Science.gov

Sample records for environmental pollutant studies

  1. Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitbeil, Fred W., III

    1973-01-01

    Presents a thorough overview of the many factors contributing to air and water pollution, outlines the chemical reactions involved in producing toxic end-products, and describes some of the consequences of pollutants on human health and ecosystems. (JR)

  2. Environmental Pollutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing animal production systems to reduce environmental impacts is most difficult for air quality. Water and soil quality responses to animal production can be managed through planning and understanding the risk of spills, overapplication, or improper use of manure. Escape of gaseous or particula...

  3. [Environmental pollution studies of fluorine coming from industry].

    PubMed

    Năstasă, V; Cuciureanu, R; Chirimbu, F; Guţă, P

    1992-01-01

    Fluorine in optimal concentration prevents dental caries, while an excess or deficiency in it may lead to pathologic alterations which make fluorine be one of the environmental pollutants the concentration of which is limited by health standards. This investigation, carried out in the area of an aluminium plant, showed the presence in excess of fluorine and fluorine-containing dusts in the atmospheric air, determining an increased fluorine content in the ground and vegetal cultures of the respective area. Negative effects of these noxae upon vegetation and animals were noticed.

  4. Hazard identification of environmental pollutants by combining results from ecological and biomarker studies: an example

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective: Linking exposures from environmental pollutants with adverse health effects is difficult because these exposures are usually low-dose and ill-defined. According to several investigators, a series of multidisciplinary, multilevel studies is needed to address this prob...

  5. Future of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Barnes, D G

    1996-02-01

    In recent years, the concept of pollution prevention has overtaken end-of-pipe controls as the paradigm of choice for effecting environmental protection. Through cooperative mechanisms, significant progress is being made to reduce or eliminate upstream processes and practices that can lead to downstream pollution. These efforts, coupled with productive interactions with the public, are making an impact. The Science Advisory Board released a report in January that described the "next wave" of pollution prevention. Specifically, the report described approaches for anticipating environmental problems of tomorrow so that preventive actions can be taken today. The potential of air pollution problems figures prominently in the Board's vision of the future.

  6. Remote Sensing of Environmental Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a problem of international scope and concern. It can be subdivided into problems relating to water, air, or land pollution. Many of the problems in these three categories lend themselves to study and possible solution by remote sensing. Through the use of remote sensing systems and techniques, it is possible to detect and monitor, and in some cases, identify, measure, and study the effects of various environmental pollutants. As a guide for making decisions regarding the use of remote sensors for pollution studies, a special five-dimensional sensor/applications matrix has been designed. The matrix defines an environmental goal, ranks the various remote sensing objectives in terms of their ability to assist in solving environmental problems, lists the environmental problems, ranks the sensors that can be used for collecting data on each problem, and finally ranks the sensor platform options that are currently available.

  7. Pollution, An Environmental Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Richard B.

    This document, written for teachers, outlines the causes and extent of environmental problems relating to air pollution, water pollution, the use of fertilizers and pesticides, land use, and population density. A short bibliography includes references to periodicals and books dealing with teaching methods as well as references for background…

  8. Environmental Pollution Studies in an Underdeveloped Country: (1) Heavy Metal Pollution in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onianwa, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews research studies related to the monitoring of trace heavy metals in environmental samples such as plants, water, soils, and other natural resources in the city of Ibadan, Nigeria. Research results indicate a significant increase in toxic heavy metal levels has occurred, implying the need for environmental education. (Contains 31…

  9. Environmental geochemistry and pollution studies of Aliaga metal industry district.

    PubMed

    Sponza, Delya; Karaoglu, Nevin

    2002-02-01

    The Aliaga metal industry district located 50 km northwest of Izmir City, in Turkey, includes many metal factories. The geology of the area is represented by Mesozoic flysch deposits and Cenozoic volcano sedimentary rocks. Tectonic elements are NE-SW and NW-SE trending faults and a W-NW trending fault direction that is important for water supply. Rock, soil, stream sediment, and water samples taken at various distances from the industrial area were analyzed for Fe, Ti, Mn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Mo. According to the results, the elements in rocks are reasonable for the range of "Clarke" values, but in the soils and stream sediment, they comprise higher values than are acceptable for agricultural activities. Toxicity analyses were carried out in the drinking artesian water of Cakmakli village and wastewater samples of the factories and river water both of which are used for irrigation of the agricultural areas in and around the investigated area. The people should, however be made aware that this waste and river water is unacceptable for agriculture. Additionally, the contamination of seawater in Nemrut Bay is probably caused by contaminated river and underground water running to the sea. The chemical and toxicity analysis of drinking water samples show that they are above accepted standards and harmful. Previous air pollution studies (funnel gas emission analyses) also show that gas emission contains high amount of dust particles with high Fe, Zn, Pb, and Cu concentrations. As a result, all elements analyzed are of great importance relative to problems concerning contamination of the soil, stream sediment, ground surface water, and air by individual metals from uncontrolled processing of some metal factories.

  10. Water Pollution in Environmental Education Curricula: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham

    This report compares similarities and differences in water pollution as it is presented in selected curriculum materials. The materials selected for analysis included materials from five projects in the United States, England, Israel, and West Germany. Each set of instructional materials is analyzed including the framework of the units, selection…

  11. Soviet and post-Soviet environmental management: lessons from a case study on lead pollution.

    PubMed

    Thomas, V M; Orlova, A O

    2001-03-01

    Through a case study on lead pollution in the former Soviet Union, the linkage of policy, environmental science, and environmental management is explored, and compared with the US experience. Soviet bans on leaded gasoline and lead-based paint appear to have been effective. Regional governments, in cooperation with the petroleum industry, are taking the initiative in phasing out leaded gasoline, to some extent in defiance of federal policy. Problems with management of lead-acid batteries have been worsened by the collapse of the political system. Lack of reliable environmental data impedes reliable environmental assessment. The types of environmental measurements reflect an emphasis on multipollutant environmental contamination, rather than on human exposure to single pollutants.

  12. Environmental Pollution Effects on Reproductive Health – Clinical-Epidemiological Study in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Marra, M.L.; Zullo, F.; De Felice, B.; Nappi, L.; Guida, M.; Trifuoggi, M.; Nappi, C.; Di Spiezio Sardo, A.; Zizolfi, B.; Capece, G.; Visconti, F.; Troisi, J.; Ciccone, C.; Guida, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to address the clinical, statistical and Epidemiological Relationship Between Birth Defects and Environmental Pollution, in the Campania Region and in Salerno. Objectives: We examined four groups of subjects as follows: a sample of pregnant women living in Salerno, a sample of pregnant women living in highly polluted areas, a sample of controls, pregnant women and residents out of the Campania Region, considered in unpolluted areas (Foggia) and in the Salerno area. Methodologies: a toxicological and genetic analysis was conducted on patients examined. Conclusions: there is an epidemiological link between environmental pollution and reproductive health in the Salerno area. Experimentally there are the first evidences of endocrine disruptors by the PCB. It has been inferred an overexpression of the mir-191 as a marker of pollution by dioxin-like compounds. Socially, correct information of populations at risk is necessary and a possible preventive and ongoing medical care must be ensured. PMID:23905062

  13. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T.; And Others

    This activity oriented environmental guide is the result of cooperative efforts of high school teachers, students, scientists, and technicians. The activities are divided into four chapters: Hydrologic Cycle; Human Activities; Ecological Perspectives; and Social and Political Factors. Each activity contains seven parts: an introduction; questions…

  14. Bioremediation of environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, E.L. . Div. of Biological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on disremediation of environmental pollutants. When a tree falls in the forest, when crop residues are left in the fields, and even when spilled gasoline soaks into the ground, microorganisms go to work. Just as humans eat food to sustain life, microorganisms digest nonliving organic materials, using an astounding diversity of enzymes. In the process of deriving carbon and energy for their own use, microorganisms recycle essential nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus to the other species with which they share the biosphere. This has thrown many ecosystems into a unsteady state and has threatened human health. Increasing expertise in analytical chemistry and toxicology has contributed to an understanding of the problems of environmental pollution, and remedies are now being sought. Both physical and chemical processes may be essential to pollution-control technologies, but controlled biodegradation also offers significant promise.

  15. The use of ultrasound measurements in environmental epidemiological studies of air pollution and fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Smarr, Melissa M.; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Castillo-Castrejon, Marisol; O’Neill, Marie S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Recently, several international research groups have suggested that studies about environmental contaminants and adverse pregnancy outcomes should be designed to elucidate potential underlying biological mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiological studies addressing maternal exposure to air pollutants and fetal growth during gestation as assessed by ultrasound measurements. Recent findings The six studies published to date found that exposure to certain ambient air pollutants during pregnancy is negatively associated with the growth rates and average attained size of fetal parameters belonging to the growth profile. Fetal parameters may respond to maternal air pollution exposures uniquely, and this response may vary by pollutant and timing of gestational exposure. Current literature suggests that mean changes in head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur length, and biparietal diameter are negatively associated with early-pregnancy exposures to ambient and vehicle-related air pollution. Summary The use of more longitudinal studies, employing ultrasound measures to assess fetal outcomes, may assist with the better understanding of mechanisms responsible for air pollution-related pregnancy outcomes. PMID:23399571

  16. Pollution as a Form of Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael Pugh

    1986-01-01

    Proposes that a case-study approach to pollution problems can enhance the environmental awareness of students. Presents background information and instructional ideas for case studies on water pollution, cars, and the urban environment. (ML)

  17. Aerosols and environmental pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbeck, Ian; Lazaridis, Mihalis

    2010-02-01

    The number of publications on atmospheric aerosols has dramatically increased in recent years. This review, predominantly from a European perspective, summarizes the current state of knowledge of the role played by aerosols in environmental pollution and, in addition, highlights gaps in our current knowledge. Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the Earth’s atmosphere and are central to many environmental issues; ranging from the Earth’s radiative budget to human health. Aerosol size distribution and chemical composition are crucial parameters that determine their dynamics in the atmosphere. Sources of aerosols are both anthropogenic and natural ranging from vehicular emissions to dust resuspension. Ambient concentrations of aerosols are elevated in urban areas with lower values at rural sites. A comprehensive understanding of aerosol ambient characteristics requires a combination of measurements and modeling tools. Legislation for ambient aerosols has been introduced at national and international levels aiming to protect human health and the environment.

  18. Aerosols and environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Colbeck, Ian; Lazaridis, Mihalis

    2010-02-01

    The number of publications on atmospheric aerosols has dramatically increased in recent years. This review, predominantly from a European perspective, summarizes the current state of knowledge of the role played by aerosols in environmental pollution and, in addition, highlights gaps in our current knowledge. Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and are central to many environmental issues; ranging from the Earth's radiative budget to human health. Aerosol size distribution and chemical composition are crucial parameters that determine their dynamics in the atmosphere. Sources of aerosols are both anthropogenic and natural ranging from vehicular emissions to dust resuspension. Ambient concentrations of aerosols are elevated in urban areas with lower values at rural sites. A comprehensive understanding of aerosol ambient characteristics requires a combination of measurements and modeling tools. Legislation for ambient aerosols has been introduced at national and international levels aiming to protect human health and the environment.

  19. Fish as bioindicators in aquatic environmental pollution assessment: A case study in Lake Victoria wetlands, Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naigaga, I.; Kaiser, H.; Muller, W. J.; Ojok, L.; Mbabazi, D.; Magezi, G.; Muhumuza, E.

    Growing human population and industrialization have led to the pollution of most aquatic ecosystems and consequent deterioration in environmental water quality. Indicator organisms are needed to improve assessment programmes on the ecological impacts of anthropogenic activities on the aquatic environment. Fish have been widely documented as useful indicators of environmental water quality because of their differential sensitivity to pollution. This study investigated the environmental water quality of selected wetland ecosystems using fish as biological indicators. Fish community structure in relation to water quality was assessed in five wetlands along the shoreline of Lake Victoria from August 2006 to June 2008. Four urban wetlands were variedly impacted by anthropogenic activities while one rural wetland was less impacted, and served as a reference site. Fish species diversity, abundance and richness were assessed, and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to evaluate the relationship between the fish communities and environmental variables. Results revealed that urban effluent impacted negatively on water quality and consequently the fish community structure. A total of 29 fish species were recorded throughout the study with the lowest number of 15 species recorded in the most impacted site. Shannon diversity and Margalef species richness indices were highest at the references site and lowest at the most impacted site. Wetland haplochromis species dominated the reference site, while oreochromis species dominated the most impacted site. The inshore locations registered higher species diversity and low species richness than the offshore locations. Low dissolved oxygen, pH, secchi depth and high electrical conductivity, total phosphorous, and total nitrogen were strongly associated with the effluent-impacted sites and greatly influenced the fish community structure. This study recommends the use of fish as valuable biological indicators in aquatic

  20. Environmental Air Pollution and Acute Cerebrovascular Complications: An Ecologic Study in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nabavi, Seyed Massood; Jafari, Batoul; Jalali, Mozhgan Sadat; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Ashrafi, Khosro; Salahesh, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Background: In this study, we aimed to assess the association between air pollution and cerebrovascular complications in Tehran, one of the most air-polluted cities in the world, among different subgroups of patients with stroke in 2004. Methods: In this ecologic study, we calculated the daily average levels of different air pollutants including CO, NOX, SO2, O3, and PM10 and also humidity and temperature on the day of stroke and 48 hours prior to stroke in 1 491 patients admitted with the diagnosis of stroke in eight referral hospitals in different areas of Tehran. Then, we evaluated the association between the rate of stroke admissions and the level of the selected pollutants, humidity, and temperature on the day of stroke and 48 hours prior to stroke among different subgroups of patients. Results: There was no significant association between the same-day level of the pollutants and the rate of stroke admissions, but an association was seen for their level 48 hours before stroke. These associations differed among different subgroups of age, sex, history of underlying diseases, and type of stroke. Same-day temperature had a reverse association in patients with hemorrhagic stroke and in patients without a history of heart disease or previous stroke. A direct significant association was seen for humidity level 48 hours before stroke in patients with a history of heart disease. Conclusions: It is inferred that air pollution has a direct association with the incidence of stroke and these association differs among different subgroups of patients. The results of this study are not time-dependant and can be generalized to different times and regions. Moreover, these results may be useful for environmental health policy makers. PMID:23112900

  1. Fate of Environmental Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Padhye, Lokesh P

    2016-10-01

    This annual review covers the literature published in 2015 on topics related to the occurrence and fate of emerging environmental pollutants in wastewater. Due to the vast amount of literature published on this topic, I have discussed only a fraction of the quality research publications, up to maximum 20 relevant articles per section, due to limitation of space. The abstract search was carried out using Web of Science, and the abstracts were selected based on their relevance. In few cases, full-text articles were referred to better understand new findings. This review is divided into the following sections: biological agents, disinfection by-products (DBPs), halogenated compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and other emerging contaminants. PMID:27620105

  2. Fate of Environmental Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Padhye, Lokesh P

    2016-10-01

    This annual review covers the literature published in 2015 on topics related to the occurrence and fate of emerging environmental pollutants in wastewater. Due to the vast amount of literature published on this topic, I have discussed only a fraction of the quality research publications, up to maximum 20 relevant articles per section, due to limitation of space. The abstract search was carried out using Web of Science, and the abstracts were selected based on their relevance. In few cases, full-text articles were referred to better understand new findings. This review is divided into the following sections: biological agents, disinfection by-products (DBPs), halogenated compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and other emerging contaminants.

  3. Magnetic Study on Environmental Samples from Guadalajara Mexico for Monitoring of Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, B.; Cejudo, R.; Bogalo, M. F.; Rosas-Elguera, J.; Quintana, P.; Bautista, F.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Morales, J.

    2013-05-01

    Guadalajara is the second bigger city in Mexico, catalogued as critical zone because of atmospheric pollution levels. The magnetic methodology has been largely used as an alternative way to evaluate the pollution levels as well as identify the critical points in a given area. In this work, results from chemical analyses and magnetic measurements are presented in order to show the correlation between magnetic signal and the pollution level. We analyzed three kinds of environmental samples: urban soils, urban dust and leaves from ficus benjamina. Samples were taken in 30 sites distributed along a main avenue and two secondary avenues, including three points with very poor traffic influence. We determined a ferromagnetic carrier in most of samples, magnetite probably, since the Tc calculated from the thermomagnetic curves is around 580 °C. The magnetic susceptibility (Xlf) as well as the Saturation Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (SIRM) correlate well with the heavy metals content, specially Pb in urban dusts. These results allowed us to identify the most affected points, by vehicular traffic and industrial emissions. Furthermore, the values obtained for these magnetic parameters are above of those found in other studies for polluted cities in Europe and Asia.

  4. The Onset of a Novel Environmental Offset: A case study for diverse pollutant scheme in Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, A.; Arora, M.; Delbridge, N.; Pettigrove, V.; Feldman, D.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental offset schemes employ a crediting system to mitigate the impacts of pollutants. In this talk, we present a novel trade-off concept comparing diverse groups of pollutants: environmental flows, micropollutants (heavy metals, pesticides, estrogen compounds) and nutrients in a test watershed (Jacksons Creek), in the vicinity of Melbourne. A reservoir in the upper watershed, and a wastewater treatment plant (WTP) are the main sources of flow into Jacksons Creek. The current land use is a mix of agriculture, and rural, though rapid urbanization is anticipated with a 40% increase in the population by 2040. The creek is impacted by: 1) low flow, especially during dry periods (contribution from the reservoir drops dramatically), 2) nutrient enrichment (WTP and agricultural runoff), and 3) micropollutants-heavy metals (urban runoff), estrogenic compounds (WTP), and pesticides (agricultural runoff). In this offset framework, we evaluated current and future scenarios to identify the main stressor in Jacksons Creek. We collected monitoring data at 15 sites for separate 3 events. Then we developed a watershed model to assess sources of pollutant loads to the creek, using two different tools, Model for Urban Stormwater Improvement Conceptualisation (MUSIC) for the preliminary flow and water quality modeling, and eWater Source for integrated water resource management (IWRM), and a decision support system for stakeholders. Scenario analysis includes urbanization and population growth, and anticipated discharges from WTP and the reservoir. Measured nutrient concentrations were high for all sampling events. Micropollutants were detected at a concentration higher than the trigger value at several locations. Preliminary analysis shows that low flow is one of the major stressors in the creek causing elevated micropollutant and nutrient concentrations (non-point), and that discharge from the WTP is essential to maintain the minimum environmental flows, though nutrient

  5. Impact of Environmental Pollution on the Preservation of Archives and Records: A RAMP Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascoe, M. W.

    Following a description of the essential chemical and physical structures of most archive documents, this paper examines the various pollutants that can damage these documents and gives their characteristics. The pollutants are categorized as environmental (e.g., smokes, mineral dusts); exterior gas and vapor (e.g., oxygen, water, sulphur…

  6. Environmental Studies, Section V: Oceanography. Learning Carrel Lesson 6.15: Pollution of the Oceans. Study Guide and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Robert; And Others

    This is one of a series of 14 instructional components of a semester-long, environmental earth science course developed for undergraduate students. The course includes lectures, discussion sessions, and individual learning carrel lessons. Presented are the study guide and script for a learning carrel lesson on pollution of the oceans. The slides,…

  7. Evaluation of economic loss from energy-related environmental pollution: a case study of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Liu, Gengyuan; Yang, Zhifeng

    2013-09-01

    With the growth of energy consumption, energy-related environmental pollution has become increasingly serious, which in turn causes enormous economic loss because of public health damage, corrosion of materials, crop yield reduction, and other factors. Evaluating economic loss caused by energy-related environmental pollution can contribute to decision making in energy management. A framework for evaluating economic loss from environmental pollution produced during energy production, transportation, and consumption is proposed in this paper. Regarding SO2, PM10, and solid waste as the main pollutants, economic losses from health damage, materials corrosion, crop yield reduction, and solid waste pollution are estimated based on multiple concentration-response relationships and dose-response functions. The proposed framework and evaluation methods are applied to Beijing, China. It is evident that total economic loss attributable to energy-related environmental pollution fluctuated during 2000-2011 but had a general growth trend, with the highest value reaching 2.3 × 108 CNY (China Yuan) in 2006. Economic loss caused by health damage contributes most to the total loss among the four measured damage types. The total economic loss strongly correlates with the amount of energy consumption, especially for oil and electricity. Our evaluation framework and methods can be used widely to measure the potential impact of environmental pollution in the energy lifecycle.

  8. Environmental health indicators and a case study of air pollution in Latin American cities.

    PubMed

    Bell, Michelle L; Cifuentes, Luis A; Davis, Devra L; Cushing, Erin; Telles, Adriana Gusman; Gouveia, Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Environmental health indicators (EHIs) are applied in a variety of research and decision-making settings to gauge the health consequences of environmental hazards, to summarize complex information, or to compare policy impacts across locations or time periods. While EHIs can provide a useful means of conveying information, they also can be misused. Additional research is needed to help researchers and policy-makers understand categories of indicators and their appropriate application. In this article, we review current frameworks for environmental health indicators and discuss the advantages and limitations of various forms. A case study EHI system was developed for air pollution and health for urban Latin American centers in order to explore how underlying assumptions affect indicator results. Sixteen cities were ranked according to five indicators that considered: population exposed, children exposed, comparison to health-based guidelines, and overall PM(10) levels. Results indicate that although some overall patterns in rankings were observed, cities' relative rankings were highly dependent on the indicator used. In fact, a city that was ranked best under one indicator was ranked worst with another. The sensitivity of rankings, even when considering a simple case of a single pollutant, highlights the need for clear understanding of EHIs and how they may be affected by underlying assumptions. Careful consideration should be given to the purpose, assumptions, and limitations of EHIs used individually or in combination in order to minimize misinterpretation of their implications and enhance their usefulness.

  9. Air Pollution and Mortality in Seven Million Adults: The Dutch Environmental Longitudinal Study (DUELS)

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Marten; Ameling, Caroline B.; Hoek, Gerard; Beelen, Rob; de Hoogh, Kees; Breugelmans, Oscar; Kruize, Hanneke; Janssen, Nicole A.H.; Houthuijs, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Hoogh K, Breugelmans O, Kruize H, Janssen NA, Houthuijs D. 2015. Air pollution and mortality in seven million adults: the Dutch Environmental Longitudinal Study (DUELS). Environ Health Perspect 123:697–704; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408254 PMID:25760672

  10. Water Quality and Pollution. Environmental Studies. 4 Color Transparencies, Reproducibles & Teaching Guide. Grade 3, 4, 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortleb, Edward P.; And Others

    The world is faced with a variety of environmental problems. No country has escaped pollution and resource depletion. Basic ecological principles are often ignored and sometimes this contributes to ecological disasters. This volume is designed to provide basic information about the quality of the earth's water resources. The visual aids,…

  11. Land Resources and Pollution. Environmental Studies. 4 Color Transparencies, Reproducibles & Teaching Guide. Grade 3, 4, 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortleb, Edward P.; And Others

    The world is faced with a variety of environmental problems. No country has escaped pollution and resource depletion. Basic ecological principles are often ignored and sometimes this contributes to ecological disasters. This volume is designed to provide basic information about the quality of the earth's land resources. The visual aids,…

  12. Air Quality and Pollution. Environmental Studies. 4 Color Transparencies, Reproducibles & Teaching Guide. Grade 3, 4, 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortleb, Edward P.; And Others

    The world is faced with a variety of environmental problems. No country has escaped pollution and resource depletion. Basic ecological principles are often ignored and sometimes this contributes to ecological disasters. This volume is designed to provide basic information about the quality of the earth's atmosphere. The visual aids, worksheets,…

  13. A vegetation modeling concept for Building and Environmental Aerodynamics wind tunnel tests and its application in pollutant dispersion studies.

    PubMed

    Gromke, Christof

    2011-01-01

    A new vegetation modeling concept for Building and Environmental Aerodynamics wind tunnel investigations was developed. The modeling concept is based on fluid dynamical similarity aspects and allows the small-scale modeling of various kinds of vegetation, e.g. field crops, shrubs, hedges, single trees and forest stands. The applicability of the modeling concept was validated in wind tunnel pollutant dispersion studies. Avenue trees in urban street canyons were modeled and their implications on traffic pollutant dispersion were investigated. The dispersion experiments proved the modeling concept to be practicable for wind tunnel studies and suggested to provide reliable concentration results. Unfavorable effects of trees on pollutant dispersion and natural ventilation in street canyons were revealed. Increased traffic pollutant concentrations were found in comparison to the tree-free reference case.

  14. Approaches to environmental restoration of a polluted harbour with submerged archaeology: the Alexandria case study.

    PubMed

    El-Rayis, Osman A; Hemeda, Engy I; Ismael, Amany M; Jammo, K

    2003-01-01

    Many invaluable underwater buildings of archaeological interest in Alexandria were discovered in 1996 at different sites in the Eastern Harbour of Alexandria. There is a belief that the best way to protect these invaluable heritages is to transfer them to an underwater park or museum. Obviously, the execution of such a project depends essentially upon the water quality (including water transparency) improving in the future. The harbour is presently polluted by discharge of wastewater effluents from different sources. It has recently been decided to restore this important coastal area through: (1) stopping the direct discharge of wastewater effluents into this semi-enclosed harbour in 1993 and (2) gradually reducing the discharge of the municipal wastewater through marine outfalls at two sites lying at the outer sides of the harbour. Zero discharge is expected to be effective by the end of the year 2001. The present work, therefore, is a follow up of the study of water quality in the harbour after 1993: in 1996 and 1999-2000. The water quality of an open sea reference station was also studied for comparison. The results reveal occurrence of an improvement of the environmental conditions in the harbour. The water has turned from being eutrophic to mesotrophic. The harbour is expected to become meso/oligotrophic as soon as the complete cessation of the discharge from the two outside sources is attained. PMID:12787619

  15. Approaches to environmental restoration of a polluted harbour with submerged archaeology: the Alexandria case study.

    PubMed

    El-Rayis, Osman A; Hemeda, Engy I; Ismael, Amany M; Jammo, K

    2003-01-01

    Many invaluable underwater buildings of archaeological interest in Alexandria were discovered in 1996 at different sites in the Eastern Harbour of Alexandria. There is a belief that the best way to protect these invaluable heritages is to transfer them to an underwater park or museum. Obviously, the execution of such a project depends essentially upon the water quality (including water transparency) improving in the future. The harbour is presently polluted by discharge of wastewater effluents from different sources. It has recently been decided to restore this important coastal area through: (1) stopping the direct discharge of wastewater effluents into this semi-enclosed harbour in 1993 and (2) gradually reducing the discharge of the municipal wastewater through marine outfalls at two sites lying at the outer sides of the harbour. Zero discharge is expected to be effective by the end of the year 2001. The present work, therefore, is a follow up of the study of water quality in the harbour after 1993: in 1996 and 1999-2000. The water quality of an open sea reference station was also studied for comparison. The results reveal occurrence of an improvement of the environmental conditions in the harbour. The water has turned from being eutrophic to mesotrophic. The harbour is expected to become meso/oligotrophic as soon as the complete cessation of the discharge from the two outside sources is attained.

  16. Water Pollution, Environmental Science Curriculum Guide Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Harold J.

    This curriculum guide is a 40-day unit plan on water pollution developed, in part, from the National Science Foundation Environmental Science Institutes' Ninth Grade Environmental Science Curriculum Guide. This unit contains teacher lesson plans, suggested teacher and student modules, case studies, and activities to be developed by teachers…

  17. Environmental pollutants and breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer death among women 35-54 years of age. Rising incidence, increased risk among migrants to higher risk regions, and poor prediction of individual risk have prompted a search for additional modifiable factors. Risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive characteristics associated with estrogen and other hormones, pharmaceutical hormones, and activities such as alcohol use and lack of exercise that affect hormone levels. As a result, investigation of hormonally active compounds in commercial products and pollution is a priority. Compounds that cause mammary tumors in animals are additional priorities. Animal models provide insight into possible mechanisms for effects of environmental pollutants on breast cancer and identify chemical exposures to target in epidemiologic studies. Although few epidemiologic studies have been conducted for chemical exposures, occupational studies show associations between breast cancer and exposure to certain organic solvents and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Population-based studies have been limited to a few organochlorine compounds and PAHs and have been mostly negative. A variety of challenges in studies of breast cancer and the environment may have contributed to negative findings. Lack of exposure assessment tools and few hypothesis-generating toxicologic studies limit the scope of epidemiologic studies. Issues of timing with respect to latency and periods of breast vulnerability, and individual differences in susceptibility pose other challenges. Substantial work is needed in exposure assessment, toxicology, and susceptibility before we can expect a pay-off from large epidemiologic studies of breast cancer and environment. PMID:12826474

  18. Environmental Pollution, A Selective Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, VA.

    This bibliography on environmental pollution is comprised primarily of reports of federally sponsored research by such departments and agencies as HEW, Interior, AEC, NASA, Defense, Transportation, and others. The reports were selected from Clearinghouse announcement journals during the period 1968 through April 1970. The bibliography contains…

  19. Systems Approach to Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacko, George K., Ed.

    The objective of a two-day Symposium on Systems Approach to Environmental Pollution of the Operations Research Society of America at the 137th Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, December 27-28, 1970 in Chicago, Illinois, was not to raise the litany of a systems approach as the answer to all environmental…

  20. 32 CFR 700.832 - Environmental pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental pollution. 700.832 Section 700.832... Commanding Officers in General § 700.832 Environmental pollution. The commanding officer shall cooperate with... environmental pollution. If the requirements of any environmental law cannot be achieved because of...

  1. 32 CFR 700.832 - Environmental pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental pollution. 700.832 Section 700.832... Commanding Officers in General § 700.832 Environmental pollution. The commanding officer shall cooperate with... environmental pollution. If the requirements of any environmental law cannot be achieved because of...

  2. 32 CFR 700.832 - Environmental pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental pollution. 700.832 Section 700.832... Commanding Officers in General § 700.832 Environmental pollution. The commanding officer shall cooperate with... environmental pollution. If the requirements of any environmental law cannot be achieved because of...

  3. 32 CFR 700.832 - Environmental pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental pollution. 700.832 Section 700.832... Commanding Officers in General § 700.832 Environmental pollution. The commanding officer shall cooperate with... environmental pollution. If the requirements of any environmental law cannot be achieved because of...

  4. 32 CFR 700.832 - Environmental pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental pollution. 700.832 Section 700.832... Commanding Officers in General § 700.832 Environmental pollution. The commanding officer shall cooperate with... environmental pollution. If the requirements of any environmental law cannot be achieved because of...

  5. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

  6. Cough and environmental air pollution in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingling; Qiu, Minzhi; Lai, Kefang; Zhong, Nanshan

    2015-12-01

    With fast-paced urbanization and increased energy consumption in rapidly industrialized modern China, the level of outdoor and indoor air pollution resulting from industrial and motor vehicle emissions has been increasing at an accelerated rate. Thus, there is a significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and decreased pulmonary function. Experimental exposure research and epidemiological studies have indicated that exposure to particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and environmental tobacco smoke have a harmful influence on development of respiratory diseases and are significantly associated with cough and wheeze. This review mainly discusses the effect of air pollutants on respiratory health, particularly with respect to cough, the links between air pollutants and microorganisms, and air pollutant sources. Particular attention is paid to studies in urban areas of China where the levels of ambient and indoor air pollution are significantly higher than World Health Organization recommendations.

  7. Dose response for selected environmental air pollutants: A study on runners: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, F.

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the effects of air pollution on runners during outdoor training runs in downtown Toronto from 1985-88. Subjects were selected from the Longboat Roadrunners Club, a local competitive group which carries out weekly training runs of 10-16 km in downtown Toronto and along the Lakeshore transportation corridor during rush hour. Pulmonary function and an oxygen rebreathing estimate of blood carboxyhaemoglobin level were obtained before and after 75 training runs involving 70 athletes. Subjective reports of symptoms and a personal estimate of exposure to air pollution over the run were noted. Local pollutant concentrations including carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and respirable suspended particulate matter, along with dry bulb temperature and relative humidity, were measured using portable multipollutant samplers.

  8. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume I - Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume I of a two volume set, consists of many tested water pollution study activities. The activities are grouped into four headings: (1) Hydrologic Cycle, (2) Human Activities, (3) Ecological Perspectives, and (4) Social and Political Factors. Three levels of activities are provided: (1) those which increase awareness, (2)…

  9. Environmental Law and the Export of Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, John F.

    1984-01-01

    Environmental problems do not stop at state boundaries; they reach beyond local or national jurisdictions and require international control. Problems concerning air quality, water pollution, and indirect pollution are discussed. Environmental legislation can have a significant impact. (RM)

  10. Spatial patterns of air pollutants and social groups: a distributive environmental justice study in the phoenix metropolitan region of USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Ronald; Wu, Jianguo; Boone, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Quantifying spatial distribution patterns of air pollutants is imperative to understand environmental justice issues. Here we present a landscape-based hierarchical approach in which air pollution variables are regressed against population demographics on multiple spatiotemporal scales. Using this approach, we investigated the potential problem of distributive environmental justice in the Phoenix metropolitan region, focusing on ambient ozone and particulate matter. Pollution surfaces (maps) are evaluated against the demographics of class, age, race (African American, Native American), and ethnicity (Hispanic). A hierarchical multiple regression method is used to detect distributive environmental justice relationships. Our results show that significant relationships exist between the dependent and independent variables, signifying possible environmental inequity. Although changing spatiotemporal scales only altered the overall direction of these relationships in a few instances, it did cause the relationship to become nonsignificant in many cases. Several consistent patterns emerged: people aged 17 and under were significant predictors for ambient ozone and particulate matter, but people 65 and older were only predictors for ambient particulate matter. African Americans were strong predictors for ambient particulate matter, while Native Americans were strong predictors for ambient ozone. Hispanics had a strong negative correlation with ambient ozone, but a less consistent positive relationship with ambient particulate matter. Given the legacy conditions endured by minority racial and ethnic groups, and the relative lack of mobility of all the groups, our findings suggest the existence of environmental inequities in the Phoenix metropolitan region. The methodology developed in this study is generalizable with other pollutants to provide a multi-scaled perspective of environmental justice issues.

  11. Evolutionary genomics of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Chemical toxins have been a persistent source of evolutionary challenges throughout the history of life, and deep within the genomic storehouse of evolutionary history lay ancient adaptations to diverse chemical poisons. However, the rate of change of contemporary environments mediated by human-introduced pollutants is rapidly screening this storehouse and severely testing the adaptive potential of many species. In this chapter, we briefly review the deep history of evolutionary adaptation to environmental toxins, and then proceed to describe the attributes of stressors and populations that may facilitate contemporary adaptation to pollutants introduced by humans. We highlight that phenotypes derived to enable persistence in polluted habitats may be multi-dimensional, requiring global genome-scale tools and approaches to uncover their mechanistic basis, and include examples of recent progress in the field. The modern tools of genomics offer promise for discovering how pollutants interact with genomes on physiological timescales, and also for discovering what genomic attributes of populations may enable resistance to pollutants over evolutionary timescales. Through integration of these sophisticated genomics tools and approaches with an understanding of the deep historical forces that shaped current populations, a more mature understanding of the mechanistic basis of contemporary ecological-evolutionary dynamics should emerge.

  12. Environmental pollution and population policies.

    PubMed

    1980-04-01

    There is a growing recognition in Malaysia of the interrelationship between population growth, population policies, development policies, and environmental pollution. In Malaysia, with a current population of 13,250,000 and an annual growth rate of 2.4%, economic development is leading to large scale deforestation which in turn is altering climatic conditions, reducing water supplies, and increasing erosion. According to estimates 750,000 acres of jungle were cleared in the last 10 years. Industrial wastes and domestic sewage discharged into rivers and lakes is endangering marine life and padilands. This is a serious problem, since 70% of the Malaysian population derives the bulk of their protein intake from marine life. Noise and carbon monoxide pollution in urban areas is increasing due to the 15% annual increase in the number of vehicles in the country. These dangers need to be taken into account as continuing efforts are made to increase industrialization in order to provide jobs for the 350,000 unemployed and underemployed youth in the country. Fortunately, government officials in Malaysia are giving consideration to energy, water and oil conservation in formulating development plans and are becoming increasingly aware that population growth and population policies have a direct impact on development planning and environmental pollution. PMID:12262045

  13. Environmental and pollution science. 2nd. ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Pepper; Charles Gerba; Mark Brusseau,

    2006-07-01

    This book integrates a large number of subjects in environmental studies and provides a realistic and objective evaluation of pollution as a price we pay for a modern economy. It focuses on the scientific assessment of environmental quality by developing a framework of principles that can be applied to any environmental problem. It addresses tactical issues for managers and government workers such as remediation, environmental monitoring, risk assessment, and management. It can be used by professionals as well as undergraduate students. 186 ills. 79 tabs.

  14. Pollution. Environmental Education Instructional Unit. Final Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Science Education.

    This unit on pollution is one in a series of three prepared for use in the classroom. An interdisciplinary approach encompassing mathematics, science, and social studies is utilized in these environmental units. The material is designed for middle grades and above. Many activities are open-ended with each activity in this unit emphasizing the…

  15. Environmental costs of mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Hylander, Lars D; Goodsite, Michael E

    2006-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) has been used for millennia in many applications, primarily in artisanal mining and as an electrode in the chlor-alkali industry. It is anthropogenically emitted as a pollutant from coal fired power plants and naturally emitted, primarily from volcanoes. Its unique chemical characteristics enable global atmospheric transport and it is deposited after various processes, ultimately ending up in one of its final sinks, such as incorporated into deep sediment or bioaccumulated, primarily in the marine environment. All forms of Hg have been established as toxic, and there have been no noted biological benefits from the metal. Throughout time, there have been notable incidents of Hg intoxication documented, and the negative health effects have been documented to those chronically or acutely exposed. Today, exposure to Hg is largely diet or occupationally dependent, however, many are exposed to Hg from their amalgam fillings. This paper puts a tentative monetary value on Hg polluted food sources in the Arctic, where local, significant pollution sources are limited, and relates this to costs for strategies avoiding Hg pollution and to remediation costs of contaminated sites in Sweden and Japan. The case studies are compiled to help policy makers and the public to evaluate whether the benefits to the global environment from banning Hg and limiting its initial emission outweigh the benefits from its continued use or lack of control of Hg emissions. The cases we studied are relevant for point pollution sources globally and their remediation costs ranged between 2,500 and 1.1 million US dollars kg(-1) Hg isolated from the biosphere. Therefore, regulations discontinuing mercury uses combined with extensive flue gas cleaning for all power plants and waste incinerators is cost effective. PMID:16442592

  16. Environmental costs of mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Hylander, Lars D; Goodsite, Michael E

    2006-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) has been used for millennia in many applications, primarily in artisanal mining and as an electrode in the chlor-alkali industry. It is anthropogenically emitted as a pollutant from coal fired power plants and naturally emitted, primarily from volcanoes. Its unique chemical characteristics enable global atmospheric transport and it is deposited after various processes, ultimately ending up in one of its final sinks, such as incorporated into deep sediment or bioaccumulated, primarily in the marine environment. All forms of Hg have been established as toxic, and there have been no noted biological benefits from the metal. Throughout time, there have been notable incidents of Hg intoxication documented, and the negative health effects have been documented to those chronically or acutely exposed. Today, exposure to Hg is largely diet or occupationally dependent, however, many are exposed to Hg from their amalgam fillings. This paper puts a tentative monetary value on Hg polluted food sources in the Arctic, where local, significant pollution sources are limited, and relates this to costs for strategies avoiding Hg pollution and to remediation costs of contaminated sites in Sweden and Japan. The case studies are compiled to help policy makers and the public to evaluate whether the benefits to the global environment from banning Hg and limiting its initial emission outweigh the benefits from its continued use or lack of control of Hg emissions. The cases we studied are relevant for point pollution sources globally and their remediation costs ranged between 2,500 and 1.1 million US dollars kg(-1) Hg isolated from the biosphere. Therefore, regulations discontinuing mercury uses combined with extensive flue gas cleaning for all power plants and waste incinerators is cost effective.

  17. Oxidization of squalene, a human skin lipid: a new and reliable marker of environmental pollution studies.

    PubMed

    Pham, D-M; Boussouira, B; Moyal, D; Nguyen, Q L

    2015-08-01

    A review of the oxidization of squalene, a specific human compound produced by the sebaceous gland, is proposed. Such chemical transformation induces important consequences at various levels. Squalene by-products, mostly under peroxidized forms, lead to comedogenesis, contribute to the development of inflammatory acne and possibly modify the skin relief (wrinkling). Experimental conditions of oxidation and/or photo-oxidation mechanisms are exposed, suggesting that they could possibly be bio-markers of atmospheric pollution upon skin. Ozone, long UVA rays, cigarette smoke… are shown powerful oxidizing agents of squalene. Some in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo testings are proposed as examples, aiming at studying ingredients or products capable of boosting or counteracting such chemical changes that, globally, bring adverse effects to various cutaneous compartments.

  18. Oxidization of squalene, a human skin lipid: a new and reliable marker of environmental pollution studies.

    PubMed

    Pham, D-M; Boussouira, B; Moyal, D; Nguyen, Q L

    2015-08-01

    A review of the oxidization of squalene, a specific human compound produced by the sebaceous gland, is proposed. Such chemical transformation induces important consequences at various levels. Squalene by-products, mostly under peroxidized forms, lead to comedogenesis, contribute to the development of inflammatory acne and possibly modify the skin relief (wrinkling). Experimental conditions of oxidation and/or photo-oxidation mechanisms are exposed, suggesting that they could possibly be bio-markers of atmospheric pollution upon skin. Ozone, long UVA rays, cigarette smoke… are shown powerful oxidizing agents of squalene. Some in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo testings are proposed as examples, aiming at studying ingredients or products capable of boosting or counteracting such chemical changes that, globally, bring adverse effects to various cutaneous compartments. PMID:25656265

  19. Environmental regulation, productive efficiency and cost of pollution abatement: a case study of the sugar industry in India.

    PubMed

    Murty, M N; Kumar, Surender; Paul, Mahua

    2006-04-01

    In this paper the input distance function is estimated for the Indian Sugar industry under alternative assumptions of weak and strong disposability of bad outputs. The estimated distance function is used to make the estimates of environmental efficiency, Malmquist productivity index and shadow prices of pollutants. The technical efficiency measure estimated under the assumption of weak disposability of bad outputs is utilized to test the Porter hypothesis. Marginal costs of pollution abatement functions are estimated for different pollutants of water. Pollutant specific taxes are computed using the tax-standards method.

  20. Applicability of the environmental relative moldiness index for quantification of residential mold contamination in an air pollution health effects study.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Ali; Burke, Janet; Vesper, Stephen; Batterman, Stuart; Vette, Alan; Godwin, Christopher; Chavez-Camarena, Marina; Norris, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) investigated the impact of exposure to traffic-related air pollution on the respiratory health of asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan. Since indoor mold exposure may also contribute to asthma, floor dust samples were collected in participants homes (n = 112) to assess mold contamination using the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). The repeatability of the ERMI over time, as well as ERMI differences between rooms and dust collection methods, was evaluated for insights into the application of the ERMI metric. ERMI values for the standard settled floor dust samples had a mean ± standard deviation of 14.5 ± 7.9, indicating high levels of mold contamination. ERMI values for samples collected from the same home 1 to 7 months apart (n = 52) were consistent and without systematic bias. ERMI values for separate bedroom and living room samples were highly correlated (r = 0.69, n = 66). Vacuum bag dust ERMI values were lower than for floor dust but correlated (r = 0.58, n = 28). These results support the use of the ERMI to evaluate residential mold exposure as a confounder in air pollution health effects studies.

  1. Applicability of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index for Quantification of Residential Mold Contamination in an Air Pollution Health Effects Study

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Ali; Vesper, Stephen; Batterman, Stuart; Godwin, Christopher; Chavez-Camarena, Marina; Norris, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) investigated the impact of exposure to traffic-related air pollution on the respiratory health of asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan. Since indoor mold exposure may also contribute to asthma, floor dust samples were collected in participants homes (n = 112) to assess mold contamination using the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). The repeatability of the ERMI over time, as well as ERMI differences between rooms and dust collection methods, was evaluated for insights into the application of the ERMI metric. ERMI values for the standard settled floor dust samples had a mean ± standard deviation of 14.5 ± 7.9, indicating high levels of mold contamination. ERMI values for samples collected from the same home 1 to 7 months apart (n = 52) were consistent and without systematic bias. ERMI values for separate bedroom and living room samples were highly correlated (r = 0.69, n = 66). Vacuum bag dust ERMI values were lower than for floor dust but correlated (r = 0.58, n = 28). These results support the use of the ERMI to evaluate residential mold exposure as a confounder in air pollution health effects studies. PMID:25431602

  2. Environmental pollution and acne: Chloracne

    PubMed Central

    Zouboulis, Christos C; Xia, Longqing

    2009-01-01

    Environmental pollutants can result in a variant of acne called ‘chloracne’. Chloracne is caused by systemic exposure to certain halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons ‘chloracnegens’, and is considered to be one of the most sensitive indicators of systemic poisoning by these compounds. Dioxin is the most potent environmental chloracnegen. Most cases of chloracne have resulted from occupational and non-occupational exposures, non-occupational chloracne mainly resulted from contaminated industrial wastes and contaminated food products. Non-inflammatory comedones and straw-colored cysts are the primary clinical manifestation of chloracne. Increasing of cysts in number is a signal of aggravation of chloracne. Generalized lesions can appear on the face, neck, trunk, exterimities, genitalia, axillary and other areas. Course of chloracne is chronic. Severity of chloracne is related to dosage of exposed chloracnegens, chloracnegenic potency and individual susceptibility. Histopathology of chloracne is characterized mainly by hyperplasia of epidermal cell, while follicular and sebaceous gland are taken placed by keratinized epidermal cell. The pathogenesis of chloracne maybe related to the imbalance of epidermal stem cell. Chloracne appears to be resistant to all tested forms of treatment. The only way to control chloracne is to prevent exposure to chloracnegens. PMID:20436879

  3. Public perception of odour and environmental pollution attributed to MSW treatment and disposal facilities: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino; Williams, Ian D.

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Effects of closing MSW facilities on perception of odour and pollution studied. ► Residents’ perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished post closure. ► Odour perception showed an association with distance from MSW facilities. ► Media coverage increased knowledge about MSW facilities and how they operate. ► Economic compensation possibly affected residents’ views and concerns. - Abstract: If residents’ perceptions, concerns and attitudes towards waste management facilities are either not well understood or underestimated, people can produce strong opposition that may include protest demonstrations and violent conflicts such as those experienced in the Campania Region of Italy. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the closure of solid waste treatment and disposal facilities (two landfills and one RDF production plant) on public perception of odour and environmental pollution. The study took place in four villages in Southern Italy. Identical questionnaires were administered to residents during 2003 and after the closure of the facilities occurred in 2008. The residents’ perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished between 2003 and 2009 for the nearest villages, with odour perception showing an association with distance from the facilities. Post closure, residents had difficulty in identifying the type of smell due to the decrease in odour level. During both surveys, older residents reported most concern about the potentially adverse health impacts of long-term exposure to odours from MSW facilities. However, although awareness of MSW facilities and concern about potentially adverse health impacts varied according to the characteristics of residents in 2003, substantial media coverage produced an equalisation effect and increased knowledge about the type of facilities and how they operated. It is possible that residents of the village nearest to the facilities reported lower awareness of and concern about

  4. Statistical methods for environmental pollution monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, R.O.

    1987-01-01

    The application of statistics to environmental pollution monitoring studies requires a knowledge of statistical analysis methods particularly well suited to pollution data. This book fills that need by providing sampling plans, statistical tests, parameter estimation procedure techniques, and references to pertinent publications. Most of the statistical techniques are relatively simple, and examples, exercises, and case studies are provided to illustrate procedures. The book is logically divided into three parts. Chapters 1, 2, and 3 are introductory chapters. Chapters 4 through 10 discuss field sampling designs and Chapters 11 through 18 deal with a broad range of statistical analysis procedures. Some statistical techniques given here are not commonly seen in statistics book. For example, see methods for handling correlated data (Sections 4.5 and 11.12), for detecting hot spots (Chapter 10), and for estimating a confidence interval for the mean of a lognormal distribution (Section 13.2). Also, Appendix B lists a computer code that estimates and tests for trends over time at one or more monitoring stations using nonparametric methods (Chapters 16 and 17). Unfortunately, some important topics could not be included because of their complexity and the need to limit the length of the book. For example, only brief mention could be made of time series analysis using Box-Jenkins methods and of kriging techniques for estimating spatial and spatial-time patterns of pollution, although multiple references on these topics are provided. Also, no discussion of methods for assessing risks from environmental pollution could be included.

  5. Public perception of odour and environmental pollution attributed to MSW treatment and disposal facilities: a case study.

    PubMed

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino; Williams, Ian D

    2013-04-01

    If residents' perceptions, concerns and attitudes towards waste management facilities are either not well understood or underestimated, people can produce strong opposition that may include protest demonstrations and violent conflicts such as those experienced in the Campania Region of Italy. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the closure of solid waste treatment and disposal facilities (two landfills and one RDF production plant) on public perception of odour and environmental pollution. The study took place in four villages in Southern Italy. Identical questionnaires were administered to residents during 2003 and after the closure of the facilities occurred in 2008. The residents' perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished between 2003 and 2009 for the nearest villages, with odour perception showing an association with distance from the facilities. Post closure, residents had difficulty in identifying the type of smell due to the decrease in odour level. During both surveys, older residents reported most concern about the potentially adverse health impacts of long-term exposure to odours from MSW facilities. However, although awareness of MSW facilities and concern about potentially adverse health impacts varied according to the characteristics of residents in 2003, substantial media coverage produced an equalisation effect and increased knowledge about the type of facilities and how they operated. It is possible that residents of the village nearest to the facilities reported lower awareness of and concern about odour and environmental pollution because the municipality received economic compensation for their presence. PMID:23321503

  6. Study of environmental pollution and mineralogical characterization of sediment rivers from Brazilian coal mining acid drainage.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luis F O; Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Martinez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; Castro, Kepa; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Sampaio, Carlos H; de Brum, Irineu A S; de Leão, Felipe B; Taffarel, Silvio R; Madariaga, Juan M

    2013-03-01

    Acid drainage from coal mines and metal mining is a major source of underground and surface water contamination in the world. The coal mining acid drainage (CMAD) from mine contains large amount of solids in suspension and a high content of sulphate and dissolved metals (Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, etc.) that finally are deposited in the rivers. Since this problem can persist for centuries after mine abandonment, it is necessary to apply multidisciplinary methods to determine the potential risk in a determinate area. These multidisciplinary methods must include molecular and elemental analysis and finally all information must be studied statistically. This methodology was used in the case of coal mining acid drainage from the Tubarao River (Santa Catarina, Brazil). During molecular analysis, Raman Spectroscopy, electron bean, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been proven very useful for the study of minerals present in sediment rivers near this CMAD. The obtained spectra allow the precise identification of the minerals as jarosite, quartz, clays, etc. The elemental analysis (Al, As, Fe, K, Na, Ba, Mg, Mn, Ti, V, Zn, Ag, Co, Li, Mo, Ni, Se, Sn, W, B, Cr, Cu, Pb and Sr) was realised by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis) of these dates of concentration reveals the existence of different groups of samples with specific pollution profiles in different areas of the Tubarao River.

  7. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    The unclassified, annotated bibliography is Volume I of a two-volume set on Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom in a series of scheduled bibliographies on Environmental Pollution. Volume II is Confidential. Corporate author-monitoring agency, subject, title, contract, and report number indexes are included. (Author/JR)

  8. [Methodological approaches to the experimental study of the impact of environmental pollution on the human body].

    PubMed

    Sosedova, L M

    2014-01-01

    In the materials there are presented features of methodological approaches in the performing of experimental studies concerning of the investigation of the impacts of environmental factors on the human body. There were shown the results of our experiments performed at the Institute, in the modeling of biological effects of antimicrobial nanobiocomposites with nanosilver particles, toxic encephalopathy, in the study of the combined effect of the factors of biological and chemical nature. There was proved the importance of intracellular of proteomics in the assessment of the effects of the action of nanoparticles and nanomaterials on the body. There were revealed key parts of progredient course of mercury poisoning in the long-term. The special section is presented by the study of long-term effects of anthropogenic environmental factors on subsequent generations. There are presented results witnessing to a deterioration of the functional state of the central nervous system in rats in the first and second generations, whose parents were exposed to neurotoxicants. There was proved the aggravating role of prenatal hypoxia in the development of toxicity in rats in sexually mature age. Experimental biomodeling is aimed at sighting of pathogenetically substantiated treatment and preventive measures: initially, in experimental conditions, and in the future in the rehabilitation of sick or injured patients.

  9. Charting environmental pollution. [by noise measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, E.; Bizo, F.; Karacsonyi, Z.

    1974-01-01

    It is found that areas affected by different noxious agents are within the limits traced for high noise level areas; consequently, it is suggested that high noise pressure levels should be used as the primary indication of environmental pollution. A complex methodology is reported for charting environmental pollution due to physical, chemical and biological noxious agents on the scale of an industrial district.

  10. Notes on an Environmental Pollution Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Science Information Exchange.

    This vocabulary covering the field of environmental pollution was compiled by the staff of the Science Information Exchange, Smithsonian Institution. The view of the approach is to include an outline-classification all physical, life, and social science aspects of environmental pollution, trying to achieve a balance in the representation of each…

  11. Effect of environmental pollutants on human semen

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, S.

    1988-01-01

    With the increased release of numerous chemical substances into the biosphere, careful assessment of health effects of polluted environment must be made for maintaining and enhancing the quality of human life on this earth. Significant number of malformed children are born each year. Sixty-five to 70% of all birth defects have an unknown etiology. More than one-third of early human conception and up to 15% of recognized pregnancies are terminated by spontaneous abortion. The extent of the effect of environmental pollution on human reproductive performance is for the most part unknown. Of the approximately five million chemicals in existence, humans could be expose to a sufficient quantity of an estimated 53,000 for toxicity to be of potential problem. Methods that do not require autopsy or surgery such as semen analysis would be attractive for assessing the effect of environmental toxicology on quality of human life. Therefore, the present study was conducted to observe the effects of heavily polluted environment of industrial area of Ludhiana and relatively clean, pollution free environment of Chandigarh on the human semen quality. It was believed that the function of the male reproductive system may often be the most sensitive to toxic effects.

  12. Bioresources for control of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Sana, Barindra

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the biggest threats to human beings. For practical reasons it is not possible to stop most of the activities responsible for environmental pollution; rather we need to eliminate the pollutants. In addition to other existing means, biological processes can be utilized to get rid of toxic pollutants. Degradation, removal, or deactivation of pollutants by biological means is known as bioremediation. Nature itself has several weapons to deal with natural wastage and some of them are equally active for eliminating nonnatural pollutants. Several plants, microorganisms, and some lower eukaryotes utilize environmental pollutants as nutrients and some of them are very efficient for decontaminating specific types of pollutants. If exploited properly, these natural resources have enough potential to deal with most elements of environmental pollution. In addition, several artificial microbial consortia and genetically modified organisms with high bioremediation potential were developed by application of advanced scientific tools. On the other hand, natural equilibria of ecosystems are being affected by human intervention. Rapid population growth, urbanization, and industrialization are destroying ecological balances and the natural remediation ability of the Earth is being compromised. Several potential bioremediation tools are also being destroyed by biodiversity destruction of unexplored ecosystems. Pollution management by bioremediation is highly dependent on abundance, exploration, and exploitation of bioresources, and biodiversity is the key to success. Better pollution management needs the combined actions of biodiversity conservation, systematic exploration of natural resources, and their exploitation with sophisticated modern technologies.

  13. Simulation and evaluation of pollution load reduction scenarios for water environmental management: a case study of inflow river of Taihu Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Zhu, Wenting; Gao, Hailong; Hu, Wei; Wang, Jinhua

    2014-09-01

    In the beginning of the 21st century, the deterioration of water quality in Taihu Lake, China, has caused widespread concern. The primary source of pollution in Taihu Lake is river inflows. Effective pollution load reduction scenarios need to be implemented in these rivers in order to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake. It is important to select appropriate pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving particular goals. The aim of this study was to facilitate the selection of appropriate scenarios. The QUAL2K model for river water quality was used to simulate the effects of a range of pollution load reduction scenarios in the Wujin River, which is one of the major inflow rivers of Taihu Lake. The model was calibrated for the year 2010 and validated for the year 2011. Various pollution load reduction scenarios were assessed using an analytic hierarchy process, and increasing rates of evaluation indicators were predicted using the Delphi method. The results showed that control of pollution from the source is the optimal method for pollution prevention and control, and the method of "Treatment after Pollution" has bad environmental, social and ecological effects. The method applied in this study can assist for environmental managers to select suitable pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving various objectives.

