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Sample records for environmental rearing condition

  1. Individual differences in impulsive and risky choice: effects of environmental rearing conditions.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Kimberly; Marshall, Andrew T; Smith, Aaron P; Koci, Juraj; Park, Yoonseong

    2014-08-01

    The present experiment investigated early-rearing environment modulation of individual differences in impulsive and risky choice. Rats were reared in an isolated condition (IC; n=12), in which they lived alone without novel stimuli, or an enriched condition (EC; n=11), in which they lived among conspecifics with novel stimuli. The impulsive choice task involved choices between smaller-sooner (SS) versus larger-later (LL) rewards. The risky choice task involved choices between certain-smaller (C-S) versus uncertain-larger (U-L) rewards. Following choice testing, incentive motivation to work for food was measured using a progressive ratio task and correlated with choice behavior. HPLC analyses were conducted to determine how monoamine concentrations within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAC) related to behavior in different tasks. IC rats were more impulsive than EC rats, but they did not differ in risky choice behavior. However, choice behavior across tasks was significantly correlated (i.e., the more impulsive rats were also riskier). There were no group differences in monoamine levels, but noradrenergic and serotonergic concentrations were significantly correlated with impulsive and risky choice. Furthermore, serotonin and norepinephrine concentrations in the NAC significantly correlated with incentive motivation and the timing of the reward delays within the choice tasks. These results suggest a role for domain general processes in impulsive and risky choice and indicate the importance of the NAC and/or PFC in timing, reward processing, and choice behavior.

  2. Existence of anticorrelations for local field potentials recorded from mice reared in standard condition and environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Vallone, F; Cintio, A; Mainardi, M; Caleo, M; Di Garbo, A

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we analyze local field potentials (LFPs) recorded from the secondary motor cortex (M2) and primary visual cortex (V1) of freely moving mice reared in environmental enrichment (EE) and standard condition (SC). We focus on the scaling properties of the signals by using an integrated approach combining three different techniques: the Higuchi method, detrended fluctuation analysis, and power spectrum. Each technique provides direct or indirect estimations of the Hurst exponent H and this prevents spurious identification of scaling properties in time-series analysis. It is well known that the power spectrum of an LFP signal scales as 1/f(β) with β>0. Our results indicate the existence of a particular power spectrum scaling law 1/f(β) with β<0 for low frequencies (f<4 Hz) for both SC and EE rearing conditions. This type of scaling behavior is associated to the presence of anticorrelation in the corresponding LFP signals. Moreover, since EE is an experimental protocol based on the enhancement of sensorimotor stimulation, we study the possible effects of EE on the scaling properties of secondary motor cortex (M2) and primary visual cortex (V1). Notably, the difference between Hurst's exponents in EE and SC for individual cortical regions (M2) and (V1) is not statistically significant. On the other hand, using the detrended cross-correlation coefficient, we find that EE significantly reduces the functional coupling between secondary motor cortex (M2) and visual cortex (V1).

  3. Existence of anticorrelations for local field potentials recorded from mice reared in standard condition and environmental enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallone, F.; Cintio, A.; Mainardi, M.; Caleo, M.; Di Garbo, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we analyze local field potentials (LFPs) recorded from the secondary motor cortex (M2) and primary visual cortex (V1) of freely moving mice reared in environmental enrichment (EE) and standard condition (SC). We focus on the scaling properties of the signals by using an integrated approach combining three different techniques: the Higuchi method, detrended fluctuation analysis, and power spectrum. Each technique provides direct or indirect estimations of the Hurst exponent H and this prevents spurious identification of scaling properties in time-series analysis. It is well known that the power spectrum of an LFP signal scales as 1 /fβ with β >0 . Our results indicate the existence of a particular power spectrum scaling law 1 /fβ with β <0 for low frequencies (f <4 Hz) for both SC and EE rearing conditions. This type of scaling behavior is associated to the presence of anticorrelation in the corresponding LFP signals. Moreover, since EE is an experimental protocol based on the enhancement of sensorimotor stimulation, we study the possible effects of EE on the scaling properties of secondary motor cortex (M2) and primary visual cortex (V1). Notably, the difference between Hurst's exponents in EE and SC for individual cortical regions (M2) and (V1) is not statistically significant. On the other hand, using the detrended cross-correlation coefficient, we find that EE significantly reduces the functional coupling between secondary motor cortex (M2) and visual cortex (V1).

  4. Rearing of silkworm under hypobaric and hypoxia conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Shin; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    In order to investigate of a possibility of utilizing silkworm for the space agriculture, rearing of silkworms was examined under hypobaric and hypoxia conditions. In terms of structural mechanics, the lower inner pressure of Martian greenhouse has advantage to reduce requirements on physical properties of mechanical member of the pressurized structure. The main objective of this study is to know the influence of lower total pressure and hypoxia condition on silkworm. Silkworms are reared under following four hypobaric and hypoxia conditions, 10kPa pure oxygen, 20kPa pure oxygen, 10kPa oxygen and 10kPa nitrogen, and 10kPa oxygen and 90kPa nitrogen. After rearing them to pupa stage, growth of silkworms was found poor under all hypobaric hypoxia conditions compared to those grown under the normal atmospheric condition; the control group. The growth under total pressure of 20kPa is slightly fast.

