Genotyping identified indistinguishable strains from both hand-touch sites and patients. There was a 26.6% reduction in new meticillin-resistant S. aureus infections on the wards receiving extra cleaning, despite higher meticillin-resistant S. aureus patient-days and bed occupancy rates during enhanced cleaning periods (P = 0.032: 95% CI 7.7%, 92.3%). Adjusting for meticillin-resistant S. aureus patient-days and based upon nine new meticillin-resistant S. aureus infections seen during routine cleaning, we expected 13 new infections during enhanced cleaning periods rather than the four that actually occurred. Clusters of new meticillin-resistant S. aureus

  15. Clinical isolates of Pantone-Valentine leucocidin- and gamma-haemolysin-producing Staphylococcus aureus: prevalence and association with clinical infections.

    PubMed

    Mesrati, I; Saïdani, M; Ennigrou, S; Zouari, B; Ben Redjeb, S

    2010-08-01

    Pantone-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) and gAMMA-haemolysin (Hlg) are members of the synergohymenotropic toxin family produced by Staphylococcus aureus and encoded by pvl and hlg genes, respectively. Many reports describe an association between PVL toxin and necrotic lesions involving skin and mucosa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus strains carrying pvl and hlg genes and to investigate a possible relationship between pvl- and hlg-positive S. aureus with specific clinical presentations. Between January 2005 and July 2007, a total of 143 S. aureus strains including 58 meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 85 meticillin-susceptible S. aureus were screened for pvl and hlg genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. These strains were isolated from 141 patients for whom demographic and clinical data were recorded. Thirty-one (21.7%) and 77 (53.7%) isolates were positive for pvl and hlg genes, respectively. Twenty-one (67.7%) pvl-positive strains were MRSA (P = 0.001). Among pvl-positive strains, 16 (51.6%) were community-acquired. There was a strong association between pvl genes and skin and soft tissue infections, especially abscesses (60% of strains; P = 0.008) and furunculosis (55.5% of strains; P = 0.036). Our findings confirmed the association between pvl-positive strains, cutaneous infections and meticillin resistance in S. aureus.

  16. Detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from recreational beach using the mecA gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifli, Aisya; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-09-01

    Water samples were collected in triplicates from three different locations choosen from the recreational beach of Teluk Kemang, Port Dickson as sampling station including main area of recreation activity for the public. Bacteria were isolated from the water and cultured. Out of 286 presumptive Staphylococcus aureus enumerated by using culture method, only 4 (1.4 %) confirmed as Meticillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) based on PCR detection of mecA gene. Interestingly, all of MRSA detections were found at the main area of recreational activity. Our results suggested that public beaches may be reservoir for transmission of MRSA to beach visitors and PCR using the mecA gene is the fastest way to detect this pathogenic bacteria.

  17. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus: bad news and good news from the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net, formerly EARSS), 2002 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Gagliotti, C; Balode, A; Baquero, F; Degener, J; Grundmann, H; Gür, D; Jarlier, V; Kahlmeter, G; Monen, J; Monnet, D L; Rossolini, G M; Suetens, C; Weist, K; Heuer, O

    2011-03-17

    Based on data collected by the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net) and the former EARSS, the present study describes the trends in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and occurrence of invasive infections caused by Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in the period from 2002 to 2009. Antimicrobial susceptibility results from 198 laboratories in 22 European countries reporting continuously on these two microorganisms during the entire study period were included in the analysis. The number of bloodstream infections caused by E. coli increased remarkably by 71% during the study period, while bloodstream infections caused by S. aureus increased by 34%. At the same time, an alarming increase of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli was observed, whereas for S. aureus the proportion of meticillin resistant isolates decreased. The observed trend suggests an increasing burden of disease caused by E. coli. The reduction in the proportion of meticillin-resistant S. aureus and the lesser increase in S. aureus infections, compared with E. coli, may reflect the success of infection control measures at hospital level in several European countries.

  18. Application of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling and simulation for the prediction of target attainment of ceftobiprole against meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using minimum inhibitory concentration and time-kill curve based approaches.

    PubMed

    Barbour, April M; Schmidt, Stephan; Zhuang, Luning; Rand, Kenneth; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to compare two different methods for dose optimisation of antimicrobials. The probability of target attainment (PTA) was calculated using Monte Carlo simulation to predict the PK/PD target of fT>MIC or modelling and simulation of time-kill curve data. Ceftobiprole, the paradigm compound, activity against two MRSA strains was determined, ATCC 33591 (MIC=2mg/L) and a clinical isolate (MIC=1mg/L). A two-subpopulation model accounting for drug degradation during the experiment adequately fit the time-kill curve data (concentration range 0.25-16× MIC). The PTA was calculated for plasma, skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue based on data from a microdialysis study in healthy volunteers. A two-compartment model with distribution factors to account for differences between free serum and tissue interstitial space fluid concentration appropriately fit the pharmacokinetic data. Pharmacodynamic endpoints of fT>MIC of 30% or 40% and 1- or 2-log kill were used. The PTA was >90% in all tissues based on the PK/PD endpoint of fT>MIC >40%. The PTAs based on a 1- or 2-log kill from the time-kill experiments were lower than those calculated based on fT>MIC. The PTA of a 1-log kill was >90% for both MRSA isolates for plasma and skeletal muscle but was slightly below 90% for subcutaneous adipose tissue (both isolates ca. 88%). The results support a dosing regimen of 500mg three times daily as a 2-h intravenous infusion. This dose should be confirmed as additional pharmacokinetic data from various patient populations become available.

  19. Frequencies of resistance to Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and rifampicin in Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Katherine A; Carson, Christine F; Riley, Thomas V

    2008-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the frequencies at which single-step mutants resistant to tea tree oil and rifampicin occurred amongst the Gram-positive organisms Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis. For tea tree oil, resistance frequencies were very low at <10(-9). Single-step mutants resistant to tea tree oil were undetectable at two times the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for S. aureus RN4220 and derivative mutator strains or at 3 x MIC for the remaining S. aureus strains, including a clinical meticillin-resistant S. aureus isolate. Similarly, no mutants were recovered at 2x MIC for S. epidermidis or at 1x MIC for E. faecalis. Resistance frequencies determined in vitro for rifampicin (8 x MIC) ranged from 10(-7) to 10(-8) for all isolates, with the exception of the S. aureus mutator strains, which had slightly higher frequencies. These data suggest that Gram-positive organisms such as Staphylococcus and Enterococcus spp. have very low frequencies of resistance to tea tree oil.

  20. Multidrug-resistant organisms in a routine ward environment: differential propensity for environmental dissemination and implications for infection control.

    PubMed

    Tan, Thean Yen; Tan, Jasmine Shi Min; Tay, Huiyi; Chua, Gek Hong; Ng, Lily Siew Yong; Syahidah, Nur

    2013-05-01

    Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) pose significant infection-control challenges in settings with high prevalence and limited isolation facilities. This observational study in an 800-bed hospital determined the prevalence, bacterial density and genetic relatedness of MDROs isolated from ward surfaces, medical devices and the hands of healthcare professionals. The targeted MDROs were meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and carbapenem-resistant (CR) Acinetobacter baumannii. During a 2-month period, microbiological sampling and molecular typing were performed on environment isolates, clinical isolates and isolates recovered from the hands of healthcare professionals. The target MDROs were recovered from 79% of sampled surfaces, predominantly MRSA (74% of all tested surfaces) and CR A. baumannii (29%) but also VRE (2%) and K. pneumoniae (1%). MRSA was recovered from most tested surfaces throughout the ward, whilst CR A. baumannii was significantly more likely to be recovered from near-patient surfaces. Hand sampling demonstrated infrequent recovery of MRSA (5%), CR A. baumannii (1%) and VRE (1%). Molecular typing of the study isolates identified seven MRSA and five Acinetobacter clonal clusters, respectively, and typing identified similar strains from the environment, patients and hands. Thus, in a healthcare setting with endemic circulation of MDROs, MRSA and CR A. baumannii were the predominant organisms recovered from ward surfaces, with MRSA in particular demonstrating widespread environmental dissemination. Molecular typing demonstrated the presence of related strains in patients, in the environment and on the hands of healthcare workers.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus Recovery From Environmental and Human Locations in 2 Collegiate Athletic Teams

    PubMed Central

    Oller, Anna R.; Province, Larry; Curless, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Staphylococcus aureus is spread via direct contact with persons and indirect contact via environmental surfaces such as weight benches. Athletes participating in direct-contact sports have an increased risk of acquiring S aureus infections. Objective: To determine (1) potential environmental reservoirs of S aureus in football and wrestling locker rooms and weight rooms, (2) environmental bacterial status after employing more stringent cleaning methods, (3) differences in colonization rates between athletes and nonathletes, (4) exposed body locations where Staphylococcus was recovered more frequently, and (5) personal hygiene practices of athletes and nonathletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Locker room and strengthening and conditioning facilities at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II university. Patients or Other Participants: Collegiate football players and wrestlers, with nonathlete campus residents serving as the control group. Intervention(s): Infection control methods, education of the custodial staff, and education of the athletes regarding the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for infection prevention. Main Outcome Measure(s): Cultures were taken from the participants' noses, fingertips, knuckles, forearms, and shoes and from the environment. Results: Before the intervention, from the 108 environmental samples taken from the football locker room and weight room, 26 (24%) contained methicillin-susceptible S aureus (MSSA) and 33 (31%) contained methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA). From the 39 environmental samples taken from the wrestling locker room and pit areas, 1 (3%) contained MSSA and 4 (10%) contained MRSA. The MRSA rates were different between the 2 locations according to a χ2 test (P  =  .01). Seven MRSA isolates were recovered from football players and 1 from a wrestler; no MRSA isolates were recovered from the control group. The fingertip location of S aureus recovery from

  2. Staphylococcus aureus recovery from environmental and human locations in 2 collegiate athletic teams.

    PubMed

    Oller, Anna R; Province, Larry; Curless, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is spread via direct contact with persons and indirect contact via environmental surfaces such as weight benches. Athletes participating in direct-contact sports have an increased risk of acquiring S aureus infections. To determine (1) potential environmental reservoirs of S aureus in football and wrestling locker rooms and weight rooms, (2) environmental bacterial status after employing more stringent cleaning methods, (3) differences in colonization rates between athletes and nonathletes, (4) exposed body locations where Staphylococcus was recovered more frequently, and (5) personal hygiene practices of athletes and nonathletes. Cross-sectional study. Locker room and strengthening and conditioning facilities at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II university. Collegiate football players and wrestlers, with nonathlete campus residents serving as the control group. Infection control methods, education of the custodial staff, and education of the athletes regarding the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for infection prevention. Cultures were taken from the participants' noses, fingertips, knuckles, forearms, and shoes and from the environment. Before the intervention, from the 108 environmental samples taken from the football locker room and weight room, 26 (24%) contained methicillin-susceptible S aureus (MSSA) and 33 (31%) contained methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA). From the 39 environmental samples taken from the wrestling locker room and pit areas, 1 (3%) contained MSSA and 4 (10%) contained MRSA. The MRSA rates were different between the 2 locations according to a chi(2) test (P = .01). Seven MRSA isolates were recovered from football players and 1 from a wrestler; no MRSA isolates were recovered from the control group. The fingertip location of S aureus recovery from football players was significant when compared with both other locations in football players and fingertips in wrestlers and the

  3. Detection and characterization of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus isolates in Canada: results from the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program, 1995-2006.

    PubMed

    Adam, Heather J; Louie, Lisa; Watt, Christine; Gravel, Denise; Bryce, Elizabeth; Loeb, Mark; Matlow, Anne; McGeer, Allison; Mulvey, Michael R; Simor, Andrew E

    2010-02-01

    We describe the epidemiology of heterogeneously resistant Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) identified in Canadian hospitals between 1995 and 2006. hVISA isolates were confirmed by the population analysis profiling-area under the curve method. Only 25 hVISA isolates (1.3% of all isolates) were detected. hVISA isolates were more likely to have been health care associated (odds ratio [OR], 5.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9 to 14.2) and to have been recovered from patients hospitalized in central Canada (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.2 to 7.4). There has been no evidence of vancomycin "MIC creep" in Canadian strains of methicillin (meticillin)-resistant S. aureus, and hVISA strains are currently uncommon.

  4. Activity of telavancin and comparator antimicrobial agents tested against Staphylococcus spp. isolated from hospitalised patients in Europe (2007-2008).

    PubMed

    Mendes, Rodrigo E; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

    2010-10-01

    The activity of telavancin was evaluated against Staphylococcus spp. collected from European hospitals as part of an international surveillance study (2007-2008). A total of 7534 staphylococcal clinical isolates [5726 Staphylococcus aureus and 1808 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS)] were included. Isolates were tested for susceptibility according to reference methods and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were interpreted based on Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2010 and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) 2009 criteria. Telavancin breakpoints approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were applied. Telavancin activity was evaluated against meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) displaying several antibiogram resistance patterns, including multidrug-resistant isolates. Telavancin was active against S. aureus [MIC(50/90) values (MICs for 50% and 90% of the isolates, respectively)=0.12/0.25mg/L; 100.0% susceptible] and CoNS (MIC(50/90)=0.12/0.25mg/L), inhibiting all isolates at < or =0.5mg/L. Similar results were observed when S. aureus were stratified by year or country of origin (MIC(50/90)=0.12/0.25mg/L). When MRSA isolates were clustered according to 48 different resistance patterns, telavancin showed consistent MIC(90) values (0.25mg/L) regardless of multidrug resistance. Amongst CoNS, telavancin was slightly more active against Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis and Staphylococcus xylosus (MIC(50)=0.12 mg/L) compared with Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Staphylococcus warneri (MIC(50)=0.25mg/L). Overall, telavancin exhibited MIC(90) results two- to eight-fold lower than comparators (daptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, vancomycin and linezolid). Based upon MIC(90) values, telavancin demonstrated potent in vitro activity against a contemporary (2007-2008) collection of Staphylococcus spp

  5. Environmental contamination as a risk factor for intra-household Staphylococcus aureus transmission.

    PubMed

    Knox, Justin; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Miller, Maureen; Hafer, Cory; Vasquez, Glenny; Vavagiakis, Peter; Shi, Qiuhu; Lowy, Franklin D

    2012-01-01

    The household is a recognized community reservoir for Staphylococcus aureus. This study investigated potential risk factors for intra-household S. aureus transmission, including the contribution of environmental contamination. We investigated intra-household S. aureus transmission using a sample of multiple member households from a community-based case-control study examining risk factors for CA-MRSA infection conducted in Northern Manhattan. During a home visit, index subjects completed a questionnaire. All consenting household members were swabbed, as were standardized environmental household items. Swabs were cultured for S. aureus. Positive isolates underwent further molecular characterization. Intra-household transmission was defined as having identical strains among two or more household members. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for transmission. We enrolled 291 households: 146 index cases, 145 index controls and 687 of their household contacts. The majority of indexes were Hispanic (85%), low income (74%), and female (67%), with a mean age of 31 (range 1-79). The average size of case and control households was 4 people. S. aureus colonized individuals in 62% of households and contaminated the environment in 54% of households. USA300 was the predominant clinical infection, colonizing and environmental strain. Eighty-one households had evidence of intra-household transmission: 55 (38%) case and 26 (18%) control households (P<.01). Environmental contamination with a colonizing or clinical infection strain (aOR: 5.4 [2.9-10.3] P<.01) and the presence of a child under 5 (aOR: 2.3 [1.2-4.5] P = .02) were independently associated with transmission. In separate multivariable models, environmental contamination was associated with transmission among case (aOR 3.3, p<.01) and control households (aOR 27.2, p<.01). Environmental contamination with a colonizing or clinical infection strain was significantly and independently

  6. Role of Environmental and Antibiotic Stress on Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm Microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Elizabeth J.; Satorius, Ashley E.; Younger, John G.; Solomon, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular clustering and separation of Staphylococcus epidermidis surface adherent biofilms were found to depend significantly on both antibiotic and environmental stress present during growth under steady flow. Image analysis techniques common to colloidal science were applied to image volumes acquired with high-resolution confocal laser scanning microscopy to extract spatial positions of individual bacteria in volumes of size ~30 × 30 × 15 μm3. The local number density, cluster distribution, and radial distribution function were determined at each condition by analyzing the statistics of the bacterial spatial positions. Environmental stressors of high osmotic pressure (776 mM NaCl) and sublethal antibiotic dose (1.9 μg/mL vancomycin) decreased the average bacterial local number density 10-fold. Device-associated bacterial biofilms are frequently exposed to these environmental and antibiotic stressors while undergoing flow in the bloodstream. Characteristic density phenotypes associated with low, medium, and high local number densities were identified in unstressed S. epidermidis biofilms, while stressed biofilms contained medium- and low-density phenotypes. All biofilms exhibited clustering at length scales commensurate with cell division (~1.0 μm). However, density phenotypes differed in cellular connectivity at the scale of ~6 μm. On this scale, nearly all cells in the high- and medium-density phenotypes were connected into a single cluster with a structure characteristic of a densely packed disordered fluid. However, in the low-density phenotype, the number of clusters was greater, equal to 4% of the total number of cells, and structures were fractal in nature with df =1.7 ± 0.1. The work advances the understanding of biofilm growth, informs the development of predictive models of transport and mechanical properties of biofilms, and provides a method for quantifying the kinetics of bacterial surface colonization as well as biofilm fracture and

  7. Role of environmental and antibiotic stress on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm microstructure.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Elizabeth J; Satorius, Ashley E; Younger, John G; Solomon, Michael J

    2013-06-11

    Cellular clustering and separation of Staphylococcus epidermidis surface adherent biofilms were found to depend significantly on both antibiotic and environmental stress present during growth under steady flow. Image analysis techniques common to colloidal science were applied to image volumes acquired with high-resolution confocal laser scanning microscopy to extract spatial positions of individual bacteria in volumes of size ~30 × 30 × 15 μm(3). The local number density, cluster distribution, and radial distribution function were determined at each condition by analyzing the statistics of the bacterial spatial positions. Environmental stressors of high osmotic pressure (776 mM NaCl) and sublethal antibiotic dose (1.9 μg/mL vancomycin) decreased the average bacterial local number density 10-fold. Device-associated bacterial biofilms are frequently exposed to these environmental and antibiotic stressors while undergoing flow in the bloodstream. Characteristic density phenotypes associated with low, medium, and high local number densities were identified in unstressed S. epidermidis biofilms, while stressed biofilms contained medium- and low-density phenotypes. All biofilms exhibited clustering at length scales commensurate with cell division (~1.0 μm). However, density phenotypes differed in cellular connectivity at the scale of ~6 μm. On this scale, nearly all cells in the high- and medium-density phenotypes were connected into a single cluster with a structure characteristic of a densely packed disordered fluid. However, in the low-density phenotype, the number of clusters was greater, equal to 4% of the total number of cells, and structures were fractal in nature with d(f) =1.7 ± 0.1. The work advances the understanding of biofilm growth, informs the development of predictive models of transport and mechanical properties of biofilms, and provides a method for quantifying the kinetics of bacterial surface colonization as well as biofilm fracture and

  8. Environmental contamination with Staphylococcus aureus at a large, Midwestern university campus.

    PubMed

    Thapaliya, Dipendra; Taha, Mohammed; Dalman, Mark R; Kadariya, Jhalka; Smith, Tara C

    2017-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can cause minor to severe life-threatening infections. The changing epidemiology of S. aureus is of public health concern due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains. Environmental surfaces play a crucial role in the transmission of S. aureus. The objective of this study was to examine environmental contamination and molecular characteristics of S. aureus in health professional-associated (HPA) and non-health professional-associated (NHPA) buildings at a large university. A total of 152 environmental surface samples were collected from two HPA and two NHPA campus buildings. Bacterial culture and diagnostics were done using standard microbiology methods. Polymerase chain reaction was conducted to detect mecA and PVL genes. All isolates were spa typed. A subset of isolates was characterized via multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). All S. aureus isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. The overall contamination of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was 22.4% (34/152) and 5.9% (9/152) respectively. Similar prevalence of contamination was found in HPA and NHPA buildings. A total of 17 different spa types were detected among 34 S. aureus isolates. The majority of the MRSA isolates belonged to clonal complex (CC) 8. One isolate was positive for PVL. Eleven different sequence types (STs) were detected from 17 tested isolates. ST8 was the most common. Twelve isolates (35.3%) were MDR. Almost 27% (9/34) of the isolates were MRSA. The highest contamination of S. aureus was found in high hand-touch areas such as door knobs, suggesting that human interaction in crowded environments such as academic institutions plays a crucial role in S. aureus/MRSA transmission via inanimate objects. Additionally, more than one-third of the isolates were MDR. These data reinforce the need to implement effective prevention strategies outside the healthcare setting to decrease the incidence of drug-resistant S. aureus infections

  9. In-vitro activity of polyhexanide alone and in combination with antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Fabry, W; Kock, H-J

    2014-01-01

    The resistance of Staphylococcus aureus is increasing, not only to antibiotics but also to antiseptics. To investigate the activity of the antiseptic polyhexanide and several antibiotics against clinical isolates of meticillin-susceptible and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA, respectively). Polyhexanide was tested alone and in combination with oxacillin, penicillin G, ampicillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, imipenem, gentamicin, erythromycin, doxycycline, levoflocaxin, linezolid and vancomycin. Fifty MSSA and 50 MRSA strains, including one vancomycin-intermediate (VISA) strain, were tested. All strains were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to exclude testing of clonal isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined using the serial broth microdilution technique according to DIN 58940. Combinations of polyhexanide and different antibiotics were investigated using the checkerboard technique. Polyhexanide MICs and MBCs in the range of 0.5-2mg/L were found for both MSSA and MRSA, and the VISA strain had MIC and MBC values of 2mg/L. All isolates were regarded as susceptible to polyhexanide, and no antagonism was observed between polyhexanide and the tested antibiotics. Synergism between polyhexanide and some bacteriostatic antibiotics (erythromycin, doxycycline and linezolid) was found for some strains. Polyhexanide appears to be suitable for the topical treatment of S. aureus alone and in combination with antibiotics. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Ureolytic Environmental Isolate Staphylococcus sp. NA309

    PubMed Central

    Gaiero, Jonathan R.; Hsiang, Tom; Nicol, Rob W.

    2016-01-01

    We report the 2.7 Mb draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus sp. NA309 isolated from poultry litter. The isolate was a dominant member of the cultivable aerobic bacteria identified to have ureolytic activity, responsible for ammonia generation in poultry litter residue. PMID:27795244

  11. Increasing antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius group bacteria and emergence of MRSP in the UK.

    PubMed

    Beever, L; Bond, R; Graham, P A; Jackson, B; Lloyd, D H; Loeffler, A

    2015-02-14

    Frequencies of antimicrobial resistance were determined amongst 14,555 clinical Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) isolates from UK dogs and cats to estimate resistance trends and quantify the occurrence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). Reports from two diagnostic laboratories (13,313 general submissions, 1242 referral centre only submissions) were analysed retrospectively (2003/2006-2012). MRSP were defined by phenotypic resistance to meticillin and concurrent broad β-lactam resistance; a subset was confirmed genetically (SIG-specific nuc and mecA). Trends were analysed by Cochran-Armitage test. Resistance remained below 10 per cent for cefalexin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and the fluoroquinolones. Increasing resistance trends were seen in both laboratories for ampicillin/amoxicillin (both P<0.001), cefovecin (both P<0.046) and enrofloxacin (both P<0.02). Resistance to cefalexin increased over time in referral hospital isolates (P<0.001) to clindamycin (P=0.01) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (P=0.001) amongst general laboratory submissions. Overall, 106 MRSP were isolated (0.7 per cent of submissions) including 32 (2.6 per cent of submissions, all genetically confirmed) from the referral centre population (inter-laboratory difference P<0.001). Against a background of widely susceptible SIG isolates, a new trend of increasing resistance to important antimicrobials was identified overtime and the emergence of MRSP from UK clinical cases was confirmed. Attention to responsible use of antibacterial therapy in small animal practice is urgently needed.

  12. Nasal self-swabbing for estimating the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in the community.

    PubMed

    Gamblin, Jenny; Jefferies, Johanna M; Harris, Scott; Ahmad, Nusreen; Marsh, Peter; Faust, Saul N; Fraser, Simon; Moore, Michael; Roderick, Paul; Blair, Iain; Clarke, Stuart C

    2013-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and, therefore, a burden on healthcare systems. Our aim was to estimate the current rate of nasal S. aureus carriage in the general population and to determine the feasibility of nasal self-swabbing as a means of detection. Two thousand people (1200 adults and 800 children) from a single NHS general practice in Southampton, UK, were randomly selected from a general practice age sex register, stratified by age and sex, and invited to undertake nasal self-swabbing in their own home. Overall, 362 (32.5%) swabs from adults and 168 (22%) from children were returned. Responses were greater for adults and those of increased age, female gender and decreasing socio-economic deprivation. The overall estimated practice carriage rate of S. aureus directly standardized for age sex was 28% [95% confidence interval (CI) 26.1-30.2%]. Carriage of meticillin-susceptible S. aureus was 27% (95% CI 26.1-30.2%), whilst that of meticillin-resistant S. aureus was 1.9% (95% CI 0.7-3.1%). Although nasal self-swabbing rates were relatively low, they are comparable to other studies and may allow large population-based carriage studies to be undertaken at relatively low cost. Importantly, this study updates prevalence data for S. aureus carriage in the community.

  13. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus screening by online immunometric monitoring of bacterial growth under selective pressure.

    PubMed

    Stenholm, Teppo; Hakanen, Antti J; Vaarno, Jonne; Pihlasalo, Sari; Terho, Perttu; Hänninen, Pekka E; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Huovinen, Pentti; Kotilainen, Pirkko

    2009-12-01

    Rapid, high-throughput screening tools are needed to contain the spread of hospital-acquired methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. Most techniques used in current clinical practice still require time-consuming culture for primary isolation of the microbe. We present a new phenotypic assay for MRSA screening. The technique employs a two-photon excited fluorescence (TPX) detection technology with S. aureus-specific antibodies that allows the online monitoring of bacterial growth in a single separation-free process. Different progressions of fluorescence signals are recorded for methicillin-susceptible and -resistant strains when the growth of S. aureus is monitored in the presence of cefoxitin. The performance of the new technique was evaluated with 20 MRSA strains, 6 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains, and 7 coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains and two different monoclonal S. aureus-specific antibodies. When either of these antibodies was used, the sensitivity and the specificity of the TPX assay were 100%. All strains were correctly classified within 8 to 12 h, and up to 70 samples were simultaneously analyzed on a single 96-well microtiter plate. As a phenotypic method, the TPX assay is suited for screening purposes. The final definition of methicillin resistance in any S. aureus strain should be based on the presence of the mecA gene. The main benefit afforded by the initial use of the TPX methodology lies in its low cost and applicability to high-throughput analysis.

  14. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Screening by Online Immunometric Monitoring of Bacterial Growth under Selective Pressure▿

    PubMed Central

    Stenholm, Teppo; Hakanen, Antti J.; Vaarno, Jonne; Pihlasalo, Sari; Terho, Perttu; Hänninen, Pekka E.; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Huovinen, Pentti; Kotilainen, Pirkko

    2009-01-01

    Rapid, high-throughput screening tools are needed to contain the spread of hospital-acquired methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. Most techniques used in current clinical practice still require time-consuming culture for primary isolation of the microbe. We present a new phenotypic assay for MRSA screening. The technique employs a two-photon excited fluorescence (TPX) detection technology with S. aureus-specific antibodies that allows the online monitoring of bacterial growth in a single separation-free process. Different progressions of fluorescence signals are recorded for methicillin-susceptible and -resistant strains when the growth of S. aureus is monitored in the presence of cefoxitin. The performance of the new technique was evaluated with 20 MRSA strains, 6 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains, and 7 coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains and two different monoclonal S. aureus-specific antibodies. When either of these antibodies was used, the sensitivity and the specificity of the TPX assay were 100%. All strains were correctly classified within 8 to 12 h, and up to 70 samples were simultaneously analyzed on a single 96-well microtiter plate. As a phenotypic method, the TPX assay is suited for screening purposes. The final definition of methicillin resistance in any S. aureus strain should be based on the presence of the mecA gene. The main benefit afforded by the initial use of the TPX methodology lies in its low cost and applicability to high-throughput analysis. PMID:19752281

  15. Antibacterial activity of diacetylcurcumin against Staphylococcus aureus results in decreased biofilm and cellular adhesion.

    PubMed

    Sardi, Janaina de Cássia Orlandi; Polaquini, Carlos Roberto; Freires, Irlan Almeida; Galvão, Livia Câmara de Carvalho; Lazarini, Josy Goldoni; Torrezan, Guilherme Silva; Regasini, Luis Octávio; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2017-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections have contributed to the global healthcare burden, particularly with regard to hospital-acquired meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections. This study describes the antibacterial activity of diacetylcurcumin (DAC) against meticillin-susceptible S. aureus/MRSA biofilm formation, survival, metabolic activity and structure; its ability to prevent bacterial adhesion to human cells; and toxicity in Galleria mellonella larvae. DAC showed excellent antibacterial activity, with MIC ranging between 17.3 and 34.6 µmol l-1, and minimum bactericidal concentration ranging between 69 and 277 µmol l-1. It significantly reduced bacterial biofilm survival - by 22-63 % (at MIC, 10×MIC or 100×MIC) as compared to the 25-42 % reduction by vancomycin (P<0.0001) - and severely affected biofilm cell structures, leading to damaged architecture and the formation of amorphous cell clusters. Treatment with DAC (MIC/4) decreased bacterial adhesion to HaCaT keratinocytes from 1 to 5 h (P<0.0001). Finally, DAC demonstrated low toxicity in G. mellonella at its effective anti-biofilm concentrations. These findings open new avenues for the study of this curcumin derivative as an excellent prototype with anti-MRSA activity.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus and surgical site infections: benefits of screening and decolonization before surgery.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, H; Becker, K; Dohmen, P M; Petrosillo, N; Spencer, M; van Rijen, M; Wechsler-Fördös, A; Pujol, M; Dubouix, A; Garau, J

    2016-11-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are among the most common healthcare-associated infections, and contribute significantly to patient morbidity and healthcare costs. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common microbial cause. The epidemiology of S. aureus is changing with the dissemination of newer clones and the emergence of mupirocin resistance. The prevention and control of SSIs is multi-modal, and this article reviews the evidence on the value of screening for nasal carriage of S. aureus and subsequent decolonization of positive patients pre-operatively. Pre-operative screening, using culture- or molecular-based methods, and subsequent decolonization of patients who are positive for meticillin-susceptible S. aureus and meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) reduces SSIs and hospital stay. This applies especially to major clean surgery, such as cardiothoracic and orthopaedic, involving the insertion of implanted devices. However, it requires a multi-disciplinary approach coupled with patient education. Universal decolonization pre-operatively without screening for S. aureus may compromise the capacity to monitor for the emergence of new clones of S. aureus, contribute to mupirocin resistance, and prevent the adjustment of surgical prophylaxis for MRSA (i.e. replacement of a beta-lactam agent with a glycopeptide or alternative).

  17. Environmental Contamination in the Home and Risk of Recurrent Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Justin; Sullivan, Sean B.; Urena, Julia; Miller, Maureen; Vavagiakis, Peter; Shi, Qiuhu; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Lowy, Franklin D.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Recently, it has been debated whether environmental contamination plays an important role in recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infections within households and thus requires different intervention strategies to prevent recurrent infections. Objective To assess whether household environmental contamination increases the risk of recurrent infection among subjects with a community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection. Design A cohort study was conducted between November 2011 and June 2014. Participants were followed for 6 months. Participants’ exposure status remained blind throughout the study. Setting The Columbia University Medical Center catchment area. Participants All patients within 72 hours of presentation with positive MRSA cultures from skin and soft tissue infections, blood, urine or sputum specimens were identified. Two hundred sixty-two patients met study inclusion criteria and were recruited, 83 (32%) agreed to participate along with 214 household members. The majority of index cases were Hispanic and female. Sixty-two (75%) households completed follow-up. Intervention(s) for Clinical Trials or Exposure(s) for observational studies Concordant environmental contamination, defined as having an isolate with the identical spa and SCCmec type or antibiotype as the index patient’s clinical isolate, present on one or more environmental surfaces at the time of a home visit to the index after infection. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s) Index recurrent infection, defined as any self-reported infection among the index during follow-up. Results Most (80%) MRSA infections were due to the epidemic strain USA300. Thirty-five (43%) indexes reported a recurrent infection during follow-up; 13 (65%) from the 20 households with environmental contamination and 21 (34%) from the 62 households without (p=.02). The clinical isolate was present in the environment in 20 (24%) households and not found in 62 (76%) households. A significant minority

  18. Impact of food-related environmental factors on the adherence and biofilm formation of natural Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Habimana, Olivier; Holck, Askild

    2013-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogenic bacterium capable of developing biofilms on food-processing surfaces, a pathway leading to cross contamination of foods. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of environmental stress factors found during seafood production on the adhesion and biofilm-forming properties of S. aureus. Adhesion and biofilm assays were performed on 26 S. aureus isolated from seafood and two S. aureus reference strains (ATCC 6538 and ATCC 43300). Cell surface properties were evaluated by affinity measurements to solvents in a partitioning test, while adhesion and biofilm assays were performed in polystyrene microplates under different stress conditions of temperature, osmolarity, and nutrient content. The expression of genes implicated in the regulation of biofilm formation (icaA, rbf and σ( B )) was analyzed by reverse transcription and quantitative real time PCR. In general, S. aureus isolates showed moderate hydrophobic properties and a marked Lewis-base character. Initial adhesion to polystyrene was positively correlated with the ionic strength of the growth medium. Most of the strains had a higher biofilm production at 37 °C than at 25 °C, promoted by the addition of glucose, whereas NaCl and MgCl(2) had a lower impact markedly affected by incubation temperatures. Principal Component Analysis revealed a considerable variability in adhesion and biofilm-forming properties between S. aureus isolates. Transcriptional analysis also indicated variations in gene expression between three characteristic isolates under different environmental conditions. These results suggested that the prevalence of S. aureus strains on food-processing surfaces is above all conditioned by the ability to adapt to the environmental stress conditions present during food production. These findings are relevant for food safety and may be of importance when choosing the safest environmental conditions and material during processing, packaging, and

  19. Environmental fatty acids enable emergence of infectious Staphylococcus aureus resistant to FASII-targeted antimicrobials

    PubMed Central

    Morvan, Claire; Halpern, David; Kénanian, Gérald; Hays, Constantin; Anba-Mondoloni, Jamila; Brinster, Sophie; Kennedy, Sean; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Poyart, Claire; Lamberet, Gilles; Gloux, Karine; Gruss, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial pathway for fatty acid biosynthesis, FASII, is a target for development of new anti-staphylococcal drugs. This strategy is based on previous reports indicating that self-synthesized fatty acids appear to be indispensable for Staphylococcus aureus growth and virulence, although other bacteria can use exogenous fatty acids to compensate FASII inhibition. Here we report that staphylococci can become resistant to the FASII-targeted inhibitor triclosan via high frequency mutations in fabD, one of the FASII genes. The fabD mutants can be conditional for FASII and not require exogenous fatty acids for normal growth, and can use diverse fatty acid combinations (including host fatty acids) when FASII is blocked. These mutants show cross-resistance to inhibitors of other FASII enzymes and are infectious in mice. Clinical isolates bearing fabD polymorphisms also bypass FASII inhibition. We propose that fatty acid-rich environments within the host, in the presence of FASII inhibitors, might favour the emergence of staphylococcal strains displaying resistance to multiple FASII inhibitors. PMID:27703138

  20. Environmental Stress Affects the Formation of Staphylococcus aureus Persisters Tolerant to Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Kubistova, Lucie; Dvoracek, Lukas; Tkadlec, Jan; Melter, Oto; Licha, Irena

    2017-08-16

    The ability to form persisters has been observed in many microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, mainly in the context of chronic infections and the pathogenicity of these microbes. In our research, we have demonstrated that salt or oxidative stress could play a role in the formation of S. aureus persisters outside the host's intracellular interface. We pre-exposed planktonic growing bacterial culture to an oxidative or salt stress and monitored the dynamics of persister formation after ciprofloxacin and gentamicin treatment. In parallel, using the quantitative PCR (qPCR) approach, we determined the expression level of the stress sigma factor SigB. The pre-exposure of bacteria to salt stress caused a 1-2.5 order of magnitude increase in persister formation in the bacterial population after antibiotic exposure, depending on the type and concentration of the antibiotic used. In contrast, oxidative stress only minimally influenced the formation of persisters, without correlation to the antibiotic type and concentration. We have demonstrated that both stress and antibiotic exposure increase the expression of sigB in bacterial populations from very early on. And that the expression level of sigB differs with the type of antibiotic and stress, but no correlation was observed between persister formation and sigB expression. The method used could be helpful in testing the ability that strains can have, to form persisters.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus Contamination of Environmental Surfaces in Households with Children Infected with Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Stephanie A.; Hogan, Patrick G.; Singh, Lauren N.; Thompson, Ryley M.; Wallace, Meghan A.; Whitney, Krista; Al-Zubeidi, Duha; Burnham, Carey-Ann D.; Fraser, Victoria J.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Household environmental surfaces may serve as vectors for acquisition and spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among household members, though few studies have evaluated which objects are important MRSA reservoirs. OBJECTIVES Determine the prevalence of environmental MRSA contamination in households of children with MRSA infection; define the molecular epidemiology of environmental, pet, and human MRSA strains within households; and identify factors associated with household MRSA contamination. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Fifty households of children with active or recent culture-positive community-associated MRSA infection were enrolled from 2012–13 at St. Louis Children’s Hospital and community pediatric practices affiliated with the Washington University Pediatric and Adolescent Ambulatory Research Consortium. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Participants’ nares, axillae, and inguinal folds were cultured to detect S. aureus colonization. Twenty-one environmental surfaces and pet dogs and cats were cultured. Molecular typing of S. aureus strains was performed by repetitive-sequence polymerase chain reaction to determine strain relatedness within households. RESULTS MRSA was recovered from environmental surfaces in 23 (46%) households, most frequently from the participant’s bed linens (18%), television remote control (16%), and bathroom hand towel (15%). MRSA colonized 12% of dogs and 7% of cats. At least 1 surface was contaminated with a strain type matching the participant’s isolate in 20 (40%) households. Participants colonized with S. aureus had a higher proportion of MRSA-contaminated surfaces (0.15 ± 0.17) than non-colonized participants [0.03± 0.06; mean difference 0.12 (95% CI 0.05, 0.20)]. A greater number of individuals per 1000 ft2 was also associated with a higher proportion of MRSA-contaminated surfaces (β=0.34, p=0.03). The frequency of cleaning household surfaces was not associated with S. aureus

  2. Environmental methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a veterinary teaching hospital during a nonoutbreak period.

    PubMed

    Hoet, Armando E; Johnson, Amanda; Nava-Hoet, Rocio C; Bateman, Shane; Hillier, Andrew; Dyce, John; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Wittum, Thomas E

    2011-06-01

    Concurrent to reports of zoonotic and nosocomial transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in veterinary settings, recent evidence indicates that the environment in veterinary hospitals may be a potential source of MRSA. The present report is a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of MRSA on specific human and animal contact surfaces at a large veterinary hospital during a nonoutbreak period. A total of 156 samples were collected using Swiffers(®) or premoistened swabs from the small animal, equine, and food animal sections. MRSA was isolated and identified by pre-enrichment culture and standard microbiology procedures, including growth on Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with NaCl and oxacillin, and by detection of the mecA gene. Staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile were also determined. MRSA was detected in 12% (19/157) of the hospital environments sampled. The prevalence of MRSA in the small animal, equine, and food animal areas were 16%, 4%, and 0%, respectively. Sixteen of the MRSA isolates from the small animal section were classified as USA100, SCCmec type II, two of which had pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern that does not conform to any known type. The one isolate obtained from the equine section was classified as USA500, SCCmec type IV. The molecular epidemiological analysis revealed a very diverse population of MRSA isolates circulating in the hospital; however, in some instances, multiple locations/surfaces, not directly associated, had the same MRSA clone. No significant difference was observed between animal and human contact surfaces in regard to prevalence and type of isolates. Surfaces touched by multiple people (doors) and patients (carts) were frequently contaminated with MRSA. The results from this study indicate that MRSA is present in the environment even during nonoutbreak periods. This study also identified specific surfaces in a

  3. Environmental Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Veterinary Teaching Hospital During a Nonoutbreak Period

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Amanda; Nava-Hoet, Rocio C.; Bateman, Shane; Hillier, Andrew; Dyce, John; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Wittum, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Concurrent to reports of zoonotic and nosocomial transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in veterinary settings, recent evidence indicates that the environment in veterinary hospitals may be a potential source of MRSA. The present report is a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of MRSA on specific human and animal contact surfaces at a large veterinary hospital during a nonoutbreak period. A total of 156 samples were collected using Swiffers® or premoistened swabs from the small animal, equine, and food animal sections. MRSA was isolated and identified by pre-enrichment culture and standard microbiology procedures, including growth on Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with NaCl and oxacillin, and by detection of the mecA gene. Staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile were also determined. MRSA was detected in 12% (19/157) of the hospital environments sampled. The prevalence of MRSA in the small animal, equine, and food animal areas were 16%, 4%, and 0%, respectively. Sixteen of the MRSA isolates from the small animal section were classified as USA100, SCCmec type II, two of which had pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern that does not conform to any known type. The one isolate obtained from the equine section was classified as USA500, SCCmec type IV. The molecular epidemiological analysis revealed a very diverse population of MRSA isolates circulating in the hospital; however, in some instances, multiple locations/surfaces, not directly associated, had the same MRSA clone. No significant difference was observed between animal and human contact surfaces in regard to prevalence and type of isolates. Surfaces touched by multiple people (doors) and patients (carts) were frequently contaminated with MRSA. The results from this study indicate that MRSA is present in the environment even during nonoutbreak periods. This study also identified specific surfaces in

  4. Development of stress resistance in Staphylococcus aureus after exposure to sublethal environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Cebrián, G; Sagarzazu, N; Pagán, R; Condón, S; Mañas, P

    2010-05-30

    The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to develop stress resistance responses was investigated. Exponential growth phase cells of S. aureus CECT 4459 were exposed to sublethal conditions (acid and alkaline pH, hydrogen peroxide, and heat) and then the acquisition of resistance to acid (pH 2.5), alkali (pH 12.0), hydrogen peroxide (50mM), and heat (58 degrees C) was determined. Conditions resulting in the maximum development of homologous resistance (tolerance to the same stress), while preventing lethal effects in the population, were pH 4.5 (2h), pH 9.5 (30 min), 0.05 mM H(2)O(2) (30 min), and 45 degrees C (2h). Under these adaptation conditions, times for the first decimal reduction (TFDC) to a lethal treatment at acid pH, alkaline pH, hydrogen peroxide, and heat were increased by a factor of 1.6, 2, 2, and 6, respectively. The presence of chloramphenicol or rifampicin in the adaptation medium completely abolished the increase in homologous resistance to acid pH and to hydrogen peroxide. By contrast, the development of homologous resistance to alkaline pH resulted independently of the presence of either chloramphenicol or rifampicin. S. aureus heat resistance increased in the presence of the inhibitors during the heat shock, but only partially. In some cases, the exposure to a given stress induced cross-protection against other agents. Protective combinations of sublethal stress and lethal agents were: acid pH-heat, acid pH-hydrogen peroxide, alkaline pH-hydrogen peroxide, heat-acid pH, and heat-hydrogen peroxide. These combinations of agents applied sequentially should be avoided in food-processing environments.

  5. Characterisation of a Staphylococcus aureus strain with progressive loss of susceptibility to vancomycin and daptomycin during therapy✰

    PubMed Central

    Tenover, Fred C.; Sinner, Scott W.; Segal, Robert E.; Huang, Vanthida; Alexandre, Shandline S.; McGowan, John E.; Weinstein, Melvin P.

    2009-01-01

    Following an initial response to vancomycin therapy, a patient with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia developed endocarditis, failed a second course of vancomycin and then failed daptomycin therapy. An increase in the vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations of four consecutive MRSA blood isolates from 2 μg/mL to 8 μg/mL was shown by Etest. Population analysis of four successive blood culture isolates recovered over the 10-week period showed that the MRSA strain became progressively less susceptible to both vancomycin and daptomycin. Retrospectively, the macro Etest method using teicoplanin indicated a decrease in vancomycin susceptibility in the second blood isolate. The patient improved after treatment with various courses of trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid. Early detection of vancomycin-heteroresistant S. aureus isolates, which appeared to have clinical significance in this case, continues to be a challenge for the clinical laboratory. Development of suitable practical methods for this should be given priority. Concurrent development of resistance to vancomycin and daptomycin, whilst rare, must be considered in a patient who is unresponsive to daptomycin following vancomycin therapy. PMID:19233622

  6. The effectiveness of three home products in cleaning and disinfection of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli on home environmental surfaces.

    PubMed

    Goodyear, N; Brouillette, N; Tenaglia, K; Gore, R; Marshall, J

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate three products for: (i) cleaning effectiveness on two common household surfaces, and (ii) disinfection effectiveness against two common bacteria. Products included conventional ('bleach'), environmentally preferable (EP), do-it-yourself (DIY: distilled white vinegar, club soda, tea tree oil), 24-h old DIY, and individual DIY components in dilution. For cleaning ceramic, no product was effective (≥85% removal of Hucker's soil), however, DIY performed better than EP and bleach. On stainless, only DIY failed to meet the standard. For disinfection, bleach and EP achieved ≥5·00 log10 reductions under all conditions. DIY and components were more active against Escherichia coli than Staphylococcus aureus but only fresh DIY and 50% vinegar achieved ≥5·00 log10 reductions. EP is an effective alternative to bleach. DIY may be an adequate alternative for cleaning ceramic and for household use, where complete elimination of micro-organisms is unnecessary; however, it must be freshly prepared each day. This is the first report of performance of purportedly safer alternatives for both cleaning and disinfection for use in home health care. The EP product and DIY are potential alternatives for some household uses. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Large tandem chromosome expansions facilitate niche adaptation during persistent infection with drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Monk, Ian R.; Tobias, Nicholas J.; Gladman, Simon L.; Seemann, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    We used genomics to study the evolution of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) during a complex, protracted clinical infection. Preparing closed MRSA genomes from days 0 and 115 allowed us to precisely reconstruct all genetic changes that occurred. Twenty-three MRSA blood cultures were also obtained during treatment, yielding 44 colony morphotypes that varied in size, haemolysis and antibiotic susceptibility. A subset of 15 isolates was sequenced and shown to harbour a total of 37 sequence polymorphisms. Eighty per cent of all mutations occurred from day 45 onwards, which coincided with the appearance of discrete chromosome expansions, and concluded in the day 115 isolate with a 98 kb tandem DNA duplication. In all heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus isolates, the chromosomal amplification spanned at least a 20 kb region that notably included mprF, a gene involved in resistance to antimicrobial peptides, and parC, an essential DNA replication gene with an unusual V463 codon insertion. Restoration of the chromosome after serial passage under non-selective growth was accompanied by increased susceptibility to antimicrobial peptide killing and reduced vancomycin resistance, two signature phenotypes that help explain the clinical persistence of this strain. Elevated expression of the V463 parC was deleterious to the cell and reduced colony size, but did not alter ciprofloxacin susceptibility. In this study, we identified large DNA expansions as a clinically relevant mechanism of S. aureus resistance and persistence, demonstrating the extent to which bacterial chromosomes remodel in the face of antibiotic and host immune pressures. PMID:28348811

  8. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat fingerprinting as a method for rapid and cost-effective typing of animal-associated Staphylococcus aureus strains from lineages other than sequence type 398.

    PubMed

    Kosecka-Strojek, Maja; Ilczyszyn, Weronika M; Buda, Aneta; Polakowska, Klaudia; Murzyn, Krzysztof; Panz, Tomasz; Bialecka, Anna; Kasprowicz, Andrzej; Jakubczak, Antoni; Krol, Jaroslaw; Wieliczko, Alina; Wladyka, Benedykt; Miedzobrodzki, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    In veterinary medicine, Staphylococcus aureus is associated with a range of mild to severe infections. The high density of livestock in intensive farming systems increases the risk of disease spread and hampers its control and measures of prevention, making S. aureus one of the most important animal pathogens. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) has been successfully applied to the characterization of livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 but not to the characterization of a wide range of other animal isolates. The objective of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of MLVF for studying S. aureus strains isolated from households, farms and exotic animals in three regions of Poland. MLVF, random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), spa typing and diagnostic microarrays were compared to determine the most suitable combination of methods for veterinary purposes. MLVF generated results consistent with host and geographic origins, reflecting population structures with a high concordance to spa typing results. MLVF has been proven to be a rapid, highly discriminatory and cost-effective method suitable for molecular typing in veterinary settings.

  9. The dynamic changes of dominant clones of Staphylococcus aureus causing bloodstream infections in the European region: results of a second structured survey.

    PubMed

    Grundmann, H; Schouls, L M; Aanensen, D M; Pluister, G N; Tami, A; Chlebowicz, M; Glasner, C; Sabat, A J; Weist, K; Heuer, O; Friedrich, A W

    2014-12-11

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important human pathogens and meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) presents a major cause of healthcare- and community-acquired infections. This study investigated the spatial and temporal changes of S. aureus causing bacteraemia in Europe over a five-year interval and explored the possibility of integrating pathogen-based typing data with epidemiological and clinical information at a European level. Between January 2011 and July 2011, 350 laboratories serving 453 hospitals in 25 countries collected 3,753 isolates (meticillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA) from patients with S. aureus bloodstream infections. All isolates were sent to the national staphylococcal reference laboratories and characterised by quality-controlled spa typing. Data were uploaded to an interactive web-based mapping tool. A wide geographical distribution of spa types was found, with some prevalent in all European countries. MSSA was more diverse than MRSA. MRSA differed considerably between countries with major international clones expanding or receding when compared to a 2006 survey. We provide evidence that a network approach of decentralised typing and visualisation of aggregated data using an interactive mapping tool can provide important information on the dynamics of S. aureus populations such as early signalling of emerging strains, cross-border spread and importation by travel.

  10. Risks for Staphylococcus aureus colonization in patients with psoriasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ng, C Y; Huang, Y H; Chu, C F; Wu, T C; Liu, S H

    2017-02-03

    Evidence on whether patients with psoriasis have a higher risk for staphylococcal colonization than healthy controls remains controversial. To synthesize the current literature, we performed a systematic review on the prevalence and relative risk (RR) of Staphylococcus aureus colonization in patients with psoriasis. We modified the QUADAS-2 instrument to assess the reporting quality of individual studies and applied random-effects models in meta-analysis. Overall we identified 21 eligible studies, of which 15 enrolled one or more comparison groups. The pooled prevalence of staphylococcal colonization in patients with psoriasis was 35·3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 25·0-45·6] on lesional skin and 39·2% (95% CI 33·7-44·8) in the nares. Patients with psoriasis were 4·5 times more likely to be colonized by S. aureus than healthy controls were on the skin (RR 5·54, 95% CI 3·21-9·57) and 60% more in the nares (RR 1·60, 95% CI 1·11-2·32). Cutaneous and nasal colonization by meticillin-resistant S. aureus also appeared higher in patients with psoriasis (pooled prevalence 8·6%) than in healthy controls (2·6%), yet the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0·74). In contrast, despite of a similar risk for nasal staphylococcal colonization (RR 0·67, 95% CI 0·38-1·18), patients with psoriasis were less likely to carry S. aureus on lesional skin than atopic patients (RR 0·64, 95% CI 0·40-1·02). In summarizing the current literature, we found that patients with psoriasis were at an increased risk for staphylococcal colonization compared with healthy individuals. Prospective studies on how bacterial loads correlate with disease activity can guide the clinical management of bacterial colonization while preventing the emergence of drug-resistant strains. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Insights and clinical perspectives of daptomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: A review of the available evidence.

    PubMed

    Stefani, Stefania; Campanile, Floriana; Santagati, Maria; Mezzatesta, Maria Lina; Cafiso, Viviana; Pacini, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    The emergence of glycopeptide reduced susceptibility and resistance in Staphylococcus aureus strains is a growing clinical problem that poses significant clinical challenges in treatment. Its development is a complex and novel process involving many subtle physiological changes in the micro-organism. Daptomycin is the first cyclic lipopeptide approved for clinical use. Unlike most other antimicrobials, a trend towards increased daptomycin resistance has not been reported, although several cases of daptomycin non-susceptibility have been reported. The present review will present the available evidence on daptomycin resistance of S. aureus, with particular attention to its development. In addition to a literature overview, we have compiled the reported cases of daptomycin non-susceptibility to shed light on possible clinical mechanisms of resistance. In the 36 reports describing 62 clinical cases, infections caused by meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains with a vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) between 1mg/L and 2mg/L often led to vancomycin treatment failure, which may be associated with the development of non-susceptibility to daptomycin. Additional evidence suggests that underdosage of daptomycin is an important clinical aspect that merits further study. The current analysis highlights the importance of determining the MIC when using vancomycin to treat patients with severe S. aureus infections and that when failure is suspected, testing for heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) may also be necessary. Whilst further investigation is needed, it can be hypothesised that MRSA strains become hVISA during prolonged bacteraemia, which may predispose to the development of daptomycin resistance.

  12. Comparison of fingerprinting methods for typing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sequence type 398.