  14. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  15. Bodies, Pollution, and Environmental Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sze, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The field of American Studies explores the cultures and practices of individuals and communities in the United States, as well as their transnational exchanges and impacts. It is an interdisciplinary field that is based on making "connections." Environmental justice, as a social movement, also makes important connections. It integrates social and…

  16. Simulation and Evaluation of Pollution Load Reduction Scenarios for Water Environmental Management: A Case Study of Inflow River of Taihu Lake, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Zhu, Wenting; Gao, Hailong; Hu, Wei; Wang, Jinhua

    2014-01-01

    In the beginning of the 21st century, the deterioration of water quality in Taihu Lake, China, has caused widespread concern. The primary source of pollution in Taihu Lake is river inflows. Effective pollution load reduction scenarios need to be implemented in these rivers in order to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake. It is important to select appropriate pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving particular goals. The aim of this study was to facilitate the selection of appropriate scenarios. The QUAL2K model for river water quality was used to simulate the effects of a range of pollution load reduction scenarios in the Wujin River, which is one of the major inflow rivers of Taihu Lake. The model was calibrated for the year 2010 and validated for the year 2011. Various pollution load reduction scenarios were assessed using an analytic hierarchy process, and increasing rates of evaluation indicators were predicted using the Delphi method. The results showed that control of pollution from the source is the optimal method for pollution prevention and control, and the method of “Treatment after Pollution” has bad environmental, social and ecological effects. The method applied in this study can assist for environmental managers to select suitable pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving various objectives. PMID:25207492

  17. Effects of Inevitable Environmental Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Carollee; Krakow, Joanne

    This paper examines the effects of unavoidable pollutants on fetal development in humans. Inevitable pollutants such as radiation, pesticides, gases and lead found in the air, water, and food of our industrialized society are discussed as well as psychological correlates of industrialization and urbanization such as stress, increased noise levels…

  18. Anthropogenic vs. natural pollution: An environmental study of an industrial site under remediation (Naples, Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarzia, M.; de Vivo, B.; Somma, R.; Ayuso, R.A.; McGill, R.A.R.; Parrish, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations and Pb isotopic composition were determined in the soils, slags, scums and landfill materials from a shut down industrial (brownfield) site. This was the second largest integrated steelworks in Italy, and is now under remediation by a Government project. It is located in the outskirts of Napoli on the Bagnoli-Fuorigrotta plain (BFP), which is part of the Campi Flegrei (CF) volcanic caldera, where many spas and geothermal springs occur. The purpose of this work is to distinguish the natural (geogenic) component, originated by hydrothermal activity, from anthropogenic contamination owing to industrial activity. 'In-situ sediments' (soils), slags, scums and landfill materials from 20 drill-cores were selected from a network of 197 drills carried out on a 100 ?? 100 m grid, covering the entire brownfield site. In general, heavy metal enrichments in the upper 3 m of the cores strongly suggest mixing between natural (geogenic) and anthropogenic components. Pb isotopic data are suggestive of three potential end members, and confirm the existence of a strong natural component in addition to contamination from anthropogenic activities. The slags, scums and landfill materials have been proved, through mineralogy and leachate experiments, to be geochemically stable; this shows that metal pollutants are not bio-available and, hence, do not pose a risk to future developments on this site. The natural contribution of hydrothermal fluids to soil pollution, in addition to the non-bio-availability of metal pollutants from industrial materials, indicate that heavy metal remediation of soils in this area would be of little use. Continuous discharge from mineralized hydrothermal solutions would cancel out any remediation effort.

  19. Vitamin A homeostasis endangered by environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Zile, M.H. )

    1992-11-01

    Normal vitamin A function depends on adequate stores of the vitamin, a finely regulated supply of the vitamin to target tissues, and an ability of cells to generate functionally active forms of the vitamin. Both endogenous and exogenous factors can adversely affect vitamin A homeostasis. Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous environmental pollutants and cause severe disturbances in vitamin A metabolism, manifested by an accelerated metabolism and breakdown of vitamin A and its metabolites and a depletion of vitamin A from the body; this sequence of events accounts for the vitamin A deficiency-like symptoms associated with PHAH intoxication. The mechanism(s) responsible for these events most likely includes altered activities of enzymes that are either directly or indirectly involved in critical vitamin A metabolic pathways. Human populations that continue to be exposed to environmental pollutants, may accumulate critical levels of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and will be at risk for inadequate vitamin A function as well as for other health impairments that have been difficult to link to any specific causes. Therefore, it is important to seriously evaluate the similarities in physiological disturbances across species that have become apparent in studies with wildlife inhabiting polluted environments similar to ours; the relevance to human health is evident.197 references.

  20. On the use of non-Gaussian models for prediction of extreme pollution levels in environmental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, D. B.; Medvedev, A. N.; Sergeev, A. P.; Taubayev, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work is to study the distribution of contamination at the territory on the data of snow samples analysis, in order to find an approach to forecasting of the extreme pollution levels. The hypothesis of normal distribution of the values of pollution index (the intensity of dust fallout on the territory, mg /m2/day) is not confirmed on the results of statistical analysis of the data for six different experimental sites (from 81 to 256 values of the index for each site). For the set of 243 values of the pollution index at the territory of a city, there is made an attempt of forecast of its possible extreme values not detected on the results of the snow sampling. For this, the linear dependence "pollution index - the number of points with the given pollution index" built in double logarithmic coordinates, is extrapolated into the area of high values of the pollution index.

  1. Application of environmental accounting to pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Del Mar, R.A.

    1997-08-19

    Environmental accounting represents a major paradigm shift in the way most companies account for costs and benefits. However, it is a change that must be made if pollution prevention is to become institutionalized into the corporate and government mainstream. Pollution prevention investments must be justified on an economic basis; without environmental accounting tools, pollution prevention investments cannot show their true profitability. This is because traditional accounting methods only track billable costs, thus ignoring some of the major benefits of pollution prevention investments, which are indirect savings resulting from a lessening of a company`s regulatory compliance burden and present and future liabilities. This paper discusses how to apply environmental accounting principles to pollution prevention assessments to improve the outcome of profitability analyses.

  2. APPLICATIONS OF CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS TO THE STUDY OF CHIRAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS: ENANTIOMER SEPARATION AND MEASUREMENTS OF ENANTIOSELECTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    CE is rarely used for routine environmental analysis of organic pollutants -- certainly not to the extent of gas chromatography or high pressure liquid chromatography. There are advantages to CE, however, that belie this lack of application. For example, CE is preferred over GC f...

  3. Energy Slaves and Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Sam S.

    1974-01-01

    Modern man pays a price, pollution, with the dependency shift from humans as converters of energy for work to machines as converters of energy. Emphasis is placed on electromechanical appliances and their respective power ratings. (EB)

  4. Applicability of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index for Quantification of Residential Mold Contamination in an Air Pollution Health Effects Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) investigating the respiratory health impacts of traffic-related air pollutants on asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan, residential dust samples were collected to quantify mold exposure. Sett...

  5. Concern about Environmental Pollution: How Much Difference Do Race and Ethnicity Make? A New Jersey Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    A survey conducted among 1,513 residents of New Jersey during March–May 2004 showed that non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and English-speaking Hispanic Americans were significantly more concerned about environmental pollution problems than were Asian Americans and Spanish-language Hispanic Americans. For example, an average of > 40% of the first three groups was very concerned about New Jersey’s environmental problems, compared with 15% of the last two populations. There were also racial/ethnic differences among these groups in their desire for government action to protect the environment and in their personal support of the environmental movement. Regression analyses suggest that the 1970s and 1980s model of core support for environmental protection from white, female, young, educated, and politically liberal people has largely, but not completely, continued among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and English-language Hispanic populations. But these demographic pointers do not hold for Asian and Spanish-language Hispanic Americans, except indicating more support among the more formally educated. The last two groups are the two fastest-growing subpopulations in the United States, and although acculturation may slowly increase their concern about environmental pollution, it is more prudent for proponents of environmental protection not to wait and instead to try to better understand the environmental perceptions of these groups. PMID:15811824

  6. Air Pollution and Environmental Justice Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier-Brown, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution is not equally dispersed in all neighborhoods and this raises many social concerns, such as environmental justice. "Real world" data, whether extracted from online databases or collected in the field, can be used to demonstrate air quality patterns. When students explore these trends, they not only learn about atmospheric chemistry, but they also become socially aware of any inequities. This presentation outlines specific ways to link air pollution and environmental justice suitable for an undergraduate upper division Air Pollution or Atmospheric Chemistry course.

  7. Background environmental pollution of the Eurasian continent.

    PubMed

    Rovinsky, F Y; Afanasjev, M I; Burtseva, L V; Yegorov, V I

    1982-12-01

    (1) The interest to studying pollution of environmental media on the background level has grown in the recent years. There arose a necessity to establish a specialized observational system for conducting observations of changes in the state of the environment, and of ecological consequences of pollution as well as to produce assessments of the current and predicted states. The realized program of background monitoring and first results of integrated background measurements have already been published. The paper presented illustrates time-and-space features of the background pollution of natural environmental media according to data from various background stations. (2) Long-term systematic measurements at the 'Borovoe' station (Kazakh SSR) commenced in 1976 have been supplemented with the results of the background pollution studies carried out in Berezinskyi, Caucasian, Central-Chernozem, Sary-Chelek, and Repetek Biosphere Reserves and in locations of the background stations in Hungary and Czechoslovakia. The data from the Hungarian and Czechoslovak stations were obtained during joint expeditions. Details are given in the relevant publications. (3) Ozone. Ozone measurements show the diurnal variation with the day-time maxima from 35 up to 160 μg m(-3). The correlation between day-time and nocturnal concentrations is a good indicator of the anthropogenic effect. (4) Sulphur dioxide and sulphates. The annual variation of sulphur dioxide characterised by winter maximum and summer minimum indicates the direct dependence on the amount of fuel burnt in the given region. Mean values of the sulphur dioxide content in the surface layer of the atmosphere correlates with the extent of the region urbanization and varies within 0.2-12.5 μg m(-3). The value of sulphur dioxide and sulphates correlation in the atmosphere is rather stable and varies within 0.18-0.37 μg m(-3). (5) Heavy metals. The annual cycle of the atmospheric content of lead, cadmium and arsenic is well

  8. [Environmental study on toxicity of water resulting from pesticide and biocide pollution].

    PubMed

    Broussard, G; Bramanti, O; Marchese, F M

    2003-01-01

    A chemical product has a level of danger or security which depends on the concentration and on the exposure time. The toxicity of the water is established by the answer (survival) of an animal organism in contact with a specific chemical product in short time. There are several reliable methods in the world; in any case the most significant aspect is given by the mortal concentration of the substance (mg/L) in connection with the organism dimensions. Among the methods we can point out:--% of mortality;--N.O.E.L. (No Observed Effect Level);--LC50. We must know the following data too:--responsable for the product;--registration of the pesticide/biocide;--risk valuation;--T.E.R. (Toxicity Exposure Ratio);--P.E.C. (Predicted Environmental Concentration); measures of detoxication;--ratio product toxicity/usage. The chronic effects concern the health the growth, the survival and the reproduction. These data are used for the management of the risk, the preparation of chemical substance in security, the treatment of accidental poisoning, the determination of TLV and safety level (LD50-LC50) of the substances (pesticide, biocide).

  9. Environmental impact studies of Chrome rollers used by cotton roller ginning industries and design and development of pollution free chromeless RCF rollers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurdeep; Iyer, G Vijayan

    2004-01-01

    This study focuses on environmental chromium contamination and pollution caused by the use of Chrome Composite Leather-Clad (CCLC) rollers commonly used in cotton roller ginning industries and attempts to eliminate this problem by providing eco-friendly chrome-less rollers.

  10. Environmental pollution and DNA methylation: carcinogenesis, clinical significance, and practical applications.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi

    2015-09-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the main causes of human cancer. Exposures to environmental carcinogens result in genetic and epigenetic alterations which induce cell transformation. Epigenetic changes caused by environmental pollution play important roles in the development and progression of environmental pollution-related cancers. Studies on DNA methylation are among the earliest and most conducted epigenetic research linked to cancer. In this review, the roles of DNA methylation in carcinogenesis and their significance in clinical medicine were summarized, and the effects of environmental pollutants, particularly air pollutants, on DNA methylation were introduced. Furthermore, prospective applications of DNA methylation to environmental pollution detection and cancer prevention were discussed.

  11. Environmental pollution, chromosomes, and health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In mid-May, 1980, President Carter declared a state of emergency at the Love Canal area, near Niagara Falls, New York. The reason for this was for the U.S. to underwrite the relocation costs ($3-5 million) of some 2500 residents who, according to a report by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) may have suffered damaged chromosomes. These injuries were apparently caused by contact with toxic wastes that had been dumped in the area in the years prior to development for housing.That the toxic compounds exist in the Love Canal and Niagara Falls subsurface zones, including public water supplies, appears to be established fact. That the residents of the Love Canal area suffered chromosomal damage may be established fact as well. Whether or not these two findings can be linked to ill health of the residents is another matter. Recently, the EPA report has been described as having ‘close to zero scientific significance,’ and has been ‘discredited’(Science, 208, 123a, 1980). The reasons for this disparity go beyond differences of opinion, beyond possible inadequacies of the EPA study, and even beyond problems that probably will arise from future studies, including those now in the planning stages. The problem is that even if victims have easily recognizable injuries from toxic substances (injury that apparently has not occurred to Love Canal residents), medical science usually cannot show a causal relationship. Even chromosomal damage is, at best, difficult to interpret. In ideal studies of significant populations and control groups, the association of toxic chemical to chromosome damage and to cancer and birth defects is indirect and, up to now, has been shown to have little or no significance to an individual member of the exposed population.

  12. Manpower for Environmental Pollution Control: A Report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency from the Committee for Study of Environmental Manpower. Analytical Studies for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Volume V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Human Resources.

    The Committee for Study of Environmental Manpower (CSEM), responsible for this report, was appointed by the Commission on Human Resources to review the literature in the field of environmental manpower and to make recommendations. The Committee involved experts from government, industry, environmental organizations, and the general public. In this…

  13. Health Effects of Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This booklet notes that for a long time the American people were willing to pay any price for progress. Now may refuse to accept an environment that menaces their health and lowers their enjoyment of life. They are embracing a new environmental consciousness, a broader vision of reality, a more profound sense of their place in nature. Among the…

  14. Environmental pollution and allergy: historical aspects.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Heidrun; Alessandrini, Francesca; Buters, Jeroen; Krämer, Ursula; Koren, Hillel; Ring, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    It may be a coincidence, but it is a fact that the first clear characterization of hay fever began in England where modern industrialization started in Europe. Only at the end of the 20th century were associations of the increasing prevalence of allergy with outdoor air pollution discussed. The seminal study came from Japan from the group of T. Miyamoto linking the increase in Japanese cedar pollinosis to an increased prevalence of Diesel cars and probably exposure to Diesel exhaust in epidemiological, animal experimental and in vitro studies. In Germany first epidemiological studies were done in North Rhine-Westphalia and Bavaria in 1987 and 1988 showing a striking prevalence of allergic disease of up to 10-20% in preschool children. After German reunification the most surprising observation was a lower prevalence of hay fever in East German children compared to the West, although there was a much higher air pollution with SO2 and large particulate matter. Modern smog as found over West German cities most likely originating from traffic exhaust and consisting of fine and ultrafine particles was shown to be associated with higher incidence rates of allergy and allergic sensitization. In the 10 years after reunification there was a steep increase of allergy prevalence in East German children reaching almost the same level as in West Germany. Obviously, a multitude of lifestyle factors - beyond air pollution - may be involved in the explanation of this phenomenon. Surprisingly the skin manifestation of atopy, namely atopic eczema, was more frequent in East German children compared to the West, thus differing from airway allergy. Meanwhile in vitro studies and animal experiments have shown that a variety of air pollutants mostly from environmental tobacco smoke (indoors) and from traffic exhaust (outdoors) can stimulate immune cells inducing a Th2-dominated response besides their irritative effects. While 50 years ago in allergy textbooks a clear distinction was made

  15. Association of air pollution on birth outcomes in New Delhi – a pilot study on the potential of HMIS data for environmental public health tracking

    PubMed Central

    Magsumbol, Melina S.; Singh, Archna; Ghosh, Arpita; Kler, Neelam; Garg, Pankaj; Thakur, Anup; Beg, Arshad; Srivastava, Atul; Hajat, Shakoor

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The study objective was to assess the gaps in current hospital health management information systems (ie. paper based records of prenatal, delivery, neonatal, discharge data) for environmental studies. This study also considers the feasibility of linking patient-level hospital data with ambient air pollution data recorded in real time by air quality monitoring stations. Methods This retrospective hospital based cohort study used a semi-ecologic design to explore the association of air pollution with a neonate’s birth weight and gestational age. Maternal and neonatal data from 2007-2012 were encoded and linked with air pollution data based on distance to the nearest air quality monitoring station. Completeness and accuracy of neonatal anthropometric measures, maternal demographic information, nutritional status and maternal risk factors (gestational diabetes, anaemia, hypertension, etc.) were assessed. Results The records of 10,565 births in Sir Ganga Ram hospital in New Delhi were encoded and linked with real time air quality data. These were records of women who reported a New Delhi address during the time of delivery. The distance of each address to all the monitoring stations were recorded. Birth records were assigned pollution exposure levels averaged across records from monitoring stations within 10 kilometers of the address during the pregnancy period. Conclusion This pilot study will highlight the potential of hospital management information system in linking administrative hospital record data with information on environmental exposure. The linked health-exposure dataset can then be used for studying the impact of various environmental exposures on health outcomes. Mother’s educational attainment, occupation, residential history, nutritional status, tobacco and alcohol use during pregnancy need to be documented for better health risk assessments or case management. Health institutions can provide data for public health researchers and

  16. An integrated environmental decision support system for water pollution control based on TMDL--A case study in the Beiyun River watershed.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanghong; Li, Yueqiang; Zhang, Tianxiang; Peng, Yang

    2015-06-01

    This paper details the development and application of an integrated environmental decision support system (EDSS) for water pollution control based on total maximum daily load (TMDL). The system includes an infrastructure, simulation, and application platforms. Using the water pollution control of Beiyun River in China as a case study, the key development processes and technologies of the EDSS are discussed including relations and links between various environmental simulation models, and model integration, visualization and real-time simulation methods. A loose coupling method is used to connect the environmental models, and an XML file is used to complete data exchange between different models. Project configuration and scheme configuration are used for simulation data organization. The integration approach is easy to implement and enables different development languages and reuse of existing models. The EDSS has been applied to water environment management of Beiyun River, and can be applied to other geographic regions.

  17. The distribution of pollution and environmental justice in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because few empirical studies on environmental justice and pollution distribution exit, we examine both issues in Puerto Rico. This research is part of a larger US EPA project related to sustainability issues. We use an environmental Gini coefficient with Toxic Release Inventory ...

  18. Immune Response in Mussels To Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Stephen C.; Facher, Evan

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of mussels in measuring the extent of chemical contamination and its variation in different coastal regions. Presents an experiment to introduce students to immune response and the effects of environmental pollution on marine organisms. Contains 14 references. (JRH)

  19. Education against Environmental Pollution in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduaran, Akpovire B.

    1989-01-01

    A community education campaign is beginning to heighten public awareness of the pollution of air, water, and land resources in Nigeria. Research-based information has led to the development of printed educational materials, radio and television messages, and the establishment of a national Environmental Protection Agency. (SK)

  20. SEPARATION OF ENANTIOMERS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chiral environmental pollutants exist as sets of 2 (or more) enantiorners - mirror image isomers that are identical in all physical and chemical properties except when reacting with other chiral entities such as enzymes and other chiral molecules. This exception give rise to diff...

  1. Indoor Pollutants: Environmental Hazards to Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noyes, Dorothy

    1987-01-01

    Alerts parents, teachers, and others to some of the leading indoor environmental hazards to young children which are caused by various types of indoor pollutants: cigarette smoke; heating/cooking equipment; asbestos; pesticides; art supplies; radon; and lead. Also suggests ways to reduce these health hazards. (BB)

  2. A comparison between self-reported and GIS-based proxies of residential exposure to environmental pollution in a case-control study on lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cordioli, M; Ranzi, A; Freni Sterrantino, A; Erspamer, L; Razzini, G; Ferrari, U; Gatti, M G; Bonora, K; Artioli, F; Goldoni, C A; Lauriola, P

    2014-06-01

    In epidemiological studies both questionnaire results and GIS modeling have been used to assess exposure to environmental risk factors. Nevertheless, few studies have used both these techniques to evaluate the degree of agreement between different exposure assessment methodologies. As part of a case-control study on lung cancer, we present a comparison between self-reported and GIS-derived proxies of residential exposure to environmental pollution. 649 subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire and give information about residential history and perceived exposure. Using GIS, for each residence we evaluated land use patterns, proximity to major roads and exposure to industrial pollution. We then compared the GIS exposure-index values among groups created on the basis of questionnaire responses. Our results showed a relatively high agreement between the two methods. Although none of these methods is the "exposure gold standard", understanding similarities, weaknesses and strengths of each method is essential to strengthen epidemiological evidence.

  3. Lessons from the removal of lead from gasoline for controlling other environmental pollutants: A case study from New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Nick; Horrocks, John

    2008-01-01

    Background It took over two decades to achieve the removal of leaded gasoline in this country. This was despite international evidence and original research conducted in New Zealand on the harm to child cognitive function and behaviour from lead exposure. Objective To identify lessons from the New Zealand experience of removing leaded gasoline that are potentially relevant to the control of other environmental pollutants. Discussion From the available documentation, we suggest a number of reasons for the slow policy response to the leaded gasoline hazard. These include: (1) industry power in the form of successful lobbying by the lead additive supplier, Associated Octel; (2) the absence of the precautionary principle as part of risk management policy; and (3) weak policymaking machinery that included: (a) the poor use of health research evidence (from both NZ and internationally), as well as limited use of expertise in academic and non-governmental organisations; (b) lack of personnel competent in addressing technically complex issues; and (c) diffusion of responsibility among government agencies. Conclusion There is a need for a stronger precautionary approach by policymakers when considering environmental pollutants. Politicians, officials and health workers need to strengthen policymaking processes and effectively counter the industry tactics used to delay regulatory responses. PMID:18179712

  4. Estimating the benefits of land imagery in environmental applications: a case study in nonpoint source pollution of groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernknopf, Richard L.; Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Mishra, Shruti K.; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Maccauley, Molly K.

    2012-01-01

    Moderate-resolution land imagery (MRLI) is crucial to a more complete assessment of the cumulative, landscape-level effect of agricultural land use and land cover on environmental quality. If this improved assessment yields a net social benefit, then that benefit reflects the value of information (VOI) from MRLI. Environmental quality and the capacity to provide ecosystem services evolve because of human actions, changing natural conditions, and their interaction with natural physical processes. The human actions, in turn, are constrained and redirected by many institutions and regulations such as agricultural, energy, and environmental policies. We present a general framework for bringing together sociologic, biologic, physical, hydrologic, and geologic processes at meaningful scales to interpret environmental implications of MRLI applications. We set out a specific application using MRLI observations to identify crop planting patterns and thus estimate surface management activities that influence groundwater resources over a regional landscape. We tailor the application to the characteristics of nonpoint source groundwater pollution hazards in Iowa to illustrate a general framework in a land use-hydrologic-economic system. In the example, MRLI VOI derives from reducing the risk of both losses to agricultural production and damage to human health and other consequences of contaminated groundwater.

  5. Air pollution: An environmental factor contributing to intestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Beamish, Leigh A; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R; Wine, Eytan

    2011-08-01

    The health impacts of air pollution have received much attention and have recently been subject to extensive study. Exposure to air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM) has been linked to lung and cardiovascular disease and increases in both hospital admissions and mortality. However, little attention has been given to the effects of air pollution on the intestine. The recent discovery of genes linked to susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) explains only a fraction of the hereditary variance for these diseases. This, together with evidence of increases in incidence of IBD in the past few decades of enhanced industrialization, suggests that environmental factors could contribute to disease pathogenesis. Despite this, little research has examined the potential contribution of air pollution and its components to intestinal disease. Exposure of the bowel to air pollutants occurs via mucociliary clearance of PM from the lungs as well as ingestion via food and water sources. Gaseous pollutants may also induce systemic effects. Plausible mechanisms mediating the effects of air pollutants on the bowel could include direct effects on epithelial cells, systemic inflammation and immune activation, and modulation of the intestinal microbiota. Although there is limited epidemiologic evidence to confirm this, we suggest that a link between air pollution and intestinal disease exists and warrants further study. This link may explain, at least in part, how environmental factors impact on IBD epidemiology and disease pathogenesis.

  6. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  7. The Environmental Pollution Perception of Residents in Coal Mining Areas: A Case Study in the Hancheng Mine Area, Shaanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xingmin; He, Fei

    2012-10-01

    The environmental behavior of the residents depends on their perception of environmental pollution. Hence, it is important for scientific and policy experts to research on the impact of the environmental pollution perception of local residents. Owing to the richness of natural resources, Hancheng coal mine areas are abound in heavy industries, and environmental pollution is serious and typical in this area, thus, the residents are anxious about their health. Using questionnaires, this paper surveys the perception of residents living in the coal mine area. The influential factors of environmental perception were analyzed by the Rank Sum Test. The results were: (1) the majority of the residents in the coal mine area are not satisfied with their living environment. The perception order of pollution severity is: air pollution > noise pollution > sanitation > water pollution. The residents think that pollution is mainly caused by coal processing. Hence, coal mining is not the main reason of the pollution in the coal mine area. (2) Age and length of residence have significant positive effects on perceptions of air, water, and noise pollutions; whereas education has a significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollutions, as well as sanitation. This phenomenon can be explained by the various cultural groups having varied perceptions on the environmental pollution. In addition, proximity to mine has significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollution. In conclusion, the paper discusses the effects of demographical and social factors on the perception of environmental pollution and gives suggestions on the planning and management of the environment.

  8. The environmental pollution perception of residents in coal mining areas: a case study in the Hancheng mine area, Shaanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xingmin; He, Fei

    2012-10-01

    The environmental behavior of the residents depends on their perception of environmental pollution. Hence, it is important for scientific and policy experts to research on the impact of the environmental pollution perception of local residents. Owing to the richness of natural resources, Hancheng coal mine areas are abound in heavy industries, and environmental pollution is serious and typical in this area, thus, the residents are anxious about their health. Using questionnaires, this paper surveys the perception of residents living in the coal mine area. The influential factors of environmental perception were analyzed by the Rank Sum Test. The results were: (1) the majority of the residents in the coal mine area are not satisfied with their living environment. The perception order of pollution severity is: air pollution > noise pollution > sanitation > water pollution. The residents think that pollution is mainly caused by coal processing. Hence, coal mining is not the main reason of the pollution in the coal mine area. (2) Age and length of residence have significant positive effects on perceptions of air, water, and noise pollutions; whereas education has a significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollutions, as well as sanitation. This phenomenon can be explained by the various cultural groups having varied perceptions on the environmental pollution. In addition, proximity to mine has significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollution. In conclusion, the paper discusses the effects of demographical and social factors on the perception of environmental pollution and gives suggestions on the planning and management of the environment.

  9. Air Pollution Exposure Assessment for Epidemiologic Studies of Pregnant Women and Children: Lessons Learned from the Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, Frank; Avol, Ed; Kinney, Patrick; Jerrett, Michael; Dvonch, Timothy; Lurmann, Frederick; Buckley, Timothy; Breysse, Patrick; Keeler, Gerald; de Villiers, Tracy; McConnell, Rob

    2005-01-01

    The National Children’s Study is considering a wide spectrum of airborne pollutants that are hypothesized to potentially influence pregnancy outcomes, neurodevelopment, asthma, atopy, immune development, obesity, and pubertal development. In this article we summarize six applicable exposure assessment lessons learned from the Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research that may enhance the National Children’s Study: a) Selecting individual study subjects with a wide range of pollution exposure profiles maximizes spatial-scale exposure contrasts for key pollutants of study interest. b) In studies with large sample sizes, long duration, and diverse outcomes and exposures, exposure assessment efforts should rely on modeling to provide estimates for the entire cohort, supported by subject-derived questionnaire data. c) Assessment of some exposures of interest requires individual measurements of exposures using snapshots of personal and microenvironmental exposures over short periods and/or in selected microenvironments. d) Understanding issues of spatial–temporal correlations of air pollutants, the surrogacy of specific pollutants for components of the complex mixture, and the exposure misclassification inherent in exposure estimates is critical in analysis and interpretation. e) “Usual” temporal, spatial, and physical patterns of activity can be used as modifiers of the exposure/outcome relationships. f) Biomarkers of exposure are useful for evaluation of specific exposures that have multiple routes of exposure. If these lessons are applied, the National Children’s Study offers a unique opportunity to assess the adverse effects of air pollution on interrelated health outcomes during the critical early life period. PMID:16203261

  10. Avian endocrine responses to environmental pollutants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Eroschenko, V.P.; Fox, G.A.; Fry, D.M.; Gorsline, J.

    1984-01-01

    Many environmental contaminants are hazardous to populations of wild birds. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and industrial pollutants are thought to be responsible for population declines of several species of predatory birds through eggshell thinning. Studies have demonstrated that these contaminants have estrogenic potency and may affect the functioning of the gonadal and thyroidal endocrine subsystems. Petroleum crude oil exerts toxicity externally, by oiling of plumage, and internally, by way of ingestion of oil while feeding or preening. Extensive ultrastructural damage to the inner zone of the adrenal, diminished adrenal responsiveness to adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and reduced corticosterone secretion rate suggest that low levels of plasma corticosterone reflect a direct effect of petroleum on the adrenal gland. Suppressive effects of oil on the ovary and decreases in circulating prolactin have been associated with impaired reproductive function. Large-scale field studies of free-living seabirds have confirmed some of the inhibitory effects of oil on reproduction that have been observed in laboratory studies. Organophosphorus insecticides, representing the most widely used class of pesticides in North America, have been shown to impair reproductive function, possibly by altering secretion of luteinizing hormone and progesterone. Relevant areas of future research on the effects of contaminants on avian endocrine function are discussed.

  11. Respiratory effects of environmental pollution: epidemiological data.

    PubMed

    Baldacci, S; Viegi, G

    2002-01-01

    A recent document of the American Thoracic Society and two previous reports of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease have summarized the negative health effects due to air pollution in a list ranging from the increase of mortality to the perception of bad odors. A significant attempt to estimate, on an annual basis, the negative effects of air pollution from particulate matter less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) has been carried out on data from Austria, France, and Switzerland: e.g. in France, air pollution from PM10 is responsible annually for 31,700 deaths, 36,700 new cases of chronic bronchitis and 577,000 attacks of asthma in adults, 450,000 cases of acute bronchitis and 243,000 attacks of asthma in children. Recently, a study on the long-term effects of air pollution on about 500,000 residents in metropolitan US areas evidenced that each 10 micrograms/m3 elevation in fine particulate air pollution is associated with approximately a 4%, 6% and 8% increased risk of all-cause, cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality, respectively. Some Italian experiences have also confirmed respiratory health damages from air pollution, namely the prospective epidemiologic studies on general population samples of the Po Delta and Pisa areas; the cross-sectional study on schoolchildren of the 'Italian study on respiratory disorders in childhood and environment' (SIDRIA); and a meta-analysis of the Italian studies on short-term effects of air pollution. In conclusion, epidemiologic studies suggest that air pollution plays an important role in the exacerbation and in the pathogenesis of chronic respiratory diseases. Thus, respiratory physicians, as well as public health professionals, should advocate for a cleaner environment.

  12. Role of bougainvilleas in mitigation of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S C; Srivastava, Richa; Roy, R K

    2005-04-01

    Environmental pollution adversely affects health of the people. Industrialization, urbanization, over exploitation of natural resources and increasing number of automobiles have aggravated the pollution manifold though there are various ways to mitigate the environmental pollution. Bio-remediation by using selected plant species is an effective method to control pollution which is universally accepted. Bougainvillea is a pollution tolerant plant and can help in the mitigation of air pollution besides its ornamental value in the landscaping. From the rich germplasm collection in NBRI Botanical Garden, tolerant plants have been experimented for road side plantation in view of mitigating the environmental pollution.

  13. Screening environmental pollutants and biomarkers: The analytical challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1988-01-01

    Detailed characterization of most chemical pollutants in environmental samples from industrial and waste sites is possible using analytical techniques such as liquid or gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. But for many environmental monitoring programs and assessment applications, these analytical procedures would be needlessly time-consuming and expensive. It is often desirable to have a screening procedure to prioritize environmental samples before detailed analyses are conducted on a subset of samples to reduce the total cost of monitoring programs and environmental studies. This presentation describes various screening techniques, such as synchronous fluorescence (SF), and room temperature phosphorescence (RTP), and provides an overview of advanced analytical techniques and instrumentation, such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and antibody-based fiberoptics sensors, used to detect trace levels of chemical pollutants and related biomarkers in complex environmental samples. 28 refs., 6 figs.

  14. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control. E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion the following: Air Pollution and Control; Noise Pollution and Control; Solid Wastes Pollution and Control; Water Pollution and Control; Pesticides Pollution and Control; Radiation Pollution and Control; Environmental Health and Safety; Environmental Impact Statements.

  15. Exploring the associations between microRNA expression profiles and environmental pollutants in human placenta from the National Children's Study (NCS)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Kappil, Maya A; Li, An; Dassanayake, Priyanthi S; Darrah, Thomas H; Friedman, Alan E; Friedman, Michelle; Lambertini, Luca; Landrigan, Philip; Stodgell, Christopher J; Xia, Yulin; Nanes, Jessica A; Aagaard, Kjersti M; Schadt, Eric E; Murray, Jeff C; Clark, Edward B; Dole, Nancy; Culhane, Jennifer; Swanson, James; Varner, Michael; Moye, Jack; Kasten, Carol; Miller, Richard K; Chen, Jia

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is the principal regulator of the in utero environment, and disruptions to this environment can result in adverse offspring health outcomes. To better characterize the impact of in utero perturbations, we assessed the influence of known environmental pollutants on the expression of microRNA (miRNA) in placental samples collected from the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard birth cohort. This study analyzed the expression of 654 miRNAs in 110 term placentas. Environmental pollutants measured in these placentas included dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), bisphenol A (BPA), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). A moderated t-test was used to identify a panel of differentially expressed miRNAs, which were further analyzed using generalized linear models. We observed 112 miRNAs consistently expressed in >70% of the samples. Consistent with the literature, miRNAs located within the imprinted placenta-specific C19MC cluster, specifically mir-517a, mir-517c, mir-522, and mir-23a, are among the top expressed miRNA in our study. We observed a positive association between PBDE 209 and miR-188–5p and an inverse association between PBDE 99 and let-7c. Both PCBs and Cd were positively associated with miR-1537 expression level. In addition, multiple let-7 family members were downregulated with increasing levels of Hg and Pb. We did not observe DDE or BPA levels to be associated with placental miRNA expression. This is the first birth cohort study linking environmental pollutants and placental expression of miRNAs. Our results suggest that placental miRNA profiles may signal in utero exposures to environmental chemicals. PMID:26252056

  16. Pollution Prevention Environmental Design Guide for Engineers

    1999-03-16

    Pollution Prevention Environmental Design Guide for Engineers (P2-EDGE) provides nearly 300 recommendations to incorporate pollution prevention into projects during the design phase. Each is supplemented by examples, references, and additional data to help the user evaluate applicability and potential benefits to their design project. Built in filters allow the user to narrow the review to only those opportunities that are applicable based on project size and design phase. User responses are saved to a custommore » data file or can also be generated into a report and printed. Other features include the ability to search the database for keywords, add opportunities to the database, or edit existing entries.« less

  17. Which came first, people or pollution? A review of theory and evidence from longitudinal environmental justice studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohai, Paul; Saha, Robin

    2015-12-01

    A considerable number of quantitative analyses have been conducted in the past several decades that demonstrate the existence of racial and socioeconomic disparities in the distribution of a wide variety of environmental hazards. The vast majority of these have been cross-sectional, snapshot studies employing data on hazardous facilities and population characteristics at only one point in time. Although some limited hypotheses can be tested with cross-sectional data, fully understanding how present-day disparities come about requires longitudinal analyses that examine the demographic characteristics of sites at the time of facility siting and track demographic changes after siting. Relatively few such studies exist and those that do exist have often led to confusing and contradictory findings. In this paper we review the theoretical arguments, methods, findings, and conclusions drawn from existing longitudinal environmental justice studies. Our goal is to make sense of this literature and to identify the direction future research should take in order to resolve confusion and arrive at a clearer understanding of the processes and contributory factors by which present-day racial and socioeconomic disparities in the distribution of environmental hazards have come about. Such understandings also serve as an important step in identifying appropriate and effective societal responses to ameliorate environmental disparities.

  18. Energy needs versus environmental pollution: a reconciliation?

    PubMed

    Green, L

    1967-06-16

    In this article I have presented, for discussion, a proposed system for energy generation by which the principal sources of environmental pollution by power plants could be eliminated. For stationary power plants the concept appears feasible technically and, according to my " horseback estimates," perhaps economically as well, depending upon the economic value of the by-products of sulfur, CO(2), water, and possibly nitrogen, and upon the price we are willing to pay for a clean environment .Thus, a more thorough engineering and economic analysis to explore these and other factors in greater depth seems warranted. In the case of turbine-driven vehicles, the technical and economic feasibility of widespread distribution and handling of the fuel constitutes a serious question, but one which deserves equally serious consideration before the possibility is discounted. The reports of the cited study panels notwithstanding, the technology required for the proposed system exists today, with one exception. This exception (which is not essential for trial of the system but will be required for its complete fruition) is the development of a nuclear reactor for the prime purpose of delivering process heat for the steam reforming of natural gas and, ultimately, for gas production from coal in a continuous process, such as those discussed by Pieroni et al. (16). Today's intermittent processes of coking and gas production are both archaic and themselves large sources of atmospheric pollution, and a development program aimed at advancing the technology of the coal industry in this regard would seem long overdue. The report of the PSAC Environmental Pollution Panel recommended "demonstration of the feasibility and economy of new developments for abating or controlling pollution through their use at Federal installations" and suggested the coalburning TVA power plants as a likely place for such demonstration. This suggestion is doubly appropriate since the TVA is in a region of

  19. Energy needs versus environmental pollution: a reconciliation?

    PubMed

    Green, L

    1967-06-16

    In this article I have presented, for discussion, a proposed system for energy generation by which the principal sources of environmental pollution by power plants could be eliminated. For stationary power plants the concept appears feasible technically and, according to my " horseback estimates," perhaps economically as well, depending upon the economic value of the by-products of sulfur, CO(2), water, and possibly nitrogen, and upon the price we are willing to pay for a clean environment .Thus, a more thorough engineering and economic analysis to explore these and other factors in greater depth seems warranted. In the case of turbine-driven vehicles, the technical and economic feasibility of widespread distribution and handling of the fuel constitutes a serious question, but one which deserves equally serious consideration before the possibility is discounted. The reports of the cited study panels notwithstanding, the technology required for the proposed system exists today, with one exception. This exception (which is not essential for trial of the system but will be required for its complete fruition) is the development of a nuclear reactor for the prime purpose of delivering process heat for the steam reforming of natural gas and, ultimately, for gas production from coal in a continuous process, such as those discussed by Pieroni et al. (16). Today's intermittent processes of coking and gas production are both archaic and themselves large sources of atmospheric pollution, and a development program aimed at advancing the technology of the coal industry in this regard would seem long overdue. The report of the PSAC Environmental Pollution Panel recommended "demonstration of the feasibility and economy of new developments for abating or controlling pollution through their use at Federal installations" and suggested the coalburning TVA power plants as a likely place for such demonstration. This suggestion is doubly appropriate since the TVA is in a region of

  20. Comparison of Highly Resolved Model-Based Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants to Support Environmental Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shih Ying; Vizuete, William; Breen, Michael; Isakov, Vlad; Arunachalam, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to air pollution in many studies is represented by ambient concentrations from space-time kriging of observed values. Space-time kriging techniques based on a limited number of ambient monitors may fail to capture the concentration from local sources. Further, because people spend more time indoors, using ambient concentration to represent exposure may cause error. To quantify the associated exposure error, we computed a series of six different hourly-based exposure metrics at 16,095 Census blocks of three Counties in North Carolina for CO, NOx, PM2.5, and elemental carbon (EC) during 2012. These metrics include ambient background concentration from space-time ordinary kriging (STOK), ambient on-road concentration from the Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE), a hybrid concentration combining STOK and R-LINE, and their associated indoor concentrations from an indoor infiltration mass balance model. Using a hybrid-based indoor concentration as the standard, the comparison showed that outdoor STOK metrics yielded large error at both population (67% to 93%) and individual level (average bias between −10% to 95%). For pollutants with significant contribution from on-road emission (EC and NOx), the on-road based indoor metric performs the best at the population level (error less than 52%). At the individual level, however, the STOK-based indoor concentration performs the best (average bias below 30%). For PM2.5, due to the relatively low contribution from on-road emission (7%), STOK-based indoor metric performs the best at both population (error below 40%) and individual level (error below 25%). The results of the study will help future epidemiology studies to select appropriate exposure metric and reduce potential bias in exposure characterization. PMID:26670242

  1. Comparison of Highly Resolved Model-Based Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants to Support Environmental Health Studies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shih Ying; Vizuete, William; Breen, Michael; Isakov, Vlad; Arunachalam, Saravanan

    2015-12-01

    Human exposure to air pollution in many studies is represented by ambient concentrations from space-time kriging of observed values. Space-time kriging techniques based on a limited number of ambient monitors may fail to capture the concentration from local sources. Further, because people spend more time indoors, using ambient concentration to represent exposure may cause error. To quantify the associated exposure error, we computed a series of six different hourly-based exposure metrics at 16,095 Census blocks of three Counties in North Carolina for CO, NO(x), PM(2.5), and elemental carbon (EC) during 2012. These metrics include ambient background concentration from space-time ordinary kriging (STOK), ambient on-road concentration from the Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE), a hybrid concentration combining STOK and R-LINE, and their associated indoor concentrations from an indoor infiltration mass balance model. Using a hybrid-based indoor concentration as the standard, the comparison showed that outdoor STOK metrics yielded large error at both population (67% to 93%) and individual level (average bias between -10% to 95%). For pollutants with significant contribution from on-road emission (EC and NO(x)), the on-road based indoor metric performs the best at the population level (error less than 52%). At the individual level, however, the STOK-based indoor concentration performs the best (average bias below 30%). For PM(2.5), due to the relatively low contribution from on-road emission (7%), STOK-based indoor metric performs the best at both population (error below 40%) and individual level (error below 25%). The results of the study will help future epidemiology studies to select appropriate exposure metric and reduce potential bias in exposure characterization. PMID:26670242

  2. Comparison of Highly Resolved Model-Based Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants to Support Environmental Health Studies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shih Ying; Vizuete, William; Breen, Michael; Isakov, Vlad; Arunachalam, Saravanan

    2015-12-08

    Human exposure to air pollution in many studies is represented by ambient concentrations from space-time kriging of observed values. Space-time kriging techniques based on a limited number of ambient monitors may fail to capture the concentration from local sources. Further, because people spend more time indoors, using ambient concentration to represent exposure may cause error. To quantify the associated exposure error, we computed a series of six different hourly-based exposure metrics at 16,095 Census blocks of three Counties in North Carolina for CO, NO(x), PM(2.5), and elemental carbon (EC) during 2012. These metrics include ambient background concentration from space-time ordinary kriging (STOK), ambient on-road concentration from the Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE), a hybrid concentration combining STOK and R-LINE, and their associated indoor concentrations from an indoor infiltration mass balance model. Using a hybrid-based indoor concentration as the standard, the comparison showed that outdoor STOK metrics yielded large error at both population (67% to 93%) and individual level (average bias between -10% to 95%). For pollutants with significant contribution from on-road emission (EC and NO(x)), the on-road based indoor metric performs the best at the population level (error less than 52%). At the individual level, however, the STOK-based indoor concentration performs the best (average bias below 30%). For PM(2.5), due to the relatively low contribution from on-road emission (7%), STOK-based indoor metric performs the best at both population (error below 40%) and individual level (error below 25%). The results of the study will help future epidemiology studies to select appropriate exposure metric and reduce potential bias in exposure characterization.

  3. Environmental management/pollution prevention/environmental electrochemistry opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenchuck, N.H.

    1994-12-31

    Thank you for inviting me to be your keynoter. I`m impressed by what you`ve accomplished through the years and the program that you`ve put together for this International Forum on Environmental Electrochemistry. Above all, we must remember what has brought us together. We must be aware of the challenge, the need, the opportunity we have before us. Sustainable economic development that is responsive to environmental concerns is vital to continued national prosperity. Coincidentally, there are boundless environmental electrochemistry opportunities in environmental management and pollution prevention. The basic approach to environmental protection in this country, for far too many years, has been, for the most part, reactive. As a society, we react to crisis; and in the environmental business, we react to environmental crisis. We react to problems that already were posing substantial ecological and human health risks and problems that already were causing significant public concern. We need both a quality and results-oriented national environmental electrochemistry program.

  4. Lung cancers attributable to environmental tobacco smoke and air pollution in non-smokers in different European countries: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Veglia, Fabrizio; Airoldi, Luisa; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Linseisen, Jacob; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Lund E, Eiliv; Agudo, Antonio; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Cirera, Lluis; Quiros, J Ramon; Berglund, Goran; Manjer, Jonas; Forsberg, Bertil; Day, Nicholas E; Key, Tim J; Kaaks, Rudolf; Saracci, Rodolfo; Riboli, Elio

    2007-01-01

    Background Several countries are discussing new legislation on the ban of smoking in public places, and on the acceptable levels of traffic-related air pollutants. It is therefore useful to estimate the burden of disease associated with indoor and outdoor air pollution. Methods We have estimated exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) and to air pollution in never smokers and ex-smokers in a large prospective study in 10 European countries (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)(N = 520,000). We report estimates of the proportion of lung cancers attributable to ETS and air pollution in this population. Results The proportion of lung cancers in never- and ex-smokers attributable to ETS was estimated as between 16 and 24%, mainly due to the contribution of work-related exposure. We have also estimated that 5–7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers are attributable to high levels of air pollution, as expressed by NO2 or proximity to heavy traffic roads. NO2 is the expression of a mixture of combustion (traffic-related) particles and gases, and is also related to power plants and waste incinerator emissions. Discussion We have estimated risks of lung cancer attributable to ETS and traffic-related air pollution in a large prospective study in Europe. Information bias can be ruled out due to the prospective design, and we have thoroughly controlled for potential confounders, including restriction to never smokers and long-term ex-smokers. Concerning traffic-related air pollution, the thresholds for indicators of exposure we have used are rather strict, i.e. they correspond to the high levels of exposure that characterize mainly Southern European countries (levels of NO2 in Denmark and Sweden are closer to 10–20 ug/m3, whereas levels in Italy are around 30 or 40, or higher). Therefore, further reduction in exposure levels below 30 ug/m3 would correspond to additional lung cancer cases prevented, and our estimate of 5

  5. Environmental pollution has sex-dependent effects on local survival

    PubMed Central

    Eeva, Tapio; Hakkarainen, Harri; Laaksonen, Toni; Lehikoinen, Esa

    2006-01-01

    Environmental pollutants cause a potential hazard for survival in free-living animal populations. We modelled local survival (including emigration) by using individual mark–recapture histories of males and females in a population of a small insectivorous passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) living around a point source of heavy metals (copper smelter). Local survival of F. hypoleuca females did not differ between polluted and unpolluted environments. Males, however, showed a one-third higher local-survival probability in the polluted area. Low fledgling production was generally associated with decreased local survival, but males in the polluted area showed relatively high local survival, irrespective of their fledgling number. A possible explanation of higher local survival of males in the polluted area could be a pollution-induced change in hormone (e.g. corticosterone or testosterone) levels of males. It could make them to invest more on their own survival or affect the hormonal control of breeding dispersal. The local survival of males decreased in the polluted area over the study period along with the simultaneous decrease in heavy metal emissions. This temporal trend is in agreement with the stress hormone hypothesis. PMID:17148387

  6. Corporate Characteristics, Political Embeddedness and Environmental Pollution by Large U.S. Corporations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prechel, Harland; Zheng, Lu

    2012-01-01

    Organizational and environmental sociology contain surprisingly few studies of the corporation as one of the sources of environmental pollution. To fill this gap, we focus on the parent company as the unit of analysis and elaborate environmental theories that focus on the organizational and political-legal causes of pollution. Using a compiled…

  7. Insulin Resistance and Environmental Pollutants: Experimental Evidence and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Vanparys, Caroline; Van Gaal, Luc F.; Jorens, Philippe G.; Covaci, Adrian; Blust, Ronny

    2013-01-01

    Background: The metabolic disruptor hypothesis postulates that environmental pollutants may be risk factors for metabolic diseases. Because insulin resistance is involved in most metabolic diseases and current health care prevention programs predominantly target insulin resistance or risk factors thereof, a critical analysis of the role of pollutants in insulin resistance might be important for future management of metabolic diseases. Objectives: We aimed to critically review the available information linking pollutant exposure to insulin resistance and to open the discussion on future perspectives for metabolic disruptor identification and prioritization strategies. Methods: We searched PubMed and Web of Science for experimental studies reporting on linkages between environmental pollutants and insulin resistance and identified a total of 23 studies as the prime literature. Discussion: Recent studies specifically designed to investigate the effect of pollutants on insulin sensitivity show a potential causation of insulin resistance. Based on these studies, a summary of viable test systems and end points can be composed, allowing insight into what is missing and what is needed to create a standardized insulin resistance toxicity testing strategy. Conclusions: It is clear that current research predominantly relies on top-down identification of insulin resistance–inducing metabolic disruptors and that the development of dedicated in vitro or ex vivo screens to allow animal sparing and time- and cost-effective bottom-up screening is a major future research need. Citation: Hectors TL, Vanparys C, Van Gaal LF, Jorens PG, Covaci A, Blust R. 2013. Insulin resistance and environmental pollutants: experimental evidence and future perspectives. Environ Health Perspect 121:1273–1281; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307082 PMID:24058052

  8. [Principle for strategic decision based on population health risk in emergence environmental cadmium pollution control].

    PubMed

    Shang, Qi

    2012-05-01

    The principles for strategic decision in emergence environmental pollution control was summarized based on population health risk and features of emergence events of environmental cadmium pollution. Main task and strategies for the events control was suggested in emergency treatment and post-event for water and soil cadmium pollution respectively. The work, monitoring method, key problems for both environment cadmium pollution and human health risk, and main content of health education for cadmium exposure people was proposed in follow-up action, at meanwhile, achievements of study on human health effects caused by environmental cadmium pollution was introduced briefly over recent years.

  9. Role of environmental pollution in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marynowski, Mateusz; Likońska, Aleksandra; Zatorski, Hubert; Fichna, Jakub

    2015-10-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), with the prevalence of 10%-20 % of the population has become an emerging problem worldwide. IBS is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. The etiology of IBS contains genetic, psychological, and immunological factors, and has not been fully elucidated; of note, recent studies also point at environmental pollution and its role in the development of functional GI diseases. In this review we focus on several environmental factors, such as bacterial contamination, air pollution, radiation and even stress as potential triggers of IBS. We discuss associated disturbances in homeostasis, such as changes in intestinal microbiome and related pathophysiological mechanisms. Based on the effect of environmental factors on the GI tract, we also propose novel targets in IBS treatment.

  10. Environmental pollution and child health in central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, E F; Schell, L M; Marshall, E G; Carpenter, D O; Suk, W A; Zejda, J E

    1998-01-01

    For the last 50 years, the economic and industrial development of the nations of Central and Eastern Europe has been achieved at the cost of environmental degradation. The health risks posed by this pollution to children and the steps necessary to ameliorate such risks are only beginning to be investigated. At a recent conference in Poland, sponsored in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, participants from 11 countries in the region, together with scientists from Western Europe and the United States, met to share information regarding pediatric environmental health in Central and Eastern Europe, to consider methodologic issues in the design and conduct of such studies, and to discuss preventive strategies. This report summarizes the deliberations, outlines problem areas such as heavy metals and air pollution, delineates research and training needs to help Central and Eastern Europeans deal more effectively with such problems, and recommends specific future actions and collaborative efforts. PMID:9618345

  11. Role of environmental pollution in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Marynowski, Mateusz; Likońska, Aleksandra; Zatorski, Hubert; Fichna, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), with the prevalence of 10%-20 % of the population has become an emerging problem worldwide. IBS is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. The etiology of IBS contains genetic, psychological, and immunological factors, and has not been fully elucidated; of note, recent studies also point at environmental pollution and its role in the development of functional GI diseases. In this review we focus on several environmental factors, such as bacterial contamination, air pollution, radiation and even stress as potential triggers of IBS. We discuss associated disturbances in homeostasis, such as changes in intestinal microbiome and related pathophysiological mechanisms. Based on the effect of environmental factors on the GI tract, we also propose novel targets in IBS treatment. PMID:26523104

  12. The wild rat as sentinel animal in the environmental risk assessment of asbestos pollution: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ardizzone, Michele; Vizio, Carlotta; Bozzetta, Elena; Pezzolato, Marzia; Meistro, Serena; Dondo, Alessandro; Giorgi, Ilaria; Seghesio, Angelo; Mirabelli, Dario; Capella, Silvana; Vigliaturo, Ruggero; Belluso, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Asbestos has been banned in many countries, including Italy. However, sources of exposure may still exist, due to asbestos in-situ or past disposal of asbestos-containing waste. In an urban area with past high environmental exposure, like Casale Monferrato, the lung fiber burden in sentinel animals may be useful to identify such sources. A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of its determination in wild rats, a suitable sentinel species never used before for environmental lung asbestos fiber burden studies. Within the framework of pest control campaigns, 11 adult animals from 3 sites in the urban area of Casale Monferrato and 3 control rats from a different, unexposed town were captured. Further, 3 positive and 3 negative control lung samples were obtained from laboratories involved in breeding programs and conducting experimental studies on rats. Tissue fiber concentration was measured by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry. Asbestos (chrysotile and crocidolite) was identified in the lungs from rats from Casale Monferrato, but not in control rats and in negative control lung samples. Asbestos grunerite at high concentration was found in positive control lung samples. Measurement of the lung fiber burden in wild rats has proved feasible: it was possible not only to detect, but also to characterize asbestos fibers both qualitatively and quantitatively. The pilot study provides the rationale for using wild rats as sentinels of the soil contamination level in Casale Monferrato, to identify areas with the possible presence of previously unrecognized asbestos sources. PMID:24531338

  13. The wild rat as sentinel animal in the environmental risk assessment of asbestos pollution: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ardizzone, Michele; Vizio, Carlotta; Bozzetta, Elena; Pezzolato, Marzia; Meistro, Serena; Dondo, Alessandro; Giorgi, Ilaria; Seghesio, Angelo; Mirabelli, Dario; Capella, Silvana; Vigliaturo, Ruggero; Belluso, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Asbestos has been banned in many countries, including Italy. However, sources of exposure may still exist, due to asbestos in-situ or past disposal of asbestos-containing waste. In an urban area with past high environmental exposure, like Casale Monferrato, the lung fiber burden in sentinel animals may be useful to identify such sources. A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of its determination in wild rats, a suitable sentinel species never used before for environmental lung asbestos fiber burden studies. Within the framework of pest control campaigns, 11 adult animals from 3 sites in the urban area of Casale Monferrato and 3 control rats from a different, unexposed town were captured. Further, 3 positive and 3 negative control lung samples were obtained from laboratories involved in breeding programs and conducting experimental studies on rats. Tissue fiber concentration was measured by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry. Asbestos (chrysotile and crocidolite) was identified in the lungs from rats from Casale Monferrato, but not in control rats and in negative control lung samples. Asbestos grunerite at high concentration was found in positive control lung samples. Measurement of the lung fiber burden in wild rats has proved feasible: it was possible not only to detect, but also to characterize asbestos fibers both qualitatively and quantitatively. The pilot study provides the rationale for using wild rats as sentinels of the soil contamination level in Casale Monferrato, to identify areas with the possible presence of previously unrecognized asbestos sources.

  14. A Method for Estimating Urban Background Concentrations in Support of Hybrid Air Pollution Modeling for Environmental Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, Saravanan; Valencia, Alejandro; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L.; Omary, Mohammad; Garcia, Valerie; Isakov, Vlad

    2014-01-01

    Exposure studies rely on detailed characterization of air quality, either from sparsely located routine ambient monitors or from central monitoring sites that may lack spatial representativeness. Alternatively, some studies use models of various complexities to characterize local-scale air quality, but often with poor representation of background concentrations. A hybrid approach that addresses this drawback combines a regional-scale model to provide background concentrations and a local-scale model to assess impacts of local sources. However, this approach may double-count sources in the study regions. To address these limitations, we carefully define the background concentration as the concentration that would be measured if local sources were not present, and to estimate these background concentrations we developed a novel technique that combines space-time ordinary kriging (STOK) of observations with outputs from a detailed chemistry-transport model with local sources zeroed out. We applied this technique to support an exposure study in Detroit, Michigan, for several pollutants (including NOx and PM2.5), and evaluated the estimated hybrid concentrations (calculated by combining the background estimates that addresses this issue of double counting with local-scale dispersion model estimates) using observations. Our results demonstrate the strength of this approach specifically by eliminating the problem of double-counting reported in previous hybrid modeling approaches leading to improved estimates of background concentrations, and further highlight the relative importance of NOx vs. PM2.5 in their relative contributions to total concentrations. While a key limitation of this approach is the requirement for another detailed model simulation to avoid double-counting, STOK improves the overall characterization of background concentrations at very fine spatial scales. PMID:25321872

  15. Human cancer from environmental pollutants: the epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo

    2006-09-28

    An increased risk of mesothelioma has been reported among individuals experiencing residential exposure to asbestos, while results for lung cancer are less consistent. Several studies have reported an increased risk of lung cancer risk from outdoor air pollution: on the basis of the results of the largest study, the proportion of lung cancers attributable to urban air pollution in Europe can be as high as 10.7%. A causal association has been established between second-hand tobacco smoking and lung cancer, which may be responsible for 1.6% of lung cancers. Radon is another carcinogen present in indoor air, which may be responsible for 4.5% of lung cancers. An increased risk of bladder might be due to water chlorination by-products. The available evidence on cancer risk following exposure to other environmental pollutants, including, pesticides, dioxins and electro-magnetic fields, is inconclusive.

  16. Effect of lead pollution control on environmental and childhood blood lead level in Nantong, China: an interventional study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Huang, Lei; Yan, Beizhan; Li, Hongbo; Sun, Hong; Bi, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Children's blood lead levels and prevalence of lead poisoning in China are significantly higher than in developed countries, though a substantial decrease has been observed. Since 2011, strict lead control policies in lead-related industries have been implemented in China, but the success of these policies is unknown. In this study, we collected environmental samples, questionnaire data, and blood samples from 106 children from 1 to 14 years old, before and after implementation of lead-usage control policy in wire rope factories by local government in Zhuhang, Nantong in 2012. Results showed that, one year after the lead control, lead concentrations sharply decreased in both environmental and biological samples with a decrease of 0.43 μg/m3 (-84.3%) in ambient air samples, 0.22 mg/kg (-36.1%) in vegetable samples, 441.1 mg/kg (-43.7%) in dust samples, and 6.24 μg/dL (-51.5%) in childhood blood lead levels (BLL). This study demonstrates the success of lead control policies in promoting the prevention and control of childhood lead poisoning in Nantong, China.