  5. Transcriptomic Responses of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) to Environmental Enrichment during Juvenile Rearing

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Melissa L.; Hori, Tiago S.; Rise, Matthew L.; Fleming, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Captive rearing programs (hatcheries) are often used in conservation and management efforts for at-risk salmonid fish populations. However, hatcheries typically rear juveniles in environments that contrast starkly with natural conditions, which may lead to phenotypic and/or genetic changes that adversely affect the performance of juveniles upon their release to the wild. Environmental enrichment has been proposed as a mechanism to improve the efficacy of population restoration efforts from captive-rearing programs; in this study, we examine the influence of environmental enrichment during embryo and yolk-sac larval rearing on the transcriptome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Full siblings were reared in either a hatchery environment devoid of structure or an environment enriched with gravel substrate. At the end of endogenous feeding by juveniles, we examined patterns of gene transcript abundance in head tissues using the cGRASP-designed Agilent 4×44K microarray. Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) indicated that 808 genes were differentially transcribed between the rearing environments and a total of 184 gene ontological (GO) terms were over- or under-represented in this gene list, several associated with mitosis/cell cycle and muscle and heart development. There were also pronounced differences among families in the degree of transcriptional response to rearing environment enrichment, suggesting that gene-by-environment effects, possibly related to parental origin, could influence the efficacy of enrichment interventions. PMID:25742646

  6. Transcriptomic responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to environmental enrichment during juvenile rearing.

    PubMed

    Evans, Melissa L; Hori, Tiago S; Rise, Matthew L; Fleming, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    Captive rearing programs (hatcheries) are often used in conservation and management efforts for at-risk salmonid fish populations. However, hatcheries typically rear juveniles in environments that contrast starkly with natural conditions, which may lead to phenotypic and/or genetic changes that adversely affect the performance of juveniles upon their release to the wild. Environmental enrichment has been proposed as a mechanism to improve the efficacy of population restoration efforts from captive-rearing programs; in this study, we examine the influence of environmental enrichment during embryo and yolk-sac larval rearing on the transcriptome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Full siblings were reared in either a hatchery environment devoid of structure or an environment enriched with gravel substrate. At the end of endogenous feeding by juveniles, we examined patterns of gene transcript abundance in head tissues using the cGRASP-designed Agilent 4×44K microarray. Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) indicated that 808 genes were differentially transcribed between the rearing environments and a total of 184 gene ontological (GO) terms were over- or under-represented in this gene list, several associated with mitosis/cell cycle and muscle and heart development. There were also pronounced differences among families in the degree of transcriptional response to rearing environment enrichment, suggesting that gene-by-environment effects, possibly related to parental origin, could influence the efficacy of enrichment interventions.

  7. Differential rearing conditions and alcohol-preferring rats: consumption of and operant responding for ethanol.

    PubMed

    Deehan, Gerald A; Palmatier, Matthew I; Cain, Mary E; Kiefer, Stephen W

    2011-04-01

    Exposing rats to differential rearing conditions during early postweaning development has been shown to produce changes in a number of behaviors displayed during adulthood. The purpose of the present studies was to investigate whether rearing alcohol-preferring (P) and nonpreferring (NP) rats in an environmental enrichment condition (EC), a social condition (SC), or an impoverished condition (IC) would differentially affect self-administration of 10% ethanol. In Experiment 1, rats were tested for consumption of 10% ethanol in limited- and free-access tests. For Experiment 2, rats were trained to respond in an operant chamber for ethanol and then provided concurrent access to 10% ethanol and water. Each solution was presented in a separate liquid dipper after meeting the schedule of reinforcement on distinct levers. After concurrent access tests, the water lever/dipper was inactivated and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule was initiated. Three successive solutions (10% ethanol, 15% ethanol, and 10% sucrose) were tested under the PR. For P rats, rearing in an EC reduced ethanol consumption, preference, and motivation to obtain ethanol, relative to P rats reared in an IC. Thus, exposure to a novel environment immediately after weaning acted to decrease the reinforcing properties of ethanol in an animal model for alcoholism.

  8. Skeletal Anomaly Monitoring in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792) Reared under Different Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Boglione, Clara; Pulcini, Domitilla; Scardi, Michele; Palamara, Elisa; Russo, Tommaso; Cataudella, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of skeletal anomalies could be used as an indicator of the “quality” of rearing conditions as these anomalies are thought to result from the inability of homeostatic mechanisms to compensate for environmentally-induced stress and/or altered genetic factors. Identification of rearing conditions that lower the rate of anomalies can be an important step toward profitable aquaculture as malformed market-size fish have to be discarded, thus reducing fish farmers’ profits. In this study, the occurrence of skeletal anomalies in adult rainbow trout grown under intensive and organic conditions was monitored. As organic aquaculture animal production is in its early stages, organic broodstock is not available in sufficient quantities. Non-organic juveniles could, therefore, be used for on-growing purposes in organic aquaculture production cycle. Thus, the adult fish analysed in this study experienced intensive conditions during juvenile rearing. Significant differences in the pattern of anomalies were detected between organically and intensively-ongrown specimens, although the occurrence of severe, commercially important anomalies, affecting 2–12.5% of individuals, was comparable in the two systems. Thus, organic aquaculture needs to be improved in order to significantly reduce the incidence of severe anomalies in rainbow trout. PMID:24809347

  9. Intelligent rear light for compensation of environmental effects on car visibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruner, Roman; Schubert, Jorg

    2004-01-01

    LIDAR remote sensing technology has not only applications in geographical, atmospheric or biological sciences but it can also play an important role in the everyday life. Within the last 10 years statistics of European car traffic has shown that about one third of all accidents go back to darkness and poor road conditions. A system collecting information about visibility and distance to following vehicles and setting appropriate rear light intensities could provide a much safer road travel under various environmental conditions. The system that is being developed co-operates with a dirt and brightness sensor to take into account these various external influences on an automobile and applies them to the operation of the rear light. The developed sensors are integrated in an advanced micro-system and capable of providing external environmental data for automatic brightness control within a requested range of light output for constant perceptibility of light signals to the following traffic. This conference gives further information about: (1) construction, optical and laser parameters, (2) application in rear light systems, (3) measurement characteristics, (4) test equipment (LIDAR_Probe), (5) measurement results, test rides, raw data.