    PubMed

    Rasschaert, G; Vanderhaeghen, W; Dewaele, I; Janez, N; Huijsdens, X; Butaye, P; Heyndrickx, M

    2009-10-01

    This study evaluates the multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat assay (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) when using restriction enzymes BstZI, SacII, and ApaI to fingerprint a diverse collection of methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) sequence type 398 (ST398) isolates. These isolates had been characterized previously by multilocus sequence typing, spa typing, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. Typeability and discriminatory power were analyzed, and the concordance between the various methods was determined. All MRSA ST398 isolates were typeable by the MLVA and PFGE using BstZI, SacII, and ApaI. With each method, the MRSA ST398 isolates formed a separate group from the two non-ST398 MRSA strains. PFGE, performed with any of the three restriction enzymes, had the most discriminatory power, followed by MLVA, spa typing, and SCCmec typing. The MLVA showed the highest concordance with PFGE using ApaI and spa typing. As further expressed by the Wallace coefficient, the MLVA type was poorly predicted by spa typing, whereas the spa type was well predicted by MLVA. PFGE, using a combination of all three restriction enzymes, had the highest concordance with the MLVA but had a low probability of being predicted by MLVA. PFGE, using a combination of all three restriction enzymes, was able to predict SCCmec type and MLVA type completely and had a high probability of predicting spa type. Both the MLVA and PFGE could be used to discriminate among the MRSA ST398 isolates. Although the MLVA is a faster technique, PFGE had more discriminatory power than the MLVA, especially when a combination of restriction enzymes was used.

  13. Correlation between animal nasal carriage and environmental methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates at U.S. horse and cattle farms.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Amy E; Davis, Meghan F; Awantang, Grace; Limbago, Brandi; Fosheim, Gregory E; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2012-12-07

    Animals on farms may be a potential reservoir and environmental source of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Expanded surveillance methods for animal-associated MRSA are needed. To develop an environmental sampling method and to determine the correlation between animal and environmental MRSA positivity in the farm setting, we sampled horses, cattle, and their local environments at several farms in the mid-Atlantic United States. We obtained nasal swabs from 13 racehorses at first visit, and 11 racehorses at the same farm eight weeks later. We also sampled 26 pleasure horses and 26 beef cattle from two additional farm sites. Sterilized electrostatic cloths were used to collect dry dust samples from environmental surfaces in proximity to animals; cloths were cultured using a broth enrichment protocol. We described isolates by genotype and antimicrobial susceptibility phenotype. None of the samples (nasal or environmental) were positive from the pleasure horse farm or the cattle farm. On the racehorse farm, 8/13 (61%) nasal and 5/7 (71%) environmental samples were positive for MRSA at the first visit. Isolates found were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotype. We observed significant positive correlation between nasal carriage of MRSA in animals and our ability to isolate MRSA from dry surface samples of their local environments. The methods presented here may aid in surveillance efforts for equine and other animal MRSA. This study successfully applies existing MRSA surveillance methods for indoor, high animal density settings to outdoor and low-density farms.

  14. Genomics of Staphylococcus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Jodi A.

    The staphylococci are Gram-positive cocci that divide to form clusters that look like grapes. By 16S ribosomal sequencing, they are most closely related to the Gram-positive, low G+C content Bacillus-Lactobacillus-Staphylococcus genera (Woese, 1987). There are over 30 species of staphylococci identified, and they are typically found on the skin and mucous membranes of mammals. About a dozen species are frequently carried on humans, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus schleiferi, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus warneri and Staphylococcus xylosus.

  15. Bacteriophage-derived CHAP domain protein, P128, kills Staphylococcus cells by cleaving interpeptide cross-bridge of peptidoglycan.

    PubMed

    Sundarrajan, Sudarson; Raghupatil, Junjappa; Vipra, Aradhana; Narasimhaswamy, Nagalakshmi; Saravanan, Sanjeev; Appaiah, Chemira; Poonacha, Nethravathi; Desai, Srividya; Nair, Sandhya; Bhatt, Rajagopala Narayana; Roy, Panchali; Chikkamadaiah, Ravisha; Durgaiah, Murali; Sriram, Bharathi; Padmanabhan, Sriram; Sharma, Umender

    2014-10-01

    P128 is an anti-staphylococcal protein consisting of the Staphylococcus aureus phage-K-derived tail-associated muralytic enzyme (TAME) catalytic domain (Lys16) fused with the cell-wall-binding SH3b domain of lysostaphin. In order to understand the mechanism of action and emergence of resistance to P128, we isolated mutants of Staphylococcus spp., including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), resistant to P128. In addition to P128, the mutants also showed resistance to Lys16, the catalytic domain of P128. The mutants showed loss of fitness as shown by reduced rate of growth in vitro. One of the mutants tested was found to show reduced virulence in animal models of S. aureus septicaemia suggesting loss of fitness in vivo as well. Analysis of the antibiotic sensitivity pattern showed that the mutants derived from MRSA strains had become sensitive to meticillin and other β-lactams. Interestingly, the mutant cells were resistant to the lytic action of phage K, although the phage was able to adsorb to these cells. Sequencing of the femA gene of three P128-resistant mutants showed either a truncation or deletion in femA, suggesting that improper cross-bridge formation in S. aureus could be causing resistance to P128. Using glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion peptides as substrates it was found that both P128 and Lys16 were capable of cleaving a pentaglycine sequence, suggesting that P128 might be killing S. aureus by cleaving the pentaglycine cross-bridge of peptidoglycan. Moreover, peptides corresponding to the reported cross-bridge of Staphylococcus haemolyticus (GGSGG, AGSGG), which were not cleaved by lysostaphin, were cleaved efficiently by P128. This was also reflected in high sensitivity of S. haemolyticus to P128. This showed that in spite of sharing a common mechanism of action with lysostaphin, P128 has unique properties, which allow it to act on certain lysostaphin-resistant Staphylococcus strains. © 2014 The Authors.

  16. Contamination of environmental surfaces by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in rooms of inpatients with MRSA-positive body sites.

    PubMed

    Kurashige, E Jessica Ohashi; Oie, Shigeharu; Furukawa, H

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can contaminate environmental surfaces that are frequently touched by the hands of patients with MRSA colonization/infection. There have been many studies in which the presence or absence of MRSA contamination was determined but no studies in which MRSA contamination levels were also evaluated in detail. We evaluated MRSA contamination of environmental surfaces (overbed tables, bed side rails, and curtains) in the rooms of inpatients from whom MRSA was isolated via clinical specimens. We examined the curtains within 7-14 days after they had been newly hung. The environmental surfaces were wiped using gauze (molded gauze for wiping of surface bacteria; 100% cotton, 4cm×8cm) moistened with sterile physiological saline. The MRSA contamination rate and mean counts (range) were 25.0% (6/24 samples) and 30.6 (0-255)colony-forming units (cfu)/100cm(2), respectively, for the overbed tables and 31.6% (6/19 samples) and 159.5 (0-1620)cfu/100cm(2), respectively, for the bed side rails. No MRSA was detected in 24 curtain samples. The rate of MRSA contamination of environmental surfaces was high for the overbed tables and bed side rails but low for the curtains. Therefore, at least until the 14th day of use, frequent disinfection of curtains may be not necessary.

  17. Persistent environmental contamination with USA300 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and other pathogenic strain types in households with S. aureus skin infections.

    PubMed

    Eells, Samantha J; David, Michael Z; Taylor, Alexis; Ortiz, Nancy; Kumar, Neha; Sieth, Julia; Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Daum, Robert S; Miller, Loren G

    2014-11-01

    To understand the genotypic spectrum of environmental contamination of Staphylococcus aureus in households and its persistence. Prospective longitudinal cohort investigation. Index participants identified at 2 academic medical centers. Adults and children with S. aureus skin infections and their household contacts in Los Angeles and Chicago. Household fomites were surveyed for contamination at baseline and 3 months. All isolates underwent genetic typing. We enrolled 346 households, 88% of which completed the 3-month follow-up visit. S. aureus environmental contamination was 49% at baseline and 51% at 3 months. Among households with a USA300 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) body infection isolate, environmental contamination with an indistinguishable MRSA strain was 58% at baseline and 63% at 3 months. Baseline factors associated with environmental contamination by the index subject's infection isolate were body colonization by any household member with the index subject's infection isolate at baseline (odds ratio [OR], 10.93 [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.75-20.79]), higher housing density (OR, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.10-1.96]), and more frequent household fomite cleaning (OR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.16-2.27]). Household environmental contamination with the index subject's infection strain at 3 months was associated with USA300 MRSA and a synergistic interaction between baseline environmental contamination and body colonization by any household member with the index subject's infection strain. We found that infecting S. aureus isolates frequently persisted environmentally in households 3 months after skin infection. Presence of pathogenic S. aureus strain type in the environment in a household may represent a persistent reservoir that places household members at risk of future infection.

  18. Atopic dermatitis and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Arslanagic, Naima; Arslanagic, Rusmir

    2004-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is chronic, pruritic inflammatory skin disorder strongly influenced by environmental factors. Staplylococcus aurcus is the common pathogen and colonize the normal skin but it is not number of normal skin flora. Damaged protective skin function by atopic dermatitis, the disturbance of quantity and quality of lipids of stratum corneum are some of the reasons for increasing degree of skin colonisation with staphylococcus aureus. We had presented frequency of the isolation staphylococcus aureus from eczematous atopic skin, from the nose and throat of atopic patients and also from clinically unaffected atopic skin in the group of 30 children compared with 15 healthy children without positive atopic family history. Staphylococcus aureus had been significantly more isolated by all earlier mentioned places in atopic group of children. There is a direct correlation between intensity and also extensity of atopic dermatitis and frequency of the isolation of staphylococcus aureus from mentioned places. The role of staphylococcus aureus in pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis was discussed.

  19. Effect of habituation to tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil on the subsequent susceptibility of Staphylococcus spp. to antimicrobials, triclosan, tea tree oil, terpinen-4-ol and carvacrol.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Natalie A; Hammer, Katherine A; Riley, Thomas V; Van Belkum, Alex; Carson, Christine F

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to seek additional data on the antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus spp. after habituation to low levels of the topical antimicrobial agent tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil. Meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were habituated to 0.075% tea tree oil for 3 days. Subsequently, the susceptibility of five isolates each of MSSA, MRSA and CoNS to fusidic acid, mupirocin, chloramphenicol, linezolid and vancomycin was determined by Etest, and susceptibility to tea tree oil, terpinen-4-ol, carvacrol and triclosan was determined by agar dilution. Following habituation to 0.075% tea tree oil, antimicrobial MICs differed between control and habituated isolates on 33 occasions (out of a possible 150), with MICs being higher in habituated isolates on 22 occasions. Using clinical breakpoint criteria, one MSSA isolate changed susceptibility category from vancomycin-susceptible (MIC=2 μg/mL) to intermediate susceptibility (MIC=3 μg/mL) after habituation in one of two replicates. For the non-antibiotic antimicrobial agents, MICs of habituated and control isolates differed on 12 occasions (out of a possible 120); 10 occasions in MRSA and 2 occasions in MSSA. MICs were higher for habituated isolates on five occasions. However, all the differences were one serial dilution only and were not regarded as significant. Habituation to sublethal concentrations of tea tree oil led to minor changes in MICs of antimicrobial agents, only one of which may have been clinically relevant. There is no evidence to suggest that tea tree oil induces resistance to antimicrobial agents.

  20. BD Phoenix and Vitek 2 detection of mecA-mediated resistance in Staphylococcus aureus with cefoxitin.

    PubMed

    Junkins, Alan D; Lockhart, Shawn R; Heilmann, Kristopher P; Dohrn, Cassie L; Von Stein, Diana L; Winokur, Patricia L; Doern, Gary V; Richter, Sandra S

    2009-09-01

    The BD Phoenix (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD) and Vitek 2 (bioMérieux, Durham, NC) automated susceptibility testing systems have implemented the use of cefoxitin to enhance the detection of methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). To assess the impact of this change, 620 clinically significant S. aureus isolates were tested in parallel on Phoenix PMIC/ID-102 panels and Vitek 2 AST-GP66 cards. The results for oxacillin and cefoxitin generated by the automated systems were compared to those generated by two reference methods: mecA gene detection and MICs of oxacillin previously determined by broth microdilution according to CLSI guidelines. Testing of isolates with discordant results was repeated to attain a majority or consensus final result. There was 100% final agreement between the results of the two reference methods. For the 448 MRSA and 172 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates tested, the rates of categorical agreement of the results obtained with the automated systems with those obtained by the reference methods were 99.8% for the Phoenix panels and 99.7% for the Vitek 2 cards. A single very major error occurred on each instrument (0.2%) with different MRSA isolates. The only major error was attributed to the Vitek 2 system overcalling oxacillin resistance. In 16 instances (9 on the Phoenix system, 7 on the Vitek 2 system), an oxacillin MIC in the susceptible range was correctly changed to resistant by the expert system on the basis of the cefoxitin result. The inclusion of cefoxitin in the Phoenix and Vitek 2 panels has optimized the detection of MRSA by both systems.

  1. Carriage of Staphylococcus species in the veterinary visiting dog population in mainland UK: molecular characterisation of resistance and virulence.

    PubMed

    Wedley, Amy L; Dawson, Susan; Maddox, Thomas W; Coyne, Karen P; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Clegg, Peter; Jamrozy, Dorota; Fielder, Mark D; Donovan, David; Nuttall, Tim; Williams, Nicola J

    2014-05-14

    This study investigated the prevalence of nasal carriage of staphylococci in dogs and determined the characteristics of the isolates. A total of 724 dogs from 87 veterinary practices across the mainland UK were screened for carriage of Staphylococcus spp. All isolates were examined for meticillin resistance (MR) and the presence of the mecA gene investigated in those isolates showing resistance. All coagulase-positive staphylococci and MR coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Spa typing and DNA microarray analysis of resistance and virulence genes was carried out on all MR S. aureus (MRSA) and a subset of meticillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Staphylococci were isolated from 399 (55.1%) of the dogs; only seven (1%) carried MRSA, all of which were identified as the dominant UK healthcare-associated strain (EMRSA-15, ST22). MSSA was identified in 47 (6.5%) dogs, the sequence types of which have been suggested as precursors to successful MRSA clones. Forty (5.5%) dogs carried MRCoNS, while no dogs carried MR S. pseudintermedius, although this is increasingly reported in mainland Europe. Resistance to antimicrobials among the isolates varied between species, with multidrug resistance (MDR) in 87.5% of MRCoNS and 21.8% of coagulase positive staphylococci. Microarray analysis of MRSA and a subset of MSSA isolates identified numerous virulence genes associated with pathogenesis, which are commonly identified in isolates of human origin. However, no isolates carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. This study suggests that MRSA carriage is low in the vet visiting dog population, but there is a diverse range of virulence and resistance determinants in canine S. aureus and MRCoNS isolates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Daptomycin combinations as alternative therapies in experimental foreign-body infection caused by meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    El Haj, Cristina; Murillo, Oscar; Ribera, Alba; Vivas, Mireia; Garcia-Somoza, Dolors; Tubau, Fe; Cabellos, Carmen; Cabo, Javier; Ariza, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Whilst levofloxacin (LVX) in combination with rifampicin (RIF) is considered the optimal treatment for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) caused by meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), no therapeutic alternatives have been accurately evaluated. Based on the high effectiveness of the combination of daptomycin (DAP) plus RIF against meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in this setting, in this study the efficacy of DAP+RIF and DAP+LVX combinations was tested as alternative therapies for foreign-body infections (FBIs) caused by MSSA. A tissue-cage infection model was performed using an MSSA strain. Male Wistar rats were treated for 7 days with LVX, DAP, RIF or the combinations LVX+RIF, DAP+RIF and DAP+LVX. Antibiotic efficacy was evaluated by bacterial counts from tissue cage fluid (TCF) and the cure rate was determined from adhered bacteria. Resistance was screened. Monotherapies were less effective than combinations (P<0.05), and resistance to DAP and RIF emerged. DAP+RIF (decrease in bacterial counts in TCF, -4.9logCFU/mL; cure rate, 92%) was the most effective therapy (P<0.05). There were no differences between LVX+RIF (-3.4logCFU/mL; 11%) and DAP+LVX (-3.3logCFU/mL; 47%). No resistant strains appeared with combined therapies. In conclusion, the combinations DAP+RIF and DAP+LVX showed good efficacy and prevented resistance. DAP+RIF provided higher efficacy than LVX+RIF. These DAP combinations were efficacious alternatives therapies for MSSA FBI. Further studies should confirm whether DAP+RIF may be useful as a first-line therapy in the setting of PJI caused by MSSA.

  3. Antimicrobial Properties of Selected Copper Alloys on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in Different Simulations of Environmental Conditions: With vs. without Organic Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Różańska, Anna; Chmielarczyk, Agnieszka; Romaniszyn, Dorota; Sroka-Oleksiak, Agnieszka; Bulanda, Małgorzata; Walkowicz, Monika; Osuch, Piotr; Knych, Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hospital equipment made from copper alloys can play an important role in complementing traditional methods of disinfection. Aims of the study: The aim of this study was to assess the dynamics of the antimicrobial properties of selected copper alloys in different simulations of environmental conditions (with organic contamination vs. without organic contamination), and to test alternatives to the currently used testing methods. Materials and Methods: A modification of Japanese standard JIS Z 2801 as well as Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Escherichia coli (EC) suspended in NaCl vs. tryptic soy broth (TSB) were used in tests performed on seven commonly used copper alloys, copper, and stainless steel. Results: A much faster reduction of the bacterial suspension was observed for the inoculum prepared in NaCl than in TSB. A faster reduction for EC than for SA was observed in the inoculum prepared in NaCl. The opposite results were found for the inoculum based on TSB. A significant correlation between the copper concentration in the copper alloys and the time and degree of bacterial suspension reduction was only observed in the case of EC. Conclusions: This study confirmed the antimicrobial properties of copper alloys, and additionally showed that Staphylococcus aureus was more resistant than Escherichia coli in the variant of the experiment without organic contamination. However, even for SA, a total reduction of the bacterial inoculum’s density took no longer than 2 h. Under conditions simulating organic contamination, all of the tested alloys were shown to have bactericidal or bacteriostatic properties, which was contrary to the results from stainless steel. PMID:28726753

  4. Antimicrobial Properties of Selected Copper Alloys on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in Different Simulations of Environmental Conditions: With vs. without Organic Contamination.

    PubMed

    Różańska, Anna; Chmielarczyk, Agnieszka; Romaniszyn, Dorota; Sroka-Oleksiak, Agnieszka; Bulanda, Małgorzata; Walkowicz, Monika; Osuch, Piotr; Knych, Tadeusz

    2017-07-20

    Background: Hospital equipment made from copper alloys can play an important role in complementing traditional methods of disinfection. Aims of the study: The aim of this study was to assess the dynamics of the antimicrobial properties of selected copper alloys in different simulations of environmental conditions (with organic contamination vs. without organic contamination), and to test alternatives to the currently used testing methods. Materials and Methods: A modification of Japanese standard JIS Z 2801 as well as Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Escherichia coli (EC) suspended in NaCl vs. tryptic soy broth (TSB) were used in tests performed on seven commonly used copper alloys, copper, and stainless steel. Results: A much faster reduction of the bacterial suspension was observed for the inoculum prepared in NaCl than in TSB. A faster reduction for EC than for SA was observed in the inoculum prepared in NaCl. The opposite results were found for the inoculum based on TSB. A significant correlation between the copper concentration in the copper alloys and the time and degree of bacterial suspension reduction was only observed in the case of EC. Conclusions: This study confirmed the antimicrobial properties of copper alloys, and additionally showed that Staphylococcus aureus was more resistant than Escherichia coli in the variant of the experiment without organic contamination. However, even for SA, a total reduction of the bacterial inoculum's density took no longer than 2 h. Under conditions simulating organic contamination, all of the tested alloys were shown to have bactericidal or bacteriostatic properties, which was contrary to the results from stainless steel.

  5. Association of Environmental Contamination in the Home With the Risk for Recurrent Community-Associated, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    PubMed

    Knox, Justin; Sullivan, Sean B; Urena, Julia; Miller, Maureen; Vavagiakis, Peter; Shi, Qiuhu; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Lowy, Franklin D

    2016-06-01

    The role of environmental contamination in recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infections within households and its potential effect on intervention strategies has been debated recently. To assess whether household environmental contamination increases the risk for recurrent infection among individuals with a community-associated methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) infection. This cohort study was conducted from November 1, 2011, to June 30, 2014, in the Columbia University Medical Center catchment area. All patients within 72 hours of presentation with skin or soft-tissue infections and blood, urine, or sputum cultures positive for MRSA were identified. Two hundred sixty-two patients met study inclusion criteria; 83 of these (31.7%) agreed to participate (index patients) with 214 household members. Participants were followed up for 6 months, and 62 of the 83 households (74.7%) completed follow-up. Participants and researchers were blinded to exposure status throughout the study. Follow-up was completed on June 30, 2014, and data were assessed from July 1, 2014, to February 19, 2016. Concordant environmental contamination, defined as having an isolate with the identical staphylococcal protein A and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec type or antibiogram type as the index patient's clinical isolate, present on 1 or more environmental surfaces at the time of a home visit to the index patient after infection. Index recurrent infection, defined as any self-reported infection among the index patients during follow-up. One patient did not complete any follow-up. Of the remaining 82 index patients, 53 (64.6%) were female and 59 (72.0%) were Hispanic. The mean age was 30 (SD, 20; range, 1-79) years. Forty-nine of 61 MRSA infections where the clinical isolate could be obtained (80.3%) were due to the epidemic strain USA300. Among the 82 households in which a patient had an index MRSA infection, the clinical isolate was present in the environment in 20 (24.4%) and not

  6. Comparison of air samples, nasal swabs, ear-skin swabs and environmental dust samples for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig herds.

    PubMed

    Agersø, Y; Vigre, H; Cavaco, L M; Josefsen, M H

    2014-08-01

    To identify a cost-effective and practical method for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig herds, the relative sensitivity of four sample types: nasal swabs, ear-skin (skin behind the ears) swabs, environmental dust swabs and air was compared. Moreover, dependency of sensitivity on within-herd prevalence was estimated. spa-typing was applied in order to study strain diversity. The sensitivity of one air sample was equal to the sensitivity of ten pools of five nasal swabs and relatively independent of within-herd prevalence [predicted to be nearly perfect (99%) for within-herd prevalence ⩾25%]. The results indicate that taking swabs of skin behind the ears (ten pools of five) was even more sensitive than taking nasal swabs (ten pools of five) at the herd level and detected significantly more positive samples. spa types t011, t034 and t4208 were observed. In conclusion, MRSA detection by air sampling is easy to perform, reduces costs and analytical time compared to existing methods, and is recommended for initial testing of herds. Ear-skin swab sampling may be more sensitive for MRSA detection than air sampling or nasal swab sampling.

  7. Multiplex PMA-qPCR Assay with Internal Amplification Control for Simultaneous Detection of Viable Legionella pneumophila, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus in Environmental Waters.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; Xin, Hongyi; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2015-12-15

    Pathogenic microorganisms are responsible for many infectious diseases, and pathogen monitoring is important and necessary for water quality control. This study for the first time explored a multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technique combined with propidium monoazide (PMA) to simultaneously detect viable Legionella pneumophila, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus in one reaction from water samples. Sodium lauroyl sarcosinate (sarkosyl) was applied to enhance the dead bacterial permeability of PMA. The sensitivity of the multiplex PMA-qPCR assay achieved two colony-forming units (CFU) per reaction for L. pneumophila and three CFU per reaction for S. typhimurium and S. aureus. No PCR products were amplified from all nontarget control samples. Significantly, with comparable specificity and sensitivity, this newly invented multiplex PMA-qPCR assay took a much shorter time than did conventional culture assays when testing water samples with spiked bacteria and simulated environmental water treatment. The viable multiplex PMA-qPCR assay was further successfully applied to pathogen detection from rivers, canals, and tap water samples after simple water pretreatment.

  8. Identification of different clonal complexes and diverse amino acid substitutions in penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) associated with borderline oxacillin resistance in Canadian Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

    PubMed

    Nadarajah, Jeya; Lee, Mark J S; Louie, Lisa; Jacob, Latha; Simor, Andrew E; Louie, Marie; McGavin, Martin J

    2006-12-01

    Borderline oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (BORSA) exhibit oxacillin MIC values of 1-8 microg ml(-1), but lack mecA, which encodes the low-affinity penicillin-binding protein (PBP)2a. The relationship of the BORSA phenotype with specific genetic backgrounds was assessed, as well as amino acid sequence variation in the normal PBP2. Among 38 BORSA, 26 had a common PFGE profile of genomic DNA, and were multilocus sequence type (ST)25. The other isolates were genetically diverse. Complete pbp2 sequences were determined for three BORSA, corresponding to ST25, ST1 and ST47, which were selected on the basis of lacking blaZ-encoded beta-lactamase. The essential transpeptidase-domain-encoding segment of pbp2 was also sequenced from seven additional ST25 isolates. Amino acid substitutions occurred in the transpeptidase domain of all BORSA, irrespective of clonal type. A Gln(629)-->Pro substitution was common to all ST25 BORSA, but most could be distinguished from one another by additional unique substitutions in the transpeptidase domain. The ST1 and ST47 isolates also possessed unique substitutions in the transpeptidase domain. Plasmid-mediated expression of pbp2 from an ST25 or ST1 isolate in S. aureus RN6390 increased its oxacillin MIC from 0.25 to 4 microg ml(-1), while pbp2 from a susceptible strain, ATCC 25923, had no effect. Therefore, different amino acid substitutions in PBP2 of diverse BORSA lineages contribute to borderline resistance. The predominant ST25 lineage was not related to any of the five clonal complexes that contain meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), suggesting that ST25 cannot readily acquire mecA-mediated resistance.

  9. Healthcare-associated Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia in Children: Evidence for Reverse Vancomycin Creep and Impact of Vancomycin Trough Values on Outcome.

    PubMed

    McNeil, J Chase; Kok, Eric Y; Forbes, Andrea R; Lamberth, Linda; Hulten, Kristina G; Vallejo, Jesus G; Mason, Edward O; Kaplan, Sheldon L

    2016-03-01

    Elevated vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in Staphylococcus aureus have been associated with worse clinical outcomes in adults. For invasive meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections in adults, the Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends targeting vancomycin serum trough concentrations between 15 and 20 μg/mL. We evaluated trends in vancomycin MICs from healthcare-associated (HCA) S. aureus bacteremia isolates in children in addition to correlating vancomycin serum trough levels with clinical outcomes. Patients and isolates were identified from a prospective S. aureus surveillance study at Texas Children's Hospital (TCH). HCA S. aureus bacteremia isolates from 2003 to 2013 were selected. Vancomycin MICs by E-test were determined and medical records were reviewed. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was defined as doubling of the baseline serum creatinine. Three hundred forty-one isolates met inclusion criteria. We observed a reverse vancomycin creep among MRSA isolates in the study period with a decline in the proportion of isolates with vancomycin MIC ≥ 2 μg/mL (from 32.7% to 5.6%; P < 0.001). However, the proportion of MSSA isolates with MIC ≥ 2 μg/mL increased (from 2.9% to 9%; P = 0.04). Among patients who had vancomycin troughs performed, there was no difference in duration of bacteremia or fever with vancomycin trough >15 versus <15 μg/mL. A vancomycin trough >15 μg/mL was, however, an independent risk factor for AKI. Vancomycin MICs are shifting among HCA S. aureus bacteremia isolates with significant differences between MRSA and MSSA at TCH. Higher vancomycin troughs did not improve outcomes in pediatric HCA S. aureus bacteremia but were associated with increased nephrotoxicity. Further studies are needed to better understand optimal management of children with S. aureus bacteremia.

  10. Molecular surveillance and population structure analysis of methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in high-risk wards.

    PubMed

    Sergi, Simona; Donnarumma, Francesca; Mastromei, Giorgio; Goti, Emanuele; Nicoletti, Pierluigi; Pecile, Patrizia; Cecconi, Daniela; Mannino, Roberta; Fanci, Rosa; Bosi, Alberto; Bartolozzi, Benedetta; Casalone, Enrico

    2009-10-01

    In this study we report the results of analysis of 253 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (132 methicillin [meticillin]-resistant S. aureus [MRSA] isolates and 121 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA] isolates) from 209 patients admitted to 18 high-risk wards of six hospitals located in Florence, Italy, over an 8-month period during which a program of epidemiological surveillance of hospital-acquired infections was conducted. The majority (69%) of the 87 reported S. aureus infections were caused by MRSA. No outbreak events have been reported. All the isolates were typed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and AFLP profiles were analyzed in order to define similarity groups. The discriminatory power of AFLP is very high with MSSA (Simpson index of diversity [D], 95.9%), whereas its resolution capability with MRSA (D, 44.7%) is hampered by the well-known high clonality of these populations (the main MRSA group accounted for 74% of the MRSA isolates). Combining AFLP, improved by visual inspection of polymorphisms, with multiplex PCR greatly increases MRSA resolution (D, 85.5%), resolving the MRSA population to a level that is one of the highest reported in the literature. Widespread and sporadic clones of MSSA and MRSA were identified, and their diffusion in the different hospitals and wards over the surveillance period was studied. The understanding of MSSA and MRSA population structures should be the starting point for the design of a more rational surveillance program for S. aureus species, maximizing benefits and reducing the cost of infection control strategies.

  11. Clonal Complexes and Diversity of Exotoxin Gene Profiles in Methicillin-Resistant and Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Patients in a Spanish Hospital▿

    PubMed Central

    Argudín, M. A.; Mendoza, M. C.; Méndez, F. J.; Martín, M. C.; Guerra, B.; Rodicio, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology studies have allowed the identification of the methicillin (meticillin)-resistant (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) clonal complexes (CCs) and clones of Staphylococcus aureus circulating in a Spanish hospital recently. Of 81 isolates tested, 32.1% were MRSA. Most of them carried staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) IVc (88.5%) and belonged to CC5 (88.5%; multilocus sequence typing types ST125 [mainly associated with spa type t067], ST5, and ST228). A higher diversity was found among MSSA isolates (67.9%). Eighty percent shared the genetic background of major MRSA lineages (CC5 [38.2%; ST125 and ST5], CC30 [25.5%; ST30], CC45 [14.5%; ST45 and ST47], and CC8 [1.8%; ST8]), but CC12, CC15, CC51, and CC59 were also detected. Many exotoxin genes were present in each of the 81 isolates, independent of whether they were involved in sepsis (11 to 22) or other types of infections (13 to 21), and they appeared in 73 combinations. The relevant data are that (i) all isolates were positive for hemolysin and leukotoxin genes (98.8% for lukED and 25.9% for lukPV); (ii) all contained an enterotoxin gene cluster (egc with or without seu), frequently with one or more genes encoding classical enterotoxins; (iii) about half were positive for tst and 95% were positive for exfoliatin-encoding genes (eta, etb, and/or etd); and (iv) the four agr groups were detected, with agrII (55.6%) and agrIII (23.5%) being the most frequent. Taken together, results of the present study suggest a frequent acquisition and/or loss of exotoxin genes, which may be mediated by efficient intralineage transfer of mobile genetic elements and exotoxin genes therein and by eventual breakage of interlineage barriers. PMID:19458176

  12. Comparison of Multi-Drug Resistant Environmental Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Recreational Beaches and High Touch Surfaces in Built Environments

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Marilyn C.; Soge, Olusegun O.; No, David

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a major cause of disease in the general population with no health care exposure or known classical risk factors for MRSA infections. The potential community reservoirs have not been well defined though certain strains such as ST398 and USA300 have been well studied in some settings. MRSA has been isolated from recreational beaches, high-touch surfaces in homes, universities, and other community environmental surfaces. However, in most cases the strains were not characterized to determine if they are related to community-acquired or hospital-acquired clinical strains. We compared 55 environmental MRSA from 805 samples including sand, fresh, and marine water samples from local marine and fresh water recreational beaches (n = 296), high touch surfaces on the University of Washington campus (n = 294), surfaces in UW undergraduate housing (n = 85), and the local community (n = 130). Eleven USA300, representing 20% of the isolates, were found on the UW campus surfaces, student housing surfaces, and on the community surfaces but not in the recreational beach samples from the Northwest USA. Similarly, the predominant animal ST133 was found in the recreational beach samples but not in the high touch surface samples. All USA300 isolates were multi-drug resistant carrying two to six different antibiotic resistance genes coding for kanamycin, macrolides and/or macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B, and tetracycline, with the majority (72%) carrying four to six different antibiotic resistance genes. A surprising 98% of the 55 MRSA isolates were resistant to other classes of antibiotics and most likely represent reservoirs for these genes in the environment. PMID:23577006

  13. Comparison of Multi-Drug Resistant Environmental Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Recreational Beaches and High Touch Surfaces in Built Environments.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Marilyn C; Soge, Olusegun O; No, David

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a major cause of disease in the general population with no health care exposure or known classical risk factors for MRSA infections. The potential community reservoirs have not been well defined though certain strains such as ST398 and USA300 have been well studied in some settings. MRSA has been isolated from recreational beaches, high-touch surfaces in homes, universities, and other community environmental surfaces. However, in most cases the strains were not characterized to determine if they are related to community-acquired or hospital-acquired clinical strains. We compared 55 environmental MRSA from 805 samples including sand, fresh, and marine water samples from local marine and fresh water recreational beaches (n = 296), high touch surfaces on the University of Washington campus (n = 294), surfaces in UW undergraduate housing (n = 85), and the local community (n = 130). Eleven USA300, representing 20% of the isolates, were found on the UW campus surfaces, student housing surfaces, and on the community surfaces but not in the recreational beach samples from the Northwest USA. Similarly, the predominant animal ST133 was found in the recreational beach samples but not in the high touch surface samples. All USA300 isolates were multi-drug resistant carrying two to six different antibiotic resistance genes coding for kanamycin, macrolides and/or macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B, and tetracycline, with the majority (72%) carrying four to six different antibiotic resistance genes. A surprising 98% of the 55 MRSA isolates were resistant to other classes of antibiotics and most likely represent reservoirs for these genes in the environment.

  14. [The mutual transmission of Staphylococcus aureus between humans and cattle and the environmental adaptation of hemolysin and fibrinolysin formation].

    PubMed

    Hummel, R; Witte, W; Kemmer, G

    1978-01-01

    In an ecological investigation in 20 dairy herds of cattle we compared the characteristics of strains isolated from nasal swabs of milkers, from the udder of cows and from cases of mastitis in cows. In 7 herds we found definite strains in the nasal flora of the milkers and in the udder-flora of the cows which only differ in the formation of hemolysin and of fibrinolysin. In the other checked characteristics strains from man and strains from cattle show identical patterns. In 5 herds these strains correspond to the host-specific variety hominis, in 2 herds to the hostspecific--variety bovis. These results refer to an environmental adaptation of the phenotypically detectable formation of hemolysins and fibrinolysin. From the ecological point of view an exchange of strains between man and cattle is likely. The origin of strains which can not be alloted to one ot the known host-specific varieties can be explained by an environmental adaptation. Besides the facts that strains of the host-specific variety bovis occur only very rarely in man and that strains of the host-specific variety hominis occur occasionally in cattle the clinical significance of the reported results has to be clarified by further investigations.

  15. Small changes in environmental parameters lead to alterations in antibiotic resistance, cell morphology and membrane fatty acid composition in Staphylococcus lugdunensis.

    PubMed

    Crompton, Marcus J; Dunstan, R Hugh; Macdonald, Margaret M; Gottfries, Johan; von Eiff, Christof; Roberts, Timothy K

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis has emerged as a major cause of community-acquired and nosocomial infections. This bacterium can rapidly adapt to changing environmental conditions to survive and capitalize on opportunities to colonize and infect through wound surfaces. It was proposed that S. lugdunensis would have underlying alterations in metabolic homeostasis to provide the necessary levels of adaptive protection. The aims of this project were to examine the impacts of subtle variations in environmental conditions on growth characteristics, cell size and membrane fatty acid composition in S. lugdunensis. Liquid broth cultures of S. lugdunensis were grown under varying combinations of pH (6-8), temperature (35-39°C) and osmotic pressure (0-5% sodium chloride w/w) to reflect potential ranges of conditions encountered during transition from skin surfaces to invasion of wound sites. The cells were harvested at the mid-exponential phase of growth and assessed for antibiotic minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), generation time, formation of small colony variants, cell size (by scanning electron microscopy) and membrane fatty acid composition. Stress regimes with elevated NaCl concentrations resulted in significantly higher antibiotic resistance (MIC) and three of the combinations with 5% NaCl had increased generation times (P<0.05). It was found that all ten experimental growth regimes, including the control and centroid cultures, yielded significantly different profiles of plasma membrane fatty acid composition (P<0.0001). Alterations in cell size (P<0.01) were also observed under the range of conditions with the most substantial reduction occurring when cells were grown at 39°C, pH 8 (514±52 nm, mean ± Standard Deviation) compared with cells grown under control conditions at 37°C with pH 7 (702±76 nm, P<0.01). It was concluded that S. lugdunensis responded to slight changes in environmental conditions by altering plasma membrane fatty acid composition, growth

  16. Small Changes in Environmental Parameters Lead to Alterations in Antibiotic Resistance, Cell Morphology and Membrane Fatty Acid Composition in Staphylococcus lugdunensis

    PubMed Central

    Crompton, Marcus J.; Dunstan, R. Hugh; Macdonald, Margaret M.; Gottfries, Johan; von Eiff, Christof; Roberts, Timothy K.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis has emerged as a major cause of community-acquired and nosocomial infections. This bacterium can rapidly adapt to changing environmental conditions to survive and capitalize on opportunities to colonize and infect through wound surfaces. It was proposed that S. lugdunensis would have underlying alterations in metabolic homeostasis to provide the necessary levels of adaptive protection. The aims of this project were to examine the impacts of subtle variations in environmental conditions on growth characteristics, cell size and membrane fatty acid composition in S. lugdunensis. Liquid broth cultures of S. lugdunensis were grown under varying combinations of pH (6–8), temperature (35–39°C) and osmotic pressure (0–5% sodium chloride w/w) to reflect potential ranges of conditions encountered during transition from skin surfaces to invasion of wound sites. The cells were harvested at the mid-exponential phase of growth and assessed for antibiotic minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), generation time, formation of small colony variants, cell size (by scanning electron microscopy) and membrane fatty acid composition. Stress regimes with elevated NaCl concentrations resulted in significantly higher antibiotic resistance (MIC) and three of the combinations with 5% NaCl had increased generation times (P<0.05). It was found that all ten experimental growth regimes, including the control and centroid cultures, yielded significantly different profiles of plasma membrane fatty acid composition (P<0.0001). Alterations in cell size (P<0.01) were also observed under the range of conditions with the most substantial reduction occurring when cells were grown at 39°C, pH 8 (514±52 nm, mean ± Standard Deviation) compared with cells grown under control conditions at 37°C with pH 7 (702±76 nm, P<0.01). It was concluded that S. lugdunensis responded to slight changes in environmental conditions by altering plasma membrane fatty acid composition

  17. Multidrug and mupirocin resistance in environmental methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) collected from the homes of people diagnosed with a community-onset (CO-) MRSA infection.

    PubMed

    Shahbazian, J H; Hahn, P D; Ludwig, S; Ferguson, J; Baron, P; Christ, A; Spicer, K; Tolomeo, P; Torrie, A M; Bilker, W B; Cluzet, V C; Hu, B; Julian, K; Nachamkin, I; Rankin, S C; Morris, D O; Lautenbach, E; Davis, M F

    2017-09-22

    Patients with community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CO-MRSA) infections contribute to MRSA contamination of the home environment, and may be re-exposed to MRSA strains from this reservoir. This study evaluates One Health risk factors that focus on the relationship between humans, animals and the environment for increased prevalence of multiple antimicrobial resistant MRSA in the home environment. During a trial of patients with CO-MRSA infection, MRSA was isolated from the household environment at baseline and three months later, following randomization of patients and household members to mupirocin-based decolonization therapy or education control. Up to two environmental MRSA isolates per visit were tested. MRSA isolates were identified in 68% (65/95) of homes at baseline (n=104 isolates) and 51% (33/65) of homes three months later (n=56 isolates). Rates of MDR were 61% at baseline and 55% at the three-month visit. At baseline, 100% (14/14) of MRSA isolates from rural homes were MDR. While antimicrobial use in humans or pets was associated with an increased risk for the isolation of MDR MRSA from the environment, clindamycin use was not associated risk for isolation of MDR MRSA. Two (5%) of 39 homes that were randomized to mupirocin treatment, but none of the control families, had incident low-level mupirocin resistant MRSA isolated at three months. Among patients recently treated for a CO-MRSA infection, MRSA and MDR MRSA were common contaminants in the home environment. This study contributes to evidence that occupant use of antimicrobial drugs--except clindamycin--is associated with MDR MRSA in the home environmental reservoir.Importance: MRSA is a common bacterial agent implicated in skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in both community and healthcare settings. Patients with CO-MRSA infections contribute to MRSA contamination and may be re-exposed to MRSA strains from these reservoirs. People interact with natural and built

  18. Emergence of quinupristin/dalfopristin resistance among livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus ST9 clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fangyou; Lu, Chaohui; Liu, Yunling; Sun, He; Shang, Yongpeng; Ding, Yu; Li, Dan; Qin, Zhiqiang; Parsons, Chris; Huang, Xiaoying; Li, Yuping; Hu, Longhua; Wang, Liangxing

    2014-11-01

    Quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D) is a valuable alternative to vancomycin for the treatment of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. However, not long after Q/D was approved, bacteria with resistance to this newer antimicrobial agent were reported. To investigate the prevalence of Q/D resistance, a total of 1476 non-duplicate S. aureus isolates, including 775 MRSA, from a Chinese tertiary hospital were selected randomly from 2003 to 2013. Of the 775 MRSA, 3 (0.4%) were resistant to Q/D. All meticillin-susceptible S. aureus were susceptible to Q/D. The prevalence of Q/D resistance among S. aureus was 0.2% (3/1476). The three isolates with Q/D resistance had the same antimicrobial resistance profile, except for cefaclor and chloramphenicol. All three Q/D-resistant MRSA were positive for five streptogramin B resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA and msrB) and two streptogramin A resistance genes (vatC and vgaA) as determined by PCR and DNA sequencing. MRSA WZ1031 belonged to ST9-MRSA-SCCmecV-t899, whilst MRSA WZ414 and WZ480 belonged to ST9-MRSA-SCCmecNT(non-typeable)-t899. ST9 has been reported predominantly in livestock-associated (LA) MRSA in some Asian countries. The three patients with these MRSA isolates were not livestock handlers and did not keep close contact with livestock. The origin of these important LA-MRSA isolates causing human infections is not known. Taken together, Q/D resistance, which was caused by a combination of ermA-ermB-ermC-msrA-msrB-vatC-vgaA, was first found among S. aureus clinical isolates in China. The present study is the first report of the emergence of human infections caused by ST9 LA-MRSA isolates with Q/D resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  19. Pharmacodynamics of minocycline against Staphylococcus aureus in an in vitro pharmacokinetic model.

    PubMed

    Bowker, Karen E; Noel, Alan R; Macgowan, Alasdair P

    2008-12-01

    Free drug serum concentrations of minocycline associated with the doses given to humans (100 mg every 12 hours for 24 hours) were simulated in an in vitro hollow-fiber pharmacokinetic model. Four strains of methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), United Kingdom EMRSA 15 and 16 plus a pair of blood culture isolates before and after long-term minocycline treatment, were employed. The minocycline MICs for these four strains were 0.04 mg/liter, 0.19 mg/liter, 0.06 mg/liter, and 0.75 mg/liter. The antibacterial effect (ABE) of minocycline was measured using the area under the bacterial kill curve to 24 h (AUBKC) and the log change in viable count at 24 h (d24). The ABEs of minocycline with and without the addition of rifampin (rifampicin) were compared to those of vancomycin, and dose escalation and fractionation were used to determine the dominant pharmacodynamic index and its size. Minocycline alone produced a 1.5- to 2.0-log(10)-unit reduction in viable count for the strains with MICs of <0.2 mg/liter, while the addition of rifampin increased the ABE for these strains (P < 0.05). Vancomycin simulations produced a reduction in viable counts of 2.8 to 4.5 log units at 24 h, which was equivalent to the minocycline-plus-rifampin combination. Free area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/MIC was best related to AUBKC or d24 using a sigmoid maximal effect (Emax) model with r(2) of 0.92 and 0.87, respectively, and the AUC/MIC ratios for no change and -1-log-unit, -2-log-unit, and -3-log-unit drop at 24 h were 33.9, 75.9, 1,350, and >2,000, respectively. Fractionation of the dose at free AUC/MICs associated with human doses showed no difference between once, twice, or three times a day dosing. In contrast, fractionation of the dose at a free AUC associated with a static effect indicated that once daily dosing was superior. These data show that minocycline is an AUC/MIC-driven agent at human exposures and that the addition of rifampin may offer

  20. Detection of benzalkonium chloride resistance in community environmental isolates of staphylococci.

    PubMed

    He, Gui-Xin; Landry, Michael; Chen, Huizhong; Thorpe, Conner; Walsh, Dennis; Varela, Manuel F; Pan, Hongmiao

    2014-05-01

    We isolated a total of 653 strains from 64 community environmental samples in Massachusetts, USA. Among these isolates, 9.65 % (63 strains) were benzalkonium chloride (BC)-resistant staphylococci. All BC-resistant strains were collected from surfaces upon which antibacterial wipes or antibacterial sprays containing 0.02-0.12 % BC had frequently been used in the fitness centres. However, isolates from surfaces upon which antibacterial wipes or antibacterial sprays had not been used were all sensitive to BC. All BC-resistant strains were also resistant to erythromycin, penicillin and ampicillin. In addition, 51 strains showed resistance to cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), 15 strains showed resistance to chloramphenicol, 12 strains showed resistance to ciprofloxacin and four strains showed resistance to meticillin. Resistance gene analysis demonstrated that 41 strains contained qacA/B, 30 strains had qacC, 25 strains contained qacG, 16 strains had qacH and eight strains contained qacJ. These data indicate that application of BC is associated with environmental staphylococcal antimicrobial resistance.

  1. The health and economic burden of bloodstream infections caused by antimicrobial-susceptible and non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus in European hospitals, 2010 and 2011: a multicentre retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stewardson, Andrew J; Allignol, Arthur; Beyersmann, Jan; Graves, Nicholas; Schumacher, Martin; Meyer, Rodolphe; Tacconelli, Evelina; De Angelis, Giulia; Farina, Claudio; Pezzoli, Fabio; Bertrand, Xavier; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Edgeworth, Jonathan; Tosas, Olga; Martinez, Jose A; Ayala-Blanco, M Pilar; Pan, Angelo; Zoncada, Alessia; Marwick, Charis A; Nathwani, Dilip; Seifert, Harald; Hos, Nina; Hagel, Stefan; Pletz, Mathias; Harbarth, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    We performed a multicentre retrospective cohort study including 606,649 acute inpatient episodes at 10 European hospitals in 2010 and 2011 to estimate the impact of antimicrobial resistance on hospital mortality, excess length of stay (LOS) and cost. Bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (3GCRE), meticillin-susceptible (MSSA) and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) increased the daily risk of hospital death (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.80; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34–2.42, HR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.49–2.20 and HR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.66–3.51, respectively) and prolonged LOS (9.3 days; 95% CI: 9.2–9.4, 11.5 days; 95% CI: 11.5–11.6 and 13.3 days; 95% CI: 13.2–13.4, respectively). BSI with third-generation cephalosporin-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (3GCSE) significantly increased LOS (5.9 days; 95% CI: 5.8–5.9) but not hazard of death (1.16; 95% CI: 0.98–1.36). 3GCRE significantly increased the hazard of death (1.63; 95% CI: 1.13–2.35), excess LOS (4.9 days; 95% CI: 1.1–8.7) and cost compared with susceptible strains, whereas meticillin resistance did not. The annual cost of 3GCRE BSI was higher than of MRSA BSI. While BSI with S. aureus had greater impact on mortality, excess LOS and cost than Enterobacteriaceae per infection, the impact of antimicrobial resistance was greater for Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:27562950

  2. The health and economic burden of bloodstream infections caused by antimicrobial-susceptible and non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus in European hospitals, 2010 and 2011: a multicentre retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Stewardson, Andrew J; Allignol, Arthur; Beyersmann, Jan; Graves, Nicholas; Schumacher, Martin; Meyer, Rodolphe; Tacconelli, Evelina; De Angelis, Giulia; Farina, Claudio; Pezzoli, Fabio; Bertrand, Xavier; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Edgeworth, Jonathan; Tosas, Olga; Martinez, Jose A; Ayala-Blanco, M Pilar; Pan, Angelo; Zoncada, Alessia; Marwick, Charis A; Nathwani, Dilip; Seifert, Harald; Hos, Nina; Hagel, Stefan; Pletz, Mathias; Harbarth, Stephan

    2016-08-18

    We performed a multicentre retrospective cohort study including 606,649 acute inpatient episodes at 10 European hospitals in 2010 and 2011 to estimate the impact of antimicrobial resistance on hospital mortality, excess length of stay (LOS) and cost. Bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (3GCRE), meticillin-susceptible (MSSA) and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) increased the daily risk of hospital death (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.80; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34-2.42, HR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.49-2.20 and HR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.66-3.51, respectively) and prolonged LOS (9.3 days; 95% CI: 9.2-9.4, 11.5 days; 95% CI: 11.5-11.6 and 13.3 days; 95% CI: 13.2-13.4, respectively). BSI with third-generation cephalosporin-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (3GCSE) significantly increased LOS (5.9 days; 95% CI: 5.8-5.9) but not hazard of death (1.16; 95% CI: 0.98-1.36). 3GCRE significantly increased the hazard of death (1.63; 95% CI: 1.13-2.35), excess LOS (4.9 days; 95% CI: 1.1-8.7) and cost compared with susceptible strains, whereas meticillin resistance did not. The annual cost of 3GCRE BSI was higher than of MRSA BSI. While BSI with S. aureus had greater impact on mortality, excess LOS and cost than Enterobacteriaceae per infection, the impact of antimicrobial resistance was greater for Enterobacteriaceae.

  3. Presence of genes encoding the panton-valentine leukocidin exotoxin is not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: results of a multinational trial.

    PubMed

    Bae, In-Gyu; Tonthat, Giang T; Stryjewski, Martin E; Rude, Thomas H; Reilly, Lindsay F; Barriere, Steven L; Genter, Fredric C; Corey, G Ralph; Fowler, Vance G

    2009-12-01

    The role of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) in determining the severity and outcome of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) caused by methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is controversial. We evaluated potential associations between clinical outcome and PVL status by using MRSA isolates from patients enrolled in two large, multinational phase three clinical trials assessing telavancin for the treatment of cSSSI (the ATLAS program). MRSA isolates from microbiologically evaluable patients were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR for pvl and 31 other putative virulence determinants. A single baseline pathogen of MRSA was isolated from 522 microbiologically evaluable patients (25.1%) among 2,079 randomized patients. Of these MRSA isolates, 83.2% (432/519) exhibited the USA300 PFGE genotype and 89.1% (465/522) were pvl positive. Patients with pvl-positive MRSA were more likely than those with pvl-negative MRSA to be young, to be North American, and to present with major abscesses (P < 0.001 for each). Patients were significantly more likely to be cured if they were infected with pvl-positive MRSA than if they were infected with pvl-negative MRSA (91.6% versus 80.7%; P = 0.015). This observation remained statistically significant after adjustment for presence of abscess, fever, or leukocytosis; infection size; diabetes; patient age; and study medication received. The fnbA, cna, sdrC, map-eap, sed, seg, sei, sej, SCCmec type IV, and agr group II genes were also associated with clinical response (P < 0.05). This contemporary, international study demonstrates that pvl was not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with MRSA cSSSI.

  4. Repression of Staphylococcus aureus by Food Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Troller, John A.; Frazier, W. C.

    1963-01-01

    The effects of environmental factors on the inhibition of an enterotoxin-producing strain of Staphylococcus aureus by food bacteria were investigated. Type of medium and temperature of incubation were important factors in determining the amount of inhibition. The pH range of maximal inhibition was found to be 7.4 to 6.2. Availability of oxygen was not a factor. As the ratios of inhibitor to staphylococcus were increased from 1:1 to 10:1 and 100:1, the amount of inhibition was markedly increased. Inhibition occurred in custard, where it increased with increasing ratios of effector to staphylococcus. The repression of the staphylococcus in all media usually was sufficient to be of practical significance. PMID:13994250

  5. Transcriptional profiling of the two-component regulatory system VraSR in Staphylococcus aureus with low-level vancomycin resistance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongbin; Xiong, Zhujia; Liu, Kuoyue; Li, Shuguang; Wang, Ruobing; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Yawei; Wang, Hui

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to comprehensively identify the target genes regulated by the two-component regulatory system VraSR in Staphylococcus aureus and to clarify the role of VraSR in low-level vancomycin resistance. Expression of vraS was determined by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). A clinical heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) strain B6D and a vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) strain D7 that was induced from a meticillin-resistant S. aureus strain were selected to construct vraSR null mutants by allelic replacement. The vraSR-complemented strain B6D_c was also constructed by allelic replacement. Genes differentially expressed in the wild-type, vraSR null mutant and complemented strains were detected using RNA-Seq and were validated by qRT-PCR. Compared with vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus strains, expression of vraS was upregulated in all four isogenic hVISA strains. Vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the vraSR null mutants B6D-ΔvraSR and D7-ΔvraSR were significantly lower than in the wild-type strains B6D and D7 and the complemented strain B6D_c. RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR data showed that expression of genes encoding FmtA protein, foldase protein PrsA, capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis glycosyltransferase, TcaA, a putative membrane protein, and six hypothetical proteins was down regulated in both vraSR-null mutants B6D-ΔvraSR and D7-ΔvraSR. Most of these differentially expressed proteins are involved in cell wall biosynthesis, which is associated with vancomycin resistance in S. aureus. In conclusion, VraSR plays an important role in S. aureus strains with low-level vancomycin resistance. PrsA, FmtA, glycosyltransferase and TcaA are regulated directly or indirectly by VraSR.

  6. In vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic activity of NXL103 versus clindamycin and linezolid against clinical Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes isolates.