  17. Effect of lead pollution control on environmental and childhood blood lead level in Nantong, China: an interventional study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Huang, Lei; Yan, Beizhan; Li, Hongbo; Sun, Hong; Bi, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Children's blood lead levels and prevalence of lead poisoning in China are significantly higher than in developed countries, though a substantial decrease has been observed. Since 2011, strict lead control policies in lead-related industries have been implemented in China, but the success of these policies is unknown. In this study, we collected environmental samples, questionnaire data, and blood samples from 106 children from 1 to 14 years old, before and after implementation of lead-usage control policy in wire rope factories by local government in Zhuhang, Nantong in 2012. Results showed that, one year after the lead control, lead concentrations sharply decreased in both environmental and biological samples with a decrease of 0.43 μg/m3 (-84.3%) in ambient air samples, 0.22 mg/kg (-36.1%) in vegetable samples, 441.1 mg/kg (-43.7%) in dust samples, and 6.24 μg/dL (-51.5%) in childhood blood lead levels (BLL). This study demonstrates the success of lead control policies in promoting the prevention and control of childhood lead poisoning in Nantong, China. PMID:25294690

  18. A prevalence study on outdoor air pollution and respiratory diseases in children in Zasavje, Slovenia, as a lever to trigger evidence-based environmental health activities.

    PubMed

    Kukec, Andreja; Farkas, Jerneja; Erzen, Ivan; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the population burden of respiratory diseases in the Zasavje region of Slovenia that can be attributed to outdoor air pollution in order to gain relevant grounds for evidence based public health activities. In 2008, 981 schoolchildren (age 6 to 12 years) were observed in a prevalence study. The prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) and frequent acute respiratory symptoms (FARS) was related to the level of outdoor air pollution in the local environment (low, moderate and high pollution areas). Logistic regression was used as a method for statistical analysis. The prevalence of CRD was 3.0 % in low pollution areas, 7.5 % in moderate pollution areas, and 9.7 % in high pollution areas (p=0.005). After adjustment for the effects of confounders, 2.91-times higher odds for CRD were registered in high pollution areas in comparison to low pollution areas (p=0.017). The prevalence of FARS was: 7.8 % in low pollution areas, 13.3 % in moderate pollution areas and 15.9 % in high pollution areas (p=0.010). After adjustment for the effects of confounders, 2.02-times higher odds for FARS were registered in high pollution areas in comparison to low pollution areas (p=0.023). The study confirmed a significantly higher prevalence of CRD and FARS in children living in high pollution areas of Zasavje. These results at least partially prompted mutual understanding and cross-sectoral cooperation - prerequisites for solving complex problems involving the impact of air pollution on health. PMID:23585197

  19. A prevalence study on outdoor air pollution and respiratory diseases in children in Zasavje, Slovenia, as a lever to trigger evidence-based environmental health activities.

    PubMed

    Kukec, Andreja; Farkas, Jerneja; Erzen, Ivan; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the population burden of respiratory diseases in the Zasavje region of Slovenia that can be attributed to outdoor air pollution in order to gain relevant grounds for evidence based public health activities. In 2008, 981 schoolchildren (age 6 to 12 years) were observed in a prevalence study. The prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) and frequent acute respiratory symptoms (FARS) was related to the level of outdoor air pollution in the local environment (low, moderate and high pollution areas). Logistic regression was used as a method for statistical analysis. The prevalence of CRD was 3.0 % in low pollution areas, 7.5 % in moderate pollution areas, and 9.7 % in high pollution areas (p=0.005). After adjustment for the effects of confounders, 2.91-times higher odds for CRD were registered in high pollution areas in comparison to low pollution areas (p=0.017). The prevalence of FARS was: 7.8 % in low pollution areas, 13.3 % in moderate pollution areas and 15.9 % in high pollution areas (p=0.010). After adjustment for the effects of confounders, 2.02-times higher odds for FARS were registered in high pollution areas in comparison to low pollution areas (p=0.023). The study confirmed a significantly higher prevalence of CRD and FARS in children living in high pollution areas of Zasavje. These results at least partially prompted mutual understanding and cross-sectoral cooperation - prerequisites for solving complex problems involving the impact of air pollution on health.

  20. [General environmental pollutants and passive smoking].

    PubMed

    Meister, R

    1990-02-01

    Epidemiological studies-especially data from smog episodes-indicate that antropogenous outdoor air pollution exercises a deleterious effect on health and particularly on the respiratory organs. Controlled exposure test in animals and man confirm this. The main pollutants are SO2, suspended dust particles (dust aerosols or solid atmospheric condensation nuclei) as well as NO2 (NOx) and O3. The adverse influence of quite a number of meteorological factors such as low temperature and inversion cannot be denied. During smog conditions in January 1985 in the Federal Republic of Germany there was a highly significant negative correlation between atmospheric temperature and the rate of exacerbations of bronchitis. Indoor air pollution is gaining in importance. Airtight sealing of buildings associated with reduced indoor ventilation results in novel health upsets ("sick building syndrome"). Interiors are characterised by an accumulation of CO2, CO, NO2, dust aerosols and various organic substances such as benzene, benzypyrene, formaldehyde, nitrosamines etc. Cigarette smoke is a frequent cause of indoor air pollution. The possible unhealthy effects of passive smoking (mainly the inhalation of sidestream smoke) have been frequently studied. Infants of smoking parents are more often affected by respiratory diseases than non-exposed children. The same applies to schoolchildren: the incidence of bronchial signs and symptoms increases with increasing smoke consumptions of the parents. However, no definitely established effect on lung function has been seen in children, adults and asthmatics. The important question as to whether passive smoking increases lung cancer risk is still a subject of controversial discussion among experts. PMID:2195521

  1. Reducing environmental pollution using animal feed enzymes.

    PubMed

    Graham, H; Simmins, P H; Sands, J

    2003-01-01

    The global livestock population is estimated to be close to 4 billion animals, and to produce around 500 million tons of manure annually (Baidoo, 2003). This is expected to increase in the future with the projected greater demand for meat for human consumption. The problem of manure disposal is exacerbated by the concentration of animal production in increasingly large units, to obtain economies of scale and keep up with the demand for cheap food. The primary environmentalfactors are manure volume, manure nitrogen and phosphorus contents, methane production and odour (Jongbloed and Lenis, 1998). Legislation in many regions now restricts the amount of manure that can be applied per hectare, to prevent environmental pollution (Centner, 2001; Pellini and Morris, 2001). There are a number of strategies the animal production industry can take to reduce environmental impact. These include taking steps to improve the efficiency of conversion of feed into edible products, reduce feed wastage and formulate diets that more closely satisfy animal requirements for specific nutrients. At present 50-80% of the nitrogen and phosphorus fed to animals are not utilized but are excreted via manure and urine to the environment (Baidoo, 2003). Biotechnology could play a very important role in reducing the environmental impact of animal production. Examples include the development of animals more efficient at converting nutrients into edible products, and of higher quality, more digestible feedstuffs. Biotechnology can also be used to produce a range of feed additives that can improve the efficiency of animal production, including for example recombinant somatrophin, amino acids and enzymes. This paper summarizes a series of four experiments looking at the effects of microbial xylanase or phytase supplementation on excretion in swine and poultry. This summary indicates that the inclusion of these enzymes in animal feeds can reduce manure volume by up to 14%, and nitrogen and phosphorus

  2. Environmental Chemistry: Air and Water Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoker, H. Stephen; Seager, Spencer L.

    This is a book about air and water pollution whose chapters cover the topics of air pollution--general considerations, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and photochemical oxidants, sulfur oxides, particulates, temperature inversions and the greenhouse effect; and water pollution--general considerations, mercury, lead, detergents,…

  3. Thallium pollution in China: A geo-environmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Tangfu; Yang, Fei; Li, Shehong; Zheng, Baoshan; Ning, Zengping

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that thallium (Tl) is a non-essential and toxic metal to human health, but less is known about the geo-environmentally-induced Tl pollution and its associated health impacts. High concentrations of Tl that are primarily associated with the epithermal metallogenesis of sulfide minerals have the potential of producing Tl pollution in the environment, which has been recognized as an emerging pollutant in China. This paper aims to review the research progress in China on Tl pollution in terms of the source, mobility, transportation pathway, and health exposure of Tl and to address the environmental concerns on Tl pollution in a geo-environmental perspective. Tl associated with the epithermal metallogenesis of sulfide minerals has been documented to disperse readily and accumulate through the geo-environmental processes of soil enrichment, water transportation and food crop growth beyond a mineralized zone. The enrichments of Tl in local soil, water, and crops may result in Tl pollution and consequent adverse health effects, e.g. chronic Tl poisoning. Investigation of the baseline Tl in the geo-environment, proper land use and health-related environmental planning and regulation are critical to prevent the Tl pollution. Examination of the human urinary Tl concentration is a quick approach to identify exposure of Tl pollution to humans. The experiences of Tl pollution in China can provide important lessons for many other regions in the world with similar geo-environmental contexts because of the high mobility and toxicity of Tl.

  4. Disability adjusted life year (DALY): a useful tool for quantitative assessment of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tingting; Wang, Xiaochang C; Chen, Rong; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

    2015-04-01

    Disability adjusted life year (DALY) has been widely used since 1990s for evaluating global and/or regional burden of diseases. As many environmental pollutants are hazardous to human health, DALY is also recognized as an indicator to quantify the health impact of environmental pollution related to disease burden. Based on literature reviews, this article aims to give an overview of the applicable methodologies and research directions for using DALY as a tool for quantitative assessment of environmental pollution. With an introduction of the methodological framework of DALY, the requirements on data collection and manipulation for quantifying disease burdens are summarized. Regarding environmental pollutants hazardous to human beings, health effect/risk evaluation is indispensable for transforming pollution data into disease data through exposure and dose-response analyses which need careful selection of models and determination of parameters. Following the methodological discussions, real cases are analyzed with attention paid to chemical pollutants and pathogens usually encountered in environmental pollution. It can be seen from existing studies that DALY is advantageous over conventional environmental impact assessment for quantification and comparison of the risks resulted from environmental pollution. However, further studies are still required to standardize the methods of health effect evaluation regarding varied pollutants under varied circumstances before DALY calculation.

  5. Alternative Treatment for Asthma: Case Study of Success of Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment of Children from Urban Areas with Different Levels of Environmental Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Kopnina, Helen

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment in Dutch children with asthma in areas with differing air pollution. The study results indicate that TCM treatment of children living in more polluted urban area is less successful then that of children living in cleaner air area. PMID:23724242

  6. Surface study and sensing activity of nanotubular indium trioxide to NH3, H2S, NO2 and CO environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, Mehdi

    2016-02-01

    Molecular and electronic structures of nanotubular indium trioxide were studied using B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP density functional methods. Three nanotube models including nanotubes with closed ends (CENT), one opened end (OOENT) and two opened ends (TOENT) were considered. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of CENT is distributed over the entire nanotube; while it is distributed on the end cap of OOENT. In both CENT and OOENT, the distribution of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) is on the end caps. HOMO and LUMO of TOENT are distributed on the center of nanotube. The sensing activity of OOENT to environmental pollutants was evaluated regarding the interaction of nanotube with NH3, H2S, NO2 and CO molecules. Adsorptions over different positions of OOENT are exothermic and the NH3 adsorption is thermodynamically more favorable. The selectivity of OOENT toward gaseous pollutants is investigated as NH3 > H2S > CO > NO2. Interaction of NO2 and CO over the closed end (end cap) of nanotube is preferred; while adsorption of NH3 and H2S on the opened end is more favorable.

  7. Apportionment of ambient primary and secondary pollutants during a 2001 summer study in Pittsburgh using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency UNMIX.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Richard R; Martello, Donald V; Lucas, Leonard J; Davidson, Cliff I; Modey, William K; Eatough, Delbert J

    2006-09-01

    Apportionment of primary and secondary pollutants during the summer 2001 Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) is reported. Several sites were included in PAQS, with the main site (the supersite) adjacent to the Carnegie Mellon University campus in Schenley Park. One of the additional sampling sites was located at the National Energy Technology Laboratory, located approximately 18 km southeast of downtown Pittsburgh. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass, gas-phase volatile organic material (VOM), particulate semivolatile and nonvolatile organic material (NVOM), and ammonium sulfate were apportioned at the two sites into their primary and secondary contributions using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency UNMIX 2.3 multivariate receptor modeling and analysis software. A portion of each of these species was identified as originating from gasoline and diesel primary mobile sources. Some of the organic material was formed from local secondary transformation processes, whereas the great majority of the secondary sulfate was associated with regional transformation contributions. The results indicated that the diurnal patterns of secondary gas-phase VOM and particulate semivolatile and NVOM were not correlated with secondary ammonium sulfate contributions but were associated with separate formation pathways. These findings are consistent with the bulk of the secondary ammonium sulfate in the Pittsburgh area being the result of contributions from distant transport and, thus, decoupled from local activity involving organic pollutants in the metropolitan area.

  8. Indoor air pollution and childhood asthma: effective environmental interventions.

    PubMed Central

    Etzel, R A

    1995-01-01

    Exposure to indoor air pollutants such as tobacco smoke and dust mites may exacerbate childhood asthma. Environmental interventions to reduce exposures to these pollutants can help prevent exacerbations of the disease. Among the most important interventions is the elimination of environmental tobacco smoke from the environments of children with asthma. However, the effectiveness of reducing asthmatic children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke on the severity of their symptoms has not yet been systematically evaluated. Dust mite reduction is another helpful environmental intervention. This can be achieved by enclosing the child's mattresses, blankets, and pillows in zippered polyurethane-coated casings. Primary prevention of asthma is not as well understood. It is anticipated that efforts to reduce smoking during pregnancy could reduce the incidence of asthma in children. European studies have suggested that reducing exposure to food and house dust mite antigens during lactation and for the first 12 months of life diminishes the development of allergic disorders in infants with high total IgE in the cord blood and a family history of atopy. Many children with asthma and their families are not receiving adequate counseling about environmental interventions from health care providers or other sources. PMID:8549490

  9. [Bio-indicating function of soil protozoa to environmental pollution].

    PubMed

    Song, Xueying; Song, Yufang; Sun, Tieheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Qixing

    2004-10-01

    Due to the abundant species and huge biomass, soil protozoa play an important role in soil ecosystem. As a bio-indicator, soil protozoa have many advantages over other soil animals. Studies on the community structures, quantities, and dynamic variations of biodiversity of soil protozoa could provide powerful means to evaluate natural environmental changes and to monitor the environmental pollution brought by anthropic activities. Based on the current study at home and abroad, this paper gave a review on the function of soil protozoa in ecosystems, their advantages as bio-indicator, and their responses to environmental factors, soil contaminants and the change of atmospheric CO2. The application prospect of soil protozoa in eco-toxicity diagnosis was also discussed.

  10. [A study on the relationship between malignant tumour mortality and environmental pollution in Beicun countryside of Datong City].

    PubMed

    Han, C Z; Guo, Y; Jing, J X

    1995-04-01

    The paper reports investigations on malignant tumor mortality in Beicun countryside of Datong city, with Hua yuan tun countryside as the control group. The result showed that malignant tumor mortality (117.04/10(5)) in Beicun countryside was significantly higher than that in the control group (61.06/10(5)). The nitrate and nitrite in drinking water and five kinds of vegetables in Beicun countryside were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05 - P < 0.001). Serum Cu and Cu/Zu levels in the inhabitants of Beicun countryside were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01). The benzo (a) pyrene and airborne particulates in Beicun countryside area were higher than those in the control group area. The results showed that the malignant tumor mortality was strongly correlated with severe pollution of vegetables, drinking water and air. PMID:7781045

  11. Pollution Prevention Wipe Application Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, E.P.; Modderman, W.E.; Montoya, M.G.

    1999-02-10

    As part of a pollution prevention program, a study was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories and at the Amarillo, ''Pantex Plant'' to identify a suitable replacement solvent(s) for cleaning hardware during routine maintenance operations. Current cleaning is performed using solvents (e.g. acetone, toluene, MEK, alcohols) that are classified as Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCW) materials. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has assigned four characteristics as the criteria for determining whether a material is identified as hazardous under RCRA: Ignitability, Corrosivity, Reactivity and Toxicity. Within the DOE and DoD sector, these solvents are used with hand wipes to clean surfaces prior to O-ring replacement, to remove decals for new labeling, to clean painted surfaces prior to reconditioning, and for other general maintenance purposes. In some cases, low level radioactive contamination during cleaning necessitates that the RCIL4 solvent-containing wipes be classified as mixed waste. To avoid using RCRA materials, cleaning candidates were sought that had a flashpoint greater than 140 F, a pH between 2.5 and 12.5, and did not fail the reactivity and toxicity criteria. Three brominated cleaners, two hydrofluoroether azeotropes and two aliphatic hydrocarbon cleaner formulations were studied as potential replacements. Cleaning efficacy, materials compatibility, corrosion and accelerated aging studies were conducted and used to screen potential candidates. Hypersolve NPB (an n-propyl bromide based formulation) consistently ranked high in removing typical contaminants for weapons applications.

  12. Study of air pollutant detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutshall, P. L.; Bowles, C. Q.

    1974-01-01

    The application of field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) to the detection of air pollutants was investigated. Current methods are reviewed for measuring contaminants of fixed gases, sulfur compounds, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulates. Two enriching devices: the dimethyl silicone rubber membrane separator, and the selective adsorber of polyethylene foam were studied along with FIMS. It is concluded that the membrane enricher system is not a suitable method for removing air pollutants. However, the FIMS shows promise as a useable system for air pollution detection.

  13. Water Pollution. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    Water is one of the most polluted resources in our environment. Since everyone has the same basic need for pure water, it follows that all people should have a basic knowledge of the causes, results and solutions to the water pollution problem. This unit is designed for use with Level II and III educable mentally retarded students to present…

  14. Evaluation of air pollution modelling tools as environmental engineering courseware.

    PubMed

    Souto González, J A; Bello Bugallo, P M; Casares Long, J J

    2004-01-01

    The study of phenomena related to the dispersion of pollutants usually takes advantage of the use of mathematical models based on the description of the different processes involved. This educational approach is especially important in air pollution dispersion, when the processes follow a non-linear behaviour so it is difficult to understand the relationships between inputs and outputs, and in a 3D context where it becomes hard to analyze alphanumeric results. In this work, three different software tools, as computer solvers for typical air pollution dispersion phenomena, are presented. Each software tool developed to be implemented on PCs, follows approaches that represent three generations of programming languages (Fortran 77, VisualBasic and Java), applied over three different environments: MS-DOS, MS-Windows and the world wide web. The software tools were tested by students of environmental engineering (undergraduate) and chemical engineering (postgraduate), in order to evaluate the ability of these software tools to improve both theoretical and practical knowledge of the air pollution dispersion problem, and the impact of the different environment in the learning process in terms of content, ease of use and visualization of results. PMID:15193095

  15. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Luther L.

    1970-01-01

    Our mechanized environment has produced a variety of man-made pollutants. Prevention of pollution and resulting health hazards is a primary challenge. The Federal Government undertakes a large responsibility in the field of environmental control. (CK)

  16. Immunotoxic effects of environmental pollutants in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Sonne, Christian; Levin, Milton; Siebert, Ursula; De Guise, Sylvain; Dietz, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Due to their marine ecology and life-history, marine mammals accumulate some of the highest levels of environmental contaminants of all wildlife. Given the increasing prevalence and severity of diseases in marine wildlife, it is imperative to understand how pollutants affect the immune system and consequently disease susceptibility. Advancements and adaptations of analytical techniques have facilitated marine mammal immunotoxicology research. Field studies, captive-feeding experiments and in vitro laboratory studies with marine mammals have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, most notable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals, to alterations of both the innate and adaptive arms of immune systems, which include aspects of cellular and humoral immunity. For marine mammals, reported immunotoxicology endpoints fell into several major categories: immune tissue histopathology, haematology/circulating immune cell populations, functional immune assays (lymphocyte proliferation, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and natural killer cell activity), immunoglobulin production, and cytokine gene expression. Lymphocyte proliferation is by far the most commonly used immune assay, with studies using different organic pollutants and metals predominantly reporting immunosuppressive effects despite the many differences in study design and animal life history. Using combined field and laboratory data, we determined effect threshold levels for suppression of lymphocyte proliferation to be between b0.001-10 ppm for PCBs, 0.002-1.3 ppm for Hg, 0.009-0.06 for MeHg, and 0.1-2.4 for cadmium in polar bears and several pinniped and cetacean species. Similarly, thresholds for suppression of phagocytosis were 0.6-1.4 and 0.08-1.9 ppm for PCBs and mercury, respectively. Although data are lacking for many important immune endpoints and mechanisms of specific immune alterations are not well understood, this review revealed a systemic suppression of

  17. Immunotoxic effects of environmental pollutants in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Sonne, Christian; Levin, Milton; Siebert, Ursula; De Guise, Sylvain; Dietz, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Due to their marine ecology and life-history, marine mammals accumulate some of the highest levels of environmental contaminants of all wildlife. Given the increasing prevalence and severity of diseases in marine wildlife, it is imperative to understand how pollutants affect the immune system and consequently disease susceptibility. Advancements and adaptations of analytical techniques have facilitated marine mammal immunotoxicology research. Field studies, captive-feeding experiments and in vitro laboratory studies with marine mammals have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, most notable polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals, to alterations of both the innate and adaptive arms of immune systems, which include aspects of cellular and humoral immunity. For marine mammals, reported immunotoxicology endpoints fell into several major categories: immune tissue histopathology, haematology/circulating immune cell populations, functional immune assays (lymphocyte proliferation, phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and natural killer cell activity), immunoglobulin production, and cytokine gene expression. Lymphocyte proliferation is by far the most commonly used immune assay, with studies using different organic pollutants and metals predominantly reporting immunosuppressive effects despite the many differences in study design and animal life history. Using combined field and laboratory data, we determined effect threshold levels for suppression of lymphocyte proliferation to be between b0.001-10 ppm for PCBs, 0.002-1.3 ppm for Hg, 0.009-0.06 for MeHg, and 0.1-2.4 for cadmium in polar bears and several pinniped and cetacean species. Similarly, thresholds for suppression of phagocytosis were 0.6-1.4 and 0.08-1.9 ppm for PCBs and mercury, respectively. Although data are lacking for many important immune endpoints and mechanisms of specific immune alterations are not well understood, this review revealed a systemic suppression of

  18. The U.S. and Environmental Pollution Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newill, Vaun A.

    1974-01-01

    Background concerning legislation and development of environmental programs is detailed in the areas of air pollution, water pollution, pesticides, and multimedia toxic substances. Each section contains a discussion of scientific knowledge, health effects, costs, proposed standards, and possible approaches to the problems. (LS)

  19. IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF FECAL POLLUTION IN ENVIRONMENTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of Microbial Source Tracking (MST) methods are currently used to determine the origin of fecal pollution impacting environmental waters. MST is based on the assumption that given the appropriate method and indicator organism, the source of fecal microbial pollution can ...

  20. Incorporation of pollution prevention principles in environmental methods

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.; Alvarado, J.S.; Lu, C.-S.; Peterson, D.P.; Silzer, J.

    1996-07-01

    The principles of pollution prevention (P2) have not been sufficiently incorporated into analytical methods. In this paper, we focus on the needs for and the benefits of incorporating the principles of P2 into environmental analytical methods.

  1. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCPS) AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typical...

  2. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS: DIVERSE GALAXY OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typical...

  3. A Method for Estimating Urban Background Concentrations in Support of Hybrid Air Pollution Modeling for Environmental Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure studies rely on detailed characterization of air quality, either from sparsely located routine ambient monitors or from central monitoring sites that may lack spatial representativeness. Alternatively, some studies use models of various complexities to characterize local...

  4. Environmental distribution of chlorinated organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Emmi, F.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of the concentration of PCB's and chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides in Susquehanna River Basin sediments was performed on samples collected from New York and Pennsylvania in 1976-1979. Highest concentrations were found for PCB's, with median and range of 38 and 13-524 ng/g, respectively. Pesticides had median concentrations ranging from approx.1 ng/g for DDT, DDD, and DDE, to less than 0.1 ng/g for aldrin and dieldrin. Highest concentrations generally were found downstream from industrial centers. Concentrations of PCB's and pesticides were also determined for soil composites collected from six areas of the basin. For several pollutants, the highest levels were found in the Pennsylvania areas, especially the Conestoga River Basin site. The PCB levels were the same (approx.35 ng/g) in all New York soil composites; this was consistent with concentrations predicted from known atmospheric deposition data. Adsorption of atrazine and simazine on model substrates was stuided to elucidate the partitioning of these herbicides on river sediments. Clean sea sand had little affinity for these compounds. Adsorption on illite clay and humic acid-coated sea sand gave relatively large K/sub p/ and K/sub oc/ values compared to the values for river sediments, suggesting that the nature of the sites available for absorbing organic molecules needs further study.

  5. Using a choice experiment to measure the environmental costs of air pollution impacts in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Kwak, Seung-Jun; Lee, Joo-Suk

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution, a by-product of economic growth, has been incurring extensive environmental costs in Seoul, Korea. Unfortunately, air pollution impacts are not treated as a commercial item, and thus it is difficult to measure the environmental costs arising from air pollution. There is an imminent need to find a way to measure air pollution impacts so that appropriate actions can be taken to control air pollution. Therefore, this study attempts to apply a choice experiment to quantifying the environmental costs of four air pollution impacts (mortality, morbidity, soiling damage, and poor visibility), using a specific case study of Seoul. We consider the trade-offs between price and attributes of air pollution impacts for selecting a preferred alternative and derive the marginal willingness to pay (WTP) estimate for each attribute. According to the results, the households' monthly WTP for a 10% reduction in the concentrations of major pollutants in Seoul was found to be approximately 5494 Korean won (USD 4.6) and the total annual WTP for the entire population of Seoul was about 203.4 billion Korean won (USD 169.5 million). This study is expected to provide policy-makers with useful information for evaluating and planning environmental policies relating specifically to air pollution.

  6. Ambient particulate air pollution and ectopy--the environmental epidemiology of arrhythmogenesis in Women's Health Initiative Study, 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    Liao, Duanping; Whitsel, Eric A; Duan, Yinkang; Lin, Hung-Mo; Quibrera, P Miguel; Smith, Richard; Peuquet, Donna J; Prineas, Ronald J; Zhang, Zhu-Ming; Anderson, Garnet

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between ambient PM(2.5) and PM(10) and arrhythmia and the effect modification by cigarette smoking were investigated. Data from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) air quality monitors and an established national-scale, log-normal kriging method were used to spatially estimate daily mean concentrations of PM at addresses of 57,422 individuals from 59 examination sites in 24 U.S. states in 1999-2004. The acute and subacute exposures were estimated as mean, geocoded address-specific PM concentrations on the day of, 0-2 d before, and averaged over 30 d before the electrocardiogram (ECG) (Lag(0); Lag(1); Lag(2); Lag(1-30)). At the time of standard 12-lead resting ECG, the mean age (SD) of participants was 67.5 (6.9) yr (84% non-Hispanic White; 6% current smoker; 15% with coronary heart disease; 5% with ectopy). After the identification of significant effect modifiers, two-stage random-effects models were used to calculate center-pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR, 95% CI) of arrhythmia per 10 mug/m(3) increase in PM concentrations. Among current smokers, Lag(0) and Lag(1) PM concentrations were significantly associated ventricular ectopy (VE)-the OR (95% CI) for VE among current smokers was 2 (1.32-3.3) and 1.32 (1.07-1.65) at Lag(1) PM(2.5) and PM(10), respectively. The interactions between current smoking and acute exposures (Lag(0); Lag(1); Lag(2)) were significant in relationship to VE. Acute exposures were not significantly associated with supraventricular ectopy (SVE), or with VE among nonsmokers. Subacute (Lag(1-30)) exposures were not significantly associated with arrhythmia. Acute PM(2.5) and PM(10) exposure is directly associated with the odds of VE among smokers, suggesting that they are more vulnerable to the arrhythmogenic effects of PM.

  7. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCP'S) AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS: POLLUTION FROM PERSONAL ACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typical...

  8. PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS (PPCPS) AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS: POLLUTION FROM PERSONAL ACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as trace environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope of concerns continues to expand. PPCPs comprise thousands of distinct chemicals from numerous therapeutic and consumer classes. They typicall...

  9. HEALTH CARE GUIDE TO POLLUTION PREVENTION IMPLEMENTATION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health Care Guide to Pollution Prevention Implementation through Environmental Management Systems provides example EMS procedures and forms used in four ISO 14001 EMS certified hospitals. The latest revisions include more EMS hospital case studies, more compliance resources, ...

  10. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies: Activities. Appendices, Volume 1 and Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T.; And Others

    This activity oriented guide is divided into four sections dealing with the Hydrologic Cycle; Human Activities; Ecological Perspectives; and Social and Political Factors. Each activity contains seven parts: (1) an introduction; (2) questions about the activity; (3) necessary equipment; (4) procedures; (5) results obtained by using the study; (6)…

  11. [Spatial and temporal changes of emerging environmental pollution accidents and impact factors in China].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Lü, Yong-long; He, Gui-zhen; Wang, Tie-yu; Luo, Wei; Shi, Ya-juan

    2008-09-01

    Based on environmental statistics data from 1993 to 2005, spatial distribution and temporal tendency of the environmental pollution and destruction accidents and their external causes were analyzed by using GIS and non-parametric correlation methods. It was concluded that (1) during the study period, annual environmental pollution accidents was maximally 3001 times in 1994 and minimally 1406 in 2005, while the frequency decreased in general. In addition, water and air accidents occupied the most; (2) environmental pollution and destruction accidents centralized in southeast and middle parts of China, mainly in Hunan, Sichuan, and Guangxi; (3) factors including population, GDP, company number and industrial waste water discharge had positive impacts on frequency of environmental pollution and destruction accidents, while in developed provinces the frequency was only correlated with company number.

  12. Environmental policy, legislation and management of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in China.

    PubMed

    Lau, Melody Hoi Yin; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee; Wong, Stella Wing Yu; Wang, Hong; Yan, Zhen-Guang

    2012-06-01

    Since early 1980s, chemical pollution has become a serious environmental problem in rapidly developing China. This study reviewed the policy and legal framework for monitoring and management of chemical pollutants in China, with reference to the relevant experience in other jurisdictions. Although efforts in environmental monitoring of chemical contamination have been substantially increased over the last decade, China is lagging behind in terms of nationwide monitoring of chemical contamination in human population, and standardization of sampling and analytical protocols. While actively participating in various international treaties and conventions related to pollution control, China also has a very comprehensive set of environmental laws and policies. These include the newly enacted legislation on the control of new chemicals (i.e., China REACH) and the development of a set of National Environmental Standards. In addition to environmental education, these new measures will further enhance the control of chemical pollutants and facilitate effective law enforcement.

  13. Prospects for microbiological solutions to environmental pollution with plastics.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Martin C; Harms, Hauke; Schlosser, Dietmar

    2015-11-01

    Synthetic polymers, commonly named plastics, are among the most widespread anthropogenic pollutants of marine, limnic and terrestrial ecosystems. Disruptive effects of plastics are known to threaten wildlife and exert effects on natural food webs, but signs for and knowledge on plastic biodegradation are limited. Microorganisms are the most promising candidates for an eventual bioremediation of environmental plastics. Laboratory studies have reported various effects of microorganisms on many types of polymers, usually by enzymatic hydrolysis or oxidation. However, most common plastics have proved to be highly recalcitrant even under conditions known to favour microbial degradation. Knowledge on environmental degradation is yet scarcer. With this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on microbiological degradation of several of the most common plastic types. Furthermore, we illustrate the analytical challenges concerning the evaluation of plastic biodegradation as well as constraints likely standing against the evolution of effective biodegradation pathways.

  14. Modifications in Ginkgo biloba L. in response to environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.K. )

    1989-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. (maidenhair tree) was studied in polluted and relatively clean habitats of West Tennessee. In spite of its known resistance to smog and automobile exhaust fumes, it exhibited a decrease in leaf length, leaf width, and petiole length in polluted habitats. Furthermore, there was a definite trend towards lower stomatal density along the pollution gradient in selected habitats.

  15. Privatization and environmental pollution in an international mixed Cournot model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we consider a competition between a domestic public firm and a foreign private firm, supposing that the production processes generates environmental pollution. Introducing the residents' environmental preference into the public firm's objective function, we analyse its economic impacts. We also analyse the economic impacts of the privatization.

  16. Linking Air, Land, and Water Pollution for Effective Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, other federal agencies, and the states have made substantial progress in improving the Nation’s air and water quality. Traditionally, the air, land, and water pollution ...

  17. [Congenital developmental defects in children and environmental pollution].

    PubMed

    Reznik, B Ia; Minkov, I P; Kriven'kaia, M N; Prudkiĭ, V Ia; Kil'dyshova, A N; Minervina, S S

    1991-01-01

    In one of the southern regions of the Ukraine, analysis was made over the recent three years of the genetic monitoring data on the incidence and structure of congenital developmental abnormalities in the newborn as related to the status of environmental pollution (the content of dust, carbon black, carbon and nitrogen oxides, nitrogen and sulfur dioxides, hydrogen sulfide, formaldehyde, phenol, fluorine compounds in the atmospheric air; the content of toxic chemicals and pesticides in foods, soil, water and feeds) as well as to the radiation situation. In the region under study, areas with varying degree of environmental pollution were distinguished. That was mainly done in terms of the characteristics of the atmospheric air and (to a less degree) varying annual dose of external radiation on conversion to one inhabitant. Analysis of the genetic monitoring has demonstrated the prevalence of congenital abnormalities, in the genesis of which the mutation component was of paramount importance, to be significantly higher in an ecologically unsafe area. The data obtained can be used in the regional programs aimed at the improvement of the environment, a reduction of the influence of exogenous risk factors implicated in the formation of congenital developmental abnormalities in children.

  18. Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis with Electrochemical Detection for Monitoring Environmental Pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2006-01-15

    This invited paper reviews recent advances and the key strategies in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical detection (ECD) for separating and detecting a variety of environmental pollutants. The subjects covered include the fabrication of microfluidic chips, sample pretreatments, ECD, typical applications of microchip CE with ECD in environmental analysis, and future prospects. It is expected that microchip CE-ECD will become a powerful tool in the environmental field and will lead to the creation of truly portable devices.

  19. Agricultural pollution control under Spanish and European environmental policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Yolanda; Albiac, José

    2004-10-01

    Nonpoint pollution from agriculture is an important environmental policy issue in Spain and the European Union. Agricultural pollution in Spain is being addressed by the National Irrigation Plan and by the European Water Framework Directive. This article contributes to the ongoing policy decision process by analyzing nonpoint pollution control and presenting results on the efficiency of abatement measures. Results question the reliance of the Water Framework Directive on water pricing as a pollution instrument for reaching good status for all waters because higher water prices close to full recovery cost advocated by the directive appear to be inefficient as an emission control instrument. Another important result is that abatement measures based on input taxes and standards on nitrogen appear to be more suitable than the National Irrigation Plan subsidies designed to promote irrigation investments. The results also contribute with further evidence to the discussion on the appropriate instrument base for pollution control, proving that nonpoint pollution control instruments cannot be assessed accurately without a correct understanding of the key underlying biophysical processes. Nonpoint pollution is characterized by nonlinearities, dynamics, and spatial dependency, and neglect of the dynamic aspects may lead to serious consequences for the design of measures. Finally, a quantitative assessment has been performed to explore discriminating measures based on crop pollution potential on vulnerable soils. No significant welfare gains are found from discriminating control, although results are contingent upon the level of damage, and discrimination could be justified in areas with valuable ecosystems and severe pollution damages.

  20. Enhanced phytoremediation of volatile environmental pollutants with transgenic trees

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Sharon L.; James, C. Andrew; Moore, Allison L.; Vajzovic, Azra; Singleton, Glenda L.; Ma, Caiping; Khan, Zareen; Xin, Gang; Kang, Jun Won; Park, Jin Young; Meilan, Richard; Strauss, Steven H.; Wilkerson, Jasmine; Farin, Federico; Strand, Stuart E.

    2007-01-01

    Small, volatile hydrocarbons, including trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, carbon tetrachloride, benzene, and chloroform, are common environmental pollutants that pose serious health effects. We have developed transgenic poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba) plants with greatly increased rates of metabolism and removal of these pollutants through the overexpression of cytochrome P450 2E1, a key enzyme in the metabolism of a variety of halogenated compounds. The transgenic poplar plants exhibited increased removal rates of these pollutants from hydroponic solution. When the plants were exposed to gaseous trichloroethylene, chloroform, and benzene, they also demonstrated superior removal of the pollutants from the air. In view of their large size and extensive root systems, these transgenic poplars may provide the means to effectively remediate sites contaminated with a variety of pollutants at much faster rates and at lower costs than can be achieved with current conventional techniques. PMID:17940038

  1. Environmental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Discussion, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Reports on a study of a pre-cooperative (the Sidi Saad pre-cooperative, Province of Tunis) as an environment in which a functional literacy program, integrated with socioeconomic development, was to be developed. (EB)

  2. Australia’s first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Green, Donna

    2014-04-01

    This study presents the first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution in Australia. Specifically, our analysis links the spatial distribution of sites and emissions associated with industrial pollution sources derived from the National Pollution Inventory, to Indigenous status and social disadvantage characteristics of communities derived from Australian Bureau of Statistics indicators. Our results reveal a clear national pattern of environmental injustice based on the locations of industrial pollution sources, as well as volume, and toxicity of air pollution released at these locations. Communities with the highest number of polluting sites, emission volume, and toxicity-weighted air emissions indicate significantly greater proportions of Indigenous population and higher levels of socio-economic disadvantage. The quantities and toxicities of industrial air pollution are particularly higher in communities with the lowest levels of educational attainment and occupational status. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed analysis in specific regions and communities where socially disadvantaged groups are disproportionately impacted by industrial air pollution. Our empirical findings also underscore the growing necessity to incorporate environmental justice considerations in environmental planning and policy-making in Australia.

  3. Common lung conditions: environmental pollutants and lung disease.

    PubMed

    Delzell, John E

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants can have short- and long-term effects on lung health. Sources of air pollution include gases (eg, carbon monoxide, ozone) and particulate matter (eg, soot, dust). In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency regulates air pollution. Elevated ozone concentrations are associated with increases in lung-related hospitalizations and mortality. Elevated particulate matter pollution increases the risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality. Occupations with high exposures to pollutants (eg, heavy construction work, truck driving, auto mechanics) pose higher risk of chronic obstructive lung disease. Some industrial settings (eg, agriculture, sawmills, meat packing plants) also are associated with higher risks from pollutants. The Environmental Protection Agency issues an air quality index for cities and regions in the United States. The upper levels on the index are associated with increases in asthma-related emergency department visits and hospitalizations. Damp and moldy housing might make asthma symptoms worse; individuals from lower socioeconomic groups who live in lower quality housing are particularly at risk. Other household exposures that can have negative effects on lung health include radon, nanoparticles, and biomass fuels. PMID:23767420

  4. Removing environmental organic pollutants with bioremediation and phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun Won

    2014-06-01

    Hazardous organic pollutants represent a threat to human, animal, and environmental health. If left unmanaged, these pollutants could cause concern. Many researchers have stepped up efforts to find more sustainable and cost-effective alternatives to using hazardous chemicals and treatments to remove existing harmful pollutants. Environmental biotechnology, such as bioremediation and phytoremediation, is a promising field that utilizes natural resources including microbes and plants to eliminate toxic organic contaminants. This technology offers an attractive alternative to other conventional remediation processes because of its relatively low cost and environmentally-friendly method. This review discusses current biological technologies for the removal of organic contaminants, including chlorinated hydrocarbons, focusing on their limitation and recent efforts to correct the drawbacks.

  5. Environmental Pollution, A Guide to Current Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Science Information Exchange.

    Compiled from data gathered in fiscal years 1969 and 1970 by the Science Information Exchange, Smithsonian Institution, this inventory of more than 4200 federally and non-federally supported environmental research projects represents an attempt to provide a meaningful look at the shape, complexity, and direction of current and recent research.…

  6. PHARMACEUTICALS AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS: ISSUES REGARDING ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) provides the legislative mandate for the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Water Quality Program to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation’s waters. Therefore, a common goal is to maintain water...

  7. Air pollution exposure: a novel environmental risk factor for interstitial lung disease?

    PubMed

    Johannson, Kerri A; Balmes, John R; Collard, Harold R

    2015-04-01

    Air pollution exposure is a well-established risk factor for several adverse respiratory outcomes, including airways diseases and lung cancer. Few studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and interstitial lung disease (ILD) despite many forms of ILD arising from environmental exposures. There are potential mechanisms by which air pollution could cause, exacerbate, or accelerate the progression of certain forms of ILD via pulmonary and systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress. This article will review the current epidemiologic and translational data supporting the plausibility of this relationship and propose a new conceptual framework for characterizing novel environmental risk factors for these forms of lung disease.

  8. Electron Beam Technology for Environmental Pollution Control.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Han, Bumsoo

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, there are over 1700 electron beam (EB) units in commercial use, providing an estimated added value to numerous products, amounting to 100 billion USD or more. High-current electron accelerators are used in diverse industries to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials and to reduce undesirable contaminants such as pathogens, toxic byproducts, or emissions. Over the past few decades, EB technologies have been developed aimed at ensuring the safety of gaseous and liquid effluents discharged to the environment. It has been demonstrated that EB technologies for flue gas treatment (SO x and NO x removal), wastewater purification, and sludge hygienization can be effectively deployed to mitigate environmental degradation. Recently, extensive work has been carried out on the use of EB for environmental remediation, which also includes the removal of emerging contaminants such as VOCs, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and potential EDCs.

  9. Electron Beam Technology for Environmental Pollution Control.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Han, Bumsoo

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, there are over 1700 electron beam (EB) units in commercial use, providing an estimated added value to numerous products, amounting to 100 billion USD or more. High-current electron accelerators are used in diverse industries to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials and to reduce undesirable contaminants such as pathogens, toxic byproducts, or emissions. Over the past few decades, EB technologies have been developed aimed at ensuring the safety of gaseous and liquid effluents discharged to the environment. It has been demonstrated that EB technologies for flue gas treatment (SO x and NO x removal), wastewater purification, and sludge hygienization can be effectively deployed to mitigate environmental degradation. Recently, extensive work has been carried out on the use of EB for environmental remediation, which also includes the removal of emerging contaminants such as VOCs, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and potential EDCs. PMID:27620188

  10. Compensation of victims exposed to environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Kimbrough, R D; Simonds, M

    1986-01-01

    The sponsors of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), also known as "Superfund," agreed that more information was needed regarding legal remedies for injuries to persons from exposures to hazardous wastes. There has been a rush in Congress and some states to introduce "victims' compensation" bills to facilitate recovery for personal injury from exposure to hazardous waste sites. Such approaches are overly simplistic and totally disregard the reach and shortfall of scientific data. PMID:2943236

  11. Comparison of methodologies estimating emissions of aircraft pollutants, environmental impact assessment around airports

    SciTech Connect

    Kurniawan, Jermanto S. Khardi, S.

    2011-04-15

    Air transportation growth has increased continuously over the years. The rise in air transport activity has been accompanied by an increase in the amount of energy used to provide air transportation services. It is also assumed to increase environmental impacts, in particular pollutant emissions. Traditionally, the environmental impacts of atmospheric emissions from aircraft have been addressed in two separate ways; aircraft pollutant emissions occurring during the landing and take-off (LTO) phase (local pollutant emissions) which is the focus of this study, and the non-LTO phase (global/regional pollutant emissions). Aircraft pollutant emissions are an important source of pollution and directly or indirectly harmfully affect human health, ecosystems and cultural heritage. There are many methods to asses pollutant emissions used by various countries. However, using different and separate methodology will cause a variation in results, some lack of information and the use of certain methods will require justification and reliability that must be demonstrated and proven. In relation to this issue, this paper presents identification, comparison and reviews of some of the methodologies of aircraft pollutant assessment from the past, present and future expectations of some studies and projects focusing on emissions factors, fuel consumption, and uncertainty. This paper also provides reliable information on the impacts of aircraft pollutant emissions in short term and long term predictions.

  12. Transgenic Plants as Sensors of Environmental Pollution Genotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kovalchuk, Igor; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Rapid technological development is inevitably associated with many environmental problems which primarily include pollution of soil, water and air. In many cases, the presence of contamination is difficult to assess. It is even more difficult to evaluate its potential danger to the environment and humans. Despite the existence of several whole organism-based and cell-based models of sensing pollution and evaluation of toxicity and mutagenicity, there is no ideal system that allows one to make a quick and cheap assessment. In this respect, transgenic organisms that can be intentionally altered to be more sensitive to particular pollutants are especially promising. Transgenic plants represent an ideal system, since they can be grown at the site of pollution or potentially dangerous sites. Plants are ethically more acceptable and esthetically more appealing than animals as sensors of environmental pollution. In this review, we will discuss various transgenic plant-based models that have been successfully used for biomonitoring genotoxic pollutants. We will also discuss the benefits and potential drawbacks of these systems and describe some novel ideas for the future generation of efficient transgenic phytosensors.

  13. Endocrine Aspects of Environmental "Obesogen" Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Francesca; Barrea, Luigi; Di Somma, Carolina; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Orio, Francesco; Savastano, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests the causal link between the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the global obesity epidemics, in the context in the so-called "obesogenic environment". Dietary intake of contaminated foods and water, especially in association with unhealthy eating pattern, and inhalation of airborne pollutants represent the major sources of human exposure to EDCs. This is of particular concern in view of the potential impact of obesity on chronic non-transmissible diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hormone-sensitive cancers. The key concept is the identification of adipose tissue not only as a preferential site of storage of EDCs, but also as an endocrine organ and, as such, susceptible to endocrine disruption. The timing of exposure to EDCs is critical to the outcome of that exposure, with early lifetime exposures (e.g., fetal or early postnatal) particularly detrimental because of their permanent effects on obesity later in life. Despite that the mechanisms operating in EDCs effects might vary enormously, this minireview is aimed to provide a general overview on the possible association between the pandemics of obesity and EDCs, briefly describing the endocrine mechanisms linking EDCs exposure and latent onset of obesity. PMID:27483295

  14. The distribution of pollution and environmental justice in Puerto Rico: a quantitative analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because few empirical studies on environmental justice and pollution distribution exist, we examine both issues in Puerto Rico. This research is part of a larger US EPA project related to sustainability issues. We calculate an environmental Gini coefficient using Toxic Release In...

  15. Industrial effluent quality, pollution monitoring and environmental management.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S; Hammad, Waleed S

    2008-12-01

    Royal Commission Environmental Control Department (RC-ECD) at Yanbu industrial city in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has established a well-defined monitoring program to control the pollution from industrial effluents. The quality of effluent from each facility is monitored round the clock. Different strategic measures have been taken by the RC-ECD to implement the zero discharge policy of RC. Industries are required to pre-treat the effluent to conform pretreatment standards before discharging to central biological treatment plant. Industries are not allowed to discharge any treated or untreated effluent in open channels. After treatment, reclaimed water must have to comply with direct discharge standards before discharge to the sea. Data of industrial wastewater collected from five major industries and central industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP) is summarized in this report. During 5-year period, 3,705 samples were collected and analyzed for 43,436 parameters. There were 1,377 violations from pretreatment standards from all the industries. Overall violation percentage was 3.17%. Maximum violations were recorded from one of the petrochemical plants. The results show no significant pollution due to heavy metals. Almost all heavy metals were within RC pretreatment standards. High COD and TOC indicates that major pollution was due to hydrocarbons. Typical compounds identified by GC-MS were branched alkanes, branched alkenes, aliphatic ketones, substituted thiophenes, substituted phenols, aromatics and aromatic alcohols. Quality of treated water was also in compliance with RC direct discharge standards. In order to achieve the zero discharge goal, further studies and measures are in progress.

  16. Surface Modification of Graphene Oxides by Plasma Techniques and Their Application for Environmental Pollution Cleanup.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangxue; Fan, Qiaohui; Chen, Zhongshan; Wang, Qi; Li, Jiaxing; Hobiny, Aatef; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Wang, Xiangke

    2016-02-01

    Graphene oxides (GOs) have come under intense multidisciplinary study because of their unique physicochemical properties and possible applications. The large amount of oxygen-containing functional groups on GOs leads to a high sorption capacity for the removal of various kinds of organic and inorganic pollutants from aqueous solutions in environmental pollution cleanup. However, the lack of selectivity results in difficulty in the selective removal of target pollutants from aqueous solutions in the presence of other coexisting pollutants. Herein, the surface grafting of GOs with special oxygen-containing functional groups using low-temperature plasma techniques and the application of the surface-modified GOs for the efficient removal of organic and inorganic pollutants in environmental pollution are reviewed. This paper gives an account of our research on the application of GO-based nanomaterials in environmental pollution cleanup, including: (1) the synthesis and surface grafting of functional groups on GOs, summarizing various types of low-temperature plasma techniques for the synthesis of graphene/GOs; and (2) the application of graphene/GOs and their composites for the efficient removal of organic and inorganic pollutants from aqueous solutions, including the interaction mechanism according to recently published results.

  17. Forecasting sudden changes in environmental pollution patterns

    PubMed Central

    Olascoaga, María J.; Haller, George

    2012-01-01

    The lack of reliable forecasts for the spread of oceanic and atmospheric contamination hinders the effective protection of the ecosystem, society, and the economy from the fallouts of environmental disasters. The consequences can be dire, as evidenced by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. We present a methodology to predict major short-term changes in environmental contamination patterns, such as oil spills in the ocean and ash clouds in the atmosphere. Our approach is based on new mathematical results on the objective (frame-independent) identification of key material surfaces that drive tracer mixing in unsteady, finite-time flow data. Some of these material surfaces, known as Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs), turn out to admit highly attracting cores that lead to inevitable material instabilities even under future uncertainties or unexpected perturbations to the observed flow. These LCS cores have the potential to forecast imminent shape changes in the contamination pattern, even before the instability builds up and brings large masses of water or air into motion. Exploiting this potential, the LCS-core analysis developed here provides a model-independent forecasting scheme that relies only on already observed or validated flow velocities at the time the prediction is made. We use this methodology to obtain high-precision forecasts of two major instabilities that occurred in the shape of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. This is achieved using simulated surface currents preceding the prediction times and assuming that the oil behaves as a passive tracer. PMID:22411824

  18. Forecasting sudden changes in environmental pollution patterns.

    PubMed

    Olascoaga, María J; Haller, George

    2012-03-27

    The lack of reliable forecasts for the spread of oceanic and atmospheric contamination hinders the effective protection of the ecosystem, society, and the economy from the fallouts of environmental disasters. The consequences can be dire, as evidenced by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. We present a methodology to predict major short-term changes in environmental contamination patterns, such as oil spills in the ocean and ash clouds in the atmosphere. Our approach is based on new mathematical results on the objective (frame-independent) identification of key material surfaces that drive tracer mixing in unsteady, finite-time flow data. Some of these material surfaces, known as Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs), turn out to admit highly attracting cores that lead to inevitable material instabilities even under future uncertainties or unexpected perturbations to the observed flow. These LCS cores have the potential to forecast imminent shape changes in the contamination pattern, even before the instability builds up and brings large masses of water or air into motion. Exploiting this potential, the LCS-core analysis developed here provides a model-independent forecasting scheme that relies only on already observed or validated flow velocities at the time the prediction is made. We use this methodology to obtain high-precision forecasts of two major instabilities that occurred in the shape of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. This is achieved using simulated surface currents preceding the prediction times and assuming that the oil behaves as a passive tracer.

  19. Environmental Pollution Control: Two Views from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Phillip; Greig, William H.

    1977-01-01

    Citizens exhibitied concern about pollution, a low level of trust in governmental and industrial efforts, and a low level of dedication to environmental protection. Demands to clean up the environment came from one segment of the population while demands to solve the energy crisis came from other segments. (AJ)

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the activities and progress of the pilot Air Pollution Control Technologies (APCT) portion of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program during the period from 09/15/97 to 09/15/02. The objective of the ETV Program is to verify the performance of...

  1. Environmental Pollution, Student's Book (Experiences/Experiments/Activities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Elbert C.

    Described in this student's manual are numerous experiments to acquaint the learner with community environmental problems. Experiments are relatively simple and useful in the junior high school grades. Activities are provided which emphasize some of the materials involved in pollution problems, such as carbon dioxide, sulfur compounds, and others,…

  2. A new model for investigating the mortality effects of multiple air pollutants in air pollution mortality time-series studies.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Steven

    2006-03-01

    Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulates air pollutants independently, the majority of time-series studies on air pollution and mortality have focused on estimating the adverse health effects of a single pollutant. However, due to the sometimes high correlation between air pollutants, the results from studies that focus on a single air pollutant can be difficult to interpret. In addition, the high correlation between air pollutants can produce problems of interpretation for the standard method of investigating the adverse health effects due to multiple air pollutants. The standard method involves simultaneously including the multiple air pollutants in a single statistical model. Because of this, the development of new models to concurrently estimate the adverse health effects of multiple air pollutants has recently been identified as an important area of future research. In this article, a new model for disentangling the joint effects of multiple air pollutants in air pollution mortality time-series studies is introduced. This new model uses the time-series data to assign each air pollutant a weight that indicates the pollutant's contribution to the air pollution mixture that affects mortality and to estimate the effect of this air pollution mixture on mortality. This model offers an improvement in statistical estimation precision over the standard method. It also avoids problems of interpretation that can occur if the standard method is used. This new model is then illustrated by applying it to time-series data from two U.S. counties.

  3. Hydroquinone: Environmental Pollution, Toxicity, and Microbial Answers

    PubMed Central

    Leitão, Ana Lúcia

    2013-01-01

    Hydroquinone is a major benzene metabolite, which is a well-known haematotoxic and carcinogenic agent associated with malignancy in occupational environments. Human exposure to hydroquinone can occur by dietary, occupational, and environmental sources. In the environment, hydroquinone showed increased toxicity for aquatic organisms, being less harmful for bacteria and fungi. Recent pieces of evidence showed that hydroquinone is able to enhance carcinogenic risk by generating DNA damage and also to compromise the general immune responses which may contribute to the impaired triggering of the host immune reaction. Hydroquinone bioremediation from natural and contaminated sources can be achieved by the use of a diverse group of microorganisms, ranging from bacteria to fungi, which harbor very complex enzymatic systems able to metabolize hydroquinone either under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Due to the recent research development on hydroquinone, this review underscores not only the mechanisms of hydroquinone biotransformation and the role of microorganisms and their enzymes in this process, but also its toxicity. PMID:23936816

  4. Air pollution and environmental justice in the Great Lakes region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comer, Bryan

    While it is true that air quality has steadily improved in the Great Lakes region, air pollution remains at unhealthy concentrations in many areas. Research suggests that vulnerable and susceptible groups in society -- e.g., minorities, the poor, children, and poorly educated -- are often disproportionately impacted by exposure to environmental hazards, including air pollution. This dissertation explores the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution (interpolated concentrations of fine particulate matter, PM2.5) and sociodemographic factors (race, housing value, housing status, education, age, and population density) at the Census block-group level in the Great Lakes region of the United States. A relatively novel approach to quantitative environmental justice analysis, geographically weighted regression (GWR), is compared with a simplified approach: ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. While OLS creates one global model to describe the relationship between air pollution exposure and sociodemographic factors, GWR creates many local models (one at each Census block group) that account for local variations in this relationship by allowing the value of regression coefficients to vary over space, overcoming OLS's assumption of homogeneity and spatial independence. Results suggest that GWR can elucidate patterns of potential environmental injustices that OLS models may miss. In fact, GWR results show that the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution and sociodemographic characteristics is non-stationary and can vary geographically and temporally throughout the Great Lakes region. This suggests that regulators may need to address environmental justice issues at the neighborhood level, while understanding that the severity of environmental injustices can change throughout the year.

  5. A Comparison of Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants: Application to Epidemiology Studies in Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicles are major sources of air pollutant emissions, and individuals living near large roads endure high exposures and health risks associated with traffic-related air pollutants. Air pollution epidemiology, health risk, environmental justice, and transportation planning studi...

  6. Hungry fungi seek rough diet, root out environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, J.

    1993-12-01

    The US Navy asked biochemist Stephen Aust to determine whether a common fungus could destroy 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, a highly explosive compound popularly known as TNT. The reason white rot fungus apparently can be used to attack nearly any organic contaminant, lies in the organisms' evolution in response to a nearly infinite variety of trees and lignin. White rot fungus, evolved to degrade wood, and not every tree is the same. Environmental pollutants are very similar. Some environmental pollutants are very insoluble. Aust emphasizes that using white rot fungi in environmental treatment is not an off-the-shelf technology. Applications and remediation techniques in most cases will be site-specific success will require prior, accurate calculation of the fungi's nutrient demands, contaminant types and concentrations, local conditions, and economic considerations. Most work with white rot fungi to date has been at the laboratory scale. Experiments indicated that the fungus can indeed degrade TNT to carbon dioxide.

  7. Analysis of selected organic priority pollutants in environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    McElhaney, R.J.; Mann, M.L.

    1980-09-26

    The analysis of drinking water for pesticides, herbicides, and volatile organic compounds will probably be the environmental analytical chemist's introduction to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) list of organic priority pollutants. The State of Tennessee requires that drinking water be monitored for lindane, endrin, methoxychlor, toxaphene, 2,4-D, silvex, and the trihalomethanes (THM). In the past two years our attention has been particularly focused on the analysis of polyclorinated biphenyl (PCB) in an increasingly wide variety of sample types. This paper will describe the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Laboratory's experience in the analysis of environmental samples for these particular organic priority pollutants by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Preparation and cleanup procedures for many sample types, chromatographic interpretation, column selection, and confirmatory tests will be discussed and evaluated.

  8. Monitoring environmental pollutants by microchip capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2006-01-15

    This is a review article. During the past decade, significant progress in the development of miniaturized microfluidic systems has Occurred due to the numerous advantages of microchip analysis. This review focuses on recent advances and the key strategies in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical detection (ECD) for separating and detecting a variety of environmental pollutants. The subjects covered include the fabrication of microfluidic chips, ECD, typical applications of microchip CE with ECD in environmental analysis, and future prospects. It is expected that microchip CE-ECD will become a powerful tool in the environmental field and will lead to the creation of truly portable devices.

  9. Sedimentary record of environmental pollution in the Western Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, German; Dominik, J.; Reuther, R.; Malisch, R.; Schulte, E.; Acker, L.; Irion, G.

    1980-12-01

    The chronological development of environmental pollution in the Western Baltic Sea for the past hundred years was investigated in dated sediment cores. An artificial radionuclide (137Cs), nutrients, heavy metals, chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCB, DDT, Lindane) and plasticizers (phthalate esters) show characteristic distribution patterns within the various cores. They can be related to the production and use of specific chemicals and goods, to emissions associated with the increased combustion of coal parallel to industrialization and —in the case of 137Cs — to emissions associated with atomic weapons tests in the high atmosphere. Characteristic trends in the general development of pollution may be superimposed by specific emissions from local sources.