  10. Environmental assessment, K Pool fish rearing, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to respond to a request to lease facilities at the Hanford Site 100-KE and 100-KW filter plant pools (K Pools) for fish rearing activities. These fish rearing activities would be: (1) business ventures with public and private funds and (2) long-term enhancement and supplementation programs for game fish populations in the Columbia River Basin. The proposed action is to enter into a use permit or lease agreement with the YIN or other parties who would rear fish in the 100-K Area Pools. The proposed action would include necessary piping, pump, and electrical upgrades of the facility; cleaning and preparation of the pools; water withdrawal from the Columbia River, and any necessary water or wastewater treatment; and introduction, rearing and release of fish. Future commercial operations may be included.

  11. Reproductive seasonality of corriedale rams under extensive rearing conditions.

    PubMed

    Pérez, R; López, A; Castrillejo, A; Bielli, A; Laborde, D; Gastel, T; Tagle, R; Queirolo, D; Franco, J; Forsberg, M; Rodríguez-Martínez, H

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to describe seasonal changes in scrotal circumference (SC), live weight (LW), sperm morphology and plasma levels of testosterone (T) and thyroxine (T4) in young Corriedale rams reared under extensive conditions typical for the southern Latin American region. A total of 31 Corriedale rams, 11 months of age and with a LW of 36 +/- 1.1 kg and (SC) of 23.0 +/- 0.5 cm at the beginning of the experiment (September) were kept on natural pastures. At monthly intervals LW was recorded, animals were clinically examined, and SC was measured. None of the animals were used for breeding. Fifteen animals were randomly selected and bled once a month from January to December and plasma concentrations of T and T4 were determined. In addition, one semen sample was collected by electroejaculation and morphological studies were performed. The mean individual LW increase was 18 kg (50% of the initial LW) during the experiment (p < 0.01). LW decreased in autumn, with the nadir in late autumn. SC reached mean maximum levels in late summer (31.1 +/- 0.4 cm, p < 0.01), then decreased until the beginning of winter (26.3 +/- 0.4 cm, p < 0.01) and remained low until early spring (27.5 +/- 0.5 cm, p > 0.05) to increase again between mid-spring and the end of the experimental period the following summer (30.7 +/- 0.5 cm, p < 0.01). The mean SC in winter was 16% lower than that in late summer. Semen could be collected from the rams throughout the experiment. Frequencies of sperm head, mid-piece and total abnormalities showed monthly variation (p < 0.05), but tail abnormalities were not affected by month. Low abnormalities were found in autumn (9.4% +/- 2.2%). T was high during autumn (p < 0.01). Minimal T4 concentrations were observed during late summer and early autumn (p < 0.01) when T levels were high. Maximum T4 concentrations were registered in late autumn (p < 0.01); when SC was decreasing; in mid-spring (p < 0.01) one month after shearing and in early

  12. The influence of rearing conditions on the physical growth of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, J; Miwa, N; Kumazaki, K; Abe, M; Kamanaka, Y; Matsubayashi, N; Gotoh, S; Matsubayashi, K

    2001-04-01

    To clarify the influence of rearing conditions on the growth of various body parts of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), two groups reared under different conditions, i.e., a group born and reared in open enclosures (Enclosure group) and another consisting of macaques born and reared in cages (Caged group), were somatometrically analyzed. Somatometric data on 36 measures of various body parts were collected from 77 males and 92 females. Growth in many body parts was smaller in the Caged group than in the Enclosure group. Body parts that exhibited large incremental increases were more sensitive to differences in rearing space at the infantile growth stage in both sexes. Recovery from delayed growth at the pubertal growth stage was found in many body parts. However, the size of some locomotor elements such as the wrist and hand, and ankle and foot strongly reflected limitations of space and changes due to this were irreversible. Females were more sensitive than males to such differences in rearing conditions. We conclude that open enclosures with ample rearing space are necessary for the innate growth of Japanese macaques to occur.

  13. Environmental effects on behavioural development consequences for fitness of captive-reared fishes in the wild.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, J I; Brockmark, S; Näslund, J

    2014-12-01

    Why do captive-reared fishes generally have lower fitness in natural environments than wild conspecifics, even when the hatchery fishes are derived from wild parents from the local population? A thorough understanding of this question is the key to design artificial rearing environments that optimize post-release performance, as well as to recognize the limitations of what can be achieved by modifying hatchery rearing methods. Fishes are generally very plastic in their development and through gene-environment interactions, epigenetic and maternal effects their phenotypes will develop differently depending on their rearing environment. This suggests that there is scope for modifying conventional rearing environments to better prepare fishes for release into the wild. The complexity of the natural environment is impossible to mimic in full-scale rearing facilities. So, in reality, the challenge is to identify key modifications of the artificial rearing environment that are practically and economically feasible and that efficiently promote development towards a more wild-like phenotype. Do such key modifications really exist? Here, attempts to use physical enrichment and density reduction to improve the performance of hatchery fishes are discussed and evaluated. These manipulations show potential to increase the fitness of hatchery fishes released into natural environments, but the success is strongly dependent on adequately adapting methods to species and life stage-specific conditions. PMID:25469953

  14. Environmental effects on behavioural development consequences for fitness of captive-reared fishes in the wild.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, J I; Brockmark, S; Näslund, J

    2014-12-01

    Why do captive-reared fishes generally have lower fitness in natural environments than wild conspecifics, even when the hatchery fishes are derived from wild parents from the local population? A thorough understanding of this question is the key to design artificial rearing environments that optimize post-release performance, as well as to recognize the limitations of what can be achieved by modifying hatchery rearing methods. Fishes are generally very plastic in their development and through gene-environment interactions, epigenetic and maternal effects their phenotypes will develop differently depending on their rearing environment. This suggests that there is scope for modifying conventional rearing environments to better prepare fishes for release into the wild. The complexity of the natural environment is impossible to mimic in full-scale rearing facilities. So, in reality, the challenge is to identify key modifications of the artificial rearing environment that are practically and economically feasible and that efficiently promote development towards a more wild-like phenotype. Do such key modifications really exist? Here, attempts to use physical enrichment and density reduction to improve the performance of hatchery fishes are discussed and evaluated. These manipulations show potential to increase the fitness of hatchery fishes released into natural environments, but the success is strongly dependent on adequately adapting methods to species and life stage-specific conditions.