    PubMed

    Vidaillac, Celine; Parra-Ruiz, Jorge; Winterfield, Patricia; Rybak, Michael J

    2011-10-01

    NXL103 (linopristin/flopristin, 30/70) is a novel oral streptogramin combination with activity against a large variety of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of NXL103 in comparison with oral comparators (clindamycin and linezolid). Six clinical isolates [four meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and two Streptococcus pyogenes] were exposed for 48 h in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model at a starting inoculum of ca. 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL. Antimicrobial simulations included NXL103 500 mg every 12 h, linezolid 600 mg every 12 h and clindamycin 450 mg every 6 h. Bactericidal and static effects were defined as ≥3log(10) and <3log(10) CFU/mL kill from the starting inoculum, respectively. Experiments were performed in duplicate to ensure reproducibility, and differences between regimens were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey's post-hoc test. NXL103 exhibited lower minimum inhibitory concentrations than comparators, with values ≤0.06 mg/L for S. pyogenes and 0.125-0.25 mg/L for MRSA isolates. In the PK/PD model, NXL103 demonstrated significantly better activity than linezolid and clindamycin (P<0.05), achieving sustained bactericidal activity within <2 h against S. pyogenes strains and between 7.3-32 h against MRSA isolates. In contrast, linezolid only exhibited a static effect, whereas clindamycin achieved 3log(10) kill at 6h against the unique clindamycin-susceptible S. pyogenes strain evaluated. In conclusion, at therapeutic concentrations NXL103 exhibits promising activity against both MRSA and S. pyogenes strains, including clindamycin-resistant organisms. Further in vitro and in vivo experiments are warranted to explore the therapeutic benefit of NXL103 for the treatment of Gram-positive skin and soft-tissue infections. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Staphylococcus aureus (Staph Infection) In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby with a ... from your health care provider. What is a staph infection? Staphylococcus aureus (staph) is a type of bacteria ( ...

  8. A case control study of environmental and occupational exposures associated with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in patients admitted to a rural tertiary care hospital in a high density swine region

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Distinct strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been identified on livestock and livestock workers. Industrial food animal production may be an important environmental reservoir for human carriage of these pathogenic bacteria. The objective of this study was to investigate environmental and occupational exposures associated with nasal carriage of MRSA in patients hospitalized at Vidant Medical Center, a tertiary hospital serving a region with intensive livestock production in eastern North Carolina. Methods MRSA nasal carriage was identified via nasal swabs collected within 24 hours of hospital admission. MRSA carriers (cases) were gender and age matched to non-carriers (controls). Participants were interviewed about recent environmental and occupational exposures. Home addresses were geocoded and publicly available data were used to estimate the density of swine in residential census block groups of residence. Conditional logistic regression models were used to derive odds ratio (OR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Presence of the scn gene in MRSA isolates was assessed. In addition, multi locus sequence typing (MLST) of the MRSA isolates was performed, and the Diversilab® system was used to match the isolates to USA pulsed field gel electrophoresis types. Results From July - December 2011, 117 cases and 119 controls were enrolled. A higher proportion of controls than cases were current workforce members (41.2% vs. 31.6%) Cases had a higher odds of living in census block groups with medium densities of swine (OR: 4.76, 95% CI: 1.36-16.69) and of reporting the ability to smell odor from a farm with animals when they were home (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 0.80-2.86). Of 49 culture positive MRSA isolates, all were scn positive. Twenty-two isolates belonged to clonal complex 5. Conclusions Absence of livestock workers in this study precluded evaluation of occupational exposures. Higher odds of MRSA in medium swine density

  9. Changes in the Expression of Biofilm-Associated Surface Proteins in Staphylococcus aureus Food-Environmental Isolates Subjected to Sublethal Concentrations of Disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Cincarova, Lenka; Polansky, Ondrej; Babak, Vladimir; Kulich, Pavel; Kralik, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Sublethal concentrations (sub-MICs) of certain disinfectants are no longer effective in removing biofilms from abiotic surfaces and can even promote the formation of biofilms. Bacterial cells can probably adapt to these low concentrations of disinfectants and defend themselves by way of biofilm formation. In this paper, we report on three Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formers (strong B+++, moderate B++, and weak B+) that were cultivated with sub-MICs of commonly used disinfectants, ethanol or chloramine T, and quantified using Syto9 green fluorogenic nucleic acid stain. We demonstrate that 1.25-2.5% ethanol and 2500 μg/mL chloramine T significantly enhanced S. aureus biofilm formation. To visualize differences in biofilm compactness between S. aureus biofilms in control medium, 1.25% ethanol, or 2500 μg/mL chloramine T, scanning electron microscopy was used. To describe changes in abundance of surface-exposed proteins in ethanol- or chloramine T-treated biofilms, surface proteins were prepared using a novel trypsin shaving approach and quantified after dimethyl labeling by LC-LTQ/Orbitrap MS. Our data show that some proteins with adhesive functions and others with cell maintenance functions and virulence factor EsxA were significantly upregulated by both treatments. In contrast, immunoglobulin-binding protein A was significantly downregulated for both disinfectants. Significant differences were observed in the effect of the two disinfectants on the expression of surface proteins including some adhesins, foldase protein PrsA, and two virulence factors.

  10. Changes in the Expression of Biofilm-Associated Surface Proteins in Staphylococcus aureus Food-Environmental Isolates Subjected to Sublethal Concentrations of Disinfectants

    PubMed Central

    Polansky, Ondrej; Babak, Vladimir; Kulich, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Sublethal concentrations (sub-MICs) of certain disinfectants are no longer effective in removing biofilms from abiotic surfaces and can even promote the formation of biofilms. Bacterial cells can probably adapt to these low concentrations of disinfectants and defend themselves by way of biofilm formation. In this paper, we report on three Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formers (strong B+++, moderate B++, and weak B+) that were cultivated with sub-MICs of commonly used disinfectants, ethanol or chloramine T, and quantified using Syto9 green fluorogenic nucleic acid stain. We demonstrate that 1.25–2.5% ethanol and 2500 μg/mL chloramine T significantly enhanced S. aureus biofilm formation. To visualize differences in biofilm compactness between S. aureus biofilms in control medium, 1.25% ethanol, or 2500 μg/mL chloramine T, scanning electron microscopy was used. To describe changes in abundance of surface-exposed proteins in ethanol- or chloramine T-treated biofilms, surface proteins were prepared using a novel trypsin shaving approach and quantified after dimethyl labeling by LC-LTQ/Orbitrap MS. Our data show that some proteins with adhesive functions and others with cell maintenance functions and virulence factor EsxA were significantly upregulated by both treatments. In contrast, immunoglobulin-binding protein A was significantly downregulated for both disinfectants. Significant differences were observed in the effect of the two disinfectants on the expression of surface proteins including some adhesins, foldase protein PrsA, and two virulence factors. PMID:27868063

  11. Environmental methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus contamination in pig herds in relation to the productive phase and application of cleaning and disinfection.

    PubMed

    Merialdi, G; Galletti, E; Guazzetti, S; Rosignoli, C; Alborali, G; Battisti, A; Franco, A; Bonilauri, P; Rugna, G; Martelli, P

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study is to better understand MRSA environmental contamination in pig holdings in relation to the productive phase and the application of environmental cleaning and disinfection practices (C&D). This study was carried out on six herds. Dust samples from farrowing crates, weaning boxes, growing and finishing pens were collected from each herd environment prior to and after C&D and cultured for MRSA. Ten samples were collected at the end of each productive phase with the animals present and 10 additional samples were collected after C&D, prior to introduction of a new stock. The proportion of positive samples prior to C&D was lower in fattening than in other phases. The proportion of positive samples prior to and after C&D was 121/240 (50%) and 46/240 (19%) respectively. In the mixed effects logistic regression analysis it was shown not only that both productive phase and C&D were associated with the probability of having a positive sample but also that the C&D effect was different in the different productive phases. In particular the effect of C&D was stronger in farrowing crates than in the other productive phases. The results of this study show that, although current practices of cleaning and disinfection reduce MRSA environmental contamination, they are likely to be inadequate to the elimination of the microorganism. However, a strict application of hygienic protocols can lead to a marked reduction of MRSA environmental contamination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Non-slip socks: a potential reservoir for transmitting multidrug-resistant organisms in hospitals?

    PubMed

    Mahida, N; Boswell, T

    2016-11-01

    Non-slip socks are increasingly used to prevent falls in hospitals. Patients use them to walk to various parts of the hospital and also wear them in bed. Fifty-four pairs of socks and 35 environmental floor samples were obtained from seven wards in a tertiary referral hospital. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were detected from 46 (85%) socks and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from five (9%). Environmental sampling cultured VRE from 24 (69%) floor samples and MRSA from six (17%) floor samples. Clostridium difficile was not detected from any sample. Non-slip socks may become contaminated with multidrug-resistant pathogens and may form a potential route for cross-transmission.

  13. Staphylococcus lugdunensis endocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Shuttleworth, R; Colby, W D

    1992-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a recently described coagulase-negative species which has been associated with human infections, including infective endocarditis. A case of native valve endocarditis caused by this organism is described. The initial laboratory detection of S. lugdunensis is facilitated by a positive test for ornithine decarboxylase. The identification of such isolates should not cause difficulty unless undue reliance is placed upon a small number of tests. PMID:1500497

  14. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Nathan K; Mazaitis, Mark J; Costerton, J William; Leid, Jeff G; Powers, Mary Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Increasing attention has been focused on understanding bacterial biofilms and this growth modality's relation to human disease. In this review we explore the genetic regulation and molecular components involved in biofilm formation and maturation in the context of the Gram-positive cocci, Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, we discuss diseases and host immune responses, along with current therapies associated with S. aureus biofilm infections and prevention strategies. PMID:21921685

  15. The Staphylococcus aureus "superbug".

    PubMed

    Foster, Timothy J

    2004-12-01

    There has been some debate about the disease-invoking potential of Staphylococcus aureus strains and whether invasive disease is associated with particularly virulent genotypes, or "superbugs." A study in this issue of the JCI describes the genotyping of a large collection of nonclinical, commensal S. aureus strains from healthy individuals in a Dutch population. Extensive study of their genetic relatedness by amplified restriction fragment typing and comparison with strains that are associated with different types of infections revealed that the S. aureus population is clonal and that some strains have enhanced virulence. This is discussed in the context of growing interest in the mechanisms of bacterial colonization, antibiotic resistance, and novel vaccines.

  16. Desiccation tolerance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Chaibenjawong, Plykaeow; Foster, Simon J

    2011-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a multidrug-resistant pathogen that not only causes a diverse array of human diseases, but also is able to survive in potentially dry and stressful environments, such as the human nose, on skin and on inanimate surfaces such as clothing and surfaces. This study investigated parameters governing desiccation tolerance of S. aureus and identified several components involved in the process. Initially, the role of environmental parameters such as temperature, growth phase, cell density, desiccation time and protectants in desiccation tolerance were determined. This established a robust model of desiccation tolerance in which S. aureus has the ability to survive on dry plastic surfaces for more than 1,097 days. Using a combination of a random screen and defined mutants, clpX, sigB and yjbH were identified as being required for desiccation tolerance. ClpX is a part of the ATP-dependent ClpXP protease, important for protein turnover, and YjbH has a proposed linked function. SigB is an accessory sigma factor with a role in generalized stress resistance. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that govern desiccation tolerance may determine the break points to be exploited to prevent the spread of this dangerous pathogen in hospitals and communities.

  17. Staphylococcus epidermidis pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Otto, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most frequently encountered member of the coagulase-negative staphylococci on human epithelial surfaces. It has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen, especially in infections of indwelling medical devices. The mechanisms that S. epidermidis uses to survive during infection are in general of a passive nature, reflecting their possible origin in the commensal life of this bacterium. Most importantly, S. epidermidis excels in forming biofilms, sticky agglomerations that inhibit major host defense mechanisms. Furthermore, S. epidermidis produces a series of protective surface polymers and exoenzymes. Moreover, S. epidermidis has the capacity to secrete strongly cytolytic members of the phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) family, but PSMs in S. epidermidis overall appear to participate primarily in biofilm development. Finally, there is evidence for a virulence gene reservoir function of S. epidermidis, as it appears to have transferred important immune evasion and antibiotic resistance factors to Staphylococcus aureus. Conversely, S. epidermidis also has a beneficial role in balancing the microflora on human epithelial surfaces by controlling outgrowth of harmful bacteria such as in particular S. aureus. Recent research yielded detailed insight into key S. epidermidis virulence determinants and their regulation, in particular as far as biofilm formation is concerned, but we still have a serious lack of understanding of the in vivo relevance of many pathogenesis mechanisms and the factors that govern the commensal life of S. epidermidis.

  18. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Recovered from Humans, Environmental Surfaces, and Companion Animals in Households of Children with Community-Onset Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus Infections.

    PubMed

    Morelli, John J; Hogan, Patrick G; Sullivan, Melanie L; Muenks, Carol E; Wang, Jeffrey W; Thompson, Ryley M; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Fritz, Stephanie A

    2015-10-01

    Our objective was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from 110 households of children with community-onset methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections. Cultures were obtained from household members, household objects, and dogs and cats, yielding 1,633 S. aureus isolates. The S. aureus isolates were heterogeneous, although more than half were methicillin resistant. The highest proportion of MRSA was found in bathrooms. The majority of isolates were susceptible to antibiotics prescribed in outpatient settings.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus toxins.

    PubMed

    Otto, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a dangerous pathogen that causes a variety of severe diseases. The virulence of S. aureus is defined by a large repertoire of virulence factors, among which secreted toxins play a preeminent role. Many S. aureus toxins damage biological membranes, leading to cell death. In particular, S. aureus produces potent hemolysins and leukotoxins. Among the latter, some were recently identified to lyse neutrophils after ingestion, representing an especially powerful weapon against bacterial elimination by innate host defense. Furthermore, S. aureus secretes many factors that inhibit the complement cascade or prevent recognition by host defenses. Several further toxins add to this multi-faceted program of S. aureus to evade elimination in the host. This review will give an overview over S. aureus toxins focusing on recent advances in our understanding of how leukotoxins work in receptor-mediated or receptor-independent fashions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. [Protein toxins of Staphylococcus aureus].

    PubMed

    Shamsutdinov, A F; Tiurin, Iu A

    2014-01-01

    Main scientific-research studies regarding protein bacterial toxins of the most widespread bacteria that belong to Staphylococcus spp. genus and in particular the most pathogenic species for humans--Staphylococcus aureus, are analyzed. Structural and biological properties of protein toxins that have received the name of staphylococcus pyrogenic toxins (PTSAg) are presented. Data regarding genetic regulation of secretion and synthesis of these toxins and 3 main regulatory genetic systems (agr--accessory gene regulator, xpr--extracellular protein regulator, sar--staphylococcal accessory regulator) that coordinate synthesis of the most important protein toxins and enzymes for virulence of S. aureus, are presented.

  1. Impact of rapid methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus polymerase chain reaction testing on mortality and cost effectiveness in hospitalized patients with bacteraemia: a decision model.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jack; Paladino, Joseph A

    2010-01-01

    Patients hospitalized with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia have an unacceptably high mortality rate. Literature available to date has shown that timely selection of the most appropriate antibacterial may reduce mortality. One tool that may help with this selection is a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that distinguishes methicillin (meticillin)-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) from methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) in less than 1 hour. To date, no information is available evaluating the impact of this PCR technique on clinical or economic outcomes. To evaluate the effect of a rapid PCR assay on mortality and economics compared with traditional empiric therapy, using a literature-derived model. A literature search for peer-reviewed European (EU) and US publications regarding treatment regimens, outcomes and costs was conducted. Information detailing the rates of infection, as well as the specificity and sensitivity of a rapid PCR assay (Xpert MRSA/SA Blood Culture PCR) were obtained from the peer-reviewed literature. Sensitivity analysis varied the prevalence rate of MRSA from 5% to 80%, while threshold analysis was applied to the cost of the PCR test. Hospital and testing resource consumption were valued with direct medical costs, adjusted to year 2009 values. Adjusted life-years were determined using US and WHO life tables. The cost-effectiveness ratio was defined as the cost per life-year saved. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated to determine the additional cost necessary to produce additional effectiveness. All analyses were performed using TreeAge Software (2008). The mean mortality rates were 23% for patients receiving empiric vancomycin subsequently switched to semi-synthetic penicillin (SSP) for MSSA, 36% for patients receiving empiric vancomycin treatment for MRSA, 59% for patients receiving empiric SSP subsequently switched to vancomycin for MRSA and 12% for patients receiving empiric SSP for MSSA. Furthermore, with an

  2. Evolving Superantigens of Staphylococcus Aureus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    1993) Phenotypic char- acterization of xpr, a global regulator of extracellular virulence fac- tors in Staphylococcus aureus. Infect . Immun. 61, 919...tional fusions as the detection system in the rabbit endocarditis mod- el. Infect . Immun. 66, 5988-5993. [35] Wieneke, A.A., Roberts, D. and... Infections Diseases, 1425 Porter Street, Frederick, MD 21702, USA Received 24 March 1999; accepted 14 April 1999 Abstract Staphylococcus aureus

  3. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Recovered from Humans, Environmental Surfaces, and Companion Animals in Households of Children with Community-Onset Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Morelli, John J.; Hogan, Patrick G.; Sullivan, Melanie L.; Muenks, Carol E.; Wang, Jeffrey W.; Thompson, Ryley M.

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from 110 households of children with community-onset methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections. Cultures were obtained from household members, household objects, and dogs and cats, yielding 1,633 S. aureus isolates. The S. aureus isolates were heterogeneous, although more than half were methicillin resistant. The highest proportion of MRSA was found in bathrooms. The majority of isolates were susceptible to antibiotics prescribed in outpatient settings. PMID:26248385

  4. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    MedlinePlus

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA); Staph - MRSA; Staphylococcal - MRSA ... Que YA, Moreillon P. Staphylococcus aureus (including ... MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice ...

  5. The Evaluation of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. M.; Bassinger, V. J.; Fontenot, S. L.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) represents a semi-closed environment with a high level of crewmember interaction. As community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a health concern in environments with susceptible hosts in close proximity, an evaluation of isolates of clinical and environmental Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus was performed to determine if this trend was also present in astronauts aboard ISS or the space station itself. Rep-PCR fingerprinting analysis of archived ISS isolates confirmed our earlier studies indicating a transfer of S. aureus between crewmembers. In addition, this fingerprinting also indicated a transfer between crewmembers and their environment. While a variety of S. aureus were identified from both the crewmembers and the environment, phenotypic evaluations indicated minimal methicillin resistance. However, positive results for the Penicillin Binding Protein, indicative of the presence of the mecA gene, were detected in multiple isolates of archived Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Phenotypic analysis of these isolates confirmed their resistance to methicillin. While MRSA has not been isolated aboard ISS, the potential exists for the transfer of the gene, mecA, from coagulase negative environmental Staphylococcus to S. aureus creating MRSA strains. This study suggests the need to expand environmental monitoring aboard long duration exploration spacecraft to include antibiotic resistance profiling.

  6. The Evaluation of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. M.; Bassinger, V. J.; Fontenot, S. L.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) represents a semi-closed environment with a high level of crewmember interaction. As community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a health concern in environments with susceptible hosts in close proximity, an evaluation of isolates of clinical and environmental Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus was performed to determine if this trend was also present in astronauts aboard ISS or the space station itself. Rep-PCR fingerprinting analysis of archived ISS isolates confirmed our earlier studies indicating a transfer of S. aureus between crewmembers. In addition, this fingerprinting also indicated a transfer between crewmembers and their environment. While a variety of S. aureus were identified from both the crewmembers and the environment, phenotypic evaluations indicated minimal methicillin resistance. However, positive results for the Penicillin Binding Protein, indicative of the presence of the mecA gene, were detected in multiple isolates of archived Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Phenotypic analysis of these isolates confirmed their resistance to methicillin. While MRSA has not been isolated aboard ISS, the potential exists for the transfer of the gene, mecA, from coagulase negative environmental Staphylococcus to S. aureus creating MRSA strains. This study suggests the need to expand environmental monitoring aboard long duration exploration spacecraft to include antibiotic resistance profiling.

  7. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications.

  8. Efficacy of lytic Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in mice.

    PubMed

    Oduor, Joseph Michael Ochieng'; Onkoba, Nyamongo; Maloba, Fredrick; Arodi, Washingtone Ouma; Nyachieo, Atunga

    2016-11-24

    The use of bacteriophages as an alternative treatment method against multidrug-resistant bacteria has not been explored in Kenya. This study sought to determine the efficacy of environmentally obtained lytic bacteriophage against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA) bacterium in mice. Staphylococcus aureus bacterium and S. aureus-specific lytic phage were isolated from sewage and wastewater collected within Nairobi County, Kenya. Thirty mice were randomly assigned into three groups: MDRSA infection group (n = 20), phage-infection group (n = 5), and non-infection group (n = 5). The MDRSA infection group was further subdivided into three groups: clindamycin treatment (8 mg/kg; n = 5), lytic phage treatment (108 PFU/mL (n = 5), and a combination treatment of clindamycin and lytic phage (n = 5). Treatments were done at either 24 or 72 hours post-infection (p.i), and data on efficacy, bacterial load, and animal physical health were collected. Treatment with phage was more effective (100%) than with clindamycin (62.25% at 24 hours p.i and 87.5% at 72 hours p.i.) or combination treatment (75% at 24 hours p.i. and 90% at 72 hours p.i.) (p < 0.001). The results show that the environmentally obtained S. aureus lytic bacteriophage has therapeutic potential against MDRSA bacterium in mice.

  9. Comparative characteristics of Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus lentus and Staphylococcus gallinarum isolated from healthy and sick hosts.

    PubMed

    Adegoke, G O

    1986-02-01

    Of 136 strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from healthy and sick human beings, goats, sheep, antelope and other animals, 88 (64.7%) were Staphylococcus sciuri and 35 (25.7%) were S. lentus and the remainder Staphylococcus gallinarum. The strains of S. sciuri were isolated from humans with boils and wounds, goats with pestes des petits ruminants (PPR) and dogs with nasal discharge. One isolate of S. gallinarum came from a fowl with chronic respiratory disease and 11 others were isolated from goats. The characteristics of S. sciuri, S. lentus and S. gallinarum isolated from different sources were similar.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Allan Garlik

    2003-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is still associated with a high mortality, and knowledge on risk factors and the clinical and the therapeutic aspects of SAB is still limited. This thesis focuses on the clinical aspects of SAB and its metastatic infections. In a study of all patients with bacteremia in Copenhagen County October 1992 through April 1993 (study I) we emphasized previous findings, that S. aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens in bacteremia, and in a case control study also in Copenhagen County 1994-95 (study II) we demonstrated, that not only an inserted central venous catheter and nasal S. aureus carriage but also hyponatremia and anemia are important risk factors for hospital-acquired SAB (study II). Studies on the treatment of SAB have pointed out, that the eradication of a primary is important, but there are only limited clinical studies dealing with antibiotic treatment. By logistic regression analysis, we were able to demonstrate that focus eradication is essential, but also that treatment with dicloxacillin 1 g x 4 or 2 g x 3 are superior to 1 g x 3 (studie III), indicating that the time for serum concentration above the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for the bacteria plays a role in the outcome of SAB treatment. S. aureus osteomyelitis secondary to SAB is frequently observed. No other countries, however, have a centralized registration, which make it possible to evaluate a large number of these patients. Since 1960, The Staphylococcal Laboratory, Statens Serum Institut in Copenhagen, has registrated selected clinical informations from nearly all patients with positive blood cultures of S. aureus. Based on this registration, we were able to show an increased number of S. aureus osteomyelitis among older patients and a decreased number of S. aureus osteomyelitis of femur and tibia among younger infants in the period 1980-90 (study IV). By reviewing the records of a large number of patients with vertebral S. aureus

  11. Evaluation of the national Cleanyourhands campaign to reduce Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia and Clostridium difficile infection in hospitals in England and Wales by improved hand hygiene: four year, prospective, ecological, interrupted time series study

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Christopher; Savage, Joan; Cookson, Barry; Hayward, Andrew; Cooper, Ben; Duckworth, Georgia; Michie, Susan; Murray, Miranda; Jeanes, Annette; Roberts, J; Teare, Louise; Charlett, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of the Cleanyourhands campaign on rates of hospital procurement of alcohol hand rub and soap, report trends in selected healthcare associated infections, and investigate the association between infections and procurement. Design Prospective, ecological, interrupted time series study from 1 July 2004 to 30 June 2008. Setting 187 acute trusts in England and Wales. Intervention Installation of bedside alcohol hand rub, materials promoting hand hygiene and institutional engagement, regular hand hygiene audits, rolled out nationally from 1 December 2004. Main outcome measures Quarterly (that is, every three months) rates for each trust of hospital procurement of alcohol hand rub and liquid soap; Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (meticillin resistant (MRSA) and meticillin sensitive (MSSA)) and Clostridium difficile infection for each trust. Associations between procurement and infection rates assessed by mixed effect Poisson regression model (which also accounted for effect of bed occupancy, hospital type, and timing of other national interventions targeting these infections). Results Combined procurement of soap and alcohol hand rub tripled from 21.8 to 59.8 mL per patient bed day; procurement rose in association with each phase of the campaign. Rates fell for MRSA bacteraemia (1.88 to 0.91 cases per 10 000 bed days) and C difficile infection (16.75 to 9.49 cases). MSSA bacteraemia rates did not fall. Increased procurement of soap was independently associated with reduced C difficile infection throughout the study (adjusted incidence rate ratio for 1 mL increase per patient bed day 0.993, 95% confidence interval 0.990 to 0.996; P<0.0001). Increased procurement of alcohol hand rub was independently associated with reduced MRSA bacteraemia, but only in the last four quarters of the study (0.990, 0.985 to 0.995; P<0.0001). Publication of the Health Act 2006 was strongly associated with reduced MRSA bacteraemia (0.86, 0.75 to 0.98; P=0

  12. Staphylococcus lugdunensis, a serious pathogen in periprosthetic joint infections: comparison to Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Lourtet-Hascoët, J; Bicart-See, A; Félicé, M P; Giordano, G; Bonnet, E

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis and to compare these to the characteristics of PJI due to Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. A retrospective multicentre study including all consecutive cases of S. lugdunensis PJI (2000-2014) was performed. Eighty-eight cases of staphylococcal PJI were recorded: 28 due to S. lugdunensis, 30 to S. aureus, and 30 to S. epidermidis, as identified by Vitek 2 or API Staph (bioMérieux). Clinical symptoms were more often reported in the S. lugdunensis group, and the median delay between surgery and infection was shorter for the S. lugdunensis group than for the S. aureus and S. epidermidis groups. Regarding antibiotic susceptibility, the S. lugdunensis strains were susceptible to antibiotics and 61% of the patients could be treated with levofloxacin + rifampicin. The outcome of the PJI was favourable for 89% of patients with S. lugdunensis, 83% with S. aureus, and 97% with S. epidermidis. S. lugdunensis is an emerging pathogen with a pathogenicity quite similar to that of S. aureus. This coagulase-negative Staphylococcus must be identified precisely in PJI, in order to select the appropriate surgical treatment and antibiotics . Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Staphylococcus aureus and Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in and Around Therapeutic Whirlpools in College Athletic Training Rooms

    PubMed Central

    Kahanov, Leamor; Kim, Young Kyun; Eberman, Lindsey; Dannelly, Kathleen; Kaur, Haninder; Ramalinga, A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infection in the nonhospitalized community. Care of the athletes in athletic training rooms is specifically designed with equipment tailored to the health care needs of the athletes, yet recent studies indicate that CA-MRSA is still prevalent in athletic facilities and that cleaning methods may not be optimal. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and CA-MRSA in and around whirlpools in the athletic training room. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Patients or Other Participants: Student-athletes (n = 109) consisting of 46 men (42%) and 63 women (58%) representing 6 sports. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presence of MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpool structures relative to sport and number of athletes using the whirlpools. Results: We identified Staphylococcus aureus in 22% (n = 52/240) of the samples and MRSA in 0.8% (n = 2/240). A statistically significant difference existed between the number of athletes using the whirlpool and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpools (F2,238 = 2.445, P = .007). However, Staphylococcus aureus was identified regardless of whether multiple athletes used a whirlpool or no athletes used a whirlpool. We did not identify a relationship between the number of athletes who used a whirlpool and Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA density (P = .134). Conclusions: Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA were identified in and around the whirlpools. Transmission of the bacteria can be reduced by following the cleaning and disinfecting protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Athletic trainers should use disinfectants registered by the Environmental Protection Agency to sanitize all whirlpools between uses. PMID:25710853

  14. Staphylococcus aureus and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in and around therapeutic whirlpools in college athletic training rooms.

    PubMed

    Kahanov, Leamor; Kim, Young Kyun; Eberman, Lindsey; Dannelly, Kathleen; Kaur, Haninder; Ramalinga, A

    2015-04-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infection in the nonhospitalized community. Care of the athletes in athletic training rooms is specifically designed with equipment tailored to the health care needs of the athletes, yet recent studies indicate that CA-MRSA is still prevalent in athletic facilities and that cleaning methods may not be optimal. To investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and CA-MRSA in and around whirlpools in the athletic training room. Cross-sectional study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Student-athletes (n = 109) consisting of 46 men (42%) and 63 women (58%) representing 6 sports. Presence of MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpool structures relative to sport and number of athletes using the whirlpools. We identified Staphylococcus aureus in 22% (n = 52/240) of the samples and MRSA in 0.8% (n = 2/240). A statistically significant difference existed between the number of athletes using the whirlpool and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpools (F(2,238) = 2.445, P = .007). However, Staphylococcus aureus was identified regardless of whether multiple athletes used a whirlpool or no athletes used a whirlpool. We did not identify a relationship between the number of athletes who used a whirlpool and Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA density (P = .134). Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA were identified in and around the whirlpools. Transmission of the bacteria can be reduced by following the cleaning and disinfecting protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Athletic trainers should use disinfectants registered by the Environmental Protection Agency to sanitize all whirlpools between uses.

  15. A meta-analysis of the rates of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S aureus contamination on the surfaces of environmental objects that health care workers frequently touch.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dongxin; Ou, Qianting; Lin, Jialing; Peng, Yang; Yao, Zhenjiang

    2017-04-01

    Health care workers may potentially spread Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) to patients by contaminated high-touch items. We aimed to determine the pooled rates of S aureus and MRSA contamination and influencing factors. A literature search of the PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, Ovid, and Scopus databases was performed. Pooled contamination rates were determined using random effect models. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were conducted to identify factors potentially influencing the rates of S aureus and MRSA contamination. Sensitivity and publication bias analyses were performed. Thirty-eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled contamination rates were 15.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.8%-21.1%) for S aureus and 5.0% (95% CI, 2.7%-7.7%) for MRSA. The subgroup analyses indicated that the pooled rate of S aureus contamination was significantly higher for studies conducted in South America, in developing countries, and during 2010-2015. The pooled rate of MRSA contamination was significantly higher for studies conducted in Africa. The meta-regression analysis suggested that the pooled rate of S aureus contamination was lower for studies conducted in developed countries (odds ratio, 0.664; 95% CI, 0.509-0.867; P = .004). No bias was found in the publication of the rates of S aureus and MRSA contamination. S aureus and MRSA contamination statuses of high-touch items are worrisome and should be paid greater attention. Developing country status was a risk factor for S aureus contamination. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bacteriophage Transduction in Staphylococcus epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Michael E.; Horswill, Alexander R.

    2016-01-01

    The genetic manipulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis for molecular experimentation has long been an area of difficulty. Many of the traditional laboratory techniques for strain construction are laborious and hampered by poor efficiency. The ability to move chromosomal genetic markers and plasmids using bacteriophage transduction has greatly increased the speed and ease of S. epidermidis studies. These molecular genetic advances have advanced the S. epidermidis research field beyond a select few genetically tractable strains and facilitated investigations of clinically relevant isolates. PMID:24222465

  17. Infection prevention and control in the operating theatre: reducing the risk of surgical site infections (SSIs).

    PubMed

    Weaving, Paul; Cox, Felicia; Milton, Sherran

    2008-05-01

    Continuing advances in surgical techniques, asepsis, operating theatre protocols and ventilation systems that ensure an uninterrupted supply of clean air, should allow all patients to undergo both invasive and minimally-invasive procedures with reduced risk. Patients having surgery in the United Kingdom are probably less vulnerable to surgical site infections (SSIs) than ever before--despite persisting concerns about meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and increasing antibiotic resistance in other organisms such as vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE).

  18. CHROMOSOMAL MAPPING IN STRAINS OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS , CHROMOSOMES), (*CHROMOSOMES, MAPPING), NITROSO COMPOUNDS, GUANIDINES, GENETICS, MUTATIONS, DRUGS, TOLERANCES(PHYSIOLOGY), TEST METHODS, DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACIDS, INHIBITION, RESISTANCE(BIOLOGY).

  19. Comparison of tests to detect oxacillin resistance in Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus schleiferi, and Staphylococcus aureus isolates from canine hosts.

    PubMed

    Bemis, David A; Jones, Rebekah D; Hiatt, Lauren E; Ofori, Edward D; Rohrbach, Barton W; Frank, Linda A; Kania, Stephen A

    2006-09-01

    Multiple tests were compared to the reference standard PBP2a latex agglutination test for detection of mecA-mediated oxacillin resistance in canine staphylococci. Cefoxitin disk diffusion, using breakpoints for human isolates of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., had low sensitivity for detection of oxacillin resistance in members of the Staphylococcus intermedius group.

  20. Activity of Gallidermin on Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Saising, Jongkon; Dube, Linda; Ziebandt, Anne-Kathrin; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Nega, Mulugeta

    2012-01-01

    Due to their abilities to form strong biofilms, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the most frequently isolated pathogens in persistent and chronic implant-associated infections. As biofilm-embedded bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics and the immune system, they are extremely difficult to treat. Therefore, biofilm-active antibiotics are a major challenge. Here we investigated the effect of the lantibiotic gallidermin on two representative biofilm-forming staphylococcal species. Gallidermin inhibits not only the growth of staphylococci in a dose-dependent manner but also efficiently prevents biofilm formation by both species. The effect on biofilm might be due to repression of biofilm-related targets, such as ica (intercellular adhesin) and atl (major autolysin). However, gallidermin's killing activity on 24-h and 5-day-old biofilms was significantly decreased. A subpopulation of 0.1 to 1.0% of cells survived, comprising “persister” cells of an unknown genetic and physiological state. Like many other antibiotics, gallidermin showed only limited activity on cells within mature biofilms. PMID:22926575

  1. Activity of gallidermin on Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms.

    PubMed

    Saising, Jongkon; Dube, Linda; Ziebandt, Anne-Kathrin; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Nega, Mulugeta; Götz, Friedrich

    2012-11-01

    Due to their abilities to form strong biofilms, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the most frequently isolated pathogens in persistent and chronic implant-associated infections. As biofilm-embedded bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics and the immune system, they are extremely difficult to treat. Therefore, biofilm-active antibiotics are a major challenge. Here we investigated the effect of the lantibiotic gallidermin on two representative biofilm-forming staphylococcal species. Gallidermin inhibits not only the growth of staphylococci in a dose-dependent manner but also efficiently prevents biofilm formation by both species. The effect on biofilm might be due to repression of biofilm-related targets, such as ica (intercellular adhesin) and atl (major autolysin). However, gallidermin's killing activity on 24-h and 5-day-old biofilms was significantly decreased. A subpopulation of 0.1 to 1.0% of cells survived, comprising "persister" cells of an unknown genetic and physiological state. Like many other antibiotics, gallidermin showed only limited activity on cells within mature biofilms.

  2. Evaluation of the Vitek 2 System with a Variety of Staphylococcus Species▿

    PubMed Central

    Delmas, Julien; Chacornac, Jean Paul; Robin, Frédéric; Giammarinaro, Philippe; Talon, Régine; Bonnet, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The Vitek 2 gram-positive (GP) card was compared with an oligonucleotide array approach for the identification of 190 Staphylococcus strains, including 35 species, isolated from clinical and environmental specimens. The GP card provided a rapid and reliable identification of most species, whatever their origin. PMID:17959759

  3. Are gym surfaces reservoirs for Staphylococcus aureus? A point prevalence survey.

    PubMed

    Markley, John Daniel; Edmond, Michael B; Major, Yvette; Bearman, Gonzalo; Stevens, Michael P

    2012-12-01

    We sought to identify staphylococcal contamination of gymnasium surfaces. Various environmental surfaces were cultured at a university fitness center. Ten out of 99 samples yielded Staphylococcus aureus, all of which were methicillin-susceptible. Gym surfaces may be colonized with staphylococci and could play a role in community transmission of staphylococcal species. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  4. Tracking sources of Staphylococcus aureus hand contamination in food handlers by spa typing.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jeffery; Boost, Maureen V; O'Donoghue, Margaret M

    2015-07-01

    We aimed to identify the source of Staphylococcus aureus contaminating hands of food handlers. Nasal samples and direct fingertip imprints were collected on 2 occasions from food handlers and characterized to determine likely sources of hand contamination. Most hand contamination was attributable to nasal isolates of persistently colonized coworkers who had presumably contaminated the environment. Regular handwashing should be supplemented by effective environmental disinfection.

  5. Staphylococcus saprophyticus causing native valve endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Garduño, Eugenio; Márquez, Irene; Beteta, Alicia; Said, Ibrahim; Blanco, Javier; Pineda, Tomás

    2005-01-01

    Coagulase negative staphylococci are a rare cause of native valve endocarditis. Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus infrequently reported as a human pathogen, and most of the cases reported are urinary tract infections. We describe a case of native valve endocarditis attributed to this organism. The patient needed valve replacement due to heart failure.

  6. Erythema nodosum associated with Staphylococcus xylosus septicemia.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Nicola; Corallo, Claudio; Miracco, Clelia; Papakostas, Panagiotis; Montella, Antonio; Figura, Natale; Nuti, Ranuccio

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is a coagulase-negative staphylococcus. It is a commensal bacterium associated with skin and mucous membranes and occasionally it can cause human infections. We report the first case of erythema nodosum developed in a young woman with S. xylosus septicemia and specific serum antibody response. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus species.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Faisal Iqbal; Zeb, Mubarak; Hussain, Arif; Farooqi, Badar Jahan; Murtuza, Ghulam

    2014-07-01

    To determine the frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus species by phenotypic D-test. Observational study. Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi, from July to December 2011. Consecutive clinical isolates of Staphylococcus species were collected and identified by conventional microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and inducible clindamycin resistance was carried out by performing D-test using CLSI criteria. Methicillin resistance was detected by using Cefoxitin disk as a surrogate marker. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS version-17. A total of 667 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus species were obtained during the study period. In these isolates, 177 (26.5%) were Staphylococcus aureus, and 490 (73.5%) were coagulase negative Staphylococci. The total frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance among isolates of Staphylococcus species was 120/667 (18%). Frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance among coagulase negative Staphylococci group and Staphylococcus aureus group were 18.57% and 16.38% respectively. Median age of patients in D-test positive group was 19.5 (1 - 54) years. The frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance among Staphylococcus species may differ in different hospital setup. Clinical microbiology laboratories should implement testing simple and effective D-test on all Staphylococcus species. D-test positive isolates should be reported clindamycin resistant to decrease treatment failure.

  8. Molecular mechanisms of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, M A; Liñares, J; Martín, R

    1997-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are among the most common nosocomial pathogens. The most significant mechanism of resistance to methicillin in this-species is the acquisition of a genetic determinant (mecA gene). However, resistance seems to have a more complex molecular basis, since additional chromosomal material is involved in such resistance. Besides, overproduction of penicillinase and/or alterations in the PBPs can contribute to the formation of resistance phenotypes. Genetic and environmental factors leading to MRSA are reviewed.

  9. The Staphylococcus aureus RNome and Its Commitment to Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Felden, Brice; Vandenesch, François; Bouloc, Philippe; Romby, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen causing a wide spectrum of nosocomial and community-associated infections with high morbidity and mortality. S. aureus generates a large number of virulence factors whose timing and expression levels are precisely tuned by regulatory proteins and RNAs. The aptitude of bacteria to use RNAs to rapidly modify gene expression, including virulence factors in response to stress or environmental changes, and to survive in a host is an evolving concept. Here, we focus on the recently inventoried S. aureus regulatory RNAs, with emphasis on those with identified functions, two of which are directly involved in pathogenicity. PMID:21423670

  10. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus - an overview.

    PubMed

    Haque, N; Bari, M S; Bilkis, L; Haque, N; Haque, S; Sultana, S

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus strains those are resistant to methicillin are referred to as Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. These express mecA gene to produce altered penicillin binding protein. At present Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been increasing as a serious nosocomial and community pathogen having the property of multi drug resistant. Humans are the natural reservoir for Staphylococcus aureus and asymptomatic colonization is far more common than infection. Many hospitals of different country of the world including Bangladesh are struggling with increasing number of this versatile pathogen. Early and specific diagnosis is important to ensure a favourable outcome. In this paper we attempted to explore history, prevalence, transmission, risk factors, pathogenicity, laboratory diagnosis, prevention and control of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a critical review to provide some new upgrade regarding this super bug.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus dispersal from healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Katy-Anne; Copley, Vicky R; Parks, Simon; Walker, James T; Bennett, Allan M

    2014-03-01

    Understanding Staphylococcus aureus dispersal from human carriers is vital for preventing transmission and colonization of this organism in health care settings. This study investigated the S aureus supershedder hypothesis in relation to attributes of healthy volunteers. Microbial aerosol generation from volunteers was quantified within a controlled environmental chamber during walking or sitting activities. Biological air samplers were used to determine numbers of total S aureus colony-forming units disseminated during these activities. A total of 17 volunteers was sampled on 3 occasions. Hairstyle (long hair tied up or a shaved head) was the only significant predictor of dissemination of S aureus (5% significance level). No other significant effects were found at the 5% level. A negative binomial distribution provides the best fit with respect to S aureus. We found that, in the context of our small sample size, hairstyle (long hair tied up or a shaved head) statistically affected levels of bacteria shed from volunteers. However, we found no evidence for "supershedders" or "cloud adults," suggesting they are at an extreme end of a continuous distribution. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Carlos Andrés; Vesga, Omar

    2005-12-01

    The evolution and molecular mechanisms of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus were reviewed. Case reports and research studies on biochemestry, electron microscopy and molecular biology of Staphylococcus aureus were selected from Medline database and summarized in the following review. After almost 40 years of successful treatment of S. aureus with vancomycin, several cases of clinical failures have been reported (since 1997). S. aureus strains have appeared with intermediate susceptibility (MIC 8-16 microg/ml), as well as strains with heterogeneous resistance (global MIC < or =4 microg/ml), but with subpopulations of intermediate susceptibility. In these cases, resistance is mediated by cell wall thickening with reduced cross linking. This traps the antibiotic before it reaches its major target, the murein monomers in the cell membrane. In 2002, a total vancomycin resistant strain (MIC > or =32 microg/ml) was reported with vanA genes from Enterococcus spp. These genes induce the change of D-Ala-D-Ala terminus for D-Ala-D-lactate in the cell wall precursors, leading to loss of affinity for glycopeptides. Vancomycin resistance in S. aureus has appeared; it is mediated by cell wall modifications that trap the antibiotic before it reaches its action site. In strains with total resistance, Enterococcus spp. genes have been acquired that lead to modification of the glycopeptide target.

  13. Genomic Diversity in Staphylococcus xylosus▿

    PubMed Central

    Dordet-Frisoni, Emilie; Dorchies, Géraud; De Araujo, Cécilia; Talon, Régine; Leroy, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is a commensal of the skin of humans and animals and a ubiquitous bacterium naturally present in food. It is one of the major starter cultures used for meat fermentation, but a few strains could potentially be hazardous and are related to animal opportunistic infections. To better understand the genetic diversity of S. xylosus intraspecies, suppressive and subtractive hybridization (SSH) was carried out with the S. xylosus C2a strain, a commensal of human skin, used as the driver for three tester strains, S04002 used as a starter culture, S04009 isolated from cow mastitis, and 00-1747, responsible for mouse dermatitis. SSH revealed 122 tester-specific fragments corresponding to 149 open reading frames (ORFs). A large proportion of these ORFs resembled genes involved in specific metabolisms. Analysis of the distribution of the tester-specific fragments in 20 S. xylosus strains of various origins showed that the S. xylosus species could be divided into two clusters with one composed only of potentially hazardous strains. The genetic content diversity of this species is colocalized in a region near the origin of replication of the chromosome. This region of speciation previously observed in the Staphylococcus genus corresponded in S. xylosus species to a strain-specific region potentially implicated in ecological fitness. PMID:17890333

  14. Use of natural antimicrobials from a food safety perspective for control of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Muthaiyan, Arunachalam; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Gustafson, John E; Li, Y; Crandall, Philip G; Ricke, Steven C

    2011-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is an important foodborne and environmental pathogen that can produce toxins in foods and cause infections in soft tissues. S. aureus that have developed resistance to the conventional antimicrobials are commonly called Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin-Resistant S. aureus (VRSA). Their prevalence is believed to be due to the widespread use of antibiotics. Therefore, natural antimicrobials are in urgent demand as alternatives to conventional antibiotics to treat S. aureus infections. In this review, natural antimicrobials from plant, animal and microbiological origins are discussed, including their mode of action and mechanisms of bacterial resistance, major components, chemical structure, effectiveness, synergistic effects and future prospects.

  15. Staphylococcus aureus: a community pathogen.

    PubMed

    Miller, Loren G; Kaplan, Sheldon L

    2009-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common human pathogen. S aureus infections most commonly clinically manifest as skin infections. There has been much interest in S aureus infections in the community over the past decade because of the rise of community-associated methicillin-resistant S aureus (CA-MRSA) infections, which have emerged globally over a relatively short period of time. In contrast to health care-associated methicillin resistant S aureus (HA-MRSA), circulating strains of CA-MRSA have characteristic pathogenesis, strain characteristics, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations that are distinct from HA-MRSA. In fact, CA-MRSA probably behaves more like community-associated methicillin-sensitive S aureus (MSSA). This article reviews current knowledge of the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of community-associated S aureus and CA-MRSA infections.

  16. Colony spreading in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Kaito, Chikara; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2007-03-01

    Wild-type Staphylococcus aureus rapidly expands on the surface of soft agar plates. The rates of expansion and the shapes of the resultant giant colonies were distinct for different strains of laboratory stocks and clinical isolates. The colony spreading abilities did not correlate with the biofilm-forming abilities in these strains. Insertional disruption of the dltABCD operon, which functions at the step of D-alanine addition to teichoic acids, and of the tagO gene, which is responsible for the synthesis of wall teichoic acids, decreased the colony spreading ability. The results indicate that wall teichoic acids and D-alanylation of teichoic acids are required for colony spreading.

  17. Exfoliative Toxins of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Bukowski, Michal; Wladyka, Benedykt; Dubin, Grzegorz

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of humans and livestock. It causes a diverse array of diseases, ranging from relatively harmless localized skin infections to life-threatening systemic conditions. Among multiple virulence factors, staphylococci secrete several exotoxins directly associated with particular disease symptoms. These include toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), enterotoxins, and exfoliative toxins (ETs). The latter are particularly interesting as the sole agents responsible for staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS), a disease predominantly affecting infants and characterized by the loss of superficial skin layers, dehydration, and secondary infections. The molecular basis of the clinical symptoms of SSSS is well understood. ETs are serine proteases with high substrate specificity, which selectively recognize and hydrolyze desmosomal proteins in the skin. The fascinating road leading to the discovery of ETs as the agents responsible for SSSS and the characterization of the molecular mechanism of their action, including recent advances in the field, are reviewed in this article. PMID:22069631

  18. Staphylococcus aureus: superbug, super genome?

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Jodi A; Holden, Matthew T G

    2004-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of infection in both hospitals and the community, and it is becoming increasingly virulent and resistant to antibiotics. The recent sequencing of seven strains of S. aureus provides unprecedented information about its genome diversity. Subtle differences in core (stable) regions of the genome have been exploited by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to understand S. aureus population structure. Dramatic differences in the carriage and spread of accessory genes, including those involved in virulence and resistance, contribute to the emergence of new strains with healthcare implications. Understanding the differences between S. aureus genomes and the controls that govern these changes is helping to improve our knowledge of S. aureus pathogenicity and to predict the evolution of super-superbugs.

  19. Exfoliative toxins of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Michal; Wladyka, Benedykt; Dubin, Grzegorz

    2010-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of humans and livestock. It causes a diverse array of diseases, ranging from relatively harmless localized skin infections to life-threatening systemic conditions. Among multiple virulence factors, staphylococci secrete several exotoxins directly associated with particular disease symptoms. These include toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), enterotoxins, and exfoliative toxins (ETs). The latter are particularly interesting as the sole agents responsible for staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS), a disease predominantly affecting infants and characterized by the loss of superficial skin layers, dehydration, and secondary infections. The molecular basis of the clinical symptoms of SSSS is well understood. ETs are serine proteases with high substrate specificity, which selectively recognize and hydrolyze desmosomal proteins in the skin. The fascinating road leading to the discovery of ETs as the agents responsible for SSSS and the characterization of the molecular mechanism of their action, including recent advances in the field, are reviewed in this article.

  20. Comparative genomic analysis of the genus Staphylococcus including Staphylococcus aureus and its newly described sister species Staphylococcus simiae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus belongs to the Gram-positive low G + C content group of the Firmicutes division of bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is an important human and veterinary pathogen that causes a broad spectrum of diseases, and has developed important multidrug resistant forms such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Staphylococcus simiae was isolated from South American squirrel monkeys in 2000, and is a coagulase-negative bacterium, closely related, and possibly the sister group, to S. aureus. Comparative genomic analyses of closely related bacteria with different phenotypes can provide information relevant to understanding adaptation to host environment and mechanisms of pathogenicity. Results We determined a Roche/454 draft genome sequence for S. simiae and included it in comparative genomic analyses with 11 other Staphylococcus species including S. aureus. A genome based phylogeny of the genus confirms that S. simiae is the sister group to S. aureus and indicates that the most basal Staphylococcus lineage is Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, followed by Staphylococcus carnosus. Given the primary niche of these two latter taxa, compared to the other species in the genus, this phylogeny suggests that human adaptation evolved after the split of S. carnosus. The two coagulase-positive species (S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius) are not phylogenetically closest but share many virulence factors exclusively, suggesting that these genes were acquired by horizontal transfer. Enrichment in genes related to mobile elements such as prophage in S. aureus relative to S. simiae suggests that pathogenesis in the S. aureus group has developed by gene gain through horizontal transfer, after the split of S. aureus and S. simiae from their common ancestor. Conclusions Comparative genomic analyses across 12 Staphylococcus species provide hypotheses about lineages in which human adaptation has taken place and contributions of horizontal transfer in pathogenesis. PMID

  1. Comparative Efficacy of Ceftaroline with Linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Amira; Munir, Tehmina; Rehman, Sabahat; Najeeb, Sara; Gilani, Mehreen; Latif, Mahwish; Ansari, Maliha; Saad, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    To compare the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of ceftaroline with linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Quasi-experimental study. Microbiology Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from January to December 2013. Clinical samples from respiratory tract, blood, pus and various catheter tips routinely received in the Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi were innoculated on blood and MacConkey agar. Staphylococcus aureus was identified by colony morphology, Gram reaction, catalase test and coagulase test. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus detection was done by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method using cefoxitin disc (30 μg) and the isolates were considered methicillin resistant if the zone of inhibition around cefoxitin disc was ≤ 21 mm. Bacterial suspensions of 56 Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 50 MRSA isolates were prepared, which were standardized equal to 0.5 McFarland's turbidity standard and inoculated on Mueller-Hinton agar plates followed by application of ceftaroline and linezolid disc (Oxoid, UK), according to manufacturer's instructions. The plates were then incubated at 37 °C aerobically for 18 - 24 hours. Diameters of inhibition zone were measured and interpretated as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Out of 106 isolates all of the 56 Staphylococcus aureus (100%) were sensitive to ceftaroline and linezolid. However, out of 50 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 48 (96%) were sensitive to ceftaroline whereas, 49 (98%) were sensitive to linezolid. Ceftaroline is equally effective as linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

  2. Acute Pyelonephritis Caused by Staphylococcus xylosus

    PubMed Central

    Tselenis-Kotsowilis, Angelina D.; Koliomichalis, Maria P.; Papavassiliou, John T.

    1982-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus was recovered from the urine of a patient with pyelonephritis. Antibodies against the teichoic acid of the microorganism were demonstrated in the patient's serum by the agar gel diffusion technique. PMID:7130375

  3. Catheter-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Gold, H S; Karchmer, A W

    1996-09-15

    The majority of cases of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia are hospital-acquired, and most are associated with infected intravenous catheters. Preventive measures, early detection of infections, and strategies for effective treatment have become matters of increasing urgency.

  4. Staphylococcus aureus in rural drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    LeChevallier, M W; Seidler, R J

    1980-01-01

    Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from over 6% of 320 rural drinking water specimens. Well water was the most common source examined. The presence of S. aureus was not found to correlate with the presence of coliform bacteria. Strains of Staphylococcus that produced enterotoxin A were found in 40% of the samples containing S. aureus. Additional studies showed that faucet aerator screens were common sources of high cell densities of S. aureus. PMID:7377774

  5. Potassium Uptake Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gries, Casey M.; Sadykov, Marat R.; Bulock, Logan L.; Chaudhari, Sujata S.; Thomas, Vinai C.; Bose, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT As a leading cause of community-associated and nosocomial infections, Staphylococcus aureus requires sophisticated mechanisms that function to maintain cellular homeostasis in response to its exposure to changing environmental conditions. The adaptation to stress and maintenance of homeostasis depend largely on membrane activity, including supporting electrochemical gradients and synthesis of ATP. This is largely achieved through potassium (K+) transport, which plays an essential role in maintaining chemiosmotic homeostasis, affects antimicrobial resistance, and contributes to fitness in vivo. Here, we report that S. aureus Ktr-mediated K+ uptake is necessary for maintaining cytoplasmic pH and the establishment of a proton motive force. Metabolite analyses revealed that K+ deficiency affects both metabolic and energy states of S. aureus by impairing oxidative phosphorylation and directing carbon flux toward substrate-level phosphorylation. Taken together, these results underline the importance of K+ uptake in maintaining essential components of S. aureus metabolism. IMPORTANCE Previous studies describing mechanisms for K+ uptake in S. aureus revealed that the Ktr-mediated K+ transport system was required for normal growth under alkaline conditions but not under neutral or acidic conditions. This work focuses on the effect of K+ uptake on S. aureus metabolism, including intracellular pH and carbon flux, and is the first to utilize a pH-dependent green fluorescent protein (GFP) to measure S. aureus cytoplasmic pH. These studies highlight the role of K+ uptake in supporting proton efflux under alkaline conditions and uncover a critical role for K+ uptake in establishing efficient carbon utilization. PMID:27340697

  6. Staphylococcus chromogenes, a Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus Species That Can Clot Plasma.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Danielle Cabral; Lange, Carla Christine; Avellar-Costa, Pedro; Dos Santos, Katia Regina Netto; Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia

    2016-05-01

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is one of the main coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from mastitis of dairy cows. We describe S. chromogenes isolates that can clot plasma. Since the main pathogen causing mastitis is coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, the coagulase-positive phenotype of S. chromogenes described here can easily lead to misidentification. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Fluorescent Reporters for Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Cheryl L.; Boles, Blaise R.; Lauderdale, Katherine J.; Thoendel, Matthew; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey S.; Horswill, Alexander R.