  10. Photoreactors for Solving Problems of Environmental Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchaikovskaya, O. N.; Sokolova, I. V.

    2015-04-01

    Designs and physical aspects of photoreactors, their capabilities for a study of kinetics and mechanisms of processes proceeding under illumination with light, as well as application of photoreactors for solving various applied problem are discussed.

  11. Environmental injustice and air pollution in coal affected communities, Hunter Valley, Australia.

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, Nick; Freeman, Sonia; Connor, Linda; Albrecht, Glenn

    2010-03-01

    The authors describe environmental injustice from air pollution in the Upper Hunter, Australia, and analyse the inaction of state authorities in addressing residents' health concerns. Obstacles blocking a public-requested health study and air monitoring include: the interdependence of state government and corporations in reaping the economic benefits of coal production; lack of political will, regulatory inertia and procedural injustice; and study design and measurement issues. We analyse mining- and coal-related air pollution in a contested socio-political arena, where residents, civil society and local government groups struggle with corporations and state government over the burden of imposed health risk caused by air pollution.

  12. Measuring combined exposure to environmental pressures in urban areas: an air quality and noise pollution assessment approach.

    PubMed

    Vlachokostas, Ch; Achillas, Ch; Michailidou, A V; Moussiopoulos, Nu

    2012-02-01

    This study presents a methodological scheme developed to provide a combined air and noise pollution exposure assessment based on measurements from personal portable monitors. Provided that air and noise pollution are considered in a co-exposure approach, they represent a significant environmental hazard to public health. The methodology is demonstrated for the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. The results of an extensive field campaign are presented and the variations in personal exposure between modes of transport, routes, streets and transport microenvironments are evaluated. Air pollution and noise measurements were performed simultaneously along several commuting routes, during the morning and evening rush hours. Combined exposure to environmental pollutants is highlighted based on the Combined Exposure Factor (CEF) and Combined Dose and Exposure Factor (CDEF). The CDEF takes into account the potential relative uptake of each pollutant by considering the physical activities of each citizen. Rather than viewing environmental pollutants separately for planning and environmental sustainability considerations, the possibility of an easy-to-comprehend co-exposure approach based on these two indices is demonstrated. Furthermore, they provide for the first time a combined exposure assessment to these environmental pollutants for Thessaloniki and in this sense they could be of importance for local public authorities and decision makers. A considerable environmental burden for the citizens of Thessaloniki, especially for VOCs and noise pollution levels is observed. The material herein points out the importance of measuring public health stressors and the necessity of considering urban environmental pollution in a holistic way.

  13. Cadmium, Chromium, and Copper Concentration plus Semen-Quality in Environmental Pollution Site, China

    PubMed Central

    LI, Yan; GAO, Qiaoyan; LI, Mingcai; LI, Mengyang; GAO, Xueming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The environmental pollution is one of the factors contributing to the decrease of sperm quality for human beings. The aim of this study was to assess cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and copper (Cu) concentration of man in environmental pollution site, and explore relationships between men exposure to Cd, Cr, and Cu and semen-quality parameters in environmental pollution site. Methods Ninety five men were recruited through pollution area and controls in 2011. We measured semen quality using Computer-aided Semen Quality Analysis, and Cd, Cr, and Cu levels in seminal plasma using Graphite Gurnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between Cd, Cr and Cu concentration in seminal plasma and semen quality. Results The mean of seminal plasma Cd, Cr, and Cu values in pollution area was higher than the controls. Seminal plasma Cr values displayed a significant negative correlation with total motility and normomorph sperm rate. Seminal plasma Cu values also displayed a negative correlation with normomorph sperm rate. Conclusions Male reproductive health may be threatened by environmental pollution, and it may be influence local population diathesis. PMID:26060677

  14. The use of mosses as environmental metal pollution indicators.

    PubMed

    Aceto, Maurizio; Abollino, Ornella; Conca, Raffaele; Malandrino, Mery; Mentasti, Edoardo; Sarzanini, Corrado

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of using mosses as environmental indicators of metal pollution has been investigated. Mosses of the species Bryum argenteum were collected from different parts of Piedmont (Italy), ranging from highly polluted areas to nearly uncontaminated mountain areas. Periodical samplings were planned in every site on a monthly base, in order to check variations of metal uptake throughout one year; correlations with pluviometric and thermal patterns were investigated for all sampling stations. On every moss sample 20 elements, ranging from major (K, P, Al, Ca, Fe and Mg) to minor (Mn, Na, Ti and Zn) and trace (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Ni, Pb and Sr), were quantitatively determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry or graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometry, depending on the needed sensitivity. Statistical analyses, carried out with principal component analysis and cluster analysis methods, revealed that a good correlation exists between metal content in mosses and pollution degree in the areas sampled.

  15. Effects of environmental pollutants on cellular iron homeostasis and ultimate links to human disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic disease has increased in the last several decades, and environmental pollutants have been implicated. The magnitude and variety of diseases indicate the malfunctioning of some basic mechanism underlying human health. Environmental pollutants demonstrate a capability to co...

  16. Using biochemical and isotope geochemistry to understand the environmental and public health implications of lead pollution in the lower Guadiana River, Iberia: a freshwater bivalve study.

    PubMed

    Company, R; Serafim, A; Lopes, B; Cravo, A; Shepherd, T J; Pearson, G; Bebianno, M J

    2008-11-01

    Lead is a natural component of aquatic ecosystems with no known biological role and is highly toxic. Its toxicity stems from its ability to mimic biologically important metals and to produce membrane damage through lipid peroxidation (LPO). Most lead poisoning symptoms are thought to occur by interfering with an essential enzyme, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), the activity of which is markedly inhibited by lead. The purpose of this work was to study the levels and effects of lead pollution (responses of ALAD and oxidative stress biomarker LPO) in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea along the lower Guadiana River (Portugal and Spain); a major river system impacted by historic mining pollution and more recent anthropogenic inputs. The results show that the enzymatic activity of ALAD is negatively correlated with the total Pb concentration of the whole tissue suggesting that ALAD has considerable potential as a biomarker of lead exposure in C. fluminea. To identify the sources of lead to which bivalves have been exposed, high precision (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (207)Pb/(204)Pb, (208)Pb/(204)/Pb ratios for C. fluminea confirm that historical mining activities in the Iberian Pyrite Belt are the dominant source of lead pollution in the lower Guadiana River. The isotope patterns however exhibit marked seasonal and geographic variation in response to rainfall and river water management. Locally, other anthropogenic sources of lead have been detected in C. fluminea close to population centres, thus adding to its versatility as a freshwater bio-indicator. Overall, the study highlights the value of natural ecosystems as monitors of water quality and their importance for public health assessment and surveillance.

  17. Pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunity assessment in environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, J.A.; Willison, C.P.

    1997-10-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories implicitly subscribed to the philosophy of pollution prevention and waste minimization. As a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) offer, Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOA) were conducted at two ER sites and a decontamination and Demolition (D and D) site. The purpose of one of the PPOAs was to identify pollution prevention (P2) opportunities during environmental remediation at the Classified Waste Landfill located at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The remediation activities at this site are scheduled to begin in the fall of 1997. The PPOA included presentations by the team members, a tour of the site, and a brainstorming session to list the waste streams, identify P2 opportunities and rank them in order of priority. Twenty-five P2 opportunities were identified during the brainstorming session of which twenty-two opportunities were selected for further investigation. Those twenty-two opportunities are discussed in this paper. A cost benefit analysis was performed for each P2 opportunity based on the estimated waste volume, feasibility, and cost. Pollution Prevention by Design (P2D) was incorporated into the PPOA to introduce waste minimization techniques that can be used during the planning phase of restoration projects.

  18. Increasingly intolerable boundaries: future control of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, J

    2001-09-14

    In recent years, there have been a number of toxic accidents on the sea and on land which have caused pollution down current, down wind and down stream. Four were dramatic and these four have led to substantial changes in the way we deal with risk to the environment. There have also been increasing concerns about a less spectacular but equally concerning problem, acid rain, though attempts to deal with this problem have been less successful. Perhaps the drama was lacking. In all these cases, unfortunately, the less developed countries can ill afford the costs of prevention and this means they are often the home of environmentally unfriendly development. While the current approaches to such problems will continue, it is likely that the countries on the receiving end of such pollution, especially if they have economic and military power, will seek more forceful solutions. One outcome may be a UN-sponsored environmental police force.

  19. Environmental pollution affects genetic diversity in wild bird populations.

    PubMed

    Eeva, Tapio; Belskii, Eugen; Kuranov, Boris

    2006-09-19

    Many common environmental pollutants, together with nuclear radiation, are recognized as genotoxic. There is, however, very little information on pollution-related genetic effects on free-living animal populations, especially in terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated whether genetic diversity in two small insectivorous passerines, the great tit (Parus major) and the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), was changed near point sources of heavy metals (two copper smelters) or radioactive isotopes (nuclear material reprocessing plant). We measured concentration of heavy metals and nucleotide diversity in mitochondrial DNA in feather samples taken from nestlings in multiple polluted areas and at control sites. In both species, heavy metal concentrations - especially of arsenic - were increased in feathers collected at smelter sites. The P. major population living near a smelter showed significantly higher nucleotide diversity than a control population in an unpolluted site, suggesting increased mutation rates in a polluted environment. On the contrary, F. hypoleuca showed reduced nucleotide diversity at both smelter sites but increased nucleotide diversity near the source of radioactivity. Our results show that heavy metal pollution and low level nuclear radiation affect the nucleotide diversity in two free-living insectivorous passerines. We suggest that the different response in these two species may be due to their different ability to handle toxic compounds in the body. PMID:16807076

  20. Bacterial Biosensors for Measuring Availability of Environmental Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Tecon, Robin; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, pollution risk assessment is based on the measurement of a pollutant's total concentration in a sample. The toxicity of a given pollutant in the environment, however, is tightly linked to its bioavailability, which may differ significantly from the total amount. Physico-chemical and biological parameters strongly influence pollutant fate in terms of leaching, sequestration and biodegradation. Bacterial sensor-reporters, which consist of living micro-organisms genetically engineered to produce specific output in response to target chemicals, offer an interesting alternative to monitoring approaches. Bacterial sensor-reporters detect bioavailable and/or bioaccessible compound fractions in samples. Currently, a variety of environmental pollutants can be targeted by specific biosensor-reporters. Although most of such strains are still confined to the lab, several recent reports have demonstrated utility of bacterial sensing-reporting in the field, with method detection limits in the nanomolar range. This review illustrates the general design principles for bacterial sensor-reporters, presents an overview of the existing biosensor-reporter strains with emphasis on organic compound detection. A specific focus throughout is on the concepts of bioavailability and bioaccessibility, and how bacteria-based sensing-reporting systems can help to improve our basic understanding of the different processes at work.

  1. Morphology of spermatogenic and accessory cells in the mussel Modiolus kurilensis under environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Yurchenko, Olga V; Vaschenko, Marina A

    2010-08-01

    A comparative light- and electron microscopic study of the male gonads of the bivalve mollusk Modiolus kurilensis from the reference and polluted sites in Amursky Bay (Sea of Japan) was conducted. Testicular acini in the mussels from the reference site had well-ordered structure (vertical spermatogenic columns located among the accessory cells bodies) whereas in the testes of the mollusks from the polluted site, the accessory and spermatogenic cell populations were disarranged. Mussels from the polluted station had about 26% of spermatogenic cells with marginal localization of nuclear chromatin, swollen outer nuclear membrane and heavily vacuolated cytoplasm and about 8% of spermatozoa with transformed or destructed acrosome; in mussels from the reference station, these values were close to zero. The accessory cells in the mussels from the polluted site were underdeveloped, and their phagocytic activity was inhibited. Our ultrastructural observations provide evidence that both spermatogenic and accessory cells are targets of environmental pollution in marine mussels.

  2. Effects of environmental pollutants on airways, allergic inflammation, and the immune response.

    PubMed

    Handzel, Z T

    2000-01-01

    Particulate and gaseous air pollutants are capable of damaging the airway epithelial lining and of shifting the local immune balance, thereby facilitating the induction of persistent inflammation. Epidemiological studies are inconclusive regarding whether air pollution increases the incidence of asthma and chronic bronchitis in the population. Clearly, environmental pollution can, however, precipitate attacks and emergency-room admissions in those already suffering from such conditions. The catastrophic potential of airborne pollution was demonstrated in the 1960s and 1970s, when inverted atmospheric pressure conditions trapped smog over cities on the Eastern coast of the United States and over Europe. This smog resulted in thousands of hospital admissions and dozens of deaths. With the general rise in the incidence of atopy and asthma in the Western population, it is of major public health interest to reduce, as much as possible, the exposure of such populations to anthropogenic and natural sources of pollution. PMID:11048334

  3. Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. PMID:23222206

  4. Measuring and minimizing the social cost of environmental pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    The various impacts to the environmental protection movement on the largest corporations in several industries which had the most serious pollution problem are discussed. The purpose was to examine the impacts from the point of view of top corporation managers so that a broader perspective could be provided for all concerned parties- citizens, environmentalists, legislators, governmental administrators and agency personnel, scientists, engineers, and other industrial managers.

  5. Disruption of iron homeostasis and resultant health effects upon exposure to various environmental pollutants: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenli; Zhang, Jie; Li, Wenjun; Xu, Ming; Liu, Sijin

    2015-08-01

    Environmental pollution has become one of the greatest problems in the world, and the concerns about environmental pollutants released by human activities from agriculture and industrial production have been continuously increasing. Although intense efforts have been made to understand the health effects of environmental pollutants, most studies have only focused on direct toxic effects and failed to simultaneously evaluate the long-term adaptive, compensatory and secondary impacts on health. Burgeoning evidence suggests that environmental pollutants may directly or indirectly give rise to disordered element homeostasis, such as for iron. It is crucially important to maintain concerted cellular and systemic iron metabolism. Otherwise, disordered iron metabolism would lead to cytotoxicity and increased risk for various diseases, including cancers. Thus, study on the effects of environmental pollutants upon iron homeostasis is urgently needed. In this review, we recapitulate the available findings on the direct or indirect impacts of environmental pollutants, including persistent organic pollutants (POPs), heavy metals and pesticides, on iron homeostasis and associated adverse health problems. In view of the unanswered questions, more efforts are warranted to investigate the disruptive effects of environmental pollutants on iron homeostasis and consequent toxicities.

  6. Aptamer based electrochemical sensors for emerging environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean Louis

    2014-06-01

    Environmental contaminants monitoring is one of the key issues in understanding and managing hazards to human health and ecosystems. In this context, aptamer based electrochemical sensors have achieved intense significance because of their capability to resolve a potentially large number of problems and challenges in environmental contamination. An aptasensor is a compact analytical device incorporating an aptamer (oligonulceotide) as the sensing element either integrated within or intimately associated with a physiochemical transducer surface. Nucleic acid is well known for the function of carrying and passing genetic information, however, it has found a key role in analytical monitoring during recent years. Aptamer based sensors represent a novelty in environmental analytical science and there are great expectations for their promising performance as alternative to conventional analytical tools. This review paper focuses on the recent advances in the development of aptamer based electrochemical sensors for environmental applications with special emphasis on emerging pollutants.

  7. Aptamer based electrochemical sensors for emerging environmental pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean L.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental contaminants monitoring is one of the key issues in understanding and managing hazards to human health and ecosystems. In this context, aptamer based electrochemical sensors have achieved intense significance because of their capability to resolve a potentially large number of problems and challenges in environmental contamination. An aptasensor is a compact analytical device incorporating an aptamer (oligonulceotide) as the sensing element either integrated within or intimately associated with a physiochemical transducer surface. Nucleic acid is well known for the function of carrying and passing genetic information, however, it has found a key role in analytical monitoring during recent years. Aptamer based sensors represent a novelty in environmental analytical science and there are great expectations for their promising performance as alternative to conventional analytical tools. This review paper focuses on the recent advances in the development of aptamer based electrochemical sensors for environmental applications with special emphasis on emerging pollutants. PMID:25019067

  8. A method to minimize the global warming and environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Tayade, P R; Sapkal, V S; Sapkal, R S; Deshmukh, S K; Rode, C V; Shinde, V M; Kanade, G S

    2012-04-01

    There has been continuous increase in the level of CO2 in atmosphere. Therefore, it is essential to develop an economical and convenient process to reduce the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. In this study, we have proposed an economical and efficient adsorption method to minimize the environmental CO2. A fluidized bed adsorption column was used, fabricated using cast iron sheet. The low prize pyrolyzed biochar prepared from farming biomass (crushed fine powder) was used as an adsorbent to adsorb CO2 from the mixture of air and CO2 (99.5% air and 0.5% CO2). The experimental observation was taken for the % removal of CO2 from the mixture of air and CO2, development of adsorption isotherm and to study the effect of pressure and inlet gas flow rate on the amount of CO2 adsorbed per kg of biochar. The exhausted (CO2 adsorbed) biochar from the fluidized column was tested as a fertilizer for the wheat crop and it has given near about 10% increase in the height of wheat crop within the first 10 days after sowing the wheat seeds. On the basis of this experimentation, we have proposed a hypothetical method, using above mentioned fluidized bed column and biochar as adsorbent to reduce the CO2 concentration in the highly polluted regions.

  9. Something's fishy. [Marine epidemics may signal environmental threats from pollutants such as PCBs

    SciTech Connect

    Raloff, J.

    1994-07-02

    Marine epidemics may signal environmental threats to the immune system of marine animals such as seals, dolphins and turtles. A number of studies are discussed in this article, with particular emphasis on an ongoing study which makes the connection between marine pollution and the decrease in immune system functioning in harbor seals. The effects on the whole marine ecosystem are discussed.

  10. Adsorption of environmental pollutants using magnetic hybrid nanoparticles modified with β-cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Niejun; Zhou, Lilin; Guo, Jun; Ye, Qiquan; Lin, Jin-Ming; Yuan, Jinying

    2014-06-01

    Graft through strategy was utilized to coat magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) using ordinary radical polymerization and then β-cyclodextrin was linked onto the surface of nanoparticles. With these nanoparticles modified with cyclodextrin groups, adsorption of two model environmental pollutants, bisphenol A and copper ions, was studied. Host-guest interactions between cyclodextrin and aromatic molecules had a great contribution to the adsorption of bisphenol A, while multiple hydroxyls of cyclodextrin also helped the adsorption of copper ions. These magnetic nanoparticles could be applied in the elimination, enrichment and detection of some environmental pollutants.

  11. In-situ assessment of genotoxic hazards of environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, S.S.; Lower, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    The potential impact of environmental pollutants on human health can be evaluated by laboratory analysis of environmental samples or by measurement of biological effects on indigenous populations and/or specific test organisms placed in the environment to be monitored. The organisms most commonly used to assess mutagenicity under real-world conditions are flowering plants, wild and captive mammals, and aquatic vertebrates. Plant species have been used to monitor ambient air quality around several major industrial cities in the USA, nuclear power plants, and industrial waste sites, and also to assess potential health effects of municipal sewage sludges. Domestic animals can be used as sentinels to provide information on effects of contaminants in the environment and have been used to a limited extent to evaluate environmental influences on the occurrence of breast cancer and osteosarcoma. Cytogenetic analysis from feral and wild animals has been employed to assess health hazards and prioritize clean-up efforts at hazardous-waste sites. Aquatic animals have been used more often than terrestrial animals or plants to identify and characterize the genotoxic effects of environmental pollution.

  12. Industrial workers' health and environmental pollution under the new international division of labor: the Taiwan experience.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, M S; Huang, C L

    1997-01-01

    Using Taiwan as an example, this paper conducts a historical analysis of the relationship between economic development in the new international division of labor and environmental pollution and industrial workers' health. Three industries-asbestos, plastic, and dye-were chosen for case studies. We trace the emergence of each industry in Taiwan and study each industry's protection of workers' health and environmental quality. Under the new international division of labor, the state's prioritization of economic development leads to lenient regulation. Under such state policies, employers have few incentives to invest in the protection of their workers' health and in the control of environmental pollution. Workers and the public are constrained in their efforts to protect their own health and prevent environmental pollution. This situation is exemplified by the deplorable working conditions and inadequate environmental pollution controls in the asbestos, plastic, and dye industries. Workers' health and the public's health are greatly compromised by economic development in the new international division of labor. Images p1228-a p1228-b PMID:9240119

  13. Environmental Pollution: A Tangible Risk for NAFLD Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Arciello, Mario; Gori, Manuele; Maggio, Roberta; Barbaro, Barbara; Tarocchi, Mirko; Galli, Andrea; Balsano, Clara

    2013-01-01

    The liver is crucial for human life, and the health of this organ often mirrors the health of the individual. The liver can be the target of several diseases, the most prevalent of which, as a consequence of development and changes in human lifestyles, is the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a multifactorial disease that embraces many histo-pathologic conditions and is highly linked to metabolic derangements. Technological progress and industrialization have also had the consequence of releasing pollutants in the environment, for instance pesticides or solvents, as well as by-products of discharge, such as the particulate matter. In the last decade, a growing body of evidence has emerged, shedding light on the potential impact of environmental pollutants on liver health and, in particular, on NAFLD occurrence. These contaminants have a great steatogenic potential and need to be considered as tangible NAFLD risk factors. There is an urgent need for a deeper comprehension of their molecular mechanisms of action, as well as for new lines of intervention to reduce their worldwide diffusion. This review wishes to sensitize the community to the effects of several environmental pollutants on liver health. PMID:24213605

  14. Aquatic selenium pollution is a global environmental safety issue.

    PubMed

    Lemly, A Dennis

    2004-09-01

    Selenium pollution is a worldwide phenomenon and is associated with a broad spectrum of human activities, ranging from the most basic agricultural practices to the most high-tech industrial processes. Consequently, selenium contamination of aquatic habitats can take place in urban, suburban, and rural settings alike--from mountains to plains, from deserts to rainforests, and from the Arctic to the tropics. Human activities that increase waterborne concentrations of selenium are on the rise and the threat of widespread impacts to aquatic life is greater than ever before. Important sources of selenium contamination in aquatic habitats are often overlooked by environmental biologists and ecological risk assessors due to preoccupation with other, higher priority pollutants, yet selenium may pose the most serious long-term risk to aquatic habitats and fishery resources. Failure to include selenium in the list of constituents measured in contaminant screening/monitoring programs is a major mistake, both from the hazard assessment aspect and from the pollution control aspect. Once selenium contamination begins, a cascade of bioaccumulation events is set into motion which makes meaningful intervention nearly impossible. However, this cascade of events need not happen if adequate foresight and planning are exercised. Early evaluation and action are key. Prudent risk management based on environmentally sound hazard assessment and water quality goals can prevent biological impacts. PMID:15261722

  15. Environmental pollution: a tangible risk for NAFLD pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Arciello, Mario; Gori, Manuele; Maggio, Roberta; Barbaro, Barbara; Tarocchi, Mirko; Galli, Andrea; Balsano, Clara

    2013-11-07

    The liver is crucial for human life, and the health of this organ often mirrors the health of the individual. The liver can be the target of several diseases, the most prevalent of which, as a consequence of development and changes in human lifestyles, is the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a multifactorial disease that embraces many histo-pathologic conditions and is highly linked to metabolic derangements. Technological progress and industrialization have also had the consequence of releasing pollutants in the environment, for instance pesticides or solvents, as well as by-products of discharge, such as the particulate matter. In the last decade, a growing body of evidence has emerged, shedding light on the potential impact of environmental pollutants on liver health and, in particular, on NAFLD occurrence. These contaminants have a great steatogenic potential and need to be considered as tangible NAFLD risk factors. There is an urgent need for a deeper comprehension of their molecular mechanisms of action, as well as for new lines of intervention to reduce their worldwide diffusion. This review wishes to sensitize the community to the effects of several environmental pollutants on liver health.

  16. Water Pollution Control Training: The Educational Role of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Frederick D.

    Presented are the results of a study to determine the perceived needs of environmental control education programs as seen by students, instructors, deans or program directors, and field-related employers in the field of water pollution control. Data were collected utilizing three approaches: survey instruments, information from Water Quality…

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: MECHANISMS OF IMMUNOTOXICITY ACROSS PHYLA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental pollution and the immune system: Mechanisms of immunotoxicity across phyla. Bob Luebke and Dori Germolec, US EPA, RTP, NC and NIEHS, RTP, NC

    Our current understanding of immunotoxicology comes largely from studies done in rodents or using in vitro systems, a...

  18. Histopathological and apoptotic changes on marine mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamark, 1819) following exposure to environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Yavaşoğlu, Altuğ; Özkan, Dilara; Güner, Adem; Katalay, Selma; Oltulu, Fatih; Yavaşoğlu, N Ülkü Karabay

    2016-08-15

    Marine bivalve mussels, especially Mytilus species are an earlywarning system used for determining of damage caused by the various aquatic pollutions. In the present study, Mytilus galloprovincialis L. (black mussel) have been utilised as a biomonitoring organism to reveal environmental pollution in the Aliaga, Foca and Urla where located along the Izmir Coast of Turkey. Mussels were collected at these areas and gill and hepatopancreas (digestive gland) tissues were excised. mRNA expressions of initiator (caspase-2 and -8) and executioner (caspase -3/7-1, -3/7-2, -3/7-3 and -3/7-4) caspases of mussels tissues in areas exposed to pollution agent have been observed. TUNEL immunoreactivity in paralel to histopathological changes in both Aliaga and Foca areas were compared with Urla. This study is the first report to reveal the pollution with apoptotic expression on mussels in the coast of Turkey.

  19. On the reversibility of environmental contamination with persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung-Deuk; Wania, Frank

    2011-10-15

    An understanding of the factors that control the time trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment is required to evaluate the effectiveness of emission reductions and to predict future exposure. Using a regional contaminant fate model, CoZMo-POP 2, and a generic bell-shaped emission profile, we simulated time trends of hypothetical chemicals with a range of POP-like partitioning and degradation properties in different compartments of a generic warm temperate environment, with the objective of identifying the processes that may prevent the reversibility of environmental contamination with POPs after the end of primary emissions. Evaporation from soil and water can prevent complete reversibility of POP contamination of the atmosphere after the end of emissions. However, under the selected conditions, only for organic chemicals within a narrow range of volatility, that is, a logarithm of the octanol air equilibrium partition coefficient between 7 and 8, and with atmospheric degradation half-lives in excess of a few month can evaporation from environmental reservoirs sustain atmospheric levels that are within an order of magnitude of those resulting from primary emissions. HCB and α-HCH fulfill these criteria, which may explain, why their atmospheric concentrations have remained relatively high decades after their main primary emissions have been largely eliminated. Soil-to-water transfer is found responsible for the lack of reversibility of POP contamination of the aqueous environment after the end of emissions, whereas reversal of water-sediment exchange, although possible, is unlikely to contribute significantly. Differences in the reversibility of contamination in air and water suggests the possibility of changes in the relative importance of various exposure pathways after the end of primary emissions, namely an increase in the importance of the aquatic food chain relative to the agricultural one, especially if the former has a benthic

  20. Nonpoint source pollution, environmental quality, and ecosystem health in China: introduction to the special section.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minghua; Xu, Jianming

    2011-01-01

    The rapid economic and industrial growth of China, exemplified by a 10-fold increase in its gross domestic product in the past 15 years, has lifted millions of its citizens out of poverty but has simultaneously led to severe environmental problems. The World Health Organization estimates that approximately 2.4 million deaths in China per year could be attributed to degraded environmental quality. Much of China's soil, air, and water are polluted by xenobiotic contaminants, such as heavy metals and organic compounds. In addition, soil quality is degraded by erosion, desertification, and nutrient runoff. Air quality is further compromised by particulates, especially in heavily populated areas. Research shows that 80% of urban rivers in China are significantly polluted, and poor water quality is a key contributor to poverty in rural China. Economic and industrial growth has also greatly expanded the demand for water sources of appropriate quality; however, pollution has markedly diminished usable water resource quantity. Desertification and diminishing water resources threaten future food security. In recent years, China's government has increased efforts to reverse these trends and to improve ecosystem health. The Web of Science database showed that the percentage of articles on China devoting to environmental sciences increased dramatically in recent years. In addition, the top 25 institutes publishing the papers in environmental sciences were all in China. This special issue includes seven articles focusing on nonpoint source pollution, environmental quality, and ecosystem health in China. The major issues, and results of these studies, are discussed in this introduction.

  1. Lidar applications to pollution studies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Fuller, W. H., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of lidar (laser radar) to the measurement of air pollution. Lidar techniques and instrumentation utilizing elastic, Raman, and fluorescence scattering are discussed. Data showing measurements of the mixing of particulate pollutants in the atmosphere are presented. These data include: simultaneous two-wavelength results, isopleths showing the temporal dynamics of particulate mixing, measurements of the top of the earth's mixing layer, and measurements in a valley with restricted circulation and mixing. All measurements are compared with simultaneous radiosonde and/or aircraft-mounted temperature probe support. In addition, a second generation lidar system presently under development is described.

  2. Environmental Proteomics: Changes in the Proteome of Marine Organisms in Response to Environmental Stress, Pollutants, Infection, Symbiosis, and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomanek, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Environmental proteomics, the study of changes in the abundance of proteins and their post-translational modifications, has become a powerful tool for generating hypotheses regarding how the environment affects the biology of marine organisms. Proteomics discovers hitherto unknown cellular effects of environmental stressors such as changes in thermal, osmotic, and anaerobic conditions. Proteomic analyses have advanced the characterization of the biological effects of pollutants and identified comprehensive and pollutant-specific sets of biomarkers, especially those highlighting post-translational modifications. Proteomic analyses of infected organisms have highlighted the broader changes occurring during immune responses and how the same pathways are attenuated during the maintenance of symbiotic relationships. Finally, proteomic changes occurring during the early life stages of marine organisms emphasize the importance of signaling events during development in a rapidly changing environment. Changes in proteins functioning in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, protein stabilization and turnover, oxidative stress, and signaling are common responses to environmental change.

  3. In situ assessment of genotoxic hazards of environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, S.S.; Lower, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    The potential impact of the environmental pollutants on human health can be evaluated by the laboratory analysis of the environmental samples or by the measurement of the biological effects on indigenous populations and/or specific test organisms placed in the environment to be monitored. The induced toxic effects are often the result of synergistic and antagonistic interactions among various physical and chemical factors that are difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. Therefore, conceivably the biological effects measured on or near the impacted site have greater relevancy for hazard assessment to man than from the data derived from the environmental samples analyzed in the lab. The organisms most commonly employed for the assessment of mutagenicity under real-world conditions are: (1) flowering plants, (2) wild and captive mammals, and (3) aquatic vertebrates. Plant species such as Tradescantia paludosa, Zea mays, and Osmunda regalis have been used for monitoring ambient air quality around several major industrial cities in the U.S.A., nuclear power plants, and industrial waste sites, and also for the assessment of potential health effects of municipal sewage sludges. Domestic animals such as dogs can be used as sentinels to provide information on the effects of contaminants in the environment and have been used to a limited extent to evaluate the environmental influences on the occurrence of breast cancer and osteosarcoma. Cytogenetic analysis from feral and wild animals has been employed for assessing the health hazards and prioritizing the clean-up efforts at hazardous waste sites. Aquatic animals have been used more often than terrestrial animals or plants to identify and characterize the genotoxic effects of environmental pollution. 51 references.

  4. Environmental cost and pollution risk caused by the industrial transfer in Qinghai Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qun'ou; Tang, Chengcai; Zhan, Jinyan; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Feng

    2014-09-01

    With the rising pressure due to energy consumption and costs of environmental protection and recovery, industrial transfer from the eastern to central and western areas has surged in China. However, extremely fragile ecological conditions and severe water shortage are significant hurdles for industry development in Western China. Whether the vulnerable environment can bear the pollution caused by the transferred industry from Eastern China becomes a significant issue. This study firstly estimates energy and environmental costs in different areas of China, and assesses the necessity to upgrade the industrial structure of Qinghai Province. Then the emissions of waste water, waste gas, and smoke caused by transferred industries are calculated by Input-Output Model. On the basis of the effect analysis of waste emission on environment, pollution risks of Qinghai province are assessed. The results illustrate that the costs of environmental protection and recovery in China have a gradient distribution, of which the energy efficiency is lower while environmental costs are higher in Western China. Industrial structure adjustment has different impacts on the pollution of different sectors. Although the development of machinery and equipment, hotels and catering services, and real estate, leasing, and business services has increased the emission of pollutants, it is offset by the decreasing emissions caused by other industries such as construction and metal products. Therefore, although economic development will increase environmental pollution, industrial adjustments can effectively decrease waste water and waste gas emissions to reduce the pollution risk. It should be noted that there are still tremendous challenges for industrial transfer in Qinghai Province to coordinate the environment and industry development.

  5. Temporal variation of coastal surface sediment bacterial communities along an environmental pollution gradient.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, V; Tsoi, M M Y; Zhang, W; Qian, P Y

    2010-07-01

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (T-RFLP) was used to track the changes of bacterial community compositions (BCC) in coastal surface sediments along an environmental pollution gradient between 2004 and 2006. BCC in the chronically contaminated sites showed the largest deviation from those in the adjacent sites. Surprisingly, BCC at two contrasting environments (oceanic vs. river-influenced) were more similar. Unexpectedly, the BCC did not recover (when compared to oceanic control site) even after 5 years of pollution abatement initiatives in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong. On the other hand, disposal of treated sewage for 5 years in one of the sites did not significantly affect the BCC. A striking seasonal variation in the BCC was observed at only the polluted sites. Although factors other than pollution gradients may explain the observed BCC patterns, the information presented here can be useful in predicting long-term effects of pollution on BCC. Furthermore, this study suggests that BCC analysis using T-RFLP is a faster, reliable and easier approach to monitor microbenthic community response to environmental pollution gradient in coastal sediments. PMID:20359741

  6. Environmental inequality: Air pollution exposures in California's South Coast Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Julian D.

    Environmental inequality is quantified here using linear regression, based on results from a recent mobility-based exposure model for 25,064 individuals in California's South Coast Air Basin [Marshall et al., 2006. Inhalation intake of ambient air pollution in California's South Coast Air Basin. Atmospheric Environment 40, 4381-4392]. For the four primary pollutants studied (benzene, butadiene, chromium particles, and diesel particles), mean exposures are higher than average for people who are nonwhite, are from lower-income households, and live in areas with high population density. For ozone (a secondary pollutant), the reverse holds. Holding constant attributes such as population density and daily travel distance, mean exposure differences between whites and nonwhites are 16-40% among the five pollutants. These findings offer a baseline to compare against future conditions or to evaluate the impact of proposed policies.

  7. Plants and their microbial assistants: Nature's answer to Earth's environmental pollution problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1990-01-01

    The utilization of higher plants and their associated microorganisms to solve environmental pollution problems on Earth and in future space applications is briefly reviewed. If man is sealed inside closed facilities, he becomes a polluter of the environment. It is also common knowledge to most people that man cannot survive on Earth without green photosynthesizing plants and microorganisms. Therefore, it is vitally important to have a better understanding of the interactions of man with plants and microorganisms. Biosphere 2 and other related studies presently being conducted or planned, hopefully, will supply data that will help save planet Earth from impending environmental disaster. The development of means to utilize both air and water pollution as a nutrient source for growing green plants is examined.

  8. Environmental factors influencing isolation of enteroviruses from polluted surface waters.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, T G; Wallis, C; Melnick, J L

    1974-05-01

    The influence of water quality upon the concentration of virus on location was assessed in field studies conducted in the Houston ship channel, Galveston Bay, and Houston waste treatment plants. Clarification of polluted surface waters was accomplished with minimal loss of virus. Virus from clarified sewage effluents and saline waters was then adsorbed and concentrated on textile and membrane filter surfaces. Direct measurements of virus from large volumes of polluted surface waters under existing field conditions were then made using the virus concentrator equipment.

  9. Effect of environmental pollutants on taste and smell

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffman, S.S.; Nagle, H.T. )

    1992-06-01

    Various man-made and naturally occurring chemicals and substances can modify the chemosensory systems of animals and man. This article provides an overview of research studies that investigate the impact of pollution on taste and smell perception. Acute and chronic alterations in taste and olfaction are discussed for solvents, herbicides, fungicides, pesticides, disinfectants, germicides, soil fumigants, dyes, pharmaceuticals, textile wastes, smog, tobacco smoke, perfumes, flavors, plastics, synthetic rubber, and other industrial substances. The mechanisms by which pollutants may cause physiologic and biologic changes are highlighted. Natural detoxification systems are discussed, as well as treatments for chemosensory deficits.89 references.

  10. Deaths and Medical Visits Attributable to Environmental Pollution in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald Gibson, Jacqueline; Thomsen, Jens; Launay, Frederic; Harder, Elizabeth; DeFelice, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Background This study estimates the potential health gains achievable in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) with improved controls on environmental pollution. The UAE is an emerging economy in which population health risks have shifted rapidly from infectious diseases to chronic conditions observed in developed nations. The UAE government commissioned this work as part of an environmental health strategic planning project intended to address this shift in the nature of the country’s disease burden. Methods and Findings We assessed the burden of disease attributable to six environmental exposure routes outdoor air, indoor air, drinking water, coastal water, occupational environments, and climate change. For every exposure route, we integrated UAE environmental monitoring and public health data in a spatially resolved Monte Carlo simulation model to estimate the annual disease burden attributable to selected pollutants. The assessment included the entire UAE population (4.5 million for the year of analysis). The study found that outdoor air pollution was the leading contributor to mortality, with 651 attributable deaths (95% confidence interval [CI] 143–1,440), or 7.3% of all deaths. Indoor air pollution and occupational exposures were the second and third leading contributors to mortality, with 153 (95% CI 85–216) and 46 attributable deaths (95% CI 26–72), respectively. The leading contributor to health-care facility visits was drinking water pollution, to which 46,600 (95% CI 15,300–61,400) health-care facility visits were attributed (about 15% of the visits for all the diseases considered in this study). Major study limitations included (1) a lack of information needed to translate health-care facility visits to quality-adjusted-life-year estimates and (2) insufficient spatial coverage of environmental data. Conclusions Based on international comparisons, the UAE’s environmental disease burden is low for all factors except outdoor air pollution. From a

  11. Effects of cadmium and environmental pollution on metallothionein and cytochrome P450 in Tilapia

    SciTech Connect

    Ueng, Y.F.; Meng, L.M.; Hung, Y.Y.; Ueng, T.H.; Liu, C.; Lai, C.F.

    1996-07-01

    Tilapia are widely distributed freshwater fish frequently used for environmental toxicology, comparative biochemistry and physiology studies. Tilapia can persist in a highly polluted habitat and have the potential for the development as a biological monitor of environmental pollution. Metallothioneins (MTs) are a group of small-molecular-weight cytoplasmic proteins induced in many animals including fish, following exposure to metals such as cadmium, copper, zinc, and mercury. An increasing number of reports have indicated that fish MT induction is a sensitive measure of metal contamination in the environment. Fish cytochrome (P450)-dependent monooxygenases are inducible by many environmental pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Extensive studies have suggested that fish monooxygenase can serve as a biochemical marker for exposure to PAH- and PCB-types of pollutants. Tilapia P450 is highly responsive to the inductive effects of PAH and PCBs. Tilapia collected from a polluted section of a river showed higher levels of P450 and dependent monooxygenase activities than tilapia collected from an unpolluted section. Previous studies showed that pretreatment with Cd decreased microsomal monooxygenase activities in fish such as plaice, bass, and trout. However, direct information regarding the effects of heavy metals on tilapia P450 are not available. Reports concerning the effect of heavy metal on tilapia MT are scarce. The purpose of the present study was to determine the ability of cadmium to modulate P450 and MT in tilapia liver and gill. In addition, we have extended our study to feral tilapia collected from Er-Jen Stream, a polluted river in Taiwan. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. Methods. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 μg/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Results. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 μg/dL vs 20%, 7.1 μg/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Conclusions. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby. PMID:21421950

  13. Macroeconomic analysis of road vehicles related environmental pollution in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, Árpád; Török, Ádám

    2014-06-01

    The article aims to examine the relationship between road transport and macro economy, especially the use of fossil energy in transport sector. Nowadays environmental pollution is a key issue on the EU level as well as in Hungary. Lots of effort have been already done in order to decrease emissions in road transport, but a lot more need to be done. The article aims to prove that the only possible solution is technological innovation in order to reach emission reduction target without decline of the GDP. The basic idea is to ensure sustainable development, to decrease environmental pollution in road transport without harming the economy. In the EU and in Hungary road vehicles are powered by fossil fuelled internal combustion engines. This paper aims to analyse the role of the fossil fuel-based road transport sector within the economy with the usage of constant elasticity substitution (CES) production functions. Authors have built CES production function for Hungary. Parameters were calculated based on the validated model.

  14. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rajan R.; Chetlapally, Satish Kumar; Bagvandas, M.

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution. PMID:26023265

  15. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajan R; Chetlapally, Satish Kumar; Bagvandas, M

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution.

  16. Cytokine Responses in Gills of Capoeta umbla as Biomarkers of Environmental Pollution.

    PubMed

    Danabas, Durali; Yildirim, Nuran Cikcikoglu; Yildirim, Numan; Onal, Ayten Oztufekci; Uslu, Gulsad; Unlu, Erhan; Danabas, Seval; Ergin, Cemil; Tayhan, Nilgun

    2016-03-01

    Immunological biomarkers reflect the effects of exposure to environmental contaminants. In this study, the suitability and sensitivity of cytokine responses, interleukin1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in gill tissues of Capoeta umbla (Heckel, 1843), collected from different regions, as early warning indices of environmental pollution and ecosystem health was evaluated. Fish and water samples were taken from ten stations in March and September 2011 and 2012. Tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels were determined in samples of the gill tissues by using an ELISA kit. Significant variations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels observed between stations and seasons. The results of this study show that seasonal variations of cytokine responses in gills of Capoeta umbla are sensitive to the contaminants present in Uzuncayir Dam Lake (Tunceli, Turkey) water and are valuable biomarkers for environmental pollution and ecosystem health.

  17. Cytokine Responses in Gills of Capoeta umbla as Biomarkers of Environmental Pollution.

    PubMed

    Danabas, Durali; Yildirim, Nuran Cikcikoglu; Yildirim, Numan; Onal, Ayten Oztufekci; Uslu, Gulsad; Unlu, Erhan; Danabas, Seval; Ergin, Cemil; Tayhan, Nilgun

    2016-03-01

    Immunological biomarkers reflect the effects of exposure to environmental contaminants. In this study, the suitability and sensitivity of cytokine responses, interleukin1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in gill tissues of Capoeta umbla (Heckel, 1843), collected from different regions, as early warning indices of environmental pollution and ecosystem health was evaluated. Fish and water samples were taken from ten stations in March and September 2011 and 2012. Tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels were determined in samples of the gill tissues by using an ELISA kit. Significant variations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels observed between stations and seasons. The results of this study show that seasonal variations of cytokine responses in gills of Capoeta umbla are sensitive to the contaminants present in Uzuncayir Dam Lake (Tunceli, Turkey) water and are valuable biomarkers for environmental pollution and ecosystem health. PMID:26931532

  18. PIXE pollution studies across Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Innegraeve, O.; Blanchet, X.; Muntele, C. I.; Muntele, I. C.; Zimmerman, R. L.; Popa-Simil, L.; Voiculescu, D.; Racolta, P. M.; Ila, D.

    2002-01-01

    We collected vegetation and soil samples from various locations along a route covering Eastern and Western Europe. We measured the level of elemental pollution in different places uniformly spread across the continent to determine which of them may have common sources. To achieve these objectives, samples were collected along the main roads from Romania to Portugal and analyzed using in-air PEE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission).

  19. Environmental pollutants and alterations in the reproductive system in wild male mink (Neovison vison) from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Persson, Sara; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-02-01

    The wild American mink, a semi-aquatic top predator, is exposed to high levels of environmental pollutants that may affect its reproductive system. In this study, the reproductive organs from 101 wild male mink collected in Sweden were examined during necropsy. Potential associations between various variables of the reproductive system and fat concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and other organochlorine pesticides and liver concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were investigated using multiple regression models. The anogenital distance was negatively associated (p<0.05) with concentration of p,p'-DDE and some PFAAs (perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and ∑PFAA). Penis length was positively associated with PCB 28, PCB 47/48, PCB 52 and PCB 110 (p<0.05), and some of these congeners were also associated with baculum length and penis weight. In contrast, penile length tended (p<0.1) to be shorter in mink with high concentrations of p,p'-DDE. These data may help to improve the understanding of how environmental pollution affects male reproduction in both wildlife and humans. Overall, the study suggests endocrine disrupting effects in wild mink and identifies potentially important pollutants in the complex mixture of contaminants in the environment. In addition, the results suggest that the variables of the reproductive system of male mink used in this study are good candidates for use as indicators of environmental pollution affecting the mammalian reproductive system.

  20. Developing Environmental Study Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Jonathan M.

    This publication is designed to help the teacher in developing environmental study areas. Numerous examples of study areas, including airports, lakes, shopping centers, and zoos, are listed. A current definition of environmental study areas is given and guidelines for their development and identification are included. The appendix, which comprises…

  1. Changes in Gene Expression due to Chronic Exposure to Environmental Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Oleksiak, Marjorie F.

    2008-01-01

    Populations of the teleost fish Fundulus heteroclitus inhabit and have adapted to highly polluted Superfund sites that are contaminated with persistent toxic chemicals. Populations inhabiting different Superfund sites provide independent contrasts for studying mechanisms of toxicity and resistance due to exposure to environmental pollutants. To identify both shared and unique responses to chronic pollutant exposure, liver, metabolic gene expression in F. heteroclitus populations from each of three Superfund sites (New Bedford Harbor, MA, Newark Bay, NJ, and Elizabeth River, VA) were compared to two flanking reference site populations (9 populations in total). In comparisons to their two clean reference sites, the three Superfund sites had 8 to 32% of genes with altered expression patterns. Between any two Superfund populations, up to 9 genes (4%) show a conserved response, yet among all three populations, there was no gene which had a conserved, altered pattern of expression. Across all three Superfund sites in comparison to all six reference populations, the most significant gene was fatty acid synthase. Fatty acid synthase is involved in the storage of excess energy as fat, and its lesser expression in the polluted populations suggests that the polluted populations may have limited energy stores. In contrast to previous studies of metabolic gene expression in F. heteroclitus, body weight was a significant covariate for many of the genes which could reflect accumulation and different body burdens of pollutants. Overall, the altered gene expression in these populations likely represents both induced and adaptive changes in gene expression. PMID:18929415

  2. Environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from industrial plants in China: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chao; Chen, Yuan; Li, Jinhui; Li, Ying; Li, Huafen

    2016-04-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in various environmental media, attention to their distribution in the environmental media surrounding industrial facilities is limited. In this study, eight PBDEs congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -209) were investigated in surface soils and water samples collected from commercial PBDE manufacturers, flame-retardant plastic modification plants and waste electrical and electronic equipment recycling facilities in China. Analysis of target compounds was performed using the model NCI GC-MS in SIM mode. The concentrations of ∑8PBDEs varied from 193.1 to 22,004.3 ng/L in water samples and from 1209.3 to 226,906 ng/g dry wt in surface soils, respectively. More severe PBDE contamination, when compared with previously reported data, was found in industrial areas in this study. This indicates that these industrial areas are highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for more than 94% in this study, except for a 68.75% portion at one site. Our results show that PBDE manufacturing and flame-retardant plastic modification plants, easily overlooked by the public, are two primary PBDE pollution sources although they affect surrounding areas. Further research is needed, aimed at managing industrial PBDE emissions and eliminating environmental PBDE pollution, to investigate the material flows and environmental fates of PBDEs in all stages of the life cycle.

  3. Environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from industrial plants in China: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chao; Chen, Yuan; Li, Jinhui; Li, Ying; Li, Huafen

    2016-04-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in various environmental media, attention to their distribution in the environmental media surrounding industrial facilities is limited. In this study, eight PBDEs congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -209) were investigated in surface soils and water samples collected from commercial PBDE manufacturers, flame-retardant plastic modification plants and waste electrical and electronic equipment recycling facilities in China. Analysis of target compounds was performed using the model NCI GC-MS in SIM mode. The concentrations of ∑8PBDEs varied from 193.1 to 22,004.3 ng/L in water samples and from 1209.3 to 226,906 ng/g dry wt in surface soils, respectively. More severe PBDE contamination, when compared with previously reported data, was found in industrial areas in this study. This indicates that these industrial areas are highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for more than 94% in this study, except for a 68.75% portion at one site. Our results show that PBDE manufacturing and flame-retardant plastic modification plants, easily overlooked by the public, are two primary PBDE pollution sources although they affect surrounding areas. Further research is needed, aimed at managing industrial PBDE emissions and eliminating environmental PBDE pollution, to investigate the material flows and environmental fates of PBDEs in all stages of the life cycle. PMID:26728288

  4. Environmental regulations on air pollution in China and their impact on infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shinsuke

    2015-07-01

    This study explores the impact of environmental regulations in China on infant mortality. In 1998, the Chinese government imposed stringent air pollution regulations, in one of the first large-scale regulatory attempts in a developing country. We find that the infant mortality rate fell by 20 percent in the treatment cities designated as "Two Control Zones." The greatest reduction in mortality occurred during the neonatal period, highlighting an important pathophysiologic mechanism, and was largest among infants born to mothers with low levels of education. The finding is robust to various alternative hypotheses and specifications. Further, a falsification test using deaths from causes unrelated to air pollution supports these findings.

  5. Geochemical mapping of polluted soils and environmental risk assessment associated to mining activities: a comparison case study in El Campillo (Huelva, Spain) and the Zambales (Luzon Island,The Philippines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuluaga, Maria Clara; Albanese, Stefano; de Vivo, Benedetto; Nieto, Jose Miguel; David, Carlos Primo C.; Norini, Gianluca

    2014-05-01

    The soil is one of the environmental systems which could be most affected by the dispersion of pollutant, also because of the close relationship with the atmosphere and meteoric waters. The distribution and type of contamination depends closely on the climate, precipitations, drainage, vegetation, lithology and human activities. As a matter of fact, soil contamination due to heavy metals and metalloids, such as As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, represents the source of a severe potential hazard for the ecosystem equilibrium and the health of living beings. This study is carried out in two abandoned mining zones near to populated areas, which underwent similar mining history, but in very different climatic and environmental conditions. The aim of the research is to analyze the influence of precipitation amounts, soil thickness, drainage density and vegetation cover on pollutant distribution. The first zone is in El Campillo, a town at the Rio Tinto mining district and belongs to the Iberic Pyritic Belt of the southwest Iberian peninsula. This mining site is characterized by a Mediterranean climate with low precipitation (700 mm/year), low vegetation cover and poor soil development. The second case study is the Zambales Mountain Range, a mining district in the Luzon Island of the Philippines dominated by a tropical weather, forests, intense rainfalls (2350 mm/year) and good soil development. The wide spectrum of climatic variables in the case studies requires to develop a single flexible methodology for the mapping and monitoring of the environmental degradation in both semi-arid and tropical environments, allowing comparative studies. The methodological approach comprises remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS), spatial statistical analysis, field sampling, ICP analysis and isotopic geochemical analysis. The presentation illustrates the first stage of the project. The processing of multispectral (Aster) and hyperspectral (Hyperion) images, in comparison

  6. Pollution prevention in environmental restoration projects: communication, innovation, and implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilczek, T.A.

    1996-11-01

    With the change in US Department of Energy`s (DOE) primary mission from weapons production to complex clean-up, there is an increased emphasis to utilize proven tools and techniques that, when modified, will assist in this massive remediation effort. Tools and techniques which increase process efficiency while minimizing costs are highly attractive. The introduction of formalized Pollution Prevention (P2) practices into the DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) program should be encouraged to the measurable degree of success that P2 has obtained in DOE process operations. Most notably, the integration of Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAs) into the ER process is highly recommended for three reasons: waste stream generation volumes will be minimized; the results of P2 implementation will be properly measured, quantified, and documented for use on other projects; and negative impacts to human health and the environment will be lessened. the application of P2 principles is encouraged as a Best Management Practice (BMP), in addition to minimizing waste generation to achieve DOE waste reduction goals. The challenge is how to apply P2 practices to ER projects and obtain quantifiable waster reductions.

  7. Environmental health implications of heavy metal pollution from car tires.

    PubMed

    Horner, J M

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential for environmental pollution by heavy metals from the disposal of used car tires and describes laboratory work and field research exploring the magnitude of the problem. The metals considered here are cadmium, lead, and zinc; their respective mean concentrations for ten makes of tires used in the United Kingdom ranged from 0-3.0, 8.1-22.3, and 2524-6012 ppm. The metals were extracted from tires by simulated acid-rain solutions (pH 2.5); zinc concentrations of the leachate ranged from 169-463 ppm, but cadmium and lead concentrations were negligible. A significant increase in surface soil concentrations of all three metals was measured with increasing proximity to a tire dump in West London. The respective mean concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in soil at the base of the dump were 22, 1160, and 1235 ppm, indicating contamination by each metal.

  8. [Application of microfluidics in aquatic environmental pollution analysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hu; Wei, Jun-Feng; Zheng, Guo-Xia

    2014-04-01

    Recently, a new type of chip technology, microfluidics, has received global attention for its rapid analysis speed, low reagent consumption, small size and simple operation, etc. Based on a micro-channel network and supported by a Micro-Electro-Mechanic System (MEMS), this technology integrates all the functions of a laboratory into one small piece of chip, which is called "lab on the chip". This paper presented a brief introduction about microfluidics and its representative developments. Future prospects in the aspects of instrument miniaturization, system integration, chip materials, and detection techniques, as well as the implementation of microfluidics in aquatic environmental pollutant analysis were thoroughly discussed. Some problems faced now were put forward. With the rapid progress in the microfluidics, a universal low-cost microchip capable of high speed multi-channel detection and integrated with many kinds of detection methods would be the research focus in the future.

  9. Influence of coal as an energy source on environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Balat, M.

    2007-07-01

    This article considers the influence of coal energy on environmental pollution. Coal is undoubtedly part of the greenhouse problem. The main emissions from coal combustion are sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulates, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and mercury (Hg). Since 1980, despite a 36% increase in electricity generation and more than a 50% increase in coal use, electric utility SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions have declined significantly. Globally, the largest source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is CO{sub 2} from the combustion of fossil fuels - around 75% of total GHG emissions covered under the Kyoto Protocol. At the present time, coal is responsible for 30-40% of world CO{sub 2} emission from fossil fuels.

  10. Continuing pollution from the Rum Jungle U-Cu project: a critical evaluation of environmental monitoring and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Gavin M; Patterson, James

    2010-05-01

    The former Rum Jungle uranium-copper project, Australia, is an internationally important case study on environmental pollution from and rehabilitation of mining. The Rum Jungle mining project is briefly reviewed, followed by a critical evaluation of monitoring data and pollution loads prior to and after rehabilitation - leading to the conclusion that rehabilitation has clearly failed the test of time after just two decades. The most critical findings are the need to understand pollution cycles holistically, and designing monitoring regimes to match, explicit inclusion of radiological criteria (lacking in original planning), and finally the need to set targets based on environmental criteria. Two examples include polluted groundwater which was excluded from rehabilitation and the poor design, construction and/or performance of engineered soil covers - both leading to increasing acid drainage impacts on the Finniss River. The critical review therefore presents a valuable case study of the environmental performance of uranium mine site rehabilitation.

  11. Economic-environmental modeling of point source pollution in Jefferson County, Alabama, USA.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Ellene; Schreiner, Dean F; Huluka, Gobena

    2002-05-01

    This paper uses an integrated economic-environmental model to assess the point source pollution from major industries in Jefferson County, Northern Alabama. Industrial expansion generates employment, income, and tax revenue for the public sector; however, it is also often associated with the discharge of chemical pollutants. Jefferson County is one of the largest industrial counties in Alabama that experienced smog warnings and ambient ozone concentration, 1996-1999. Past studies of chemical discharge from industries have used models to assess the pollution impact of individual plants. This study, however, uses an extended Input-Output (I-O) economic model with pollution emission coefficients to assess direct and indirect pollutant emission for several major industries in Jefferson County. The major findings of the study are: (a) the principal emission by the selected industries are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and these contribute to the ambient ozone concentration; (b) the direct and indirect emissions are significantly higher than the direct emission by some industries, indicating that an isolated analysis will underestimate the emission by an industry; (c) while low emission coefficient industries may suggest industry choice they may also emit the most hazardous chemicals. This study is limited by the assumptions made, and the data availability, however it provides a useful analytical tool for direct and cumulative emission estimation and generates insights on the complexity in choice of industries.

  12. Economic-environmental modeling of point source pollution in Jefferson County, Alabama, USA.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Ellene; Schreiner, Dean F; Huluka, Gobena

    2002-05-01

    This paper uses an integrated economic-environmental model to assess the point source pollution from major industries in Jefferson County, Northern Alabama. Industrial expansion generates employment, income, and tax revenue for the public sector; however, it is also often associated with the discharge of chemical pollutants. Jefferson County is one of the largest industrial counties in Alabama that experienced smog warnings and ambient ozone concentration, 1996-1999. Past studies of chemical discharge from industries have used models to assess the pollution impact of individual plants. This study, however, uses an extended Input-Output (I-O) economic model with pollution emission coefficients to assess direct and indirect pollutant emission for several major industries in Jefferson County. The major findings of the study are: (a) the principal emission by the selected industries are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and these contribute to the ambient ozone concentration; (b) the direct and indirect emissions are significantly higher than the direct emission by some industries, indicating that an isolated analysis will underestimate the emission by an industry; (c) while low emission coefficient industries may suggest industry choice they may also emit the most hazardous chemicals. This study is limited by the assumptions made, and the data availability, however it provides a useful analytical tool for direct and cumulative emission estimation and generates insights on the complexity in choice of industries. PMID:12173425

  13. The pollution intensity of Australian power stations: a case study of the value of the National Pollutant Inventory (NPI).