  15. Behavioral effects of repeated handling differ in rats reared in social isolation and environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, L M; Van Kempen, T A; Zimmerberg, B

    2013-03-01

    The post-weaning social environment has profound effects on behavior and physiology in rodents. Social isolation increases anxiety-like behaviors and novelty-induced locomotor activity, while environmental enrichment decreases these behaviors. In some cases, the effects of social isolation are ameliorated by repeated handling. The goal of the present study was to determine whether the effects of handling differ in rats reared in social isolation and those reared in an enriched environment. After weaning, male Long-Evans rats were housed individually (ISO)(3) or in groups in an enriched environment (EE). During adulthood, rats from each housing condition received four, once-daily, brief handling sessions or remained undisturbed in the home cage. All rats were then tested in the open field, elevated plus maze, and for behavioral responses to d-amphetamine (1.0mg/kg). EE rats spent more time on the open arms of the elevated plus maze and were more likely than ISO rats to emerge from the start box in the open field, suggesting lower anxiety. Handling significantly decreased open arm time in EE rats and marginally increased open arm time in ISO rats. Housing condition did not affect amphetamine-stimulated locomotor activity, but handling altered the time course of the amphetamine response. ISO rats exhibited significantly fewer stereotyped behaviors than did EE rats, but repeated handling eliminated this difference. These findings support previously published studies that suggest brief handling of adult rats may at least partially ameliorate the effects of post-weaning social isolation on anxiety-like behaviors and psychostimulant sensitivity. Furthermore, there are complex interactions between the effects of housing environment and handling, suggesting that handling may be perceived and/or processed differently, depending on the animal's housing environment.

  16. Composition of the Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) Midgut Microbiota as Affected by Rearing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Landry, Mathieu; Comeau, André M; Derome, Nicolas; Cusson, Michel; Levesque, Roger C

    2015-01-01

    The eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is one of the most destructive forest insect pests in Canada. Little is known about its intestinal microbiota, which could play a role in digestion, immune protection, communication and/or development. The present study was designed to provide a first characterization of the effects of rearing conditions on the taxonomic diversity and structure of the C. fumiferana midgut microbiota, using a culture-independent approach. Three diets and insect sources were examined: larvae from a laboratory colony reared on a synthetic diet and field-collected larvae reared on balsam fir or black spruce foliage. Bacterial DNA from the larval midguts was extracted to amplify and sequence the V6-V8 region of the 16S rRNA gene, using the Roche 454 GS-FLX technology. Our results showed a dominance of Proteobacteria, mainly Pseudomonas spp., in the spruce budworm midgut, irrespective of treatment group. Taxonomic diversity of the midgut microbiota was greater for larvae reared on synthetic diet than for those collected and reared on host plants, a difference that is likely accounted for by several factors. A greater proportion of bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes in insects fed artificial diet constituted the main difference between this group and those reared on foliage; within the phylum Proteobacteria, the presence of the genus Bradyrhizobium was also unique to insects reared on artificial diet. Strikingly, a Bray-Curtis analysis showed important differences in microbial diversity among the treatment groups, pointing to the importance of diet and environment in defining the spruce budworm midgut microbiota. PMID:26636571

  17. Composition of the Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) Midgut Microbiota as Affected by Rearing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Mathieu; Comeau, André M.; Derome, Nicolas; Cusson, Michel; Levesque, Roger C.

    2015-01-01

    The eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is one of the most destructive forest insect pests in Canada. Little is known about its intestinal microbiota, which could play a role in digestion, immune protection, communication and/or development. The present study was designed to provide a first characterization of the effects of rearing conditions on the taxonomic diversity and structure of the C. fumiferana midgut microbiota, using a culture-independent approach. Three diets and insect sources were examined: larvae from a laboratory colony reared on a synthetic diet and field-collected larvae reared on balsam fir or black spruce foliage. Bacterial DNA from the larval midguts was extracted to amplify and sequence the V6-V8 region of the 16S rRNA gene, using the Roche 454 GS-FLX technology. Our results showed a dominance of Proteobacteria, mainly Pseudomonas spp., in the spruce budworm midgut, irrespective of treatment group. Taxonomic diversity of the midgut microbiota was greater for larvae reared on synthetic diet than for those collected and reared on host plants, a difference that is likely accounted for by several factors. A greater proportion of bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes in insects fed artificial diet constituted the main difference between this group and those reared on foliage; within the phylum Proteobacteria, the presence of the genus Bradyrhizobium was also unique to insects reared on artificial diet. Strikingly, a Bray-Curtis analysis showed important differences in microbial diversity among the treatment groups, pointing to the importance of diet and environment in defining the spruce budworm midgut microbiota. PMID:26636571

  18. Enduring effects of post-weaning rearing condition on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and motor activity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Mosaferi, Belal; Babri, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Hadi; Mohaddes, Gisou

    2015-04-01

    Environmental manipulation at early critical periods could have long-lasting effects. In spite of the great interest in the biological effects of the environmental condition so far, its long-lasting effects are less documented. This study looks at the enduring effects of rearing condition on tasks that measure affective responses and exploratory behavior in male Wistar rats. The animals were reared from weaning to adulthood in an enriched environment, standard laboratory condition, or isolated condition. Then, all rats were housed in standard laboratory cages to provide a common environment, and successively exposed to different tests between 0 and 11 weeks post-manipulation. The open field test indicated a more efficient exploratory behavior in the enriched group, and an enhanced spontaneous motor activity in both standard and isolated groups. In addition, rats reared in standard condition showed heightened motor activity in forced swimming test and elevated plus maze. Forced swimming test showed an antidepressive-like effect in the enriched environment group by increased climbing behavior. In respect to the anxiety behavior, environmental enrichment improved threat detection ability. It is concluded that rearing condition from weaning to adulthood has important and long-lasting effects on depressive- and anxiety-like and exploratory behaviors as well as motor activity.