    2009-01-01

    With the emergence of Staphylococcus aureus as a prominent pathogen in community and healthcare settings, there is a growing need for effective reporter tools to facilitate physiology and pathogenesis studies. Fluorescent proteins are ideal as reporters for their convenience in monitoring gene expression, performing host interaction studies, and monitoring biofilm growth. We have developed a suite of fluorescent reporter plasmids for labeling S. aureus cells. These plasmids encode either green fluorescent protein (GFP) or higher wavelength reporter variants for yellow (YFP) and red (mCherry) labeling. The reporters were placed under control of characterized promoters to enable constitutive or inducible expression. Additionally, plasmids were assembled with fluorescent reporters under control of the agr quorum-sensing and Sigma factor B promoters, and the fluorescent response with wildtype and relevant mutant strains was characterized. Interestingly, reporter expression displayed a strong dependence on ribosome binding site (RBS) sequence, with the superoxide dismutase RBS displaying the strongest expression kinetics of the sequences examined. To test the robustness of the reporter plasmids, cell imaging was performed with fluorescence microscopy and cell populations were separated using florescence activated cell sorting (FACS), demonstrating the possibilities of simultaneous monitoring of multiple S. aureus properties. Finally, a constitutive YFP reporter displayed stable, robust labeling of biofilm growth in a flow cell apparatus. This toolbox of fluorescent reporter plasmids will facilitate cell labeling for a variety of different experimental applications. PMID:19264102

  8. Enterotoxigenic potential of Staphylococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Becker, K; Keller, B; von Eiff, C; Brück, M; Lubritz, G; Etienne, J; Peters, G

    2001-12-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) caused by enterotoxigenic staphylococci is one of the main food-borne diseases. In contrast to Staphylococcus aureus, a systematic screening for the enterotoxins has not yet been performed on the genomic level for the coagulase-positive species S. intermedius. Therefore, the enterotoxigenic potential of 281 different veterinary (canine, n = 247; equine, n = 23; feline, n = 9; other, n = 2) and 11 human isolates of S. intermedius was tested by using a multiplex PCR DNA-enzyme immunoassay system targeting the staphylococcal enterotoxin genes sea, seb, sec, sed, and see. Molecular results were compared by in vitro testing of enterotoxin production by two immunoassays. A total of 33 (11.3%) S. intermedius isolates, including 31 (12.6%) canine isolates, 1 equine isolate, and 1 human isolate, tested positive for the sec gene. In vitro production of the respective enterotoxins was detected in 30 (90.9%) of these isolates by using immunological tests. In contrast, none of 65 veterinary specimen-derived isolates additionally tested and comprising 13 (sub)species of coagulase-negative staphylococci were found to be enterotoxigenic. This study shows on both molecular and immunological levels that a substantial number of S. intermedius isolates harbor the potential for enterotoxin production. Since evidence for noninvasive zoonotic transmission of S. intermedius from animal hosts to humans has been documented, an enterotoxigenic role of this microorganism in SFP via contamination of food products may be assumed.

  9. Pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus abscesses.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Scott D; Malachowa, Natalia; DeLeo, Frank R

    2015-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes many types of human infections and syndromes-most notably skin and soft tissue infections. Abscesses are a frequent manifestation of S. aureus skin and soft tissue infections and are formed, in part, to contain the nidus of infection. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) are the primary cellular host defense against S. aureus infections and a major component of S. aureus abscesses. These host cells contain and produce many antimicrobial agents that are effective at killing bacteria, but can also cause non-specific damage to host tissues and contribute to the formation of abscesses. By comparison, S. aureus produces several molecules that also contribute to the formation of abscesses. Such molecules include those that recruit neutrophils, cause host cell lysis, and are involved in the formation of the fibrin capsule surrounding the abscess. Herein, we review our current knowledge of the mechanisms and processes underlying the formation of S. aureus abscesses, including the involvement of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and provide a brief overview of therapeutic approaches.

  10. Adaptive Immunity Against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Karauzum, Hatice; Datta, Sandip K

    2016-02-27

    A complex interplay between host and bacterial factors allows Staphylococcus aureus to occupy its niche as a human commensal and a major human pathogen. The role of neutrophils as a critical component of the innate immune response against S. aureus, particularly for control of systemic infection, has been established in both animal models and in humans with acquired and congenital neutrophil dysfunction. The role of the adaptive immune system is less clear. Although deficiencies in adaptive immunity do not result in the marked susceptibility to S. aureus infection that neutrophil dysfunction imparts, emerging evidence suggests both T cell- and B cell-mediated adaptive immunity can influence host susceptibility and control of S. aureus. The contribution of adaptive immunity depends on the context and site of infection and can be either beneficial or detrimental to the host. Furthermore, S. aureus has evolved mechanisms to manipulate adaptive immune responses to its advantage. In this chapter, we will review the evidence for the role of adaptive immunity during S. aureus infections. Further elucidation of this role will be important to understand how it influences susceptibility to infection and to appropriately design vaccines that elicit adaptive immune responses to protect against subsequent infections.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus and sore nipples.

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, V. H.; Willis, C. E.; Berkowitz, J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To correlate clinical symptoms and signs of sore nipples with the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and to determine the probability of mothers having S aureus-infected nipples when these local symptoms and signs are found. DESIGN: Two cohorts of consecutive patients were enrolled regardless of presenting complaint. A questionnaire was administered to determine the presence and severity of sore nipples. Objective findings on breast examination were documented. A nipple swab was taken for culture and sensitivity. SETTING: Breastfeeding clinic serving patients referred by family physicians, pediatricians, and community health nurses. PATIENTS: A sample of 227 breastfeeding mothers was collected in two cohorts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Answers to questions about sore nipples, objective findings from physical examination, and results from nipple swabs. RESULTS: Most subjects (51%) had sore nipples, and 45% of subjects had objective findings on examination; 23% of subjects had a positive nipple swab culture; 15% grew S aureus on culture. The risk of having S aureus colonization was 4.8 times greater if nipple pain was moderate or severe rather than mild. A break in nipple integument associated with cracks, fissures, ulcers, or pus gave a 35% chance of having S aureus colonization, five times greater than when the integument was intact. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that mothers with infants younger than 1 month who complained of moderate to severe nipple pain and who had cracks, fissures, ulcers, or exudates had a 64% chance of having positive skin cultures and a 54% chance of having S aureus colonization. PMID:8653033

  12. Bacterial contamination of hands and the environment in a microbiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Ng, L S Y; Teh, W T; Ng, S K; Eng, L C; Tan, T Y

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated both the impact of glove usage on bacterial hand contamination of laboratory technicians and extent of environmental contamination of a microbiology laboratory with potential bacterial pathogens. Two groups of laboratory technologists participated in the study - one group who always used gloves when handling bacterial cultures and another group who did not. Semiquantitative bacterial sampling from technicians' hands was performed before and after a defined work period. Frequently touched areas of the laboratory were sampled over a four-week period and selective or chromogenic media utilised for the identification of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp. and Enterobacteriaceae. Laboratory technicians who did not use gloves were at significantly greater risk of acquiring MRSA following their work periods but no protective effect was demonstrated for glove usage against acquisition of Enterobacteriaceae. Hand washing was equally effective at removing acquired bacterial pathogens in both groups of workers. Environmental sampling documented the presence of MRSA in one-fifth of sampled sites, with the most frequent recovery from computer keyboards. Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa were less commonly recovered from the environment. This study demonstrates that glove usage is protective against the acquisition of MRSA and that MRSA is the most frequently recovered bacterial pathogen from our microbiology laboratory environment.

  13. Gaseous and air decontamination technologies for Clostridium difficile in the healthcare environment.

    PubMed

    Davies, A; Pottage, T; Bennett, A; Walker, J

    2011-03-01

    The recent data for hospital-acquired infections suggest that infection rates for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium difficile are beginning to decrease. However, while there is still pressure to maintain this trend, the resistance of C. difficile spores to standard detergents continues to present a problem for many UK hospitals trying to prevent its spread or control outbreaks. Alternative disinfection technologies such as gaseous decontamination are currently being marketed to the healthcare sector as an alternative/supplement to manual disinfection, and have been shown to be effective in reducing environmental contamination. When used correctly, they offer a complementary technology to manual cleaning that increases the probability of an effective reduction in viability and provides a comparatively uniform distribution of disinfectant. Three gaseous decontamination technologies are examined for their suitability in reducing environmental contamination with C. difficile: gaseous hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide and ozone. Air decontamination and UV-based technologies are also briefly described. We conclude that while there is a role to play for these new technologies in the decontamination of ward surfaces contaminated with C. difficile, the requirement for both a preclean before use and the limited 'in vivo' evidence means that extensive field trials are necessary to determine their cost-effectiveness in a healthcare setting. Copyright © 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Staphylococcus quorum sensing in biofilm formation and infection.

    PubMed

    Kong, Kok-Fai; Vuong, Cuong; Otto, Michael

    2006-04-01

    Cell population density-dependent regulation of gene expression is an important determinant of bacterial pathogenesis. Staphylococci have two quorum-sensing (QS) systems. The accessory gene regulator (agr) is genus specific and uses a post-translationally modified peptide as an autoinducing signal. In the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, agr controls the expression of a series of toxins and virulence factors and the interaction with the innate immune system. However, the role of agr during infection is controversial. A possible second QS system of staphylococci, luxS, is found in a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Importantly, unlike many QS systems described in Gram-negative bacteria, agr and luxS of staphylococci reduce rather than induce biofilm formation and virulence during biofilm-associated infection. agr enhances biofilm detachment by up-regulation of the expression of detergent-like peptides, whereas luxS reduces cell-to-cell adhesion by down-regulating expression of biofilm exopolysaccharide. Significant QS activity in staphylococci is observed for actively growing cells at a high cell density, such as during the initial stages of an infection and under optimal environmental conditions. In contrast, the metabolically quiescent biofilm mode of growth appears to be characterized by an overall low activity of the staphylococcal QS systems. It remains to be shown whether QS control in staphylococci represents a promising target for the development of novel antibacterial agents.

  15. Differentiation of Staphylococcus spp. by high-resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Slany, Michal; Vanerkova, Martina; Nemcova, Eva; Zaloudikova, Barbora; Ruzicka, Filip; Freiberger, Tomas

    2010-12-01

    High-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) is a fast (post-PCR) high-throughput method to scan for sequence variations in a target gene. The aim of this study was to test the potential of HRMA to distinguish particular bacterial species of the Staphylococcus genus even when using a broad-range PCR within the 16S rRNA gene where sequence differences are minimal. Genomic DNA samples isolated from 12 reference staphylococcal strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus caprae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus warneri, and Staphylococcus xylosus) were subjected to a real-time PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene in the presence of fluorescent dye EvaGreen™, followed by HRMA. Melting profiles were used as molecular fingerprints for bacterial species differentiation. HRMA of S. saprophyticus and S. xylosus resulted in undistinguishable profiles because of their identical sequences in the analyzed 16S rRNA region. The remaining reference strains were fully differentiated either directly or via high-resolution plots obtained by heteroduplex formation between coamplified PCR products of the tested staphylococcal strain and phylogenetically unrelated strain.

  16. Collagen binding to Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Holderbaum, D.; Hall, G.S.; Ehrhart, L.A.

    1986-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can bind soluble collagen in a specific, saturable manner. We have previously shown that some variability exists in the degree of collagen binding between different strains of heat-killed, formaldehyde-fixed S. aureus which are commercially available as immunologic reagents. The present study demonstrates that live S. aureus of the Cowan 1 strain binds amounts of collagen per organism equivalent to those demonstrated previously in heat-killed, formaldehyde-fixed bacteria but has an affinity over 100 times greater, with Kd values of 9.7 X 10(-11) M and 4.3 X 10(-8) M for live and heat-killed organisms, respectively. Studies were also carried out with S. aureus killed by ionizing radiation, since this method of killing the organism seemed less likely to alter the binding moieties on the surface than did heat killing. Bacteria killed by exposure to gamma radiation bound collagen in a manner essentially indistinguishable from that of live organisms. Binding of collagen to irradiated cells of the Cowan 1 strain was rapid, with equilibrium reached by 30 min at 22 degrees C, and was fully reversible. The binding was not inhibited by fibronectin, fibrinogen, C1q, or immunoglobulin G, suggesting a binding site for collagen distinct from those for these proteins. Collagen binding was virtually eliminated in trypsin-treated organisms, indicating that the binding site has a protein component. Of four strains examined, Cowan 1 and S. aureus ATCC 25923 showed saturable, specific binding, while strains Woods and S4 showed a complete lack of binding. These results suggest that some strains of S. aureus contain high-affinity binding sites for collagen. While the number of binding sites per bacterium varied sixfold in the two collagen-binding strains, the apparent affinity was similar.

  17. Vancomycin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus


    PubMed Central

    McGuinness, Will A.; Malachowa, Natalia; DeLeo, Frank R.

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of Staphylococcus aureus during the modern antibiotic era has been delineated by distinct strain emergence events, many of which include acquisition of antibiotic resistance. The relative high burden of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in healthcare and community settings is a major concern worldwide. Vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic that inhibits cell wall biosynthesis, remains a drug of choice for treatment of severe MRSA infections. S. aureus strains exhibiting increased resistance to vancomycin, known as vancomycin intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA) (MIC = 4-8 µg/mL), were discovered in the 1990s. The molecular basis of resistance in VISA is polygenic and involves stepwise mutations in genes encoding molecules predominantly involved in cell envelope biosynthesis. S. aureus isolates with complete resistance to vancomycin (MIC ≥ 16 µg/mL) are termed vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA)—they were first reported in the U.S. in 2002. Resistance in VRSA is conferred by the vanA gene and operon, which is present on a plasmid. Although treatment of VRSA infections is challenging, the total number of human VRSA infections to date is limited (14 in the U.S.). By comparison, the burden of VISA is relatively high and the molecular mechanisms of resistance are less well-defined. VISA are associated with persistent infections, vancomycin treatment failure, and poor clinical outcomes. Here, we review in brief progress made toward understanding the acquisition of antibiotic resistance in S. aureus, with an emphasis on the molecular mechanisms underlying vancomycin resistance. PMID:28656013

  18. How Clonal Is Staphylococcus aureus?

    PubMed Central

    Feil, Edward J.; Cooper, Jessica E.; Grundmann, Hajo; Robinson, D. Ashley; Enright, Mark C.; Berendt, Tony; Peacock, Sharon J.; Smith, John Maynard; Murphy, Michael; Spratt, Brian G.; Moore, Catrin E.; Day, Nicholas P. J.

    2003-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen and represents a growing public health burden owing to the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant clones, particularly within the hospital environment. Despite this, basic questions about the evolution and population biology of the species, particularly with regard to the extent and impact of homologous recombination, remain unanswered. We address these issues through an analysis of sequence data obtained from the characterization by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of 334 isolates of S. aureus, recovered from a well-defined population, over a limited time span. We find no significant differences in the distribution of multilocus genotypes between strains isolated from carriers and those from patients with invasive disease; there is, therefore, no evidence from MLST data, which index variation within the stable “core” genome, for the existence of hypervirulent clones of this pathogen. Examination of the sequence changes at MLST loci during clonal diversification shows that point mutations give rise to new alleles at least 15-fold more frequently than does recombination. This contrasts with the naturally transformable species Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, in which alleles change between 5- and 10-fold more frequently by recombination than by mutation. However, phylogenetic analysis suggests that homologous recombination does contribute toward the evolution of this species over the long term. Finally, we note a striking excess of nonsynonymous substitutions in comparisons between isolates belonging to the same clonal complex compared to isolates belonging to different clonal complexes, suggesting that the removal of deleterious mutations by purifying selection may be relatively slow. PMID:12754228

  19. Presence of Laminin Receptors in Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, J. D.; Dos Reis, M.; Brentani, R. R.

    1985-07-01

    A characteristic feature of infection by Staphylococcus aureus is bloodstream invasion and widespread metastatic abscess formation. The ability to extravasate, which entails crossing the vascular basement membrane, appears to be critical for the organism's pathogenicity. Extravasation by normal and neoplastic mammalian cells has been correlated with the presence of specific cell surface receptors for the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin. Similar laminin receptors were found in Staphylococcus aureus but not in Staphylococcus epidermidis, a noninvasive pathogen. There were about 100 binding sites per cell, with an apparent binding affinity of 2.9 nanomolar. The molecular weight of the receptor was 50,000 and pI was 4.2. Eukaryotic laminin receptors were visualized by means of the binding of S. aureus in the presence of laminin. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic invasive cells might utilize similar, if not identical, mechanisms for invasion.

  20. Phage types of Staphylococcus aureus received at the Quebec Public Health Laboratory from 1976 to 1983.

    PubMed Central

    Jetté, L P

    1986-01-01

    Phage typing of 13,579 clinical and environmental strains of Staphylococcus aureus received at the Quebec Public Health Laboratory between 1976 and 1983 was routinely performed to assess the distribution of lytic groups. Strains susceptible to phages 94, 95, and 96 predominated and accounted for 25% of the specimens. The distribution of strains in lytic groups varied with time and specimen source. PMID:2939102

  1. Multiresistance of Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus equorum from Slovak Bryndza cheese.

    PubMed

    Mikulášová, Mária; Valáriková, Jana; Dušinský, Roman; Chovanová, Romana; Belicová, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus equorum, and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains were isolated from Bryndza cheese and identified using PCR method. The antimicrobial susceptibility of these strains was assessed using disc diffusion method and broth microdilution method. The highest percentage of resistance was detected for ampicillin and oxacillin, and in contrary, isolates were susceptible or intermediate resistant to ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol. Fourteen of the S. xylosus isolates (45%) and eleven of the S. equorum isolates (41%) exhibited multidrug resistance. None of the S. epidermidis isolate was multiresistant. The phenotypic resistance to oxacillin was verified by PCR amplification of the gene mecA.

  2. [Psoas abscess caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis].

    PubMed

    Tamargo Delpón, María; Demelo-Rodríguez, Pablo; Cano Ballesteros, Juan Carlos; Vela de la Cruz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase-negative staphylococcus of growing importance and atypical behavior. The infections caused by this microorganism are becoming more frequent, having a broader spectrum. Psoas abscesses caused by this germ are rare, with few cases reported in the literature. In this work, we present a case of a psoas abscess caused by S. lugdunensis in a patient suffering from diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis, which was treated with intravenous cloxacillin with a good outcome. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Personal hygiene and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    PubMed

    Turabelidze, George; Lin, Mei; Wolkoff, Barbara; Dodson, Douglas; Gladbach, Stephen; Zhu, Bao-Ping

    2006-03-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections outside the healthcare setting are an increasing concern. We conducted a case-control study to investigate an MRSA outbreak during 2002-2003 in a Missouri prison and focused on hygiene factors. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, and hygiene practices of study participants was collected by interview and medical record review. Logistic regression was used to evaluate MRSA infection in relation to hygiene factors individually and as a composite hygiene score; potential confounding factors were controlled. Selected MRSA isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). MRSA infection was significantly associated with a low composite hygiene score. Transmission among prison inmates appeared to be responsible for this outbreak. PFGE analysis showed that isolates were indistinguishable and associated with community-onset MRSA infections in other US prisons. Improving hygiene practices and environmental conditions may help prevent and interrupt future MRSA outbreaks in prison settings.

  4. Autophagy is a key tolerance mechanism during Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Katie; Torres, Victor J; Cadwell, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Defense strategies against infectious threats can be divided into resistance and tolerance mechanisms. Resistance mechanisms involve reduction of pathogen burden and include many established examples, one of them being the destruction of intracellular pathogens through autophagy (xenophagy). Tolerance mechanisms protect the host from damage caused by the pathogen or the immune response independent of pathogen load. The role of autophagy in maintaining homeostasis in response to environmental stress suggests that this pathway is involved in tolerance to a variety of infectious agents. However, demonstrating that autophagy promotes tolerance independent of its role in resistance has been a challenge, especially during infection by clinically relevant pathogens. We have found that autophagy protects against Staphylococcus aureus infection by maintaining tolerance toward a pore forming toxin secreted by the bacteria, α-toxin.

  5. Autophagy is a key tolerance mechanism during Staphylococcus aureus infection

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Katie; Torres, Victor J; Cadwell, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Defense strategies against infectious threats can be divided into resistance and tolerance mechanisms. Resistance mechanisms involve reduction of pathogen burden and include many established examples, one of them being the destruction of intracellular pathogens through autophagy (xenophagy). Tolerance mechanisms protect the host from damage caused by the pathogen or the immune response independent of pathogen load. The role of autophagy in maintaining homeostasis in response to environmental stress suggests that this pathway is involved in tolerance to a variety of infectious agents. However, demonstrating that autophagy promotes tolerance independent of its role in resistance has been a challenge, especially during infection by clinically relevant pathogens. We have found that autophagy protects against Staphylococcus aureus infection by maintaining tolerance toward a pore forming toxin secreted by the bacteria, α-toxin. PMID:26046478

  6. Synergistic antibacterial activity of Curcumin with antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Teow, Sin-Yeang; Ali, Syed Atif

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the synergistic antibacterial activity of Curcumin with 8 different antibiotic groups. Two reference, one clinical and ten environmental strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were tested. Disc diffusion assay with 25 μg/mL Curcumin demonstrated synergism in combination with a majority of tested antibiotics against S. aureus. However, checkerboard micro dilution assay only showed synergism, fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) <0.5 in three antibiotics i.e. Gentamicin, Amikacin, and Ciprofloxacin. Other antibiotics showed indifferent interactions but no antagonism was observed. In time-kill curve, appreciable reduction of bacterial cells was also observed in combination therapy (Curcumin + antibiotics) compared to monotherapy (Curcumin or antibiotic(s) alone). The antibiotics with higher synergistic interaction with Curcumin are arranged in a decreasing order: Amikacin > Gentamicin > Ciprofloxacin.

  7. Is it really clean? An evaluation of the efficacy of four methods for determining hospital cleanliness.

    PubMed

    Sherlock, O; O'Connell, N; Creamer, E; Humphreys, H

    2009-06-01

    An important component of effective cleaning in hospitals involves monitoring the efficacy of the methods used. Generally the recommended tool for monitoring cleaning efficacy is visual assessments. In this study four methods to determine cleaning efficacy of hospital surfaces were compared, namely visual assessment, chemical (ATP) and microbiological methods, i.e. aerobic colony count (ACC) and the presence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Respectively, 93.3%, 71.5%, 92.1% and 95.0% of visual, ATP, ACC and MRSA assessments were considered acceptable or 'clean' according to each test standard. Visual assessment alone did not always provide a meaningful measure of surface cleanliness or cleaning efficacy. The average ATP value from 120 swabs before cleaning was 612 relative light units (RLU) (range: 72-2575) and 375 RLU after cleaning (range: 106-1071); the accepted standard is 500 RLU. In a hospital setting with low microbiological counts, the use of chemical tests such as ATP may provide additional information of cleaning efficacy and ATP trends allow identification of environmental surfaces that require additional cleaning or cleaning schedule amendments.

  8. A high molecular weight protein from Staphylococcus intermedius cross-reacts with Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin antibodies.

    PubMed

    Laffan, J J; Petras, P; Ferguson, K P; Lambe, D W

    1996-01-01

    Enterotoxin production by Staphylococcus species other than Staphylococcus aureus has been reported. Staphylococcus strains (104 in toto) representing twelve species and subspecies were examined for enterotoxins using a commercial staphylococcal enterotoxin ELISA immunoassay (TECRA, International Bioproducts). Staphylococcus intermedius (24 strains) and S. aureus (7 strains) were positive with this test. Western blots of S. aureus exoproteins demonstrated proteins of approximately 30 kD, consistent with known staphylococcal enterotoxins. The major antigen in all S. intermedius strains, a 75 kD protein, was not analogous to previously described staphylococcal enterotoxins. This protein was unique to S. intermedius. Gel filtration data indicate that the protein is a subunit of a larger protein in vivo. The 75 kD protein cross-reacts with several enterotoxin antibodies. It is unclear whether the protein is a toxin, but its homology with S. aureus enterotoxins may indicate a shared toxic region, or this protein may create false positive results in screening for enterotoxin.

  9. Staphylococcus simulans osteitis in a diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Désidéri-Vaillant, C; Nédelec, Y; Guichon, J-M; Le Louarn, S; Noyer, V; Sapin-Lory, J; Le Guen, P; Nicolas, X

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus simulans was identified as the aetiological agent of osteitis in a diabetic woman. Its identifying characteristics and antibiogram were confirmed. Diabetic foot frequently becomes infected and the spread of infection to bone is a major causal factor behind lower-limb amputation. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential in such cases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Who are you--Staphylococcus saprophyticus?

    PubMed

    Raz, Raul; Colodner, Raul; Kunin, Calvin M

    2005-03-15

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a leading cause of cystitis in young women. S. saprophyticus shares many clinical features of urinary tract infection caused by Escherichia coli, but differs in pathogenesis, seasonal variation, and geographic distribution. This review summarizes what is known and what still needs to be learned about this microorganism.

  11. Intrinsic novobiocin resistance in Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Anna A; Chopra, Ian; O'Neill, Alex J

    2007-12-01

    Intrinsic novobiocin resistance in Staphylococcus saprophyticus was associated with expression of a novobiocin-resistant form of the drug target protein (GyrB). Site-directed mutagenesis established that resistance depends upon the presence of two specific amino acid residues in GyrB: a glycine at position 85 and a lysine at position 140.

  12. Penetration of erythromycin through Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mao-hu; He, Lei; Gao, Jie; Liu, Yun-xi; Suo, Ji-jiang; Xing, Yu-bin; Jia, Ning

    2013-07-01

    The catheter related infection caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm is increasing and difficult to treat by antimicrobial chemotherapy. The properties of biofilms that give rise to antibiotic resistance are only partially understood. This study aimed to elucidate the penetration of erythromycin through Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm. The penetration ratio of erythromycin through Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms of 1457, 1457-msrA, and wild isolate S68 was detected by biofilm penetration model at different time points according to the standard regression curve. The RNA/DNA ratio and the cell density within the biofilms were observed by confocal laser microscope and transmission electromicroscope, respectively. The penetration ratios of erythromycin through the biofilms of 1457, 1457-msrA, and S68 after cultivation for 36 hours were 0.93, 0.55 and 0.4, respectively. The erythromycin penetration ratio through 1457 biofilm (0.58 after 8 hours) was higher than that through the other two (0.499 and 0.31 after 24 hours). Lower growth rate of the cells in biofilm was shown, with reduction of RNA/DNA proportion observed by confocal laser microscope through acridine orange stain. Compared with the control group observed by transmission electrmicroscope, the cell density of biofilm air face was lower than that of agar face, with more cell debris. Erythromycin could penetrate to the Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm, but could not kill the cells thoroughly. The lower growth rate of the cells within biofilm could help decreasing the erythromycin susceptibility.

  13. Effect of proteases against biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Elchinger, P-H; Delattre, C; Faure, S; Roy, O; Badel, S; Bernardi, T; Taillefumier, C; Michaud, P

    2014-11-01

    Biofilms play a key role in bacterial resistance against antibacterial agents-an issue that causes multiple problems in medical fields, particularly with Staphylococcus biofilms that colonize medical indwelling devices. The literature reports several anti-biofilm strategies that have been applied in medicine. Disrupting the biofilm formation process creates new sites open to colonization by treatment-generated planktonic bacteria, so efforts have turned to focus on strategies to prevent and control the initial Staphylococci adhesion. Here, we investigated the preventive activities of three commercial proteases (Flavourzyme, Neutrase and Alcalase) against biofilm formation by two Staphylococcus strains. Some proteolytic extracts revealed interesting results with Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus aureus biofilms. Three proteases were tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms in standard conditions. The Flavourzyme containing a mix of Aspergillus orizae endo- and exoproteases demonstrated significant efficacy against Staph. epidermidis biofilm formation. These results could prove valuable in the effort to develop simple anti-biofilm methods. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Sources of intramammary infections from Staphylococcus aureus in dairy heifers at first parturition.

    PubMed

    Roberson, J R; Fox, L K; Hancock, D D; Gay, J M; Besser, T E

    1998-03-01

    The study objective was to identify probable sources and modes of transmission of 91 Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from the colostrum of 76 heifers at parturition. Sources cultured were milk (including colostrum), heifer body sites (teats, muzzle, rectum, vagina, and lacteal secretions), and environmental sites (bedding, insects, housing, water, feedstuffs, humans, nonbovine animals, air, and equipment). Staphylococcus aureus isolates were characterized by 63 phenotypic traits. A similarity coefficient was calculated by herd to identify the S. aureus that most closely resembled the S. aureus obtained from heifer colostrum. Staphylococcus aureus from a heifer's colostrum was compared with all preexisting S. aureus isolates from that heifer's herd. Isolates that were > or = 90% similar were considered to be identical. Because 30 (of the 91) S. aureus isolates from heifer colostrum were collected prior to environmental sampling, only 61 S. aureus isolates from heifer colostrum were available for comparison among all three sources. Possible sources of S. aureus from heifer colostrum at parturition were milk (70%, 43 of 61 isolates), heifer body sites (39%, 24 of 61), environmental sites (28%, 17 of 61), or no identified source (16%, 10 of 61). Three heifers with intramammary infection (IMI) from S. aureus at parturition had the same S. aureus on their teats prior to parturition. Milk was the only source identified for 41% (25 of 61) of isolates from heifer colostrum. Isolates from heifer body sites were the only source identified for 5% (3 of 61) of heifer colostrum isolates. Staphylococcus aureus from the environment was never the sole possible source for S. aureus from heifer colostrum. Data suggest that the major sources of S. aureus IMI in heifers at parturition are milk and heifer body sites. Contact among heifers may be an important mode of transmission of S. aureus leading to IMI in heifers at parturition.

  15. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus species and subspecies to teicoplanin.

    PubMed

    Bannerman, T L; Wadiak, D L; Kloos, W E

    1991-09-01

    Twenty-four Staphylococcus species and their subspecies were examined for their susceptibilities to teicoplanin by disk diffusion (30-micrograms disk) and agar dilution for the determination of MICs. Moderately susceptible and resistant clinical strains were further tested for their susceptibilities to oxacillin and vancomycin. Teicoplanin resistance was not observed in the reference strains of the various Staphylococcus species isolated from healthy volunteers or animals. However, the novobiocin-resistant species Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus arlettae, Staphylococcus kloosii, and Staphylococcus gallinarum were less susceptible to teicoplanin (MIC, 2 to 8 micrograms/ml) than most of the novobiocin-susceptible species were (MIC, 0.5 to 4 micrograms/ml). Clinical isolates of coagulase-negative species were generally less susceptible to teicoplanin than were reference strains. Seven percent of the Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical strains were moderately susceptible (MIC, 16 micrograms/ml) to teicoplanin. Of these strains, 70% were oxacillin resistant. For Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains, 11% were resistant (MIC, greater than 16 micrograms/ml) and 21% were moderately susceptible to teicoplanin. Of these strains, 95% were oxacillin resistant, No strains of S. epidermidis or S. haemolyticus were intermediate or resistant to vancomycin. Teicoplanin appears to be less active in vitro against oxacillin-resistant S. haemolyticus. However, teicoplanin is an effective antimicrobial agent against many Staphylococcus species.

  16. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus species and subspecies to teicoplanin.

    PubMed Central

    Bannerman, T L; Wadiak, D L; Kloos, W E

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-four Staphylococcus species and their subspecies were examined for their susceptibilities to teicoplanin by disk diffusion (30-micrograms disk) and agar dilution for the determination of MICs. Moderately susceptible and resistant clinical strains were further tested for their susceptibilities to oxacillin and vancomycin. Teicoplanin resistance was not observed in the reference strains of the various Staphylococcus species isolated from healthy volunteers or animals. However, the novobiocin-resistant species Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus arlettae, Staphylococcus kloosii, and Staphylococcus gallinarum were less susceptible to teicoplanin (MIC, 2 to 8 micrograms/ml) than most of the novobiocin-susceptible species were (MIC, 0.5 to 4 micrograms/ml). Clinical isolates of coagulase-negative species were generally less susceptible to teicoplanin than were reference strains. Seven percent of the Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical strains were moderately susceptible (MIC, 16 micrograms/ml) to teicoplanin. Of these strains, 70% were oxacillin resistant. For Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains, 11% were resistant (MIC, greater than 16 micrograms/ml) and 21% were moderately susceptible to teicoplanin. Of these strains, 95% were oxacillin resistant, No strains of S. epidermidis or S. haemolyticus were intermediate or resistant to vancomycin. Teicoplanin appears to be less active in vitro against oxacillin-resistant S. haemolyticus. However, teicoplanin is an effective antimicrobial agent against many Staphylococcus species. PMID:1835340

  17. Inhibition of Quorum Sensing in Staphylococcus spp.

    PubMed

    Brackman, Gilles; Coenye, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic coccus-shaped bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus are among the most important causative agents of acute and chronic bacterial infections in humans as well as in animals. Treatment of Staphylococcus infections has become increasingly challenging due to the growing problem of antibiotic resistance. For this reason innovative antimicrobials with novel targets and modes of action are needed. Since the discovery that QS is used by Staphylococcus spp. to coordinate the expression of several genes involved in virulence, biofilm formation and pathogenicity, QS inhibition has gained increasing attention as an alternative anti-pathogenic strategy. A major advantage compared with antibiotic therapy is that QSIs are used in concentrations that do not affect bacterial growth. For this reason, it is expected that these compounds would exert less pressure towards the development of resistance. However, some important points still need to be addressed. Although several inhibitors have proven to be active antipathogenic agents in vitro and in several in vivo models, it is still unknown whether these compounds will also be useful in humans. Furthermore, several fundamental mechanisms by which the different QS systems in Staphylococcus spp. exert their regulatory functions and how they are inhibited by QSIs are still poorly understood. In order to achieve real-life applications with QSIs, these challenges should be addressed and more research will be needed. In this article, we will discuss the different QS systems present in Staphylococcus spp., how they are used to control virulence and biofilm formation and how they can be blocked.

  18. Species determination within Staphylococcus genus by extended PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of saoC gene.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Michal; Polakowska, Klaudia; Ilczyszyn, Weronika M; Sitarska, Agnieszka; Nytko, Kinga; Kosecka, Maja; Miedzobrodzki, Jacek; Dubin, Adam; Wladyka, Benedykt

    2015-01-01

    Genetic methods based on PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) are widely used for microbial species determination. In this study, we present the application of saoC gene as an effective tool for species determination and within-species diversity analysis for Staphylococcus genus. The unique sequence diversity of saoC allows us to apply four restriction enzymes to obtain RFLP patterns, which appear highly distinctive even among closely related species as well as atypical isolates of environmental origin. Such patterns were successfully obtained for 26 species belonging to Staphylococcus genus. What is more, tracing polymorphisms detected by different restriction enzymes allowed for basic phylogeny analysis for Staphylococcus aureus, which is potentially applicable for other staphylococcal species. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Bacterial Decolorization of Textile Azo Dye Acid Orange by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajat Pratap; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ram Lakhan

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial strain RMLRT03 with ability to decolorize textile dye Acid Orange dye was isolated from textile effluent contaminated soil of Tanda, Ambedkar Nagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). The decolorization studies were performed in Bushnell and Haas medium (BHM) amended with Acid Orange dye. The bacterial strain was identified as Staphylococcus hominis on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence. The bacterial strain exhibited good decolorization ability with glucose and yeast extract supplementation as cosubstrate in static conditions. The optimal condition for the decolorization of Acid Orange dye by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03 strain were at pH 7.0 and 35°C in 60 h of incubation. The bacterial strain could tolerate high concentrations of Acid Orange dye up to 600 mg l-1. The high decolorizing activity under natural environmental conditions indicates that the bacterial strain has practical application in the treatment of dye containing wastewaters. PMID:25253925

  20. Bacterial Decolorization of Textile Azo Dye Acid Orange by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajat Pratap; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ram Lakhan

    2014-05-01

    A bacterial strain RMLRT03 with ability to decolorize textile dye Acid Orange dye was isolated from textile effluent contaminated soil of Tanda, Ambedkar Nagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). The decolorization studies were performed in Bushnell and Haas medium (BHM) amended with Acid Orange dye. The bacterial strain was identified as Staphylococcus hominis on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence. The bacterial strain exhibited good decolorization ability with glucose and yeast extract supplementation as cosubstrate in static conditions. The optimal condition for the decolorization of Acid Orange dye by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03 strain were at pH 7.0 and 35°C in 60 h of incubation. The bacterial strain could tolerate high concentrations of Acid Orange dye up to 600 mg l(-1). The high decolorizing activity under natural environmental conditions indicates that the bacterial strain has practical application in the treatment of dye containing wastewaters.

  1. Review on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius.

    PubMed

    van Duijkeren, Engeline; Catry, Boudewijn; Greko, Christina; Moreno, Miguel A; Pomba, M Constança; Pyörälä, Satu; Ruzauskas, Modestas; Sanders, Pascal; Threlfall, E John; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Törneke, Karolina

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an important opportunistic pathogen of companion animals, especially dogs. Since 2006 there has been a significant emergence of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) mainly due to clonal spread. This article reviews research on MRSP with a focus on occurrence, methods used for identification, risk factors for colonization and infection, zoonotic potential and control options. Potential areas for future research are also discussed.

  2. Staphylococcus epidermidis Sets Things Right Again.

    PubMed

    Skabytska, Yuliya; Biedermann, Tilo

    2016-03-01

    Commensal cutaneous bacteria are believed to play a role in skin homeostasis, possibly by counteracting the effects of pathogenic inflammation. In this issue, Xia et al. show that Staphylococcus epidermidis is involved in the regulation of Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammation. Staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid induces miR-143, which in turn inhibits toll-like receptor 2 mRNA to decrease toll-like receptor 2 protein and consequently suppresses P. acnes-induced proinflammatory cytokines.

  3. Identification and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus pettenkoferi from a small animal clinic.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Sonja; Kadlec, Kristina; Fessler, Andrea T; Schwarz, Stefan

    2013-12-27

    The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) in a small animal clinic and to investigate their distribution and possible transmission. Swabs (n=72) were taken from hospitalized pets, the environment and employees of a small animal clinic and screened for the presence of MRS. The staphylococcal species was confirmed biochemically or by 16S rDNA sequencing. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was tested by broth dilution. The presence of mecA and other resistance genes was confirmed by PCR. Molecular typing of the isolates followed standard procedures. In total, 34 MRS belonging to the four species Staphylococcus aureus (n=5), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=21), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (n=6) or Staphylococcus pettenkoferi (n=2) were isolated. All isolates were multidrug-resistant with resistance to at least three classes of antimicrobial agents. Among the five methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates, four belonged to the clonal complex CC398; two of them were isolated from cats, the remaining two from pet cages. Overall, the MRS isolates differed in their characteristics, except for one S. epidermidis clone (n=9) isolated from hospitalized cats without clinical staphylococcal infections, pet cages, the clinic environment as well as from a healthy employee. This MRSE clone was resistant to 10 classes of antimicrobial agents, including aminocyclitols, β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, lincosamides, macrolides, phenicols, pleuromutilins, sulfonamides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim. These findings suggest a possible transmission of specific MRS isolates between animal patients, employees and the clinic environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Linezolid Dependence in Staphylococcus epidermidis Bloodstream Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ntokou, Eleni; Zarkotou, Olympia; Ranellou, Kyriaki; Themeli-Digalaki, Katerina; Stathopoulos, Constantinos; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2013-01-01

    We document linezolid dependence among 5 highly linezolid-resistant (LRSE) Staphylococcus epidermidis bloodstream isolates that grew substantially faster at 32 µg/mL linezolid presence. These isolates carried the mutations T2504A and C2534T in multiple 23S rRNA copies and 2 mutations leading to relevant amino acid substitutions in L3 protein. Linezolid dependence could account for increasing LRSE emergence. PMID:23260390

  5. [Screening for Staphylococcus aureus before heart surgery].

    PubMed

    Bandiera-Clerc, Catherine; Le Godais, Sandrine; Vala, Dominique

    2017-02-01

    One patient out of four having to undergo an operation is a carrier of Staphylococcus aureus. This, notably in cases of heart surgery, increases the risk of developing a nosocomial infection with this very germ in the post-operative period. Nurses must implement appropriate care procedures to favour decolonisation and the education of these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. A Survey of Staphylococcus sp and its Methicillin Resistance aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassinger, V. J.; Fontenot, S. L.; Castro, V. A.; Ott, C.; Healy, M.; Pierson, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Within the past few years, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has emerged in environments with susceptible hosts in close proximity, such as hospitals and nursing homes. As the International Space Station (ISS) represents a semi-closed environment with a high level of crewmember interaction, an evaluation of isolates of clinical and environmental Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus was performed to determine if this trend was also present in astronauts occupying ISS or on surfaces of the space station itself. Methods: Identification of isolates was completed using VITEK (GPI cards, BioMerieux), 16S ribosomal DNA analysis (MicroSeq 500, ABI), and Rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting (Divemilab, Bacterial Barcodes). Susceptibility tests were performed using VITEK (GPS-105 cards, BioMerieux) and resistance characteristics were evaluated by testing for the presence of the mecA gene (PBP2' MRSA test kit, Oxoid). Results: Rep-PCR analysis indicated the transfer of S. aureus between crewmembers and between crewmembers and ISS surfaces. While a variety of S. aureus were identified from both the crewmembers and environment, evaluations of the microbial population indicated minimal methicillin resistance. Results of this study indicated that within the semi-closed ISS environment, transfer of bacteria between crewmembers and their environment has been occurring, although there was no indication of a high concentration of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus species. Conclusions: While this study suggests that the spread of methicillin resistant S. aureus is not currently a concern aboard ISS, the increasing incidence of Earth-based antibiotic resistance indicates a need for continued clinical and environmental monitoring.

  7. A Survey of Staphylococcus sp and its Methicillin Resistance aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassinger, V. J.; Fontenot, S. L.; Castro, V. A.; Ott, C.; Healy, M.; Pierson, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Within the past few years, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has emerged in environments with susceptible hosts in close proximity, such as hospitals and nursing homes. As the International Space Station (ISS) represents a semi-closed environment with a high level of crewmember interaction, an evaluation of isolates of clinical and environmental Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus was performed to determine if this trend was also present in astronauts occupying ISS or on surfaces of the space station itself. Methods: Identification of isolates was completed using VITEK (GPI cards, BioMerieux), 16S ribosomal DNA analysis (MicroSeq 500, ABI), and Rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting (Divemilab, Bacterial Barcodes). Susceptibility tests were performed using VITEK (GPS-105 cards, BioMerieux) and resistance characteristics were evaluated by testing for the presence of the mecA gene (PBP2' MRSA test kit, Oxoid). Results: Rep-PCR analysis indicated the transfer of S. aureus between crewmembers and between crewmembers and ISS surfaces. While a variety of S. aureus were identified from both the crewmembers and environment, evaluations of the microbial population indicated minimal methicillin resistance. Results of this study indicated that within the semi-closed ISS environment, transfer of bacteria between crewmembers and their environment has been occurring, although there was no indication of a high concentration of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus species. Conclusions: While this study suggests that the spread of methicillin resistant S. aureus is not currently a concern aboard ISS, the increasing incidence of Earth-based antibiotic resistance indicates a need for continued clinical and environmental monitoring.

  8. Exploring the transcriptome of Staphylococcus aureus in its natural niche.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Moreno, Diego; Wos-Oxley, Melissa L; Jáuregui, Ruy; Medina, Eva; Oxley, Andrew Pa; Pieper, Dietmar H

    2016-09-19

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen and commensal, where the human nose is the predominant reservoir. To better understand its behavior in this environmental niche, RNA was extracted from the anterior nares of three documented S. aureus carriers and the metatranscriptome analyzed by RNAseq. In addition, the in vivo transcriptomes were compared to previously published transcriptomes of two in vitro grown S. aureus strains. None of the in vitro conditions, even growth in medium resembling the anterior nares environment, mimicked in vivo conditions. Survival in the nose was strongly controlled by the limitation of iron and evident by the expression of iron acquisition systems. S. aureus populations in different individuals clearly experience different environmental stresses, which they attempt to overcome by the expression of compatible solute biosynthetic pathways, changes in their cell wall composition and synthesis of general stress proteins. Moreover, the expression of adhesins was also important for colonization of the anterior nares. However, different S. aureus strains also showed different in vivo behavior. The assessment of general in vivo expression patterns and commonalities between different S. aureus strains will in the future result in new knowledge based strategies for controlling colonization.

  9. Exploring the transcriptome of Staphylococcus aureus in its natural niche

    PubMed Central

    Chaves-Moreno, Diego; Wos-Oxley, Melissa L.; Jáuregui, Ruy; Medina, Eva; Oxley, Andrew PA; Pieper, Dietmar H.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen and commensal, where the human nose is the predominant reservoir. To better understand its behavior in this environmental niche, RNA was extracted from the anterior nares of three documented S. aureus carriers and the metatranscriptome analyzed by RNAseq. In addition, the in vivo transcriptomes were compared to previously published transcriptomes of two in vitro grown S. aureus strains. None of the in vitro conditions, even growth in medium resembling the anterior nares environment, mimicked in vivo conditions. Survival in the nose was strongly controlled by the limitation of iron and evident by the expression of iron acquisition systems. S. aureus populations in different individuals clearly experience different environmental stresses, which they attempt to overcome by the expression of compatible solute biosynthetic pathways, changes in their cell wall composition and synthesis of general stress proteins. Moreover, the expression of adhesins was also important for colonization of the anterior nares. However, different S. aureus strains also showed different in vivo behavior. The assessment of general in vivo expression patterns and commonalities between different S. aureus strains will in the future result in new knowledge based strategies for controlling colonization. PMID:27641137

  10. [Change in drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus].

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Liu, Yan; Luo, Yan-Ping; Liu, Chang-Ting

    2013-11-01

    To analyze the change in drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (SAU) in the PLA general hospital from January 2008 to December 2012, and to provide solid evidence to support the rational use of antibiotics for clinical applications. The SAU strains isolated from clinical samples in the hospital were collected and subjected to the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test. The results were assessed based on the 2002 American National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) guidelines. SAU strains were mainly isolated from sputum, urine, blood and wound excreta and distributed in penology, neurology wards, orthopedics and surgery ICU wards. Except for glycopeptide drugs, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) had a higher drug resistance rate than those of the other drugs and had significantly more resistance than methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (P < 0.05). In the dynamic observation of drug resistance, we discovered a gradual increase in drug resistance to fourteen test drugs during the last five years. Drug resistance rate of SAU stayed at a higher level over the last five years; moreover, the detection ratio of MRSA keeps rising year by year. It is crucial for physicians to use antibiotics rationally and monitor the change in drug resistance in a dynamic way.

  11. Truncated Autoinducing Peptides as Antagonists of Staphylococcus lugdunensis Quorum Sensing.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher P; Olson, Shondra D; Lister, Jessica L; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey S; Horswill, Alexander R

    2016-10-13

    Competitive quorum sensing (QS) antagonism offers a novel strategy for attenuating current multidrug resistant staphylococcal infections. To this end, a series of 10 truncated analogues based on the parent autoinducing peptides (AIPs) of Staphylococcus lugdunensis (groups I and II) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (groups I-III) were sequentially assessed against a newly developed Staphylococcus lugdunensis group I QS reporter strain. The truncated analogues based upon Staphylococcus lugdunensis AIP-1 (1) and AIP-2 (2) displayed respective IC50 values of 0.2 ± 0.01 μM and 0.3 ± 0.01 μM, while the truncated analogue of the Staphylococcus epidermidis AIP-1 (3) elicited an IC50 value of 2.7 ± 0.1 μM. These findings demonstrate the potential of cognate and "crosstalk" competitive quorum sensing inhibition using truncated AIPs as a means of attenuating staphylococcal infections in species beyond Staphylococcus aureus.

  12. Cloning and expression of methicillin resistance from Staphylococcus epidermidis in Staphylococcus carnosus.

    PubMed Central

    Tesch, W; Strässle, A; Berger-Bächi, B; O'Hara, D; Reynolds, P; Kayser, F H

    1988-01-01

    A 6.2-kilobase chromosomal DNA fragment from a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strain was cloned into Staphylococcus carnosus by using staphylococcal plasmid pCA44 as the vector. The recombinant plasmid obtained, pBBB21, conferred methicillin resistance on its host and was responsible for the synthesis of a low-affinity penicillin-binding protein (PBP), PBP 2'. PBP 2' determined by the S. epidermidis DNA and expressed as a membrane-bound PBP in S. carnosus reacted with monoclonal antibodies directed against PBP 2' of Staphylococcus aureus origin, and the cloned S. epidermidis DNA hybridized to the methicillin (mec)-specific DNA from S. aureus. These findings point to a common origin of the methicillin resistance determinant in staphylococci. Images PMID:2903715

  13. An Improved Medium for Growing Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-19

    Note An improved medium for growing Staphylococcus aureus biofilm Ping Chen, Johnathan J. Abercrombie, Nicole R. Jeffrey, Kai P. Leung ⁎ Microbiology...Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Human plasma Microfluidic A medium (Brain Heart Infusion plus 10% human plasma) was developed, tested, and...validated for growing Staphylococcus aureus biofilm in vitro. With this medium, S. aureus forms reproducible and robust biofilms in flow chambers under

  14. [Comparison of three methods detection of slime production by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis].

    PubMed

    Wróblewska, Joanna; Ciok-Pater, Emilia; Sekowska, Alicja; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    In this article, slime production of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains from infective skin lesions was evaluated by three different methods: Congo red agar method (CRA), Christensen tube method (CT) and spectrophotometric method (SC). All strains by CT method interpreted as negative (dark-claret or red colonies of the surface). 12 (37.5%) strains of S. aureus, 16 (50.0%) strains of S. epidermidis produced slime as shown by CT method, 6 (18.7%) strains of S. aureus, 8 (25,0%) strains of S. epidermidis by SC method. They also found a correlation of slime production by CT and SC method (p > 0.05).

  15. Differentiation between Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rebrošová, Katarína; Šiler, Martin; Samek, Ota; Růžička, Filip; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Zemánek, Pavel; Holá, Veronika

    2017-08-01

    Raman spectroscopy is an analytical method with a broad range of applications across multiple scientific fields. We report on a possibility to differentiate between two important Gram-positive species commonly found in clinical material - Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis - using this rapid noninvasive technique. For this, we tested 87 strains, 41 of S. aureus and 46 of S. epidermidis, directly from colonies grown on a Mueller-Hinton agar plate using Raman spectroscopy. The method paves a way for separation of these two species even on high number of samples and therefore, it can be potentially used in clinical diagnostics.

  16. Identification of Staphylococcus spp. using (GTG)₅-PCR fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Svec, Pavel; Pantůček, Roman; Petráš, Petr; Sedláček, Ivo; Nováková, Dana

    2010-12-01

    A group of 212 type and reference strains deposited in the Czech Collection of Microorganisms (Brno, Czech Republic) and covering 41 Staphylococcus species comprising 21 subspecies was characterised using rep-PCR fingerprinting with the (GTG)₅ primer in order to evaluate this method for identification of staphylococci. All strains were typeable using the (GTG)₅ primer and generated PCR products ranging from 200 to 4500 bp. Numerical analysis of the obtained fingerprints revealed (sub)species-specific clustering corresponding with the taxonomic position of analysed strains. Taxonomic position of selected strains representing the (sub)species that were distributed over multiple rep-PCR clusters was verified and confirmed by the partial rpoB gene sequencing. Staphylococcus caprae, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus piscifermentans, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus revealed heterogeneous fingerprints and each (sub)species was distributed over several clusters. However, representatives of the remaining Staphylococcus spp. were clearly separated in single (sub)species-specific clusters. These results showed rep-PCR with the (GTG)₅ primer as a fast and reliable method applicable for differentiation and straightforward identification of majority of Staphylococcus spp.

  17. Discrimination of Staphylococcus aureus strains from different species of Staphylococcus using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lamprell, H; Mazerolles, G; Kodjo, A; Chamba, J F; Noël, Y; Beuvier, E

    2006-04-15

    Staphylococcus aureus is a widespread opportunistic pathogen that can cause food-borne illness and is sometimes associated with raw milk and raw milk cheese products. The traditional taxonomic procedures for classification of staphylococcal species are time consuming and often several tests are required. FTIR spectroscopy offers a rapid method for the discrimination and identification of S. aureus strains isolated from raw milk and raw milk cheeses. FTIR spectroscopy was used to discriminate S. aureus from other species of Staphylococcus. This was achieved by using a model composed of 39 species and subspecies of Staphylococcus. The model was validated using a set of spectra of strains isolated from raw milk and different varieties of French raw milk cheese. S. aureus was successfully discriminated from the other species of Staphylococcus and all the strains of S. aureus isolated from raw milk and different varieties of French raw milk cheese were also successfully identified as such. These results demonstrated that FTIR spectroscopy is a rapid (results obtained within 24 h starting from a pure strain or a single colony) and robust method for the identification of S. aureus isolates of dairy origin and food-borne origin in general.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis Virulence Strains as Causative Agents of Persistent Infections in Breast Implants.