    PubMed

    Tang, Minmeng; Mudd, Gavin M

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the pollutant emissions from electrical generation facilities reported to Australia's National Pollutant Inventory (NPI). The data, in terms of pollutant intensity with respect to generation capacity and fuel source, show significant variability. Based on reported data, the dominant pathway and environmental segment for emissions is point-source air emissions. Surprisingly, pollutant emissions from power stations are generally a very small fraction of Australia's facility and diffuse emissions, except for F, HCl, NO(x), PM2.5, SO2 and H2SO4 (where it constitutes between 30 and 90% of emissions). In general, natural gas and diesel facilities have higher organic pollutant intensities, while black and brown coal have higher metal/metalloid pollutant intensities and there is a wide variability for inorganic pollutant intensities. When examining pollutant intensities with respect to capacity, there is very little evidence to show that increased scale leads to more efficient operation or lower pollutant intensity. Another important finding is that the pollutant loads associated with transfers and reuse are substantial, and often represent most of the reported pollutants from a given generation facility. Finally, given the issues identified with the NPI data and its use, some possible improvements include the following: (i) linking site generation data to NPI data (especially generation data, i.e., MWh); (ii) better validation and documentation of emissions factors, especially the methods used to derive and report estimates to the NPI; (iii) using NPI data to undertake comparative life cycle impact assessment studies of different power stations and fuel/energy sources, or even intensive industrial regions (especially from a toxicity perspective) and (iv) linking NPI data in a given region to ongoing environmental monitoring, so that loads can be linked to concentrations for particular pollutants and the relevant guidelines

  14. Environmental equity research: review with focus on outdoor air pollution research methods and analytic tools.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qun; Chen, Dongmei; Buzzelli, Michael; Aronson, Kristan J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review environmental equity research on outdoor air pollution and, specifically, methods and tools used in research, published in English, with the aim of recommending the best methods and analytic tools. English language publications from 2000 to 2012 were identified in Google Scholar, Ovid MEDLINE, and PubMed. Research methodologies and results were reviewed and potential deficiencies and knowledge gaps identified. The publications show that exposure to outdoor air pollution differs by social factors, but findings are inconsistent in Canada. In terms of study designs, most were small and ecological and therefore prone to the ecological fallacy. Newer tools such as geographic information systems, modeling, and biomarkers offer improved precision in exposure measurement. Higher-quality research using large, individual-based samples and more precise analytic tools are needed to provide better evidence for policy-making to reduce environmental inequities.

  15. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

  16. "Who Polluted the Potomac?" The Translation and Implementation of a US Environmental Story in Brazilian and Turkish Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Colak, Huseyin; Akerson, Valarie L.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we examine how elementary teachers in Brazil and Turkey approached the translation and subsequent classroom implementation of an instructional activity that promotes environmental awareness through a combination of student role playing and teacher oral delivery of an environmental story about river pollution. A discourse analysis…

  17. 15 CFR 291.4 - National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false National industry-specific pollution... § 291.4 National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers... information on pollution prevention opportunities, regulatory compliance and technologies and techniques...

  18. 15 CFR 291.4 - National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false National industry-specific pollution... § 291.4 National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers... information on pollution prevention opportunities, regulatory compliance and technologies and techniques...

  19. 15 CFR 291.4 - National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false National industry-specific pollution... § 291.4 National industry-specific pollution prevention and environmental compliance resource centers... information on pollution prevention opportunities, regulatory compliance and technologies and techniques...

  20. Epidemiological studies of the respiratory effects of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Lebowitz, M D

    1996-05-01

    Environmental epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have been major contributors to the understanding of such effects. The chronic effects of atmospheric pollutants have been studied, but, except for the known respiratory effects of particulate matter (PM), they have not been studied conclusively. There are ongoing studies of the chronic effects of certain pollutant classes, such as ozone, acid rain, airborne toxics, and the chemical form of PM (including diesel exhaust). Acute effects on humans due to outdoor and indoor exposures to several gases/fumes and PM have been demonstrated in epidemiological studies. However, the effects of these environmental factors on susceptible individuals are not known conclusively. These acute effects are especially important because they increase the human burden of minor illnesses, increase disability, and are thought to decrease productivity. They may be related to the increased likelihood of chronic disease as well. Further research is needed in this latter area, to determine the contributions of the time-related activities of individuals in different microenvironments (outdoors, in homes, in transit). Key elements of further studies are the assessment of total exposure to the different pollutants (occurring from indoor and outdoor source) and the interactive effects of pollutants. Major research areas include determination of the contributions of indoor sources and of vehicle emissions to total exposure, how to measure such exposures, and how to measure human susceptibility and responses (including those at the cellular and molecular level). Biomarkers of exposures, doses and responses, including immunochemicals, biochemicals and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) adducts, are beginning to promote some basic knowledge of exposure-response, especially the mechanisms. These will be extremely useful additions to standard physiological, immunological, and clinical instruments, and the understanding of biological

  1. Health assessment of environmental pollutants: proliferative and degenerative diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B.O.

    1988-12-01

    In order to achieve a balanced approach to risk assessment between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health effects one must examine the risk of disease or death in the general population exposed to a particular air pollutant that can be related quantitatively to intensity and duration of exposures (National Academy of Sciences, 1983). Such risk assessment should be based upon careful evaluation of scientific findings of dose-response relationships in the chronically exposed population. Quantitative assessment of environmentally produced disease in man has proven to be complex and demanding. A variety of factors play important roles in this task. As an example, there are induction-latency periods for chronic diseases, including cancer, which may range from five to twenty-five years. The diseases themselves, whether proliferative or degenerative, may follow several stages of progression. There is only sparse epidemiological data on serious health effects that may be due to environmental as compared to occupational exposures. Exposures to chemical or radiological air contaminants do not occur singly but to a multiplicity of agents, and disease processes are frequently markedly affected by the interaction of a variety of factors, particularly that of cigarette smoking. There is growing recognition of potentially sensitive subpopulations, including the elderly and the very young, but adequate techniques for assessing the magnitude of increased risks to these groups have not yet been developed.

  2. OVERALL MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FOR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM SMALL WATER POOLS UNDER SIMULATED INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small chamber tests were conducted to experimentally determine the overall mass transfer coefficient for pollutant emissions from still water under simulated indoor-residential or occupational-environmental conditions. Fourteen tests were conducted in small environmental chambers...

  3. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOR APPLICATION OF CFD TO ESTIMATING HUMAN EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), Fluent, Inc. and the US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) propose to improve the ability of environmental scientists to use computer modeling for environmental exposure to air pollutants in human exp...

  4. Impact of sources of environmental degradation on microbial community dynamics in non-polluted and metal-polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Epelde, Lur; Martín-Sánchez, Iker; González-Oreja, José A; Anza, Mikel; Gómez-Sagasti, María T; Garbisu, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Soils are currently being degraded at an alarming rate due to increasing pressure from different sources of environmental degradation. Consequently, we carried out a 4-month microcosm experiment to measure the impact of different sources of environmental degradation (biodiversity loss, nitrogen deposition and climate change) on soil health in a non-polluted (non-degraded) and a heavily metal-polluted (degraded) soil, and to compare their responses. To this aim, we determined a variety of soil microbial properties with potential as bioindicators of soil health: basal respiration; β-glucosaminidase and protease activities; abundance (Q-PCR) of bacterial, fungal and chitinase genes; richness (PCR-DGGE) of fungal and chitinase genes. Non-polluted and metal-polluted soils showed different response microbial dynamics when subjected to sources of environmental degradation. The non-polluted soil appeared resilient to "biodiversity loss" and "climate change" treatments. The metal-polluted soil was probably already too severely affected by the presence of high levels of toxic metals to respond to other sources of stress. Our data together suggests that soil microbial activity and biomass parameters are more sensitive to the applied sources of environmental degradation, showing immediate responses of greater magnitude, while soil microbial diversity parameters do not show such variations.

  5. Development of an eco-sensor based on bilayer lipid membrane for the continuous monitoring of environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimori, Yoshio; Kawano, Koichiro; Ishizuka, Masaru; Murahashi, Mizuho; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2004-03-01

    In recent years, we have developed an advanced environmental monitoring system (AEMS) containing the eco-sensor, which means a sensor for the measurement of environmental pollutants, based on lipid membranes for continuous monitoring of ground water in industry areas such as semiconductor factories. The AEMS project is composed of three work packages as follows, 1) Eco -sensor, 2) Prediction of plume propagation using a computer simulation technique, and 3) Environmental protection method. In this paper, we would like to focus on the study of the eco-sensor. We considered that modified lipid membranes serve as good models for cell membranes because they would be ideal hosts for receptor molecules of biological origin or disruptive environmental pollutants. Thus, we selected lipid membrane as a sensing element for environmental pollutants. We have already confirmed that the eco-sensor could detect a 10 ppb level of volatile organic chlorinated compounds (VOCs) such as trichloroethylene in ground water. Here, we tried to apply the eco-sensor to measure other environmental pollutants containing pesticides and endocrine disrupting chemicals. We made a novel automatic bilayer lipid membrane preparation device and a new system for the continuous measurement of environmental pollutants in ground water.

  6. Non-thermal plasmas chemistry as a tool for environmental pollutants abatement.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan-hong; Chen, Jie-rong; Li, Xiao-yong; Zhang, Chun-hong

    2009-01-01

    Over the past several decades, interest in environmental pollutants abatement has greatly increased. This interest is derived from growing concern about environmental pollution and the serious deterioration of many ecosystems as a result of environmental pollution. NTPs chemistry is a proven and effective tool both for decomposing a range of pollutants and for cleaning contaminated surfaces. NTPs chemistry has crucial advantages such as high energy efficiency, higher treatment effectiveness, effective treatment in more confined spaces, and near zero-emissions. When NTPs chemistry is combined with the use of certain catalysts, synergetic pollution abatement results may be achieved; however, the mechanism by which the synergy occurs is still unclear. The purpose of this paper is to provide a basic understanding of NTPs chemistry, including the commonly employed chemical mechanisms, examples of NTPs chemistry applications, and an opinion on the future for NTPs chemistry in the field of environmental pollutants abatement.

  7. Thyroid nodules and thyroid autoimmunity in the context of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Benvenga, Salvatore; Antonelli, Alessandro; Vita, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    Evidence suggests that in most industrialized countries autoimmune disorders, including chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, are increasing. This increase parallels the one regarding differentiated thyroid cancer, the increment of which is mainly due to the papillary histotype. A number of studies have pointed to an association between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and differentiated thyroid cancer. The upward trend of these two thyroid diseases is sustained by certain environmental factors, such as polluting substances acting as endocrine disrupting chemicals. Herein we will review the experimental and clinical literature that highlights the effects of environmental and occupational exposure to polluting chemicals in the development of autoimmune thyroid disease or differentiated thyroid cancer. Stakeholders, starting from policymarkers, should become more sensitive to the consequences for the thyroid resulting from exposure to EDC. Indeed, the economic burden resulting from such consequences has not been quantified thus far.

  8. Constructed wetlands for environmental pollution control: a review of developments, research and practice in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Babatunde, A O; Zhao, Y Q; O'Neill, M; O'Sullivan, B

    2008-01-01

    For the purpose of synthesizing a compendium of efforts aimed at environmental pollution control through the use of constructed wetlands systems (CWs) in Ireland, a detailed review of CWs was undertaken. Emphasis was placed on the diverse range of development, practice and researches on CWs technology, placing them in the overall context of the need for low-cost and sustainable wastewater treatment systems. The potential use of CWs in protecting estuarine quality within the current legislative framework is considered, as well as the emerging concept of integrated constructed wetlands (ICWs). In addition, an assessment of the efficiency of CWs in operation in Ireland towards abating environmental pollution was done, and compared with CWs operating in other European countries. The need for sufficient and appropriate data to assist in further development of CWs and modelling studies, and instilling confidence in the public is also highlighted.

  9. [A Method Research on Environmental Damage Assessment of a Truck Rollover Pollution Incident].

    PubMed

    Cai, Feng; Zhao, Shi-ho; Chen, Gang-cai; Xian, Si-shu; Yang, Qing-ling; Zhou, Xian-jie; Yu, Hai

    2015-05-01

    With high occurrence of sudden water pollution incident, China faces an increasingly severe situation of water environment. In order to deter the acts of environmental pollution, ensure the damaged resources of environment can be restored and compensated, it is very critical to quantify the economic losses caused by the sudden water pollution incident. This paper took truck rollover pollution incidents in Chongqing for an example, established a set of evaluation method for quantifying the environmental damage, and then assessed the environmental damage by the method from four aspects, including the property damage, ecological environment and resources damages, the costs of administrative affairs in emergency disposal, and the costs of investigation and evaluation.

  10. [Effects of environmental pollutants on arbuscular mycorrhiza formation and function].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuguang; Feng, Zhaozhong; Wang, Xiaoke

    2006-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) possesses the characteristics of both microbe and plant. Considerable attention has been focused on the use of AM in the remediation of polluted soil, but AM could be poisoned by pollutants when exposed to polluted soil, and thus, the significance of its application might be reduced. Therefore, how to reduce the negative effects of pollutants on AM is an issue to be considered in remedying polluted soil by AM. This paper briefly reviewed the effects of different organic and inorganic pollutants on AM structure, formation and function, and discussed the possible mechanisms. Both organic and inorganic pollutants could have detrimental effects on AM structure, formation and function, such as low spore germination, colonization rate, and hyphal growth. Organic pollutants indirectly affect the activity of AM fungi through affecting the carbohydrates allocation from plant to the fungi, while heavy metals directly inhibited the activity of AM fungi.

  11. Biochemical modifications in Pinus pinaster Ait. as a result of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Acquaviva, Rosaria; Vanella, Luca; Sorrenti, Valeria; Santangelo, Rosa; Iauk, Liliana; Russo, Alessandra; Savoca, Francesca; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Di Giacomo, Claudia

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to chemical pollution can cause significant damage to plants by imposing conditions of oxidative stress. Plants combat oxidative stress by inducing antioxidant metabolites, enzymatic scavengers of activated oxygen and heat shock proteins. The accumulation of these proteins, in particular heat shock protein 70 and heme oxygenase, is correlated with the acquisition of thermal and chemical adaptations and protection against oxidative stress. In this study, we used Pinus pinaster Ait. collected in the areas of Priolo and Aci Castello representing sites with elevated pollution and reference conditions, respectively. The presence of heavy metals and the levels of markers of oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxide levels, thiol groups, superoxide dismutase activity and expression of heat shock protein 70, heme oxygenase and superoxide dismutase) were evaluated, and we measured in field-collected needles the response to environmental pollution. P. pinaster Ait. collected from a site characterized by industrial pollution including heavy metals had elevated stress response as indicated by significantly elevated lipid hydroperoxide levels and decreased thiol groups. In particular, we observed that following a chronic chemical exposure, P. pinaster Ait. showed significantly increased expression of heat shock protein 70, heme oxygenase and superoxide dismutase. This increased expression may have protective effects against oxidative stress and represents an adaptative cellular defence mechanism. These results suggest that evaluation of heme oxygenase, heat shock protein 70 and superoxide dismutase expression in P. pinaster Ait. could represent a useful tool for monitoring environmental contamination of a region and to better understand mechanisms involved in plant defence and stress tolerance.

  12. Health and environmental benefits from air pollution reductions in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Aunan, K; Pátzay, G; Asbjørn Aaheim, H; Martin Seip, H

    1998-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cost and benefit of the implementation of a specific energy saving program in Hungary. We have considered the possible reduced damage to public health, building materials and agricultural crops that may be obtained from reducing emissions of important air pollutants and also how the program contributes to reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. The measures are described in the National Energy Efficiency Improvement and Energy Conservation Programs (NEEIECP), elaborated by the Hungarian Ministry of Industry and Trade and accepted by the Government in 1994. The energy saving expected from the program is approximately 64 PJ/year. The benefits were estimated using monitoring data and population/recipient data from urban and rural areas in Hungary together with exposure-response functions and valuation estimates mainly from western studies. Our analysis indicates that the main benefit from reducing the concentrations of pollutants relates to public health and that reduced prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases is an important effect. Reduced premature mortality is also important and the estimated attributable risk of air pollution to excess mortality at present is approximately 6%. The estimated annual benefit of improved health conditions alone is likely to exceed the investments needed to implement the program. In addition there are significant benefits due to reduced replacement and maintenance costs for building materials (30-35 million US$ annually in Budapest only). The damage to crops due to ozone is large, but a significant improvement in Hungary depends upon concerted actions in several countries. PMID:9573631

  13. A clustering algorithm for sample data based on environmental pollution characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mei; Wang, Pengfei; Chen, Qiang; Wu, Jiadong; Chen, Xiaoyun

    2015-04-01

    Environmental pollution has become an issue of serious international concern in recent years. Among the receptor-oriented pollution models, CMB, PMF, UNMIX, and PCA are widely used as source apportionment models. To improve the accuracy of source apportionment and classify the sample data for these models, this study proposes an easy-to-use, high-dimensional EPC algorithm that not only organizes all of the sample data into different groups according to the similarities in pollution characteristics such as pollution sources and concentrations but also simultaneously detects outliers. The main clustering process consists of selecting the first unlabelled point as the cluster centre, then assigning each data point in the sample dataset to its most similar cluster centre according to both the user-defined threshold and the value of similarity function in each iteration, and finally modifying the clusters using a method similar to k-Means. The validity and accuracy of the algorithm are tested using both real and synthetic datasets, which makes the EPC algorithm practical and effective for appropriately classifying sample data for source apportionment models and helpful for better understanding and interpreting the sources of pollution.

  14. Animal species endangerment: the role of environmental pollution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, O.H.; Fellows, V.L.; Bounds, D.L.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John=

    2003-01-01

    Summary & conclusions: Multiple factors contribute to the decline of species. Habitat destruction is the primary factor that threatens species. affecting 73 % of endangered species. The second major factor causing species decline is the introduction of nonnative species. affecting 68% of endangered species. Pollution and overharvesting were identified as impacting, respectively, 38 and 15% of endangered species. Other factors affecting species decline include hybridization, competition, disease, and other interspecific interactions. Once a species is reduced to a remnant of its former population size and distribution, its vulnerability to catastrophic pollution events increases, frequently exceeding or replacing the factors responsible for the initial decline. Small, isolated populations are particularly vulnerable to catastrophic loss by an acute event. such as a chemical spill or pesticide application. However, when it comes to surviving a single disaster, widespread subpopulations of a species are far more resilient and ensure genetic survival. Hypothesizing theoretical concerns of potential factors that could affect an endangered species could predispose the scientific and political communities to jeopardizing threats. The user of recovery plans as a data source must be aware of the bias within the data set. These data should be used with the caveat that the source of information in recovery plans is not always based on scientific research and rigorous data collection. Over 58% of the information identifying species threats is based on estimates or personal communication. while only 42% is based on peer reviewed literature, academic research. or government reports. Many recovery plans were written when a species was initially listed in the 1970s or 1980s. Politics, human disturbance, and habitat demand issues evolve over a 20- to 30-year period. leaving much of the threats facing endangered species outdated and inadequate. These data are most valuable when used

  15. Two essays in environmental economics: An optimal control approach to cross-media variation in the behavior and effects of pollution, and Exploring the determinants of air quality improvements: An empirical study of trends in particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Eiswerth, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    The first essay addresses the problem that society confronts in determining optimal methods of disposing of pollutants. The choice of disposal strategy for any given pollutant often determines the environmental medium into which the pollutant is released. In turn, choice of medium may influence both the persistence of the pollutant and the effects that it has on human health. Because the choice of technology has intertemporal implications, an optimal-control model of the problem of allocating a pollutant between two different disposal methods is formulated and characterized. The second essay presents an empirical test of several hypotheses concerning the determinants of changes in US air quality since the late 1960s. These hypotheses are: (1) incentives established by federal clean air legislation have provided a significant impetus to improvements in air quality; (2) trends in the levels of industrial activities, not caused by federal legislation, have led to declines in pollution; and (3) differences across jurisdictions in socio-economic characteristics and unionization have influenced variations in local trends. Cross-section regression analysis was performed on trends in particulate levels at specific air monitoring sites for two time periods: 1967-77 and 1977-82.

  16. Nevada Environmental Studies Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1991-07-01

    The Nevada Environmental Studies Plan (NESP) presents the ESA team`s overall program of investigations of environmental conditions and activities related to potential impacts of studies by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in its program for developing Yucca Mt., Nevada, as the national high level nuclear waste (HLW) repository. The environmental studies specifically entail investigations of terrestrial ecology, soils and geomorphology, hydrology and water quality, archaeology and cultural resources, meteorology and air quality, noise, visual resources and reclamation planning. The NESP is a program of nine primary projects, described in this Plan. The nine projects of the program are distributed over three years. NESP`88-`89 is the first phase, covering the fiscal year (FY) July 1, 1988--June 30, 1989. The first phase is focused on program planning; preparation of various documents related to identifying impacts of past DOE activities and associated reclamation costs; review of DOE documents on environmental issues; and initiation of field investigations to establish the environmental issues; and initiation of field investigations to establish the environmental baseline conditions of the site. NESP`89-`90 is the second phase of the program, covering activities during FY`89-`90. The primary activities include continuing environmental baseline investigations; oversight of DOE activities including regulatory compliance assessments, field monitoring of DOE activities; development of disturbance, impact and reclamation models; and reclamation planning. NESP`90-`91 is the third phase of the program. The primary foci include continuing environmental monitoring of DOE activities and reclamation planning. Each of the phases is described in this Executive Summary. NESP`88-`89 is described in detail in the second part of the Study Plan. 86 refs., 20 tabs.

  17. Diet as a confounder of the association between air pollution and female lung cancer: Hong Kong studies on exposures to environmental tobacco smoke, incense, and cooking fumes as examples.

    PubMed

    Koo, L C; Ho, J H

    1996-03-01

    Chinese females in Hong Kong, where only about a third of the lung cancer cases can be attributed to a history of active smoking, have a world age-standardized lung cancer incidence rate of 32.6 per 100 000, which is among the highest in the world. Trends in Hong Kong's female lung cancer mortality also indicate a tripling in mortality rates from 1961 to 1990. The characteristically high Chinese female lung cancer incidence among nonsmokers is also found among overseas Chinese communities in Singapore and Hawaii. To help elucidate the role of ingested and inhaled substances in the etiology of lung cancer, four epidemiological studies have been conducted in Hong Kong over the last 15 years: (1) a retrospective study of 200 cases and 200 neighbourhood controls, (2) a cross-sectional study measuring personal exposures to nitrogen dioxide among 362 children and their mothers, (3) a site monitoring study of 33 homes measuring airborne carcinogens, and (4) a telephone survey of 500 women on their dietary habits and exposure to air pollutants. Selected data from each study were drawn to evaluate exposures to three major air pollutants (environmental tobacco smoke, incense, and cooking fumes), their relationship with lung cancer risk, and their association with dietary habits. Generally in this population, nutritionally poorer diets were characterized by higher consumption of alcohol and preserved/cured foods, whereas better diets were characterized by higher intakes of fresh fruits, vegetables, and fish. For environmental tobacco smoke, exposure was only moderately high in Hong Kong (36% have current smokers at home), lung cancer risk was equivocal with exposure, and it was associated with poorer diets among wives with smoking husbands. Incense was identified as a major source of exposure to nitrogen dioxide and airborne carcinogens, but it had no effect on lung cancer risk among nonsmokers and significantly reduced risk (trend, P-value = 0.01) among smokers, even after

  18. Biodegradation capability of Absidia fusca Linnemann towards environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Guiraud, P; Villemain, D; Kadri, M; Bordjiba, O; Steiman, R

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the bioremediation capability of Absidia fusca Linnemann (Zygomycete) towards different classes of xenobiotics (lignin-derived compounds, chloroaromatic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) the presence of which in contaminated soils, water and sediments poses a significant risk to the environment and human health. Two strains from different origins were compared. One was from an official collection and grown in non-inducing conditions, while the other was isolated during the course of the survey of fungal flora in a polluted soil from Annaba (Algeria). All data were analyzed and results validated via a statistical treatment. We showed the effect of the factors studied (origin of the strain, xenobiotic) but also the interactions between these factors. The strain of A. fusca isolated from a polluted soil was able to efficiently degrade most of the xenobiotics tested, particularly: pentachlorophenol, phenol, catechol, guaiacol and ferulic acid. This property also existed in the other strain but at a very low level.

  19. Selenium: environmental significance, pollution, and biological treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lea Chua; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element needed for all living organisms. Despite its essentiality, selenium is a potential toxic element to natural ecosystems due to its bioaccumulation potential. Though selenium is found naturally in the earth's crust, especially in carbonate rocks and volcanic and sedimentary soils, about 40% of the selenium emissions to atmospheric and aquatic environments are caused by various industrial activities such as mining-related operations. In recent years, advances in water quality and pollution monitoring have shown that selenium is a contaminant of potential environmental concern. This has practical implications on industry to achieve the stringent selenium regulatory discharge limit of 5μgSeL(-1) for selenium containing wastewaters set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Over the last few decades, various technologies have been developed for the treatment of selenium-containing wastewaters. Biological selenium reduction has emerged as the leading technology for removing selenium from wastewaters since it offers a cheaper alternative compared to physico-chemical treatments and is suitable for treating dilute and variable selenium-laden wastewaters. Moreover, biological treatment has the advantage of forming elemental selenium nanospheres which exhibit unique optical and spectral properties for various industrial applications, i.e. medical, electrical, and manufacturing processes. However, despite the advances in biotechnology employing selenium reduction, there are still several challenges, particularly in achieving stringent discharge limits, the long-term stability of biogenic selenium and predicting the fate of bioreduced selenium in the environment. This review highlights the significance of selenium in the environment, health, and industry and biotechnological advances made in the treatment of selenium contaminated wastewaters. The challenges and future perspectives are overviewed considering recent

  20. Selenium: environmental significance, pollution, and biological treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lea Chua; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element needed for all living organisms. Despite its essentiality, selenium is a potential toxic element to natural ecosystems due to its bioaccumulation potential. Though selenium is found naturally in the earth's crust, especially in carbonate rocks and volcanic and sedimentary soils, about 40% of the selenium emissions to atmospheric and aquatic environments are caused by various industrial activities such as mining-related operations. In recent years, advances in water quality and pollution monitoring have shown that selenium is a contaminant of potential environmental concern. This has practical implications on industry to achieve the stringent selenium regulatory discharge limit of 5μgSeL(-1) for selenium containing wastewaters set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Over the last few decades, various technologies have been developed for the treatment of selenium-containing wastewaters. Biological selenium reduction has emerged as the leading technology for removing selenium from wastewaters since it offers a cheaper alternative compared to physico-chemical treatments and is suitable for treating dilute and variable selenium-laden wastewaters. Moreover, biological treatment has the advantage of forming elemental selenium nanospheres which exhibit unique optical and spectral properties for various industrial applications, i.e. medical, electrical, and manufacturing processes. However, despite the advances in biotechnology employing selenium reduction, there are still several challenges, particularly in achieving stringent discharge limits, the long-term stability of biogenic selenium and predicting the fate of bioreduced selenium in the environment. This review highlights the significance of selenium in the environment, health, and industry and biotechnological advances made in the treatment of selenium contaminated wastewaters. The challenges and future perspectives are overviewed considering recent

  1. The Protective Role of Antioxidants in the Defence against ROS/RNS-Mediated Environmental Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Poljšak, Borut; Fink, Rok

    2014-01-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can result from exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ionising and nonionising radiation, ultraviolet radiation, elevated concentrations of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, cigarette smoke, asbestos, particulate matter, pesticides, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and many other compounds present in the environment. It appears that increased oxidative/nitrosative stress is often neglected mechanism by which environmental pollutants affect human health. Oxidation of and oxidative damage to cellular components and biomolecules have been suggested to be involved in the aetiology of several chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and aging. Several studies have demonstrated that the human body can alleviate oxidative stress using exogenous antioxidants. However, not all dietary antioxidant supplements display protective effects, for example, β-carotene for lung cancer prevention in smokers or tocopherols for photooxidative stress. In this review, we explore the increases in oxidative stress caused by exposure to environmental pollutants and the protective effects of antioxidants. PMID:25140198

  2. Assessing environmental inequalities in ambient air pollution across urban Australia.

    PubMed

    Knibbs, Luke D; Barnett, Adrian G

    2015-04-01

    Identifying inequalities in air pollution levels across population groups can help address environmental justice concerns. We were interested in assessing these inequalities across major urban areas in Australia. We used a land-use regression model to predict ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels and sought the best socio-economic and population predictor variables. We used a generalised least squares model that accounted for spatial correlation in NO2 levels to examine the associations between the variables. We found that the best model included the index of economic resources (IER) score as a non-linear variable and the percentage of non-Indigenous persons as a linear variable. NO2 levels decreased with increasing IER scores (higher scores indicate less disadvantage) in almost all major urban areas, and NO2 also decreased slightly as the percentage of non-Indigenous persons increased. However, the magnitude of differences in NO2 levels was small and may not translate into substantive differences in health.

  3. Environmental pollution at Linfen and its change - magnetic monitoring of leaves and soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, L.; Appel, E.; Hu, S. Y.; Yin, G.; Rösler, W.

    2012-04-01

    Linfen city (Shanxi Province, China) is one of the world's most polluted city due to coal mining, refineries and other industries. During recent years the local government took enormous efforts to improve the environmental standard. In this study, we are testing the efficiency of magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements for the assessment of this pollution "hot spot" where the environmental issues dictate the questions and up turning methodical obstacles have to be mastered. In particular we are testing to which extent the combination of MS results from soil and dust-loaded tree leaves allow to discriminate in between historical and present pollution. MS signals in the large abandoned industrial area and in new industrial areas are strongly enhanced with surface soil mass-specific MS (χ) between (232-3126)×10-8m3kg-1, while in the agricultural areas they range from (88-179)×10-8m3kg-1. Temperature dependence of MS identifies magnetite as the major magnetic phase in all topsoil samples; additionally a variable content of a harder coercive phase indicated by S-ratios of 0.82-0.99. Low χfd% (<5%) and hysteresis properties show that magnetite particles occur in PSD+MD domain state. In contrast to soil samples which accumulate pollutants over a long time span, dust-loaded tree leaf samples reflect the current air spread of pollution. Leaf samples were taken from the wider Linfen city area at intervals of about 2 km. Values of χ (normalized to the mass of the dried leaf) range from (2.2-501.1)×10-8m3kg-1 with a median of 23.16×10-8m3kg-1, and gradually decrease with distance from pollution sources. Rock magnetic parameters again identify a dominance of PSD+MD low-coercivity magnetite. Strong enhancement of MS occurs in the new urban industrial area and in the southern part of city, which is also controlled by the prevailing wind direction and the typical basin topography. XRF results show an enrichment of heavy metals for topsoils and leaves, which were outlined

  4. Environmental factors that influence the toxicity of heavy metal and gaseous pollutants to microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Babich, H.; Stotzky, G.

    1980-10-01

    Although biotic factors greatly influence the sensitivity of microbes to pollutants, this review focuses on the other aspect of environmental toxicology, i.e., the influence of the physicochemical characteristics of the recipient environment on attenuating or potentiating the toxicity of pollutants to the resident microbiota. In addition, the characteristics of pollutants, such as their chemical form and concentration, and the interactions between pollutants will be discussed relative to their toxicity to microbes. This review will be limited to gaseous and heavy metal pollutants, although it is clearly recognized that the toxicity of other pollutants, such as polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), insecticides (e.g., DDT, heptachlor, dieldrin), components of oil spills, etc., are also influenced by abiotic environmental factors. The pollutants discussed include: Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Mn, Co, Sn, Fe, Hg, Cr, As, and S.

  5. Environmental pollution liability insurance in China: in need of strong government backing.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Mol, Arthur P J; Lu, Yonglong; He, Guizhen; van Koppen, C S A

    2014-09-01

    Environmental pollution liability insurance was officially introduced in China only in 2006, as part of new market-based approaches for managing environmental risks. By 2012, trial applications of pollution insurance had been launched in 14 provinces and cities. More than ten insurance companies have entered the pollution insurance market with their own products and contracts. Companies in environmentally sensitive sectors and high-risk industries bought pollution insurance, and a few successful compensation cases have been reported. Still, pollution insurance faces a number of challenges in China. The absence of a national law weakens the legal basis of pollution insurance, and poor technical support stagnates further implementation. Moreover, current pollution insurance products have limited risk coverage, high premium rates, and low loss ratios, which make them fairly unattractive to polluters. Meanwhile, low awareness of environmental and social liabilities leads to limited demand for pollution insurance products by industrial companies. Hence, the pollution insurance market is not yet flourishing in China. To improve this situation, this economic instrument needs stronger backing by the Chinese state.

  6. MY 20 YEARS EXPERIENCE IN CONDUCTING ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH STUDIES IN CHINA: (1) STUDIES ON LUNG CANCER AND INDOOR AIR POLLUTION IN YUNNAN AND (2) HEALTH EFFECTS OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a research health scientist at U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, I have been very fortunate to have opportunities to work as a principal investigator for two major environmental health research projects. The first study was conducted in 1983-1996 under a formal U.S.-China ...

  7. Linking Asthma Exacerbation and Air Pollution Data: A Step Toward Public Health and Environmental Data Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faruque, Fazlay; Finley, Richard; Marshall, Gailen; Brackin, Bruce; Li, Hui; Williams, Worth; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Luvall, Jeffrey; Rickman, Doug; Crosson, Bill

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown that reducing exposure to triggers such as air pollutants can reduce symptoms and the need for medication in asthma patients. However, systems that track asthma are generally not integrated with those that track environmental hazards related to asthma. Tlvs lack of integration hinders public health awareness and responsiveness to these environmental triggers. The current study is a collaboration between health and environmental professionals to utilize NASA-derived environmental data to develop a decision support system (DSS) for asthma prediction, surveillance, and intervention. The investigators link asthma morbidity data from the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) and Mississippi Department of Health (MDH) with air quality data from the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) and remote sensing data from NASA. Daily ambient environmental hazard data for PM2.5 and ozone are obtained from the MDEQ air quality monitoring locations and are combined with remotely sensed data from NASA to develop a state-wide spatial and time series profile of environmental air quality. These data are then used to study the correlation of these measures of air quality variation with the asthma exacerbation incidence throughout the state over time. The goal is to utilize these readily available measures to allow real-time risk assessment for asthma exacerbations. GeoMedStat, a DSS previously developed for biosurveillance, will integrate these measures to monitor, analyze and report the real-time risk assessment for asthma exacerbation throughout the state.

  8. Pollution characteristics and environmental risk assessment of typical veterinary antibiotics in livestock farms in Southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Guo, Xinyan; Xu, Jing; Kong, Xiangji; Gao, Shixiang; Shan, Zhengjun

    2014-01-01

    Scientific interest in pollution from antibiotics in animal husbandry has increased during recent years. However, there have been few studies on the vertical exposure characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in different exposure matrices from different livestock farms. This study explores the distribution and migration of antibiotics from feed to manure, from manure to soil, and from soil to vegetables, by investigating the exposure level of typical antibiotics in feed, manure, soil, vegetables, water, fish, and pork in livestock farms. A screening environmental risk assessment was conducted to identify the hazardous potential of veterinary antibiotics from livestock farms in southeast China. The results show that adding antibiotics to drinking water as well as the excessive use of antibiotic feed additives may become the major source of antibiotics pollution in livestock farms. Physical and chemical properties significantly affect the distribution and migration of various antibiotics from manure to soil and from soil to plant. Simple migration models can predict the accumulation of antibiotics in soil and plants. The environmental risk assessment results show that more attention should be paid to the terrestrial eco-risk of sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlorotetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin, and to the aquatic eco-risk of chlorotetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin. This is the first systematic analysis of the vertical pollution characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in livestock farms in southeast China. It also identifies the ecological and human health risk of veterinary antibiotics.

  9. Development of an inexact fuzzy flexible programming approach for environmental pollution control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H. W.; Huang, G. H.; Maqsood, I.

    2010-12-01

    Optimization techniques have been widely applied to solving environmental management problems, particularly for regional air quality management systems where potential air pollutions arising from improper management would seriously threaten human health. An inexact fuzzy flexible programming approach is developed to facilitate decision support for air quality management. It can tackle both stipulation uncertainty and parameter uncertainty in the objective function and constraints. Upon the previous research efforts, the most significant improvement of this approach is the introduction of multiple control variables corresponding to the objective function and all constraints. This attempt makes it possible for the constraints to be relaxed under respective levels, such that a more satisfactory objective value may be obtained. The impact of each constraint on the system outputs can also be further interpreted. The proposed approach would be helpful for such systems where the decision makers prefer to not only find out an air pollution control scheme with a satisfaction level as high as possible, but also mitigate the uncertainty in decision making. A regional air pollution control problem is then studied to demonstrate the applicability of the developed approach. A variety of management strategies for air pollutants allocation and treatment are suggested in terms of the optimal solutions to decision variables. Comparison between the optimal solutions from the proposed approach and those from a conventional fuzzy flexible programming model is undertaken. It can be found that neither the management strategies nor the priorities of pollutants allocation obtained from the two models are the same. The satisfaction level of the proposed approach (taking the average value of optimized solutions of control variables for comparison) is always higher than that of the existing approach, indicating the superiority of the proposed approach in handling many air pollution control

  10. Risks assessment of water pollution by pesticides at local scale (PESTEAUX project): study of polluting pressure.

    PubMed

    Noel, Stéphanie; Billo Bah, Boubacar

    2009-01-01

    Pollution of water resources (surface waters and ground waters) by pesticide uses is one of the key point of the European policy with the implementation of the Water Frame Work Directive (2000/60/EC) and the thematic Strategy on the Sustainable use of pesticides. According to this legislation, the Member States must initiate measures to limit environmental and toxicological effects caused by pesticide uses. The Agricultural Research Centre of Wallonia (CRA-W) emphasized the need of a tool for spatial risk analysis and develOPs it within the framework of PESTEAUX project. The originality of the approach proposed by the CRA-W is to generate maps to identify the risk of pollution at locale scale (agricultural parcel). The risk will be assessed according to the study of different factors, grouped under 3 data's layers: polluting pressure, vulnerability of the physical environment (soil) and meteorological data. This approach is directly based on the risk's definition which takes into account the polluting pressure, linked to the human activities, and the vulnerability of the soil, defined by factors of physical environment which characterize the water flow in the parcel. Moreover, meteorological data influence the intensity and likelihood flow of water, and indirectly pesticide by leaching or runoff. The PESTEAUX's approach to study the pollution is based on the model "source-vector-target". The source is the polluting pressure, in other words, the pesticides which could reach the targets. The main vector is the water which vehicles the pesticide on and trough the soil until the target which are the surface waters or ground waters. In this paper we introduce the factors contributing to the polluting pressure. These factors are linking to the human activities and more precisely, to the pesticide uses. The factors considered have an influence on pesticide's transport by water (in its solid state or in dissolved state by leaching, run-off, or erosion) but also on a set of

  11. MODELING INHALATION AND MULTIMEDIA MULTIPATHWAY HUMAN EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimation of exposures of children and adults to air toxics or multimedia pollutants require careful consideration of sources and concentrations of pollutants that may be present in different media, as well as various routes and pathways of exposures associated with age-specif...

  12. Effects of environmental pollutants on Connecticut and Maryland ospreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Spitzer, P.R.; Krantz, W.C.; Lamont, T.G.; Cromartie, E.

    1975-01-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs were exchanged between Connecticut and Maryland osprey nests in 1968 and 1969 to test the hypothesis that the decline in reproductive success of Connecticut ospreys was caused by something within the external environment of the eggs. Incubation of 30 Connecticut osprey eggs by Maryland ospreys did not improve the hatching rate. Forty-five Maryland osprey eggs incubated by Connecticut ospreys hatched at their normal rate. The results of the egg exchanges and associated observations indicated that the most probable cause of the poor reproduction of Connecticut ospreys ,was related to contamination of the birds and their eggs. Residues of DDT and its metabolites, dieldrin, and PCBs were generally higher in fish from Connecticut than from Maryland. During 1968-69, average residues (on a nest basis) in osprey eggs from Maryland were: p,p'-DDE, 2.4 ppm; dieldrin, 0.25 ppm; PCB, 2.6 ppm. Average residues in eggs from Connecticut for the same period were: p,p'DDE, 8.9 ppm; dieldrin, 0.61 ppm; PCB, 15 ppm. There were no major changes in residue content of Connecticut eggs collected in 1964 compared with those collected in 1968-B9. One Connecticut osprey had a concentration of dieldrin in its brain which was in the lethal range. The average shell thickness of recently collected osprey eggs from Connecticut had declined 18 percent, and those from Maryland had declined 10 percent from pre-1947 norms. Dieldrin, DDE, and PCB are three environmental pollutants that have most likely been important factors in the greatly reduced reproductive success and rapid population decline of Connecticut ospreys.

  13. In utero exposures to environmental organic pollutants disrupt epigenetic marks linked to fetoplacental development

    PubMed Central

    Kappil, Maya A.; Li, Qian; Li, An; Dassanayake, Priyanthi S.; Xia, Yulin; Nanes, Jessica A.; Landrigan, Philip J.; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Aagaard, Kjersti M.; Schadt, Eric E.; Dole, Nancy; Varner, Michael; Moye, John; Kasten, Carol; Miller, Richard K.; Ma, Yula; Chen, Jia; Lambertini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    While the developing fetus is largely shielded from the external environment through the protective barrier provided by the placenta, it is increasingly appreciated that environmental agents are able to cross and even accumulate in this vital organ for fetal development. To examine the potential influence of environmental pollutants on the placenta, we assessed the relationship between polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) and several epigenetic marks linked to fetoplacental development. We measured IGF2/H19 imprint control region methylation, IGF2 and H19 expression, IGF2 loss of imprinting (LOI) and global DNA methylation levels in placenta (n = 116) collected in a formative research project of the National Children’s Study to explore the relationship between these epigenetic marks and the selected organic environmental pollutants. A positive association was observed between global DNA methylation and total PBDE levels (P <0.01) and between H19 expression and total PCB levels (P = 0.04). These findings suggest that differences in specific epigenetic marks linked to fetoplacental development occur in association with some, but not all, measured environmental exposures. PMID:27308065

  14. Environmental factors that influence the toxicity of heavy metal and gaseous pollutants to microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Babich, H.; Stotzky, G.

    1980-01-01

    Although biotic factors greatly influence the sensitivity of microbes to pollutants, this review focuses on the other aspect of environmental toxicology, i.e., the influence of the physicochemical characteristics of the recipient environment on attenuating or potentiating the toxicity of pollutants to the resident microbiota. In addition, the characteristics of pollutants, such as their chemical form and concentration, and the interactions between pollutants will be discussed relative to their toxicity to microbes. This review will be limited to gaseous and heavy metal pollutants, although it is clearly recognized that the toxicity of other pollutants, such as polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), insecticides (e.g., DDT, heptachlor, dieldrin), components of oil spills, etc., are also influenced by abiotic environmental factors. 224 references, 17 figures, 11 tables.

  15. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (air pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Air pollution from flue gases, exhaust gases, odors, dust, smog, microorganisms, etc.; Control techniques and equipment; Sampling and analytical techniques, and equipment; Waste gas recovery; Biological and ecological effects; Air pollution chemistry; Acid precipitation; Atmospheric motion; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

  16. Evaluation and identification of priority air pollutants for environmental management on the basis of risk analysis in Russia.

    PubMed

    Golub, Alexander; Strukova, Elena

    2008-01-01

    Since 1997, more than 30 health-risk analyses were conducted using Russian data sets. These studies demonstrated that air pollution is the most important environmental contributor toward morbidity and mortality risk in Russia, with 90% of the total human health risk coming from the criteria pollutants total suspended particulate (TSP), SO2, and NO(x). This article contributes to the ongoing discussion of the magnitude of this health issue in Russia by providing an estimate of both the mortality rate attributed to airborne pollutants and the associated economic damages. The 90% confidence interval of mortality is 46,000-132,000, and the associated economic damages are between 2.6 and 6.5% of gross domestic product (GDP). The largest source of uncertainty in mortality is the concentration-response parameter, accounting for 50-60% of the total variability in the estimate. The point estimate of 87,000 implies that mortality due to airborne pollutants is threefold higher than reported due to tuberculosis, twofold due to transportation accidents, and about the same as that from suicide and homicide combined. By 2002 there was enough evidence regarding potential health hazard and air pollution exposure in Russia to start environmental management reform. In 2004 Russia officially adopted guidelines for health risk analysis associated with air pollution. The next step is to use this health-risk assessment approach as a lead for sensible reforms of the emissions-permit system and environmental finance.

  17. PHARMACEUTICALS & PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS AS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS FROM EVERYDAY ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Those chemical pollutants that are regulated under various international, federal, and state programs represent but a small fraction of the universe of chemicals that occur in the environment as a result of both natural processes and human influence.

  18. Environmental pollutions associated to conflicts in Iraq and related health problems.

    PubMed

    Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-06-01

    Several wars and a 13-year embargo as well as several years of civil war with the recent war on terrorism have cumulatively damaged Iraq's land, air, water, and health infrastructure. The sand particles in Iraq contain toxic substances, which dates back to the pollution caused by military actions that disassemble the desert sands and turn it into light dust. This dust reaches cities as dust storms that effect most Iraqi cities. The presence of depleted uranium (DU) in the Iraqi food chain is documented by measuring the uranium in animals organs in different Iraqi cities with the highest concentration in the south of Iraq. One of the major sites of pollution in Iraq is the Al-twaitha nuclear research site. The nuclear research reactors were destroyed in the 1991 Gulf War. Barrels containing radioactive materials and sources were stolen from the site in the 2003 war. This resulted in considerable radioactive pollution at the site and in its surrounding areas. Soil sample have been found to be contaminated by Cs-137and Co-60. Cancer and birth defects are most associated with the environmental pollution caused by the conflicts. All studies related to this by Iraqi researchers are discussed in this review. From studying the Iraqi scientific publications, we can conclude that Basrah, Baghdad, Faluja, Mosul and Thi-Qar are the most effected cities in Iraq. This review concludes that the presence of a heavily contaminated environment with war related pollutants in most of the Iraqi cities needs much attention and huge effort to reduce the related health problems. PMID:26512425

  19. Environmental pollutions associated to conflicts in Iraq and related health problems.

    PubMed

    Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-06-01

    Several wars and a 13-year embargo as well as several years of civil war with the recent war on terrorism have cumulatively damaged Iraq's land, air, water, and health infrastructure. The sand particles in Iraq contain toxic substances, which dates back to the pollution caused by military actions that disassemble the desert sands and turn it into light dust. This dust reaches cities as dust storms that effect most Iraqi cities. The presence of depleted uranium (DU) in the Iraqi food chain is documented by measuring the uranium in animals organs in different Iraqi cities with the highest concentration in the south of Iraq. One of the major sites of pollution in Iraq is the Al-twaitha nuclear research site. The nuclear research reactors were destroyed in the 1991 Gulf War. Barrels containing radioactive materials and sources were stolen from the site in the 2003 war. This resulted in considerable radioactive pollution at the site and in its surrounding areas. Soil sample have been found to be contaminated by Cs-137and Co-60. Cancer and birth defects are most associated with the environmental pollution caused by the conflicts. All studies related to this by Iraqi researchers are discussed in this review. From studying the Iraqi scientific publications, we can conclude that Basrah, Baghdad, Faluja, Mosul and Thi-Qar are the most effected cities in Iraq. This review concludes that the presence of a heavily contaminated environment with war related pollutants in most of the Iraqi cities needs much attention and huge effort to reduce the related health problems.

  20. Perceived and measured levels of environmental pollution: interdisciplinary research in the subarctic lowlands of northeast European Russia.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tony R; Habeck, Joachim Otto; Karjalainen, Timo P; Virtanen, Tarmo; Solovieva, Nadia; Jones, Viv; Kuhry, Peter; Ponomarev, Vasily I; Mikkola, Kari; Nikula, Ari; Patova, Elena; Crittenden, Peter D; Young, Scott D; Ingold, Tim

    2006-08-01

    Using interdisciplinary field research in the Usa Basin, northeast European Russia, we compared local inhabitants' perception of environmental problems with chemical and remote-sensing signatures of environmental pollution and their local impacts. Extensive coal mining since the 1930s around Inta and Vorkuta has left a legacy of pollution, detected by measuring snowpack, topsoil, and lichen chemistry, together with remote-sensing techniques and analysis of lake water and sediments. Vorkuta and its environs suffered the worst impacts, with significant metal loading and alkalization in lakes and topsoils, elevated metals and cations in terricolous (reindeer) lichens, and changes in vegetation communities. Although the coal industry has declined recently, the area boasts a booming oil and gas industry, based around Usinsk. Local perceptions and concerns of environmental pollution and protection were higher in Usinsk, as a result of increased awareness after a major oil spill in 1994, compared with Vorkuta's inhabitants, who perceived air pollution as the primary environmental threat. Our studies indicate that the principal sources of atmospheric emissions and local deposition within 25 to 40 km of Vorkuta were coal combustion from power and heating plants, coal mines, and a cement factory. Local people evaluated air pollution from direct observations and personal experiences, such as discoloration of snow and respiratory problems, whereas scientific knowledge played a minor role in shaping these perceptions. PMID:16989506

  1. Environmental pollutants and aging: Investigating and modeling mechanisms of susceptibility in later life.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapidly expanding population of older adults raises new concerns over their potential vulnerability to environmental pollutants. Decreases in organ-system function and defenses, coupled with reduced metabolic capacity and clearance, are likely mechanisms for enhanced vulnerab...

  2. Handbook of environmental chemistry. Volume 4. Part A, air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Hutzinger, O.

    1986-01-01

    Five authors have each contributed one chapter to this first part (A) of the series on Air Pollution (Volume 4). Thus the book is neither a handbook compilation of reference data nor a text on the subject of air pollution. The first and shortest chapter (22 pages) by A. Wint of the University of Nottingham, England, is an overview called Air Pollution in Perspective. The second chapter, by P. Fabian of Max-Planck-Institute fuer Aeronomie, FRG, is titled Halogenated Hydrocarbons in the Atmosphere. This chapter, in 29 pages, summarizes current data on twenty of these compounds. Hans Guesten of the Institute fuer Radiochemie, Karlsruhe, FRG, contributed chapter 3 on Formation, Transport, and Control of Photochemical Smog (52 pages). This chapter is a good survey of current understanding of smog although each of the three topics promised in the title could by itself take up a good sized book. Atmospheric Distribution of Pollutants and Modeling of Air Pollution Dispersion by H. van Dop of the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, the Netherlands, makes up Chapter 4 (42 pages). The article is written from a meteorological perspective. The last chapter, by J.M. Hales of Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, USA, is titled The Mathematical Characterization of Precipitation Scavenging and Precipitation Chemistry (74 pages). Removal of pollutants from the atmosphere by precipitation is good news/bad news.

  3. Governing Extraterritorial Pollutants: Cultural, Environmental and Political Implications of Atmoshere-Surface Exchangeable Pollutants in the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation is part of a series of talks focused on ASEPs. This presentation will focus on the cultural, environmental and political implications of ASEPs in the Great Lakes. In particular, I examine how Indigenous communities in Keweenaw Bay are adversely impacted by extraterritorial pollutants such as ASEPs, both because their territory is fixed geopolitically, and because their ways of life is reliant on the consumption of fish, which, in recent years have become polluted with ASEPs - particularly PCBs and Mercury. This presentation explores the new innovations in governance that are attempting to ameliorate these issues.

  4. Environmental justice in a French industrial region: are polluting industrial facilities equally distributed?

    PubMed

    Viel, Jean-François; Hägi, Mathieu; Upegui, Erika; Laurian, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that minority or deprived groups are subject to the additional burden of a polluted living environment. Our goal is to determine whether such environmental inequalities occur in France's leading industrial region, using detailed socio-economic data and advanced Bayesian methods. Associations between proximity to hazardous facilities (i.e., within a 2 km radius) and the socio-economic characteristics of populations are analyzed at fine geographical scales. Noxious facilities are disproportionately located in higher foreign-born communities after controlling for deprivation (Townsend score), population density and rural/urban status. High deprivation also appears as a predictive factor, although less strongly and less consistently.

  5. Strategic effects of future environmental policy commitments: climate change, solar radiation management and correlated air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jingwen; Silva, Emilson Caputo Delfino

    2015-03-15

    We study the effects of environmental policy commitments in a futuristic world in which solar radiation management (SRM) can be utilized to reduce climate change damages. Carbon and sulfur dioxide emissions (correlated pollutants) can be reduced through tradable permits. We show that if nations simultaneously commit to carbon permit policies, national SRM levels rise with carbon quotas. Alternatively, if they simultaneously commit to SRM policies, the global temperature falls with each unit increase in the global SRM level. A nation always wishes to be a leader in policymaking, but prefers carbon to SRM policymaking. The globe prefers SRM policy commitments.

  6. Assessment of the environmental significance of nutrients and heavy metal pollution in the river network of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Dević, Gordana; Sakan, Sanja; Đorđević, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the data for ten water quality variables collected during 2009 at 75 monitoring sites along the river network of Serbia are considered. The results are alarming because 48% of the studied sites were contaminated by Ni, Mn, Pb, As, and nutrients, which are key factors impairing the water quality of the rivers in Serbia. Special attention should be paid to Zn and Cu, listed in the priority toxic pollutants of US EPA for aquatic life protection. The employed Q-model cluster analysis grouped the data into three major pollution zones (low, moderate, and high). Most sites classified as "low pollution zones" (LP) were in the main rivers, whereas those classified as "moderate and high pollution zones" (MP and HP, respectively) were in the large and small tributaries/hydro-system. Principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) showed that the dissolved metals and nutrients in the Serbian rivers varied depending on the river, the heterogeneity of the anthropogenic activities in the basins (influenced primarily by industrial wastewater, agricultural activities, and urban runoff pollution), and natural environmental variability, such as geological characteristics. In LP dominated non-point source pollution, such as agricultural and urban runoff, whereas mixed source pollution dominated in the MP and HP zones. These results provide information to be used for developing better pollution control strategies for the river network of Serbia.

  7. Effect of environmental pollutants on human reproduction, including birth defects

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzel, R.B.; Cetrulo, C.L.

    1981-06-01

    Because chemicals from a wide range of environmental sources have been implicated in birth defects and reproductive failures, the effects on human reproduction of chemicals in air, in the terrestrial ecosystem, and in food were studied. Chemicals considered included nicotine, cadmium, polycyclic aromatic compounds, red dye number2, DES, PCB's, TCDD, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, strontium, and zinc. The most serious source of chemical exposure to pregnant women is cigarette smoke which exposes unborn babies to high levels of carbon monoxide, cadmium, nicotine, and benzo-a-pyrene. Fetal exposure to all teratogenic compounds must be minimized.

  8. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

    2007-02-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media

  9. Child health and environmental pollution in the Aral Sea region in Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Zetterström, R

    1999-05-01

    Environmental pollutants, which may occur in breast milk and in various food products and drinking water, and which are also transferred to the foetus, constitute a severe threat to the health of infants and children. Among such compounds, various organochlorines, such as pesticides for the control of parasites (DDTs, HCHs), and products of industry and agriculture, such as dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (PCBs), are much discussed, in addition to organic mercury and heavy metals, such as lead and cadmium. The consequences of acute exposure to PCB have been documented in Japan following the ingestion of rice oil contaminated by PCBs. In Sweden birthweight has been found to be reduced and the perinatal mortality rate higher than expected in regions with high consumption of fatty fish from the Baltic Sea. In addition, from studies around Lake Michigan, it has been shown that children who have been exposed to PCBs in utero have retarded cognitive development. In the Aral Sea basin in Central Asia people have been subjected to long-term exposure to various pesticides, which have been distributed over the cotton fields in huge quantities. Organochlorines are resistant to breakdown in nature, thus they enter the food chain, eventually entering the human diet, and they may also be inhaled from dust. Such compounds accumulate in the foetus by placental transport and continue to do so postnatally if the infants are breastfed, as they may be present in high concentrations in human milk. The health of children living in the Aral Sea region is reported to be poor, with high morbidity and mortality and a high rate of chronic diseases and retarded mental and physical development. However, in addition to being subjected to environmental pollution, these children also suffer from health hazards related to poverty. Through epidemiological studies it may be possible to obtain information about to what extent exposure to environmental pollution from organochlorines contributes to

  10. PCB-pollution problem in the upper Hudson River: From environmental disaster to environmental gridlock

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, J.E. )

    1989-01-01

    The PCB pollution of the upper Hudson River has been traced to two discharge pipes from capacitor-manufacturing plants of the General Electric Company (GE) at Hudson Falls and Fort Edward, located about 40 miles north of Troy, New York. In August 1974, EPA biologists carried out a field investigation upstream of, at, and downstream of the GE discharge pipes. In September 1975, goaded by articles about PCB-contaminated fish from the Hudson Estuary, the Commissioner of the New York State Department of conservation (NYS DEC) commenced an administrative proceeding against GE, alleging violations of several NY State Environmental Conservation Law sections, and seeking cessation of PCB discharges, penalties for past discharges, and rehabilitation of the upper river. One stipulation of the resulting settlement agreement was that New York State sign off with GE over PCB pollution of the Hudson River and, if the Advisory Committee recommended in favor of rehabilitation, it would use its best efforts to find funds from sources other than GE to help pay for rehabilitation. The future of the PCB problem in the upper Hudson River seems likely to be settled by the outcome of a class-action lawsuit that commercial fisherman have filed against GE. In January 1989, a NEW York Appeals Court voted in favor of the ruling that the fishermen were entitled not only to payments for lost income, but to injunctive relief (which implies that GE must clean up the River). 311 refs., 30 figs., 14 tabs.

  11. Informal and Formal Environmental Education Infusion: Actions of Malaysian Teachers and Parents among Students in a Polluted Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustam, Baniah; Daniel, Esther Sarojini

    2016-01-01

    The study explored Environmental Education infusion among students by teachers and parents in two schools located in a highly polluted area. Qualitative data was collected through observations, interviews and an open-ended questionnaire. Participants of the observations and interviews were 6 Secondary 4 students, 6 teachers and 6 parents.…

  12. NASA Langley in two studies of pollution and climate

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-03-05

    article title:  NASA Langley in two studies of pollution and climate     View Larger ... campaigns, one of which will study how forest fire smoke, air pollution and natural emissions are transported to the upper troposphere ...