  19. Novel neural correlates of operant conditioning in normal and differentially reared Lymnaea.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdullah M; Spencer, Gaynor E

    2009-04-01

    The aerial respiratory behaviour of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis is an important homeostatic behaviour that can be operantly conditioned. The central pattern generator underlying this behaviour, as well as motorneurons innervating the respiratory orifice, the pneumostome, have been identified and their activity can be monitored in the semi-intact preparation using electrophysiological recordings. In this study, we used both intact animals and semi-intact preparations to identify novel changes in the respiratory central pattern generator following operant conditioning. In addition, we reared animals in the absence of this respiratory behaviour throughout development, to investigate whether previous experience and activity-dependent plasticity during development are essential to allow neural plasticity in the adult. We found that animals raised normally (allowed to perform aerial respiratory behaviour) exhibited the expected reduction in aerial respiratory behaviour following operant conditioning. Then, using the semi-intact preparation, we identified novel neural changes within the network as a result of the conditioning. These included specific changes at the level of the central pattern generator interneurons, as well as the motor output. In the differentially reared intact animals, there was no behavioural reduction as a result of operant conditioning, although their baseline respiratory behaviour was already significantly reduced as a result of their differential rearing. There were, however, significant differences found in the network parameters in the semi-intact preparation, similar to those observed in normally reared animals. We thus provide evidence for neural plasticity within the network in the absence of significant behavioural changes in differentially reared animals, and show that plasticity was not dependent on previous activity of the network during development.

  20. Microbial associates of the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under different rearing conditions.

    PubMed

    Iasur-Kruh, Lilach; Taha-Salaime, Leena; Robinson, Wyatt E; Sharon, Rakefet; Droby, Samir; Perlman, Steve J; Zchori-Fein, Einat

    2015-01-01

    Sap-feeding insects harbor diverse microbial endosymbionts that play important roles in host ecology and evolution, including contributing to host pest status. The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus, is a serious pest of grapevines, vectoring a number of pathogenic grape viruses. Previous studies have shown that virus transmission is abolished when mealybugs are raised in the laboratory on potato. To examine the possible role of microbial symbionts in virus transmission, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of field and laboratory P. ficus were characterized using molecular and classical microbiological methods. Lab and field colonies of P. ficus harbored different microbiota. While both were dominated by the bacterial obligate nutritional symbionts Moranella and Tremblaya, field samples also harbored a third bacterium that was allied with cluster L, a lineage of bacterial symbionts previously identified in aphids. Archaea were not found in any of the samples. Fungal communities in field-collected mealybugs were dominated by Metschnikowia and Cladosporium species, while those from laboratory-reared mealybugs were dominated by Alternaria and Cladosporium species. In conclusion, this study has identified a diverse set of microbes, most of which appear to be facultatively associated with P. ficus, depending on environmental conditions. The role of various members of the mealybug microbiome, as well as how the host plant affects microbial community structure, remains to be determined.

  1. Do captive conditions favor shedding of parasites in the reared Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus)?

    PubMed

    Mladineo, I; Segvić, T; Petrić, M

    2011-01-01

    Tuna (Thunnus spp.) has been characterized by long distance migrations, highly predatory behavior and longevity, all of which in turn, enable infections with a wide spectrum of different parasitic groups, reflecting in a remarkable diversity of tuna parasite communities. Since 2003, we have been monitoring parasite communities of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) that are caught from the wild and transferred into cages during spring-summer months, as well as assemblages in fish that exit rearing cycle during the winter harvest period after 1.5 years. Interestingly in reared tuna, parasitic populations exhibit a significant decreasing trend at the end of the rearing cycle, rarely observed in other intensive productions that represent a suitable environment for the emergence, establishment and transmission of pathogens. In order to assess epizootiological behavior of tuna parasites assemblages at the beginning (B group) and at the end (A group) of 1.5 year rearing cycle, we examined data on parasite prevalence and abundance over 4 years. The aim was to evaluate parasite diversity indices and emerging differences between newly caught and harvested fish, as well as community compositions and their nestedness in respect to the event in the rearing cycle (capture or harvest time). In order to be able to predict classification of tuna in two categories (newly caught or heavily infected and harvested or less infected fish), based on empirical didymozoids abundances and year of sampling, we built a decision tree model. Results suggest that specificities of parasite assemblages and their dynamics in tuna before and after farming have no similar precedents in aquaculture. A trend of parasitic pauperization repeating in each rearing cycle over four-years time, in once diverse and species rich parasite communities is observed, however, structures of both B and A group rearing assemblages remain nested, with the same species being core parasites (Didymosulcus katsuwonicola

  2. Genetic and environmental influences on applied creativity: A reared-apart twin study

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez, Jaime A.; Segal, Nancy L.; Horwitz, Briana N.