    PubMed

    Chessa, Daniela; Ganau, Giulia; Spiga, Luisella; Bulla, Antonio; Mazzarello, Vittorio; Campus, Gian Vittorio; Rubino, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are currently considered two of the most important pathogens in nosocomial infections associated with catheters and other medical implants and are also the main contaminants of medical instruments. However because these species of Staphylococcus are part of the normal bacterial flora of human skin and mucosal surfaces, it is difficult to discern when a microbial isolate is the cause of infection or is detected on samples as a consequence of contamination. Rapid identification of invasive strains of Staphylococcus infections is crucial for correctly diagnosing and treating infections. The aim of the present study was to identify specific genes to distinguish between invasive and contaminating S. epidermidis and S. aureus strains isolated on medical devices; the majority of our samples were collected from breast prostheses. As a first step, we compared the adhesion ability of these samples with their efficacy in forming biofilms; second, we explored whether it is possible to determine if isolated pathogens were more virulent compared with international controls. In addition, this work may provide additional information on these pathogens, which are traditionally considered harmful bacteria in humans, and may increase our knowledge of virulence factors for these types of infections.

  19. STUDIES ON THE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN COMPONENTS OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS BACTERIOPHAGE

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Stephen I.

    1962-01-01

    The cell walls of Staphylococcus aureus are capable of inactivating S. aureus bacteriophage. Furthermore, the cell walls isolated from S. aureus of a given phage type inactivate a variety of different staphylococcal bacteriophages. Under the conditions employed neither the isolated mucopeptide nor teichoic acid components of the cell walls act as bacteriophage receptor. PMID:14476346

  20. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis Virulence Strains as Causative Agents of Persistent Infections in Breast Implants

    PubMed Central

    Chessa, Daniela; Ganau, Giulia; Spiga, Luisella; Bulla, Antonio; Mazzarello, Vittorio; Campus, Gian Vittorio; Rubino, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are currently considered two of the most important pathogens in nosocomial infections associated with catheters and other medical implants and are also the main contaminants of medical instruments. However because these species of Staphylococcus are part of the normal bacterial flora of human skin and mucosal surfaces, it is difficult to discern when a microbial isolate is the cause of infection or is detected on samples as a consequence of contamination. Rapid identification of invasive strains of Staphylococcus infections is crucial for correctly diagnosing and treating infections. The aim of the present study was to identify specific genes to distinguish between invasive and contaminating S. epidermidis and S. aureus strains isolated on medical devices; the majority of our samples were collected from breast prostheses. As a first step, we compared the adhesion ability of these samples with their efficacy in forming biofilms; second, we explored whether it is possible to determine if isolated pathogens were more virulent compared with international controls. In addition, this work may provide additional information on these pathogens, which are traditionally considered harmful bacteria in humans, and may increase our knowledge of virulence factors for these types of infections. PMID:26811915

  1. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Chidambaram, M.; Heath, J. D.; Mallary, L.; Mishra, S. K.; Sharma, B.; Weinstock, G. M.

    1996-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus was isolated over 2 years from Space Shuttle mission crewmembers to determine dissemination and retention of bacteria. Samples before and after each mission were from nasal, throat, urine, and feces and from air and surface sampling of the Space Shuttle. DNA fingerprinting of samples by digestion of DNA with SmaI restriction endonuclease followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed S. aureus from each crewmember had a unique fingerprint and usually only one strain was carried by an individual. There was only one instance of transfer between crewmembers. Strains from interior surfaces after flight matched those of crewmembers, suggesting microbial fingerprinting may have forensic application.

  2. Mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus skin infection.

    PubMed

    Malachowa, Natalia; Kobayashi, Scott D; Braughton, Kevin R; DeLeo, Frank R

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial skin and soft tissue infections are abundant worldwide and many are caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Indeed, S. aureus is the leading cause of skin and soft tissue infections in the USA. Here, we describe a mouse model of skin and soft tissue infection induced by subcutaneous inoculation of S. aureus. This animal model can be used to investigate a number of factors related to the pathogenesis of skin and soft tissue infections, including strain virulence and the contribution of specific bacterial molecules to disease, and it can be employed to test the potential effectiveness of antibiotic therapies or vaccine candidates.

  3. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus during space flight.

    PubMed

    Pierson, D L; Chidambaram, M; Heath, J D; Mallary, L; Mishra, S K; Sharma, B; Weinstock, G M

    1996-12-31

    Staphylococcus aureus was isolated over 2 years from Space Shuttle mission crewmembers to determine dissemination and retention of bacteria. Samples before and after each mission were from nasal, throat, urine, and feces and from air and surface sampling of the Space Shuttle. DNA fingerprinting of samples by digestion of DNA with SmaI restriction endonuclease followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed S. aureus from each crewmember had a unique fingerprint and usually only one strain was carried by an individual. There was only one instance of transfer between crewmembers. Strains from interior surfaces after flight matched those of crewmembers, suggesting microbial fingerprinting may have forensic application.

  4. Immunomodulation and Disease Tolerance to Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhigang; Peres, Adam G.; Damian, Andreea C.; Madrenas, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens that causes severe morbidity and mortality throughout the world. S. aureus can infect skin and soft tissues or become invasive leading to diseases such as pneumonia, endocarditis, sepsis or toxic shock syndrome. In contrast, S. aureus is also a common commensal microbe and is often part of the human nasal microbiome without causing any apparent disease. In this review, we explore the immunomodulation and disease tolerance mechanisms that promote commensalism to S. aureus. PMID:26580658

  5. Neutrophil-Mediated Phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    van Kessel, Kok P. M.; Bestebroer, Jovanka; van Strijp, Jos A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Initial elimination of invading Staphylococcus aureus from the body is mediated by professional phagocytes. The neutrophil is the major phagocyte of the innate immunity and plays a key role in the host defense against staphylococcal infections. Opsonization of the bacteria with immunoglobulins and complement factors enables efficient recognition by the neutrophil that subsequently leads to intracellular compartmentalization and killing. Here, we provide a review of the key processes evolved in neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis of S. aureus and briefly describe killing. As S. aureus is not helpless against the professional phagocytes, we will also highlight its immune evasion arsenal related to phagocytosis. PMID:25309547

  6. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, Jeanne S

    2013-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains one of the major multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens causing serious community-associated and health care-associated infections. It is now pervasive in the obstetric population associated with skin and soft tissue infections, mastitis, episiotomy, and cesarean wound infections and urinary tract infections. This review addresses the epidemiology, definitions, microbiology, and pathogenesis as well as common clinical presentations. A discussion of the 2011 Infectious Diseases Society of America MRSA treatment guidelines details available antibiotics, invasive and noninvasive MRSA management, and specific factors related to obstetrics. Finally, prevention strategies including decolonization are discussed. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Compressed sodium chloride as a fast-acting antimicrobial surface: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, B D; Smith, S W

    2016-10-01

    Antimicrobial surfaces are currently being studied as an aid to reduce transmission of pathogens leading to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Among the most harmful and costly pathogens that cause HAIs is meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Currently available and previously investigated antimicrobial surface technologies that are effective against MRSA (e.g. copper alloy surfaces) take 30min to several hours to achieve significant reduction. This article presents a new antimicrobial surface technology made of compressed sodium chloride that reduces MRSA 20-30 times faster than copper alloy surfaces.

  8. Mechanisms of action of newer antibiotics for Gram-positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Robert Ew

    2005-04-01

    Certain Gram-positive bacteria, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and quinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae have achieved the status of "superbugs", in that there are few or no antibiotics available for therapy against these pathogens. Only a few classes of novel antibiotics have been introduced in the past 40 years, and all since 1999, including the streptogramin combination quinupristin/dalfopristin (Synercid), the oxazolidinone linezolid, and the lipopeptide daptomycin. This review discusses the mechanisms of antibiotic action against Gram-positive pathogens, and resistance counter-mechanisms developed by Gram-positive bacteria, with emphasis on the newer agents.

  9. Demographic screening for MRSA may compromise the effectiveness of ring fencing on a joint replacement unit.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, H-M A; Izon, C; Maley, M W

    2012-11-01

    Ring fencing of joint replacement (JR) units has been reported to reduce infections and is recommended by health authorities in Australia and the UK. It has not been determined whether a demographic risk assessment is adequate to prevent the admission of patients colonized with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to ring-fenced units. As such, 250 admissions to the JR unit of a suburban Sydney hospital were screened, and MRSA colonization was identified in 2.8% of patients complying with the demographic risk assessment. Demographic risk assessment is not an adequate substitute for physical MRSA screening, and undermines the effectiveness of ring-fencing procedures.

  10. Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Staphylococcus argenteus Infections in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Amornchai, Premjit; Nickerson, Emma K.; Wongsuvan, Gumphol; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular typing of 246 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from unselected patients in Thailand showed that 10 (4.1%) were actually Staphylococcus argenteus. Contrary to the suggestion that S. argenteus is less virulent than S. aureus, we demonstrated comparable rates of morbidity, death, and health care-associated infection in patients infected with either of these two species. PMID:25568440

  11. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus species and subspecies to fleroxacin.

    PubMed

    Bannerman, T L; Wadiak, D L; Kloos, W E

    1991-10-01

    Twenty-four Staphylococcus species or subspecies were examined for their susceptibilities to the fluoroquinolone fleroxacin (Ro 23-6240) by disk diffusion (5-micrograms disk) and by agar dilution for the determination of MICs. Resistant strains were further tested for their susceptibilities to oxacillin and the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin. Reference strains of the novobiocin-resistant species (Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus arlettae, and Staphylococcus gallinarum) had an intrinsic intermediate susceptibility (MIC, 4 micrograms/ml) to fleroxacin. Fleroxacin resistance was not observed in the reference strains of the novobiocin-susceptible species (MIC, 0.5 to 2.0 micrograms/ml). Clinical isolates of coagulase-negative species were generally less susceptible to fleroxacin than were reference strains. Seven percent of the Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical strains were resistant (MIC, greater than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml) to fleroxacin. Of these strains, 77% were resistant to oxacillin and 50% were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Thirty-four percent of the Staphylococcus haemolyticus clinical strains were resistant to fleroxacin, and 9% had intermediate susceptibility. Of the resistant strains, 95% were resistant to oxacillin and 77% were resistant to ciprofloxacin, while 23% had intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Fleroxacin is an effective antimicrobial agent against most staphylococci.

  12. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus species and subspecies to fleroxacin.

    PubMed Central

    Bannerman, T L; Wadiak, D L; Kloos, W E

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-four Staphylococcus species or subspecies were examined for their susceptibilities to the fluoroquinolone fleroxacin (Ro 23-6240) by disk diffusion (5-micrograms disk) and by agar dilution for the determination of MICs. Resistant strains were further tested for their susceptibilities to oxacillin and the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin. Reference strains of the novobiocin-resistant species (Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus arlettae, and Staphylococcus gallinarum) had an intrinsic intermediate susceptibility (MIC, 4 micrograms/ml) to fleroxacin. Fleroxacin resistance was not observed in the reference strains of the novobiocin-susceptible species (MIC, 0.5 to 2.0 micrograms/ml). Clinical isolates of coagulase-negative species were generally less susceptible to fleroxacin than were reference strains. Seven percent of the Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical strains were resistant (MIC, greater than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml) to fleroxacin. Of these strains, 77% were resistant to oxacillin and 50% were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Thirty-four percent of the Staphylococcus haemolyticus clinical strains were resistant to fleroxacin, and 9% had intermediate susceptibility. Of the resistant strains, 95% were resistant to oxacillin and 77% were resistant to ciprofloxacin, while 23% had intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Fleroxacin is an effective antimicrobial agent against most staphylococci. PMID:1759838

  13. Susceptibilities of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to Aloe barbadensis.

    PubMed

    Shilpakala, S R; Prathiba, J; Malathi, R

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated and the two organisms were susceptible to the inner gel of aloe barbadensis, though it was more effective against Staphylococcus aureus than Escherichia coli. The reduction for Aloe Vera (AV) needed to suppress the growth of the gram-positive bacterium was attributed to the structural differences between the two organisms.

  14. Combined treatment using irradiation and heat: Susceptibility of bacillus, salmonella, staphylococcus and clostridium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, F.; Tibi, A.; Goury, V.; Darbord, J. C.

    The development of irradiation for food preservation is dependant on good process for choosing the doses. The reduction of the doses is particularly suitable, not only for the cost, but for organoleptic qualities of food. Many studies have demonstrated that Bacillus, Salmonella, Staphylococcus and Clostridium species are frequently isolated from food. The objective of this work is to prove the efficiency of combined treatments using irradiation and temperature (80°C), to reduce the dose of irradiation and the organoleptic alterations of food. The results are dependant on environmental conditions of the bacteria.

  15. Study on Staphylococcus aureus strain HPC-250 for associated antibacterial property.

    PubMed

    Bhuvaneswari, G; Padmanabhan, P; Kapley, Atya; Purohit, Hemant J

    2005-11-01

    We isolated a Staphylococcus aureus strain HPC-250 producing antibacterial agent against Paenibacillus strain HPC-251. Both strains were isolated from the same environmental niche. The bacteria were identified using the partial sequencing of their TA-cloned 16S rDNA. Spectrum of the antibacterial agent was also tested against routine observed bacteria with drinking water contamination such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio and these were found to be sensitive. Bacteria like Acinetobacter and Burkholderia were found to be resistant. The differential antibacterial activity of the HPC-250 was observed for the genus Bacillus where B. subtilis remained resistant although B. sphaericus was sensitive.

  16. Impact of bovine and human serum albumin on Curcumin in vitro activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Teow, Sin Yeang; Ali, Syed Atif

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated the impact of pH (7.4 and 6.5), bovine serum albumin (BSA), and human serum albumin (HSA) on Curcumin activity against 2 reference, 1 clinical, and 10 environmental strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Curcumin against S. aureus were statistically indifferent (p>0.05) at pH7.4 and pH6.5. Activity of Curcumin against S. aureus was reduced by two folds in the presence of 1.25-5% BSA/HSA.

  17. Genetic effects of an air discharge plasma on Staphylococcus aureus at the gene transcription level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zimu; Wei, Jun; Shen, Jie; Liu, Yuan; Ma, Ronghua; Zhang, Zelong; Qian, Shulou; Ma, Jie; Lan, Yan; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Ying; Xia, Weidong; Sun, Qiang; Cheng, Cheng; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-05-01

    The dynamics of gene expression regulation (at transcription level) in Staphylococcus aureus after different doses of atmospheric-pressure room-temperature air plasma treatments are investigated by monitoring the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The plasma treatment influences the transcription of genes which are associated with several important bio-molecular processes related to the environmental stress resistance of the bacteria, including oxidative stress response, biofilm formation, antibiotics resistance, and DNA damage protection/repair. The reactive species generated by the plasma discharge in the gas phase and/or induced in the liquid phase may account for these gene expression changes.

  18. [Staphylococcus aureus prevalence among preschool- and school-aged pupils].

    PubMed

    Pavilonyte, Zaneta; Kacerauskiene, Justina; Budryte, Brigita; Keizeris, Tadas; Junevicius, Jonas; Pavilonis, Alvydas

    2007-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and incidence of Staphylococcus aureus strains among preschool- and school-aged pupils and susceptibility of these strains to antimicrobial materials. A study of 243 preschool- and 300 school-aged pupils was conducted during 2003-2004. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus was made with plasmacoagulase and DNase tests. The resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to antibiotics, beta-lactamase activity, phagotypes, and phage groups were determined. The isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains were tested for resistance to methicillin by performing disc diffusion method using commercial discs (Oxoid) (methicillin 5 microg per disk and oxacillin 1 microg per disk). A total of 292 (53.8%) Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated and identified (113 (46.5%) from preschool- and 179 (59.7%) from school-aged pupils). The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus strains among preschool-aged pupils varied from 46.5% to 47%. It increased to 59.0% (P>0.05) among schoolchildren aged from 11 to 15 years and to 73.0% (P<0.001) among schoolchildren aged from 16 to 19 years. Six methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated: two (1.8%) of them were from preschool-aged and four (2.2%) from school-aged pupils. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus strains with beta-lactamase activity increased from 70.7 to 76.6% in preschool-aged pupils, and it varied from 72.0 to 79.0% in school-aged pupils (P>0.05). Staphylococcus aureus strains of phage group II (32.2-43.4%) were prevailing; nontypable Staphylococcus aureus strains made up 19.2-33.6%. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus among preschool-aged children is 41.7 to 48.8%, and it increases among 9th-12th-grade pupils (73.0%, P<0.001). Some Staphylococcus aureus strains (2.1%) were resistant to methicillin. Staphylococcus aureus strains of phage group II (39.0%, P<0.05) are most prevalent among preschool- and school-aged pupils. Pupils were colonized with methicillin

  19. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF OPSONIC IMMUNITY TO STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

    PubMed Central

    Meakins, J. C.

    1910-01-01

    1. The administration of Staphylococcus aureus, killed by heat (vaccine), produces a high degree of opsonic immunity in rabbits. 2. Such increase of opsonin affords protection against living virulent staphylococcus in direct proportion to the amount of opsonins present in the serum and complete recovery may follow subsequent inoculation, if the opsonic power be high. 3. Frequent administration of vaccines may produce a diminution of the opsonic power of the serum. 4. Immune opsonins are most active against the homologous strain of Staphylococcus aureus, but are only slightly less active against heterologous strains. 5. Infections of the human body by Staphylococcus aureus may cause great increase of opsonins. 6. Vaccines prepared from Staphylococcus aureus may produce a high degree of opsonic immunity in man. PMID:19867314

  20. [Staphylococcus aureus in food determined by polymerase chain reaction].

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Ji, Rong; Yang, Jun; Li, Yepeng

    2007-03-01

    To establish a rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR)method for detection of staphylococcus aureus in milk, ice cream and meat. Two pairs of oligonucleotide primers were designed with thermo nuclease gene nuc and surfaced-associated fibrinogen-binding protein gene ClfA to detect staphylococcus aureus. Fifty-two staphylococcus aureus and thirty-one non staphylococcus aureus were amplified by PCR to verify the specificity. Various numbers of bacteria were added into milk, ice cream and meat. After enrichment, DNA extracted in different time was amplified by PCR to verify detection limit. Each primer pair allows specific detection. The limit of detection was 10 cfu/g (ml) in three kinds of food. Whole procedure of detection could be finished in 24 hours. A rapid, sensitive and specific PCR method can be applied detecting staphylococcus aureus in milk, ice cream and meat.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus and Influenza A Virus: Partners in Coinfection

    PubMed Central

    Mulcahy, Michelle E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is a significant risk factor for secondary staphylococcal pneumonia in influenza A virus (IAV)-infected hosts. However, little research has been undertaken to define the environmental and physiological changes that cause S. aureus to shift from commensal to pathogenic organism in this setting. The ability of virus-driven danger signals to cause S. aureus to transition from commensalism to pulmonary infection was explored in a recent study by Reddinger et al. R. M. Reddinger, N. R. Luke-Marshall, A. P. Hakansson, and A. A. Campagnari, mBio 7(6):e01235-16, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01235-16. The authors report that physiological host changes, including febrile temperature and a combination of host stress response signals, caused S. aureus biofilms to disperse from the nasal environment and cause active pulmonary infection. This commentary discusses the new finding in light of the current understanding of the mechanisms behind staphylococcal coinfection with IAV. In addition, it considers the mechanisms behind staphylococcal dispersal in this model. Overall, the study indicates that interkingdom signaling may occur following IAV infection and this likely contributes to sensitizing the IAV-infected host to secondary staphylococcal pneumonia. PMID:27965455

  2. Characterization of transcription within sdr region of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Sitkiewicz, Izabela; Babiak, Ireneusz; Hryniewicz, Waleria

    2011-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for various infections in humans and animals. It causes localized and systemic infections, such as abscesses, impetigo, cellulitis, sepsis, endocarditis, bone infections, and meningitis. S. aureus virulence factors responsible for the initial contact with host cells (MSCRAMMs-microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules) include three Sdr proteins. The presence of particular sdr genes is correlated with putative tissue specificity. The transcriptional organization of the sdr region remains unclear. We tested expression of the sdrC, sdrD, or sdrE genes in various in vitro conditions, as well as after contact with human blood. In this work, we present data suggesting a separation of the sdr region into three transcriptional units, based on their differential reactions to the environment. Differential reaction of the sdrD transcript to environmental conditions and blood suggests dissimilar functions of the sdr genes. SdrE has been previously proposed to play role in bone infections, whilst our results can indicate that sdrD plays a role in the interactions between the pathogen and human immune system, serum or specifically reacts to nutrients/other factors present in human blood.

  3. Clinical relevance of FASII bypass in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Gloux, Karine; Guillemet, Mélanie; Soler, Charles; Morvan, Claire; Halpern, David; Pourcel, Christine; Vu Thien, Hoang; Lamberet, Gilles; Gruss, Alexandra

    2017-02-13

    The need for new antimicrobials to treat bacterial infections has led to the use of fatty acid synthesis (FASII) enzymes as front-line targets. However, recent studies suggest that FASII inhibitors may not work against the opportunist pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, as environmental fatty acids favor emergence of multi-anti-FASII resistance. As fatty acids are abundant in the host, and one FASII inhibitor, triclosan, is widespread, we investigated whether fatty acid pools impact resistance in clinical and veterinary S. aureus isolates. Simple addition of fatty acids to screening medium led to a 50% increase in triclosan resistance, as tested in 700 isolates. Moreover, non-culturable triclosan-resistant fatty acid auxotrophs, which escape detection under routine conditions, were uncovered in primary patient samples. FASII bypass in selected isolates correlated with polymorphisms in acc and fabD loci. We conclude that fatty-acid-dependent strategies to escape FASII inhibition are common among S. aureus isolates and correlate with anti-FASII resistance and emergence of non-culturable variants.

  4. Converting a Staphylococcus aureus toxin into effective cyclic pseudopeptide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Solecki, Olivia; Mosbah, Amor; Baudy Floc'h, Michèle; Felden, Brice

    2015-03-19

    Staphylococcus aureus produces peptide toxins that it uses to respond to environmental cues. We previously characterized PepA1, a peptide toxin from S. aureus, that induces lytic cell death of both bacterial and host cells. That led us to suggest that PepA1 has an antibacterial activity. Here, we demonstrate that exogenously provided PepA1 has activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We also see that PepA1 is significantly hemolytic, thus limiting its use as an antibacterial agent. To overcome these limitations, we converted PepA1 into nonhemolytic derivatives. Our most promising derivative is a cyclic heptapseudopeptide with inconsequential toxicity to human cells, enhanced stability in human sera, and sharp antibacterial activity. Mechanistically, linear and helical PepA1 derivatives form pores at the bacterial and erythrocyte surfaces, while the cyclic peptide induces bacterial envelope reorganization, with insignificant action on the erythrocytes. Our work demonstrates that bacterial toxins might be an attractive starting point for antibacterial drug development.

  5. Burn Serum Increases Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation via Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Supeng; Jiang, Bei; Huang, Guangtao; Gong, Yali; You, Bo; Yang, Zichen; Chen, Yu; Chen, Jing; Yuan, Zhiqiang; Li, Ming; Hu, Fuquan; Zhao, Yan; Peng, Yizhi

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common pathogen isolated from burn patients that can form biofilms on burn wounds and implanted deep vein catheters, which often leads to refractory infections or even biofilm-related sepsis. As biofilm formation is usually regulated by environmental conditions, we hypothesized that serum composition may be altered after burn injury, potentially affecting the ability of infecting bacteria to form biofilms. As predicted, we observed that serum from burn-injured rats increases biofilm formation by S. aureus and also induces bacterial aggregation and adherence to human fibronectin and fibrinogen. Analysis of potential regulatory factors revealed that exposure to burn serum decreases expression of the quorum-sensing agr system and increases mRNA levels of some biofilm inducers such as sarA and icaA. In addition, we also observed that burn serum imposes oxidative stress and increases expression of key oxidoreductase genes (sodA, sodM, katA, and ahpC) in S. aureus. Importantly, the ability of burn serum to enhance biofilm formation and bacterial cell aggregation can be abrogated by treatment with an antioxidant. Taken together, these findings indicate that burn serum increases S. aureus biofilm formation via elevated oxidative stress, and may lead to novel strategies to control biofilm formation and infection in burn patients. PMID:28702016

  6. Staphylococcus aureus infections: transmission within households and the community.

    PubMed

    Knox, Justin; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Lowy, Franklin D

    2015-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, both methicillin susceptible and resistant, are now major community-based pathogens worldwide. The basis for this is multifactorial and includes the emergence of epidemic clones with enhanced virulence, antibiotic resistance, colonization potential, or transmissibility. Household reservoirs of these unique strains are crucial to their success as community-based pathogens. Staphylococci become resident in households, either as colonizers or environmental contaminants, increasing the risk for recurrent infections. Interactions of household members with others in different households or at community sites, including schools and daycare facilities, have a critical role in the ability of these strains to become endemic. Colonization density at these sites appears to have an important role in facilitating transmission. The integration of research tools, including whole-genome sequencing (WGS), mathematical modeling, and social network analysis, has provided additional insight into the transmission dynamics of these strains. Thus far, interventions designed to reduce recurrent infections among household members have had limited success, likely due to the multiplicity of potential sources for recolonization. The development of better strategies to reduce the number of household-based infections will depend on greater insight into the different factors that contribute to the success of these uniquely successful epidemic clones of S. aureus.

  7. Transmission Dynamics of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Crombé, Florence; Argudín, M. Angeles; Vanderhaeghen, Wannes; Hermans, Katleen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Butaye, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    From the mid-2000s on, numerous studies have shown that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), renowned as human pathogen, has a reservoir in pigs and other livestock. In Europe and North America, clonal complex (CC) 398 appears to be the predominant lineage involved. Especially worrisome is its capacity to contaminate humans in close contact with affected animals. Indeed, the typical multi-resistant phenotype of MRSA CC398 and its observed ability of easily acquiring genetic material suggests that MRSA CC398 strains with an increased virulence potential may emerge, for which few therapeutic options would remain. This questions the need to implement interventions to control the presence and spread of MRSA CC398 among pigs. MRSA CC398 shows a high but not fully understood transmission potential in the pig population and is able to persist within that population. Although direct contact is probably the main route for MRSA transmission between pigs, also environmental contamination, the presence of other livestock, the herd size, and farm management are factors that may be involved in the dissemination of MRSA CC398. The current review aims at summarizing the research that has so far been done on the transmission dynamics and risk factors for introduction and persistence of MRSA CC398 in farms. PMID:23518663

  8. Staphylococcus carnosus: from starter culture to protein engineering platform.

    PubMed

    Löfblom, John; Rosenstein, Ralf; Nguyen, Minh-Thu; Ståhl, Stefan; Götz, Friedrich

    2017-10-02

    Since the 1950s, Staphylococcus carnosus is used as a starter culture for sausage fermentation where it contributes to food safety, flavor, and a controlled fermentation process. The long experience with S. carnosus has shown that it is a harmless and "food grade" species. This was confirmed by the genome sequence of S. carnosus TM300 that lacks genes involved in pathogenicity. Since the development of a cloning system in TM300, numerous genes have been cloned, expressed, and characterized and in particular, virulence genes that could be functionally validated in this non-pathogenic strain. A secretion system was developed for production and secretion of industrially important proteins and later modified to also enable display of heterologous proteins on the surface. The display system has been employed for various purposes, such as development of live bacterial delivery vehicles as well as microbial biocatalysts or bioadsorbents for potential environmental or biosensor applications. Recently, this surface display system has been utilized for display of peptide and protein libraries for profiling of protease substrates and for generation of various affinity proteins, e.g., Affibody molecules and scFv antibodies. In addition, by display of fragmented antigen-encoding genes, the surface expression system has been successfully used for epitope mapping of antibodies. Reviews on specific applications of S. carnosus have been published earlier, but here we provide a more extensive overview, covering a broad range of areas from food fermentation to sophisticated methods for protein-based drug discovery, which are all based on S. carnosus.

  9. Phenotype switching is a natural consequence of Staphylococcus aureus replication.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Andrew M

    2012-10-01

    The pathogen Staphylococcus aureus undergoes phenotype switching in vivo from its normal colony phenotype (NCP) to a slow-growing, antibiotic-resistant small-colony-variant (SCV) phenotype that is associated with persistence in host cells and tissues. However, it is not clear whether phenotype switching is the result of a constitutive process that is selected for under certain conditions or is triggered by particular environmental stimuli. Examination of cultures of diverse S. aureus strains in the absence of selective pressure consistently revealed a small gentamicin-resistant SCV subpopulation that emerged during exponential-phase NCP growth and increased in number until NCP stationary phase. Treatment of replicating bacteria with the antibiotic gentamicin, which inhibited NCP but not SCV replication, resulted in an initial decrease in SCV numbers, demonstrating that SCVs arise as a consequence of NCP replication. However, SCV population expansion in the presence of gentamicin was reestablished by selection of phenotype-stable SCVs and subsequent SCV replication. In the absence of selective pressure, however, phenotype switching was bidirectional and occurred at a high frequency during NCP replication, resulting in SCV turnover. In summary, these data demonstrate that S. aureus phenotype switching occurs via a constitutive mechanism that generates a dynamic, antibiotic-resistant subpopulation of bacteria that can revert to the parental phenotype. The emergence of SCVs can therefore be considered a normal part of the S. aureus life cycle and provides an insurance policy against exposure to antibiotics that would otherwise eliminate the entire population.

  10. TOLERANCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS TO SODIUM CHLORIDE

    PubMed Central

    Parfentjev, I. A.; Catelli, Anna R.

    1964-01-01

    Parfentjev, I. A. (Institute of Applied Biology, New York, N.Y.), and Anna R. Catelli. Tolerance of Staphylococcus aureus to sodium chloride. J. Bacteriol. 88:1–3. 1964.—The tolerance of Staphylococcus aureus to high concentrations of sodium chloride in liquid medium has been reported. We found that S. aureus grows at 37 C in Tryptose Phosphate Broth saturated with sodium chloride. No difference was noticed between possibly pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. Under the conditions of our tests, no changes in the original properties of S. aureus strains occurred. In contrast, solutions of sodium chloride in distilled water were injurious to staphylococci and killed most of these organisms in 1 hr. Staphylococci were killed faster at 37 C than at room temperature in a solution of 0.85% sodium chloride in water. Addition of traces of Tryptose Phosphate Broth had a protective effect and prolonged the life of these organisms in physiological saline. All tests were performed at pH 7.2. PMID:14197887

  11. Survival of Staphylococcus aureus on fomites.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Alicia; Nastri, Natalia; Bernat, Maria; Brusca, Maria; Turcot, Liliana; Nastri, Maria; Rosa, Alcira C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate duration of survival of Staphylococcus aureus on contaminated standardized fomites, such as sterilization paper (SP) and polyester previously sterilized in a steam autoclave, and to determine the potential inhibitory effects of the substrates (fabrics used to manufacture garments and special wrapping paper used in the dental setting) using the bacteriostasis test. The test was performed on two types of sterile standardized samples (T1 and T2). Sterility of the samples was validated following the protocol in use at the Department of Microbiology, after which the samples were inoculated with 50 microl of a calibrated suspension of Staphylococcus aureus (reference strain ATCC 25923) in the exponential growth phase, in a final concentration of 10(7) cfu/ml and 10(6) cfu/ml). The samples were incubated at 27 degrees C and survival and concentration of microorganisms attached to the surface of the substrates was determined at the following experimental time points: immediately post-contamination, and 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days post-contamination. Recovery was determined and expressed as a percentage; the bacteriostasis test was performed and showed negative results. Our results suggest that the quantity of recovered microorganisms varies according to the type of substrate and that there is a relation between survival and incubation time of the inoculated substrate serving as an artificial niche.

  12. Binding of fibronectin to Staphylococcus strains.

    PubMed Central

    Switalski, L M; Rydén, C; Rubin, K; Ljungh, A; Höök, M; Wadström, T

    1983-01-01

    Fibronectin, a major protein component of plasma and loose connective tissue has previously been shown to bind to several strains of Staphylococcus aureus. We examined a large number of strains of different species of Staphylococcus with respect to their ability to bind fibronectin. The relative numbers of strains defined as fibronectin-binders among the different species were as follows: S. aureus (22 of 23), S. haemolyticus (5 of 5), S. warneri (8 of 11), S. hyicus (5 of 6), S. hominis (13 of 17), S. saprophyticus (11 of 20), S. epidermidis (4 of 7), and S. simulans (8 of 10). Only three species showed a predominance of nonbinders over binders: S. capitis (4 of 14), S. xylosus (0 of 4), and S. cohnii (3 of 11). These data indicate that staphylococcal species isolated from soft tissue infections frequently have the ability to bind fibronectin and suggest that the ability to bind to this protein may contribute to the virulence of coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative staphylococci. PMID:6315582

  13. Reclassification of Staphylococcus jettensis De Bel et al. 2013 as Staphylococcus petrasii subsp. jettensis subsp. nov. and emended description of Staphylococcus petrasii Pantucek et al. 2013.

    PubMed

    De Bel, Annelies; Švec, Pavel; Petráš, Petr; Sedláček, Ivo; Pantůček, Roman; Echahidi, Fedoua; Piérard, Denis; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The type and clinical strains of two recently described coagulase-negative species of the genus Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus petrasii and Staphylococcus jettensis, were compared using dnaJ, tuf, gap, hsp60 and rpoB gene sequences, DNA-DNA hybridization, ribotyping, repetitive sequence-based PCR fingerprinting and extensive biochemical characterization. Based on the results, the species description of S. petrasii has been emended and S. jettensis should be reclassified as a novel subspecies within S. petrasii for which the name Staphylococcus petrasii subsp. jettensis subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SEQ110(T) ( = LMG 26879(T) = CCUG 62657(T) = DSM 26618(T) = CCM 8494(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  14. Osteomyelitis Caused by Staphylococcus schleiferi and Evidence of Misidentification of This Staphylococcus Species by an Automated Bacterial Identification System

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Jorge; Hernández, José L.; Fariñas, Maria C.; García-Palomo, Daniel; Agüero, Jesús

    2000-01-01

    We report a case of sternal osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus schleiferi in a patient who underwent thoracic surgery. This constitutes the first documented case of osteomyelitis caused by this Staphylococcus species. We also relate our experience in the utilization of commercially available MicroScan panels for the identification of this microorganism. PMID:11015429

  15. Longitudinal study on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in households.

    PubMed

    Laarhoven, Laura M; de Heus, Phebe; van Luijn, Jeanine; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Duijkeren, Engeline

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) is an emerging pathogen in dogs and has been found in Europe, Asia and North America. To date most studies are one-point prevalence studies and therefore little is known about the dynamics of MRSP in dogs and their surrounding. In this longitudinal study MRSP colonization in dogs and the transmission of MRSP to humans, contact animals and the environment was investigated. Sixteen dogs with a recent clinical MRSP infection were included. The index dogs, contact animals, owners and environments were sampled once a month for six months. Samples taken from the nose, perineum and infection site (if present) of the index cases and contact animals, and the nares of the owners were cultured using pre-enrichment. Index cases were found positive for prolonged periods of time, in two cases during all six samplings. In five of the 12 households that were sampled during six months, the index case was intermittently found MRSP-positive. Contact animals and the environment were also found MRSP-positive, most often in combination with a MRSP-positive index dog. In four households positive environmental samples were found while no animals or humans were MRSP-positive, indicating survival of MRSP in the environment for prolonged periods of time. Genotyping revealed that generally similar or indistinguishable MRSP isolates were found in patients, contact animals and environmental samples within the same household. Within two households, however, genetically distinct MRSP isolates were found. These results show that veterinarians should stay alert with (former) MRSP patients, even after repeated MRSP-negative cultures or after the disappearance of the clinical infection. There is a considerable risk of transmission of MRSP to animals in close contact with MRSP patients. Humans were rarely MRSP-positive and never tested MRSP-positive more than once suggesting occasional contamination or rapid elimination of colonization of

  16. Genomic relatedness of Staphylococcus pettenkoferi isolates of different origins.

    PubMed

    Månsson, Emeli; Hellmark, Bengt; Stegger, Marc; Skytt Andersen, Paal; Sundqvist, Martin; Söderquist, Bo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize clinical and environmental Staphylococcus pettenkoferi isolates with regard to genomic diversity and antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Repetitive-sequence-based PCR and core genome phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data verified the presence of distinct clades comprising closely related S. pettenkoferi isolates from different geographical locations and origins. Phylogenetic relationships between 25 S. pettenkoferi isolates collected from blood cultures and intra-operative air sampling were determined by repetitive-sequence-based PCR typing and analysis of ~157 000 SNPs identified in the core genome after WGS. Antibiotic susceptibility testing and tests for biofilm production (microtitre plate assay) were performed. Repetitive-sequence-based PCR as well as WGS data demonstrated the close relatedness of clinically significant blood culture isolates to probable contaminants, as well as to environmental isolates. Antibiotic-susceptibility testing demonstrated a low level of antimicrobial resistance. The mecA gene was present in two cefoxitin-resistant isolates. No isolates were found to produce biofilm. Close genomic relatedness of S. pettenkoferi isolates from different geographical locations and origins were found within clades, but with substantial genomic difference between the two major clades. The ecological niche of S. pettenkoferi remains unconfirmed, but the presence of S. pettenkoferi in the air of the operating field favours the suggestion of a role in skin flora. Identification of S. pettenkoferi in clinical samples should, in a majority of cases, most likely be regarded as a probable contamination, and its role as a possible pathogen in immunocompromised hosts remains to be clarified.

  17. Prevention and control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, H; Grundmann, H; Skov, R; Lucet, J-C; Cauda, R

    2009-02-01

    Recent efforts to combat infections have focused on pharmaceutical interventions. However, the global spread of antimicrobial resistance calls for the reappraisal of personal and institutional hygiene. Hygiene embodies behavioural and procedural rules that prevent bacterial transmission. Consequently, the chance of spreading bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is significantly reduced. Hygiene is part of the primacy and totality of patient care, ensuring that no harm is done. Any prevention and control strategy must be underpinned by changes in attitude, embraced by all. The major components of preventing and controlling MRSA include hand and environmental hygiene (as part of standard precautions), patient isolation, and patient/staff decolonization. Improving hand hygiene practice is especially important where the risk of infection is highest, e.g. in intensive care. Physical isolation has two advantages: the physical barrier interrupts transmission, and this barrier emphasizes that precautions are required. With limited isolation facilities, risk assessment should be conducted to indicate which patients should be isolated. Environmental hygiene, although important, has a lower priority than standard precautions. When a patient is ready for discharge (home) or transfer (to another healthcare facility), the overall interests of the patient should take priority. All patients should be informed of their MRSA-positive status as soon as possible. Because of increased mupirocin resistance, a selective approach to decolonization should be taken. When MRSA-positive staff are identified, restricting their professional activity will depend on the nature of their work. Finally, politicians and others need to commit to providing the necessary resources to maximize MRSA prevention and control.

  18. Slime production by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from patients with diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Podbielska, Adrianna; Galkowska, Hanna; Stelmach, Ewa; Mlynarczyk, Grazyna; Olszewski, Waldemar L

    2010-08-01

    Slime production is a very important factor related to biofilm formation. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of slime production by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains recovered from 50 patients with diabetic foot ulcers. Slime production was determined using the Congo red agar (CRA) method and compared with immunocytochemistry for the production of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA). Out of 55 S. aureus strains, 69% produced slime as shown by the CRA method. Of them, 84.2% also produced PIA. Of 17 CRA-negative strains, 70.6% produced PIA. Out of 20 S. epidermidis strains, 75% were CRA positive and 93.3% produced PIA. All CRA-negative S. epidermidis produced PIA. In conclusion, PIA production is a very common trait of S. aureus and S. epidermidis isolates obtained from diabetic foot ulcer patients.

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from various animals.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Joseph E; Ball, Katherine R; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel

    2011-02-01

    This study characterized the antimicrobial susceptibility of 221 Staphylococcus aureus isolated from various species, and 60 canine Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from 1986 through 2000 at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine (WCVM). Resistance of S. aureus was most common to penicillin (31%) and tetracycline (14%); resistance of S. pseudintermedius to penicillin was present in 8% and to tetracycline in 34% of isolates. Resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was only seen among S. pseudintermedius, and there was no resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam, cephalothin, amikacin, gentamicin, enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol, or rifampin among any isolate. Inducible clindamycin resistance was found in both S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius, highlighting the need for careful interpretation of culture and susceptibility test results. There were significant differences in the minimum inhibitory concentrations of penicillin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline between avian, bovine, equine, and porcine isolates.

  20. An overview of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus with a focus on developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chessa, Daniela; Ganau, Giulia; Mazzarello, Vittorio

    2015-07-04

    Most nosocomial infections by Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus have gained considerable attention due to an increase of infections caused by these strains that have been reported in recent years throughout the world. Most notably, it is important to underline the presence of S. epidermidis and S. aureus in the human epithelia microflora and to highlight that it is impossible to eradicate them from humans. There are various virulence factors that normally sustain the infection life cycle, such as antibiotic resistance (methicillin resistance). Furthermore, it is important to evaluate the usefulness of typing the spa gene from isolated strains in order to study genotypes and geographical distributions. In the present review, different cases related to patients infected by Staphylococci and an overview of this problem worldwide are reported.

  1. Isolation and identification of Staphylococcus sp. in powdered infant milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palilu, Prayolga Toban; Budiarso, Tri Yahya

    2017-05-01

    Staphylococcus sp. is one of the most dangerous bacteria that could cause food poisoning. It is a pathogenic bacterium which is able to produce enterotoxin in foods. Milk is an ideal growth medium for Staphylococcus sp., that may cause problem if it is to be consumed, especially by infant. It is the objective of this research to detect the presence of Staphylococcus sp. in powdered infant milk. As many as 14 samples obtained from market were used as samples for bacterial isolation. The isolation were done by employing enrichment step on BHI-broth, continued with Baird-Parker Agar which will produce a typical colony. It is then picked and grown on Mannitol Salt Agar, and gram staining, coagulase assay, and fermentation tests. The confirmation step was done by using API-Staph which gives the identification of Staphylococcus hemoliticus, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with a percentage of identity ranging from 65.9-97.7%. Two isolates with the highest identification similarity values were then picked for molecular detection. A PCR primer pair targeting gene coding for enterotoxin A was used, and it gives positive result for the two isolates being tested. It is then concluded that the two isolates belong to Staphylococcus sp., and further research need to be done to correctly identify these isolates.

  2. Characterisation of nasal Staphylococcus delphini and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from healthy donkeys in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Gharsa, H; Slama, K Ben; Gómez-Sanz, E; Gómez, P; Klibi, N; Zarazaga, M; Boudabous, A; Torres, C

    2015-07-01

    Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) bacteria can colonise the nares of some animals but are also emerging pathogens in humans and animals. To analyse SIG nasal carriage in healthy donkeys destined for food consumption in Tunisia and to characterise recovered isolates. Nasal swabs from 100 healthy donkeys were tested for SIG recovery, and isolates were identified by biochemical and molecular methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was tested and detection of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes was performed. Isolates were typed at the clonal level by multilocus sequence typing and SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Staphylococcus delphini and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (included in SIG) were obtained in 19% and 2% of the tested samples, respectively, and one isolate per sample was characterised. All isolates were meticillin susceptible and mecA negative. Most S. delphini and S. pseudintermedius isolates showed susceptibility to all antimicrobials tested, with the exception of 2 isolates resistant to tetracycline (tet(M) gene) or fusidic acid. The following toxin genes were identified (percentage of isolates): lukS-I (100%), lukF-I (9.5%), siet (100%), se-int (90%), seccanine (19%) and expA (9.5%). Thirteen different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles were identified among the 21 SIG isolates. Additionally, the following 9 different sequence types (STs) were detected by multilocus sequence typing, 6 of them new: ST219 (6 isolates), ST12 (5 isolates), ST220 (3 isolates), ST13, ST50, ST193, ST196, ST218 and ST221 (one isolate each). Staphylococcus delphini and S. pseudintermedius are common nasal colonisers of donkeys, generally susceptible to the antimicrobials tested; nevertheless, these SIG isolates contain virulence genes, including the recently described exfoliative gene (expA) and several enterotoxin genes, with potential implications for public health. This is the first description of S. delphini in Tunisia. The

  3. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus: Molecular Detection of Cytotoxin and Enterotoxin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Luiza; Ivo Brito, Carla; de Oliveira, Adilson; Yoshida Faccioli Martins, Patrícia; Cataneli Pereira, Valéria; Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Although opportunistic pathogens, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), including Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus, have long been regarded as avirulent organisms. The role of toxins in the development of infections caused by CoNS is still controversial. The objective of this study was to characterize the presence of enterotoxin and cytotoxin genes in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolates obtained from blood cultures. Cytotoxin genes were detected by PCR using novel species-specific primers. Among the 85 S. epidermidis and 84 S. haemolyticus isolates, 95.3% and 79.8%, respectively, carried at least one enterotoxin gene. The most frequent enterotoxin genes were sea (53.3%), seg (64.5%) and sei (67.5%). The seg gene was positively associated with S. epidermidis (p = 0.02), and this species was more toxigenic than S. haemolyticus. The hla/yidD gene was detected in 92.9% of S. epidermidis and the hla gene in 91.7% of S. haemolyticus isolates; hlb was detected in 92.9% of the S. epidermidis isolates and hld in 95.3%. Nosocomial Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolates exhibited a high toxigenic potential, mainly containing the non-classical enterotoxin genes seg and sei. The previously unreported detection of hla/yidD and hlb in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus using species-specific primers showed that these hemolysin genes differ between CoNS species and that they are highly frequent in blood culture isolates. PMID:26389954

  4. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus: Molecular Detection of Cytotoxin and Enterotoxin Genes.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Luiza; Brito, Carla Ivo; de Oliveira, Adilson; Martins, Patrícia Yoshida Faccioli; Pereira, Valéria Cataneli; da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza

    2015-09-14

    Although opportunistic pathogens, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), including Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus, have long been regarded as avirulent organisms. The role of toxins in the development of infections caused by CoNS is still controversial. The objective of this study was to characterize the presence of enterotoxin and cytotoxin genes in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolates obtained from blood cultures. Cytotoxin genes were detected by PCR using novel species-specific primers. Among the 85 S. epidermidis and 84 S. haemolyticus isolates, 95.3% and 79.8%, respectively, carried at least one enterotoxin gene. The most frequent enterotoxin genes were sea (53.3%), seg (64.5%) and sei (67.5%). The seg gene was positively associated with S. epidermidis (p = 0.02), and this species was more toxigenic than S. haemolyticus. The hla/yidD gene was detected in 92.9% of S. epidermidis and the hla gene in 91.7% of S. haemolyticus isolates; hlb was detected in 92.9% of the S. epidermidis isolates and hld in 95.3%. Nosocomial Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolates exhibited a high toxigenic potential, mainly producing the non-classical enterotoxins seg and sei. The previously unreported detection of hla/yidD and hlb in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus using species-specific primers showed that these hemolysin genes differ between CoNS species and that they are highly frequent in blood culture isolates.

  5. Protease production by Staphylococcus epidermidis and its effect on Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    PubMed

    Vandecandelaere, Ilse; Depuydt, Pieter; Nelis, Hans J; Coenye, Tom

    2014-04-01

    Due to the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to several antibiotics, treatment of S. aureus infections is often difficult. As an alternative to conventional antibiotics, the field of bacterial interference is investigated. Staphylococcus epidermidis produces a serine protease (Esp) which inhibits S. aureus biofilm formation and which degrades S. aureus biofilms. In this study, we investigated the protease production of 114 S. epidermidis isolates, obtained from biofilms on endotracheal tubes (ET). Most of the S. epidermidis isolates secreted a mixture of serine, cysteine and metalloproteases. We found a link between high protease production by S. epidermidis and the absence of S. aureus in ET biofilms obtained from the same patient. Treating S. aureus biofilms with the supernatant (SN) of the most active protease producing S. epidermidis isolates resulted in a significant biomass decrease compared to untreated controls, while the number of metabolically active cells was not affected. The effect on the biofilm biomass was mainly due to serine proteases. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms treated with the SN of protease producing S. epidermidis were thinner with almost no extracellular matrix. An increased survival of Caenorhabditis elegans, infected with S. aureus Mu50, was observed when the SN of protease positive S. epidermidis was added. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural aberrations in group A Staphylococcus bacteriophages.

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, H W; Berthiaume, L; Sonea, S; Kasatiya, S S

    1976-01-01

    Six related Staphylococcus phages spontaneously produced various abnormal head and tail structures: (i) giant capsids which were tailed and apparently contained nucleic acid; (ii) regular and irregular smooth polyheads; (iii) heads and polyheads with wavy outlines; (iv) mottled heads and polyheads; (v) abnormally long and short tails; and (vi) "double capsids" connected by a small bridge. Some of these structures are rare, or have not yet been reported. The frequency os specific aberrant particles varied from one phage to another. Length distribution of smooth irregular polyheads and of abnormal tails indicated that these structures assemble at random from protein synthesized in excess. These phages represent an interesting model for genetic and morphogentic studies. Images PMID:131865

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and fluoroquinolone use.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, Conan; Harpe, Spencer E; Powell, J Patrick; Johnson, Christopher K; Edmond, Michael B; Polk, Ron E

    2005-08-01

    Few long-term multicenter investigations have evaluated the relationships between aggregate antimicrobial drug use in hospitals and bacterial resistance. We measured fluoroquinolone use from 1999 through 2003 in a network of US hospitals. The percentages of fluoroquinolone-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were obtained from yearly antibiograms at each hospital. Univariate linear regression showed significant associations between a hospital's volume of fluoroquinolone use and percent resistance in most individual study years (1999-2001 for P. aeruginosa, 1999-2002 for S. aureus). When the method of generalized estimating equations was used, a population-averaged longitudinal model incorporating total fluoroquinolone use and the previous year's resistance (to account for autocorrelation) did not show a significant effect of fluoroquinolone use on percent resistance for most drug-organism combinations, except for the relationship between levofloxacin use and percent MRSA. The ecologic relationship between fluoroquinolone use and resistance is complex and requires further study.

  8. Pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections

    PubMed Central

    Thomer, Lena; Schneewind, Olaf; Missiakas, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus , a Gram-positive bacterium colonizing nares, skin, and the gastrointestinal tract, frequently invades the skin, soft tissues, and bloodstreams of humans. Even with surgical and antibiotic therapy, bloodstream infections are associated with significant mortality. The secretion of coagulases, proteins that associate with and activate the host hemostatic factor prothrombin, and the bacterial surface display of agglutinins, proteins that bind polymerized fibrin, are key virulence strategies for the pathogenesis of S. aureus bloodstream infections, which culminate in the establishment of abscess lesions. Pathogen-controlled processes, involving a wide spectrum of secreted factors, are responsible for the recruitment and destruction of immune cells, transforming abscess lesions into purulent exudate, with which staphylococci disseminate to produce new infectious lesions or to infect new hosts. Research on S. aureus bloodstream infections is a frontier for the characterization of protective vaccine antigens and the development of immune therapeutics aiming to prevent disease or improve outcomes. PMID:26925499

  9. [Antibiotic stewardship and Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia].

    PubMed

    Weis, S; Kimmig, A; Hagel, S; Pletz, M W

    2017-04-04

    Rates of antibiotic resistance are increasing worldwide and impact on the treatment of patients with bacterial infections. A broad and uncritical application in inpatient and outpatient settings as well as in agriculture has been recognized as the main driving force. Antibiotic stewardship (ABS) programs aim at countering this worrisome development using various direct interventions such as infectious disease counseling. Blood stream infections caused by Staphylococcus (S.) aureus are severe infections associated with high mortality rates. ABS interventions such as de-eskalation of the antibiotic regimen or application of narrow-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics can significantly reduce mortality rates. In this review, we discuss the importance of ABS programs and infectious disease counseling for the treatment of S. aureus blood stream infection.

  10. The Staphylococcus aureus “superbug”

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Timothy J.