  13. Pollution prevention as a market-enhancing strategy: a storehouse of economical and environmental opportunities.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, J S

    1992-01-01

    EPA's (Environmental Protection Agency) Green Lights Program for energy-efficient lighting illustrates the economic benefits and the market-transforming value of a pollution prevention philosophy. Using technologies available today, and assuming current prices, this program is expected to reduce air pollution 5%, while saving the nation's businesses up to 20 billion in electric bills every year. However, these pollution prevention and savings estimates may be low. As Green Lights transforms the market for lighting services by creating a higher demand for better technologies at lower costs, the program will likely achieve even larger pollution reductions and electricity savings. PMID:11607262

  14. Pollution prevention as a market-enhancing strategy: a storehouse of economical and environmental opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, J S

    1992-02-01

    EPA's (Environmental Protection Agency) Green Lights Program for energy-efficient lighting illustrates the economic benefits and the market-transforming value of a pollution prevention philosophy. Using technologies available today, and assuming current prices, this program is expected to reduce air pollution 5%, while saving the nation's businesses up to 20 billion in electric bills every year. However, these pollution prevention and savings estimates may be low. As Green Lights transforms the market for lighting services by creating a higher demand for better technologies at lower costs, the program will likely achieve even larger pollution reductions and electricity savings.

  15. Ex-Situ Remediation Technologies for Environmental Pollutants: A Critical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Palanisami, Thavamani; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Pollution and the global health impacts from toxic environmental pollutants are presently of great concern. At present, more than 100 million people are at risk from exposure to a plethora of toxic organic and inorganic pollutants. This review is an exploration of the ex-situ technologies for cleaning-up the contaminated soil, groundwater and air emissions, highlighting their principles, advantages, deficiencies and the knowledge gaps. Challenges and strategies for removing different types of contaminants, mainly heavy metals and priority organic pollutants, are also described.

  16. Oil pollution in Shijiu Harbor studied

    SciTech Connect

    Miao Lutian

    1983-11-09

    This article describes an experimental model designed to forecast oil pollution in the newly constructed Shijiu Harbor, using a mixture of 30% used machine oil and 70% light diesel, in amounts of 200 kg per test. Plastic bags filled with the mixture are slit open and cast into the water generally along the axis of the major ocean current. Small boats are used to collect water specimens to trace the experimental pollutant. The density distribution and the horizontal diffusion coefficient are calculated to produce equations to study effects of the surface wind speed, the depth of the water, and the tidal waves on the oil drift. Each test is completed in about 2 hours. On the basis of statistical data of large Chinese harbors published by the ministry and related reports of foreign countries, the mean annual oil pollution load of Shijiu Harbor is computed in terms of the total estimated tonnage of cargo ships, tugboats, oil tankers, and fishing boats. The forecast model, the equations, and the computation processes are described in some detail.

  17. Supplemental mathematical formulations, Atmospheric pathway: The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Droppo, J.G.; Buck, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) is an integrated software implementation of physics-based fate and transport models for health and environmental risk assessments of both radioactive and hazardous pollutants. This atmospheric component report is one of a series of formulation reports that document the MEPAS mathematical models. MEPAS is a ``multimedia`` model; pollutant transport is modeled within, through, and between multiple media (air, soil, groundwater, and surface water). The estimated concentrations in the various media are used to compute exposures and impacts to the environment, to maximum individuals, and to populations.

  18. Analysis of point source pollution and water environmental quality variation trends in the Nansi Lake basin from 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiliang; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yufan; Guo, Xiaochun; Lu, Shaoyong

    2016-03-01

    Based on the data analysis of the water environmental quality and economic development from 2002 to 2012 in the Nansi Lake basin, the correlation and change between the water environmental quality and economic development were studied. Results showed that the GDP and wastewater emissions of point source in the Nansi Lake basin had an average annual growth of 7.30 and 7.68 %, respectively, from 2002 to 2012. The emissions of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) had the average annual decrease of 7.69 and 6.79 % in 2012, respectively, compared to 2002. Basin water quality overall improved, reaching the Class III of the "Environmental quality standards for surface water (GB3838-2002)," in which the main reason was that sewage treatment rate increased gradually and was above 90 % in 2012 (an increase of 10 % compared to 2002) with the progress of pollution abatement technology and the implementation of relevant policies and regulations. The contribution of water environmental pollution was analyzed from related cities (Ji'ning, Zaozhuang, Heze). Results indicated that Ji'ning had the largest contribution to water pollution of the Nansi Lake basin, and the pollutant from domestic sources accounted for a higher percentage compared to industrial sources. The wastewater, COD, and NH3-N mainly came from mining and washing of coal, manufacture of raw chemical materials and chemical products, papermaking industry, and food processing industry. According to the water pollution characteristics of the Nansi Lake basin, the basin pollution treatment strategy and prevention and treatment system were dissected to provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of lakeside point source pollution along the Nansi Lake. PMID:26545892

  19. Analysis of point source pollution and water environmental quality variation trends in the Nansi Lake basin from 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiliang; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yufan; Guo, Xiaochun; Lu, Shaoyong

    2016-03-01

    Based on the data analysis of the water environmental quality and economic development from 2002 to 2012 in the Nansi Lake basin, the correlation and change between the water environmental quality and economic development were studied. Results showed that the GDP and wastewater emissions of point source in the Nansi Lake basin had an average annual growth of 7.30 and 7.68 %, respectively, from 2002 to 2012. The emissions of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) had the average annual decrease of 7.69 and 6.79 % in 2012, respectively, compared to 2002. Basin water quality overall improved, reaching the Class III of the "Environmental quality standards for surface water (GB3838-2002)," in which the main reason was that sewage treatment rate increased gradually and was above 90 % in 2012 (an increase of 10 % compared to 2002) with the progress of pollution abatement technology and the implementation of relevant policies and regulations. The contribution of water environmental pollution was analyzed from related cities (Ji'ning, Zaozhuang, Heze). Results indicated that Ji'ning had the largest contribution to water pollution of the Nansi Lake basin, and the pollutant from domestic sources accounted for a higher percentage compared to industrial sources. The wastewater, COD, and NH3-N mainly came from mining and washing of coal, manufacture of raw chemical materials and chemical products, papermaking industry, and food processing industry. According to the water pollution characteristics of the Nansi Lake basin, the basin pollution treatment strategy and prevention and treatment system were dissected to provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of lakeside point source pollution along the Nansi Lake.

  20. Spatiotemporal Patterns, Monitoring Network Design, and Environmental Justice of Air Pollution in the Phoenix Metropolitan Region: A Landscape Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Ronald L.

    Air pollution is a serious problem in most urban areas around the world, which has a number of negative ecological and human health impacts. As a result, it's vitally important to detect and characterize air pollutants to protect the health of the urban environment and our citizens. An important early step in this process is ensuring that the air pollution monitoring network is properly designed to capture the patterns of pollution and that all social demographics in the urban population are represented. An important aspect in characterizing air pollution patterns is scale in space and time which, along with pattern and process relationships, is a key subject in the field of landscape ecology. Thus, using multiple landscape ecological methods, this dissertation research begins by characterizing and quantifying the multi-scalar patterns of ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) in the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan region. Results showed that pollution patterns are scale-dependent, O3 is a regionally-scaled pollutant at longer temporal scales, and PM10 is a locally-scaled pollutant with patterns sensitive to season. Next, this dissertation examines the monitoring network within Maricopa County. Using a novel multiscale indicator-based approach, the adequacy of the network was quantified by integrating inputs from various academic and government stakeholders. Furthermore, deficiencies were spatially defined and recommendations were made on how to strengthen the design of the network. A sustainability ranking system also provided new insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the network. Lastly, the study addresses the question of whether distinct social groups were experiencing inequitable exposure to pollutants - a key issue of distributive environmental injustice. A novel interdisciplinary method using multi-scalar ambient pollution data and hierarchical multiple regression models revealed environmental inequities between air pollutants and race, ethnicity

  1. Seasonal relationship of sudden infant death syndrome and environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppenbrouwers, T.; Calub, M.; Arakawa, K.; Hodgman, J.E.

    1981-06-01

    Evidence that chronic hypoxia precedes death from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is mounting. Prolonged exposure to moderate levels of pollutants could be a contributing factor to hypoxia. Levels of carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) and hydrocarbons (HC) are highest in the winter when incidence of SIDS is increased. SIDS cases in Los Angeles County were correlated with daily mean levels of these pollutants, temperature, barometric pressure and monthly lead levels with the aid of time series analyses. Peaks in CO, SO/sub 2/, NO/sub 2/, HC and lead preceded the seasonal increase in SIDS by seven weeks. Theoretical considerations, such as the hypoxia-inducing effects of CO, support the hypothesis that this temporal relation has functional significance. The role of pollution levels as a predisposing factor in risk for SIDS cannot be summarily dismissed.

  2. MS-MS Approaches for the Analysis of Environmental Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern about the environment and the start of environmental analysis coincided with the rise of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) was founded in 1970, and as the need for techniques to analyze environmental...

  3. Endangered Education: How Corporate Polluters Are Attacking Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohart, Barbara; Manilov, Marianne; Schwarz, Tamara

    This report claims that an attack has been waged on environmental education to derail the re-authorization of the National Environmental Education Act and to de-stabilize and de-fund environmental education in the United States. Presented in the media as a grassroots movement, stories have appeared in local, state, and national media that…

  4. [Femoral bone morphogenesis in human fetuses in the area of environmental fluoride pollution].

    PubMed

    Shalina, T I; Vasil'eva, L S

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the peculiarities of femoral bone osteogenesis in human fetuses in the areas with different levels of environmental pollution with fluoride compounds (the city of Irkutsk and the town of Shelekhov). The histological structure of femoral bones was studied in 70 fetuses aged 15-16, 19-20, 22-25 and 27-29 gestational weeks. Morphometric methods were used to evaluate the number of blood vessels per total area of epiphysis, the length of endochondral trabeculae, the thickness of hypertrophic and columnar cartilage zones, diaphysis wall and its trabeculae thickness, the thickness of endochondral trabeculae merging with the diaphysis wall, and of the bone growing on the epiphysis. It was found that in the city of Irkutzk, relatively remote from the pollution source, the processes of osteogenesis and osteoresorption are balanced and are characterized by the prevalence of osteoblastic activity over osteoclastic activity, ensuring the active bone growth. During weeks 15-22, the bones are actively growing in length, while during weeks 22-29 they grow mainly in width. In the town of Shelekhov, located closely to the pollution source, the growth of bones in both length and width, is delayed. The bone growth was active till week 16, however, during weeks 18-29, osteoresorption prevailed over the osteosynthesis, the bone thickness decreased, while the activity of their growth in length remained reduced. PMID:20593589

  5. Advances in Understanding Sorption and Transport Processes Affecting the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karapanagioti, H. K.; Werner, D.; Werth, C.

    2012-04-01

    The results of a call for a special issue that is now in press by the Journal of Contaminant Hydrology will be presented. This special issue is edited by the authors and is entitled "Sorption and Transport Processes Affecting the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface". A short abstract of each paper will be presented along with the most interesting results. Nine papers were accepted. Pollutants studied include: biocolloids, metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, micropollutants (PAHs, PCBs), pesticides (glyphosate, 2,4-D). Findings presented in the papers include a modified batch reactor system to study equilibrium-reactive transport problems of metals. Column studies along with theoretical approximations evaluate the combined effects of grain size and pore water velocity on the transport in water saturated porous media of three biocolloids. A polluted sediment remediation method is evaluated considering site-specific conditions through monitoring results and modelling. A field study points to glogging and also sorption as mechanisms affecting the effectiveness of sub-surface flow constructed wetlands. A new isotherm model combining modified traditionally used isotherms is proposed that can be used to simulate pH-dependent metal adsorption. Linear free energy relationships (LFERs) demonstrate ability to predict slight isotope shifts into the groundwater due to sorption. Possible modifications that improve the reliability of kinetic models and parameter values during the evaluation of experiments that assess the sorption of pesticides on soils are tested. Challenges in selecting groundwater pollutant fate and transport models that account for the effect of grain-scale sorption rate limitations are evaluated based on experimental results and are discussed based on the Damköhler number. Finally, a thorough review paper presents the impact of mineral micropores on the transport and fate of

  6. Piggery: from environmental pollution to a climate change solution.

    PubMed

    Maraseni, Tek N; Maroulis, Jerry

    2008-05-01

    Pig farms are a vital component of rural economies in Australia. However, disposal of effluent leads to many environmental problems. This case study of the Berrybank Farm piggery waste management system in Victoria estimates greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits from three different activities. Analysis reveals that the capturing and combusting of methane from piggery effluent could save between 4859 and 5840 tCO2e yr(-1) of GHG emissions. Similarly, using methane for replacing fuels for electricity generation could save another 800 tCO2e yr(-1)of GHGs. Likewise, by utilizing the biogas wastes to replace inorganic fertilizers there could be a further saving of 1193 to 1375 tCO2e yr(-1) of GHG, depending on the type of fertilizers the waste replaces. Therefore, a well-managed piggery farm with 15,000 pigs could save 6,852 to 8,015 tCO2e yr(-1), which equates to the carbon sequestrated from 6,800 to 8,000 spotted gum trees (age=35 year) in their above plus below-ground biomass. Implementation of similar project in suitable areas in Australia could have significant environmental and financial benefits. PMID:18437624

  7. [Environmental geochemical baseline of heavy metals in soils of the Ili river basin and pollution evaluation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Ru; Nasier, Telajin; Cheng, Yong-Yi; Zhan, Jiang-Yu; Yang, Jian-Hong

    2014-06-01

    Environmental geochemical baseline models of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Hg were established by standardized method in the ehernozem, chestnut soil, sierozem and saline soil from the Ili river valley region. The theoretical baseline values were calculated. Baseline factor pollution index evaluation method, environmental background value evaluation method and heavy metal cleanliness evaluation method were used to compare soil pollution degrees. The baseline factor pollution index evaluation showed that As pollution was the most prominent among the four typical types of soils within the river basin, with 7.14%, 9.76%, 7.50% of sampling points in chernozem, chestnut soil and sierozem reached the heavy pollution, respectively. 7.32% of sampling points of chestnut soil reached the permitted heavy metal Pb pollution index in the chestnut soil. The variation extent of As and Pb was the largest, indicating large human disturbance. Environmental background value evaluation showed that As was the main pollution element, followed by Cu, Zn and Pb. Heavy metal cleanliness evaluation showed that Cu, Zn and Pb were better than cleanliness level 2 and Hg was the of cleanliness level 1 in all four types of soils. As showed moderate pollution in sierozem, and it was of cleanliness level 2 or better in chernozem, chestnut soil and saline-alkali soil. Comparing the three evaluation systems, the baseline factor pollution index evaluation more comprehensively reflected the geochemical migration characteristics of elements and the soil formation processes, and the pollution assessment could be specific to the sampling points. The environmental background value evaluation neglected the natural migration of heavy metals and the deposition process in the soil since it was established on the regional background values. The main purpose of the heavy metal cleanliness evaluation was to evaluate the safety degree of soil environment.

  8. Effects of Environmental Pollutants on Cellular Iron Homeostasis and Ultimate Links to Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schreinemachers, Dina M.; Ghio, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic disease has increased in the past several decades, and environmental pollutants have been implicated. The magnitude and variety of diseases may indicate the malfunctioning of some basic mechanisms underlying human health. Environmental pollutants demonstrate a capability to complex iron through electronegative functional groups containing oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur. Cellular exposure to the chemical or its metabolite may cause a loss of requisite functional iron from intracellular sites. The cell is compelled to acquire further iron critical to its survival by activation of iron-responsive proteins and increasing iron import. Iron homeostasis in the exposed cells is altered due to a new equilibrium being established between iron-requiring cells and the inappropriate chelator (the pollutant or its catabolite). Following exposure to environmental pollutants, the perturbation of functional iron homeostasis may be the mechanism leading to adverse biological effects. Understanding the mechanism may lead to intervention methods for this major public health concern. PMID:26966372

  9. Effects of Environmental Pollutants on Cellular Iron Homeostasis and Ultimate Links to Human Disease.

    PubMed

    Schreinemachers, Dina M; Ghio, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Chronic disease has increased in the past several decades, and environmental pollutants have been implicated. The magnitude and variety of diseases may indicate the malfunctioning of some basic mechanisms underlying human health. Environmental pollutants demonstrate a capability to complex iron through electronegative functional groups containing oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur. Cellular exposure to the chemical or its metabolite may cause a loss of requisite functional iron from intracellular sites. The cell is compelled to acquire further iron critical to its survival by activation of iron-responsive proteins and increasing iron import. Iron homeostasis in the exposed cells is altered due to a new equilibrium being established between iron-requiring cells and the inappropriate chelator (the pollutant or its catabolite). Following exposure to environmental pollutants, the perturbation of functional iron homeostasis may be the mechanism leading to adverse biological effects. Understanding the mechanism may lead to intervention methods for this major public health concern.

  10. Environmental impact assessment of persistent organic pollutants in the surroundings of various industrial sources

    SciTech Connect

    Holoubek, I.; Helesic, J.; Kocan, A.; Pokorny, B.

    1995-12-31

    During the last decade several studies have been carried out aimed at improving the knowledge on the behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment. Evidence has been found that many of these compounds create serious problems due to their toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulation in the environment. Examples of POPs that behave in this way are polychlorinated pesticides, industrial compounds (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls) and some degradation, industrial, and combustion by-products (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, hexachlorobenzene). Although work has been done in order to understand the fate, behavior, and effects of POPs, less information is available on environmental cycling (migration) of these compounds through various environmental media. The major reason for this deficiency in the knowledge is related to a lack of detailed information on emissions of POPs and the parameters affecting their migration through the environment under various meteorological, chemical and physical conditions.

  11. Antioxidant responses in clam Venerupis philippinarum exposed to environmental pollutant hexabromocyclododecane.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Pan, Luqing; Tao, Yanxia

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the potential toxic effects of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) on tissues of clam Venerupis philippinarum using parameters of antioxidant defenses and oxidative stress. Antioxidant biomarkers including ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH), as well as DNA damage and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in gills and digestive glands of V. philippinarum, were analyzed after a 1-, 3-, 6-, 10-, and 15-day exposure to seawater containing HBCD at environmentally related concentrations, respectively. The results showed that the activity of most antioxidant enzymes increased, and different trends were detected with exposure time extending. The oxidative stress could be obviously caused in the gills and digestive glands under the experimental conditions. This could provide useful information for toxic risk assessment of environmental pollutant HBCD.

  12. Environmental epigenetics: A promising venue for developing next-generation pollution biomonitoring tools in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Ulloa, Victoria; Gonzalez-Romero, Rodrigo; Eirin-Lopez, Jose M

    2015-09-15

    Environmental epigenetics investigates the cause-effect relationships between specific environmental factors and the subsequent epigenetic modifications triggering adaptive responses in the cell. Given the dynamic and potentially reversible nature of the different types of epigenetic marks, environmental epigenetics constitutes a promising venue for developing fast and sensible biomonitoring programs. Indeed, several epigenetic biomarkers have been successfully developed and applied in traditional model organisms (e.g., human and mouse). Nevertheless, the lack of epigenetic knowledge in other ecologically and environmentally relevant organisms has hampered the application of these tools in a broader range of ecosystems, most notably in the marine environment. Fortunately, that scenario is now changing thanks to the growing availability of complete reference genome sequences along with the development of high-throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatic methods. Altogether, these resources make the epigenetic study of marine organisms (and more specifically marine invertebrates) a reality. By building on this knowledge, the present work provides a timely perspective highlighting the extraordinary potential of environmental epigenetic analyses as a promising source of rapid and sensible tools for pollution biomonitoring, using marine invertebrates as sentinel organisms. This strategy represents an innovative, groundbreaking approach, improving the conservation and management of natural resources in the oceans.

  13. Electrical Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    Citizen use of our nation's industrial products has led to increased pollution problems and demand for diminishing energy reserves. In an attempt to encourage intelligent cooperation among science, industry, government and all citizens, this unit was developed to introduce secondary science students to the many facets of the electrical production…

  14. Satellite, aircraft, and drogue studies of coastal currents and pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.; Davis, G.; Lackie, J.; Whelan, W.; Tornatore, G.

    1977-01-01

    The mounting interest in extracting oil and other resources from the continental shelf and continuing use of shelf and estuarine waters for waste disposal is creating a need for synoptic means of determining currents and monitoring pollutants in this area. A satellite-aircraft-drogue approach is described which employs remotely tracked expendable drogues together with satellite and aircraft observations of waste plumes and current tracers such as dyes or suspended sediment. Tests conducted on the continental shelf and in Delaware Bay indicate that the approach provides a cost-effective means of studying current circulation, oil-slick movement, and ocean waste dispersion under a wide range of environmental conditions.

  15. Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, 4th, New Orleans, La., November 6-11, 1977, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Papers are presented on such topics as environmental chemistry, the effects of sulfur compounds on air quality, the prediction and monitoring of biological effects caused by environmental pollutants, environmental indicators, the satellite remote sensing of air pollution, weather and climate modification by pollution, and the monitoring and assessment of radioactive pollutants. Consideration is also given to empirical and quantitative modeling of air quality, disposal of hazardous and nontoxic materials, sensing and assessment of water quality, pollution source monitoring, and assessment of some environmental impacts of fossil and nuclear fuels.

  16. Implications of pollution prevention experience for environmental management

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, W.

    1993-06-01

    Conventional wisdom in the US is that firms face a trade-off between environmental efforts and profit because of the belief that environmental protection invariably involves costs that reduce profits. Firms, therefore, generally perceive environmental protection as an impediment to their goal of profit maximization. Environmental efforts are viewed as an added hurdle in producing a product, rather than an as intrinsic part of well-designed operations. From this perspective, firms have no incentive to engage in environmental protection efforts, and will do so only if they are forced (or are given incentives) by government or if they perceive in advance potential profits from their efforts (e.g., a market for environmental products). The concept of a trade-off between the environment and profit, however, has been challenged recently. A common argument raised for questioning this trade-off is that efforts directed at environmental protection will lead to the development of new technologies and will give US firms a competitive advantage in the emerging environmental industry. It is argued that opportunities available within this growth field outweigh costs of entry and research. Recent publications (World Wildlife Fund, 1992; Resources for the Future, 1993) have proposed that government actions, may encourage the development of the environmental industry and, thus, improve both economic and environmental performance. Suggested governmental actions include using market incentives rather than command and control regulation to achieve environmental goals, integrating environmental values into governmental policy analysis, and supporting investments in environmental technologies. This paper details the economics and benefits of various waste management efforts.

  17. [Uncertainty analysis of water environmental capacity in the nonpoint source polluted river].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ding-jiang; Lü, Jun; Jin, Pei-jian; Shen, Ye-na; Shi, Yi-ming; Gong, Dong-qin

    2010-05-01

    Based on the one-dimension model for river water environmental capacity (WEC) and the statistical analysis of the measured hydrological and water quality variables, a uncertainty analysis method for the WEC in nonpoint source polluted river was developed, which included the sensitivity analysis for input parameters of the model and the probability distributions analysis for the WEC using Monte Carlo simulation approach. The method, which described the uncertainty derived from the adopted information of the river system and the randomicity from the occurrence of nonpoint source pollution, could provide different WEC combined with reliabilities for different hydrological seasons. As a case study, the total nitrogen (TN) WEC in the Changle River located in southeast China was calculated using the method. Results indicated that the TN WEC with 90% of reliability were 487.9, 949.8 and 1392.8 kg x d(-1) in dry season, average season and flood season, respectively, and the dilution effect of river water flow accounted for the main content of WEC. In order to satisfy water quality target of the river, about 1258.3-3591.2 kg x d(-1) of current TN quantity that entered into the river should be reduced in watershed, and the largest reducing quantity of TN was occurred during flood season. The uncertainty method, which reflected hydrology and water quality variations in the nonpoint source polluted river, provided a more reliable and efficient method for the WEC calculation.

  18. Molecular epidemiologic research on the effects of environmental pollutants on the fetus.

    PubMed Central

    Perera, F P; Jedrychowski, W; Rauh, V; Whyatt, R M

    1999-01-01

    Evidence shows that fetuses and infants are more affected than adults by a variety of environmental toxicants because of differential exposure, physiologic immaturity, and a longer lifetime over which disease initiated in early life can develop. In this article we review data on the effects of in utero exposure to common environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), particulate matter and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). We then summarize results from our molecular epidemiologic study to assess risks from in utero exposures to ambient air pollution and ETS. This research study, conducted in Poland, used biomarkers to measure the internal and bioeffective dose of toxicants and individual susceptibility factors. The study included 160 mothers and 160 newborns. Ambient air pollution was significantly associated (p= 0.05) with the amount of PAH bound to DNA (PAH-DNA adducts) in both maternal and infant cord white blood cells (WBC). Newborns with elevated PAH-DNA adducts (greater than the median) had significantly decreased birth weight (p= 0.05), birth length (p= 0.02), and head circumference (p= 0.0005) compared to the newborns with lower adducts (n= 135). Maternal and infant cotinine levels were increased by active and passive cigarette smoke exposure of the mother (p= 0.01). An inverse correlation was seen between newborn plasma cotinine (nanograms per milliliter) and birth weight (p= 0.0001) and length (p= 0.003). Adducts were elevated in placental tissue and WBC of newborns who were heterozygous or homozygous for the cytochrome P4501A1 MspI restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) compared to newborns without the RFLP. Levels of PAH-DNA and cotinine were higher in newborns than mothers. These results document that there is significant transplacental transfer of PAH and ETS constituents from mother to fetus; that PAH-DNA adduct levels in maternal and newborn WBC were increased with environmental exposure to PAH from ambient

  19. Modulation of persistent organic pollutant toxicity through nutritional intervention: emerging opportunities in biomedicine and environmental remediation.

    PubMed

    Petriello, Michael C; Newsome, Bradley J; Dziubla, Thomas D; Hilt, J Zach; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-09-01

    Environmental pollution is increasing worldwide, and there is evidence that exposure to halogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls can contribute to the pathology of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. Pollutant removal from contaminated sites and subsequent pollutant degradation are critical for reducing the long-term health risks associated with exposure. However, complete remediation of a toxicant from the environment is very difficult and cost-prohibitive. Furthermore, remediation technologies often result in the generation of secondary toxicants. Considering these circumstances, environmentally-friendly and sustainable remediation technologies and biomedical solutions to reduce vulnerability to environmental chemical insults need to be explored to reduce the overall health risks associated with exposure to environmental pollutants. We propose that positive lifestyle changes such as healthful nutrition and consumption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables or bioactive nutrients with antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory properties will reduce the body's vulnerability to environmental stressors and thus reduce toxicant-mediated disease pathologies. Interestingly, emerging evidence now implicates the incorporation of bioactive nutrients, such as plant-derived polyphenols, in technologies focused on the capture, sensing and remediation of halogenated POPs. We propose that human nutritional intervention in concert with the use of natural polyphenol sensing and remediation platforms may provide a sensible means to develop primary and long-term prevention strategies of diseases associated with many environmental toxic insults including halogenated POPs.

  20. Action for Environmental Quality. Standards and Enforcement for Air and Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for setting and enforcing environmental quality standards for the nation. With the Clean Air Act of 1970 (P.L. 91-604) and the Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (P.L. 92-500), the first truly nationwide control programs were established. This booklet is designed to inform the public…

  1. Use of Physicochemical Parameters to Assess the Environmental Fate of Organic Pollutants: The Fugacity Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenech, Xavier; Ayllon, Jose Antonio; Peral, Jose

    2006-01-01

    The environmental fate and behavior of different organic pollutants based on the qualitative analysis of thermodynamic and kinetic data is presented. The Fugacity model allows the use of different partition constants in an easy way, to determine the distribution of chemical between different phases in equilibrium of an environmental system.

  2. Are pharmaceuticals potent environmental pollutants? Part I: environmental risk assessments of selected active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Carina; Johansson, Anna-Karin; Alvan, Gunnar; Bergman, Kerstin; Kühler, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    As part of achieving national environmental goals, the Swedish Government commissioned an official report from the Swedish Medical Products Agency on environmental effects of pharmaceuticals. Considering half-lives/biodegradability, environmental occurrence, and Swedish sales statistics, 27 active pharmaceutical ingredients were selected for environmental hazard and risk assessments. Although there were large data gaps for many of the compounds, nine ingredients were identified as dangerous for the aquatic environment. Only the sex hormones oestradiol and ethinyloestradiol were considered to be associated with possible aquatic environmental risks. We conclude that risk for acute toxic effects in the environment with the current use of active pharmaceutical ingredients is unlikely. Chronic environmental toxic effects, however, cannot be excluded due to lack of chronic ecotoxicity data. Measures to reduce potential environmental impact posed by pharmaceutical products must be based on knowledge on chronic ecotoxic effects of both active pharmaceutical ingredients as well as excipients. We believe that the impact pharmaceuticals have on the environment should be further studied and be given greater attention such that informed assessments of hazards as well as risks can be done. PMID:16257037

  3. Linking environmental effects to health impacts: a computer modelling approach for air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Mindell, J.; Barrowcliffe, R.

    2005-01-01

    Study objective and Setting: To develop a computer model, using a geographical information system (GIS), to quantify potential health effects of air pollution from a new energy from waste facility on the surrounding urban population. Design: Health impacts were included where evidence of causality is sufficiently convincing. The evidence for no threshold means that annual average increases in concentration can be used to model changes in outcome. The study combined the "contours" of additional pollutant concentrations for the new source generated by a dispersion model with a population database within a GIS, which is set up to calculate the product of the concentration increase with numbers of people exposed within each enumeration district exposure response coefficients, and the background rates of mortality and hospital admissions for several causes. Main results: The magnitude of health effects might result from the increased PM10 exposure is small—about 0.03 deaths each year in a population of 3 500 000, with 0.04 extra hospital admissions for respiratory disease. Long term exposure might bring forward 1.8–7.8 deaths in 30 years. Conclusions: This computer model is a feasible approach to estimating impacts on human health from environmental effects but sensitivity analyses are recommended. Relevance to clinical or professional practice: The availability of GIS and dispersion models on personal computers enables quantification of health effects resulting from the additional air pollution new industrial development might cause. This approach could also be used in environmental impact assessment. Care must be taken in presenting results to emphasise methodological limitations and uncertainties in the numbers. PMID:16286501

  4. Risk perception and access to environmental information in four areas in Italy affected by natural or anthropogenic pollution.

    PubMed

    Coi, A; Minichilli, F; Bustaffa, E; Carone, S; Santoro, M; Bianchi, F; Cori, L

    2016-10-01

    A human biomonitoring (HBM) survey in four areas affected by natural or anthropogenic arsenic pollution was conducted in Italy within the framework of the SEpiAs project. A questionnaire, including the exploration of risk perception (RP) regarding environmental hazards and access to and trust in information, was administered to 282 subjects stratified by area, gender and age. The survey was designed to investigate how populations living in polluted areas could adopt prevention-oriented habits, fostered by the awareness of existing risks and, in addition, how increased knowledge of RP and information flows could support researchers in identifying recommendations, and presenting and disseminating HBM results. This study characterizes the four areas in terms of RP and access to and trust in environmental information, and provides insights into the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption. For the data analysis, a combined random forest (RF) and logistic regression approach was carried out. RF was applied to the variables derived from the questionnaire in order to identify the most important in terms of the aims defined. Associations were then tested using Fisher's exact test and assessed with logistic regression in order to adjust for confounders. Results showed that the perception of and personal exposure to atmospheric and water pollution, hazardous industries and waste, hazardous material transportation and waste was higher in geographical areas characterized by anthropogenic pollution. Citizens living in industrial areas appeared to be aware of environmental risks and had more confidence in environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) than in public authorities. In addition, they reported an insufficient circulation of information. Concerning the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption, a high perception of personal exposure to atmospheric pollution and hazardous industries was associated with a lower

  5. Study of air pollution plumes with imaging techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Setzer, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    This work examines the possibilities of atmospheric dispersion studies through the use of small scale images of air pollution plumes, particularly through the use of Landsat imagery. The major points are: 1) A historical description of the uses of imaging techniques in atmospheric and plume dispersion studies. 2) A review of dispersion theories used with smoke and air pollution photography. 3) A study of a plume (up to 200 km) spreading over the ocean and visible in Landsat images is developed. Sixteen cases of this plume indicated that its shape and length depend mainly on the wind speed. Long plumes were characteristic of winds stronger than 5 m/s and spread within an angle of 5/sup 0/ to 7.5/sup 0/. An association with Reynolds' (1983) experiments is made in spite of a difference of six orders of magnitude between the length of the plumes in these two works. Pasquill's (1961) horizontal dispersion coefficients were within an expected variation when compared to the values measured from the images. Nevertheless, this variation is associated with limitations in the dispersion equation and in the dispersion coefficients. 4) A study of Landsat multi-spectral data showed that plumes over water have their own spectral signature and that they can be located with an unsupervised classification technique (Cluster). 5) The remote sensing of plumes is suggested as a viable tool for environmental problems such as acid rain and long-range transport of air pollutants. The use of existing (as well as future) satellite images is a virtually unexplored source of data for environmental studies.

  6. Estimating the pollution risk of cadmium in soil using a composite soil environmental quality standard.

    PubMed

    Qu, Mingkai; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Chuanrong; Huang, Biao; Zhao, Yongcun

    2014-01-01

    Estimating standard-exceeding probabilities of toxic metals in soil is crucial for environmental evaluation. Because soil pH and land use types have strong effects on the bioavailability of trace metals in soil, they were taken into account by some environmental protection agencies in making composite soil environmental quality standards (SEQSs) that contain multiple metal thresholds under different pH and land use conditions. This study proposed a method for estimating the standard-exceeding probability map of soil cadmium using a composite SEQS. The spatial variability and uncertainty of soil pH and site-specific land use type were incorporated through simulated realizations by sequential Gaussian simulation. A case study was conducted using a sample data set from a 150 km(2) area in Wuhan City and the composite SEQS for cadmium, recently set by the State Environmental Protection Administration of China. The method may be useful for evaluating the pollution risks of trace metals in soil with composite SEQSs.

  7. Estimating the Pollution Risk of Cadmium in Soil Using a Composite Soil Environmental Quality Standard

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Biao; Zhao, Yongcun

    2014-01-01

    Estimating standard-exceeding probabilities of toxic metals in soil is crucial for environmental evaluation. Because soil pH and land use types have strong effects on the bioavailability of trace metals in soil, they were taken into account by some environmental protection agencies in making composite soil environmental quality standards (SEQSs) that contain multiple metal thresholds under different pH and land use conditions. This study proposed a method for estimating the standard-exceeding probability map of soil cadmium using a composite SEQS. The spatial variability and uncertainty of soil pH and site-specific land use type were incorporated through simulated realizations by sequential Gaussian simulation. A case study was conducted using a sample data set from a 150 km2 area in Wuhan City and the composite SEQS for cadmium, recently set by the State Environmental Protection Administration of China. The method may be useful for evaluating the pollution risks of trace metals in soil with composite SEQSs. PMID:24672364

  8. Winter season air pollution in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. A review of air pollution studies in an international airshed

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, W.; Church, H.W.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes a number of research efforts completed over the past 20 years in the El Paso del Norte region to characterize pollution sources and air quality trends. The El Paso del Norte region encompasses the cities of El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua and is representative of many US-Mexico border communities that are facing important air quality issues as population growth and industrialization of Mexican border communities continue. Special attention is given to a group of studies carried out under special US Congressional funding and administered by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Many of these studies were fielded within the last several years to develop a better understanding of air pollution sources and trends in this typical border community. Summary findings from a wide range of studies dealing with such issues as the temporal and spatial distribution of pollutants and pollution potential from both stationary and mobile sources in both cities are presented. Particular emphasis is given to a recent study in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez that focussed on winter season PM{sub 10} pollution in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. Preliminary estimates from this short-term study reveal that biomass combustion products and crustal material are significant components of winter season PM{sub 10} in this international border community.

  9. Molluscs as indicators of environmental pollution by radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Frantsevich, L.I.; Pan`kov, I.V.; Ermakov, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Theoretical and systematical aspects of the utilization of molluscs were elaborated in an effort to bioindicate pollution by radionuclides after the accident at Chernobyl` Atomic Electric Power Station (CAEPS). Beta-radiometry of shells, gamma-spectroscopy of shells and animals, and a number of chemical and radiochemical analyses were carried out. The composition of radionuclides, incorporated by molluscs before and after the accident, is cited. Average values of the factors of transition and accumulation (relative to water) {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs are estimated. Individual variability and taxonomic distinction of these parameters for {sup 90}Sr are analyzed. The results of radioecological monitoring of rivers of the Dnieper basin and reservoirs of the Dnieper cascade are shown. Direct beta-radiometry of molluscan shells is recommended as the most convenient method of rapidly estimating the level of pollution of the area of {sup 90}Sr.

  10. Approaches for controlling air pollutants and their environmental impacts generated from coal-based electricity generation in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Ren, Yixin; Wang, Qingsong; Yuan, Xueliang

    2015-08-01

    This study aims at qualifying air pollutants and environmental impacts generated from coal-based power plants and providing useful information for decision makers on the management of coal-based power plants in China. Results showed that approximately 9.03, 54.95, 62.08, and 12.12% of the national carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter emissions, respectively, in 2011were generated from coal-based electricity generation. The air pollutants were mainly generated from east China because of the well-developed economy and energy-intensive industries in the region. Coal-washing technology can simply and significantly reduce the environmental burden because of the relativity low content of coal gangue and sulfur in washed coal. Optimizing the efficiency of raw materials and energy consumption is additional key factor to reduce the potential environmental impacts. In addition, improving the efficiency of air pollutants (e.g., dust, mercury, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) control system and implementing the strict requirements on air pollutants for power plants are important ways for reducing the potential environmental impacts of coal-based electricity generation in China.

  11. Renal function and historical environmental cadmium pollution from zinc smelters.

    PubMed

    Staessen, J A; Lauwerys, R R; Ide, G; Roels, H A; Vyncke, G; Amery, A

    1994-06-18

    We investigated whether there was an association between renal function and cadmium pollution in areas with different exposures. Cadmium was measured in the soil and in vegetables in 10 districts, 6 of which were close to zinc smelters; and renal function and the concentrations of metals in blood and urine were measured in 703 randomly selected residents. 6 polluted areas, compared with 4 others showed higher cadmium concentrations in the soil (4.86 vs 0.81 ppm) and in locally grown vegetables, such as celery (2.43 vs 0.68 ppm) and beans (0.42 vs 0.15 ppm). Residents in polluted areas had higher urinary cadmium (10.5 vs 7.9 nmol/24 hours) and copper (0.16 vs 0.14 mumol/24 hours); higher serum creatinine (100 vs 97 mumol/L) urinary excretions of beta 2-microglobulin (109 vs 95 micrograms/24 hours), retinol-binding-protein (136 vs 118 micrograms/24 hours), and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (1.78 vs 1.38 U/24 hours). Serum zinc (12.2 vs 12.6 mumol/L) and creatinine clearance (87 vs 92 mL/min) were reduced in the 6 polluted areas. In all 10 districts, cadmium in the soil was positively correlated with cadmium in celery (r = 0.77), in beans (r = 0.67), and in residents' urine (r = 0.76). The creatinine clearance was inversely correlated with cadmium in soil (r = -0.78), in celery (r = -0.90), and in beans (r = -0.70). Past emissions from zinc smelters gave rise to contamination of the environment with cadmium, which gets into the food chain and has the potential to cause renal dysfunction and alterations in zinc and copper homeostasis. PMID:7911869

  12. Relations of the brown pelican to certain environmental pollutants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Belisle, A.A.; Prouty, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    Nearly all brown pelican eggs collected from 13 colonies in South Carolina, Florida, and California in 1969 and from 17 colonies in South Carolina and Florida in 1970 exhibited eggshell thinning. Of the 100 eggs analyzed for residues of pollutants, all eggs contained measurable quantities of DDE; most eggs contained measurable quantities of p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT, dieldrin, or PCB's (polychlorinated biphenyls). All eggs contained measurable quantities of mercury. DDE appears to have been responsible for virtually all the eggshell thinning. There is strong evidence that DDE played a major role in lowered reproductive success in South Carolina and California, and this pollutant appears to be intimately related to the population decline in South Carolina. Other pollutants, particularly dieldrin, may have had deleterious effect on reproductive success in South Carolina. Carcasses of pelicans collected by shooting in Florida and South Carolina in 1970 varied in residue load according to age and geographic location. Birds under 1 year of age contained smaller quantities of residues than did birds I year or older.

  13. Biomonitoring of environmental pollution by thorium and uranium in selected regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Zoriy, P; Ostapczuk, P; Dederichs, H; Höbig, J; Lennartz, R; Zoriy, M

    2010-05-01

    Two former uranium mines and a uranium reprocessing factory in the city of Aktau, Kazakhstan, may represent a risk of contaminating the surrounding areas by uranium and its daughter elements. One of the possible fingerprinting tools for studying the environmental contamination is using plant samples, collected in the surroundings of this city in 2007 and 2008. The distribution pattern of environmental pollution by uranium and thorium was evaluated by determining the thorium and uranium concentrations in plant samples (Artemisia austriaca) from the city of Aktau and comparing these results with those obtained for the same species of plants from an unpolluted area (town of Kurchatov). The determination of the uranium and thorium concentrations in different parts of A. austriaca plants collected from the analyzed areas demonstrated that the main contamination of the flora in areas surrounding the city of Aktau was due to dust transported by the wind from the uranium mines. The results obtained demonstrate that all the areas surrounding Aktau have a higher pollution level due to thorium and uranium than the control area (Kurchatov). A few "hot points" with high concentrations of uranium and thorium were found near the uranium reprocessing factory and the uranium mines.

  14. Antibiotic resistance marker genes as environmental pollutants in GMO-pristine agricultural soils in Austria.

    PubMed

    Woegerbauer, Markus; Zeinzinger, Josef; Gottsberger, Richard Alexander; Pascher, Kathrin; Hufnagl, Peter; Indra, Alexander; Fuchs, Reinhard; Hofrichter, Johannes; Kopacka, Ian; Korschineck, Irina; Schleicher, Corina; Schwarz, Michael; Steinwider, Johann; Springer, Burkhard; Allerberger, Franz; Nielsen, Kaare M; Fuchs, Klemens

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes may be considered as environmental pollutants if anthropogenic emission and manipulations increase their prevalence above usually occurring background levels. The prevalence of aph(3')-IIa/nptII and aph(3')-IIIa/nptIII - frequent marker genes in plant biotechnology conferring resistance to certain aminoglycosides - was determined in Austrian soils from 100 maize and potato fields not yet exposed to but eligible for GMO crop cultivation. Total soil DNA extracts were analysed by nptII/nptIII-specific TaqMan real time PCR. Of all fields 6% were positive for nptII (median: 150 copies/g soil; range: 31-856) and 85% for nptIII (1190 copies/g soil; 13-61600). The copy-number deduced prevalence of nptIII carriers was 14-fold higher compared to nptII. Of the cultivable kanamycin-resistant soil bacteria 1.8% (95% confidence interval: 0-3.3%) were positive for nptIII, none for nptII (0-0.8%). The nptII-load of the studied soils was low rendering nptII a typical candidate as environmental pollutant upon anthropogenic release into these ecosystems. PMID:26232739

  15. Antibiotic resistance marker genes as environmental pollutants in GMO-pristine agricultural soils in Austria.

    PubMed

    Woegerbauer, Markus; Zeinzinger, Josef; Gottsberger, Richard Alexander; Pascher, Kathrin; Hufnagl, Peter; Indra, Alexander; Fuchs, Reinhard; Hofrichter, Johannes; Kopacka, Ian; Korschineck, Irina; Schleicher, Corina; Schwarz, Michael; Steinwider, Johann; Springer, Burkhard; Allerberger, Franz; Nielsen, Kaare M; Fuchs, Klemens

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes may be considered as environmental pollutants if anthropogenic emission and manipulations increase their prevalence above usually occurring background levels. The prevalence of aph(3')-IIa/nptII and aph(3')-IIIa/nptIII - frequent marker genes in plant biotechnology conferring resistance to certain aminoglycosides - was determined in Austrian soils from 100 maize and potato fields not yet exposed to but eligible for GMO crop cultivation. Total soil DNA extracts were analysed by nptII/nptIII-specific TaqMan real time PCR. Of all fields 6% were positive for nptII (median: 150 copies/g soil; range: 31-856) and 85% for nptIII (1190 copies/g soil; 13-61600). The copy-number deduced prevalence of nptIII carriers was 14-fold higher compared to nptII. Of the cultivable kanamycin-resistant soil bacteria 1.8% (95% confidence interval: 0-3.3%) were positive for nptIII, none for nptII (0-0.8%). The nptII-load of the studied soils was low rendering nptII a typical candidate as environmental pollutant upon anthropogenic release into these ecosystems.

  16. Persistent Environmental Pollutants and Couple Fecundity: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Speculation has arisen that human fecundity may be declining, possibly a function of exposure to persistent environmental chemicals that resist degradation resulting in various pathways for human exposure. In contrast to considerable animal evidence suggesting adverse effects of such chemicals on reproduction, limited human research has been undertaken. To date, available data stem largely from 10 unique study cohorts that have quantified individual chemical exposures in relation to time-to-pregnancy (TTP), which is a measure of couple fecundity. Diminished fecundability odds ratios (FORs) indicative of longer TTP were observed in all but two studies, though not all findings achieved statistical significance. Persistent chemicals associated with reduced couple fecundity as measured by a longer TTP included β-HCH, cadmium, lead, mercury, p,p’-DDE, TCCD dioxin, and select PBDEs, PCBs and PFCs. Important methodologic limitations need to be considered in weighing the evidence: 1) reliance on pregnant women, which may exclude women with the highest exposures if related to the inability to conceive; 2) retrospectively reported TTP, which may be associated with bi-directional reporting errors and 3) limited attention to male partners or couples’ exposures. While current evidence is not inconsistent with animal evidence, concerted efforts to address lingering data gaps should include novel strategies for recruiting couples, the longitudinal measurement of TTP and the continued enrollment of couples across successive pregnancies. This latter strategy will provide a more complete understanding of the toxicokinetics of chemicals during sensitive windows and their implications for fecundity and its related impairments. PMID:24310101

  17. Air pollution modeling at road sides using the operational street pollution model--a case study in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ngo Tho; Ketzel, Matthias; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim

    2010-11-01

    In many metropolitan areas, traffic is the main source of air pollution. The high concentrations of pollutants in streets have the potential to affect human health. Therefore, estimation of air pollution at the street level is required for health impact assessment. This task has been carried out in many developed countries by a combination of air quality measurements and modeling. This study focuses on how to apply a dispersion model to cities in the developing world, where model input data and data from air quality monitoring stations are limited or of varying quality. This research uses the operational street pollution model (OSPM) developed by the National Environmental Research Institute in Denmark for a case study in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. OSPM predictions from five streets were evaluated against air pollution measurements of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and benzene (BNZ) that were available from previous studies. Hourly measurements and passive sample measurements collected over 3-week periods were compared with model outputs, applying emission factors from previous studies. In addition, so-called "backward calculations" were performed to adapt the emission factors for Hanoi conditions. The average fleet emission factors estimated can be used for emission calculations at other streets in Hanoi and in other locations in Southeast Asia with similar vehicle types. This study also emphasizes the need to further eliminate uncertainties in input data for the street-scale air pollution modeling in Vietnam, namely by providing reliable emission factors and hourly air pollution measurements of high quality.

  18. Economic transition and environmental sustainability: effects of economic restructuring on air pollution in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Cherp, Aleg; Kopteva, Irina; Mnatsakanian, Ruben

    2003-06-01

    Economic liberalization in former socialist countries may have various implications for their environmental sustainability. Positive effects of this process are potentially associated with improved efficiency, investments into cleaner technologies, responsiveness to environmentally aware markets, and ending subsidies to heavy industries. On the other hand, market liberalization may result in weaker environmental controls, economic instabilities distracting attention from environmental issues, and increasing orientation towards profit-making leading to more intensive exploitation of natural resources. In addition, trade liberalization may result in shifts towards more pollution and resource-intensive industries. This article seeks to quantify effects of economic restructuring in Russia on air pollution from productive economic sectors in the 1990s. Air pollution in Russia had significantly declined in 1991-1999, however, this decline was largely due to economic decline, as the overall pollution intensity of the economy had decreased only slightly. The factors that affected the pollution intensity are: (1) a decrease in the combined share of industrial and transport activities in the economy and (2) changing pollution intensities of the industrial and transport sectors. The pollution intensity of the Russian industry had remained relatively stable during the 1990s. This was the result of the two opposite and mutually canceling trends: (a) increasing shares of pollution-intensive branches such as metal smelting and oil production vs. less pollution intensive manufacturing and (b) decline in pollution intensities within the industrial branches. The article proposes a methodology by which the contribution of both factors to the overall pollution intensity of the industrial sector can be quantified. The pollution intensity of the Russian transport sector appears to have declined in the first half of the 1990s and increased in the second half. The most recent trend can be

  19. Volatile trace compounds released from municipal solid waste at the transfer stage: Evaluation of environmental impacts and odour pollution.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Lu, Wenjing; Wang, Hongtao

    2015-12-30

    Odour pollution caused by municipal solid waste is a public concern. This study quantitatively evaluated the concentration, environmental impacts, and olfaction of volatile trace compounds released from a waste transfer station. Seventy-six compounds were detected, and ethanol presented the highest releasing rate and ratio of 14.76 kg/d and 12.30 g/t of waste, respectively. Life cycle assessment showed that trichlorofluoromethane and dichlorodifluoromethane accounted for more than 99% of impact potentials to global warming and approximately 70% to human toxicity (non-carcinogenic). The major contributor for both photochemical ozone formation and ecotoxicity was ethanol. A detection threshold method was also used to evaluate odour pollution. Five compounds including methane thiol, hydrogen sulphide, ethanol, dimethyl disulphide, and dimethyl sulphide, with dilution multiples above one, were considered the critical compounds. Methane thiol showed the highest contribution to odour pollution of more than 90%, as indicated by its low threshold. Comparison of the contributions of the compounds to different environmental aspects indicated that typical pollutants varied based on specific evaluation targets and therefore should be comprehensively considered. This study provides important information and scientific methodology to elucidate the impacts of odourant compounds to the environment and odour pollution.

  20. Volatile trace compounds released from municipal solid waste at the transfer stage: Evaluation of environmental impacts and odour pollution.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Lu, Wenjing; Wang, Hongtao

    2015-12-30

    Odour pollution caused by municipal solid waste is a public concern. This study quantitatively evaluated the concentration, environmental impacts, and olfaction of volatile trace compounds released from a waste transfer station. Seventy-six compounds were detected, and ethanol presented the highest releasing rate and ratio of 14.76 kg/d and 12.30 g/t of waste, respectively. Life cycle assessment showed that trichlorofluoromethane and dichlorodifluoromethane accounted for more than 99% of impact potentials to global warming and approximately 70% to human toxicity (non-carcinogenic). The major contributor for both photochemical ozone formation and ecotoxicity was ethanol. A detection threshold method was also used to evaluate odour pollution. Five compounds including methane thiol, hydrogen sulphide, ethanol, dimethyl disulphide, and dimethyl sulphide, with dilution multiples above one, were considered the critical compounds. Methane thiol showed the highest contribution to odour pollution of more than 90%, as indicated by its low threshold. Comparison of the contributions of the compounds to different environmental aspects indicated that typical pollutants varied based on specific evaluation targets and therefore should be comprehensively considered. This study provides important information and scientific methodology to elucidate the impacts of odourant compounds to the environment and odour pollution. PMID:26292056

  1. Discovery of characteristic molecular signatures for the simultaneous prediction and detection of environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Song, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Han-Seam; Park, Yong-Keun; Ryu, Jae-Chun

    2014-02-01

    Gene expression data may be very promising for the classification of toxicant types, but the development and application of transcriptomic-based gene classifiers for environmental toxicological applications are lacking compared to the biomedical sciences. Also, simultaneous classification across a set of toxicant types has not been investigated extensively. In the present study, we determined the transcriptomic response to three types of ubiquitous toxicants exposure in two types of human cell lines (HepG2 and HL-60), which are useful in vitro human model for evaluation of toxic substances that may affect human hepatotoxicity (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon [PAH] and persistent organic pollutant [POP]) and human leukemic myelopoietic proliferation (e.g., volatile organic compound [VOC]). The findings demonstrate characteristic molecular signatures that facilitated discrimination and prediction of the toxicant type. To evaluate changes in gene expression levels after exposure to environmental toxicants, we utilized 18 chemical substances; nine PAH toxicants, six VOC toxicants, and three POP toxicants. Unsupervised gene expression analysis resulted in a characteristic molecular signature for each toxicant group, and combination analysis of two separate multi-classifications indicated 265 genes as surrogate markers for predicting each group of toxicants with 100 % accuracy. Our results suggest that these expression signatures can be used as predictable and discernible surrogate markers for detection and prediction of environmental toxicant exposure. Furthermore, this approach could easily be extended to screening for other types of environmental toxicants. PMID:24197968

  2. Environmental pollutants in relation to complications of pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Tabacova, S; Balabaeva, L

    1993-01-01

    Certain complications of pregnancy, e.g., threatened spontaneous abortion, toxemia, emesis, and anemia, were studied in pregnant women living in industrial areas contaminated by smelters and the petrochemical industry. Exposure to lead or aromatic hydrocarbons was assessed in parallel by the determination of these agents or their metabolites in blood and urine. Comparison of respective exposure levels was made between women with normal pregnancies and those with complications. Significantly higher levels of lead in blood and increased excretion of the metabolic products of organic solvents were found in women with complicated pregnancies compared to those with normal pregnancies. Threatened spontaneous abortion, toxemia, and anemia were associated with higher lead exposure in the vicinity of smelters. In these patients, evidence of disturbances of blood glutathione equilibrium and increased lipid peroxidation were found indicating a decreased ability to compensate for the effects of exposure. Styrene exposure in a petrochemical industrial area was associated mainly with late toxemia and nephropathy. Patients with these complications also had a tendency to elevated exposure to other aromatic hydrocarbons. It is suggested that complications of pregnancy may be induced by environmental agents at levels lower than those that result in pregnancy loss or preterm birth. PMID:8243397

  3. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (solid waste pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The paper discusses pollution by solid wastes including garbage, scrap, junked automobiles, spoil, sludge, containers; Disposal methods such as composts or land application, injection wells, incineration, sanitary landfills; Mining wastes; Processing for separation and materials recovery; Solid waste utilization; Recycling; Biological and ecological effects; Superfund (Records of Decision, etc.); SITE technology; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use. The discussion includes disposal of concentrated or pure liquids such as brines, oils, chemicals, and hazardous materials.

  4. Oxidative metabolism of chemical pollutants in marine organisms: molecular and biochemical biomarkers in environmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Maura; Giuliani, Maria Elisa; Regoli, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    Oxidative stress biomarkers are widely used in marine ecotoxicology. Environmental pollutants enhance intracellular formation of oxyradicals through several mechanisms, but complex oxidative interactions occur in response to chemical mixtures. Metabolism of individual classes of pollutants can be influenced by a sophisticated network of prooxidant relationships, reciprocal and cascade effects, changes of redox-sensitive signaling proteins, and transcription factors. Chemically mediated pathways can affect antioxidant responses at different levels, including pretranscriptional, transcriptional, protein, and catalytic functions; such mechanisms remain largely unexplored in marine organisms. Molecular responses of antioxidants are frequently not paralleled by expected biochemical changes or cellular effects, and caution is needed when interpreting the effects of environmental pollutants. Results on antioxidant variations can be influenced by mRNA stability and protein turnover, different timing for transcriptional and translational mechanisms, metabolic capability of tissues, posttranscriptional modifications of proteins, biphasic responses of antioxidant enzymes, and adaptation mechanisms to chronic pollution. PMID:25712694

  5. Environmental implementation plan: Chapter 5, Chemical management, pollution prevention and other compliance programs. Draft revision

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, G.L.

    1993-11-18

    Compliance with environmental regulations and US Department of Energy Orders (DOE) relating to environmental protection is an important part of SRS`s program. Over the past few years, the number of environmental regulations has increased. The strategy to comply with new and existing environmental regulations and DOE orders is described in chapter two. In this chapter, the following environmental programs are described: Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA); Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA); Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA); and SPCC/BMP/Pollution Prevention Plans;The implementation section identifies issues and those responsible to achieve defined objectives.

  6. Persistent environmental pollutants and couple fecundity: an overview.

    PubMed

    Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2014-01-01

    Speculation has arisen that human fecundity may be declining, possibly a function of exposure to persistent environmental chemicals that resist degradation resulting in various pathways for human exposure. In contrast to considerable animal evidence suggesting adverse effects of such chemicals on reproduction, limited human research has been undertaken. To date, available data stem largely from ten unique study cohorts that have quantified individual chemical exposures in relation to time-to-pregnancy (TTP), which is a measure of couple fecundity. Diminished fecundability odds ratios indicative of longer TTP were observed in all but two studies, although not all findings achieved statistical significance. Persistent chemicals associated with reduced couple fecundity as measured by a longer TTP included βHCH, cadmium, lead, mercury, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene, TCCD dioxin, and select polybrominated diethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, and perfluorochemicals. Important methodologic limitations need to be considered in weighing the evidence: i) reliance on pregnant women, which may exclude women with the highest exposures if related to the inability to conceive; ii) retrospectively reported TTP, which may be associated with bidirectional reporting errors; and iii) limited attention to male partners or couples' exposures. While current evidence is not inconsistent with animal evidence, concerted efforts to address lingering data gaps should include novel strategies for recruiting couples, the longitudinal measurement of TTP, and the continued enrollment of couples across successive pregnancies. This latter strategy will provide a more complete understanding of the toxicokinetics of chemicals during sensitive windows and their implications for fecundity and its related impairments. PMID:24310101

  7. Music and Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Kate; Freedman, Bill

    2004-01-01

    The use of music in environmental education (EE) can help to inform students through ideas incorporated in musical lyrics, while also enhancing interest in environmental topics. Music can also enhance perceptions of the value of the natural world, especially when nature itself is recognized as being musical. This article discusses historical and…

  8. AENV: Studying Environmental Hazards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tombaugh, Larry W.

    1975-01-01

    The Division of Advanced Environmental Research and Technology (AENV) examines those environmental problems outside the responsibilities of other federal agencies. Present areas of concern include: organic threats to the environment, energy, land-use decisions, weather modification, earthquakes, and the development of a data base for understanding…

  9. Increase in metabolic syndrome-related hospitalizations in relation to environmental sources of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Sergeev, Alexander V; Carpenter, David O

    2011-03-01

    Evidence from cell studies indicates that persistent organic pollutants (POP) can induce insulin resistance, an essential component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We hypothesized that residential proximity to environmental sources of POP would be associated with the MetS in the population. The present study examined the association between residency in a zip code containing or abutting environmental sources of POP and MetS-related hospitalization rates. Hospitalization data were obtained from the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System. Relative risks (RR) were calculated as hospitalization rate ratios. Adjusted RR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multivariable Poisson regression. A higher proportion of African Americans resided in POP zip codes compared to Caucasians (25.9% and 24.3%, respectively, p < 0.01). Residence in POP zip codes was associated with a statistically significant 39.2% increase in MetS-related hospitalization rates, adjusted for race, gender, and age (adjusted RR = 1.392, 95% CI: 1.032-1.879, p = 0.030). Increase in age was independently associated with higher MetS-related hospitalization rates (p for trend < 0.001). Our findings contribute to the body of evidence supporting the hypothesis of POP constituting an environmental risk factor for the MetS. Further studies investigating exposure to POP and insulin resistance are warranted.