    2015-01-01

    Applied creativity involves bringing innovation to real-life activities. The first reared-apart twin study assessing genetic and environmental origins of applied creativity, via Draw-a-House (DAH) and Draw-a-Person (DAP) tasks, is presented. Participants included 69 MZA and 53 DZA twin pairs from the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. Drawings were evaluated by four artists and four non-artists. Genetic effects were demonstrated for the DAP (.38–.47), but not for the DAH. Creative personality showed genetic effects (.50), and modest, but significant correlations with scores on the two drawings (rs = .17–.26). Both genetic and nonshared environmental influences underlie variance in applied creativity. Individuals concerned with enhancing creativity among students and others may better understand individual differences in performance and training. PMID:26366030

  3. Effects of early rearing conditions on problem-solving skill in captive male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Morimura, Naruki; Mori, Yusuke

    2010-06-01

    Early rearing conditions of captive chimpanzees characterize behavioral differences in tool use, response to novelty, and sexual and maternal competence later in life. Restricted rearing conditions during early life hinder the acquisition and execution of such behaviors, which characterize the daily life of animals. This study examined whether rearing conditions affect adult male chimpanzees' behavior skills used for solving a problem with acquired locomotion behavior. Subjects were 13 male residents of the Chimpanzee Sanctuary Uto: 5 wild-born and 8 captive-born. A pretest assessed bed building and tool use abilities to verify behavioral differences between wild- and captive-born subjects, as earlier reports have described. Second, a banana-access test was conducted to investigate the problem-solving ability of climbing a bamboo pillar for accessing a banana, which might be the most efficient food access strategy for this setting. The test was repeated in a social setting. Results show that wild-born subjects were better able than captive-born subjects to use the provided materials for bed building and tool use. Results of the banana-access test show that wild-born subjects more frequently used a bamboo pillar for obtaining a banana with an efficient strategy than captive-born subjects did. Of the eight captive-born subjects, six avoided the bamboo pillars to get a banana and instead used, sometimes in a roundabout way, an iron pillar or fence. Results consistently underscored the adaptive and sophisticated skills of wild-born male chimpanzees in problem-solving tasks. The rearing conditions affected both the behavior acquisition and the execution of behaviors that had already been acquired.

  4. Management of Cattle Exposed to Adverse Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, Terry L; Griffin, Dee

    2015-07-01

    During periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort and performance are compromised. Use of alternative supplementation programs need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals reared outside during winter, strategies that increase animal space and environmental buffers need to be used to minimize effects of mud, wet conditions, and windchill. There are ample opportunities for livestock producers to enhance animal welfare and minimize the impact of environmental stress.

  5. Management of Cattle Exposed to Adverse Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, Terry L; Griffin, Dee

    2015-07-01

    During periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort and performance are compromised. Use of alternative supplementation programs need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals reared outside during winter, strategies that increase animal space and environmental buffers need to be used to minimize effects of mud, wet conditions, and windchill. There are ample opportunities for livestock producers to enhance animal welfare and minimize the impact of environmental stress. PMID:26139190

  6. Environmentally enriched male mink gain more copulations than stereotypic, barren-reared competitors.

    PubMed

    Díez-León, María; Bowman, Jeff; Bursian, Steve; Filion, Hélène; Galicia, David; Kanefsky, Jeannette; Napolitano, Angelo; Palme, Rupert; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht; Scribner, Kim; Mason, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing) environmental enrichments enhances male carnivores' copulatory performance: in mate choice competitions, enriched male American mink (Neovison vison) mated more often than non-enriched males. We screened for several potential mediators of this effect. First was physiological stress and its impact on reproductive physiology; second, stress-mediated changes in morphology and variables related to immunocompetence that could influence male attractiveness; and third, behavioural changes likely to affect social competence, particularly autistic-like excessive routine and repetition ('perseveration') as is reflected in the stereotypies common in captive animals. Consistent with physiological stress, excreted steroid metabolites revealed that non-enriched males had higher cortisol levels and lower androgen levels than enriched conspecifics. Their os penises (bacula) also tended to be less developed. Consistent with reduced attractiveness, non-enriched males were lighter, with comparatively small spleens and a trend to greater fluctuating asymmetry. Consistent with impaired social competence, non-enriched males performed more stereotypic behaviour (e.g., pacing) in their home cages. Of all these effects, the only significant predictor of copulation number was stereotypy (a trend suggesting that low bodyweights may also be influential): highly stereotypic males gained the fewest copulations. The neurophysiological changes underlying stereotypy thus handicap males sexually. We hypothesise that

  7. Environmentally Enriched Male Mink Gain More Copulations than Stereotypic, Barren-Reared Competitors

    PubMed Central

    Díez-León, María; Bowman, Jeff; Bursian, Steve; Filion, Hélène; Galicia, David; Kanefsky, Jeannette; Napolitano, Angelo; Palme, Rupert; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht; Scribner, Kim; Mason, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing) environmental enrichments enhances male carnivores' copulatory performance: in mate choice competitions, enriched male American mink (Neovison vison) mated more often than non-enriched males. We screened for several potential mediators of this effect. First was physiological stress and its impact on reproductive physiology; second, stress-mediated changes in morphology and variables related to immunocompetence that could influence male attractiveness; and third, behavioural changes likely to affect social competence, particularly autistic-like excessive routine and repetition (‘perseveration’) as is reflected in the stereotypies common in captive animals. Consistent with physiological stress, excreted steroid metabolites revealed that non-enriched males had higher cortisol levels and lower androgen levels than enriched conspecifics. Their os penises (bacula) also tended to be less developed. Consistent with reduced attractiveness, non-enriched males were lighter, with comparatively small spleens and a trend to greater fluctuating asymmetry. Consistent with impaired social competence, non-enriched males performed more stereotypic behaviour (e.g., pacing) in their home cages. Of all these effects, the only significant predictor of copulation number was stereotypy (a trend suggesting that low bodyweights may also be influential): highly stereotypic males gained the fewest copulations. The neurophysiological changes underlying stereotypy thus handicap males sexually. We hypothesise