    2004-01-01

    There has been some debate about the disease-invoking potential of Staphylococcus aureus strains and whether invasive disease is associated with particularly virulent genotypes, or “superbugs.” A study in this issue of the JCI describes the genotyping of a large collection of nonclinical, commensal S. aureus strains from healthy individuals in a Dutch population. Extensive study of their genetic relatedness by amplified restriction fragment typing and comparison with strains that are associated with different types of infections revealed that the S. aureus population is clonal and that some strains have enhanced virulence. This is discussed in the context of growing interest in the mechanisms of bacterial colonization, antibiotic resistance, and novel vaccines. PMID:15599392

  11. The T Cell Response to Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Bröker, Barbara M.; Mrochen, Daniel; Péton, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a dangerous pathogen and a leading cause of both nosocomial and community acquired bacterial infection worldwide. However, on the other hand, we are all exposed to this bacterium, often within the first hours of life, and usually manage to establish equilibrium and coexist with it. What does the adaptive immune system contribute toward lifelong control of S. aureus? Will it become possible to raise or enhance protective immune memory by vaccination? While in the past the S. aureus-specific antibody response has dominated this discussion, the research community is now coming to appreciate the role that the cellular arm of adaptive immunity, the T cells, plays. There are numerous T cell subsets, each with differing functions, which together have the ability to orchestrate the immune response to S. aureus and hence to tip the balance between protection and pathology. This review summarizes the state of the art in this dynamic field of research. PMID:26999219

  12. Immunogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus delta-toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, F S; Kapral, F A

    1981-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the immunogenicity of purified Staphylococcus aureus delta-toxin. Rabbits and guinea pigs immunized with delta-toxin incorporated into a multiple antibody, whereas animals given toxin in saline or toxin in saline with Tween 80 did not produce antibody. The immunoglobulin G (IgG) fraction isolated by chromatography on protein A-Sepharose was examined for the presence of anti-delta-toxin antibody by immunoelectrophoresis, immunodiffusion, quantitative precipitation tests, affinity chromatography, and toxin neutralization tests. Although delta-toxin-specific IgG precipitated the toxin in agar gels, the antibody did not neutralize the toxin's hemolytic activity. Delta-toxin binding to human erythrocyte membranes was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescent staining of toxin-treated erythrocytes. Images PMID:7014461

  13. Evasion of Neutrophil Killing by Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    McGuinness, Will A.; Kobayashi, Scott D.; DeLeo, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes many types of infections, ranging from self-resolving skin infections to severe or fatal pneumonia. Human innate immune cells, called polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs or neutrophils), are essential for defense against S. aureus infections. Neutrophils are the most prominent cell type of the innate immune system and are capable of producing non-specific antimicrobial molecules that are effective at eliminating bacteria. Although significant progress has been made over the past few decades, our knowledge of S. aureus-host innate immune system interactions is incomplete. Most notably, S. aureus has the capacity to produce numerous molecules that are directed to protect the bacterium from neutrophils. Here we review in brief the role played by neutrophils in defense against S. aureus infection, and correspondingly, highlight selected S. aureus molecules that target key neutrophil functions. PMID:26999220

  14. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: the superbug.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, Giuseppe; Leone, Sebastiano; Lauria, Francesco N; Nicastri, Emanuele; Wenzel, Richard P

    2010-10-01

    Over the last decade, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains have emerged as serious pathogens in the nosocomial and community setting. Hospitalization costs associated with MRSA infections are substantially greater than those associated with methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) infections, and MRSA has wider economic effects that involve indirect costs to the patient and to society. In addition, there is some evidence suggesting that MRSA infections increase morbidity and the risk of mortality. Glycopeptides are the backbone antibiotics for the treatment of MRSA infections. However, several recent reports have highlighted the limitations of vancomycin, and its role in the management of serious infections is now being reconsidered. Several new antimicrobials demonstrate in vitro activity against MRSA and other Gram-positive bacteria. Data from large surveys indicate that linezolid, daptomycin, and tigecycline are almost universally active against MRSA. This review will briefly discuss the epidemiology, costs, outcome, and therapeutic options for the management of MRSA infections.

  15. Characterization of a Staphylococcus aureus Bacteriocin

    PubMed Central

    Gagliano, V. J.; Hinsdill, R. D.

    1970-01-01

    The bacteriocin produced by a strain of Staphylococcus aureus has been isolated and designated staphylococcin (414), and a study was made of its chemical, physical, and biological properties. The staphylococcin is released in appreciable quantities after breakage of the cells and can be purified through differential centrifugation and column chromatography. In the native state, it appears to be a lipoprotein-carbohydrate complex with a molecular weight in excess of 200,000. The complex can be dissociated by sodium dodecyl sulfate into smaller subunits which retain activity. The gross chemical and physical properties of the bacteriocin closely resemble those ascribed to certain preparations of cell membranes. Staphylococcin (414) is not a lytic enzyme like lysostaphin and does not have the same spectrum of activity. Like other bacteriocins from gram-positive microorganisms, it does not inhibit any gram-negative bacteria, but does inhibit several other genera. Images PMID:5473880

  16. Triclosan promotes Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization.

    PubMed

    Syed, Adnan K; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G; Boles, Blaise R

    2014-04-08

    The biocide triclosan is used in many personal care products, including toothpastes, soaps, clothing, and medical equipment. Consequently, it is present as a contaminant in the environment and has been detected in some human fluids, including serum, urine, and milk. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the noses and throats of approximately 30% of the population. Colonization with S. aureus is known to be a risk factor for several types of infection. Here we demonstrate that triclosan is commonly found in the nasal secretions of healthy adults and the presence of triclosan trends positively with nasal colonization by S. aureus. We demonstrate that triclosan can promote the binding of S. aureus to host proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, and keratin, as well as inanimate surfaces such as plastic and glass. Lastly, triclosan-exposed rats are more susceptible to nasal colonization with S. aureus. These data reveal a novel factor that influences the ability of S. aureus to bind surfaces and alters S. aureus nasal colonization. IMPORTANCE Triclosan has been used as a biocide for over 40 years, but the broader effects that it has on the human microbiome have not been investigated. We demonstrate that triclosan is present in nasal secretions of a large portion of a test population and its presence correlates with Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization. Triclosan also promotes the binding of S. aureus to human proteins and increases the susceptibility of rats to nasal colonization by S. aureus. These findings are significant because S. aureus colonization is a known risk factor for the development of several types of infections. Our data demonstrate the unintended consequences of unregulated triclosan use and contribute to the growing body of research demonstrating inadvertent effects of triclosan on the environment and human health.

  17. Staphylococcus capitis isolated from prosthetic joint infections.

    PubMed

    Tevell, S; Hellmark, B; Nilsdotter-Augustinsson, Å; Söderquist, B

    2017-01-01

    Further knowledge about the clinical and microbiological characteristics of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) caused by different coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) may facilitate interpretation of microbiological findings and improve treatment algorithms. Staphylococcus capitis is a CoNS with documented potential for both human disease and nosocomial spread. As data on orthopaedic infections are scarce, our aim was to describe the clinical and microbiological characteristics of PJIs caused by S. capitis. This retrospective cohort study included three centres and 21 patients with significant growth of S. capitis during revision surgery for PJI between 2005 and 2014. Clinical data were extracted and further microbiological characterisation of the S. capitis isolates was performed. Multidrug-resistant (≥3 antibiotic groups) S. capitis was detected in 28.6 % of isolates, methicillin resistance in 38.1 % and fluoroquinolone resistance in 14.3 %; no isolates were rifampin-resistant. Heterogeneous glycopeptide-intermediate resistance was detected in 38.1 %. Biofilm-forming ability was common. All episodes were either early post-interventional or chronic, and there were no haematogenous infections. Ten patients experienced monomicrobial infections. Among patients available for evaluation, 86 % of chronic infections and 70 % of early post-interventional infections achieved clinical cure; 90 % of monomicrobial infections remained infection-free. Genetic fingerprinting with repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR; DiversiLab®) displayed clustering of isolates, suggesting that nosocomial spread might be present. Staphylococcus capitis has the potential to cause PJIs, with infection most likely being contracted during surgery or in the early postoperative period. As S. capitis might be an emerging nosocomial pathogen, surveillance of the prevalence of PJIs caused by S. capitis could be recommended.

  18. PYRITHIAMINE ADAPTATION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS I.

    PubMed Central

    Das, S. K.; Chatterjee, G. C.

    1962-01-01

    Das, S. K. (University of Calcutta, Calcutta, India) and G. C. Chatterjee. Pyrithiamine adaptation of Staphylococcus aureus. I. Adaptation and carbohydrate utilization. J. Bacteriol. 83:1251–1259. 1962.—Staphylococcus aureus has been adapted to pyrithiamine, a thiamine analogue; as a result of this adaptation, the color of the pigment of the organism changes from orange-yellow to lemon-yellow. The adaptation is reversible; the adapted strain will revert after repeated subculture in a medium containing thiamine and no pyrithiamine. Of the major biochemical alterations resulting from adaptation, severe depression in glucose utilization and simultaneous stimulation of acetate utilization have been noticed. The effect of metabolic inhibitors on the utilization of glucose and acetate has also been studied. By measuring the rate of formation of C14O2 from glucose-1-C14 and glucose-6-C14, it has been observed that the reduction in C14O2 formation from glucose-1-C14 by the adapted organism is much more than that obtained from glucose-6-C14, causing thereby a decreased metabolic ratio of these two substrates after such adaptation. Relative to the normal strain, the adapted strain utilizes acetate-C14 at a much faster rate, both in the formation of C14O2 and also in the incorporation of C14 into the protein and lipid fractions; the rate of formation of C14O2 from pyruvate-1-C14 is not greatly altered. It has been postulated that there is a partial blocking of the pentose phosphate cycle, because of the lowered glucose-1-C14 utilization, and simultaneous stimulation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle; or perhaps the initiation of some other route after pyrithiamine adaptation would account for the great increase in acetate utilization. PMID:13883630

  19. Modeling antibiotic and cytotoxic effects of the dimeric isoquinoline IQ-143 on metabolism and its regulation in Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and human cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Xenobiotics represent an environmental stress and as such are a source for antibiotics, including the isoquinoline (IQ) compound IQ-143. Here, we demonstrate the utility of complementary analysis of both host and pathogen datasets in assessing bacterial adaptation to IQ-143, a synthetic analog of the novel type N,C-coupled naphthyl-isoquinoline alkaloid ancisheynine. Results Metabolite measurements, gene expression data and functional assays were combined with metabolic modeling to assess the effects of IQ-143 on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and human cell lines, as a potential paradigm for novel antibiotics. Genome annotation and PCR validation identified novel enzymes in the primary metabolism of staphylococci. Gene expression response analysis and metabolic modeling demonstrated the adaptation of enzymes to IQ-143, including those not affected by significant gene expression changes. At lower concentrations, IQ-143 was bacteriostatic, and at higher concentrations bactericidal, while the analysis suggested that the mode of action was a direct interference in nucleotide and energy metabolism. Experiments in human cell lines supported the conclusions from pathway modeling and found that IQ-143 had low cytotoxicity. Conclusions The data suggest that IQ-143 is a promising lead compound for antibiotic therapy against staphylococci. The combination of gene expression and metabolite analyses with in silico modeling of metabolite pathways allowed us to study metabolic adaptations in detail and can be used for the evaluation of metabolic effects of other xenobiotics. PMID:21418624

  20. In situ rheology of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacterial biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Pavlovsky, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    We developed a method to grow Staphylococcus epidermidis bacterial biofilms and characterize their rheological properties in situ in a continuously fed bioreactor incorporated into a parallel plate rheometer. The temperature and shear rates of growth modeled bloodstream conditions, a common site of S. epidermidis infection. We measured the linear elastic (G′) and viscous moduli (G″) of the material using small-amplitude oscillatory rheology and the yield stress using non-linear creep rheology. We found that the elastic and viscous moduli of the S. epidermidis biofilm were 11 ± 3 Pa and 1.9 ± 0.5 Pa at a frequency of 1 Hz (6.283 rad per s) and that the yield stress was approximately 20 Pa. We modeled the linear creep response of the biofilm using a Jeffreys model and found that S. epidermidis has a characteristic relaxation time of approximately 750 seconds and a linear creep viscosity of 3000 Pa s. The effects on the linear viscoelastic moduli of environmental stressors, such as NaCl concentration and extremes of temperature, were also studied. We found a non-monotonic relationship between moduli and NaCl concentrations, with the stiffest material properties found at human physiological concentrations (135 mM). Temperature dependent rheology showed hysteresis in the moduli when heated and cooled between 5 °C and 60 °C. Through these experiments, we demonstrated that biofilms are rheologically complex materials that can be characterized by a combination of low modulus (~10 Pa), long relaxation time (~103 seconds), and a finite yield stress (20 Pa). This suggests that biofilms should be viewed as soft viscoelastic solids whose properties are determined in part by local environmental conditions. The in situ growth method introduced here can be adapted to a wide range of biofilm systems and applied over a broad spectrum of rheological and environmental conditions because the technique minimizes the risk of irreversible, non-linear deformation of the microbial

  1. Staphylococcus aureus meningitis from osteomyelitis of the spine.

    PubMed Central

    Markus, H. S.; Allison, S. P.

    1989-01-01

    Two cases of vertebral osteomyelitis presenting with secondary Staphylococcus aureus meningitis are described. In staphylococcal meningitis a search for a primary source should include the lower vertebral spine. PMID:2616438

  2. "Staphylococcus pettenkoferi," a novel staphylococcal species isolated from clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Trülzsch, Konrad; Rinder, Heinz; Trcek, Janja; Bader, Lutz; Wilhelm, Ulrike; Heesemann, Jürgen

    2002-07-01

    In this report we describe a novel species of coagulase-negative novobiocin susceptible staphylococci obtained from an epidemiologically unrelated blood culture and a wound infection. These isolates significantly differed from all other validated Staphylococcus species based on phenotypic characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Both isolates had identical 16S rRNA sequences and phylogenetic trees constructed from evolutionary distances showed that this species formed a distinct and deep subline that was most closely related to members of the Staphylococcus saprophyticus cluster group (S. kloosii, S. gallinarum, S. arlettae, S. saprophyticus, S. xylosus, S. equorum, S. succinus and S. cohnii) and Staphylococcus auricularis. Furthermore these strains could each be distinguished from all other staphylococci based on at least one phenotypic trait. Therefore we propose the designation of "Staphylococcus pettenkoferi" a novel species of coagulase-negative staphylococci.

  3. Wound infection by multiresistant Staphylococcus sciuri identified by molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, Daniel G; Almeida, Alda G C S; Jùnior, Jorge B O; da Silva, Luiz A F; Pimentel, Beatriz J; Gitaì, Daniel L G; Moreira, Luciana S; Silva-Filho, Eurìpedes A; de Andrade, Tiago G

    2011-10-01

    We describe a case of wound infection by multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus sciuri in a patient admitted to hospital for injuries in Agreste Alagoas, Brazil, identified through broad-spectrum PCR and sequencing of 16S rDNA gene. Due to its high resistance profile, the infection was characterized as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus presenting sensitive only to vancomycin and chloramphenicol. The injury resulting from trauma associated with infection resulted in amputation of the infected limb.

  4. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus sp septicemia in a lovebird.

    PubMed

    Bounous, D I; Schaeffer, D O; Roy, A

    1989-10-15

    Gram-positive cocci were observed within phagocytes in the blood of a psittacine with clinical signs of blindness and CNS disease. A coagulase-negative Staphylococcus sp was isolated from blood cultures, and the bird was successfully treated with chloramphenicol. Although the primary route of infection was not determined, the infection spread secondarily via the hematogenous route and localized intraocularly. Usually, only coagulase-positive strains of Staphylococcus are considered pathogenic, and are seldom diagnosed before death.

  5. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Ethiopia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Eshetie, Setegn; Tarekegn, Fentahun; Moges, Feleke; Amsalu, Anteneh; Birhan, Wubet; Huruy, Kahsay

    2016-11-21

    The burden of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a major public health concern worldwide; however the overall epidemiology of multidrug resistant strains is neither coordinated nor harmonized, particularly in developing countries including Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the burden of methicillin resistant Staphylococcos aureus and its antibiotic resistance pattern in Ethiopia at large. PubMed, Google Scholar, and lancet databases were searched and a total of 20 studies have been selected for meta-analysis. Six authors have independently extracts data on the prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Statistical analysis was achieved by using Open meta-analyst (version 3.13) and Comprehensive meta-analysis (version 3.3) softwares. The overall prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its antibiotic resistance pattern were pooled by using the forest plot, table and figure with 95% CI. The pooled prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 32.5% (95% CI, 24.1 to 40.9%). Moreover, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were found to be highly resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, and amoxicillin, with a pooled resistance ratio of 99.1, 98.1, 97.2 and 97.1%, respectively. On the other hand, comparably low levels of resistance ratio were noted to vancomycin, 5.3%. The overall burden of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is considerably high, besides these strains showed extreme resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin and amoxicillin. In principle, appropriate use of antibiotics, applying safety precautions are the key to reduce the spread of multidrug resistant strains, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in particular.

  6. Coagulase-Positive Staphylococcus: Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance.

    PubMed

    Beça, Nuno; Bessa, Lucinda Janete; Mendes, Ângelo; Santos, Joana; Leite-Martins, Liliana; Matos, Augusto J F; da Costa, Paulo Martins

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is the most prevalent coagulase-positive Staphylococcus inhabitant of the skin and mucosa of dogs and cats, causing skin and soft tissue infections in these animals. In this study, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus species were isolated from companion animals, veterinary professionals, and objects from a clinical veterinary environment by using two particular culture media, Baird-Parker RPF agar and CHROMagar Staph aureus. Different morphology features of colonies on the media allowed the identification of the species, which was confirmed by performing a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Among 23 animals, 15 (65.2%) harbored coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, being 12 Staphylococcus pseudintermedius carriers. Four out of 12 were methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP). All veterinary professionals had coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (CoPS) species on their hands and two out of nine objects sampled harbored MRSP. The antimicrobial-resistance pattern was achieved for all isolates, revealing the presence of many multidrug-resistant CoPS, particularly S. pseudintermedius . The combined analysis of the antimicrobial-resistance patterns shown by the isolates led to the hypothesis that there is a possible crosscontamination and dissemination of S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius species between the three types of carriers sampled in this study that could facilitate the spread of the methicillin-resistance phenotype.

  7. A proposal to unify two subspecies of Staphylococcus equorum: Staphylococcus equorum subsp. equorum and Staphylococcus equorum subsp. linens.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Do-Won; Kim, Hye-Rim; Han, Seulhwa; Jeon, Che Ok; Lee, Jong-Hoon

    2013-12-01

    Twelve isolates from jeotgal, a Korean high-salt-fermented seafood, identified as Staphylococcus equorum were compared by phenotypic and genotypic methods to determine their precise taxonomic identities at the subspecies level. Four strains and three strains had complete 16S rRNA gene sequence matches with S. equorum subsp. equorum DSM 20674(T) and S. equorum subsp. linens DSM 15097(T), respectively. Five strains showed 99.9 % identity with the sequences of both type strains. In our DNA-DNA hybridization analyses among two type strains and two isolates, the similarities were over 72 % and were higher than the similarities presented at the subspecies proposal. Physiological characteristics such as sugar utilization, β-galactosidase activity, novobiocin resistance and salt tolerance, which were adopted for subspecies separation, could not be applied to assign the isolates to a taxonomic unit. Antibiotic susceptibility, hemolytic activity, biofilm formation and protein profiles did not present markers to divide the isolates into either of the subspecies. Multilocus sequence typing of the sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and five housekeeping genes did not produce any coherent relationship among the isolates and type strains. Repetitive element-PCR fingerprinting using ERIC (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus) primers classified 12 isolates to three genotypes, and the genotypes of both type strains coincided with two isolates expressing different characteristics. Based on these phenotypic and genotypic analyses results, we propose to unify the present two subspecies of S. equorum into one species, S. equorum.

  8. Staphylococcus epidermidis ΔSortase A strain elicits protective immunity against Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chao; Wang, Jun; Hu, Yifang; Wang, Peng; Zou, Lili

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are two of the most significant opportunistic human pathogens, causing medical implant and nosocomial infections worldwide. These bacteria contain surface proteins that play crucial roles in multiple biological processes. It has become apparent that they have evolved a number of unique mechanisms by which they can immobilise proteins on their surface. Notably, a conserved cell membrane-anchored enzyme, sortase A (SrtA), can catalyse the covalent attachment of precursor bacterial cell wall-attached proteins to peptidoglycan. Considering its indispensable role in anchoring substrates to the cell wall and its effects on virulence, SrtA has attracted great attention. In this study, a 549-bp gene was cloned from a pathogenic S. epidermidis strain, YC-1, which shared high identity with srtA from other Staphylococcus spp. A mutant strain, YC-1ΔsrtA, was then constructed by allelic exchange mutagenesis. The direct survival rate assay suggested that YC-1ΔsrtA had a lower survival capacity in healthy mice blood compare with the wild-type strain, indicating that the deletion of srtA affects the virulence and infectious capacity of S. epidermidis YC-1. YC-1ΔsrtA was then administered via intraperitoneal injection and it provided a relative percent survival value of 72.7 % in mice against S. aureus TC-1 challenge. These findings demonstrate the possbility that YC-1ΔsrtA might be used as a live attenuated vaccine to produce cross-protection against S. aureus.

  9. Toxin-Antitoxin Systems of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Christopher F.; Bertram, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are small genetic elements found in the majority of prokaryotes. They encode toxin proteins that interfere with vital cellular functions and are counteracted by antitoxins. Dependent on the chemical nature of the antitoxins (protein or RNA) and how they control the activity of the toxin, TA systems are currently divided into six different types. Genes comprising the TA types I, II and III have been identified in Staphylococcus aureus. MazF, the toxin of the mazEF locus is a sequence-specific RNase that cleaves a number of transcripts, including those encoding pathogenicity factors. Two yefM-yoeB paralogs represent two independent, but auto-regulated TA systems that give rise to ribosome-dependent RNases. In addition, omega/epsilon/zeta constitutes a tripartite TA system that supposedly plays a role in the stabilization of resistance factors. The SprA1/SprA1AS and SprF1/SprG1 systems are post-transcriptionally regulated by RNA antitoxins and encode small membrane damaging proteins. TA systems controlled by interaction between toxin protein and antitoxin RNA have been identified in S. aureus in silico, but not yet experimentally proven. A closer inspection of possible links between TA systems and S. aureus pathophysiology will reveal, if these genetic loci may represent druggable targets. The modification of a staphylococcal TA toxin to a cyclopeptide antibiotic highlights the potential of TA systems as rather untapped sources of drug discovery. PMID:27164142

  10. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Börjesson, Stefan; Landén, Annica; Bergström, Martin; Andersson, Ulrika Grönlund

    2012-12-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an opportunistic pathogen that is one of the most frequent causes of infections in dogs. In Europe, there are increasing reports of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP), and in Sweden, MRSP has also been more frequently isolated during recent years. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the epidemiology and genetic relationship among the Swedish isolates. This study therefore investigated the genetic relationship of MRSP isolated from companion animals in Sweden. In the study, MRSP isolates taken in the period January 2008-June 2010 from a total of 226 dogs and cats were characterized by spa typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. In addition, the geographical distribution of the isolates based on year of isolation and genetic typing was determined using a geographical information system. One multiresistant clonal lineage dominated among Swedish MRSP isolates, corresponding to the European winning lineage ST71-J-t02-SCCmec II-III. Furthermore, the geographical dissemination of MRSP corresponded to areas with high dog densities, centered on the three major cities in Sweden where the largest animal hospitals are situated.

  11. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Pantosti, Annalisa; Sanchini, Andrea; Monaco, Monica

    2007-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can exemplify better than any other human pathogen the adaptive evolution of bacteria in the antibiotic era, as it has demonstrated a unique ability to quickly respond to each new antibiotic with the development of a resistance mechanism, starting with penicillin and methicillin, until the most recent, linezolid and daptomycin. Resistance mechanisms include enzymatic inactivation of the antibiotic (penicillinase and aminoglycoside-modification enzymes), alteration of the target with decreased affinity for the antibiotic (notable examples being penicillin-binding protein 2a of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and D-Ala-D-Lac of peptidoglycan precursors of vancomycin-resistant strains), trapping of the antibiotic (for vancomycin and possibly daptomycin) and efflux pumps (fluoroquinolones and tetracycline). Complex genetic arrays (staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec elements or the vanA operon) have been acquired by S. aureus through horizontal gene transfer, while resistance to other antibiotics, including some of the most recent ones (e.g., fluoroquinolones, linezolid and daptomycin) have developed through spontaneous mutations and positive selection. Detection of the resistance mechanisms and their genetic basis is an important support to antibiotic susceptibility surveillance in S. aureus.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus vaccines: Deviating from the carol

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, a commensal of the human nasopharynx and skin, also causes invasive disease, most frequently skin and soft tissue infections. Invasive disease caused by drug-resistant strains, designated MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus), is associated with failure of antibiotic therapy and elevated mortality. Here we review polysaccharide-conjugate and subunit vaccines that were designed to prevent S. aureus infection in patients at risk of bacteremia or surgical wound infection but failed to reach their clinical endpoints. We also discuss vaccines with ongoing trials for combinations of polysaccharide-conjugates and subunits. S. aureus colonization and invasive disease are not associated with the development of protective immune responses, which is attributable to a large spectrum of immune evasion factors. Two evasive strategies, assembly of protective fibrin shields via coagulases and protein A–mediated B cell superantigen activity, are discussed as possible vaccine targets. Although correlates for protective immunity are not yet known, opsonophagocytic killing of staphylococci by phagocytic cells offers opportunities to establish such criteria. PMID:27526714

  13. Predictors of Mortality in Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Slade O.; Vaska, Vikram L.; Espedido, Björn A.; Paterson, David L.; Gosbell, Iain B.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is an important infection with an incidence rate ranging from 20 to 50 cases/100,000 population per year. Between 10% and 30% of these patients will die from SAB. Comparatively, this accounts for a greater number of deaths than for AIDS, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis combined. Multiple factors influence outcomes for SAB patients. The most consistent predictor of mortality is age, with older patients being twice as likely to die. Except for the presence of comorbidities, the impacts of other host factors, including gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and immune status, are unclear. Pathogen-host interactions, especially the presence of shock and the source of SAB, are strong predictors of outcomes. Although antibiotic resistance may be associated with increased mortality, questions remain as to whether this reflects pathogen-specific factors or poorer responses to antibiotic therapy, namely, vancomycin. Optimal management relies on starting appropriate antibiotics in a timely fashion, resulting in improved outcomes for certain patient subgroups. The roles of surgery and infectious disease consultations require further study. Although the rate of mortality from SAB is declining, it remains high. Future international collaborative studies are required to tease out the relative contributions of various factors to mortality, which would enable the optimization of SAB management and patient outcomes. PMID:22491776

  14. Immunopathological features of rat Staphylococcus aureus arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Bremell, T; Lange, S; Holmdahl, R; Rydén, C; Hansson, G K; Tarkowski, A

    1994-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common bacterial species found in nongonococcal bacterial arthritis in humans. We present the first description, to our knowledge, of an outbreak of spontaneous staphylococcal arthritis in a rat colony. In a group of 10 rats, 9 displayed arthritis. Clinically, the most obvious findings were arthritis of one or both hindpaws and malaise. Bacteriophage typing showed the common phage type 85 in isolates recovered from the joints, blood, and bedding of rats and from the nose and cheeks of one person from the staff of the animal facility. The S. aureus strain proved to produce staphylococcal enterotoxin A and exhibited strong binding to collagen types I and II and bone sialoprotein, which are potentially important virulence factors. When the recovered S. aureus strain was injected intravenously into healthy rats, severe septic arthritis was induced in almost all of the animals. The arthritic lesions were characterized by infiltration of phagocytic cells and T lymphocytes into the synovium. Many of the synovial cells strongly expressed major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. Increased levels of interleukin 6 in serum as well as a prominent polyclonal B-cell activation were noted throughout the disease course. Pretreatment of S. aureus-injected rats in vivo with an antibody to the alpha beta T-cell receptor significantly decreased the severity of the arthritis. Our results indicate that alpha beta + T lymphocytes contribute to an erosive and persistent course of S. aureus arthritis. Images PMID:8188356

  15. Antibacterial mechanism of fraxetin against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiting; Zou, Dan; Xie, Kunpeing; Xie, Mingjie

    2014-11-01

    Fraxetin is one of the main constituents of the traditional medicinal plant Fraxinus rhynchophylla. The inhibitory effect of fraxetin on various bacterial strains has been extensively reported, however, its mechanism of action on bacterial cells remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the antibacterial mechanism of fraxetin on Staphylococcus aureus was systematically investigated by examining its effect on cell membranes, protein synthesis, nucleic acid content and topoisomerase activity. The results indicated that fraxetin increased the permeability of the cell membrane but did not render it permeable to macromolecules, such as DNA and RNA. Additionally, the quantity of protein, DNA and RNA decreased to 55.74, 33.86 and 48.96%, respectively following treatment with fraxetin for 16 h. The activity of topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II were also markedly inhibited as fraxetin concentration increased. The result of the ultraviolet‑visible spectrophotometry demonstrated that the DNA characteristics exhibited a blue shift and hypochromic effect following treatment with fraxetin. These results indicated that fraxetin had a marked inhibitory effect on S.aureus proliferation. Further mechanistic studies showed that fraxetin could disrupt nucleic acid and protein synthesis by preventing topoisomerase from binding to DNA.

  16. Toxin-Antitoxin Systems of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Christopher F; Bertram, Ralph

    2016-05-05

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are small genetic elements found in the majority of prokaryotes. They encode toxin proteins that interfere with vital cellular functions and are counteracted by antitoxins. Dependent on the chemical nature of the antitoxins (protein or RNA) and how they control the activity of the toxin, TA systems are currently divided into six different types. Genes comprising the TA types I, II and III have been identified in Staphylococcus aureus. MazF, the toxin of the mazEF locus is a sequence-specific RNase that cleaves a number of transcripts, including those encoding pathogenicity factors. Two yefM-yoeB paralogs represent two independent, but auto-regulated TA systems that give rise to ribosome-dependent RNases. In addition, omega/epsilon/zeta constitutes a tripartite TA system that supposedly plays a role in the stabilization of resistance factors. The SprA1/SprA1AS and SprF1/SprG1 systems are post-transcriptionally regulated by RNA antitoxins and encode small membrane damaging proteins. TA systems controlled by interaction between toxin protein and antitoxin RNA have been identified in S. aureus in silico, but not yet experimentally proven. A closer inspection of possible links between TA systems and S. aureus pathophysiology will reveal, if these genetic loci may represent druggable targets. The modification of a staphylococcal TA toxin to a cyclopeptide antibiotic highlights the potential of TA systems as rather untapped sources of drug discovery.

  17. Binary IS Typing for Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Budding, Andries E.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Melles, Damian C.; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Kluytmans, Jan A.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background We present an easily applicable test for rapid binary typing of Staphylococcus aureus: binary interspace (IS) typing. This test is a further development of a previously described molecular typing technique that is based on length polymorphisms of the 16S-23S rDNA interspace region of S. aureus. Methodology/Principal Findings A novel approach of IS-typing was performed in which binary profiles are created. 424 human and animal derived MRSA and MSSA isolates were tested and a subset of these isolates was compared with multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP). Binary IS typing had a high discriminatory potential and a good correlation with MLST and AFLP. Conclusions/Significance Binary IS typing is easy to perform and binary profiles can be generated in a standardized fashion. These two features, combined with the high correlation with MLST clonal complexes, make the technique applicable for large-scale inter-laboratory molecular epidemiological comparisons. PMID:21060683

  18. Nasal commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis counteracts influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Kuo, Sherwin; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Schooley, Robert T.; Rohde, Holger; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Several microbes, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a Gram-positive bacterium, live inside the human nasal cavity as commensals. The role of these nasal commensals in host innate immunity is largely unknown, although bacterial interference in the nasal microbiome may promote ecological competition between commensal bacteria and pathogenic species. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis culture supernatants significantly suppressed the infectivity of various influenza viruses. Using high-performance liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, we identified a giant extracellular matrix-binding protein (Embp) as the major component involved in the anti-influenza effect of S. epidermidis. This anti-influenza activity was abrogated when Embp was mutated, confirming that Embp is essential for S. epidermidis activity against viral infection. We also showed that both S. epidermidis bacterial particles and Embp can directly bind to influenza virus. Furthermore, the injection of a recombinant Embp fragment containing a fibronectin-binding domain into embryonated eggs increased the survival rate of virus-infected chicken embryos. For an in vivo challenge study, prior Embp intranasal inoculation in chickens suppressed the viral titres and induced the expression of antiviral cytokines in the nasal tissues. These results suggest that S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity may serve as a defence mechanism against influenza virus infection. PMID:27306590

  19. Hemoglobin Promotes Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Kelly; Hernandez, Margarita; Boles, Blaise R.

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization is an important risk factor for community and nosocomial infection. Despite the importance of S. aureus to human health, molecular mechanisms and host factors influencing nasal colonization are not well understood. To identify host factors contributing to nasal colonization, we collected human nasal secretions and analyzed their ability to promote S. aureus surface colonization. Some individuals produced secretions possessing the ability to significantly promote S. aureus surface colonization. Nasal secretions pretreated with protease no longer promoted S. aureus surface colonization, suggesting the involvement of protein factors. The major protein components of secretions were identified and subsequent analysis revealed that hemoglobin possessed the ability to promote S. aureus surface colonization. Immunoprecipitation of hemoglobin from nasal secretions resulted in reduced S. aureus surface colonization. Furthermore, exogenously added hemoglobin significantly decreased the inoculum necessary for nasal colonization in a rodent model. Finally, we found that hemoglobin prevented expression of the agr quorum sensing system and that aberrant constitutive expression of the agr effector molecule, RNAIII, resulted in reduced nasal colonization of S. aureus. Collectively our results suggest that the presence of hemoglobin in nasal secretions contributes to S. aureus nasal colonization. PMID:21750673

  20. NVC-422 inactivates Staphylococcus aureus toxins.

    PubMed

    Jekle, Andreas; Yoon, Jungjoo; Zuck, Meghan; Najafi, Ramin; Wang, Lu; Shiau, Timothy; Francavilla, Charles; Rani, Suriani Abdul; Eitzinger, Christian; Nagl, Markus; Anderson, Mark; Debabov, Dmitri

    2013-02-01

    Bacterial pathogens have specific virulence factors (e.g., toxins) that contribute significantly to the virulence and infectivity of microorganisms within the human hosts. Virulence factors are molecules expressed by pathogens that enable colonization, immunoevasion, and immunosuppression, obtaining nutrients from the host or gaining entry into host cells. They can cause pathogenesis by inhibiting or stimulating certain host functions. For example, in systemic Staphylococcus aureus infections, virulence factors such as toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) cause sepsis or toxic shock by uncontrolled stimulation of T lymphocytes and by triggering a cytokine storm. In vitro, these superantigens stimulate the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the release of many cytokines. NVC-422 (N,N-dichloro-2,2-dimethyltaurine) is a broad-spectrum, fast-acting topical anti-infective agent against microbial pathogens, including antibiotic-resistant microbes. Using mass spectrometry, we demonstrate here that NVC-422 oxidizes methionine residues of TSST-1, SEA, SEB, and exfoliative toxin A (ETA). Exposure of virulence factors to 0.1% NVC-422 for 1 h prevented TSST-1-, SEA-, SEB-, and ETA-induced cell proliferation and cytokine release. Moreover, NVC-422 also delayed and reduced the protein A- and clumping factor-associated agglutination of S. aureus cultures. These results show that, in addition to its well-described direct microbicidal activity, NVC-422 can inactivate S. aureus virulence factors through rapid oxidation of methionines.

  1. Predictors of mortality in Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia.

    PubMed

    van Hal, Sebastian J; Jensen, Slade O; Vaska, Vikram L; Espedido, Björn A; Paterson, David L; Gosbell, Iain B

    2012-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is an important infection with an incidence rate ranging from 20 to 50 cases/100,000 population per year. Between 10% and 30% of these patients will die from SAB. Comparatively, this accounts for a greater number of deaths than for AIDS, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis combined. Multiple factors influence outcomes for SAB patients. The most consistent predictor of mortality is age, with older patients being twice as likely to die. Except for the presence of comorbidities, the impacts of other host factors, including gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and immune status, are unclear. Pathogen-host interactions, especially the presence of shock and the source of SAB, are strong predictors of outcomes. Although antibiotic resistance may be associated with increased mortality, questions remain as to whether this reflects pathogen-specific factors or poorer responses to antibiotic therapy, namely, vancomycin. Optimal management relies on starting appropriate antibiotics in a timely fashion, resulting in improved outcomes for certain patient subgroups. The roles of surgery and infectious disease consultations require further study. Although the rate of mortality from SAB is declining, it remains high. Future international collaborative studies are required to tease out the relative contributions of various factors to mortality, which would enable the optimization of SAB management and patient outcomes.

  2. [Staphylococcus aureus broncho-pulmonary infections].

    PubMed

    Valour, F; Chebib, N; Gillet, Y; Reix, P; Laurent, F; Chidiac, C; Ferry, T

    2013-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus accounts for 2-5% of the etiologies of community-acquired pneumonia. These infections occur mainly in elderly patients with comorbidity, after a respiratory viral infection. S. aureus could also be responsible for necrotizing pneumonia, which occurs in young subjects, also after flu. Necrotizing pneumonia are associated with the production of a particular staphylococcal toxin called Panton-Valentine leukocidin, responsible for pulmonary focal necrosis, occurrence haemoptysis, leucopenia, and death. In Europe, these strains are still predominantly sensitive to anti-staphylococcal penicillin, which must be used at high dosage intravenously in combination with an antibiotic that reduces toxin production such as clindamycin, and intravenous immunoglobulin in severe cases. The mortality rate is estimated at 50%. In addition, S. aureus is one of the pathogens involved in early respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis patients, in whom methicillin resistance plays an important prognostic role. However, the involvement of S. aureus in COPD exacerbations is rare. Finally, S. aureus represents 20 to 30% of cases of hospital-acquired pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia. In these cases, methicillin-resistance is common and requires the use of glycopeptides or linezolid. The place of new anti-staphylococcal antibiotics such as new generation cephalosporins or tigecyclin remains to be defined.

  3. Immunopathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus pulmonary infection

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Dane; Prince, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common human pathogen highly evolved as both a component of the commensal flora and as a major cause of invasive infection. Severe respiratory infection due to staphylococci has been increasing due to the prevalence of more virulent USA300 CA-MRSA strains in the general population. The ability of S. aureus to adapt to the milieu of the respiratory tract has facilitated its emergence as a respiratory pathogen. Its metabolic versatility, the ability to scavenge iron, coordinate gene expression, and the horizontal acquisition of useful genetic elements have all contributed to its success as a component of the respiratory flora, in hospitalized patients, as a complication of influenza and in normal hosts. The expression of surface adhesins facilitates its persistence in the airways. In addition, the highly sophisticated interactions of the multiple S. aureus virulence factors, particularly the α-hemolysin and protein A, with diverse immune effectors in the lung such as ADAM10, TNFR1, EGFR, immunoglobulin, and complement all contribute to the pathogenesis of staphylococcal pneumonia. PMID:22037948

  4. Triclosan Promotes Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Adnan K.; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G.; Boles, Blaise R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The biocide triclosan is used in many personal care products, including toothpastes, soaps, clothing, and medical equipment. Consequently, it is present as a contaminant in the environment and has been detected in some human fluids, including serum, urine, and milk. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the noses and throats of approximately 30% of the population. Colonization with S. aureus is known to be a risk factor for several types of infection. Here we demonstrate that triclosan is commonly found in the nasal secretions of healthy adults and the presence of triclosan trends positively with nasal colonization by S. aureus. We demonstrate that triclosan can promote the binding of S. aureus to host proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, and keratin, as well as inanimate surfaces such as plastic and glass. Lastly, triclosan-exposed rats are more susceptible to nasal colonization with S. aureus. These data reveal a novel factor that influences the ability of S. aureus to bind surfaces and alters S. aureus nasal colonization. PMID:24713325

  5. The Innate Immune Response Against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Bekeredjian-Ding, Isabelle; Stein, Christoph; Uebele, Julia

    2015-12-15

    The innate immune system harbors a multitude of different receptor systems and cells that are constantly prepared to sense and eliminate invading microbial pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus enters the body on its exposed epithelial surfaces, e.g., on skin and mucosa. The initial interaction with epithelial cells is governed by Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2-mediated local production of soluble mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial peptides. The overall goal is to achieve a steady state of immune mediators and colonizing bacteria. Following cell and tissue invasion clearance of bacteria depends on intracellular microbial sensors and subsequent activation of the inflammasomes. Tissue-resident mast cells and macrophages recruit neutrophils, macrophages, and NK cells. This inflammatory response supports the generation of IL-17 producing NKT, γδ T cells, and T helper cells. Local dendritic cells migrate to the lymph nodes and fine-tune the adaptive immune response. The scope of this chapter is to provide an overview on the major cell types and receptors involved in innate immune defense against S. aureus. By segregating the different stages of infection from epithelial barrier to intracellular and systemic infection, this chapter highlights the different qualities of the innate immune response to S. aureus at different stages of invasiveness.

  6. Hidden Staphylococcus aureus Carriage: Overrated or Underappreciated?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus is a persistent companion bacterial species in one-third of humankind. Reservoirs include the nasal and nasopharyngeal cavities, skin, and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Despite earlier claims that colonization of individuals is caused by clonal organisms, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revealed that resident type heterogeneity is not exceptional. Carriage, whether overt or hidden, is correlated with a risk of autoinfection. In a recent article in mBio, it was shown that, based on staphylococcal genome sequencing, low-level GI persistence may cause long-term nosocomial outbreaks [L. Senn et al., 7(1):e02039-15, 2016, doi:10.1128/mBio.02039-15]. Institutional endemicity with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) sequence type 228 (ST228) is shown to originate not from high-level nasal carriage or poor compliance with infection control practice but from low-grade asymptomatic GI colonization. This shows the power of NGS in elucidating staphylococcal epidemiology and, even more important, demonstrates that (drug-resistant) microorganisms may possess stealthy means of persistence. Identifying these persistence mechanisms is key to successful infection control. PMID:26884429

  7. Where Does a Staphylococcus aureus Vaccine Stand?

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Vance G.; Proctor, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we examine the current status of Staphylococcus aureus vaccine development and the prospects for future vaccines. Examination of the clinical trials to date show that murine models have not predicted success in humans for active or passive immunization. A key factor in the failure to develop a vaccine to prevent S. aureus infections comes from our relatively limited knowledge of human protective immunity. More recent reports on the elements of the human immune response to staphylococci are analysed. In addition, there is some controversy concerning the role of antibodies for protecting humans, and these data are reviewed. From a review of the current state of understanding of staphylococcal immunity, a working model is proposed. Some new work has provided some initial candidate biomarker(s) to predict outcomes of invasive infections and to predict the efficacy of antibiotic therapy in humans. We conclude by looking to the future through the perspective of lessons gleaned from the clinical vaccine trials. PMID:24476315

  8. Staphylococcus epidermidis as a cause of bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt, Sharon; Huygens, Flavia; Faoagali, Joan; Rathnayake, Irani U; Hafner, Louise M

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a biofilm-producing commensal organism found ubiquitously on human skin and mucous membranes, as well as on animals and in the environment. Biofilm formation enables this organism to evade the host immune system. Colonization of percutaneous devices or implanted medical devices allows bacteria access to the bloodstream. Isolation of this organism from blood cultures may represent either contamination during the blood collection procedure or true bacteremia. S. epidermidis bloodstream infections may be indolent compared with other bacteria. Isolation of S. epidermidis from a blood culture may present a management quandary for clinicians. Over-treatment may lead to patient harm and increases in healthcare costs. There are numerous reports indicating the difficulty of predicting clinical infection in patients with positive blood cultures with this organism. No reliable phenotypic or genotypic algorithms currently exist to predict the pathogenicity of a S. epidermidis bloodstream infection. This review will discuss the latest advances in identification methods, global population structure, pathogenicity, biofilm formation, antimicrobial resistance and clinical significance of the detection of S. epidermidis in blood cultures. Previous studies that have attempted to discriminate between invasive and contaminating strains of S. epidermidis in blood cultures will be analyzed.

  9. Nasal commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis counteracts influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Kuo, Sherwin; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Schooley, Robert T; Rohde, Holger; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-06-16

    Several microbes, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a Gram-positive bacterium, live inside the human nasal cavity as commensals. The role of these nasal commensals in host innate immunity is largely unknown, although bacterial interference in the nasal microbiome may promote ecological competition between commensal bacteria and pathogenic species. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis culture supernatants significantly suppressed the infectivity of various influenza viruses. Using high-performance liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, we identified a giant extracellular matrix-binding protein (Embp) as the major component involved in the anti-influenza effect of S. epidermidis. This anti-influenza activity was abrogated when Embp was mutated, confirming that Embp is essential for S. epidermidis activity against viral infection. We also showed that both S. epidermidis bacterial particles and Embp can directly bind to influenza virus. Furthermore, the injection of a recombinant Embp fragment containing a fibronectin-binding domain into embryonated eggs increased the survival rate of virus-infected chicken embryos. For an in vivo challenge study, prior Embp intranasal inoculation in chickens suppressed the viral titres and induced the expression of antiviral cytokines in the nasal tissues. These results suggest that S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity may serve as a defence mechanism against influenza virus infection.

  10. Destruction of Staphylococcus aureus during frankfurter processing.

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, S A; Smith, J L; Kissinger, J C

    1977-01-01

    We studied the thermal resistance of Staphylococcus aureus during frankfurter processing in respect to whether staphylococci are killed by the heating step of the process and whether heat injury interferes with the quantitative estimation of the survivors. With S. aureus 198E, heat injury could be demonstrated only when large numbers of cells (10(8)/g) were present and at a product temperature of 140 degrees F (60 degrees C). On tryptic soy agar and tryptic soy agar plus 7% NaCl media, at temperatures less than 140 degrees F, the counts were virtually identical; above 140 degrees F, the counts converged, with the organisms dying so rapidly that heat injury was not demonstrable. Heat injury was thus judged not to interfere with the quantitative estimation of staphylococci surviving the normal commercial heating given frankfurters. By using a combination of direct plating on tryptic soy agar and a most-probable-number technique, we detected no viable cells (less than 0.3/g) of several strains of S. aureus in frankfurters heated to 160 degrees F (71.1 degrees C). This temperature is compatible with the normal final temperature to which federally inspected processors heat their frankfurters and with the temperature needed to destroy salmonellae. PMID:563701

  11. Staphylococcus aureus infections in Australasian neonatal nurseries

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, D; Fraser, S; Hogg, G; Li, H

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the incidence and outcome of systemic infections with methicillin sensitive (MSSA) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in Australasian neonatal nurseries. Methods: Prospective longitudinal study of systemic infections (clinical sepsis plus positive cultures of blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid) in 17 Australasian neonatal nurseries. Results: The incidence of early onset sepsis with S aureus, mainly MSSA, was 19 cases per 244 718 live births or 0.08 per 1000. From 1992 to 1994, MRSA infections caused only 8% of staphylococcal infections. From 1995 to 1998, there was an outbreak of MRSA infection, in two Melbourne hospitals. The outbreak resolved, after the use of topical mupirocin and improved handwashing. Babies with MRSA sepsis were significantly smaller than babies with MSSA sepsis (mean birth weight 1093 v 1617 g) and more preterm (mean gestation 27.5 v 30.3 weeks). The mortality of MRSA sepsis was 24.6% compared with 9.9% for MSSA infections. The mortality of early onset MSSA sepsis, however, was 39% (seven of 18) compared with 7.3% of late onset MSSA infection presenting more than two days after birth. Conclusions: S aureus is a rare but important cause of early onset sepsis. Late onset MRSA infections carried a higher mortality than late onset MSSA infections, but babies with early onset MSSA sepsis had a particularly high mortality. PMID:15210669

  12. Cadmium Modulates Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xueqing; Santos, Regiane R.; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of cadmium exposure on Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 35984) biofilm formation. Bacteria were cultured in the absence or presence of different concentrations (0–50 µM) of cadmium. Biofilm formation and bacterial viability were assessed. Quantitative Real Time-PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to determine the mRNA expression of molecular markers of S. epidermidis biofilm formation and dispersion. S. epidermidis biofilm formation was stimulated (p < 0.001) by 1.56 and 3.13 µM cadmium. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis confirmed an increase in biofilm thickness (23 and 22 µm, versus 17.8 µm in the controls) after exposure to 1.56 or 3.13 µM cadmium, respectively. qRT-PCR was performed showing the up-regulation of atlE, embp, aap, icaA and icaB after exposure to 3.13 µM cadmium. Taken together, these findings show that cadmium at low, sub-toxic concentrations acts as inducer of S. epidermidis biofilm formation. PMID:25749322

  13. Genomic Analysis of Companion Rabbit Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Mark A.; Harrison, Ewan M.; Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Graham, Elizabeth M.; Parkhill, Julian; Foster, Geoffrey; Paterson, Gavin K.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to being an important human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus is able to cause a variety of infections in numerous other host species. While the S. aureus strains causing infection in several of these hosts have been well characterised, this is not the case for companion rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), where little data are available on S. aureus strains from this host. To address this deficiency we have performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing and genome sequencing on a collection of S. aureus isolates from companion rabbits. The findings show a diverse S. aureus population is able to cause infection in this host, and while antimicrobial resistance was uncommon, the isolates possess a range of known and putative virulence factors consistent with a diverse clinical presentation in companion rabbits including severe abscesses. We additionally show that companion rabbit isolates carry polymorphisms within dltB as described as underlying host-adaption of S. aureus to farmed rabbits. The availability of S. aureus genome sequences from companion rabbits provides an important aid to understanding the pathogenesis of disease in this host and in the clinical management and surveillance of these infections. PMID:26963381

  14. Control of Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity island excision.

    PubMed

    Mir-Sanchis, Ignacio; Martínez-Rubio, Roser; Martí, Miguel; Chen, John; Lasa, Íñigo; Novick, Richard P; Tormo-Más, María Ángeles; Penadés, José R

    2012-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) are a group of related 15-17 kb mobile genetic elements that commonly carry genes for superantigen toxins and other virulence factors. The key feature of their mobility is the induction of SaPI excision and replication by certain phages and their efficient encapsidation into specific small-headed phage-like infectious particles. Previous work demonstrated that chromosomal integration depends on the SaPI-encoded recombinase, Int. However, although involved in the process, Int alone was not sufficient to mediate efficient SaPI excision from chromosomal sites, and we expected that SaPI excision would involve an Xis function, which could be encoded by a helper phage or by the SaPI, itself. Here we report that the latter is the case. In vivo recombination assays with plasmids in Escherichia coli demonstrate that SaPI-coded Xis is absolutely required for recombination between the SaPI att(L) and att(R) sites, and that both sites, as well as their flanking SaPI sequences, are required for SaPI excision. Mutational analysis reveals that Xis is essential for efficient horizontal SaPI transfer to a recipient strain. Finally, we show that the master regulator of the SaPI life cycle, Stl, blocks expression of int and xis by binding to inverted repeats present in the promoter region, thus controlling SaPI excision.

  15. How clean is clean? Proposed methods for hospital cleaning assessment.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamad, A; Maxwell, S

    2008-12-01

    Reducing infection rates in hospitals depends on a variety of factors, including environmental measures. Although microbiological standards have been proposed for surface hygiene in hospitals, standard methods for environmental sampling have not been discussed. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of cleaning/disinfection in critical care units using the wipe-rinse method to detect an indicator organism and dipslides to quantitatively determine the microbial load. Frequent-hand-touch surfaces from clinical and non-clinical areas were microbiologically surveyed, targeting both meticillin-susceptible (MSSA) and meticillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus. A subset of the surfaces targeted was sampled quantitatively to determine the total aerobic count. MRSA was isolated from 9 (6.9%) and MSSA was isolated from 15 (11.5%) of the 130 samples collected. Seven of 81 (8.6%) samples collected from non-clinical areas grew MRSA, compared with two (4.1%) from 49 samples collected from clinical areas. Of 116 sites screened for the total aerobic count, 9 (7.7%) showed >5 cfu/cm(2) microbial growth. Bed frames, telephones and computer keyboards were among the surfaces that yielded a high total viable count. There was no direct correlation between the findings of total aerobic count and MRSA isolation. We suggest, however, that combining both standards will give a more effective method of assessing the efficacy of cleaning/disinfection strategy. Further work is required to evaluate and refine these standards in order to assess the frequency of cleaning required for a particular area, or for changing the protocol or materials used.

  16. Finding a benchmark for monitoring hospital cleanliness.

    PubMed

    Mulvey, D; Redding, P; Robertson, C; Woodall, C; Kingsmore, P; Bedwell, D; Dancer, S J

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated three methods for monitoring hospital cleanliness. The aim was to find a benchmark that could indicate risk to patients from a contaminated environment. We performed visual monitoring, ATP bioluminescence and microbiological screening of five clinical surfaces before and after detergent-based cleaning on two wards over a four-week period. Five additional sites that were not featured in the routine domestic specification were also sampled. Measurements from all three methods were integrated and compared in order to choose appropriate levels for routine monitoring. We found that visual assessment did not reflect ATP values nor environmental contamination with microbial flora including Staphylococcus aureus and meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). There was a relationship between microbial growth categories and the proportion of ATP values exceeding a chosen benchmark but neither reliably predicted the presence of S. aureus or MRSA. ATP values were occasionally diverse. Detergent-based cleaning reduced levels of organic soil by 32% (95% confidence interval: 16-44%; P<0.001) but did not necessarily eliminate indicator staphylococci, some of which survived the cleaning process. An ATP benchmark value of 100 relative light units offered the closest correlation with microbial growth levels <2.5 cfu/cm(2) (receiver operating characteristic ROC curve sensitivity: 57%; specificity: 57%). In conclusion, microbiological and ATP monitoring confirmed environmental contamination, persistence of hospital pathogens and measured the effect on the environment from current cleaning practices. This study has provided provisional benchmarks to assist with future assessment of hospital cleanliness. Further work is required to refine practical sampling strategy and choice of benchmarks.

  17. Assessing the biological efficacy and rate of recontamination following hydrogen peroxide vapour decontamination.

    PubMed

    Otter, J A; Cummins, M; Ahmad, F; van Tonder, C; Drabu, Y J

    2007-10-01

    The inanimate hospital environment can become contaminated with nosocomial pathogens. Hydrogen peroxide vapour (HPV) decontamination has proven effective for the eradication of persistent environmental contamination. We investigated the extent of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and gentamicin-resistant Gram-negative rod (GNR) contamination in a ward side-room occupied by a patient with a history of MRSA, VRE and GNR infection and colonisation and investigated the impact of HPV decontamination. Fifteen standardised sites in the room were sampled using a selective broth enrichment protocol to culture MRSA, VRE and GNR. Sampling was performed before cleaning, after cleaning, after HPV decontamination and at intervals over the subsequent 19 days on two separate occasions. Environmental contamination was identified before cleaning on 60, 30 and 6.7% of sites for MRSA, GNR and VRE, respectively, and 40, 10 and 6.7% of sites after cleaning. Only one site (3.3%) was contaminated with MRSA after HPV decontamination. No recontamination with VRE was identified and no recontamination with MRSA and GNR was identified during the two days following HPV decontamination. Substantial recontamination was identified approximately one week after HPV decontamination towards post-cleaning levels for GNR and towards pre-cleaning levels for MRSA. HPV is more effective than standard terminal cleaning for the eradication of nosocomial pathogens. Recontamination was not immediate for MRSA and GNR but contamination returned within a week in a room occupied by a patient colonised with MRSA and GNR. This finding has important implications for the optimal deployment of HPV decontamination in hospitals.