  10. Principles and problems of environmental pollution of groundwater resources with case examples from developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Egboka, B C; Nwankwor, G I; Orajaka, I P; Ejiofor, A O

    1989-01-01

    The principles and problems of environmental pollution and contamination are outlined. Emphasis is given to case examples from developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America with a comparative analysis to developed countries. The problems of pollution/contamination are widespread in developed countries but are gradually spreading from the urban to rural areas in the developing countries. Great efforts in research and control programs to check pollution-loading into the environment have been made in the industrialized countries, but only negligible actions have been taken in developing countries. Pollutants emanate from both point and distributed sources and have adversely affected both surface water and groundwaters. The influences of the geologic and hydrologic cycles that exacerbate the incidences of pollution/contamination have not been well understood by environmental planners and managers. Professionals in the different areas of pollution control projects, particularly in developing countries, lack the integrated multiobjective approaches and techniques in problem solving. Such countries as Nigeria, Kenya, Brazil, and India are now menaced by pollution hazards. Appropriate methods of control are hereby suggested. PMID:2695325

  11. Principles and problems of environmental pollution of groundwater resources with case examples from developing countries.

    PubMed

    Egboka, B C; Nwankwor, G I; Orajaka, I P; Ejiofor, A O

    1989-11-01

    The principles and problems of environmental pollution and contamination are outlined. Emphasis is given to case examples from developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America with a comparative analysis to developed countries. The problems of pollution/contamination are widespread in developed countries but are gradually spreading from the urban to rural areas in the developing countries. Great efforts in research and control programs to check pollution-loading into the environment have been made in the industrialized countries, but only negligible actions have been taken in developing countries. Pollutants emanate from both point and distributed sources and have adversely affected both surface water and groundwaters. The influences of the geologic and hydrologic cycles that exacerbate the incidences of pollution/contamination have not been well understood by environmental planners and managers. Professionals in the different areas of pollution control projects, particularly in developing countries, lack the integrated multiobjective approaches and techniques in problem solving. Such countries as Nigeria, Kenya, Brazil, and India are now menaced by pollution hazards. Appropriate methods of control are hereby suggested. PMID:2695325

  12. Principles and problems of environmental pollution of groundwater resources with case examples from developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Egboka, B.C.E.; Orajaka, I.P.; Ejiofor, A.O. ); Nwankwor, G.I. )

    1989-11-01

    The principles and problems of environmental pollution and contamination are outlined. Emphasis is given to case examples from developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America with a comparative analysis to developed countries. The problems of pollution/contamination are widespread in developed countries but are gradually spreading from the urban to rural areas in the developing countries. Great efforts in research and control programs to check pollution-loading into the environment have been made in the industrialized countries, but only negligible actions have been taken in developing countries. Pollutants emanate from both point and distributed sources and have adversely affected both surface water and groundwaters. The influences of the geologic and hydrologic cycles that exacerbate the incidences of pollution/contamination have not been well understood by environmental planners and managers. Professionals in the different areas of pollution control projects, particularly in developing countries, lack the integrated multiobjective approaches and techniques in problem solving. Such countries as Nigeria, Kenya, Brazil, and India are now menaced by pollution hazards. Appropriate methods of control are hereby suggested.

  13. Principles and problems of environmental pollution of groundwater resources with case examples from developing countries.

    PubMed

    Egboka, B C; Nwankwor, G I; Orajaka, I P; Ejiofor, A O

    1989-11-01

    The principles and problems of environmental pollution and contamination are outlined. Emphasis is given to case examples from developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America with a comparative analysis to developed countries. The problems of pollution/contamination are widespread in developed countries but are gradually spreading from the urban to rural areas in the developing countries. Great efforts in research and control programs to check pollution-loading into the environment have been made in the industrialized countries, but only negligible actions have been taken in developing countries. Pollutants emanate from both point and distributed sources and have adversely affected both surface water and groundwaters. The influences of the geologic and hydrologic cycles that exacerbate the incidences of pollution/contamination have not been well understood by environmental planners and managers. Professionals in the different areas of pollution control projects, particularly in developing countries, lack the integrated multiobjective approaches and techniques in problem solving. Such countries as Nigeria, Kenya, Brazil, and India are now menaced by pollution hazards. Appropriate methods of control are hereby suggested.

  14. Global marine pollutants inhibit P-glycoprotein: Environmental levels, inhibitory effects, and cocrystal structure

    PubMed Central

    Nicklisch, Sascha C. T.; Rees, Steven D.; McGrath, Aaron P.; Gökirmak, Tufan; Bonito, Lindsay T.; Vermeer, Lydia M.; Cregger, Cristina; Loewen, Greg; Sandin, Stuart; Chang, Geoffrey; Hamdoun, Amro

    2016-01-01

    The world’s oceans are a global reservoir of persistent organic pollutants to which humans and other animals are exposed. Although it is well known that these pollutants are potentially hazardous to human and environmental health, their impacts remain incompletely understood. We examined how persistent organic pollutants interact with the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an evolutionarily conserved defense protein that is essential for protection against environmental toxicants. We identified specific congeners of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers that inhibit mouse and human P-gp, and determined their environmental levels in yellowfin tuna from the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, we solved the cocrystal structure of P-gp bound to one of these inhibitory pollutants, PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ether)–100, providing the first view of pollutant binding to a drug transporter. The results demonstrate the potential for specific binding and inhibition of mammalian P-gp by ubiquitous congeners of persistent organic pollutants present in fish and other foods, and argue for further consideration of transporter inhibition in the assessment of the risk of exposure to these chemicals. PMID:27152359

  15. Global marine pollutants inhibit P-glycoprotein: Environmental levels, inhibitory effects, and cocrystal structure.

    PubMed

    Nicklisch, Sascha C T; Rees, Steven D; McGrath, Aaron P; Gökirmak, Tufan; Bonito, Lindsay T; Vermeer, Lydia M; Cregger, Cristina; Loewen, Greg; Sandin, Stuart; Chang, Geoffrey; Hamdoun, Amro

    2016-04-01

    The world's oceans are a global reservoir of persistent organic pollutants to which humans and other animals are exposed. Although it is well known that these pollutants are potentially hazardous to human and environmental health, their impacts remain incompletely understood. We examined how persistent organic pollutants interact with the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an evolutionarily conserved defense protein that is essential for protection against environmental toxicants. We identified specific congeners of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers that inhibit mouse and human P-gp, and determined their environmental levels in yellowfin tuna from the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, we solved the cocrystal structure of P-gp bound to one of these inhibitory pollutants, PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ether)-100, providing the first view of pollutant binding to a drug transporter. The results demonstrate the potential for specific binding and inhibition of mammalian P-gp by ubiquitous congeners of persistent organic pollutants present in fish and other foods, and argue for further consideration of transporter inhibition in the assessment of the risk of exposure to these chemicals. PMID:27152359

  16. Air pollution, a rising environmental risk factor for cognition, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration: The clinical impact on children and beyond.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Leray, E; Heydarpour, P; Torres-Jardón, R; Reis, J

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution (indoors and outdoors) is a major issue in public health as epidemiological studies have highlighted its numerous detrimental health consequences (notably, respiratory and cardiovascular pathological conditions). Over the past 15 years, air pollution has also been considered a potent environmental risk factor for neurological diseases and neuropathology. This review examines the impact of air pollution on children's brain development and the clinical, cognitive, brain structural and metabolic consequences. Long-term potential consequences for adults' brains and the effects on multiple sclerosis (MS) are also discussed. One challenge is to assess the effects of lifetime exposures to outdoor and indoor environmental pollutants, including occupational exposures: how much, for how long and what type. Diffuse neuroinflammation, damage to the neurovascular unit, and the production of autoantibodies to neural and tight-junction proteins are worrisome findings in children chronically exposed to concentrations above the current standards for ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and may constitute significant risk factors for the development of Alzheimer's disease later in life. Finally, data supporting the role of air pollution as a risk factor for MS are reviewed, focusing on the effects of PM10 and nitrogen oxides.

  17. Air pollution, a rising environmental risk factor for cognition, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration: The clinical impact on children and beyond.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Leray, E; Heydarpour, P; Torres-Jardón, R; Reis, J

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution (indoors and outdoors) is a major issue in public health as epidemiological studies have highlighted its numerous detrimental health consequences (notably, respiratory and cardiovascular pathological conditions). Over the past 15 years, air pollution has also been considered a potent environmental risk factor for neurological diseases and neuropathology. This review examines the impact of air pollution on children's brain development and the clinical, cognitive, brain structural and metabolic consequences. Long-term potential consequences for adults' brains and the effects on multiple sclerosis (MS) are also discussed. One challenge is to assess the effects of lifetime exposures to outdoor and indoor environmental pollutants, including occupational exposures: how much, for how long and what type. Diffuse neuroinflammation, damage to the neurovascular unit, and the production of autoantibodies to neural and tight-junction proteins are worrisome findings in children chronically exposed to concentrations above the current standards for ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and may constitute significant risk factors for the development of Alzheimer's disease later in life. Finally, data supporting the role of air pollution as a risk factor for MS are reviewed, focusing on the effects of PM10 and nitrogen oxides. PMID:26718591

  18. Pollution and skin: from epidemiological and mechanistic studies to clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Krutmann, Jean; Liu, Wei; Li, Li; Pan, Xiaochuan; Crawford, Martha; Sore, Gabrielle; Seite, Sophie

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the health effects associated with air pollution have been intensively studied. Most studies focus on air pollution effects on the lung and the cardiovascular system. More recently, however, epidemiological and mechanistic studies suggest that air pollution is also affecting skin integrity. This state-of-the-art review focuses on this latter aspect; it was developed with the collaboration of European and Chinese board of experts with specific interests in environmental health, clinical and basic research in dermatology and cosmetic dermatology. A literature review limited to pollution and health effects and (sensitive) skin was performed using PubMed. Review and original articles were chosen. We summarize the existing scientific evidence that air pollution exerts detrimental effects on human skin, discuss potential clinical implications and suggest specific and unspecific cosmetic protective measures. PMID:25278222

  19. Spatial variation in environmental noise and air pollution in New York City.

    PubMed

    Kheirbek, Iyad; Ito, Kazuhiko; Neitzel, Richard; Kim, Jung; Johnson, Sarah; Ross, Zev; Eisl, Holger; Matte, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Exposure to environmental noise from traffic is common in urban areas and has been linked to increased risks of adverse health effects including cardiovascular disease. Because traffic sources also produce air pollutants that increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity, associations between traffic exposures and health outcomes may involve confounding and/or synergisms between air pollution and noise. While prior studies have characterized intraurban spatial variation in air pollution in New York City (NYC), limited data exists on the levels and spatial variation in noise levels. We measured 1-week equivalent continuous sound pressure levels (Leq) at 56 sites during the fall of 2012 across NYC locations with varying traffic intensity and building density that are routinely monitored for combustion-related air pollutants. We evaluated correlations among several noise metrics used to characterize noise exposures, including Leq during different time periods (night, day, weekday, weekend), Ldn (day-night noise), and measures of intermittent noise defined as the ratio of peak levels to median and background levels. We also examined correlations between sound pressure levels and co-located simultaneous measures of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC) as well as estimates of traffic and building density around the monitoring sites. Noise levels varied widely across the 56 monitoring sites; 1-week Leq varied by 21.6 dBA (range 59.1-80.7 dBA) with the highest levels observed during the weekday, daytime hours. Indices of average noise were well correlated with each other (r > 0.83), while indices of intermittent noise were not well correlated with average noise levels (r < 0.41). One-week Leq correlated well with NO, NO2, and EC levels (r = 0.61 to 0.68) and less so with PM2.5 levels (r = 0.45). We observed associations between 1-week noise levels and traffic intensity within 100 m of the monitoring sites (r = 0

  20. Spatial variation in environmental noise and air pollution in New York City.

    PubMed

    Kheirbek, Iyad; Ito, Kazuhiko; Neitzel, Richard; Kim, Jung; Johnson, Sarah; Ross, Zev; Eisl, Holger; Matte, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Exposure to environmental noise from traffic is common in urban areas and has been linked to increased risks of adverse health effects including cardiovascular disease. Because traffic sources also produce air pollutants that increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity, associations between traffic exposures and health outcomes may involve confounding and/or synergisms between air pollution and noise. While prior studies have characterized intraurban spatial variation in air pollution in New York City (NYC), limited data exists on the levels and spatial variation in noise levels. We measured 1-week equivalent continuous sound pressure levels (Leq) at 56 sites during the fall of 2012 across NYC locations with varying traffic intensity and building density that are routinely monitored for combustion-related air pollutants. We evaluated correlations among several noise metrics used to characterize noise exposures, including Leq during different time periods (night, day, weekday, weekend), Ldn (day-night noise), and measures of intermittent noise defined as the ratio of peak levels to median and background levels. We also examined correlations between sound pressure levels and co-located simultaneous measures of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC) as well as estimates of traffic and building density around the monitoring sites. Noise levels varied widely across the 56 monitoring sites; 1-week Leq varied by 21.6 dBA (range 59.1-80.7 dBA) with the highest levels observed during the weekday, daytime hours. Indices of average noise were well correlated with each other (r > 0.83), while indices of intermittent noise were not well correlated with average noise levels (r < 0.41). One-week Leq correlated well with NO, NO2, and EC levels (r = 0.61 to 0.68) and less so with PM2.5 levels (r = 0.45). We observed associations between 1-week noise levels and traffic intensity within 100 m of the monitoring sites (r = 0

  1. Health assessment of environmental pollutants; Proliferative and degenerative diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B.O. )

    1987-01-01

    The health assessments of environmental air contaminants are at present frequently based upon probability of cancer, if this has been identified as a potential result of prolonged exposure to the particular inhalation hazard. However, for many airborne hazards chronic inhalation exposure may result in morbidity or mortality risks due to chronic degenerative diseases such as emphysema, fibrosis, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that may be nearly as great or greater than those of more widely recognized neoplastic or proliferative disease. The relative hazards of environmentally released radioactive and chemical air contaminants, i.e., radon daughters and diesel engine exhaust, are discussed as examples.

  2. Environmental pollution and child health in the Aral Sea region in Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Jensen, S; Mazhitova, Z; Zetterström, R

    1997-11-01

    The deterioration of human health with increasing infant mortality rate, declining life expectancy at birth and increasing prevalence of serious infectious diseases in Russia and other former Soviet Republics is thought to be due to a combination of several factors such as inadequate nutrition, poor sanitation, collapse of the health care system and pollution from Soviet agriculture and industries. In the Aral Sea region in Kazakhstan, the environmental problems are of near catastrophic proportions. As a result of the implementation of a massive irrigation scheme to support the cotton fields in the former desert land, the water flow to the Aral Sea was reduced to less than half. Industrial pollutants such as PCB-compounds and heavy metals, but also the use of large quantities of pesticides to control parasites and weeds have accumulated not only in water, but also in soil and have been deposited over large areas by atmospheric transport to enter the food chain leading to humans. In a study of 15 children and of an additional 12 children referred from the region of the Aral Sea to the National Children's Rehabilitation Center in Almaty with symptoms and signs of 'ecological disease', we have found that the concentration of PCB compounds in the blood lipids is elevated in relation to healthy Swedish children. In addition, the blood lipid concentration of the beta-isomer of the hexachlorocyclohexanes was extremely high and of DDT-compounds was elevated up to 20 times. The concentrations of lead in red blood cells was moderately elevated and that of cadmium slightly elevated compared to the findings in Stockholm children. To study the role of these pollutants in the diseases found in children from the Aral Sea region accurate epidemiological studies have to be performed.

  3. [Indoor air pollution and health: study of various problems].

    PubMed

    Viala, A

    1994-01-01

    Human beings are living between 70 and 90% inside of premises, where numerous air pollutants are existing: some of them have outdoor sources (industry, domestic burning, car traffic), some are produced indoors by human activities and equipment, by animals, or by various materials, products and furniture. According to their nature, they are listed as biological, physical or chemical pollutants. About health, serious poisonings and acute effects attributed to indoor air pollutants, and even short term effects (like sick building syndrome, infectious illness, pneumopathies,...), can be relatively easy to distinguish. Inversely the involvement of these pollutants in long term effects (like chronic bronchitis, asthma, cancers,...) is more difficult to establish. During the last 15 years we carried out several studies, which allowed us to separate the chemical air contaminants into two categories: those produced outdoors (sulphur dioxide, lead, chromium, nickel, nitrates), of whom we calculated the penetration coefficients, and those from both origin, outside and inside (nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ammonia, aldehydes, particles, cadmium, vanadium, sulphates, ammonium salts). Aldehydes, which present important health risks, were especially investigated: in an office where several cigarettes were burning the measured concentrations were high in comparison with the threshold values existing in some foreign countries; in a cafeteria they were relatively low. To estimate the impregnation of non smokers by environmental tobacco smoke, we also determined, during same spaces of time, on the one hand nicotine in air, on the other hand nicotine and its metabolites excreted in the urine of exposed people. We thus observed that, in "real" situations, this impregnation is as a general rule extremely low.

  4. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (environmental health and safety). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Effects of pollution on public health and safety; Toxicology; Industrial health; Physiology; Psychology; Clinical medicine; Radiobiology; Animals used as research experimental models.

  5. THE MODELING OF THE FATE AND TRANSPORT OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current models that predict the fate of organic compounds released to the environment are based on the assumption that these compounds exist exclusively as neutral species. This assumption is untrue under many environmental conditions, as some molecules can exist as cations, anio...

  6. Tire Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit was developed to introduce secondary students to the many facets of a typical, large manufacturing plant - the Topeka Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company - in an effort to increase awareness of sound environmental practices in industry. Its five major foci include the production of tires and quality control procedures; applications of…

  7. Detection of Human-Derived Fecal Pollution in Environmental Waters by Use of a PCR-Based Human Polyomavirus Assay▿

    PubMed Central

    McQuaig, Shannon M.; Scott, Troy M.; Harwood, Valerie J.; Farrah, Samuel R.; Lukasik, Jerzy O.

    2006-01-01

    Regulatory agencies mandate the use of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli or Enterococcus spp., as microbial indicators of recreational water quality. These indicators of fecal pollution do not identify the specific sources of pollution and at times underestimate health risks associated with recreational water use. This study proposes the use of human polyomaviruses (HPyVs), which are widespread among human populations, as indicators of human fecal pollution. A method was developed to concentrate and extract HPyV DNA from environmental water samples and then to amplify it by nested PCR. HPyVs were detected in as little as 1 μl of sewage and were not amplified from dairy cow or pig wastes. Environmental water samples were screened for the presence of HPyVs and two additional markers of human fecal pollution: the Enterococcus faecium esp gene and the 16S rRNA gene of human-associated Bacteroides. The presence of human-specific indicators of fecal pollution was compared to fecal coliform and Enterococcus concentrations. HPyVs were detected in 19 of 20 (95%) samples containing the E. faecium esp gene and Bacteroides human markers. Weak or no correlation was observed between the presence/absence of human-associated indicators and counts of indicator bacteria. The sensitivity, specificity, and correlation with other human-associated markers suggest that the HPyV assay could be a useful predictor of human fecal pollution in environmental waters and an important component of the microbial-source-tracking “toolbox.” PMID:16997988

  8. [Study on the risk assessment method of regional groundwater pollution].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Wang, Zong-Qing; Li, Ding-Long; Sun, Hong-Wei

    2013-02-01

    Based on the boundary elements of system risk assessment, the regional groundwater pollution risk assessment index system was preliminarily established, which included: regional groundwater specific vulnerability assessment, the regional pollution sources characteristics assessment and the health risk assessment of regional featured pollutants. The three sub-evaluation systems were coupled with the multi-index comprehensive method, the risk was characterized with the Spatial Analysis of ArcMap, and a new method to evaluate regional groundwater pollution risk that suitable for different parts of natural conditions, different types of pollution was established. Take Changzhou as an example, the risk of shallow groundwater pollution was studied with the new method, and found that the vulnerability index of groundwater in Changzhou is high and distributes unevenly; The distribution of pollution sources is concentrated and has a great impact on groundwater pollution risks; Influenced by the pollutants and pollution sources, the values of health risks are high in the urban area of Changzhou. The pollution risk of shallow groundwater is high and distributes unevenly, and distributes in the north of the line of Anjia-Xuejia-Zhenglu, the center of the city and the southeast, where the human activities are more intense and the pollution sources are intensive.

  9. Bourdieu does environmental justice? Probing the linkages between population health and air pollution epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Buzzelli, Michael

    2007-03-01

    The environmental justice literature faces a number of conceptual and methodological shortcomings. The purpose of this paper is to probe ways in which these shortcomings can be remedied via recent developments in related literatures: population health and air pollution epidemiology. More sophisticated treatment of social structure, particularly if based on Pierre Bourdieu's relational approach to forms of capital, can be combined with the methodological rigour and established biological pathways of air pollution epidemiology. The aim is to reformulate environmental justice research in order to make further meaningful contributions to the wider movement concerned with issues of social justice and equity in health research.

  10. Leaf epidermal and gross morphological adaptations in salix nigra marsh (salicaceae) in relation to environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.K. )

    1993-07-01

    Eleven populations of Salix nigra Marsh. (black willow) in the mid-southern part of the United States were analyzed to determine the relationship between environmental contamination and variation in leaf epidermal and leaf morphological patterns. Plant populations of polluted habitats exhibited a decrease in leaf length and leaf width. Furthermore, stomatal frequency values, size of the largest stoma, and the epidermal wall undulations were reduced in these plant populations. Subsidiary cell complex remained unaffected by environmental pollution. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  11. Organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyl environmental pollution in south coast of Rio De Janeiro state.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ana Maria Ferreira; Pavesi, Thelma; Rosa, Ana Cristina Simões; Santos, Tatyane Pereira Dos; de Medeiros Tabalipa, Marianne; Lemes, Vera Regina Rossi; Alves, Sergio Rabello; de Novaes Sarcinelli, Paula

    2016-07-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the burden of environmental pollution by Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs) in two localities of Rio de Janeiro coast, through the determination of these levels in specimens of mullets and croakers collected from May to August 2008, at Guanabara Bay (GB) and from Araújo Island (AI), at Paraty Bay. Twenty three organochlorine pollutants were detected in croakers at GB and twenty in mullets and all PCBs congeners investigated in the study were present in the two species. Ratio ∑DDT/∑PCB of 1.4 shows an important contribution of agricultural residues in GB and p,p'-DDE/∑DDT of 0.1 demonstrates a reintroduction of DDT. Consumption of mullet may represent a risk to the health of fishermen families from GB, with average and maximum estimated daily intake of ∑DDT of 9.012μg/kg p.c. and 26,174μg/kg p.c., representing 45% and 131% of ADI established by WHO.

  12. [Spatiotemporal dynamic fuzzy evaluation of wetland environmental pollution risk in Dayang estuary of Liaoning Province, Northeast China based on remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong-Guang; Zhao, Dong-Zhi; Zhang, Feng-Shou; Wei, Bao-Quan; Chu, Jia-Lan; Su, Xiu

    2012-11-01

    Based on the aerial image data of Dayang estuary in 2008, and by virtue of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) , remote sensing technology, and GIS spatial analysis, a spatiotemporal evaluation was made on the comprehensive level of wetland environmental pollution risk in Dayang estuary, with the impacts of typical human activities on the dynamic variation of this comprehensive level discussed. From 1958 to 2008, the comprehensive level of the environmental pollution risk in study area presented an increasing trend. Spatially, this comprehensive level declined from land to ocean, and showed a zonal distribution. Tourism development activities unlikely led to the increase of the comprehensive level, while human inhabitation, transportation, and aquaculture would exacerbate the risk of environmental pollution. This study could provide reference for the sea area use planning, ecological function planning, and pollutants control of estuary region. PMID:23431807

  13. [Spatiotemporal dynamic fuzzy evaluation of wetland environmental pollution risk in Dayang estuary of Liaoning Province, Northeast China based on remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong-Guang; Zhao, Dong-Zhi; Zhang, Feng-Shou; Wei, Bao-Quan; Chu, Jia-Lan; Su, Xiu

    2012-11-01

    Based on the aerial image data of Dayang estuary in 2008, and by virtue of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) , remote sensing technology, and GIS spatial analysis, a spatiotemporal evaluation was made on the comprehensive level of wetland environmental pollution risk in Dayang estuary, with the impacts of typical human activities on the dynamic variation of this comprehensive level discussed. From 1958 to 2008, the comprehensive level of the environmental pollution risk in study area presented an increasing trend. Spatially, this comprehensive level declined from land to ocean, and showed a zonal distribution. Tourism development activities unlikely led to the increase of the comprehensive level, while human inhabitation, transportation, and aquaculture would exacerbate the risk of environmental pollution. This study could provide reference for the sea area use planning, ecological function planning, and pollutants control of estuary region.

  14. Evaluation of environmental impact of air pollution sources

    SciTech Connect

    Holnicki, P.

    2004-10-15

    This paper addresses the problem of evaluation and comparison of environmental impact of emission sources in the case of a complex, multisource emission field. The analysis is based on the forecasts of a short-term, dynamic dispersion model. The aim is to get a quantitative evaluation of the contribution of the selected sources according to the predefined, environmental cost function. The approach utilizes the optimal control technique for distributed parameter systems. The adjoint equation, related to the main transport equation of the forecasting model, is applied to calculate the sensitivity of the cost function to the emission intensity of the specified sources. An example implementation of a regional-scale, multilayer dynamic model of SOx transport is discussed as the main forecasting tool. The test computations have been performed for a set of the major power plants in a selected industrial region of Poland.

  15. Global-scale environmental transport of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Koziol, A S; Pudykiewicz, J A

    2001-12-01

    In order to realistically simulate both chemistry and transport of atmospheric organic pollutants, it is indispensable that the applied models explicitly include coupling between different components of the global environment such as atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and soil system. A model with such properties is presented. The atmospheric part of the model is based on the equations in a general contravariant form which permits easy changes of the coordinate system by redefining the metric tensor of a specifically employed coordinate system. Considering a need to include explicitly the terrain effects, the terrain following spherical coordinate system is chosen from among many possible coordinate systems. This particular system is a combination of the Gal-Chen coordinates, commonly employed in mesoscale meteorological models, and the spherical coordinates, typical for global atmospheric models. In addition to atmospheric transport, the model also simulates the exchange between air and different types of underlying surfaces such as water, soil, snow, and ice. This approach permits a realistic representation of absorption and delayed re-emission of pollutants from the surface to the atmosphere and, consequently, allows to capture hysteresis-like effects of the exchange between the atmosphere and the other components of the system. In this model, the most comprehensive numerical representation of the exchange is that for soil. In particular, the model includes a realistic soil module which simulates both diffusion and convection of a tracer driven by evaporation from the soil, precipitation, and gravity. The model is applied to a long-term simulation of the transport of pesticides (hexachlorocyclohexanes in particular). Emission fluxes from the soil are rigorously computed on the basis of the realistic data of the agricultural application. All four modelled systems, i.e. atmosphere, soil, hydrosphere and cryosphere, are driven by objectively analysed

  16. Role of environmental pollutants in liver physiology: special references to peoples living in the oil drilling sites of Assam.

    PubMed

    Dey, Tapan; Gogoi, Kabita; Unni, Balagopalan; Bharadwaz, Moonmee; Kalita, Munmi; Ozah, Dibyajyoti; Kalita, Manoj; Kalita, Jatin; Baruah, Pranab Kumar; Bora, Thaneswar

    2015-01-01

    The populations residing near polluted sites are more prone to various types of diseases. The important causes of air pollution are the suspended particulate matter, respirable suspended particulate matter, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. As limited information is available enumerating the effect of these pollutants on liver physiology of the population living near the polluted sites; in the present study, we tried to investigate their effect on liver of the population residing near the oil drilling sites since birth. In this study, a randomly selected 105 subjects (46 subjects from oil drilling site and 61 subjects from control site) aged above 30 years were taken under consideration. The particulate matter as well as the gaseous pollutants, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, were analyzed through a respirable dust sampler. The level of alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase enzymes in serum were measured by spectrophotometer. The generalized regression model studies suggests a higher concentration of respirable suspended particulate matter, suspended particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide lowers the alkaline phosphatase level (p<0.0001) by 3.5 times (95% CI 3.1-3.9), 1.5 times (95% CI 1.4-1.6) and 12 times (95% CI 10.74-13.804), respectively in the exposed group. The higher concentration of respirable suspended particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide in air was associated with increase in alanine transaminase level (p<0.0001) by 0.8 times (95% CI 0.589-1.049) and by 2.8 times (95% CI 2.067-3.681) respectively in the exposed group. The increase in nitrogen dioxide level was also associated with increase in aspartate transaminase level (p<0.0001) by 2.5 times (95% CI 1.862-3.313) in the exposed group as compared to control group. Thus, the study reveals that long-term exposure to the environmental pollutants may lead to liver abnormality or injury of populations living in polluted sites.

  17. Endocrine Aspects of Environmental “Obesogen” Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Nappi, Francesca; Barrea, Luigi; Di Somma, Carolina; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Orio, Francesco; Savastano, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests the causal link between the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the global obesity epidemics, in the context in the so-called “obesogenic environment”. Dietary intake of contaminated foods and water, especially in association with unhealthy eating pattern, and inhalation of airborne pollutants represent the major sources of human exposure to EDCs. This is of particular concern in view of the potential impact of obesity on chronic non-transmissible diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hormone-sensitive cancers. The key concept is the identification of adipose tissue not only as a preferential site of storage of EDCs, but also as an endocrine organ and, as such, susceptible to endocrine disruption. The timing of exposure to EDCs is critical to the outcome of that exposure, with early lifetime exposures (e.g., fetal or early postnatal) particularly detrimental because of their permanent effects on obesity later in life. Despite that the mechanisms operating in EDCs effects might vary enormously, this minireview is aimed to provide a general overview on the possible association between the pandemics of obesity and EDCs, briefly describing the endocrine mechanisms linking EDCs exposure and latent onset of obesity. PMID:27483295

  18. Determination of environmental organic pollutants with a portable optical immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Mauriz, E; Calle, A; Montoya, A; Lechuga, L M

    2006-04-15

    A portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) optical biosensor device is described as a direct immunosensing system to determine organic pollutants in natural water samples. Monitoring of organochlorine (DDT), organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos) and carbamate (carbaryl) compounds within the concentration levels stipulated by the European legislation, can be accomplished using this immunosensor. The lowest limit of detection (LOD) was obtained for DDT, at 20 ng L(-1), whilst 50 ng L(-1) and 0.9 microg L(-1), were achieved for chlorpyrifos and carbaryl, respectively. Matrix effects were evaluated for the carbaryl immunoassay in different water types with detection limits within the range of carbaryl standard curves in distilled water (0.9-1.4 microg L(-1)). The covalent immobilization of the analyte derivative through an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) allowed the reusability of the sensor surface during more than 250 regeneration cycles. The quality of the regeneration was proved over a 1-month period of continuous working. The analysis time for a complete assay cycle, including regeneration, comprises 24 min. Our portable SPR-sensor system is already a market product, commercialized by the company SENSIA, SL. The size and electronic configuration of the device allow its portability and utilization on real contaminated locations.

  19. Pathogenic Yet Environmentally Friendly? Black Fungal Candidates for Bioremediation of Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Blasi, Barbara; Poyntner, Caroline; Rudavsky, Tamara; Prenafeta-Boldú, Francesc X.; Hoog, Sybren De; Tafer, Hakim; Sterflinger, Katja

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A collection of 163 strains of black yeast-like fungi from the CBS Fungal Biodiversity Center (Utrecht, The Netherlands), has been screened for the ability to grow on hexadecane, toluene and polychlorinated biphenyl 126 (PCB126) as the sole carbon and energy source. These compounds were chosen as representatives of relevant environmental pollutants. A microtiter plate-based culture assay was set up in order to screen the fungal strains for growth on the selected xenobiotics versus glucose, as a positive control. Growth was observed in 25 strains on at least two of the tested substrates. Confirmation of substrate assimilation was performed by cultivation on closed vials and analysis of the headspace composition with regard to the added volatile substrates and the generated carbon dioxide. Exophiala mesophila (CBS 120910) and Cladophialophora immunda (CBS 110551), both of the order Chaetothyriales and isolated from a patient with chronic sinusitis and a polluted soil sample, respectively, showed the ability to grow on toluene as the sole carbon and energy source. Toluene assimilation has previously been described for C. immunda but this is the first account for E. mesophila. Also, this is the first time that the capacity to grow on alkylbenzenes has been demonstrated for a clinical isolate. Assimilation of toluene could not be demonstrated for the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudoallescheria boydii (CBS 115.59, Microascales), but the results from microtiter plate assays suggest that strains of this species are promising candidates for further studies. The outstanding abilities of black yeast-like fungi to thrive in extreme environments makes them ideal agents for the bioremediation of polluted soils, and for the treatment of contaminated gas streams in biofilters. However, interrelations between hydrocarbonoclastic and potentially pathogenic strains need to be elucidated in order to avoid the possibility of biohazards occurring. PMID:27019541

  20. Historical review on development of environmental quality standards and guideline values for air pollutants in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Pham, Thi-Thu-Phuong; Matsuda, Takayuki; Oyama, Tsunehiro; Tanaka, Masayuki; Yu, Hsu-Sheng; Uchiyama, Iwao

    2011-07-01

    Environmental quality standards (EQSs) have been established as desirable levels to be maintained for protection of human health and the conservation of the living environment by Basic Environment Law. EQSs in ambient air had been set for 10 substances (sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), suspended particulate matter (SPM), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and photochemical oxidants (Ox), benzene, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, dioxins and dichloromethane) and guideline values for 7 (acrylonitorile, vinyl chloride monomer, mercury, nickel compounds, 1,3-butadiene, chloroform and 1,2-dichloromethane) in Japan by 2009. EQSs for the classical (or traditional) air pollutants, SO(2), CO, SPM, NO(2) and Ox, were set according to the minimal requirement to protect human health, based on evidence from epidemiological studies conducted before the 1970s. In 1996, the Central Environment Council designated substances which may be hazardous air pollutants and substances requiring priority action, and adopted the concept of risk assessment to set EQSs and guideline values. A life-long risk level (virtually safe dose) of 10(-5) was used to set EQS for benzene, and guideline values for vinyl chloride monomer, nickel compounds, and 1,3-butadiene. EQSs for trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and dichloromethane, and guideline values for acrylonitorile and mercury were set using uncertain factors and lowest observed adverse effect (LOAEL)/no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL). The results of animal experiments were utilized to set guideline values for chloroform and 1,2-dichloroethane. The benchmark approach and human equivalent concentration (HEC) were adopted for 1,2-dichloroethane. The history of setting EQSs and guideline values for hazardous air pollutants is one of adopting new concepts into risk assessment.

  1. Evaluation of the environmental effects of stormwater pollutants for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hinzman, R.L.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Filson, M.J.

    1995-07-01

    Despite Best Management Practices (BMP), total suspended solids (TSS) and oil and grease (O and G) concentrations in stormwater runoff frequently have been above the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit effluent limits at ORNL. Although the effects of stormwater pollutants to aquatic ecosystems are of concern regionally and nationally, NPDES permit violations at ORNL are best addressed on a site-specific basis. This document explores several key questions to determine whether the TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL are primarily a regulatory problem (i.e., Category 1 and 2 effluent limits are neither reasonably achievable nor effective in achieving environmental protection), or a legitimate ecological concern that will require effective remediation. The three tasks outlined in the study plan were to (1) clarify the degree of TSS and O and G noncompliances at ORNL, (2) provide guidance as to appropriate limits for TSS and O and G in Category 1 and 2 discharges, and (3) provide information about the effectiveness of possible mitigation or remediation measures for TSS and O and G in stormwater releases, assuming that such measures are needed for one or more ORNL Category 1 or 2 outfalls.

  2. Levels of metals in hair of young children as an indicator of environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Wibowo, A.A.; Herber, R.F.; Das, H.A.; Roeleveld, N.; Zielhuis, R.L.

    1986-08-01

    In 1982 the levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), vanadium (V), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se) were determined in hair of 231 four- to five-year-old children. The objective was to explore the feasibility of using metal-in-hair levels in groups of children as an indicator of environmental pollution. The study was carried out in four areas, which were assumed to differ in ambient pollution by metals. A questionnaire on personal data, socioeconomic status, intake of beverages, and life-style was completed by the parents. The metal-in-hair levels covered a large range. The variables pertaining to location together with sex, presence of a garden, and drinking of coffee and/or tea explained 32% of the variance of Pb, 24% of the variance of Cd, and 21% of the variance of V. The total variance explained by all measured questionnaire items was at best 38%. The location was the most important factor. Cu and Se levels did not differ between the locations.

  3. [Hygienic evaluation of the large city environmental chemical pollution influence on children's health status].

    PubMed

    Maĭmulov, qV G; Patsiuk, N A; Baskovich, G A

    2004-01-01

    The data of hygienic monitoring of the Saint Petersburg environment suggest that the soil of the megapolis is greatly polluted with heavy metals among which lead is of priority. The studies performed indicate that under the environmental and hygienic conditions, the level of lead in the hair of children is a qualitative and quantitative criterion for the negative impact of chemical pollution of the environment. The threshold level at which there are higher morbidity rates in children is 5.8 micrograms/g. The findings suggest that there is a reduction in the earlier accepted critical level 8 micrograms/g. (V. Lukovenko, 1990; B.A. Revich, 1999). When its level is 8 micrograms/g, the children are found to have retarded mental and physical development. The results of examination of the nonspecific resistance system in children living under the conditions of the megapolis show that the level of nonspecific defense decreases when the hair content of lead is 5 micrograms/g.

  4. Environmental Pollution: An Under-recognized Threat to Children's Health, Especially in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Suk, William A; Ahanchian, Hamid; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Carpenter, David O; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Ha, Eun-Hee; Huo, Xia; King, Malcolm; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; da Silva, Emerson R; Sly, Leith; Sly, Peter D; Stein, Renato T; van den Berg, Martin; Zar, Heather; Landrigan, Philip J

    2016-03-01

    Exposures to environmental pollutants during windows of developmental vulnerability in early life can cause disease and death in infancy and childhood as well as chronic, non-communicable diseases that may manifest at any point across the life span. Patterns of pollution and pollution-related disease change as countries move through economic development. Environmental pollution is now recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). According to the World Health Organization, pollution is responsible for 8.9 million deaths around the world each year; of these, 94% (8.4 million) are in LMICs. Toxic chemical pollution is growing into a major threat to children's health in LMICs. The disease and disability caused by environmental pollution have great economic costs, and these costs can undercut trajectories of national development. To combat pollution, improved programs of public health and environmental protection are needed in countries at every level of development. Pollution control strategies and technologies that have been developed in high-income countries must now be transferred to LMICs to assist these emerging economies to avoid the mistakes of the past. A new international clearinghouse is needed to define and track the health effects of pollution, quantify the economic costs of these effects, and direct much needed attention to environmental pollution as a risk factor for disease.

  5. Environmental Pollution: An Under-recognized Threat to Children’s Health, Especially in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Suk, William A.; Ahanchian, Hamid; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Carpenter, David O.; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Ha, Eun-Hee; Huo, Xia; King, Malcolm; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; da Silva, Emerson R.; Sly, Leith; Sly, Peter D.; Stein, Renato T.; van den Berg, Martin; Zar, Heather; Landrigan, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Exposures to environmental pollutants during windows of developmental vulnerability in early life can cause disease and death in infancy and childhood as well as chronic, non-communicable diseases that may manifest at any point across the life span. Patterns of pollution and pollution-related disease change as countries move through economic development. Environmental pollution is now recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). According to the World Health Organization, pollution is responsible for 8.9 million deaths around the world each year; of these, 94% (8.4 million) are in LMICs. Toxic chemical pollution is growing into a major threat to children’s health in LMICs. The disease and disability caused by environmental pollution have great economic costs, and these costs can undercut trajectories of national development. To combat pollution, improved programs of public health and environmental protection are needed in countries at every level of development. Pollution control strategies and technologies that have been developed in high-income countries must now be transferred to LMICs to assist these emerging economies to avoid the mistakes of the past. A new international clearinghouse is needed to define and track the health effects of pollution, quantify the economic costs of these effects, and direct much needed attention to environmental pollution as a risk factor for disease. PMID:26930243

  6. Environmental impact propagated by cross-system subsidy: chronic stream pollution controls riparian spider populations.

    PubMed

    Paetzold, Achim; Smith, Marian; Warren, Philip H; Maltby, Lorraine

    2011-09-01

    Resource subsidies between habitats are common and create the potential for the propagation of environmental impacts across system boundaries. However, recent understanding of the potential for subsidy-mediated cross-system impact propagations is limited and primarily based on passive flows of nutrients and detritus or short-term effects. Here, we assess the effects of sustained alterations in aquatic insect emergence (active subsidy pathway), due to chronic stream pollution, for riparian spiders. The sustained reduction in aquatic insect densities at the polluted reaches resulted in a marked decline in web spider population density and a shift in spider community composition. Our results provide the first evidence that stream pollution can control populations and community structure of terrestrial predators via sustained alterations in aquatic subsidies, emphasizing the role of subtle trophic linkages in the transmission of environmental impacts across ecosystem boundaries.

  7. Environmental Kuznets Curve Analysis of the Economic Development and Nonpoint Source Pollution in the Ningxia Yellow River Irrigation Districts in China

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Chunlan; Zhai, Ningning; Yang, Jingchao; Feng, Yongzhong; Cao, Yanchun; Han, Xinhui; Ren, Guangxin; Yang, Gaihe; Meng, Qing-xiang

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the environmental Kuznets curve to test the relationship between the regional economic growth and the different types of agricultural nonpoint source pollution loads in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area by using the Johnes export coefficient method. Results show that the pollution load generated by crop cultivation and livestock-breeding industries in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area shows an inverted U-shaped feature; however, this feature is absent in living-sewage pollution load. Crop pollution has shown a decreasing trend since 1997 because of the increased per capita income of farmers. Livestock-breeding pollution load reached its turning point when the per capita income of farmers reached 8386.74 RMB. Therefore, an increase in the per capita income of farmers corresponds to an increase in the livestock-breeding pollution load in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area. PMID:24171160

  8. Environmental Kuznets curve analysis of the economic development and nonpoint source pollution in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation districts in China.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chunlan; Zhai, Ningning; Yang, Jingchao; Feng, Yongzhong; Cao, Yanchun; Han, Xinhui; Ren, Guangxin; Yang, Gaihe; Meng, Qing-xiang

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the environmental Kuznets curve to test the relationship between the regional economic growth and the different types of agricultural nonpoint source pollution loads in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area by using the Johnes export coefficient method. Results show that the pollution load generated by crop cultivation and livestock-breeding industries in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area shows an inverted U-shaped feature; however, this feature is absent in living-sewage pollution load. Crop pollution has shown a decreasing trend since 1997 because of the increased per capita income of farmers. Livestock-breeding pollution load reached its turning point when the per capita income of farmers reached 8386.74 RMB. Therefore, an increase in the per capita income of farmers corresponds to an increase in the livestock-breeding pollution load in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area.

  9. [Complex study of the mutagenic effect of soil pollutions with petrochemical products in the Chechen Republic].

    PubMed

    Soltaeva, A M-Kh; Dzhambetova, P M; Abilev, S K; Sycheva, L P; Sal'nikova, L E; Rubanovich, A V

    2011-01-01

    A study to evaluate congenital morphogenetic variants (CMGVs) and the association of the polymorphism of the xenobiotic detoxification and repair genes with cytogenetic parameters was conducted for the first time in children living in different climatic zones and areas polluted with primary petroleum refining products. Analysis of CMGVs and cytogenetic parameters in children points to the total genotoxic impact of oil pollutions. The children's higher sensitivity to environmental pollution is associated with the polymorphism of the detoxification gene, with the base excision repair gene XRCC1 in particular.

  10. Future research directions to characterize environmental mutagens in highly polluted area.

    PubMed Central

    Srám, R J

    1996-01-01

    Population monitoring using methods of molecular epidemiology combined with reliable data on exposure is an extremely powerful approach to determine the effect of mutagens on human populations. Although human blood and urine have traditionally been used for biomonitoring, an increase in the use of placental and buccal smear samples should be expected. As biomarkers of exposure, DNA strand breaks and hemoglobin and albumin adducts seem to be most sensitive. As biomarkers of response, cytogenetic analysis determining chromosome aberrations or micronuclei has been widely used Additional information can be obtained by using the chromosome painting technique and by determining gene mutations at the hprt locus: however, epidemiological studies exhibiting a relationship between these biomarkers and environmental pollution are still lacking. The use of sperm to analyze the effect of environmental mutagens in germ cells (e.g, sperm morphology and sperm aneuploidy) should be encouraged. The determination of susceptibility by analyzing genetic polymorphism, which is responsible for individual differences in the biotransformation of mutagens and carcinogens, will gain importance for risk assessment. Future research should include validating molecular methods, studying adaptive response to chemical carcinogens, and studying the modulatory effect of antioxidants, as well as the effect of carcinogens on immunity. PMID:8781390

  11. Air Pollution Technical Publications of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air Pollution Technical Information Center.

    Contained in this catalog is a complete listing of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reports issued in the AP and APTD series and of selected reports in the EPA-R series. The AP group provides information of general interest in the field of air pollution control and is made available to the public through the Government Printing Office. The…

  12. Phytoremediation: An Environmentally Sound Technology for Pollution Prevention, Control and Remediation in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erakhrumen, Andrew Agbontalor

    2007-01-01

    The problem of environmental pollution has assumed an unprecedented proportion in many parts of the world especially in Nigeria and its Niger-Delta region in particular. This region is bedeviled with this problem perhaps owing to interplay of demographic and socio-economic forces coupled with the various activities that revolve round the…

  13. ANALYSIS AND FATE OF ENANTIOMERS OF PESTICIDES AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Up to 25% of pesticides and other environmental pollutants are chiral and exist as sets of mirror image isomers, or enantiomers, that usually differ in their microbiological transformation rates and toxicities. To provide for more accurate risk assessment of these chiral pollutan...

  14. Urban Ecology for Secondary Schools, Unit I - Technology and Environmental Pollution, Parts 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    Materials for a course on Urban Ecology are developed in these two documents which represent the first unit - Technology and Environmental Pollution. The entire course consists of seven units dealing with the many aspects of our way of life that produce an effect on, and in turn affected by, the quality of our physical environment. Unit I treats…

  15. Abatement and Pollution Control Training and Educational Programs Presented by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This catalog is a compilation of training course and educational program descriptions in abatement and pollution control scheduled by the Environmental Protection Agency. Descriptions of programs include prerequisites, class size, and length of time with the content goals. Also given is general information concerning tuition fees, waiver requests,…

  16. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFP2T)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a pre-release version of a process simulation tool, the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), for the metal finishing industry. This presentation will provide a demonstration of the current ver...

  17. Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and miscla...

  18. Pollution status of the Bohai Sea: an overview of the environmental quality assessment related trace metals.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuelu; Zhou, Fengxia; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that the ecosystem of the Bohai Sea is being rapidly degraded and the Sea has basically lost its function as a fishing ground. Billions of funds have been spent in slowing down, halting and finally reversing the environmental deterioration of the Bohai Sea. Although trace metals are routinely monitored, the data with high temporal resolution for a clear understanding of biogeochemical processes in the ecosystem of the Bohai Sea are insufficient, especially in the western literature. In this review, status of trace metal contamination in the Bohai Sea is assessed based on a comprehensive review of their concentrations recorded in the waters, sediments and organisms over the past decades. Studies show that metal contamination in the Bohai Sea is closely associated with the fast economic growth in the past decades. Concentrations of trace metals are high in coastal areas especially in the estuaries. Alarmingly high metal concentrations are observed in the waters, sediments and organisms from the western Bohai Bay and the northern Liaodong Bay, especially the coasts near Huludao in the northernmost area of the Bohai Sea, which is being polluted by industrial sewage from the surrounding areas. The knowledge of the speciation and fractionation of trace metals and the influence of submarine groundwater discharge on the biogeochemistry of trace metals in the Bohai Sea is far from enough and related work needs to be done urgently to get a better understanding of the influence of trace metals on the ecosystem of the Bohai Sea. A clear understanding of the trace metal pollution status of the Bohai Sea could not be achieved presently for lack of systematic cooperation in different research fields. It is quite necessary to apply the environmental and ecological modeling to the investigation of trace metals in the Bohai Sea and then provide foundations for the protection of the environment and ecosystem of the Bohai Sea.

  19. Pollutant fates in fluvial systems: on need of individual approach to each case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matys Grygar, Tomas; Elznicova, Jitka; Novakova, Tereza

    2015-04-01

    To outline the pollutant fates in fluvial systems it is necessary to combine two main kinds of knowledge: sedimentation and erosion patterns of each individual river with spatio-temporal resolution higher than in most fluvial geomorphology/sedimentology studies and timing and way how the pollutants have entered the fluvial system. Most of these aspects are commonly neglected in environmental geochemistry, a domain to which pollution studies apparently belong. In fact, only when these two main components are established (at least in a qualitative manner), we can start reading (interpretation) of the fluvial sedimentary archives, e.g., decipher the way how the primary pollution signal has been distorted during passing through the fluvial system. We conducted empirical studies on Czech rivers impacted by pollution (by risk elements). We learnt how individual (site-specific) are the main processes responsible for the primary pollution input, spread through each fluvial system and inevitable secondary pollution ("lagged pollution improvement signal"). We will discuss main features of the story on pollutant fates in three different fluvial systems, which have not been impacted by "hard" river engineering and still undergo natural fluvial processes: 1. the Ohre (the Eger) impacted by production of Hg and its compounds, historical mining of Pb and more recent U ore processing, 2. the Ploucnice impacted by U mining, and 3. the Litavka, impacted by Pb-Zn(-Sb) mining and smelting. The Ohre is specific by most pollution having been temporarily deposited in an active channel, only minor reworking of older fluvial deposits diluting pollution during downstream transport, and pollution archives existing practically only in the form of lateral accretion deposits. The deposits of archive value are rare and can be revealed by detailed study of historical maps and well-planned field analysis, best using portable analytical instruments (XRF). The Ploucnice is specific by only transient

  20. University Reorganization Through Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, John C.

    1972-01-01

    A sound program in Environmental Studies may show the way to attack other multidisciplinary problems. Some of these are population problems, urban renewal, black studies, resource utilization, and in-depth regional studies. (Author)

  1. Water Disinfection Byproducts Induce Antibiotic Resistance-Role of Environmental Pollutants in Resistance Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Zeng, Siyu; He, Miao; Gu, April Z

    2016-03-15

    The spread of antibiotic resistance represents a global threat to public health, and has been traditionally attributed to extensive antibiotic uses in clinical and agricultural applications. As a result, researchers have mostly focused on clinically relevant high-level resistance enriched by antibiotics above the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Here, we report that two common water disinfection byproducts (chlorite and iodoacetic acid) had antibiotic-like effects that led to the evolution of resistant E. coli strains under both high (near MICs) and low (sub-MIC) exposure concentrations. The subinhibitory concentrations of DBPs selected strains with resistance higher than those evolved under above-MIC exposure concentrations. In addition, whole-genome analysis revealed distinct mutations in small sets of genes known to be involved in multiple drug and drug-specific resistance, as well as in genes not yet identified to play role in antibiotic resistance. The number and identities of genetic mutations were distinct for either the high versus low sub-MIC concentrations exposure scenarios. This study provides evidence and mechanistic insight into the sub-MIC selection of antibiotic resistance by antibiotic-like environmental pollutants such as disinfection byproducts in water, which may be important contributors to the spread of global antibiotic resistance. The results from this study open an intriguing and profound question on the roles of large amount and various environmental contaminants play in selecting and spreading the antibiotics resistance in the environment. PMID:26928861

  2. Water Disinfection Byproducts Induce Antibiotic Resistance-Role of Environmental Pollutants in Resistance Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Zeng, Siyu; He, Miao; Gu, April Z

    2016-03-15

    The spread of antibiotic resistance represents a global threat to public health, and has been traditionally attributed to extensive antibiotic uses in clinical and agricultural applications. As a result, researchers have mostly focused on clinically relevant high-level resistance enriched by antibiotics above the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Here, we report that two common water disinfection byproducts (chlorite and iodoacetic acid) had antibiotic-like effects that led to the evolution of resistant E. coli strains under both high (near MICs) and low (sub-MIC) exposure concentrations. The subinhibitory concentrations of DBPs selected strains with resistance higher than those evolved under above-MIC exposure concentrations. In addition, whole-genome analysis revealed distinct mutations in small sets of genes known to be involved in multiple drug and drug-specific resistance, as well as in genes not yet identified to play role in antibiotic resistance. The number and identities of genetic mutations were distinct for either the high versus low sub-MIC concentrations exposure scenarios. This study provides evidence and mechanistic insight into the sub-MIC selection of antibiotic resistance by antibiotic-like environmental pollutants such as disinfection byproducts in water, which may be important contributors to the spread of global antibiotic resistance. The results from this study open an intriguing and profound question on the roles of large amount and various environmental contaminants play in selecting and spreading the antibiotics resistance in the environment.

  3. The dynamics of environmental inspections and enforcement: Pollution prevention and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    SciTech Connect

    Spitzer, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This fieldwork study examined the role of inspectors in the enforcement of the hazardous waste laws under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Regulatory agencies seek compliance through either a strict deterrence or a cooperative enforcement strategy. The studies assume that compliance is the objective and that policy-makers and the public are interested both in enforcement processes and their success in inducing compliance. The study documents the social milieu of inspectors who determine whether businesses comply with hazardous waste regulations. It also considers whether compliance with regulatory requirements, alone, should be the metric of the program's success, or whether broader objectives should be the measure of success. Data were collected through participant-observation of inspectors in New York State's Department of Environmental Conservation and during two years working for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's, Office of Pollution Prevention. The study has several central findings: One is that the RCRA statue and the federal and state agencies that implement it limit inspectors' discretion and centralize enforcement discretion to an extraordinary degree. Second, while inspectors generally follow the formal controls, they also solve a broader array of problems. They supplement their police role with an advisory role. Third, inspectors tailor their strategies depending on their personal experiences. Fourth, inspectors and the remainder of the RCRA enforcement program must more proactively promote solutions beyond compliance. These findings lead to several conclusions: (1) enforcement systems must incorporate the social aspects of enforcement into policy decisions, and (2) enforcement systems and researchers must be concerned with not only enforcement processes, but also the program's ultimate environmental protection goals.

  4. Are there other persistent organic pollutants? A challenge for environmental chemists.

    PubMed

    Muir, Derek C G; Howard, Philip H

    2006-12-01

    The past 5 years have seen some major successes in terms of global measurement and regulation of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PB&T) chemicals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The Stockholm Convention, a global agreement on POPs, came into force in 2004. There has been a major expansion of measurements and risk assessments of new chemical contaminants in the global environment, particularly brominated diphenyl ethers and perfluorinated alkyl acids. However, the list of chemicals measured represents only a small fraction of the approximately 30,000 chemicals widely used in commerce (>1 t/y). The vast majority of existing and new chemical substances in commerce are not monitored in environmental media. Assessment and screening of thousands of existing chemicals in commerce in the United States, Europe, and Canada have yielded lists of potentially persistent and bioaccumulative chemicals. Here we review recent screening and categorization studies of chemicals in commerce and address the question of whether there is now sufficient information to permit a broader array of chemicals to be determined in environmental matrices. For example, Environment Canada's recent categorization of the Domestic (existing) Substances list, using a wide array of quantitative structure activity relationships for PB&T characteristics, has identified about 5.5% of 11,317 substances as meeting P & B criteria. Using data from the Environment Canada categorization, we have listed, for discussion purposes, 30 chemicals with high predicted bioconcentration and low rate of biodegradation and 28 with long range atmospheric transport potential based on predicted atmospheric oxidation half-lives >2 days and log air-water partition coefficients > or =5 and < or =1. These chemicals are a diverse group including halogenated organics, cyclic siloxanes, and substituted aromatics. Some of these chemicals and their transformation products may be candidates for future environmental

  5. Impairment of erythropoiesis in rats exposed to environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Bosia, A.; Brossa, O.; Danni, O.; Burdino, E.; Mina, S.; Chiappino, I.; Pescarmona, P.; Ugazio, G.

    1983-04-01

    The extent to which halogen compounds interfere with erythropoiesis is still unclear. This paper reports an evaluation of the effect of repeated exposure to carbon tetrachloride (CCl/sub 4/) in air on red blood cell (RBC) creatine concentration. Creatine is neither synthetised nor metabolised in circulating RBC and decreases over the lifespan of red cells. It can thus be taken as a reliable indicator of mean RBC age, and hence of cell viability and bone marrow efficiency. Following inducement of hemolysis with phenylhydrazine (PHH) to stimulate erythropoiesis, creatine levels rose in the controls. This increase was significantly less in the CCl/sub 4/-treated animals. It is not yet certain whether this inhibition reflects impaired marrow efficiency, enhanced RBC destruction in the marrow, or block of the release of mature RBC. The fact that such inhibition takes place, however, is of importance as a predictive factor in environmental toxicology, since it appears before changes in other blood parameters or signs of liver toxicity are observed.