  8. Biometric and metabolic profiles associated to different rearing conditions in offshore farmed gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    Melis, Riccardo; Anedda, Roberto

    2014-06-01

    Modern multivariate methods are applied to both biometric measurements and NMR metabolic profiling of fillet to discriminate farmed gilthead sea bream reared in different farming conditions. Two fish groups having the same average size, from the same farm, were caught in May and October. Biometric data demonstrate that condition factor is higher for the leaner fish, sampled in May, while liver somatic index is lower in fish sampled in October. Biometric features are related to metabolic changes that involve lipid storage from May to September, and their mobilization from muscle and liver during prespawning season (September, October). Structural phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine) and essential fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) characterize the lipid profile of the May catch, while triglycerides, monounsaturated and diunsaturated fatty acids, likely from absorption of vegetable oil components of feeds, suggest fish fattening in the warm season and discriminate fish caught in October. Among polar metabolites, taurine, glutamine, glycine, alanine, and creatine/phosphocreatine confirm their role as good biomarkers for the discrimination among fish produced in different farming conditions, especially involving feed digestion and metabolism, chronic stress, and alteration of energetic balance in cage-reared fish. Qualitative traits of farmed fish are therefore the result of a complex combination of environmental factors and farming practices, which should be analyzed to increase consumers' and farmers' awareness.

  9. Dynamics of genetic variability in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) during adaptation to laboratory rearing conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anastrepha fraterculus is one of the most important fruit fly plagues in the American continent and only chemical control is applied in the field to diminish its population densities. A better understanding of the genetic variability during the introduction and adaptation of wild A. fraterculus populations to laboratory conditions is required for the development of stable and vigorous experimental colonies and mass-reared strains in support of successful Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) efforts. Methods The present study aims to analyze the dynamics of changes in genetic variability during the first six generations under artificial rearing conditions in two populations: a) a wild population recently introduced to laboratory culture, named TW and, b) a long-established control line, named CL. Results Results showed a declining tendency of genetic variability in TW. In CL, the relatively high values of genetic variability appear to be maintained across generations and could denote an intrinsic capacity to avoid the loss of genetic diversity in time. Discussion The impact of evolutionary forces on this species during the adaptation process as well as the best approach to choose strategies to introduce experimental and mass-reared A. fraterculus strains for SIT programs are discussed. PMID:25471362

  10. The Rearing and Biology of the Desert Beetle, Microdera punctipennis, Under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Xiaoning; Zhao, Jia; Rexili, Kelaimu; Ma, Ji

    2011-01-01

    Microdera punctipennis Kasz (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is a unique species that lives in the desert region of Central Asia and has adopted a nocturnal habit to survive the desert environment. Female adults are larger in size than male adults. The female/male ratio was 1.04:1. A rearing method using reused plastic bottles was used. The rearing conditions were 30 ± 0.5°C, 30 ± 6% relative humidity (RH), and 16:8 L:D photoperiod. Cabbage was provided as food. Cannibalism was avoided by rearing one larva in a bottle. A complete life cycle was obtained under these conditions. The viability of eggs, larvae, prepupae, pupae, and teneral adults was 93.54%, 83.71%, 84.76%, 87.64%, and 93.59%, respectively. Embryogenesis took 7.35 days on average. The larval duration in each instar was 2.25 days. The mean duration of the larvae, prepupae, pupae, and teneral adult was 49.27, 7.05, 9.95, and 10.12 days, respectively. The coloration of each developmental stage gradually changed from creamy white to light brownish or black. Females commenced oviposition when their body color became black. On average, each female produced 568 eggs. PMID:21529250

  11. Rearing the Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster Under Axenic and Gnotobiotic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Koyle, Melinda L; Veloz, Madeline; Judd, Alec M; Wong, Adam C-N; Newell, Peter D; Douglas, Angela E; Chaston, John M

    2016-01-01

    The influence of microbes on myriad animal traits and behaviors has been increasingly recognized in recent years. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a model for understanding microbial interactions with animal hosts, facilitated by approaches to rear large sample sizes of Drosophila under microorganism-free (axenic) conditions, or with defined microbial communities (gnotobiotic). This work outlines a method for collection of Drosophila embryos, hypochlorite dechorionation and sterilization, and transfer to sterile diet. Sterilized embryos are transferred to sterile diet in 50 ml centrifuge tubes, and developing larvae and adults remain free of any exogenous microbes until the vials are opened. Alternatively, flies with a defined microbiota can be reared by inoculating sterile diet and embryos with microbial species of interest. We describe the introduction of 4 bacterial species to establish a representative gnotobiotic microbiota in Drosophila. Finally, we describe approaches for confirming bacterial community composition, including testing if axenic Drosophila remain bacteria-free into adulthood. PMID:27500374

  12. Genetic parameters for milk fatty acids, milk yield and quality traits of a Holstein cattle population reared under tropical conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information about genetic parameters is essential for selection decisions and genetic evaluation. Those estimates are population specific, but few studies are available for dairy cattle populations reared under tropical and subtropical conditions. Heritability and genetic correlations for milk yield...

  13. Impaired extinction of fear conditioning after REM deprivation is magnified by rearing in an enriched environment.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Amy Silvestri

    2015-07-01

    Evidence from both human and animal studies indicates that rapid eye movement sleep (REM) is essential for the acquisition and retention of information, particularly of an emotional nature. Learning and memory can also be impacted by manipulation of housing condition such as exposure to an enriched environment (EE). This study investigated the effects of REM deprivation and EE, both separately and combined, on the extinction of conditioned fear in rats. Consistent with prior studies, conditioning was enhanced in EE-reared rats and extinction was impaired in REM deprived rats. In addition, rats exposed to both REM deprivation and EE showed the greatest impairment in extinction, with effects persisting through the first two days of extinction training. This study is the first to explore the combination of REM deprivation and EE and suggests that manipulations that alter sleep, particularly REM, can have persisting deleterious effects on emotional memory processing.