  18. Response of Staphylococcus Aureus to a Spaceflight Analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    The decreased gravity of the spaceflight environment creates quiescent, low fluid shear conditions. This environment can impart considerable effects on the physiology of microorganisms as well as their interactions with potential hosts. Using the rotating wall vessel (RWV), as a spaceflight analogue, the consequence of low fluid shear culture on microbial pathogenesis has provided a better understanding of the risks to the astronaut crew from infectious microorganisms. While the outcome of low fluid shear culture has been investigated for several bacterial pathogens, little has been done to understand how this environmental factor affects Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus is an opportunistic human pathogen which presents a high level of infection risk to the crew, as it has been isolated from both the space shuttle and International Space Station. Given that approximately forty percent of the population are carriers of the bacteria, eradication of this organism from in flight environments is impractical. These reasons have lead to us to assess the response of S. aureus to a reduced fluid shear environment. Culture in the RWV demonstrated that S. aureus grown under the low-shear condition had lower cell concentrations after 10 hours when compared to the control culture. Furthermore, the low-shear cultured bacteria displayed a reduction in carotenoid production, pigments responsible for their yellow/gold coloration. When exposed to various environmental stressors, post low-shear culture, a decrease in the ability to survive oxidative assault was observed compared to control cultures. The low fluid shear environment also resulted in a decrease in hemolysin secretion, a staphylococcal toxin responsible for red blood cell lysis. When challenged by the immune components present in human whole blood, low-shear cultured S. aureus demonstrated significantly reduced survival rates as compared to the control culture. Assays to determine the duration of these alterations

  19. Response of Staphylococcus Aureus to a Spaceflight Analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    The decreased gravity of the spaceflight environment creates quiescent, low fluid shear conditions. This environment can impart considerable effects on the physiology of microorganisms as well as their interactions with potential hosts. Using the rotating wall vessel (RWV), as a spaceflight analogue, the consequence of low fluid shear culture on microbial pathogenesis has provided a better understanding of the risks to the astronaut crew from infectious microorganisms. While the outcome of low fluid shear culture has been investigated for several bacterial pathogens, little has been done to understand how this environmental factor affects Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus is an opportunistic human pathogen which presents a high level of infection risk to the crew, as it has been isolated from both the space shuttle and International Space Station. Given that approximately forty percent of the population are carriers of the bacteria, eradication of this organism from in flight environments is impractical. These reasons have lead to us to assess the response of S. aureus to a reduced fluid shear environment. Culture in the RWV demonstrated that S. aureus grown under the low-shear condition had lower cell concentrations after 10 hours when compared to the control culture. Furthermore, the low-shear cultured bacteria displayed a reduction in carotenoid production, pigments responsible for their yellow/gold coloration. When exposed to various environmental stressors, post low-shear culture, a decrease in the ability to survive oxidative assault was observed compared to control cultures. The low fluid shear environment also resulted in a decrease in hemolysin secretion, a staphylococcal toxin responsible for red blood cell lysis. When challenged by the immune components present in human whole blood, low-shear cultured S. aureus demonstrated significantly reduced survival rates as compared to the control culture. Assays to determine the duration of these alterations

  20. Improving the safety of Staphylococcus aureus polyvalent phages by their production on a Staphylococcus xylosus strain.

    PubMed

    El Haddad, Lynn; Ben Abdallah, Nour; Plante, Pier-Luc; Dumaresq, Jeannot; Katsarava, Ramaz; Labrie, Steve; Corbeil, Jacques; St-Gelais, Daniel; Moineau, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Team1 (vB_SauM_Team1) is a polyvalent staphylococcal phage belonging to the Myoviridae family. Phage Team1 was propagated on a Staphylococcus aureus strain and a non-pathogenic Staphylococcus xylosus strain used in industrial meat fermentation. The two Team1 preparations were compared with respect to their microbiological and genomic properties. The burst sizes, latent periods, and host ranges of the two derivatives were identical as were their genome sequences. Phage Team1 has 140,903 bp of double stranded DNA encoding for 217 open reading frames and 4 tRNAs. Comparative genomic analysis revealed similarities to staphylococcal phages ISP (97%) and G1 (97%). The host range of Team1 was compared to the well-known polyvalent staphylococcal phages phi812 and K using a panel of 57 S. aureus strains collected from various sources. These bacterial strains were found to represent 18 sequence types (MLST) and 14 clonal complexes (eBURST). Altogether, the three phages propagated on S. xylosus lysed 52 out of 57 distinct strains of S. aureus. The identification of phage-insensitive strains underlines the importance of designing phage cocktails with broadly varying and overlapping host ranges. Taken altogether, our study suggests that some staphylococcal phages can be propagated on food-grade bacteria for biocontrol and safety purposes.

  1. Improving the Safety of Staphylococcus aureus Polyvalent Phages by Their Production on a Staphylococcus xylosus Strain

    PubMed Central

    El Haddad, Lynn; Ben Abdallah, Nour; Plante, Pier-Luc; Dumaresq, Jeannot; Katsarava, Ramaz; Labrie, Steve; Corbeil, Jacques; St-Gelais, Daniel; Moineau, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Team1 (vB_SauM_Team1) is a polyvalent staphylococcal phage belonging to the Myoviridae family. Phage Team1 was propagated on a Staphylococcus aureus strain and a non-pathogenic Staphylococcus xylosus strain used in industrial meat fermentation. The two Team1 preparations were compared with respect to their microbiological and genomic properties. The burst sizes, latent periods, and host ranges of the two derivatives were identical as were their genome sequences. Phage Team1 has 140,903 bp of double stranded DNA encoding for 217 open reading frames and 4 tRNAs. Comparative genomic analysis revealed similarities to staphylococcal phages ISP (97%) and G1 (97%). The host range of Team1 was compared to the well-known polyvalent staphylococcal phages phi812 and K using a panel of 57 S. aureus strains collected from various sources. These bacterial strains were found to represent 18 sequence types (MLST) and 14 clonal complexes (eBURST). Altogether, the three phages propagated on S. xylosus lysed 52 out of 57 distinct strains of S. aureus. The identification of phage-insensitive strains underlines the importance of designing phage cocktails with broadly varying and overlapping host ranges. Taken altogether, our study suggests that some staphylococcal phages can be propagated on food-grade bacteria for biocontrol and safety purposes. PMID:25061757

  2. Ecological Overlap and Horizontal Gene Transfer in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    Méric, Guillaume; Miragaia, Maria; de Been, Mark; Yahara, Koji; Pascoe, Ben; Mageiros, Leonardos; Mikhail, Jane; Harris, Llinos G.; Wilkinson, Thomas S.; Rolo, Joana; Lamble, Sarah; Bray, James E.; Jolley, Keith A.; Hanage, William P.; Bowden, Rory; Maiden, Martin C.J.; Mack, Dietrich; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Feil, Edward J.; Corander, Jukka; Sheppard, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis represent major causes of severe nosocomial infection, and are associated with high levels of mortality and morbidity worldwide. These species are both common commensals on the human skin and in the nasal pharynx, but are genetically distinct, differing at 24% average nucleotide divergence in 1,478 core genes. To better understand the genome dynamics of these ecologically similar staphylococcal species, we carried out a comparative analysis of 324 S. aureus and S. epidermidis genomes, including 83 novel S. epidermidis sequences. A reference pan-genome approach and whole genome multilocus-sequence typing revealed that around half of the genome was shared between the species. Based on a BratNextGen analysis, homologous recombination was found to have impacted on 40% of the core genes in S. epidermidis, but on only 24% of the core genes in S. aureus. Homologous recombination between the species is rare, with a maximum of nine gene alleles shared between any two S. epidermidis and S. aureus isolates. In contrast, there was considerable interspecies admixture of mobile elements, in particular genes associated with the SaPIn1 pathogenicity island, metal detoxification, and the methicillin-resistance island SCCmec. Our data and analysis provide a context for considering the nature of recombinational boundaries between S. aureus and S. epidermidis and, the selective forces that influence realized recombination between these species. PMID:25888688

  3. Differentiation Between {\\varvec{Staphylococcus aureus}} and {\\varvec{Staphylococcus epidermidis}} Using Microcalorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivero, Natividad Lago; Soto, José L. Legido; Santos, Isaac Arias; Casás, Lidia M.

    2013-06-01

    Microcalorimetry is a highly sensitive experimental technique that determines heat changes in any process or transformation. All organisms produce heat due to their metabolism. The rate of heat flow is an adequate measure of metabolic activity of living beings and their component parts. Microorganisms produce small amounts of heat: 1 pW to 3 pW per cell. Although the heat produced by bacteria is very small, their exponential reproduction in a culture medium permits heat detection through microcalorimetry. A microcalorimetric growth and metabolic study was carried out for the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, by using heat liberated during metabolism. A thermal conductivity calorimeter of the Calvet type was used. The inside of the calorimeter contains two stainless steel cells (experimental and reference) with a screw-on Teflon cap with a hole in the center. Experiments were carried out with final concentrations of the order of (106, 105, 103, and 10) CFU {\\cdot } { ml }^{-1}. These were kept at a constant temperature of 309.65 K. The plot of change in heat voltage versus time enables acquisition of the characteristic growth curve for each bacterial strain. Thermograms were analyzed mathematically and helped determine the characteristic parameters for each microorganism, and led to the identification of the bacterial species.

  4. Staphylococcus epidermidis Esp inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and nasal colonization.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Tadayuki; Uehara, Yoshio; Shinji, Hitomi; Tajima, Akiko; Seo, Hiromi; Takada, Koji; Agata, Toshihiko; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu

    2010-05-20

    Commensal bacteria are known to inhibit pathogen colonization; however, complex host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions have made it difficult to gain a detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in the inhibition of colonization. Here we show that the serine protease Esp secreted by a subset of Staphylococcus epidermidis, a commensal bacterium, inhibits biofilm formation and nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus, a human pathogen. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the presence of Esp-secreting S. epidermidis in the nasal cavities of human volunteers correlates with the absence of S. aureus. Purified Esp inhibits biofilm formation and destroys pre-existing S. aureus biofilms. Furthermore, Esp enhances the susceptibility of S. aureus in biofilms to immune system components. In vivo studies have shown that Esp-secreting S. epidermidis eliminates S. aureus nasal colonization. These findings indicate that Esp hinders S. aureus colonization in vivo through a novel mechanism of bacterial interference, which could lead to the development of novel therapeutics to prevent S. aureus colonization and infection.

  5. Characterization of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus intermedius and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from veterinary clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Raus, J; Love, D N

    1983-10-01

    Staphylococci were the most frequent isolates from clinical specimens submitted from a large referral and teaching veterinary hospital. In this study a total of 160 isolates were examined by a wide range of biochemical tests and modifications of basic procedures. An attempt was made to test the validity of these procedures for use in characterization of clinical isolates of coagulase-positive staphylococci. Of the isolates examined, some 27 were Staphylococcus aureus, 115 were Staphylococcus intermedius, and the rest were coagulase-negative staphylococci and were not characterized further. The most useful discriminatory tests were acid production from maltose incubated overnight on maltose purple agar (W. E. Kloos and K. H. Schleifer, J. Clin. Microbiol., 1:82-88, 1975), acetoin production detected by the Barritt method, and detection of hyaluronidase activity. These gave accurate and fast results. Supplemented with the tellurite reduction test and the direct staphylocoagulase assay using Chromozym TH (Engels et al.; J. Clin. Microbiol. 14:496-500, 1981), these tests should eliminate the possibility of false identifications of these two species.

  6. Characterization of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus intermedius and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from veterinary clinical specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Raus, J; Love, D N

    1983-01-01

    Staphylococci were the most frequent isolates from clinical specimens submitted from a large referral and teaching veterinary hospital. In this study a total of 160 isolates were examined by a wide range of biochemical tests and modifications of basic procedures. An attempt was made to test the validity of these procedures for use in characterization of clinical isolates of coagulase-positive staphylococci. Of the isolates examined, some 27 were Staphylococcus aureus, 115 were Staphylococcus intermedius, and the rest were coagulase-negative staphylococci and were not characterized further. The most useful discriminatory tests were acid production from maltose incubated overnight on maltose purple agar (W. E. Kloos and K. H. Schleifer, J. Clin. Microbiol., 1:82-88, 1975), acetoin production detected by the Barritt method, and detection of hyaluronidase activity. These gave accurate and fast results. Supplemented with the tellurite reduction test and the direct staphylocoagulase assay using Chromozym TH (Engels et al.; J. Clin. Microbiol. 14:496-500, 1981), these tests should eliminate the possibility of false identifications of these two species. PMID:6630462

  7. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Koukos, Georgios; Sakellari, Dimitra; Arsenakis, Minas; Tsalikis, Lazaros; Slini, Theodora; Konstantinidis, Antonios

    2015-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in plaque and tongue samples from systemically healthy subjects with periodontal health, gingivitis or chronic periodontitis. After screening 720 potentially eligible subjects, 154 systemically healthy participants were ultimately enrolled in the current study. Subgingival samples were taken from the first molars and the tongue and analyzed for the presence of S. aureus and MRSA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using primers and conditions previously described in the literature. In addition, samples were taken from deep periodontal pockets of chronic periodontitis patients. Statistical analysis was performed by applying non-parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis for clinical parameters, and z-test with Bonferroni corrections for distributions of assessed parameters). All comparisons were set at the 0.05 significance level. S. aureus was detected in 18% of all participants and in 10% of the samples tested. No significant differences were found in its distribution among the three investigated groups (z-test for proportions with Bonferroni corrections, p>0.05). The mecA gene was not present in any of the S. aureus found. S. aureus can be found in the oral environment regardless of the periodontal conditions and therefore should be considered as a member of the transient flora not participating in periodontal pathology. Subgingival sites and tongue surfaces seem to be an unusual habitat of MRSA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ecological Overlap and Horizontal Gene Transfer in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Méric, Guillaume; Miragaia, Maria; de Been, Mark; Yahara, Koji; Pascoe, Ben; Mageiros, Leonardos; Mikhail, Jane; Harris, Llinos G; Wilkinson, Thomas S; Rolo, Joana; Lamble, Sarah; Bray, James E; Jolley, Keith A; Hanage, William P; Bowden, Rory; Maiden, Martin C J; Mack, Dietrich; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Feil, Edward J; Corander, Jukka; Sheppard, Samuel K

    2015-04-16

    The opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis represent major causes of severe nosocomial infection, and are associated with high levels of mortality and morbidity worldwide. These species are both common commensals on the human skin and in the nasal pharynx, but are genetically distinct, differing at 24% average nucleotide divergence in 1,478 core genes. To better understand the genome dynamics of these ecologically similar staphylococcal species, we carried out a comparative analysis of 324 S. aureus and S. epidermidis genomes, including 83 novel S. epidermidis sequences. A reference pan-genome approach and whole genome multilocus-sequence typing revealed that around half of the genome was shared between the species. Based on a BratNextGen analysis, homologous recombination was found to have impacted on 40% of the core genes in S. epidermidis, but on only 24% of the core genes in S. aureus. Homologous recombination between the species is rare, with a maximum of nine gene alleles shared between any two S. epidermidis and S. aureus isolates. In contrast, there was considerable interspecies admixture of mobile elements, in particular genes associated with the SaPIn1 pathogenicity island, metal detoxification, and the methicillin-resistance island SCCmec. Our data and analysis provide a context for considering the nature of recombinational boundaries between S. aureus and S. epidermidis and, the selective forces that influence realized recombination between these species.

  9. Ethanol and Isopropyl Alcohol Exposure Increases Biofilm Formation in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Luther, Megan K; Bilida, Sarah; Mermel, Leonard A; LaPlante, Kerry L

    2015-06-01

    Alcohols, including ethanol and isopropyl alcohol, are used in clinical practice for disinfection and infection prevention. Recent studies, however, demonstrate that alcohols may enhance biofilm production in Staphylococci. We quantified biofilm formation in the presence of ethanol and isopropyl alcohol in six different, well-characterized strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. After 24 h of biofilm development, each strain was exposed to normal saline (NS), ethanol, or isopropyl alcohol (40%, 60%, 80% and 95%) for additional 24 h incubation. Adherent biofilms were stained and optical density was determined. Viability of strains was also determined after alcohol exposure. Ethanol increased biofilm formation in all six strains compared to normal saline (p < 0.05). There was increased biofilm formation with increasing ethanol concentration. Isopropyl alcohol also increased biofilm formation with increasing alcohol concentration in all six strains (p < 0.01 vs NS). The slime-negative, chemical mutant strain of S. epidermidis increased biofilm formation after exposure to both alcohols, likely reverting back its primary phenotype through modulation of the intercellular adhesin repressor. All strains demonstrated viability after exposure to each alcohol concentration, though viability was decreased. Ethanol and isopropyl alcohol exposure increases biofilm formation of S. aureus and S. epidermidis at concentrations used in clinical settings. Ethanol and isopropyl alcohol did not eradicate viable Staphylococci from formed biofilm.

  10. Modeling Nosocomial Infections of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus with Environment Contamination().

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Ruan, Shigui

    2017-04-03

    In this work, we investigate the role of environmental contamination on the clinical epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospitals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium that causes infections in different parts of the body. It is tougher to treat than most strains of Staphylococcus aureus or staph, because it is resistant to some commonly used antibiotics. Both deterministic and stochastic models are constructed to describe the transmission characteristics of MRSA in hospital setting. The deterministic epidemic model includes five compartments: colonized and uncolonized patients, contaminated and uncontaminated health care workers (HCWs), and bacterial load in environment. The basic reproduction number R 0 is calculated, and its numerical and sensitivity analysis has been performed to study the asymptotic behavior of the model, and to help identify factors responsible for observed patterns of infections. A stochastic epidemic model with stochastic simulations is also presented to supply a comprehensive analysis of its behavior. Data collected from Beijing Tongren Hospital will be used in the numerical simulations of our model. The results can be used to provide theoretical guidance for designing efficient control measures, such as increasing the hand hygiene compliance of HCWs and disinfection rate of environment, and decreasing the transmission rate between environment and patients and HCWs.

  11. Low-shear modelled microgravity alters expression of virulence determinants of Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosado, Helena; Doyle, Marie; Hinds, Jason; Taylor, Peter W.

    2010-02-01

    Microbiological monitoring of air and surfaces within the ISS indicate that bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus are found with high frequency. Staphylococcus aureus, an opportunistic pathogen with the capacity to cause severe debilitating infection, constitutes a significant proportion of these isolates. Experiments conducted during short-term flight suggest that growth in microgravity leads to increases in bacterial antibiotic resistance and to cell wall changes. Growth under low-shear modelled microgravity (LSMMG) indicated that a reduced gravitational field acts as an environmental signal for expression of enhanced bacterial virulence in gram-negative pathogens. We therefore examined the effect of simulated microgravity on parameters of antibiotic susceptibility and virulence in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates RF1, RF6 and RF11; these strains were grown in a high aspect ratio vessel under LSMMG and compared with cells grown under normal gravity (NG). There were no significant differences in antibiotic susceptibility of staphylococci grown under LSMMG compared to NG. LSMMG-induced reductions in synthesis of the pigment staphyloxanthin and the major virulence determinant α-toxin were noted. Significant changes in global gene expression were identified by DNA microarray analysis; with isolate RF6, the expression of hla and genes of the regulatory system saeR/saeS were reduced approximately two-fold. These data provide strong evidence that growth of S. aureus under modelled microgravity leads to a reduction in expression of virulence determinants.

  12. Characterizing the in vitro biofilm phenotype of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Van Kerckhoven, Marian; Hotterbeekx, An; Lanckacker, Ellen; Moons, Pieter; Lammens, Christine; Kerstens, Monique; Ieven, Margareta; Delputte, Peter; Jorens, Philippe G; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Goossens, Herman; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC)-related infections are commonly caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis that is able to form a biofilm on the catheter surface. Many studies involving biofilm formation by Staphylococcus have been published each adopting an own in vitro model. Since the capacity to form a biofilm depends on multiple environmental factors, direct comparison of results obtained in different studies remains challenging. This study characterized the phenotype (strong versus weak biofilm-producers) of S. epidermidis from CVCs in four different in vitro biofilm models, covering differences in material type (glass versus polymer) and nutrient presentation (static versus continuous flow). A good correlation in phenotype was obtained between glass and polymeric surfaces independent of nutrient flow, with 85% correspondence under static growth conditions and 80% under dynamic conditions. A 80% correspondence between static and dynamic conditions on polymeric surfaces could be demonstrated as well. Incubation time had a significant influence on the biofilm phenotype with only 55% correspondence between the dynamic models at different incubation times (48h versus 17h). Screening for the presence of biofilm-related genes only revealed that ica A was correlated with biofilm formation under static but not under dynamic conditions. In conclusion, this study highlights that a high level of standardization is necessary to interpret and compare results of different in vitro biofilm models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Double triplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hominis, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus and determination of their methicillin resistance directly from positive blood culture bottles.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Abdullah; Basustaoglu, A Celal

    2011-12-01

    We developed and validated here a double triplex real-time PCR assay to simultaneously detect and identify Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and their methicillin resistance in a single reaction directly from Gram-positive cocci-in-clusters (GPCs)-positive blood culture bottles. From August 15, 2009 through February 15, 2010, 238 GPC-positive samples were collected and identified by conventional methods as 11 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 28 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), 176 MR coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS), 21 MSCoNS and two Enterococcus faecalis. The double triplex real-time PCR assay was targeted and detected tuf, nuc and mecA genes in the first tube and atlE, gap and mvaA genes in the second tube which could be run simultaneously. The detection limit of the assay was found at 10(3) CFU/ml for the atleE gene, 10(4) CFU/ml for the mva gene and 10(5) CFU/ml for gap, nuc, mecA and tuf genes based on seeding experiments. All Staphylococcus species except two S. epidermidis were correctly identified by the assay. The double triplex real-time PCR assay quickly and accurately detects S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. hominis and S. haemolyticus and their methicillin resistance in a single reaction directly from positive blood culture bottles within 83 min.

  14. Food Poisoning and Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Argudín, María Ángeles; Mendoza, María Carmen; Rodicio, María Rosario

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus produces a wide variety of toxins including staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs; SEA to SEE, SEG to SEI, SER to SET) with demonstrated emetic activity, and staphylococcal-like (SEl) proteins, which are not emetic in a primate model (SElL and SElQ) or have yet to be tested (SElJ, SElK, SElM to SElP, SElU, SElU2 and SElV). SEs and SEls have been traditionally subdivided into classical (SEA to SEE) and new (SEG to SElU2) types. All possess superantigenic activity and are encoded by accessory genetic elements, including plasmids, prophages, pathogenicity islands, vSa genomic islands, or by genes located next to the staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) implicated in methicillin resistance. SEs are a major cause of food poisoning, which typically occurs after ingestion of different foods, particularly processed meat and dairy products, contaminated with S. aureus by improper handling and subsequent storage at elevated temperatures. Symptoms are of rapid onset and include nausea and violent vomiting, with or without diarrhea. The illness is usually self-limiting and only occasionally it is severe enough to warrant hospitalization. SEA is the most common cause of staphylococcal food poisoning worldwide, but the involvement of other classical SEs has been also demonstrated. Of the new SE/SEls, only SEH have clearly been associated with food poisoning. However, genes encoding novel SEs as well as SEls with untested emetic activity are widely represented in S. aureus, and their role in pathogenesis may be underestimated. PMID:22069659

  15. Cytoplasmic peptidoglycan intermediate levels in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Harika; Ayon, Navid J; Gutheil, William G

    2016-02-01

    Intracellular cytoplasmic peptidoglycan (PG) intermediate levels were determined in Staphylococcus aureus during log-phase growth in enriched media. Levels of UDP-linked intermediates were quantitatively determined using ion pairing LC-MS/MS in negative mode, and amine intermediates were quantitatively determined stereospecifically as their Marfey's reagent derivatives in positive mode. Levels of UDP-linked intermediates in S. aureus varied from 1.4 μM for UDP-GlcNAc-Enolpyruvyate to 1200 μM for UDP-MurNAc. Levels of amine intermediates (L-Ala, D-Ala, D-Ala-D-Ala, L-Glu, D-Glu, and L-Lys) varied over a range of from 860 μM for D-Ala-D-Ala to 30-260 mM for the others. Total PG was determined from the D-Glu content of isolated PG, and used to estimate the rate of PG synthesis (in terms of cytoplasmic metabolite flux) as 690 μM/min. The total UDP-linked intermediates pool (2490 μM) is therefore sufficient to sustain growth for 3.6 min. Comparison of UDP-linked metabolite levels with published pathway enzyme characteristics demonstrates that enzymes on the UDP-branch range from >80% saturation for MurA, Z, and C, to <5% saturation for MurB. Metabolite levels were compared with literature values for Escherichia coli, with the major difference in UDP-intermediates being the level of UDP-MurNAc, which was high in S. aureus (1200 μM) and low in E. coli (45 μM).

  16. Antimicrobial Activity against Intraosteoblastic Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Trouillet-Assant, Sophie; Riffard, Natacha; Tasse, Jason; Flammier, Sacha; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Chidiac, Christian; Vandenesch, François; Ferry, Tristan; Laurent, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Although Staphylococcus aureus persistence in osteoblasts, partly as small-colony variants (SCVs), can contribute to bone and joint infection (BJI) relapses, the intracellular activity of antimicrobials is not currently considered in the choice of treatment strategies for BJI. Here, antistaphylococcal antimicrobials were evaluated for their intraosteoblastic activity and their impact on the intracellular emergence of SCVs in an ex vivo osteoblast infection model. Osteoblastic MG63 cells were infected for 2 h with HG001 S. aureus. After killing the remaining extracellular bacteria with lysostaphin, infected cells were incubated for 24 h with antimicrobials at the intraosseous concentrations reached with standard therapeutic doses. Intracellular bacteria and SCVs were then quantified by plating cell lysates. A bactericidal effect was observed with fosfomycin, linezolid, tigecycline, oxacillin, rifampin, ofloxacin, and clindamycin, with reductions in the intracellular inocula of −2.5, −3.1, −3.9, −4.2, −4.9, −4.9, and −5.2 log10 CFU/100,000 cells, respectively (P < 10−4). Conversely, a bacteriostatic effect was observed with ceftaroline and teicoplanin, whereas vancomycin and daptomycin had no significant impact on intracellular bacterial growth. Ofloxacin, daptomycin, and vancomycin significantly limited intracellular SCV emergence. Overall, ofloxacin was the only molecule to combine an excellent intracellular activity while limiting the emergence of SCVs. These data provide a basis for refining the choice of antibiotics to prioritise in the management of BJI, justifying the combination of a fluoroquinolone for its intracellular activity with an anti-biofilm molecule, such as rifampin. PMID:25605365

  17. Sialic Acid Catabolism in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Michael E.; King, Jessica M.; Yahr, Timothy L.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous bacterial pathogen that is the causative agent of numerous acute and chronic infections. S. aureus colonizes the anterior nares of a significant portion of the healthy adult population, but the mechanisms of colonization remain incompletely defined. Sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid [Neu5Ac]) is a bioavailable carbon and nitrogen source that is abundant on mucosal surfaces and in secretions in the commensal environment. Our findings demonstrate that Neu5Ac can serve as an S. aureus carbon source, and we have identified a previously uncharacterized chromosomal locus (nan) that is required for Neu5Ac utilization. Molecular characterization of the nan locus indicates that it contains five genes, organized into four transcripts, and the genes were renamed nanE, nanR, nanK, nanA, and nanT. Initial studies with gene deletions indicate that nanT, predicted to encode the Neu5Ac transporter, and nanA and nanE, predicted to encode catabolic enzymes, are essential for growth on Neu5Ac. Furthermore, a nanE deletion mutant exhibits a growth inhibition phenotype in the presence of Neu5Ac. Transcriptional fusions and Northern blot analyses indicate that NanR represses the expression of both the nanAT and nanE transcripts, which can be relieved with Neu5Ac. Electrophoretic mobility studies demonstrate that NanR binds to the nanAT and nanE promoter regions, and the Neu5Ac catabolic intermediate N-acetylmannosamine-6-phosphate (ManNAc-6P) relieves NanR promoter binding. Taken together, these data indicate that the nan gene cluster is essential for Neu5Ac utilization and may perform an important function for S. aureus survival in the host. PMID:23396916

  18. SRD: a Staphylococcus regulatory RNA database

    PubMed Central

    Sassi, Mohamed; Augagneur, Yoann; Mauro, Tony; Ivain, Lorraine; Chabelskaya, Svetlana; Hallier, Marc; Sallou, Olivier; Felden, Brice

    2015-01-01

    An overflow of regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) was identified in a wide range of bacteria. We designed and implemented a new resource for the hundreds of sRNAs identified in Staphylococci, with primary focus on the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. The “Staphylococcal Regulatory RNA Database” (SRD, http://srd.genouest.org/) compiled all published data in a single interface including genetic locations, sequences and other features. SRD proposes novel and simplified identifiers for Staphylococcal regulatory RNAs (srn) based on the sRNA's genetic location in S. aureus strain N315 which served as a reference. From a set of 894 sequences and after an in-depth cleaning, SRD provides a list of 575 srn exempt of redundant sequences. For each sRNA, their experimental support(s) is provided, allowing the user to individually assess their validity and significance. RNA-seq analysis performed on strains N315, NCTC8325, and Newman allowed us to provide further details, upgrade the initial annotation, and identified 159 RNA-seq independent transcribed sRNAs. The lists of 575 and 159 sRNAs sequences were used to predict the number and location of srns in 18 S. aureus strains and 10 other Staphylococci. A comparison of the srn contents within 32 Staphylococcal genomes revealed a poor conservation between species. In addition, sRNA structure predictions obtained with MFold are accessible. A BLAST server and the intaRNA program, which is dedicated to target prediction, were implemented. SRD is the first sRNA database centered on a genus; it is a user-friendly and scalable device with the possibility to submit new sequences that should spread in the literature. PMID:25805861

  19. Staphopains Modulate Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Mootz, Joe M.; Malone, Cheryl L.; Shaw, Lindsey N.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a known cause of chronic biofilm infections that can reside on medical implants or host tissue. Recent studies have demonstrated an important role for proteinaceous material in the biofilm structure. The S. aureus genome encodes many secreted proteases, and there is growing evidence that these enzymes have self-cleavage properties that alter biofilm integrity. However, the specific contribution of each protease and mechanism of biofilm modulation is not clear. To address this issue, we utilized a sigma factor B (ΔsigB) mutant where protease activity results in a biofilm-negative phenotype, thereby creating a condition where the protease(s) responsible for the phenotype could be identified. Using a plasma-coated microtiter assay, biofilm formation was restored to the ΔsigB mutant through the addition of the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 or by using Staphostatin inhibitors that specifically target the extracellular cysteine proteases SspB and ScpA (called Staphopains). Through construction of gene deletion mutants, we determined that an sspB scpA double mutant restored ΔsigB biofilm formation, and this recovery could be replicated in plasma-coated flow cell biofilms. Staphopain levels were also found to be decreased under biofilm-forming conditions, possibly allowing biofilm establishment. The treatment of S. aureus biofilms with purified SspB or ScpA enzyme inhibited their formation, and ScpA was also able to disperse an established biofilm. The antibiofilm properties of ScpA were conserved across S. aureus strain lineages. These findings suggest an underappreciated role of the SspB and ScpA cysteine proteases in modulating S. aureus biofilm architecture. PMID:23798534

  20. Alpha-toxin of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Bhakdi, S; Tranum-Jensen, J

    1991-01-01

    Alpha-toxin, the major cytotoxic agent elaborated by Staphylococcus aureus, was the first bacterial exotoxin to be identified as a pore former. The protein is secreted as a single-chain, water-soluble molecule of Mr 33,000. At low concentrations (less than 100 nM), the toxin binds to as yet unidentified, high-affinity acceptor sites that have been detected on a variety of cells including rabbit erythrocytes, human platelets, monocytes and endothelial cells. At high concentrations, the toxin additionally binds via nonspecific absorption to lipid bilayers; it can thus damage both cells lacking significant numbers of the acceptor and protein-free artificial lipid bilayers. Membrane damage occurs in both cases after membrane-bound toxin molecules collide via lateral diffusion to form ring-structured hexamers. The latter insert spontaneously into the lipid bilayer to form discrete transmembrane pores of effective diameter 1 to 2 nm. A hypothetical model is advanced in which the pore is lined by amphiphilic beta-sheets, one surface of which interacts with lipids whereas the other repels apolar membrane constitutents to force open an aqueous passage. The detrimental effects of alpha-toxin are due not only to the death of susceptible targets, but also to the presence of secondary cellular reactions that can be triggered via Ca2+ influx through the pores. Well-studied phenomena include the stimulation of arachidonic acid metabolism, triggering of granule exocytosis, and contractile dysfunction. Such processes cause profound long-range disturbances such as development of pulmonary edema and promotion of blood coagulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:1779933

  1. PHAGE FORMATION IN STAPHYLOCOCCUS MUSCAE CULTURES

    PubMed Central

    Price, Winston H.

    1952-01-01

    1. Under a variety of conditions in which cells are infected with one or a few virus particles and the host cells are killed, but no infective particles or virus material is formed as indicated by plaque count, one-step growth curve, or protein or desoxyribonucleic determinations, the cells neither lyse nor release ribonucleic acid into the medium. 2. The "killing" effect of S. muscae phage is separate from its lytic property. 3. The release of ribonucleic acid into the medium is not simply due to the killing of the cell by the virus, and ribonucleic acid is never found in the medium unless virus material is synthesized. 4. Infected cells of S. muscae synthesizing virus release ribonucleic acid into the medium before cellular lysis begins and before any virus is liberated. 5. The higher the phage yield the more ribonucleic acid is released into the medium before any virus is released. 6. Phage may be released from one strain of Staphylococcus muscae without cellular lysis, although bacterial lysis begins shortly after the virus is released. In another strain, infected under similar conditions, virus liberation occurs simultaneously with cellular lysis. 7. The viruses liberated from both bacterial strains appear to be the same in so far as they cannot be distinguished by serological tests, have the same plaque type and plaque size, and need the same amino acids added to the medium in order to grow. Furthermore, the virus liberated from one strain can infect and multiply in the other strain and vice versa. 8. It is suggested that virus synthesis, in S. muscae cells infected with one or a few phage particles, leads to a disturbance of the normal cellular metabolism, resulting in lysis of the host cell. PMID:14898025

  2. Hyaluronan Modulation Impacts Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ibberson, Carolyn B.; Parlet, Corey P.; Kwiecinski, Jakub; Crosby, Heidi A.; Meyerholz, David K.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of chronic biofilm infections. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a large glycosaminoglycan abundant in mammalian tissues that has been shown to enhance biofilm formation in multiple Gram-positive pathogens. We observed that HA accumulated in an S. aureus biofilm infection using a murine implant-associated infection model and that HA levels increased in a mutant strain lacking hyaluronidase (HysA). S. aureus secretes HysA in order to cleave HA during infection. Through in vitro biofilm studies with HA, the hysA mutant was found to accumulate increased biofilm biomass compared to the wild type, and confocal microscopy showed that HA is incorporated into the biofilm matrix. Exogenous addition of purified HysA enzyme dispersed HA-containing biofilms, while catalytically inactive enzyme had no impact. Additionally, induction of hysA expression prevented biofilm formation and also dispersed an established biofilm in the presence of HA. These observations were corroborated in the implant model, where there was decreased dissemination from an hysA mutant biofilm infection compared to the S. aureus wild type. Histopathology demonstrated that infection with an hysA mutant caused significantly reduced distribution of tissue inflammation compared to wild-type infection. To extend these studies, the impact of HA and S. aureus HysA on biofilm-like aggregates found in joint infections was examined. We found that HA contributes to the formation of synovial fluid aggregates, and HysA can disrupt aggregate formation. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that HA is a relevant component of the S. aureus biofilm matrix and HysA is important for dissemination from a biofilm infection. PMID:27068096

  3. [Staphylococcus aureus in bulk milk samples].

    PubMed

    Benda, P; Vyletĕlová, M

    1995-07-01

    In the years 1993-1994 the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in bulk milk samples in the area where a Baby Food Factory at Zábreh in Moravia is located, and in Bruntál, Zlín and Policka districts. Evaluation of the results was based on ECC Directive 92/46, while the dynamics of S. aureus presence was followed for the whole period of observation as well as in the particular seasons. A total of 4,485 samples was processed. Out of these, 50.7% contained less than 100 CFU/ml of S. aureus, 41.4% contained 100-500 CFU/ml, 6.73% 500-2,000 CFU/ml and 1.14% contained more than 2,000 CFU/ml (Fig. 1). The samples were divided into three categories: private new-established farms, cooperative and State-owned enterprises in the area of the Zábĕh Factory and others (Zlín, Bruntál and Policka districts). There were highly significant differences in the content of staphylococci (P = 0.01%) between the three categories of samples. Ninety-eight percent of samples from private farms, 96% samples from the Zábreh Factory area and 85% of the other samples comply with the regulation EEC 92/64 (Tab. I) for raw cow's milk for the manufacture of products "made with raw milk" whose manufacturing process does not involve any heat treatment (Fig. 2). The occurrence of S. aureus in the Zábreh Factory area shows an expressive seasonal dynamics (P = 0.005%) with maximum values in winter months (December-March) and minimum values in summer months (July-October)-Fig. 3. The same relationship can be seen on more extensive data files for the particular producers (Fig. 4).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Staphylococcus caprae native mitral valve infective endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Poyner, Jennifer; Olson, Ewan; Henriksen, Peter; Koch, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Staphylococcus caprae is a rare cause of infective endocarditis. Here, we report a case involving the native mitral valve in the absence of an implantable cardiac electronic device. Case presentation: A 76-year-old man presented with a 2 week history of confusion and pyrexia. His past medical history included an open reduction and internal fixation of a humeral fracture 17 years previously, which remained non-united despite further revision 4 years later. There was no history of immunocompromise or farm-animal contact. Two sets of blood culture bottles, more than 12 h apart, were positive for S. caprae. Trans-thoracic echocardiography revealed a 1×1.2 cm vegetation on the mitral valve, with moderate mitral regurgitation. Due to ongoing confusion, he had a magnetic resonance imaging brain scan, which showed a subacute small vessel infarct consistent with a thromboembolic source. A humeral SPECT-CT (single-photon emission computerized tomography-computerized tomography) scan showed no clear evidence of acute osteomyelitis. Surgical vegetectomy and mitral-valve repair were considered to reduce the risk of further systemic embolism and progressive valve infection. However, the potential risks of surgery to this patient led to a decision to pursue a cure with antibiotic therapy alone. He remained well 3 months after discharge, with repeat echocardiography demonstrating a reduction in the size of the vegetation (0.9 cm). Conclusion: Management of this infection was challenging due to its rarity and its unclear progression, complicated by the dilemma surrounding surgical intervention in a patient with a complex medical background. PMID:28348787

  5. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in animals.

    PubMed

    Weese, J Scott

    2010-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a critically important human pathogen that is also an emerging concern in veterinary medicine and animal agriculture. It is present in a wide range of animal species, including dogs, cats, rabbits, horses, cattle, pigs, poultry, and exotic species, both as a cause of infection and in healthy carriers. Identification of MRSA in various species and in food has led to concerns about the roles of animals, both pets and livestock, in the epidemiology of MRSA infection and colonization in humans. There is evidence of the role of food animals in human MRSA infections in some countries and of pets as a possible source of human infection. Some groups of individuals who work closely with animals, such as veterinarians, have high MRSA colonization rates. This article includes discussions of MRSA in human medicine, animals, and food, as well as its interspecies transmission, colonization, infection, strains, and affected populations. However, clear answers are lacking in many of these areas and limited studies may lead to premature conclusions. It is certain that animals are a source of human MRSA infection in some circumstances--but humans may also serve as sources of infection in animals. Changes in the epidemiology of MRSA in one species may be reflected in changes in other species. The true scope of MRSA in animals and its impact on human health are still only superficially understood, but it is clear that MRSA is a potentially important veterinary and public health concern that requires a great deal more study to enhance understanding and effective response.

  6. Use of trehalose-mannitol-phosphatase agar to differentiate Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus from other coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, D L; Jones, C

    1984-01-01

    Using a plate medium containing trehalose, mannitol, and phenolphthalein diphosphate (TMPA), we differentiated significant clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis by their lack of acid production in 18 h from other coagulase-negative staphylococci, with our results having a sensitivity (R. S. Galen and S. R. Gambino, Beyond Normality: The Predictive Value and Efficiency of Medical Diagnoses) of 100%, a specificity of 89.9%, and a positive predictive value of 94.8%. With a Taxo A bacitracin disk, which differentiates Staphylococcus species from Micrococcus species, no zone of inhibition was seen for 96% of all staphylococcal strains, with 5 of 26 strains of Staphylococcus saprophyticus exhibiting zone diameters up to 10 mm. By using resistance to a 5-microgram novobiocin disk, we differentiated S. saprophyticus, with our results having a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 97.1%, and a positive predictive value of 83.9% on TMPA. These two species represented 77.8% of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated. Reference strains fo Staphylococcus and Micrococcus species were differentiated by TMPA. The cost of TMPA was compared with that of another method. TMPA was found to offer an inexpensive, sensitive method for rapidly differentiating coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolates. PMID:6096398

  7. Facing antibiotic resistance: Staphylococcus aureus phages as a medical tool.

    PubMed

    Kaźmierczak, Zuzanna; Górski, Andrzej; Dąbrowska, Krystyna

    2014-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common and often virulent pathogen in humans. This bacterium is widespread, being present on the skin and in the nose of healthy people. Staphylococcus aureus can cause infections with severe outcomes ranging from pustules to sepsis and death. The introduction of antibiotics led to a general belief that the problem of bacterial infections would be solved. Nonetheless, pathogens including staphylococci have evolved mechanisms of drug resistance. Among current attempts to address this problem, phage therapy offers a promising alternative to combat staphylococcal infections. Here, we present an overview of current knowledge on staphylococcal infections and bacteriophages able to kill Staphylococcus, including experimental studies and available data on their clinical use.

  8. Facing Antibiotic Resistance: Staphylococcus aureus Phages as a Medical Tool

    PubMed Central

    Kaźmierczak, Zuzanna; Górski, Andrzej; Dąbrowska, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common and often virulent pathogen in humans. This bacterium is widespread, being present on the skin and in the nose of healthy people. Staphylococcus aureus can cause infections with severe outcomes ranging from pustules to sepsis and death. The introduction of antibiotics led to a general belief that the problem of bacterial infections would be solved. Nonetheless, pathogens including staphylococci have evolved mechanisms of drug resistance. Among current attempts to address this problem, phage therapy offers a promising alternative to combat staphylococcal infections. Here, we present an overview of current knowledge on staphylococcal infections and bacteriophages able to kill Staphylococcus, including experimental studies and available data on their clinical use. PMID:24988520

  9. Diversity and enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus spp. associated with domiati cheese.

    PubMed

    El-Sharoud, Walid M; Spano, Giuseppe

    2008-12-01

    A total of 87 samples of fresh and stored Domiati cheese (an Egyptian soft cheese) were examined for the presence of Staphylococcus spp. Fifteen Staphylococcus isolates identified as S. aureus (2 isolates), S. xylosus (4), S. caprae (4), and S. chromogenes (5) were recovered from 15 cheese samples. The S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin, and one isolate was also resistant to tetracycline. S. aureus isolates harbored classical staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes (sea and seb) and recently characterized SE-like genes (selg, seli, selm, and selo). One S. aureus isolate contained a single SE gene (sea), whereas another isolate contained five SE genes (seb, selg, seli, selm, and selo). These results suggest that Domiati cheese is a source for various Staphylococcus species, including S. aureus strains that could be enterotoxigenic.

  10. Evaluation of Pyrrolidonyl Arylamidase Activity in Staphylococcus delphini.

    PubMed

    Compton, Samantha T; Kania, Stephen A; Robertson, Amy E; Lawhon, Sara D; Jenkins, Stephen G; Westblade, Lars F; Bemis, David A

    2017-03-01

    Clinical reference textbooks lack data for pyrrolidonyl arylamidase (PYR) activity in Staphylococcus delphini This study evaluated PYR activities of 21 S. delphini strains by reference broth, rapid disc, and rapid slide methods. Species and subgroup identifications were confirmed by nucleic acid-based methods and included nine group A and 12 group B strains. Testing by rapid PYR methods with products from four manufacturers was performed at two testing locations, and, with the exception of one strain tested at one location using reagents from one manufacturer, each S. delphini strain tested positive for PYR activity. Therefore, PYR may be a useful single-test adjunct for distinguishing Staphylococcus aureus from S. delphini and other members of the Staphylococcus intermedius group. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Phenotypic and genetic analysis of biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Līduma, Iveta; Tračevska, Tatjana; Bērs, Uģis; Žileviča, Aija

    2012-01-01

    The most important virulence factor of Staphylococcus epidermidis is their capability to form a biofilm on the surfaces of implanted medical devices. The accumulative phase of biofilm formation is linked to the production of intercellular adhesin encoded by the icaADBC operon and accumulation-associated protein by the aap gene. The aim of the study was to investigate biofilm formation phenotypically and genetically in clinical strains of S. epidermidis in comparison with commensal strains. The study was carried out in 4 hospitals in Riga, Latvia. In total, 105 clinical strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from patients' blood (n=67) and intravenous catheters (n=38) in a case of laboratory-confirmed bacteremia were studied. Moreover, 60 Staphylococcus epidermidis commensal strains isolated from nose epithelium of healthy people were included as a control group. Appearance of the icaA and aap genes was tested by polymerase chain reaction. The microtiter plate method was used. Biofilm formation was detected in 50 (47%) of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates in the clinical group and 15 (25%) of isolates in the control group (P=0.0049). Among 50 biofilm-forming clinical isolates, 46 (92%) were positive for the icaA and/or aap genes. The icaA and aap genes were not found only in 4 strains. The clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis were more likely to form biofilms than the commensal strains. The carriage of the icaA or aap gene alone, or their absence, is not applicable as a molecular marker for the discrimination invasive Staphylococcus epidermidis strains from contaminants.

  12. Novel fit for purpose single use tourniquet: best of both worlds.

    PubMed

    Kerstein, R L; Fellowes, C

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare associated infections (HAI), such as Meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium difficile (C. Diff) are estimated to cost the NHS pound1 billion and contribute to 5000 deaths/year in the UK. To date the main emphasis to reduce HAIs has been on hand hygiene. However environmental microbial load and compliance limits the efficacy of hand washing alone. Cultures from tourniquets have demonstrated contamination by pathogens including MRSA. Consequently, many UK trusts are introducing disposable tourniquets as policy. The use of most disposable tourniquets is still limited, as few are able to maintain patient comfort, ease of use and cost effectiveness. This study compares patient and phlebotomist experiences of the single-use tourniquet, Tournistrip, with currently available disposable and re-usable alternatives. The trial was performed in on patients attending two West London teaching hospital outpatient phlebotomy departments, over a four week period. After Tournistrip use, the patients were invited to fill in an anonymous questionnaire, covering comfort and appearance. A separate questionnaire was filled in by the phlebotomists. Ninety five percent of patients found the Tournistrip professional looking, with 54% preferring it to the current re-usable alternatives. One hundred and seventy eight of the 227 patients found Tournistrip comfortable. Overall, 85% of patients found Tournistrip at least as good, if not better than re-usable tourniquets. All of the phlebotomists found the Tournistrip professional looking, and none preferred previously used disposable alternatives. Ninety-five percent found it as easy to use as a re-usable and none found previous disposables better to use. The Tournistrip was designed to match the comfort and ease of use of the re-usable tourniquet, whilst maintaining cost efficacy. This clinical trial shows the Tournistrip is viewed as a superior tourniquet to the current generation of disposables and a

  13. Staphylococcus aureus RNAIII and Its Regulon Link Quorum Sensing, Stress Responses, Metabolic Adaptation, and Regulation of Virulence Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Bronesky, Delphine; Wu, Zongfu; Marzi, Stefano; Walter, Philippe; Geissmann, Thomas; Moreau, Karen; Vandenesch, François; Caldelari, Isabelle; Romby, Pascale

    2016-09-08

    Staphylococcus aureus RNAIII is one of the main intracellular effectors of the quorum-sensing system. It is a multifunctional RNA that encodes a small peptide, and its noncoding parts act as antisense RNAs to regulate the translation and/or the stability of mRNAs encoding transcriptional regulators, major virulence factors, and cell wall metabolism enzymes. In this review, we explain how regulatory proteins and RNAIII are embedded in complex regulatory circuits to express virulence factors in a dynamic and timely manner in response to stress and environmental and metabolic changes.

  14. Phenazine antibiotic inspired discovery of potent bromophenazine antibacterial agents against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Borrero, Nicholas V; Bai, Fang; Perez, Cristian; Duong, Benjamin Q; Rocca, James R; Jin, Shouguang; Huigens, Robert W

    2014-02-14

    Nearly all clinically used antibiotics have been (1) discovered from microorganisms (2) using phenotype screens to identify inhibitors of bacterial growth. The effectiveness of these antibiotics is attributed to their endogenous roles as bacterial warfare agents against competing microorganisms. Unfortunately, every class of clinically used antibiotic has been met with drug resistant bacteria. In fact, the emergence of resistant bacterial infections coupled to the dismal pipeline of new antibacterial agents has resulted in a global health care crisis. There is an urgent need for innovative antibacterial strategies and treatment options to effectively combat drug resistant bacterial pathogens. Here, we describe the implementation of a Pseudomonas competition strategy, using redox-active phenazines, to identify novel antibacterial leads against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. In this report, we describe the chemical synthesis and evaluation of a diverse 27-membered phenazine library. Using this microbial warfare inspired approach, we have identified several bromophenazines with potent antibacterial activities against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. The most potent bromophenazine analogue from this focused library demonstrated a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.78-1.56 μM, or 0.31-0.62 μg mL(-1), against S. aureus and S. epidermidis and proved to be 32- to 64-fold more potent than the phenazine antibiotic pyocyanin in head-to-head MIC experiments. In addition to the discovery of potent antibacterial agents against S. aureus and S. epidermidis, we also report a detailed structure-activity relationship for this class of bromophenazine small molecules.

  15. Differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis by PCR for the fibrinogen binding protein gene.

    PubMed

    Sunagar, R; Deore, S N; Deshpande, P V; Rizwan, A; Sannejal, A D; Sundareshan, S; Rawool, D B; Barbuddhe, S B; Jhala, M K; Bannalikar, A S; Mugalikar, D M; Kumari, V J; Dhanalakshmi, K; Reddy, Y N; Rao, P P; Babra, C; Tiwari, J G; Mukkur, T K; Costantino, P; Wetherall, J D; Isloor, S; Hegde, N R

    2013-05-01

    Mastitis is one of the most common and burdensome diseases afflicting dairy animals. Among other causes of mastitis, staphylococci are frequently associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis. Although Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant species involved, Staphylococcus epidermidis and other coagulase-negative staphylococci are increasingly being isolated from cases of bovine mastitis. Although Staph. aureus and Staph. epidermidis can be easily differentiated based on their biochemical properties, such phenotypic identification is time consuming and laborious. This study aimed to rapidly identify Staph. aureus and Staph. epidermidis. Accordingly, a multiplex PCR was developed and we found that a single gene encoding the adhesin fibrinogen binding protein could be used to identify and differentiate the two species. Consequently, a multiplex reaction combining a triplex PCR for Staph. aureus and a duplex PCR for Staph. epidermidis was standardized, first using bacterial cultures and then with pasteurized milk spiked with live organisms or DNA extracted from the organisms. The test could specifically detect Staph. aureus and Staph. epidermidis even in the presence of a dozen other organisms. The limit of detection for detecting Staph. aureus and Staph. epidermidis separately was 10 to 100 cfu/mL for simplex PCR and 10(4)cfu/mL for multiplex PCR. Conversely, the limit was 10(6)cfu/mL by multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of both the organisms when spiked into culture medium or pasteurized milk. Overnight enrichment enhanced the assay sensitivity 100-fold. The assay had a high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The application of the test was verified on 602 field isolates of staphylococci that had been characterized earlier by phenotypic methods. Importantly, 25 coagulase-negative isolates were identified as Staph. aureus by the multiplex PCR. The test could be adapted for use in clinical diagnostic laboratories.