  6. Using local biodiversity to prevent pollution transfers to environmental components of a Mediterranean semi-arid ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckenroth, Alma; Rabier, Jacques; Laffont-Schwob, Isabelle

    2014-05-01

    In arid and semi-arid Mediterranean coastal areas, metals and metalloids (MM) pollution coming from unreclaimed brownfields has increased the negative environmental stresses leading to ecosystems degradations as soil erosion and losses of organic matter and biodiversity. On these sites, maintaining or restoring a local vegetation cover is considered as a key step to stop the degradation cycle. Furthermore, in a context of high pollution occurring in natural areas, phytoremediation is considered as an attractive alternative to conventional soil remediation techniques, the first reducing pollution transfers, improving the soil quality. In protected or natural areas, it is also important to perceive then design phytoremediation as a way to assist ecosystems recovery, using the restoration ecology concepts. However, only few works in the literature deal with the potential use of native Mediterranean plant species for phytoremediation. On the South-East coast of Marseille (France), the activity of the former smelting factory of l'Escalette, ceased since 1925. However, its brownfield is still a source of pollution by trace metals and metalloids for abiotic and biotic components of the surrounding massif. This massif hosts a rich biodiversity with rare and protected plant species despite the metallic pollution and this area has been included in the recently created first peri-urban French National Park of Calanques. In this context, an integrated research project is being conducted with local actors and stakeholders, from the selection of native plant species, assessment and optimization of phytostabilization capacities of selected species, to the development of ecological engineering techniques well adapted to local constraints and phytostabilization field trials. The first part of this study has been conducted on two areas, corresponding to different pollution pattern, plant communities and environmental drivers: a halophytic area, characterized by typical coastal

  7. Effect of air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke on serum hyaluronate concentrations in school children

    PubMed Central

    Fuji, Y; Shima, M; Ando, M; Adachi, M; Tsunetoshi, Y

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate serum hyaluronate concentrations relative to air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and respiratory health in Japanese school children. Methods: Respiratory symptoms and serum IgE concentrations were examined in 1037 school children living in four communities in Japan with differing levels of air pollution. Serum hyaluronate concentrations were assayed in 230 children, consisting of all the children who had symptoms of either asthma or wheeze (65 and 50 subjects, respectively) and normal controls adjusted for sex, school grade, and school without these symptoms (115 subjects). Results: Although serum hyaluronate concentrations did not differ for either asthma or wheeze, the concentrations were significantly higher in children living in communities with higher levels of air pollution. Children with asthma or wheeze and those with serum IgE concentrations of 250 IU/ml or above showed differences in hyaluronate concentrations that related to the degree of air pollution in the communities. In children with higher serum IgE concentrations, the hyaluronate concentrations among subjects exposed to ETS were significantly higher than among those without exposure to ETS. Conclusions: The present results suggest that serum hyaluronate concentration is related to the degree of air pollution and exposure to ETS. Children with asthma or wheeze and children with higher IgE concentrations are considered to be more susceptible to environmental factors. PMID:11850556

  8. Review of magnetism and heavy metal pollution studies of various environments in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaparro, Marcos A. E.; Gogorza, Claudia S. G.; Chaparro, Mauro A. E.; Irurzun, María A.; Sinito, Ana M.

    2006-10-01

    In recent years, the number of studies of pollution and magnetic proxies for environmental pollution in developed countries, especially European and North American countries, has gradually increased from the 80's to date. Despite this trend that shows a positive interest in taking care of the environment and researching into the environmental impact of several human activities, pollution studies in Latin American countries have been reducing in number. Moreover, studies of magnetic proxies for pollution are scarce; in particular, studies of this nature has been carried out in Argentina over the past few years by Chaparro and coworkers. Studies of magnetic enhancement in soils due to the burning mechanism are discussed and the results of burnt soils affected by fires of different nature and natural soils are compared, taking into account their magnetic carriers. Nevertheless, this article deals mainly with the first studies of magnetic proxies for pollution conducted in a province in Argentina. Soils, lagoon and stream sediments from three areas were studied. These areas comprise La Plata, Chascomús, and Tandil districts. The influence of pollution was investigated in Tandil and La Plata, revealing magnetic enhancement and the presence of pollutants only in Tandil soils. On the other hand, stream and lagoon sediments were studied in La Plata and Chascomús. Magnetic carriers and the contents of some heavy metals were identified and investigated in both areas separately. Magnetic parameters show distinctive points and wide areas affected by pollution. Furthermore, this magnetic inference is supported by high contents of heavy metals, especially lead and zinc. Finally, a new statistical study of multiple correlation analysis concerning data from La Plata and Chascomús areas was tried in order to investigate the existence of a linear relation between sets of several magnetic parameters and several chemical variables.

  9. Impact of environmental pollution on caged mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis using NMR-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Tiziana; Mauceri, Angela; Corsaro, Carmelo; Maisano, Maria; Parrino, Vincenzo; Lo Paro, Giuseppe; Messina, Giuseppe; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2013-12-15

    Metabolic responses to environmental pollution, mainly related to Hg and PAHs, were investigated in mussels. Specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis, sedentary filter-feeders, were caged in anthropogenic-impacted and reference sites along the Augusta coastline (Sicily, Italy). The gills, mainly involved in nutrient uptake, digestion and gas exchange, were selected as target organ being the first organ to be affected by pollutants. Severe alterations in gill tissue were observed in mussels from the industrial area compared with control, while gill metabolic profiles, obtained by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and analyzed by multivariate statistics, exhibited significant changes in amino acids, energy metabolites, osmolytes and neurotransmitters. Overall, the morphological changes and metabolic disturbance detected in gill tissues may suggest that the mussels transplanted to the contaminated field site were suffering from adverse environmental condition. The concurrent morphological and metabolomic investigations as applied here result effective in assessing the environmental influences on health status of aquatic organisms.

  10. Parasite fauna of Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) (Epinephelidae) as environmental indicator under heavily polluted conditions in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Neubert, Kilian; Yulianto, Irfan; Theisen, Stefan; Kleinertz, Sonja; Palm, Harry W

    2016-09-30

    The objective of this study was to assess the environmental conditions of a heavily polluted marine habitat using descriptors of fish parasites. Epinephelus coioides from Jakarta Bay as well as off Jakarta Bay was studied for metazoan parasites. Based on 70 fish and considering previous studies (230 fish), an environmental indicator system was designed. Including the recent study, a total of 51 parasite species have been recorded for E. coioides in Indonesian waters. Seven of them combined with five parasitological indices are useful descriptors for the environmental status of marine ecosystems. The results are visualized in a star graph. A significant different parasite infection between nine analyzed localities demonstrates the negative influence of the megacity Jakarta onto the coastal environment. We herewith complete a parasite based indicator system for Indonesian coastal waters, and suggest that it can be used in other marine habitats as well as for further epinephelids.

  11. Study of electromagnetic radiation pollution in an Indian city.

    PubMed

    Dhami, A K

    2012-11-01

    Electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell phone towers is a form of environmental pollution and is a new health hazard, especially to children and patients. The present studies were taken to estimate the microwave/RF pollution by measuring radiation power densities near schools and hospitals of Chandigarh city in India. The cell phone radiations were measured using a handheld portable power density meter TES 593 and specific absorption rates were estimated from the measured values. These values of electromagnetic radiation in the environment were compared with the levels at which biological system of humans and animals starts getting affected. The values were also compared with the international exposure limits set by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The highest measured power density was 11.48 mW/m(2) which is 1,148% of the biological limit. The results indicated that the exposure levels in the city were below the ICNIRP limit, but much above the biological limit.

  12. Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA): A Multicity Study of Short-Term Effects of Air Pollution on Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chit-Ming; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Kan, Haidong; Qian, Zhengmin

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives Although the deleterious effects of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion have been demonstrated in many Western nations, fewer studies have been conducted in Asia. The Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) project assessed the effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on daily mortality in Bangkok, Thailand, and in three cities in China: Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Wuhan. Methods Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing functions were used to adjust for seasonality and other time-varying covariates that might confound the association between air pollution and mortality. Effect estimates were determined for each city and then for the cities combined using a random effects method. Results In individual cities, associations were detected between most of the pollutants [nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), and ozone] and most health outcomes under study (i.e., all natural-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality). The city-combined effects of the four pollutants tended to be equal or greater than those identified in studies conducted in Western industrial nations. In addition, residents of Asian cities are likely to have higher exposures to air pollution than those in Western industrial nations because they spend more time outdoors and less time in air conditioning. Conclusions Although the social and environmental conditions may be quite different, it is reasonable to apply estimates derived from previous health effect of air pollution studies in the West to Asia. PMID:18795163

  13. Awareness of bad news, environmental attitudes, and subjective estimates of coastal pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Eiser, J.R.; Reicher, S.D.; Podpadec, T.J. )

    1994-12-01

    Questionnaires distributed to 154 holiday-makers on beaches in Southwest England assessed awareness of local hazards or incidents associated with either the electricity supply industry or the water and sewage industry and examined the relationship between awareness and evaluations of the industry, current and future levels of pollution on the beach in question, and general levels of concern about environmental pollution. With respect to electricity, those respondents who were more aware of reports claiming a higher incidence of childhood leukemia in the vicinity of a nearby nuclear plant evaluated the electricity industry as less competent or trustworthy, showed higher levels of environmental concern, and were more pessimistic in their estimates of present and future levels of specific pollutants on their beach. With respect to the water industry, similar effects were associated with greater awareness of an accident at a water treatment plant and agricultural pollution of a nearby estuary. These findings are interpreted as suggesting a cyclical relationship between risk awareness and concern. On the one hand, reports about environmental hazards may lead to generalized concern across specific contexts; on the other hand, greater levels of concern may sensitize individuals to such reports. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Bringing the Polluters Back In: Environmental Inequality and the Organization of Chemical Production

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Don; Trautner, Mary Nell; Downey, Liam; Thiebaud, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Environmental justice scholars have suggested that because chemical plants and other hazardous facilities emit more pollutants where they face the least resistance, disadvantaged communities face a special health risk. In trying to determine whether race or income has the bigger impact on a neighborhood’s exposure to pollution, however, scholars tend to overlook the facilities themselves and the effect of their characteristics on emissions. In particular, how do the characteristics of facilities and their surrounding communities jointly shape pollution outcomes? We propose a new line of environmental justice research that focuses on facilities and how their features combine with communities’ features to create dangerous emissions. Using novel fuzzy-set analysis techniques and the EPA’s newly developed Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators, we test the influence of facility and community factors on chemical plants’ health-threatening emissions. Contrary to the idea that community characteristics have singular, linear effects, findings show that facility and community factors combine in a variety of ways to produce risky emissions. We speculate that as chemical firms experiment with different ways of producing goods and externalizing pollution costs, new “recipes of risk” are likely to emerge. The question, then, will no longer be whether race or income matters most, but in which of these recipes do they matter and how. PMID:21921966

  15. The potential influence of environmental pollution on amphibian development and decline

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    Globally, amphibians are reportedly declining. Environmental pollution has been hypothesized to be associated with declines. Because of their aquatic development and permeable eggs, skin and gills, amphibians, like fishes, may be particularly susceptible to poor water quality or waterborne pollutants. This dissertation addresses effects of global pollutants such as pesticides, acid rain and associated metal toxicity, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the development, behavior, and physiology of amphibian early life stages. This report contains only chapter six and conclusions. Chapter 6 reports on a field experiment in which green frogs from two clutches were exposed from egg to 107 days of age to water and sediments in enclosures along a PCB and metal contamination gradient in the Fox River and wetlands near Green Bay, Wisconsin. Green frogs showed lower hatching success and survival at sites with higher contaminant levels compared to cleaner wetland sites along Green Bay. Hatching success in the green frog was most significantly negatively correlated with sediment PCB levels. It can be concluded that environmental pollution and toxicants in aquatic environments can cause problems for amphibian early development. Sometimes the effects are subtle, and sometimes they are dramatic. In general, amphibian early life stages seem particularly sensitive to environmentally-realistic levels of low pH and metals, but appear more tolerant of TCDD and PCBs.

  16. Systemic effects of urban form on air pollution and environmental quality

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, P.C.

    1997-12-31

    The form and design of cities and towns have a direct impact on the quality of the natural environment, particularly air and water quality. This paper illustrates some of the dynamic relationships between the form of urban environments and air and water pollution. Recent research suggests how urban form affects environmental quality in at least three ways: (a) how suburban development and its dependency on the private motor vehicle increases air pollution, (b) how exterior building materials help to generate urban heat islands and ozone precursors, and (c) how conventional stormwater drainage systems transport polluted urban runoff into waterways. Today`s aging urban infrastructure provides an important and timely opportunity to re-examine the design of cities and towns with a goal of enhancing overall environmental quality. Many miles of roads, freeways, bridges, and stormwater culverts and pipes are in poor condition and need to be repaired or replaced, while many cities are now failing to meet air and water quality standards designed to protect human and environmental health. This paper also explores seven urban planning and design concepts that could reduce the magnitude of air and water pollution in urban environments and help to improve the health of both cities and their residents.

  17. Raman scattering studies of pollutant systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwiesow, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    Results and techniques for laboratory measurements of Raman scattering cross sections and depolarization ratios of atmospheric gases as a function of the incident photon energy are discussed. Referred to N2, the cross section of H2O changes by a factor of 2 as the incident photon energy is changed by 5%. Less striking results are obtained for SO2, NO and other atmospheric gases. Tentative results are given for spectral features of scattering from polluted air-water interfaces. Raman lidar is assessed as a potentially useful aid in remote sensing of atmospheric and water-borne pollution distributions at least in near-source concentrations.

  18. Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 2. Outdoor air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan; Stieb, David; Sanborn, Margaret D.; Weir, Erica

    2002-01-01

    AIR POLLUTION CONTRIBUTES TO PREVENTABLE ILLNESS AND DEATH. Subgroups of patients who appear to be more sensitive to the effects of air pollution include young children, the elderly and people with existing chronic cardiac and respiratory disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. It is unclear whether air pollution contributes to the development of asthma, but it does trigger asthma episodes. Physicians are in a position to identify patients at particular risk of health effects from air pollution exposure and to suggest timely and appropriate actions that these patients can take to protect themselves. A simple tool that uses the CH2OPD2 mnemonic (Community, Home, Hobbies, Occupation, Personal habits, Diet and Drugs) can help physicians take patients' environmental exposure histories to assess those who may be at risk. As public health advocates, physicians contribute to the primary prevention of illness and death related to air pollution in the population. In this article we review the origins of air pollutants, the pathophysiology of health effects, the burden of illness and the clinical implications of smog exposure using the illustrative case of an adolescent patient with asthma. PMID:12000251

  19. Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 2. Outdoor air pollution.

    PubMed

    Abelsohn, Alan; Stieb, David; Sanborn, Margaret D; Weir, Erica

    2002-04-30

    Air pollution contributes to preventable illness and death. Subgroups of patients who appear to be more sensitive to the effects of air pollution include young children, the elderly and people with existing chronic cardiac and respiratory disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. It is unclear whether air pollution contributes to the development of asthma, but it does trigger asthma episodes. Physicians are in a position to identify patients at particular risk of health effects from air pollution exposure and to suggest timely and appropriate actions that these patients can take to protect themselves. A simple tool that uses the CH2OPD2 mnemonic (Community, Home, Hobbies, Occupation, Personal habits, Diet and Drugs) can help physicians take patients' environmental exposure histories to assess those who may be at risk. As public health advocates, physicians contribute to the primary prevention of illness and death related to air pollution in the population. In this article we review the origins of air pollutants, the pathophysiology of health effects, the burden of illness and the clinical implications of smog exposure using the illustrative case of an adolescent patient with asthma. PMID:12000251

  20. [Environmental pollution, climate variability and climate change: a review of health impacts on the Peruvian population].

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Zevallos, Alisson; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Nuñez, Denisse; Gastañaga, Carmen; Cabezas, César; Naeher, Luke; Levy, Karen; Steenland, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    This article is a review of the pollution of water, air and the effect of climate change on the health of the Peruvian population. A major air pollutant is particulate matter less than 2.5 μ (PM 2.5). In Lima, 2,300 premature deaths annually are attributable to this pollutant. Another problem is household air pollution by using stoves burning biomass fuels, where excessive indoor exposure to PM 2.5 inside the household is responsible for approximately 3,000 annual premature deaths among adults, with another unknown number of deaths among children due to respiratory infections. Water pollution is caused by sewage discharges into rivers, minerals (arsenic) from various sources, and failure of water treatment plants. In Peru, climate change may impact the frequency and severity of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which has been associated with an increase in cases of diseases such as cholera, malaria and dengue. Climate change increases the temperature and can extend the areas affected by vector-borne diseases, have impact on the availability of water and contamination of the air. In conclusion, Peru is going through a transition of environmental risk factors, where traditional and modern risks coexist and infectious and chronic problems remain, some of which are associated with problems of pollution of water and air. PMID:25418656

  1. Characteristics of environmental pollution related with public complaints in an industrial shipbuilding complex, Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae-Woo; Lee, Myoung-Eun; Lee, Hyeon-Don

    2011-06-01

    The shipbuilding industry of Korea, ranked number one in the world in annual amount of ship orders, has contributed to national economic growth; however, this has resulted in various environmental problems. Characteristics of environmental pollution, such as particulate matters, odor, and noise, which are closely related with public complaints, were evaluated in an industrial shipbuilding complex. The concentrations of PM-10 and TSP were significantly affected by the distance between the measurement site and shipbuilding workplace, as well as the height of the measurement site. Average PM-10 concentrations in the residential area ranged from 40.10 to 44.10 μg/m(3), which were not high in comparison with the ambient air quality standard and those of major cities in Korea. Paint particles could affect a wider area than typical particulate matters due to their generation and transport properties. The properties of odor in the study area were widely affected by the work intensity in shipyards and the temperature. Twenty-five out of total 54 samples collected in the residential area exceeded the dilution factor of 10, which is the tolerable limit adopted in Korea. Noise had an influence on a limited area due to the extinction effect with distance from the shipyards, while severe noise levels higher than 90 dB(A) were frequently found inside the shipyards.

  2. Phytodetoxification of the environmental pollutant and explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    PubMed

    Rylott, Elizabeth L; Gunning, Vanda; Tzafestas, Kyriakos; Sparrow, Helen; Johnston, Emily J; Brentnall, Andrew S; Potts, Jennifer R; Bruce, Neil C

    2015-01-01

    Our recent study highlights the role of 2 glutathione transferases (GSTs) in the detoxification of the environmental pollutant, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in Arabidopsis thaliana. TNT is toxic and highly resistant to biodegradation in the environment, raising both health and environmental concerns. Two GSTs, GST-U24 and GST-U25, are upregulated in response to TNT treatment, and expressed predominantly in the root tissues; the site of TNT location following uptake. Plants overexpressing GST-U24 and GST-U25 exhibited significantly enhanced ability to withstand and detoxify TNT, and remove TNT from contaminated soil. Analysis of the catalytic activities of these 2 enzymes revealed that they form 3 TNT-glutathionyl products. Of particular interest is 2-glutathionyl-4,6-dinitrotoluene as this represents a potentially favorable step toward subsequent degradation and mineralization of TNT. We demonstrate how GSTs fit into what is already known about pathways for TNT detoxification, and discuss the short and longer-term fate of TNT conjugates in planta.

  3. Toxicity assessment of environmental pollutant phenanthrene in clam Venerupis philippinarum using oxidative stress biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Pan, Luqing; Tao, Yanxia

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess potential toxic effects of phenanthrene (PHE) on tissues of clam Venerupis philippinarum using parameters of antioxidant defenses and oxidative stress. Antioxidant biomarkers including ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH), as well as DNA damage and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in gills and digestive glands of V. philippinarum, were analyzed after a 1-, 3-, 6-, 10- and 15-day exposure to seawater containing PHE at concentrations of 2, 10, 50 μg/L. The results showed that the activity of most antioxidant enzymes was induced throughout the exposure period, and different trends were detected with time of exposure. The oxidative stress could be obviously caused in the gills and digestive glands under the experimental conditions. Overall, our results show that digestive glands are more sensitive to marine environmental stressors than gills, and GSH is proposed as potential useful biomarker as it showed good correlation with the target contaminant. This could provide useful information for toxic risk assessment of environmental pollutant PHE.

  4. [Simulation of air pollution characteristics and estimates of environmental capacity in Zibo City].

    PubMed

    Xue, Wen-Bo; Wang, Jin-Nan; Yang, Jin-Tian; Lei, Yu; Yan, Li; He, Jin-Yu; Han, Bao-Ping

    2013-04-01

    To develop a new pattern of air pollution control that is based on the integration of "concentration control, total amount control, and quality control", and in the context of developing national (2011-2015 air pollution control plan for key areas) and (Environmental protection plan of Zibo municipality for the "12th Five-Year Plan" period), a simulation of atmospheric dispersion of air pollutants in Zibo City and its peripheral areas is carried out by employing CALPUFF model, and the atmospheric environmental capacity of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 is estimated based on the results of model simulation and using multi-objective linear programming optimization. The results indicates that the air pollution in Zibo City is significantly related to the pollution sources outside of Zibo City, which contributes to the annual average concentration of SO2, NO2 and PM10 in Zibo City by 26.34%, 21.23%, and 14.58% respectively. There is a notable interaction between districts and counties of Zibo municipality, in which the contribution of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 emissions in surrounding counties and districts to the annual average concentrations of SO2, NO2 and PM10 in downtown area are 35.96%, 43.17%, and 17.69% respectively. There is a great variation in spatial sensitivity of air pollutant emission, and the environmental impact of unit pollutant emissions from Zhoucun, Huantai, Zhangdian and Zichuan is greater than that released from other districts/counties. To meet the requirement of (Ambient air quality standard) (GB 3095-2012), the environmental capacities of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 of Zibo City are only 8.03 x 10(4) t, 19.16 x 10(4) t and 3.21 x 10(4) t, respectively. Therefore, it is imperative to implement regional air pollution joint control in Shandong peninsula in order to ensure the achievement of air quality standard in Zibo City.

  5. Particulate air pollution and susceptibility to the development of pulmonary tuberculosis disease in North Carolina: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Schoenbach, Victor J.; Richardson, David B.; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2015-01-01

    Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), environmental factors may influence disease progression. Ecologic studies conducted in countries outside the USA with high levels of air pollution and PTB have suggested a link between active disease and ambient air pollution. The present investigation is the first to examine the ambient air pollution/PTB association in a country, where air pollution levels are comparatively lower. We used Poisson regression models to examine the association of outdoor air pollutants, PM10 and PM2.5 with rates of PTB in North Carolina residents during 1993–2007. Results suggest a potential association between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and PTB disease. In view of the high levels of air pollution and high rates of PTB worldwide, a potential association between ambient air pollution and tuberculosis warrants further study. PMID:24387197

  6. Particulate air pollution and susceptibility to the development of pulmonary tuberculosis disease in North Carolina: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Genee S; Schoenbach, Victor J; Richardson, David B; Gammon, Marilie D

    2014-04-01

    Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), environmental factors may influence disease progression. Ecologic studies conducted in countries outside the USA with high levels of air pollution and PTB have suggested a link between active disease and ambient air pollution. The present investigation is the first to examine the ambient air pollution-PTB association in a country, where air pollution levels are comparatively lower. We used Poisson regression models to examine the association of outdoor air pollutants, PM10 and PM2.5 with rates of PTB in North Carolina residents during 1993-2007. Results suggest a potential association between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and PTB disease. In view of the high levels of air pollution and high rates of PTB worldwide, a potential association between ambient air pollution and tuberculosis warrants further study.

  7. Impacts of particulate matter pollution on plants: Implications for environmental biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is one of the serious problems world is facing in recent Anthropocene era of rapid industrialization and urbanization. Specifically particulate matter (PM) pollution represents a threat to both the environment and human health. The changed ambient environment due to the PM pollutant in urban areas has exerted a profound influence on the morphological, biochemical and physiological status of plants and its responses. Taking into account the characteristics of the vegetation (wide distribution, greater contact area etc.) it turns out to be an effective indicator of the overall impact of PM pollution and harmful effects of PM pollution on vegetation have been reviewed in the present paper, covering an extensive span of 1960 to March 2016. The present review critically describes the impact of PM pollution and its constituents (e.g. heavy metals and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons) on the morphological attributes such as leaf area, leaf number, stomata structure, flowering, growth and reproduction as well as biochemical parameters such as pigment content, enzymes, ascorbic acid, protein, sugar and physiological aspect such as pH and Relative water content. Further, the paper provides a brief overview on the impact of PM on biodiversity and climate change. Moreover, the review emphasizes the genotoxic impacts of PM on plants. Finally, on the basis of such studies tolerant plants as potent biomonitors with high Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Air Pollution Index (API) can be screened and may be recommended for green belt development.

  8. Impacts of particulate matter pollution on plants: Implications for environmental biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is one of the serious problems world is facing in recent Anthropocene era of rapid industrialization and urbanization. Specifically particulate matter (PM) pollution represents a threat to both the environment and human health. The changed ambient environment due to the PM pollutant in urban areas has exerted a profound influence on the morphological, biochemical and physiological status of plants and its responses. Taking into account the characteristics of the vegetation (wide distribution, greater contact area etc.) it turns out to be an effective indicator of the overall impact of PM pollution and harmful effects of PM pollution on vegetation have been reviewed in the present paper, covering an extensive span of 1960 to March 2016. The present review critically describes the impact of PM pollution and its constituents (e.g. heavy metals and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons) on the morphological attributes such as leaf area, leaf number, stomata structure, flowering, growth and reproduction as well as biochemical parameters such as pigment content, enzymes, ascorbic acid, protein, sugar and physiological aspect such as pH and Relative water content. Further, the paper provides a brief overview on the impact of PM on biodiversity and climate change. Moreover, the review emphasizes the genotoxic impacts of PM on plants. Finally, on the basis of such studies tolerant plants as potent biomonitors with high Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Air Pollution Index (API) can be screened and may be recommended for green belt development. PMID:27011112

  9. Risk perception and access to environmental information in four areas in Italy affected by natural or anthropogenic pollution.

    PubMed

    Coi, A; Minichilli, F; Bustaffa, E; Carone, S; Santoro, M; Bianchi, F; Cori, L

    2016-10-01

    A human biomonitoring (HBM) survey in four areas affected by natural or anthropogenic arsenic pollution was conducted in Italy within the framework of the SEpiAs project. A questionnaire, including the exploration of risk perception (RP) regarding environmental hazards and access to and trust in information, was administered to 282 subjects stratified by area, gender and age. The survey was designed to investigate how populations living in polluted areas could adopt prevention-oriented habits, fostered by the awareness of existing risks and, in addition, how increased knowledge of RP and information flows could support researchers in identifying recommendations, and presenting and disseminating HBM results. This study characterizes the four areas in terms of RP and access to and trust in environmental information, and provides insights into the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption. For the data analysis, a combined random forest (RF) and logistic regression approach was carried out. RF was applied to the variables derived from the questionnaire in order to identify the most important in terms of the aims defined. Associations were then tested using Fisher's exact test and assessed with logistic regression in order to adjust for confounders. Results showed that the perception of and personal exposure to atmospheric and water pollution, hazardous industries and waste, hazardous material transportation and waste was higher in geographical areas characterized by anthropogenic pollution. Citizens living in industrial areas appeared to be aware of environmental risks and had more confidence in environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) than in public authorities. In addition, they reported an insufficient circulation of information. Concerning the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption, a high perception of personal exposure to atmospheric pollution and hazardous industries was associated with a lower

  10. A pollutant load hierarchical allocation method integrated in an environmental capacity management system for Zhushan Bay, Taihu Lake.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shidong; Jia, Haifeng; Yang, Cong; Melching, Charles; Yuan, Yongping

    2015-11-15

    An environmental capacity management (ECM) system was developed to help practically implement a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for a key bay in a highly eutrophic lake in China. The ECM system consists of a simulation platform for pollutant load calculation and a pollutant load hierarchical allocation (PLHA) system. The simulation platform was developed by linking the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) and Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP). In the PLHA, pollutant loads were allocated top-down in several levels based on characteristics of the pollutant sources. Different allocation methods could be used for the different levels with the advantages of each method combined over the entire allocation. Zhushan Bay of Taihu Lake, one of the most eutrophic lakes in China, was selected as a case study. The allowable loads of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonia, and chemical oxygen demand were found to be 2122.2, 94.9, 1230.4, and 5260.0 t·yr(-1), respectively. The PLHA for the case study consists of 5 levels. At level 0, loads are allocated to those from the lakeshore direct drainage, atmospheric deposition, internal release, and tributary inflows. At level 1 the loads allocated to tributary inflows are allocated to the 3 tributaries. At level 2, the loads allocated to one inflow tributary are allocated to upstream areas and local sources along the tributary. At level 3, the loads allocated to local sources are allocated to the point and non-point sources from different towns. At level 4, the loads allocated to non-point sources in each town are allocated to different villages. Compared with traditional forms of pollutant load allocation methods, PLHA can combine the advantages of different methods which put different priority weights on equity and efficiency, and the PLHA is easy to understand for stakeholders and more flexible to adjust when applied in practical cases. PMID:26172589

  11. Suggestions for improvement of the methodology and use of MEPAS, the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Shevenell, L.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1992-04-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) has been evaluated for the purpose of determining if the current ranking of waste sites is realistic and reliable. There are two main reasons for the uncertainty of the rankings identified in this study: the use of the hazard potential index (HPI) and the user input. The HPI contributes to unreliable rankings because risks to human populations are summarized in a single numerical value. A final result from MEPAS should include risks to the maximally exposed individual, average individual, and the population (noting the population size) so that users can evaluate and weigh these risks. Examination of user input indicates that exposure pathways and exposed populations were sometimes arbitrarily selected. Users must be better informed about the characteristics of the waste site and its potential interaction with human populations for realistic input to the MEPAS model to be developed. Without realistic and consistent input to the MEPAS, or any model, reliable results cannot be expected and any prioritizations based on the results will be questionable.

  12. Environmental Noise Pollution in the United States: Developing an Effective Public Health Response

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Monica S.; Swinburn, Tracy K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tens of millions of Americans suffer from a range of adverse health outcomes due to noise exposure, including heart disease and hearing loss. Reducing environmental noise pollution is achievable and consistent with national prevention goals, yet there is no national plan to reduce environmental noise pollution. Objectives: We aimed to describe some of the most serious health effects associated with noise, summarize exposures from several highly prevalent noise sources based on published estimates as well as extrapolations made using these estimates, and lay out proven mechanisms and strategies to reduce noise by incorporating scientific insight and technological innovations into existing public health infrastructure. Discussion: We estimated that 104 million individuals had annual LEQ(24) levels > 70 dBA (equivalent to a continuous average exposure level of >70 dBA over 24 hr) in 2013 and were at risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Tens of millions more may be at risk of heart disease, and other noise-related health effects. Direct regulation, altering the informational environment, and altering the built environment are the least costly, most logistically feasible, and most effective noise reduction interventions. Conclusion: Significant public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce environmental noise levels and exposures into the federal public health agenda. Citation: Hammer MS, Swinburn TK, Neitzel RL. 2014. Environmental noise pollution in the United States: developing an effective public health response. Environ Health Perspect 122:115–119; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307272 PMID:24311120

  13. [Environmental behavior of graphene and its effect on the transport and fate of pollutants in environment].

    PubMed

    Ren, Wen-Jie; Teng, Ying

    2014-09-01

    Graphene is one of the most popular research topics in carbon nanomaterials. Because of its special physical and chemical properties, graphene will have wide applications. As the production and application amount is increasing, graphene will be inevitably released to the environment, resulting in risks of ecological environment and human health. It is of very vital significance for evaluating environmental risks of graphene scientifically and objectively to understand its environmental behavior and fate and explore its effect on the environmental behaviors of pollutants. This paper reviewed the environmental behavior of graphene, such as colloid properties and its stability in the aqueous environment and its transport through porous media. Additionally, the paper reviewed the effect of graphene on the transport and fate of pollutants. The interactions between graphene and heavy metals or organic compounds were especially discussed. Important topics should be explored including sorption mechanisms, interactions between graphene and soil components, influence of graphene on the transport and bioavailability of pollutants in environment, as well as approaches to quantifying graphene. The review might identify potential new ideas for further research in applications of graphene.

  14. Identification of Potential Estrogenic Environmental Pollutants by Terahertz Transmission Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quema, Alex; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Sakai, Masahiro; Goto, Masahiro; Ono, Shingo; Sarukura, Nobuhiko; Shioda, Ryu; Yamada, Norihide

    2003-08-01

    Using magnetically enhanced terahertz radiation from InAs, various naphthols, which exhibits estrogenic like activity and are potentially mimic natural hormones, are studied. The experimental results show that the naphthols, depicted by the position of the hydroxyl (-OH) component at different carbon atom sites of the naphthalene compound, are distinguishable based on the absorption of THz radiation. It is found that the THz radiation absorption is strongly related to the crystal symmetry and dipole moment of these isomers.

  15. Methodological issues in studies of air pollution and reproductive health

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (S...

  16. DOE/EA-1493: Environmental Assessment for Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project (August 2004)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-08-10

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1493, titled ''Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project'', to analyze the potential environmental consequences of providing cost-shared funding support for the design, construction, and demonstration of an integrated multipollutant control system at AES's Greenidge Station in Dresden, New York. The system, expected to control emissions of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HF, HCl, and Hg, would be installed on the existing, coal-fired, 107-MW Unit 4 at Greenidge. The results of the analyses provided in the EA are summarized in this Finding of No Significant Impact. The proposed action is for DOE to provide about $14.5 million for this project, while CONSOL Energy Inc. and its project partners would be responsible for the remaining $21 million. The proposed project will result in technical, environmental, and financial data from the design, operation and construction of the multi-pollutant control system. This 4.5-year, commercial-scale demonstration project would allow utilities, particularly those with units less than 300-MW in capacity, to make decisions regarding the integrated multi-pollutant control system as a viable commercial option. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has concluded that the Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project would result in minimal and insignificant consequences to the human environment. Thus, DOE considers that the proposed action, providing cost-shared funding for the project, is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 United States Code 4321, et seq. Therefore, in accordance with 10 CFR Part 1021.322, DOE has concluded that preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this FONSI.

  17. Transgenic plants for phytoremediation: helping nature to clean up environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Van Aken, Benoit

    2008-05-01

    Phytoremediation is the use of plants to clean up environmental pollution. However, detoxification of organic pollutants by plants is often slow, leading to the accumulation of toxic compounds that could be later released into the environment. A recent publication by Doty and colleagues describes the development of transgenic poplars (Populus) overexpressing a mammalian cytochrome P450, a family of enzymes commonly involved in the metabolism of toxic compounds. The engineered plants showed enhanced performance with regards to the metabolism of trichloroethylene and the removal of a range of other toxic volatile organic pollutants, including vinyl chloride, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and benzene. This work suggests that transgenic plants might be able to contribute to the wider and safer application of phytoremediation.

  18. Probabilistic integrated risk assessment of human exposure risk to environmental bisphenol A pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Fu, Keng-Yen; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Chio, Chia-Pin; Liao, Chung-Min

    2016-10-01

    Environmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been linked to a variety of adverse health effects such as developmental and reproductive issues. However, establishing a clear association between BPA and the likelihood of human health is complex yet fundamentally uncertain. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential exposure risks from environmental BPA among Chinese population based on five human health outcomes, namely immune response, uterotrophic assay, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and behavior change. We addressed these health concerns by using a stochastic integrated risk assessment approach. The BPA dose-dependent likelihood of effects was reconstructed by a series of Hill models based on animal models or epidemiological data. We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that allows estimation of urinary BPA concentration from external exposures. Here we showed that the daily average exposure concentrations of BPA and urinary BPA estimates were consistent with the published data. We found that BPA exposures were less likely to pose significant risks for infants (0-1 year) and adults (male and female >20 years) with <10(-6)-fold increase in uterus weight and immune response outcomes, respectively. Moreover, our results indicated that there was 50 % risk probability that the response outcomes of CVD, diabetes, and behavior change with or without skin absorption would increase 10(-4)-10(-2)-fold. We conclude that our approach provides a powerful tool for tracking and managing human long-term BPA susceptibility in relation to multiple exposure pathways, and for informing the public of the negligible magnitude of environmental BPA pollution impacts on human health.

  19. Environmental pollutants as risk factors for neurodegenerative disorders: Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chin-Chan, Miguel; Navarro-Yepes, Juliana; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer (AD) and Parkinson (PD) have attracted attention in last decades due to their high incidence worldwide. The etiology of these diseases is still unclear; however the role of the environment as a putative risk factor has gained importance. More worryingly is the evidence that pre- and post-natal exposures to environmental factors predispose to the onset of neurodegenerative diseases in later life. Neurotoxic metals such as lead, mercury, aluminum, cadmium and arsenic, as well as some pesticides and metal-based nanoparticles have been involved in AD due to their ability to increase beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide and the phosphorylation of Tau protein (P-Tau), causing senile/amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) characteristic of AD. The exposure to lead, manganese, solvents and some pesticides has been related to hallmarks of PD such as mitochondrial dysfunction, alterations in metal homeostasis and aggregation of proteins such as α-synuclein (α-syn), which is a key constituent of Lewy bodies (LB), a crucial factor in PD pathogenesis. Common mechanisms of environmental pollutants to increase Aβ, P-Tau, α-syn and neuronal death have been reported, including the oxidative stress mainly involved in the increase of Aβ and α-syn, and the reduced activity/protein levels of Aβ degrading enzyme (IDE)s such as neprilysin or insulin IDE. In addition, epigenetic mechanisms by maternal nutrient supplementation and exposure to heavy metals and pesticides have been proposed to lead phenotypic diversity and susceptibility to neurodegenerative diseases. This review discusses data from epidemiological and experimental studies about the role of environmental factors in the development of idiopathic AD and PD, and their mechanisms of action. PMID:25914621

  20. Air Pollution Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) in Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    In health studies, traffic-related air pollution is associated with adverse respiratory effects. Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect ...

  1. [APPLICATION OF BIOMONITORING METHODOLOGY FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS].

    PubMed

    Ilchenko, I N; Lyapunov, S M; Okina, O I; Karamysheva, T V; Kartasheva, A N

    2015-01-01

    In this article there are presented the current views on the technology for the assessment of the exposure to chemical pollutants with the use of the methodology of human biomonitoring and the main advantages of the latter are highlighted. There are presented main problems of the implementation of biomonitoring studies in Russia such as: beginning with the lack of the national system of the biomonitoring, and accomplishing with the inconsistency in the data within the country, the inability to assess the trend according to levels of exposure in the regional or national context. Due to the inconvenience of the Russian regulatory basis on human biomonitoring, there is persisted technological backwardness in terms of the delivery of the design, presentation and evaluation of research results, which results in the decline of the significance of biomonitoring for public health in the country. There is preserved a need for standardization and harmonization of methods and procedures of human biomonitoring (HBM) in Russia with international requirements. A serious concern is the lack of Russian programs on standardization of procedures and interlaboratcy comparison of results according to biomarkers of the exposure, the insufficient involvement of national laboratories in international programs of the comparison, the difficulties with the acquisition of standard samples of the compositionfor different environmental pollutants in biological tissues. The restraint ofthe development of HBM in the Russian Federation is caused by a complex of reasons. The most urgent task is the development of the national concept of the system with subsequent formation of technological, institutional and organizational framework of biomonitoring, as well as the improvement of Russian normative-methodical base.

  2. Link between environmental air pollution and allergic asthma: East meets West

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingling; Qiu, Zhiming; Huang, Shau-Ku

    2015-01-01

    With the levels of outdoor air pollution from industrial and motor vehicle emissions rising rapidly in the fastly-industrializing countries of South East Asia, the prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has also been increasing to match those in the West. Epidemiological and experimental exposure studies indicate a harmful impact of outdoor air pollution from vehicles and factories both on the development of allergic diseases and asthma and the increase in asthma symptoms and exacerbations. The level of outdoor pollution in Asia is much higher and more diverse than those encountered in Western countries. This may increase the impact of outdoor pollution on health, particularly lung health in Asia. This review discusses the constituents of air pollution in Asia with a special focus on studies in mainland China and Taiwan where the levels of pollution have reached high levels and where such high levels particularly in winter can cause a thick haze that reduces visibility. The onus remains on regulatory and public health authorities to curb the sources of pollution so that the health effects on the population particularly those with lung and cardiovascular diseases and with increased susceptibility can be mitigated. PMID:25694814

  3. Link between environmental air pollution and allergic asthma: East meets West.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingling; Qiu, Zhiming; Chung, Kian Fan; Huang, Shau-Ku

    2015-01-01

    With the levels of outdoor air pollution from industrial and motor vehicle emissions rising rapidly in the fastly-industrializing countries of South East Asia, the prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has also been increasing to match those in the West. Epidemiological and experimental exposure studies indicate a harmful impact of outdoor air pollution from vehicles and factories both on the development of allergic diseases and asthma and the increase in asthma symptoms and exacerbations. The level of outdoor pollution in Asia is much higher and more diverse than those encountered in Western countries. This may increase the impact of outdoor pollution on health, particularly lung health in Asia. This review discusses the constituents of air pollution in Asia with a special focus on studies in mainland China and Taiwan where the levels of pollution have reached high levels and where such high levels particularly in winter can cause a thick haze that reduces visibility. The onus remains on regulatory and public health authorities to curb the sources of pollution so that the health effects on the population particularly those with lung and cardiovascular diseases and with increased susceptibility can be mitigated.

  4. Environmental Air Pollutants as Risk Factors for Asthma Among Children Seen in Pediatric Clinics in UKMMC, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Idris, Idayu Badilla; Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal; Zhie, Khor Hui; Khairuman, Khairul Aliff; Yahya, Siti Kasuma; Abd Zaim, Farah Azureen; Nam, Chok Wai; Abdul Rasid, Hazwan Zuhairi; Isa, Zaleha Md

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma is increasing, especially among children in Malaysia, with environmental factors as one of the main preventable contributors. The aim of this study was to determine the association between environmental air pollutants and the occurrence of asthma among children seen in pediatric clinics in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC), Kuala Lumpur. An unmatched case control study among children who attended the pediatric clinic was carried out from May to August 2015. A total of 223 children who were diagnosed with asthma (105 cases) and who did not have asthma (118 controls) were included in this study. Their parents or caregivers were interviewed using questionnaires modified from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. There was a higher risk of asthma in those who had carpet at home (OR = 2.15 CI [1.25-3.68]), those who lived within 200 m of heavy traffic (OR = 1.72 CI [1.01-2.93]), and those who were exposed to lorry fumes (OR = 2.61. CI [1.38-4.93]). Environmental air pollutants increased the risk of asthma among children in Malaysia. Exposure to congested roads, lorry fumes, and indoor carpet were associated with asthma among children in this study. Parents or caretakers of children with asthma should be given adequate education on the prevention of asthmatic attack among these children. PMID:27325078

  5. Environmental Air Pollutants as Risk Factors for Asthma Among Children Seen in Pediatric Clinics in UKMMC, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Idris, Idayu Badilla; Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal; Zhie, Khor Hui; Khairuman, Khairul Aliff; Yahya, Siti Kasuma; Abd Zaim, Farah Azureen; Nam, Chok Wai; Abdul Rasid, Hazwan Zuhairi; Isa, Zaleha Md

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma is increasing, especially among children in Malaysia, with environmental factors as one of the main preventable contributors. The aim of this study was to determine the association between environmental air pollutants and the occurrence of asthma among children seen in pediatric clinics in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC), Kuala Lumpur. An unmatched case control study among children who attended the pediatric clinic was carried out from May to August 2015. A total of 223 children who were diagnosed with asthma (105 cases) and who did not have asthma (118 controls) were included in this study. Their parents or caregivers were interviewed using questionnaires modified from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. There was a higher risk of asthma in those who had carpet at home (OR = 2.15 CI [1.25-3.68]), those who lived within 200 m of heavy traffic (OR = 1.72 CI [1.01-2.93]), and those who were exposed to lorry fumes (OR = 2.61. CI [1.38-4.93]). Environmental air pollutants increased the risk of asthma among children in Malaysia. Exposure to congested roads, lorry fumes, and indoor carpet were associated with asthma among children in this study. Parents or caretakers of children with asthma should be given adequate education on the prevention of asthmatic attack among these children.

  6. Metabolic signatures associated with environmental pollution by metals in Doñana National Park using P. clarkii as bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Gago-Tinoco, Amanda; González-Domínguez, Raúl; García-Barrera, Tamara; Blasco-Moreno, Julián; Bebianno, M J; Gómez-Ariza, José-Luis

    2014-12-01

    Bioindicators can reflect the effects of pollutants on their metabolism, being widely used to assess environmental stress. In this sense, the crab Procambarus clarkii has been previously proposed to monitor the contamination in Doñana National Park (southwest Spain) using conventional biomarkers. In this work, a metabolomic approach based on direct infusion mass spectrometry, which allows an easy and quick study of a large number of metabolites in a single run, was used for pollution assessment of this area, considering the biological response of this organism to contamination. In addition, metal accumulation in crab tissues was determined. Thus, the integrated analysis of metabolomic and metallomic data enabled the study of metabolic response of the organism against pollution. Several metabolites were discovered as potential biomarkers of pollution, such as decreased levels of carnosine, alanine, niacinamide, acetoacetate, pantothenic acid, ascorbate, glucose-6-phosphate, arginine, glucose, lactate, phospholipids, and tryglicerides, as well as elevated levels of acetyl carnitine, phosphocholine, choline, and uric acid. In this way, metal-induced toxicity could be related to metabolic impairments, principally oxidative stress, metabolic dysfunction, and dyslipidemia.

  7. Estimating the health benefit of reducing indoor air pollution in a randomized environmental intervention

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Roger D.; Butz, Arlene M.; Hackstadt, Amber J.; Williams, D'Ann L.; Diette, Gregory B.; Breysse, Patrick N.; Matsui, Elizabeth C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent intervention studies targeted at reducing indoor air pollution have demonstrated both the ability to improve respiratory health outcomes and to reduce particulate matter (PM) levels in the home. However, these studies generally do not address whether it is the reduction of PM levels specifically that improves respiratory health. In this paper we apply the method of principal stratification to data from a randomized air cleaner intervention designed to reduce indoor PM in homes of children with asthma. We estimate the health benefit of the intervention amongst study subjects who would experience a substantial reduction in PM in response to the intervention. For those subjects we find an increase in symptom-free days that is almost three times as large as the overall intention-to-treat effect. We also explore the presence of treatment effects amongst those subjects whose PM levels would not respond to the air cleaner. This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of principal stratification for environmental intervention trials and its potential for much broader application in this area. PMID:27695203

  8. Estimating the health benefit of reducing indoor air pollution in a randomized environmental intervention

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Roger D.; Butz, Arlene M.; Hackstadt, Amber J.; Williams, D'Ann L.; Diette, Gregory B.; Breysse, Patrick N.; Matsui, Elizabeth C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent intervention studies targeted at reducing indoor air pollution have demonstrated both the ability to improve respiratory health outcomes and to reduce particulate matter (PM) levels in the home. However, these studies generally do not address whether it is the reduction of PM levels specifically that improves respiratory health. In this paper we apply the method of principal stratification to data from a randomized air cleaner intervention designed to reduce indoor PM in homes of children with asthma. We estimate the health benefit of the intervention amongst study subjects who would experience a substantial reduction in PM in response to the intervention. For those subjects we find an increase in symptom-free days that is almost three times as large as the overall intention-to-treat effect. We also explore the presence of treatment effects amongst those subjects whose PM levels would not respond to the air cleaner. This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of principal stratification for environmental intervention trials and its potential for much broader application in this area.

  9. Supercritical fluid extraction of polyhalogenated pollutants from aquaculture and marine environmental samples: a review.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Diego; Carro-Díaz, Antonia María; Lorenzo-Ferreira, Rosa Antonia

    2008-05-01

    This article focuses on the state-of-the-art in sample preparation using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), to monitor the content of polyhalogenated pollutants in aquaculture and marine environmental samples. Marine sediments and biological applications, including several types of samples matrices (fish, shellfish, seaweed and fish feed) and analyte groups (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD)/Fs and organochlorinated pesticide (OCPs)) are discussed with respect to SFE use and optimisation of conditions. We also discuss the great analytical potential of SFE, the integration of the extraction and clean-up steps for rapid sample processing justifying its use for routine work. The most recent SFE applications to the determination of these pollutants in marine environmental (biota and sediment) samples, published in the last 15 years, are reviewed. PMID:18398865

  10. The fish gill: site of action and model for toxic effects of environmental pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D H

    1987-01-01

    The gill epithelium is the site of gas exchange, ionic regulation, acid-base balance, and nitrogenous waste excretion by fishes. The last three processes are controlled by passive and active transport of various solutes across the epithelium. Various environmental pollutants (e.g., heavy metals, acid rain, and organic xenobiotics) have been found to affect the morphology of the gill epithelium. Associated with these morphological pathologies, one finds alterations in blood ionic levels, as well as gill Na,K-activated ATPase activity and ionic fluxes. Such physiological disturbances may underly the toxicities of these pollutants. In addition, the epithelial transport steps which are affected in the fish gill model resemble those described in the human gut and kidney, sites of action of a variety of environmental toxins. Images FIGURE 1. a FIGURE 1. b FIGURE 3. PMID:3297663

  11. The fish gill: site of action and model for toxic effects of environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Evans, D H

    1987-04-01

    The gill epithelium is the site of gas exchange, ionic regulation, acid-base balance, and nitrogenous waste excretion by fishes. The last three processes are controlled by passive and active transport of various solutes across the epithelium. Various environmental pollutants (e.g., heavy metals, acid rain, and organic xenobiotics) have been found to affect the morphology of the gill epithelium. Associated with these morphological pathologies, one finds alterations in blood ionic levels, as well as gill Na,K-activated ATPase activity and ionic fluxes. Such physiological disturbances may underly the toxicities of these pollutants. In addition, the epithelial transport steps which are affected in the fish gill model resemble those described in the human gut and kidney, sites of action of a variety of environmental toxins.

  12. Research on sudden environmental pollution public service platform construction based on WebGIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, T. P.; Gao, D. Y.; Zhong, X. Y.

    2016-08-01

    In order to actualize the social sharing and service of the emergency-response information for sudden pollution accidents, the public can share the risk source information service, dangerous goods control technology service and so on, The SQL Server and ArcSDE software are used to establish a spatial database to restore all kinds of information including risk sources, hazardous chemicals and handling methods in case of accidents. Combined with Chinese atmospheric environmental assessment standards, the SCREEN3 atmospheric dispersion model and one-dimensional liquid diffusion model are established to realize the query of related information and the display of the diffusion effect under B/S structure. Based on the WebGIS technology, C#.Net language is used to develop the sudden environmental pollution public service platform. As a result, the public service platform can make risk assessments and provide the best emergency processing services.

  13. Fish gill: site of action and model for toxic effects of environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.H.

    1987-04-01

    The gill epithelium is the site of gas exchange, ionic regulation, acid-base balance, nitrogenous waste excretion by fishes. The last three processes are controlled by passive and active transport of various solutes across the epithelium. Various environmental pollutants (e.g., heavy metals, acid rain, and organic xenobiotics) have been found to affect the morphology of the gill epithelium. Associated with these morphological pathologies, one finds alterations in blood ionic levels, as well as gill Na, K-activated ATPase activity and ionic fluxes. Such physiological disturbances may underlie the toxicities of these pollutants. In addition, the epithelial transport steps which are affected in the fish gill model resemble those described in the human gut and kidney, sites of action of a variety of environmental toxins.

  14. Characteristics of emissions of air pollutants from mosquito coils and candles burning in a large environmental chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. C.; Wang, B.

    The objective of this study was to characterize the emissions of air pollutants from mosquito coils and candles burning in a large environmental test chamber. The target pollutants included particulate matters (PM 10, PM 2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x), methane (CH 4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds. The average PM 10 concentrations for all tested mosquito coils exceeded Excellent and Good Classes objectives specified by Indoor Air Quality Objectives for Office Buildings and Public Places (IAQO) [ HKEPD, 2003. Guidance Notes for the Management of Indoor Air Quality in Offices and Public Places. Indoor Air Quality Management Group, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region]. The emission factors (mg g -1 mosquito coil) of mosquito coils combustion were: PM 2.5, 20.3-47.8; PM 10, 15.9-50.8; CO, 74.6-89.1; NO, 0.1-0.5; NO 2, n.d.-0.1; NO x, 0.1-0.5; CH 4, n.d.-4.7; NMHC, 0.1-5.7. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant carbonyls species in the coil smoke. The average concentrations of formaldehyde and benzene of all tested mosquito coils exceeded Good Class of IAQO. Nitrogen oxides were the most abundant gas pollutants relating to candle burning among all target air pollutants. The candle made of gel (CAN 4) would emit more air pollutants than the paraffin candles (CAN 1, 2 and 3) and beeswax candle (CAN 5). Among five candles tested, CAN 5, the one made of beeswax, generated relatively smaller amount of air pollutants. It was noted that the concentrations of most VOCs from candles combustion were below the detection limit.

  15. Inefficiency of sanitation measures aboard commercial aircraft: environmental pollution and disease.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, R

    1977-07-01

    Recent investigations at Tokyo International Airport have proven that environmental pollution resulting from the inefficient disposal of human excretion aboard aircraft is an important problem from the standpoint of quarantine. It is, therefore, recommended that the worldwide aviation industry take immediate measures to improve conditions and eliminate this problem, which has thus far been ignored by aircraft designers, airport administration, and CAB personnel. PMID:329830

  16. Assessment of the risk of failure of high voltage substations due to environmental conditions and pollution on insulators.

    PubMed

    Castillo Sierra, Rafael; Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Candelo, John E; Soto, Jose D

    2015-07-01

    Pollution on electrical insulators is one of the greatest causes of failure of substations subjected to high levels of salinity and environmental pollution. Considering leakage current as the main indicator of pollution on insulators, this paper focuses on establishing the effect of the environmental conditions on the risk of failure due to pollution on insulators and determining the significant change in the magnitude of the pollution on the insulators during dry and humid periods. Hierarchical segmentation analysis was used to establish the effect of environmental conditions on the risk of failure due to pollution on insulators. The Kruskal-Wallis test was utilized to determine the significant changes in the magnitude of the pollution due to climate periods. An important result was the discovery that leakage current was more common on insulators during dry periods than humid ones. There was also a higher risk of failure due to pollution during dry periods. During the humid period, various temperatures and wind directions produced a small change in the risk of failure. As a technical result, operators of electrical substations can now identify the cause of an increase in risk of failure due to pollution in the area. The research provides a contribution towards the behaviour of the leakage current under conditions similar to those of the Colombian Caribbean coast and how they affect the risk of failure of the substation due to pollution.

  17. Light pollution modelling the UK Highways Agency new environmental policy, inc. astronomical impact of blue-rich LED luminaires.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baddiley, Christopher James

    2015-08-01

    The Highways Agency are replacing their policy of full cut off class G6 road lighting specification on motorways (originally based on the author’s work), and are adopting a categorised environmental impact based point system that can accommodate technical advances, such as LED lighting. The Skyglow component of this will be based on the modelling of skyglow versus cut-off angle, developed for determining the relative light pollution environmental impact of different streetlight designs, by the author. Further modelling has been done concerning the effect of LED lighting, which potentially, has highly directional properties. But increasingly used blue rich colour temperatures may increase skyglow by 5 fold, compared to traditional lighting. This is due to enhanced reflection of vegetation and greatly increased atmospheric molecular Rayleigh scattering; a potential astronomical environmental disaster.Prior to this, the author carried out a dark sky survey of the Malvern Hills area of outstanding natural beauty (AONB), relating it to the same light pollution model. The results confirm the general predictions of the model and also clearly illustrate the relative significance of different designs of light sources at different distances, to the dark sky environment.The paper also briefly describes the results from the same model adapted to study the night-time environmental impact of a proposed very large sea based wind farm project in the English Channel, as a part of the planning process.

  18. Environmental Studies, Conference Report, Secondary Schools Science Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victoria Education Dept. (Australia).

    In addition to complete texts or summaries of a number of papers considering the scope and relevance of "environmental studies" to the secondary and elementary school programs in Victoria (Australia), many teaching techniques are described. Techniques for measuring carrying capacity of roadways, examining published air pollution data, estimation…

  19. Educational understanding of pollution prevention in decontamination and decommissioning/environmental restoration activities

    SciTech Connect

    Betsch, M.D.; Lewis, R.A.

    1995-05-01

    Demolishing outdated structures from the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington, generates large quantities of waste which can be minimized. The Hanford cleanup is one of the world`s largest and most complex environmental restoration efforts. Approximately 280 square miles of ground water and soil are contaminated; there are more than 80 surplus facilities, including nine shut-down nuclear reactors in various stages of decay; and there are 177 underground waste storage tanks containing highly radioactive waste. In all, 1,500 cleanup sites have been identified and the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) is currently responsible for surveillance and maintenance of 170 structures. A two hour orientation training in pollution prevention was developed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company to provide all Decontamination and Decommissioning/Environmental Restoration (D&D/ER) personnel with the knowledge to apply waste minimization principles during their cleanup activities. The ERC Team Pollution Prevention Workshop serves to communicate pollution prevention philosophies and influences the way D&D/ER projects are conducted at the Hanford Site.

  20. Marine molluscs in environmental monitoring. II. Experimental exposure to selected pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresler, Vladimir; Mokady, Ofer; Fishelson, Lev; Feldstein, Tamar; Abelson, Avigdor

    2003-10-01

    In an effort to establish biomonitoring programmes for routine and emergency monitoring of littoral marine habitats, organismal responses are examined in two ways: firstly, in controlled, laboratory studies, where the response may be accurately characterized; secondly, in field-collected specimens, with the hope of obtaining evidence regarding disturbances such as the ones caused by anthropogenic pollution. In many cases, there is a gap between the two types of studies, and different species and experimental and/or analytical procedures are used. In a series of recent studies, we have examined responses of field-collected molluscs, and interpreted our findings with respect to pollution. Here, we report a complementary study, in which molluscs collected from reference and polluted sites were exposed to cadmium or DDT under controlled laboratory conditions. Using fluorescent probes and microfluorometry, we examined the effect of these pollutants on paracellular permeability, lysosomal stability and metabolic status of mitochondria. Our findings indicate that molluscs from polluted sites are less affected, showing significantly smaller alterations in all examined parameters. These findings are in line with previous results showing higher levels of activity of cellular defence mechanisms in molluscs collected from polluted sites. Taken together, the results may be used to establish a reliable biomonitoring system. The sensitivity of the suggested methodology is also expected to qualify such a system for early warning.