  16. Effect of Substance P in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis Virulence: Implication for Skin Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    N'Diaye, Awa; Mijouin, Lily; Hillion, Mélanie; Diaz, Suraya; Konto-Ghiorghi, Yoan; Percoco, Giuseppe; Chevalier, Sylvie; Lefeuvre, Luc; Harmer, Nicholas J.; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are two major skin associated bacteria, and Substance P (SP) is a major skin neuropeptide. Since bacteria are known to sense and response to many human hormones, we investigated the effects of SP on Staphylococci virulence in reconstructed human epidermis model and HaCaT keratinocytes. We show that SP is stimulating the virulence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis in a reconstructed human epidermis model. qRT-PCR array analysis of 64 genes expressed by keratinocytes in the response to bacterial infection revealed a potential link between the action of SP on Staphylococci and skin physiopathology. qRT-PCR and direct assay of cathelicidin and human β-defensin 2 secretion also provided that demonstration that the action of SP on bacteria is independent of antimicrobial peptide expression by keratinocytes. Considering an effect of SP on S. aureus and S. epidermidis, we observed that SP increases the adhesion potential of both bacteria on keratinocytes. However, SP modulates the virulence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis through different mechanisms. The response of S. aureus is associated with an increase in Staphylococcal Enterotoxin C2 (SEC2) production and a reduction of exolipase processing whereas in S. epidermidis the effect of SP appears mediated by a rise in biofilm formation activity. The Thermo unstable ribosomal Elongation factor Ef-Tu was identified as the SP-interacting protein in S. aureus and S. epidermidis. SP appears as an inter-kingdom communication factor involved in the regulation of bacterial virulence and essential for skin microflora homeostasis. PMID:27148195

  17. Effect of Substance P in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis Virulence: Implication for Skin Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    N'Diaye, Awa; Mijouin, Lily; Hillion, Mélanie; Diaz, Suraya; Konto-Ghiorghi, Yoan; Percoco, Giuseppe; Chevalier, Sylvie; Lefeuvre, Luc; Harmer, Nicholas J; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Feuilloley, Marc G J

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are two major skin associated bacteria, and Substance P (SP) is a major skin neuropeptide. Since bacteria are known to sense and response to many human hormones, we investigated the effects of SP on Staphylococci virulence in reconstructed human epidermis model and HaCaT keratinocytes. We show that SP is stimulating the virulence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis in a reconstructed human epidermis model. qRT-PCR array analysis of 64 genes expressed by keratinocytes in the response to bacterial infection revealed a potential link between the action of SP on Staphylococci and skin physiopathology. qRT-PCR and direct assay of cathelicidin and human β-defensin 2 secretion also provided that demonstration that the action of SP on bacteria is independent of antimicrobial peptide expression by keratinocytes. Considering an effect of SP on S. aureus and S. epidermidis, we observed that SP increases the adhesion potential of both bacteria on keratinocytes. However, SP modulates the virulence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis through different mechanisms. The response of S. aureus is associated with an increase in Staphylococcal Enterotoxin C2 (SEC2) production and a reduction of exolipase processing whereas in S. epidermidis the effect of SP appears mediated by a rise in biofilm formation activity. The Thermo unstable ribosomal Elongation factor Ef-Tu was identified as the SP-interacting protein in S. aureus and S. epidermidis. SP appears as an inter-kingdom communication factor involved in the regulation of bacterial virulence and essential for skin microflora homeostasis.

  18. Characterization of lipases from Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from human facial sebaceous skin.

    PubMed

    Xie, Winny; Khosasih, Vivia; Suwanto, Antonius; Kim, Hyung Kwoun

    2012-01-01

    Two staphylococcal lipases were obtained from Staphylococcus epidermidis S2 and Staphylococcus aureus S11 isolated from sebaceous areas on the skin of the human face. The molecular mass of both enzymes was estimated to be 45 kDa by SDS-PAGE. S2 lipase displayed its highest activity in the hydrolysis of olive oil at 32 degrees C and pH 8, whereas S11 lipase showed optimal activity at 31 degrees C and pH 8.5. The S2 lipase showed the property of cold-adaptation, with activation energy of 6.52 kcal/mol. In contrast, S11 lipase's activation energy, at 21 kcal/mol, was more characteristic of mesophilic lipases. S2 lipase was stable up to 45° C and within the pH range from 5 to 9, whereas S11 lipase was stable up to 50 degrees C and from pH 6 to 10. Both enzymes had high activity against tributyrin, waste soybean oil, and fish oil. Sequence analysis of the S2 lipase gene showed an open reading frame of 2,067 bp encoding a signal peptide (35 aa), a pro-peptide (267 aa), and a mature enzyme (386 aa); the S11 lipase gene, at 2,076 bp, also encoded a signal peptide (37 aa), pro-peptide (255 aa), and mature enzyme (399 aa). The two enzymes maintained amino acid sequence identity of 98-99% with other similar staphylococcal lipases. Their microbial origins and biochemical properties may make these staphylococcal lipases isolated from facial sebaceous skin suitable for use as catalysts in the cosmetic, medicinal, food, or detergent industries.

  19. Biofilm-forming capacity of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from ocular infections.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wenbo; Sun, Xuguang; Wang, Zhiqun; Zhang, Yang

    2012-08-17

    To investigate the biofilm-forming capacity of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from ocular infections. S. epidermidis strains, S. aureus strains, and P. aeruginosa strains were isolated from patients with ocular infections between 2009 and 2011. The biofilm-forming capacity of these bacteria was examined using Congo red agar (CRA) and microtiter plate assays. The biofilm-forming related genes, icaA, of S. epidermidis and S. aureus, and pslA, of P. aeruginosa, were detected using PCR. Additionally, the morphology of biofilms was observed using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Of the isolated S. epidermidis strains, 34.38% were CRA positive, 28.13% were adherence positive using the microtiter plate assay, and 40.63% carried the icaA gene. Of the isolated S. aureus strains, 55.56% were CRA positive, 51.90% were adherence positive, and 11.11% carried the icaA gene. None of the P. aeruginosa strains were phenotypic positive using CRA and microtiter plate assays, whereas 31.03% contained the pslA gene. There were significant differences between the three species when the biofilm-forming capacity of the strains was compared using the CRA method (P < 0.01) and the microtiter plate assay method (P < 0.01). Ophthalmic isolates of S. epidermidis and S. aureus could produce biofilms in vitro, whereas clinical strains of P. aeruginosa could not. The bacterial strains possess the genetic ability to produce biofilms, but that does not necessarily mean that biofilms will be produced. The knowledge of the process of bacterial adhesion suggests that a timely and appropriate intervention strategy be implemented in the early stages of biofilm-mediated infections.

  20. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius expresses surface proteins that closely resemble those from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, Joan A; Smith, Emma J; Speziale, Pietro; Foster, Timothy J

    2009-09-18

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a commensal of dogs that is implicated in the pathogenesis of canine pyoderma. This study aimed to determine if S. pseudintermedius expresses surface proteins resembling those from Staphylococcus aureus and to characterise them. S. pseudintermedius strain 326 was shown to adhere strongly to purified fibrinogen, fibronectin and cytokeratin 10. It adhered to the alpha-chain of fibrinogen which, along with binding to cytokeratin 10, is the hallmark of clumping factor B of S. aureus, a surface protein that is in part responsible for colonisation of the human nares. Ligand-affinity blotting with cell-wall extracts demonstrated that S. pseudintermedius 326 expressed a cell-wall anchored fibronectin binding protein which recognised the N-terminal 29kDa fragment. The ability to bind fibronectin is an important attribute of pathogenic S. aureus and is associated with the ability of S. aureus to colonise skin of human atopic dermatitis patients. S. pseudintermedius genomic DNA was probed with labelled DNA amplified from the serine-aspartate repeat encoding region of clfA of S. aureus. This probe hybridised to a single SpeI fragment of S. pseudintermedius DNA. In the cell-wall extract of S. pseudintermedius 326, a 180kDa protein was discovered which bound to fibrinogen by ligand-affinity blotting and reacted in a Western blot with antibodies raised against the serine-aspartate repeat region of ClfA and the B-repeats of SdrD of S. aureus. It is proposed that this is an Sdr protein with B-repeats that has an A domain that binds to fibrinogen. Whether it is the same protein that binds cytokeratin 10 is not clear.

  1. Occurrence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in an academic veterinary hospital.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Kanako; Shimokubo, Natsumi; Sakagami, Akie; Ueno, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Yasukazu; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; Yanagisawa, Chie; Hanaki, Hideaki; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Tamura, Yutaka

    2010-08-01

    Recently, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) have been increasingly isolated from veterinarians and companion animals. With a view to preventing the spread of MRSA and MRSP, we evaluated the occurrence and molecular characteristics of each in a veterinary college. MRSA and MRSP were isolated from nasal samples from veterinarians, staff members, and veterinary students affiliated with a veterinary hospital. Using stepwise logistic regression, we identified two factors associated with MRSA carriage: (i) contact with an identified animal MRSA case (odds ratio [OR], 6.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.2 to 21.6) and (ii) being an employee (OR, 6.2; 95% CI, 2.0 to 19.4). The majority of MRSA isolates obtained from individuals affiliated with the veterinary hospital and dog patients harbored spa type t002 and a type II staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), similar to the hospital-acquired MRSA isolates in Japan. MRSA isolates harboring spa type t008 and a type IV SCCmec were obtained from one veterinarian on three different sampling occasions and also from dog patients. MRSA carriers can also be a source of MRSA infection in animals. The majority of MRSP isolates (85.2%) carried hybrid SCCmec type II-III, and almost all the remaining MRSP isolates (11.1%) carried SCCmec type V. MRSA and MRSP were also isolated from environmental samples collected from the veterinary hospital (5.1% and 6.4%, respectively). The application of certain disinfection procedures is important for the prevention of nosocomial infection, and MRSA and MRSP infection control strategies should be adopted in veterinary medical practice.

  2. Occurrence and Molecular Characteristics of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in an Academic Veterinary Hospital▿

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, Kanako; Shimokubo, Natsumi; Sakagami, Akie; Ueno, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Yasukazu; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; Yanagisawa, Chie; Hanaki, Hideaki; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Tamura, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    Recently, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) have been increasingly isolated from veterinarians and companion animals. With a view to preventing the spread of MRSA and MRSP, we evaluated the occurrence and molecular characteristics of each in a veterinary college. MRSA and MRSP were isolated from nasal samples from veterinarians, staff members, and veterinary students affiliated with a veterinary hospital. Using stepwise logistic regression, we identified two factors associated with MRSA carriage: (i) contact with an identified animal MRSA case (odds ratio [OR], 6.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.2 to 21.6) and (ii) being an employee (OR, 6.2; 95% CI, 2.0 to 19.4). The majority of MRSA isolates obtained from individuals affiliated with the veterinary hospital and dog patients harbored spa type t002 and a type II staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), similar to the hospital-acquired MRSA isolates in Japan. MRSA isolates harboring spa type t008 and a type IV SCCmec were obtained from one veterinarian on three different sampling occasions and also from dog patients. MRSA carriers can also be a source of MRSA infection in animals. The majority of MRSP isolates (85.2%) carried hybrid SCCmec type II-III, and almost all the remaining MRSP isolates (11.1%) carried SCCmec type V. MRSA and MRSP were also isolated from environmental samples collected from the veterinary hospital (5.1% and 6.4%, respectively). The application of certain disinfection procedures is important for the prevention of nosocomial infection, and MRSA and MRSP infection control strategies should be adopted in veterinary medical practice. PMID:20543040

  3. Environmental Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandhu, Desh, Ed.

    The Indian Environmental Society, in association with the International Programme on Environmental Management Education, organized two seminars on World Environment Day and Environmental Impact Assessment during June 1980. A large number of papers on various aspects of environmental management were presented during the seminars. The papers…

  4. Environmental Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandhu, Desh, Ed.

    The Indian Environmental Society, in association with the International Programme on Environmental Management Education, organized two seminars on World Environment Day and Environmental Impact Assessment during June 1980. A large number of papers on various aspects of environmental management were presented during the seminars. The papers…

  5. Evaluation of an Immunochromatographic Assay for Rapid Detection of Penicillin-Binding Protein 2a in Human and Animal Staphylococcus intermedius Group, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, and Staphylococcus schleiferi Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, A. R.; Ford, B. A.; McAllister, S. K.; Lonsway, D.; Albrecht, V.; Jerris, R. C.; Rasheed, J. K.; Limbago, B.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a rapid penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) detection assay, the Alere PBP2a culture colony test, was evaluated for identification of PBP2a-mediated beta-lactam resistance in human and animal clinical isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius group, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, and Staphylococcus schleiferi. The assay was sensitive and specific, with all PBP2a-negative and PBP2a-positive strains testing negative and positive, respectively. PMID:26677248

  6. Evaluation of an Immunochromatographic Assay for Rapid Detection of Penicillin-Binding Protein 2a in Human and Animal Staphylococcus intermedius Group, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, and Staphylococcus schleiferi Clinical Isolates.

    PubMed

    Arnold, A R; Burnham, C-A D; Ford, B A; Lawhon, S D; McAllister, S K; Lonsway, D; Albrecht, V; Jerris, R C; Rasheed, J K; Limbago, B; Burd, E M; Westblade, L F

    2016-03-01

    The performance of a rapid penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) detection assay, the Alere PBP2a culture colony test, was evaluated for identification of PBP2a-mediated beta-lactam resistance in human and animal clinical isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius group, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, and Staphylococcus schleiferi. The assay was sensitive and specific, with all PBP2a-negative and PBP2a-positive strains testing negative and positive, respectively.

  7. Nucleotide Accumulation Induced in Staphylococcus aureus by Glycine

    PubMed Central

    Strominger, Jack L.; Birge, Claire H.

    1965-01-01

    Strominger, Jack L. (Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Mo.), and Claire H. Birge. Nucleotide accumulation induced in Staphylococcus aureus by glycine. J. Bacteriol. 89:1124–1127. 1965.—High concentrations of glycine induce accumulation of four uridine nucleotides in Staphylococcus aureus. Investigations of their structure suggest that these compounds are uridine diphosphate (UDP)-acetylmuramic acid, UDP-acetylmuramyl-gly-d-glu-l-lys, UDP-acetylmuramyl-l-ala-d-glu-l-lys and UDP-acetylmuramyl-gly-d-glu-l-lys-d-ala-d-ala. The mechanism by which glycine may induce uridine nucleotide accumulation and protoplast formation is discussed. Images PMID:14276106

  8. An impedimetric sensor for monitoring the growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Louise M; Dunlop, P S M; Byrne, J A; Blair, I S; Boyle, M; McGuigan, K G; McAdams, E T

    2006-01-01

    There is a need for accurate, reliable methods of detecting bacteria for a range of applications. One organism that is commonly found in urinary catheter infections is Staphylococcus epidermidis. Current methods to determine the presence of an infection require the removal of catheters. An alternative approach may be the use of in vivo sensing for bacterial/biofilm detection. This work investigates electrical impedance spectroscopy to detect the growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A on gold electrodes fabricated on a flexible substrate. Impedance spectra measured during biofilm formation on the electrode surface showed an increase in charge transfer resistance (RCT) with time.

  9. [Investigation of biofilm formation properties of staphylococcus isolates].

    PubMed

    Öcal, Duygu Nilüfer; Dolapçı, İştar; Karahan, Zeynep Ceren; Tekeli, Alper

    2017-01-01

    Biofilm production is an important virulence factor which allows staphylococci to adhere to medical devices. The principal component of biofilm is a "polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA)" which is composed of a beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosamine polymer synthesized by an enzyme (N-acetylglucosamine transferase) encoded by the ica operon found on the bacterial chromosome. This operon is composed of four genes (A, B, C, and D), and a transposable element IS256. In this study, we aimed to determine the biofilm production characteristics of invasive/non-invasive staphylococcus isolates and different staphylococcus species. Biofilm production of 166 staphylococci was phenotypically investigated on Congo Red Agar (CRA); the presence of icaA, icaD and IS256 genes were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). 74 of the isolates (44.6%) were identified as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), 25 (15.1%) as methicillin sensitive S.aureus (MSSA), 25 (37.3%) as Staphylococcus hominis, 20 (12%) as S.epidermidis, ten (15%) as Staphylococcus haemolyticus, nine (13.4%) as Staphylococcus capitis, two (3%) Staphylococcus saprophyticus and one (1.5%) as Staphylococcus warnerii. Of the MRSA strains, 52 were isolated from blood and 22 from nose; all MSSA strains were isolated from nose cultures. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) strains were composed of invasive and non-invasive strains isolated from nose, catheter tip and blood cultures from patients with catheter. Production with CRA method was found to be statistically significant in invasive isolates (p< 0.001). It is concluded that; as the biofilm formation capacity of invasive isolates can cause refractory infections and the importance of carriage and hospital infections of these bacteria, it is important to prevent the spread of these isolates. A combination of phenotypic and genotypic tests is recommended for the investigation of biofilm formation in staphylococci. 40.3% of the CoNS isolates, and 85

  10. Wavelength-normalized spectroscopic analysis of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth rates

    PubMed Central

    McBirney, Samantha E.; Trinh, Kristy; Wong-Beringer, Annie; Armani, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    Optical density (OD) measurements are the standard approach used in microbiology for characterizing bacteria concentrations in culture media. OD is based on measuring the optical absorbance of a sample at a single wavelength, and any error will propagate through all calculations, leading to reproducibility issues. Here, we use the conventional OD technique to measure the growth rates of two different species of bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The same samples are also analyzed over the entire UV-Vis wavelength spectrum, allowing a distinctly different strategy for data analysis to be performed. Specifically, instead of only analyzing a single wavelength, a multi-wavelength normalization process is implemented. When the OD method is used, the detected signal does not follow the log growth curve. In contrast, the multi-wavelength normalization process minimizes the impact of bacteria byproducts and environmental noise on the signal, thereby accurately quantifying growth rates with high fidelity at low concentrations. PMID:27867713

  11. An essential role for bacterial nitric oxide synthase in Staphylococcus aureus electron transfer and colonization.

    PubMed

    Kinkel, Traci L; Ramos-Montañez, Smirla; Pando, Jasmine M; Tadeo, Daniel V; Strom, Erin N; Libby, Stephen J; Fang, Ferric C

    2016-11-28

    Nitric oxide (NO(•)) is a ubiquitous molecular mediator in biology. Many signalling actions of NO(•) generated by mammalian NO(•) synthase (NOS) result from targeting of the haem moiety of soluble guanylate cyclase. Some pathogenic and environmental bacteria also produce a NOS that is evolutionary related to the mammalian enzymes, but a bacterial haem-containing receptor for endogenous enzymatically generated NO(•) has not been identified previously. Here, we show that NOS of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, in concert with an NO(•)-metabolizing flavohaemoprotein, regulates electron transfer by targeting haem-containing cytochrome oxidases under microaerobic conditions to maintain membrane bioenergetics. This process is essential for staphylococcal nasal colonization and resistance to the membrane-targeting antibiotic daptomycin and demonstrates the conservation of NOS-derived NO(•)-haem receptor signalling between bacteria and mammals.

  12. Identification of Staphylococcus spp. by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism of gap Gene

    PubMed Central

    Yugueros, Javier; Temprano, Alejandro; Sánchez, María; Luengo, José María; Naharro, Germán

    2001-01-01

    Oligonucleotide primers specific for the Staphylococcus aureus gap gene were previously designed to identify 12 Staphylococcus spp. by PCR. In the present study, AluI digestion of PCR-generated products rendered distinctive restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns that allowed 24 Staphylococcus spp. to be identified with high specificity. PMID:11574593

  13. In vitro activity of ceftaroline and comparator antimicrobials against European and Middle East isolates from complicated skin and skin-structure infections collected in 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Ian; Leakey, Anne; Northwood, John Blackman

    2012-09-01

    The activities of ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the pro-drug ceftaroline fosamil, a novel anti-meticillin-resistant staphylococcal cephalosporin, and nine comparators were determined against surveillance isolates collected in 2008-2009. Over 3000 isolates associated with complicated skin and skin-structure infections (cSSSIs) were collected from 106 centres in 19 countries. MICs were determined using CLSI broth microdilution methodology. Clonal relatedness of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with raised ceftaroline MICs (2 mg/L) was assessed by MLST, PFGE and mec typing. The presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin in these isolates was also determined. Ceftaroline was active against 500 MRSA and 479 meticillin-susceptible S. aureus, with MIC(50/90) values of 0.5/2 mg/L and 0.25/0.25 mg/L, respectively. For coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), the ceftaroline MIC(50/90) values for meticillin-resistant strains (n=159) were the same as those seen for MRSA. Meticillin-susceptible CoNS (n=113) had the same MIC(90) as that seen with S. aureus, but the MIC(50) was lower at 0.06 mg/L. Ceftaroline was also active against β-haemolytic streptococci (n=526; MIC(50/90)=0.004/0.015 mg/L), other streptococci (n=75; 0.015/0.06 mg/L), common Enterobacteriaceae (n=897; 0.25/≥128 mg/L) and Enterococcus faecalis (n=329; 1/16 mg/L). Those MRSA with ceftaroline MICs of 2mg/L were found to be from four clonal groups associated with the country of origin. These data confirm the broad-spectrum in vitro activity of ceftaroline against cSSSI pathogens. Ceftaroline is unique among clinically available cephalosporins, having good in vitro activity against MRSA and meticillin-resistant CoNS and moderate activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  14. The antimicrobial effects of helium and helium-air plasma on Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Galvin, S; Cahill, O; O'Connor, N; Cafolla, A A; Daniels, S; Humphreys, H

    2013-08-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) affect 5-10% of acute hospital admissions. Environmental decontamination is an important component of all strategies to prevent HCAI as many bacterial causes survive and persist in the environment, which serve as ongoing reservoirs of infection. Current approaches such as cleaning with detergents and the use of chemical disinfectant are suboptimal. We assessed the efficacy of helium and helium-air plasma in killing Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile on a glass surface and studied the impact on bacterial cells using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Both plasma types exhibited bactericidal effects on Staph. aureus (log3·6 - >log7), with increased activity against methicillin-resistant strains, but had a negligible effect on Cl. difficile spores (<1log). AFM demonstrated cell surface disruption. The addition of air increased the microbicidal activity of the plasma and decreased the exposure time required for an equivalent log reduction. Further evaluation of cold plasma systems is warranted with, for example, different bacteria and on surfaces more reminiscent of the health care environment as this approach has potential as an effective decontaminant. Many bacterial causes of healthcare infection can survive in the inanimate environment for lengthy periods and be transmitted to patients. Furthermore, current methods of environmental decontamination such as detergents, chemical disinfectants or gaseous fumigation are suboptimal for a variety of reasons. We assessed the efficacy of helium and helium-air plasma as a decontaminant and demonstrated a significant reduction in bacterial counts of Staphylococcus aureus on a glass surface. Atomic force microscopy morphologically confirmed the impact on bacterial cells. This approach warrants further study as an alternative to current options for hospital hygiene. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in three dairy herds in southwest Germany.

    PubMed

    Spohr, M; Rau, J; Friedrich, A; Klittich, G; Fetsch, A; Guerra, B; Hammerl, J A; Tenhagen, B-A

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in three dairy herds in the southwest of Germany that had experienced individual cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis associated with MRSA. The herds were identified by the detection of MRSA during routine resistance testing of mastitis pathogens. All quarters of all cows in the herds that were positive on California Mastitis Test were sampled for bacteriological analysis on two occasions. Bulk tank milk samples were also tested. Furthermore, nasal swabs were collected from people working on the farms and from cattle. Environmental samples were collected from associated pig holdings. Isolates were characterized using spa-typing and testing for antimicrobial resistance. Our results revealed a substantial spread of MRSA in the three dairy herds. In the first of the two investigations carried out on all cows in the three herds, milk samples of 5.1-16.7% of dairy cows were found positive for MRSA. The respective proportions in the second herd level investigation were 1.4-10.0%. Quarters harbouring MRSA had higher somatic cell counts than quarters that were negative on culture. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were also detected in nasal swabs of staff (7/9), cows (7/15) and calves (4/7), bulk tank milk samples (3/3) and environmental samples from pig premises (4/5) on the farm. Herds B and C had no contact to herd A. However, in all three herds MRSA of spa-type t011 were detected in milk samples. Results show that MRSA of spa-type t011 is a problem in dairy farms that needs urgent attention. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Cloning and expression of Staphylococcus saprophyticus urease gene sequences in Staphylococcus carnosus and contribution of the enzyme to virulence.

    PubMed Central

    Gatermann, S; Marre, R

    1989-01-01

    The urease gene of Staphylococcus saprophyticus CCM883 was cloned and expressed in Staphylococcus carnosus TM300. In vitro translation of the cloned DNA sequences revealed six polypeptides (of 70, 47, 29, 27, 20, and 17 kilodaltons) that were associated with enzyme activity. Introduction of the cloned genes into a urease-negative mutant of S. saprophyticus restored the virulence of this strain, confirming our previous suggestion (S. Gatermann, J. John, and R. Marre, Infect. Immun. 57:110-116, 1989) that this enzyme is a major virulence factor of the organism and contributes mainly to cystopathogenicity. Images PMID:2777370

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius Type Strain LMG 22219

    PubMed Central

    Abouelkhair, Mohamed A.; Riley, Matthew C.; Bemis, David A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report the first complete genome sequence of LMG 22219 (=ON 86T = CCUG 49543T), the Staphylococcus pseudintermedius type strain isolated from feline lung tissue. This sequence information will facilitate phylogenetic comparisons of staphylococcal species and other bacteria at the genome level. PMID:28209834

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus Strain Wood 46

    PubMed Central

    Balachandran, Manasi; Riley, Matthew C.; Bemis, David A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of the Staphylococcus aureus strain Wood 46. Wood 46 has played an important role in understanding the virulence and pathogenesis of S. aureus infections. This report will assist efforts in vaccine development against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections. PMID:28360163

  19. Staphylococcus aureus ST398, New York City and Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Meera; Dumortier, Caroline; Taylor, Barbara S.; Miller, Maureen; Vasquez, Glenny; Yunen, Jose; Brudney, Karen; Rodriguez-Taveras, Carlos; Rojas, Rita; Leon, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Closely related Staphylococcus aureus strains of ST398, an animal-associated strain, were identified in samples collected from humans in northern Manhattan, New York, NY, USA, and in the Dominican Republic. A large population in northern Manhattan has close ties to the Dominican Republic, suggesting international transmission. PMID:19193274

  20. An Interdisciplinary Experiment: Azo-Dye Metabolism by "Staphylococcus Aureus"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brocklesby, Kayleigh; Smith, Robert; Sharp, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    An interdisciplinary and engaging practical is detailed which offers great versatility in the study of a qualitative and quantitative metabolism of azo-dyes by "Staphylococcus aureus". This practical has broad scope for adaptation in the number and depth of variables to allow a focused practical experiment or small research project. Azo-dyes are…

  1. Methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus and the media.

    PubMed

    Perencevich, Eli N; Treise, Debbie M

    2010-11-01

    How the media communicate and how the scientific community influences the media are important factors to consider in the public health response to emerging pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Social representation theory suggests that the media link "the threatening" to commonplace "anchor representations" which can serve to educate or to create fear.

  2. Novel β-Lactamase blaARL in Staphylococcus arlettae.

    PubMed

    Andreis, Sabrina N; Perreten, Vincent; Schwendener, Sybille

    2017-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus arlettae strain SAN1670 from bovine mastitis milk revealed a novel β-lactamase operon consisting of the β-lactamase-encoding gene blaARL, the antirepressor-encoding gene blaR1ARL, and the repressor-encoding gene blaIARL. The functionality of blaARL was demonstrated by gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus. The blaARL operon was chromosomally located in SAN1670 and present in 10 additional unrelated strains, suggesting intrinsic penicillin resistance in S. arlettae. Furthermore, a GenBank search revealed more unique potential β-lactamases in Staphylococcus species. IMPORTANCE Penicillins are an important group of antibiotics used to treat various types of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. So far, the blaZ gene was the only known β-lactamase gene in staphylococci. However, other putative β-lactamases were identified, and one of them was shown to be a novel functional β-lactamase encoded by blaARL in Staphylococcus arlettae, further limiting treatment options.

  3. Novel β-Lactamase blaARL in Staphylococcus arlettae

    PubMed Central

    Andreis, Sabrina N.; Schwendener, Sybille

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Whole-genome sequencing of penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus arlettae strain SAN1670 from bovine mastitis milk revealed a novel β-lactamase operon consisting of the β-lactamase-encoding gene blaARL, the antirepressor-encoding gene blaR1ARL, and the repressor-encoding gene blaIARL. The functionality of blaARL was demonstrated by gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus. The blaARL operon was chromosomally located in SAN1670 and present in 10 additional unrelated strains, suggesting intrinsic penicillin resistance in S. arlettae. Furthermore, a GenBank search revealed more unique potential β-lactamases in Staphylococcus species. IMPORTANCE Penicillins are an important group of antibiotics used to treat various types of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. So far, the blaZ gene was the only known β-lactamase gene in staphylococci. However, other putative β-lactamases were identified, and one of them was shown to be a novel functional β-lactamase encoded by blaARL in Staphylococcus arlettae, further limiting treatment options. PMID:28497118

  4. Community-acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao Xue; Galiana, Antonio; Pedreira, Walter; Mowszowicz, Martin; Christophersen, Inés; Machiavello, Silvia; Lope, Liliana; Benaderet, Sara; Buela, Fernanda; Vicentino, Walter; Albini, María; Bertaux, Olivier; Constenla, Irene; Bagnulo, Homero; Llosa, Luis; Ito, Teruyo

    2005-01-01

    A novel, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone (Uruguay clone) with a non–multidrug-resistant phenotype caused a large outbreak, including 7 deaths, in Montevideo, Uruguay. The clone was distinct from the highly virulent community clone represented by strain MW2, although both clones carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene and cna gene. PMID:15963301

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus massiliensis Strain 5402776T

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Catherine; Gimenez, Grégory; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    A draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus massiliensis, Gram-positive cocci isolated from a human brain abscess sample, is described here. One clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat, three transposases, six putative transposases, and one potential provirus were characterized. PMID:23209235

  6. Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in US Meat and Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Andrew E.; Contente-Cuomo, Tania; Buchhagen, Jordan; Liu, Cindy M.; Watson, Lindsey; Pearce, Kimberly; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Bowers, Jolene; Driebe, Elizabeth M.; Engelthaler, David M.; Keim, Paul S.

    2011-01-01

    We characterized the prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility profiles, and genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus among US meat and poultry samples (n = 136). S. aureus contaminated 47% of samples, and multidrug resistance was common among isolates (52%). S. aureus genotypes and resistance profiles differed significantly among sample types, suggesting food animal–specific contamination. PMID:21498385

  7. USA300 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Cuba

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an increasing problem in the Caribbean. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of MRSA isolates on Cuba. Findings The predominant clone was of the spa type t149, followed by community-associated MRSA USA300. Conclusions We report the first molecular typing results of MRSA isolates from Cuba. PMID:22958408

  8. Methicillin-Susceptible, Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Panesso, Diana; Planet, Paul J.; Diaz, Lorena; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel; Tran, Truc T.; Narechania, Apurva; Munita, Jose M.; Rincon, Sandra; Carvajal, Lina P.; Reyes, Jinnethe; Londoño, Alejandra; Smith, Hannah; Sebra, Robert; Deikus, Gintaras; Weinstock, George M.; Murray, Barbara E.; Rossi, Flavia; Arthur, Michel

    2015-01-01

    We report characterization of a methicillin-susceptible, vancomycin-resistant bloodstream isolate of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from a patient in Brazil. Emergence of vancomycin resistance in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus would indicate that this resistance trait might be poised to disseminate more rapidly among S. aureus and represents a major public health threat. PMID:26402569

  9. Novel pleuromutilin derivatives with excellent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Yong-Xue; Liu, Jian-Hua; Yang, Bing; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Wang, Yu-Liang

    2009-06-01

    Ten novel pleuromutilin derivatives with thioether moiety and heterocyclic carboxamide or chloroformate group in the side chain were synthesized and confirmed by (1)H NMR, IR and HRMS. The results of the antibacterial activity showed that the title compounds had excellent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, among which the MIC of 5f reached 0.03125 microg/mL.

  10. Microstructures as IR-sensors with Staphylococcus aureus bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baikova, T. V.; Danilov, P. A.; Gonchukov, S. A.; Yermachenko, V. M.; Ionin, A. A.; Khmelnitskii, R. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Nguyen, T. T. H.; Rudenko, A. A.; Saraeva, I. N.; Svistunova, T. S.; Zayarny, D. A.

    2017-09-01

    Using a micro-hole grating in a supported silver film as a laser-fabricated novel optical platform for surface-enhanced IR absoprtion/reflection spectroscopy, characteristic absorption bands of Staphylococcus aureus, especially - its buried carotenoid fragments - were detected in FT-IR spectra with 10-fold analytical enhancement, paving the way to spectral express-identification of the pathogenic microorganisms.

  11. The newly filed patent applications for vaccines against staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bao-Chi; Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2017-08-28

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) frequently causes life threatening disease. To release the threat, vaccine has been proposed as a preventive intervention against the cause. However, the development of the vaccines is still in early stages. Thus, highlighting the related newly filed patent applications would stimulate further developments.

  12. Wrecking Staph's Rafts: Staphylococcus aureus No Longer Unsinkable?

    PubMed

    Rashid, Rafi; Kline, Kimberly A

    2017-07-20

    Functional membrane microdomains (FMMs) serve to spatially restrict and coordinate a diversity of cellular functions. Flotillins serve as scaffolds within FMMs, and in this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Koch et al. (2017) show that disrupting Staphylococcus aureus scaffolds via small molecules perturbs virulence gene expression and attenuates S. aureus virulence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genome Sequence of Bacterial Interference Strain Staphylococcus aureus 502A.

    PubMed

    Parker, Dane; Narechania, Apurva; Sebra, Robert; Deikus, Gintaras; Larussa, Samuel; Ryan, Chanelle; Smith, Hannah; Prince, Alice; Mathema, Barun; Ratner, Adam J; Kreiswirth, Barry; Planet, Paul J

    2014-04-10

    Staphylococcus aureus 502A was a strain used in bacterial interference programs during the 1960s and early 1970s. Infants were deliberately colonized with 502A with the goal of preventing colonization with more invasive strains. We present the completed genome sequence of this organism.

  14. Methicillin-Susceptible, Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Panesso, Diana; Planet, Paul J; Diaz, Lorena; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel; Tran, Truc T; Narechania, Apurva; Munita, Jose M; Rincon, Sandra; Carvajal, Lina P; Reyes, Jinnethe; Londoño, Alejandra; Smith, Hannah; Sebra, Robert; Deikus, Gintaras; Weinstock, George M; Murray, Barbara E; Rossi, Flavia; Arthur, Michel; Arias, Cesar A

    2015-10-01

    We report characterization of a methicillin-susceptible, vancomycin-resistant bloodstream isolate of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from a patient in Brazil. Emergence of vancomycin resistance in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus would indicate that this resistance trait might be poised to disseminate more rapidly among S. aureus and represents a major public health threat.

  15. Review on Panton Valentine leukocidin toxin carriage among Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, B

    2013-09-01

    Panton Valentine leukocidin is a toxin making pores in the polymorphonuclear cells which is a virulence factor of some strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Initially it was produced by methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus only. Later with the acquisition of mecA gene has lead it to be PVL positive methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Since MRSA are resistant to many antibiotics and further they produce a toxin the infections by PVL positive MRSA has become a challenge. PVL positive MRSA a virulent strain of drug resistant superbug MRSA that has spread around the world, has claimed many lives in UK, Europe, USA and Australia. Some strains of superbug attack the healthy young people and kill within 24 hrs. PVL positive Staphylococcus aureus has been reported to be associated with skin and soft tissue infections however they also cause invasive infections and necrotizing pneumonia. These microorganisms known to be community associated have spread to hospitals. Hospital acquired infection by such microorganisms lead to an increase in mortality hence should be controlled before they become prevalent in hospitals.

  16. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is the most applied and effective genetic typing method for epidemiological studies and investigation of foodborne outbreaks caused by different pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. The technique relies on analysis of large DNA fragments generated by th...

  17. Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius strain ST1464 genome sequence

    PubMed Central

    Elbir, Haitham; Robert, Catherine; Nguyen, Ti Thien; Gimenez, Grégory; El Sanousi, Sulieman M.; Flock, Jan-Ingmar; Raoult, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius is responsible for Morel's disease in animals and a cause of abscess in humans. It is characterized by a microaerophilic growth, contrary to the other strains of S. aureus. The 2,604,446-bp genome (32.7% GC content) of S. anaerobius ST1464 comprises one chromosome and no plasmids. The chromosome contains 2,660 open reading frames (ORFs), 49 tRNAs and three complete rRNAs, forming one complete operon. The size of ORFs ranges between 100 to 4,600 bp except for two ORFs of 6,417 and 7,173 bp encoding segregation ATPase and non-ribosomal peptide synthase, respectively. The chromosome harbors Staphylococcus phage 2638A genome and incomplete Staphylococcus phage genome PT1028, but no detectable CRISPRS. The antibiotic resistance gene for tetracycline was found although Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius is susceptible to tetracycline in-vitro. Intact oxygen detoxification genes encode superoxide dismutase and cytochrome quinol oxidase whereas the catalase gene is impaired by a stop codon. Based on the genome, in-silico multilocus sequence typing indicates that S. aureus subsp. anaerobius emerged as a clone separated from all other S. aureus strains, illustrating host-adaptation linked to missing functions. Availability of S. aureus subsp. anaerobius genome could prompt the development of post-genomic tools for its rapid discrimination from S. aureus. PMID:24501641

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius Type Strain LMG 22219.

    PubMed

    Abouelkhair, Mohamed A; Riley, Matthew C; Bemis, David A; Kania, Stephen A

    2017-02-16

    We report the first complete genome sequence of LMG 22219 (=ON 86(T) = CCUG 49543(T)), the Staphylococcus pseudintermedius type strain isolated from feline lung tissue. This sequence information will facilitate phylogenetic comparisons of staphylococcal species and other bacteria at the genome level.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus Strain Wood 46.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, Manasi; Riley, Matthew C; Bemis, David A; Kania, Stephen A

    2017-03-30

    Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of the Staphylococcus aureus strain Wood 46. Wood 46 has played an important role in understanding the virulence and pathogenesis of S. aureus infections. This report will assist efforts in vaccine development against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections.

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus carnosus LTH 3730

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Anne; Weiss, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Specific strains of the apathogenic coagulase-negative species Staphylococcus carnosus are frequently used as meat starter cultures, as they contribute to color formation and the production of aroma compounds. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of S. carnosus LTH 3730, a strain isolated from a fermented fish product. PMID:27688338

  1. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866.3700 Section 866.3700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3700...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866.3700 Section 866.3700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3700...

  3. An Interdisciplinary Experiment: Azo-Dye Metabolism by "Staphylococcus Aureus"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brocklesby, Kayleigh; Smith, Robert; Sharp, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    An interdisciplinary and engaging practical is detailed which offers great versatility in the study of a qualitative and quantitative metabolism of azo-dyes by "Staphylococcus aureus". This practical has broad scope for adaptation in the number and depth of variables to allow a focused practical experiment or small research project. Azo-dyes are…

  4. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. 113.115 Section 113.115 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE..., each weighing 2000-3000 grams, shall be used as test animals. Either a five rabbit individual serum...

  5. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. 113.115 Section 113.115 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE..., each weighing 2000-3000 grams, shall be used as test animals. Either a five rabbit individual serum...

  6. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. 113.115 Section 113.115 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE..., each weighing 2000-3000 grams, shall be used as test animals. Either a five rabbit individual serum...

  7. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. 113.115 Section 113.115 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE..., each weighing 2000-3000 grams, shall be used as test animals. Either a five rabbit individual serum...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866.3700 Section 866.3700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... gut and causes destruction of the intestinal lining (gastroenteritis). (b) Classification. Class I...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866.3700 Section 866.3700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... gut and causes destruction of the intestinal lining (gastroenteritis). (b) Classification. Class I...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866.3700 Section 866.3700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... gut and causes destruction of the intestinal lining (gastroenteritis). (b) Classification. Class I...

  11. Screening of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus intermedius, and Staphylococcus schleiferi isolates obtained from small companion animals for antimicrobial resistance: a retrospective review of 749 isolates (2003-04).

    PubMed

    Morris, Daniel O; Rook, Kathryn A; Shofer, Frances S; Rankin, Shelley C

    2006-10-01

    Companion animal staphylococcal isolate antibiograms were screened retrospectively to determine the frequency of methicillin-resistant (MR) infection by Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus intermedius, and Staphylococcus schleiferi. Rates of MR were: S. aureus 35%, S. intermedius 17%, and S. schleiferi 40%. Frequency of isolation of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) from dogs and cats was similar, whereas methicillin-resistant S. intermedius (MRSI) and methicillin-resistant S. schleiferi (MRSS) were significantly more common in dogs. MRSS was more commonly associated with superficial (skin and ear canal) infections, whereas MRSA was more commonly associated with deep infections. The MR strain resistance pattern to other classes of antibiotics was also investigated. MRSA was resistant to the most classes of antibiotics, followed by MRSI, while MRSS maintained the most favourable susceptibility profile. MR staphylococci may pose a significant risk to animal and public health. Therefore, to avoid selecting for resistant strains in cases of suspected staphylococcal infection, clinicians should consider culture and susceptibility testing early in the course of treatment.

  12. Identification and control of a gentamicin resistant, meticillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus outbreak on a neonatal unit

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Bethany; Menson, Esse; Klein, John L; Watts, Timothy L; Kearns, Angela M; Pichon, Bruno; Edgeworth, Jonathan D; French, Gary L

    2014-01-01

    We describe the identification and control of an outbreak of gentamicin resistant, meticillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (GR-MSSA) on a 36-bed neonatal unit (NNU) in London. Control measures included admission and weekly screening for GR-MSSA, cohorting affected babies, environmental and staff screening, hydrogen peroxide vapour (HPV) for terminal disinfection of cohort rooms, and reinforcement of hand hygiene. Seventeen babies were affected by the outbreak strain over ten months; seven were infected and ten were asymptomatic carriers. The outbreak strain was gentamicin resistant and all isolates were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The outbreak strains spread rapidly and were associated with a high rate of bacteraemia (35% of 17 affected patients had bacteraemia vs. 10% of 284 patients with MSSA prior to the outbreak, p=0.007). None of 113 staff members tested were colonised with GR-MSSA. GR-MSSA was recovered from 11.5% of 87 environmental surfaces in cohort rooms, 7.1% of 28 communal surfaces and 4.1% of 74 surfaces after conventional terminal disinfection. None of 64 surfaces sampled after HPV decontamination yielded GR-MSSA. Recovery of GR-MSSA from two high level sites suggested that the organism could have been transmitted via air. Occasional breakdown in hand hygiene compliance and contaminated environmental surfaces probably contributed to transmission.

  13. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species in bulk milk: Prevalence, distribution, and associated subgroup- and species-specific risk factors.

    PubMed

    De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Haesebrouck, F; Supré, K; De Vliegher, S

    2017-01-01

    preparation were more likely to have S. cohnii-positive bulk milk. Herds in which flushing with hot water or steam of the milking cluster after having milked a cow with a (sub)clinical mastitis was applied, were less likely to yield S. simulans, S. haemolyticus, and S. cohnii in their bulk milk. Always wearing gloves during milking decreased the odds of having Staphylococcus devriesei-positive bulk milk. Tap water from the public drinking system used as drinking water increased the odds of yielding S. simulans in the bulk milk. In conclusion, CNS are highly prevalent in bulk milk and might originate from the environment for some species (we hypothesize this is true for S. equorum or S. cohnii), or from within the udder (e.g., for S. simulans). Studies collecting bulk milk and quarter milk samples at the same time along with environmental samples are needed to determine the exact origin of the different (subgroups of) CNS species present in bulk milk using strain-typing techniques. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Staphylococcus nepalensis sp. nov., isolated from goats of the Himalayan region.

    PubMed

    Spergser, Joachim; Wieser, Monika; Täubel, Martin; Rosselló-Mora, Ramon A; Rosengarten, Renate; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2003-11-01

    Four coagulase-negative, novobiocin-resistant cocci, designated CW1(T), PM34, MM3 and RW78, were isolated from the respiratory tract of goats kept in the Himalayan region. The four isolates were assigned to a single species on the basis of almost identical biochemical and physiological traits, protein profiles obtained after SDS-PAGE and identical genomic fingerprints generated after enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR. Strain CW1(T) showed highest 16S rDNA sequence similarities to Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticus ATCC 49330(T), Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus ATCC 15305(T), S. cohnii subsp. cohnii ATCC 29974(T), Staphylococcus arlettae ATCC 43957(T), Staphylococcus gallinarum ATCC 35539(T), Staphylococcus succinus ATCC 700337(T) and Staphylococcus xylosus ATCC 29971(T) (99.0, 98.8, 98.8, 98.4, 98.2, 98.1 and 98.1 %, respectively), indicating its classification within the genus Staphylococcus. The polar lipid composition, fatty acid profiles, quinone systems and diagnostic cell-wall diamino acid were in agreement with the characteristics of the genus Staphylococcus. DNA-DNA hybridization with closely related Staphylococcus species suggested that strain CW1(T) represents an as-yet unrecognized species. Based on these results, a novel species of the genus Staphylococcus is described, Staphylococcus nepalensis sp. nov. The type strain is CW1(T) (=DSM 15150(T)=CCM 7045(T)) and the most dissimilar strain is PM34 (=DSM 15151=CCM 7046).

  15. Isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. from ready-to-eat fish products.

    PubMed

    Sergelidis, D; Abrahim, A; Papadopoulos, T; Soultos, N; Martziou, E; Koulourida, V; Govaris, A; Pexara, A; Zdragas, A; Papa, A

    2014-11-01

    A hundred samples from ready-to-eat (RTE) fish products were examined for the presence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus spp. Staphylococci were isolated from 43% of these samples (n = 100). The identified species in the samples were Staphylococcus aureus (7%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (13%), Staphylococcus xylosus (12%), Staphylococcus sciuri (4%), Staphylococcus warneri (3%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (2%), Staphylococcus schleiferi (1%) and Staphylococcus auricularis (1%). Two Staph. aureus (MRSA) isolates, three Staph. epidermidis (MRSE), five Staph. xylosus, four Staph. sciuri, one Staph. schleiferi and one Staph. saprophyticus isolates were resistant to oxacillin and all of them carried the mecA gene. The two MRSA isolates belonged to the spa types t316 (ST359) and t548 (ST5) and none of them was able to produce enterotoxins. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis for Staph. aureus and Staph. epidermidis isolates revealed 6 and 11 distinct PFGE types, respectively, reflecting diversity. The presence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci, especially MRSA and MRSE, in RTE fish products may constitute a potential health risk for consumers. This study provides the first data on the occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci in salted and smoked fish products in Greece. These results are important and useful for Staphylococcus spp. risk assessment and management programmes for ready-to-eat fish products. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Environmental leadership

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, S.

    1984-01-01

    A resource for professional and volunteer managers of environmental organizations, this book provides instruction for raising funds, writing proposals, lobbying, utilizing the media, and maximizing human resources. Langton also assesses the environmental movement's future.

  17. Environmental Modeling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's modeling community is working to gain insights into certain parts of a physical, biological, economic, or social system by conducting environmental assessments for Agency decision making to complex environmental issues.

  18. Environmental Measurement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environmental measurement is any data collection activity involving the assessment of chemical, physical, or biological factors in the environment which affect human health. Learn more about these programs and tools that aid in environmental decisions

  19. Environmental Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James R.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses ways that geologic techniques can be used to help evaluate our environment, make economic realities and environmental requirements more compatible, and expand the use of geology in environmental analyses. (MLH)

  20. Environmental Geophysics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Geophysics website features geophysical methods, terms and references; forward and inverse geophysical models for download; and a decision support tool to guide geophysical method selection for a variety of environmental applications.

  1. Food compounds inhibit Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and the toxicity of Staphylococcus Enterotoxin A (SEA) associated with atopic dermatitis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Atopic dermatitis or eczema is characterized by skin rashes and itching is an inflammatory disease that affects 10-20% of children and 1-3% of adults. Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are present on the skin of nearly all patients with atopic dermatitis. Antibiotics that suppress colonization of S. au...

  2. Environmental Professionals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    schools as business are realizing the need to improve environmental literacy among their students. As recently as 1986, American business schools were...devoid of courses on how to manage environmental issties. The current trend, however, has been for university business schools to include environmental...Approximately 25 U.S. business schools now teach environmental management. The Corporate Conservation Council. an arm of the National Wildlife Federation

  3. Environmental Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Burns & McDonnell Engineering's environmental control study is assisted by NASA's Computer Software Management and Information Center's programs in environmental analyses. Company is engaged primarily in design of such facilities as electrical utilities, industrial plants, wastewater treatment systems, dams and reservoirs and aviation installations. Company also conducts environmental engineering analyses and advises clients as to the environmental considerations of a particular construction project. Company makes use of many COSMIC computer programs which have allowed substantial savings.

  4. Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandhu, Desh, Ed.; Aulakh, G. S., Ed.

    In India, environmental education (EE) is introduced at various levels. Goals of this country's EE programs include: improving the quality of environment to create awareness among the people on environmental problems and conservation; developing skills to solve environmental problems; creating the necessary atmosphere for citizen participation in…

  5. Environmental Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbus State Community Coll., OH.

    This document contains materials developed for and about the environmental technology tech prep program of the South-Western City Schools in Ohio. Part 1 begins with a map of the program, which begins with an environmental science technology program in grades 11 and 12 that leads to entry-level employment or a 2-year environmental technology…

  6. Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandhu, Desh, Ed.; Aulakh, G. S., Ed.

    In India, environmental education (EE) is introduced at various levels. Goals of this country's EE programs include: improving the quality of environment to create awareness among the people on environmental problems and conservation; developing skills to solve environmental problems; creating the necessary atmosphere for citizen participation in…

  7. Environmental awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This brochure is intended to provide guidance on environmental regulations to National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) employees. Topics covered include: handling of hazardous materials, disposal of hazardous wastes, spill prevention and remediation, pcb contamination, pesticide use, asbestos remediation, solid waste disposal, and environmental laws. Safety aspects are emphasized.

  8. Quantitative microbial risk assessment for Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus enterotoxin A in raw milk.

    PubMed

    Heidinger, Joelle C; Winter, Carl K; Cullor, James S

    2009-08-01

    A quantitative microbial risk assessment was constructed to determine consumer risk from Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxin in raw milk. A Monte Carlo simulation model was developed to assess the risk from raw milk consumption using data on levels of S. aureus in milk collected by the University of California-Davis Dairy Food Safety Laboratory from 2,336 California dairies from 2005 to 2008 and using U.S. milk consumption data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2003 and 2004. Four modules were constructed to simulate pathogen growth and staphylococcal enterotoxin A production scenarios to quantify consumer risk levels under various time and temperature storage conditions. The three growth modules predicted that S. aureus levels could surpass the 10(5) CFU/ml level of concern at the 99.9th or 99.99th percentile of servings and therefore may represent a potential consumer risk. Results obtained from the staphylococcal enterotoxin A production module predicted that exposure at the 99.99th percentile could represent a dose capable of eliciting staphylococcal enterotoxin intoxication in all consumer age groups. This study illustrates the utility of quantitative microbial risk assessments for identifying potential food safety issues.

  9. (Environmental technology)

    SciTech Connect

    Boston, H.L.

    1990-10-12

    The traveler participated in a conference on environmental technology in Paris, sponsored by the US Embassy-Paris, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the French Environmental Ministry, and others. The traveler sat on a panel for environmental aspects of energy technology and made a presentation on the potential contributions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to a planned French-American Environmental Technologies Institute in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Evry, France. This institute would provide opportunities for international cooperation on environmental issues and technology transfer related to environmental protection, monitoring, and restoration at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The traveler also attended the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Contamination in Barcelona. Conference topics included environmental chemistry, land disposal of wastes, treatment of toxic wastes, micropollutants, trace organics, artificial radionuclides in the environment, and the use biomonitoring and biosystems for environmental assessment. The traveler presented a paper on The Fate of Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.'' Those findings corresponded well with results from studies addressing the fate of fallout radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There was an exchange of new information on a number of topics of interest to DOE waste management and environmental restoration needs.

  10. Farm-specific lineages of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 398 in Danish pig farms.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Gongora, C; Larsen, J; Moodley, A; Nielsen, J P; Skov, R L; Andreasen, M; Guardabassi, L

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex (CC) 398 using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Dust and pigs at five age groups were sampled in six Danish MRSA-positive pig farms. MRSA CC398 was isolated from 284 of the 391 samples tested, including 230 (74%) animal and 54 (68%) environmental samples. PFGE analysis of a subset of 48 isolates, including the six strains previously isolated from farm workers, revealed the existence of farm-specific pulsotypes. With a single exception, human, environmental and porcine isolates originating from the same farm clustered together in the PFGE cluster analysis, indicating that spread of MRSA CC398 in Danish pig farms is mainly due to clonal dissemination of farm-specific lineages that can be discriminated by PFGE. This finding has important implications for planning future epidemiological studies investigating the spread of CC398 in pig farming.

  11. [Surveillance and control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Spanish hospitals. A GEIH-SEIMC and SEMPSPH consensus document].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Bischofberger, Cornelia; Alvarez-Lerma, Francisco; Asensio, Angel; Delgado, Teresa; García-Arcal, Dolores; García-Ortega, Lola; Hernández, M Jesús; Molina-Cabrillana, Jesús; Pérez-Canosa, Carmen; Pujol, Miquel

    2008-05-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important pathogen, both in-hospital and in the community. Although there are several guidelines with recommendations for the control of this microorganism, the measures proposed are not uniformly implemented in Spanish hospitals. The objective of this document is to provide evidence-based recommendations that are applicable to Spanish hospitals, with the aim of reducing transmission of MRSA in our health care centers. The recommendations are divided into the following groups: surveillance, active detection of colonization in patients and health care workers, control measures for colonized or infected patients, decolonization therapy, environmental cleaning and disinfection, antimicrobial consumption, measures for non-hospitalized patients, and others. The main measures recommended include appropriate surveillance, hand hygiene, and implementation of active surveillance, contact precautions, and environmental cleaning.

  12. Evaluation of three different molecular markers for the detection of Staphylococcus aureus by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed; Verma, Vijeshwar; Qazi, Ghulam Nabi

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to target three genes of Staphylococcus aureus-fmhA (coding for a factor of unknown function), catalase and femA (coding for a factor essential for methicillin resistance) to establish and validate a PCR assay for the detection of this pathogen. Two pairs of primers were designed for fmhA and one pair each for catalase and femA genes. The PCR assays were standardized and found to give specific amplicons under similar reaction parameters. Target specificity of the primers was confirmed by DNA sequencing of the amplicons. While the initial inclusivity and exclusivity test reactions were in agreement in case of three of the primer pairs, one pair based on fmhA gene produced a non-specific product with a template DNA used in exclusivity test reactions. Forty-five strains of S. aureus were subjected to these PCR assays for their evaluation. Three among the four pairs of primers, one against each gene detected all the 45 strains precisely whereas one of the PCR assays using primers targeting the fmhA gene did not generate the specific amplicon with several of the strains. Seven unidentified strains of Gram-positive cocci subjected to these PCR assays produced negative results for each culture. Six of the strains were identified as Staphylococcus haemolyticus and one strain as Staphylococcus