  14. Relationship of climatic conditions to fecal corticosterone levels of captive cheetahs reared in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uetake, Katsuji; Une, Yumi; Ito, Shu; Yamabe, Marino; Toyoda, Hideto; Tanaka, Toshio

    2014-10-01

    To assess the stress level of cheetahs reared in Japan and to identify the prime components of the climatic conditions that affect their thermal stress, fecal corticosterone was monitored for 8 months from May to the following January. A total of 203 fecal samples were gathered in the morning from seven adult cheetahs that were kept at a zoological garden in Wakayama, Japan. Cheetahs were on exhibit singly or together with a harmonious conspecific during the day, but housed singly at night. Although the monthly fluctuation in corticosterone concentrations was not significant, the concentrations were relatively low during the summer season. Individual differences among cheetahs and the interaction effect between individual and month on the corticosterone concentrations were significant. Whereas the corticosterone concentrations negatively correlated with air temperature, they were positively correlated with the amount of rainfall. The highest air temperature and the amount of rainfall were extracted as the prime factors affecting corticosterone concentrations. These results suggest that cheetahs reared in Japan are somewhat subjected to thermal stress, particularly on cooler and/or rainy days.

  15. Azerbaijan: environmental conditions and outlook.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Napier

    2003-06-01

    The author describes present environmental conditions in Azerbaijan in relation to the Soviet legacy and measures taken since independence. Environmental projects have been financed largely by international organizations and foreign companies. The most serious problems are contaminants in the Caspian Sea; air, water, and soil pollution in Sumgait; illegal fishing; poor quality of drinking water; cutting of forests for fuel and pasture; overgrazing; and soil erosion and salinization. Progress in developing an environmental conscience, necessary for sustained protection of the environment, will depend most importantly on environmental education, growth of democratic institutions and attitudes that encourage both governmental and citizen responsibility for the environment, and economic development that produces a substantial middle class. Positive advances include a Constitution and laws that require protection of the environment, and individuals who speak out for environmental care. Negative factors include poverty and the present government's low priority for environmental protection. PMID:12956597

  16. Azerbaijan: environmental conditions and outlook.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Napier

    2003-06-01

    The author describes present environmental conditions in Azerbaijan in relation to the Soviet legacy and measures taken since independence. Environmental projects have been financed largely by international organizations and foreign companies. The most serious problems are contaminants in the Caspian Sea; air, water, and soil pollution in Sumgait; illegal fishing; poor quality of drinking water; cutting of forests for fuel and pasture; overgrazing; and soil erosion and salinization. Progress in developing an environmental conscience, necessary for sustained protection of the environment, will depend most importantly on environmental education, growth of democratic institutions and attitudes that encourage both governmental and citizen responsibility for the environment, and economic development that produces a substantial middle class. Positive advances include a Constitution and laws that require protection of the environment, and individuals who speak out for environmental care. Negative factors include poverty and the present government's low priority for environmental protection.

  17. Effects of rearing conditions on behaviour and endogenous opioids in rats with alcohol access during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Palm, Sara; Daoura, Loudin; Roman, Erika; Nylander, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Causal links between early-life stress, genes and later psychiatric diagnoses are not possible to fully address in human studies. Animal models therefore provide an important complement in which conditions can be well controlled and are here used to study and distinguish effects of early-life stress and alcohol exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour in young rats and if these changes could be followed over time and to examine interaction effects between early-life environment and adolescent alcohol drinking on behaviour and immunoreactive levels of the opioid peptides dynorphin B, met-enkephalin-Arg(6)Phe(7) and beta-endorphin. We employed a rodent model, maternal separation, to study the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour, voluntary alcohol consumption and alcohol-induced effects. The consequences of short, 15 min (MS 15), and long, 360 min (MS 360), maternal separation in combination with adolescent voluntary alcohol consumption on behaviour and peptides were examined. A difference in the development of risk taking behaviour was found between the MS15 and MS360 while the development of general activity was found to differ between intake groups. Beta-endorphin levels in the pituitary and the periaqueductal gray area was found to be higher in the MS15 than the MS360. Adolescent drinking resulted in higher dynorphin B levels in the hippocampus and higher met-enkephalin-Arg(6)Phe(7) levels in the amygdala. Amygdala and hippocampus are involved in addiction processes and changes in these brain areas after adolescent alcohol drinking may have consequences for cognitive function and drug consumption behaviour in adulthood. The study shows that individual behavioural profiling over time in combination with neurobiological investigations provides means for studies of causality between early-life stress, behaviour and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. PMID:24098535

  18. Effects of Rearing Conditions on Behaviour and Endogenous Opioids in Rats with Alcohol Access during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Erika; Nylander, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Causal links between early-life stress, genes and later psychiatric diagnoses are not possible to fully address in human studies. Animal models therefore provide an important complement in which conditions can be well controlled and are here used to study and distinguish effects of early-life stress and alcohol exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour in young rats and if these changes could be followed over time and to examine interaction effects between early-life environment and adolescent alcohol drinking on behaviour and immunoreactive levels of the opioid peptides dynorphin B, met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 and beta-endorphin. We employed a rodent model, maternal separation, to study the impact of rearing conditions on behaviour, voluntary alcohol consumption and alcohol-induced effects. The consequences of short, 15 min (MS 15), and long, 360 min (MS 360), maternal separation in combination with adolescent voluntary alcohol consumption on behaviour and peptides were examined. A difference in the development of risk taking behaviour was found between the MS15 and MS360 while the development of general activity was found to differ between intake groups. Beta-endorphin levels in the pituitary and the periaqueductal gray area was found to be higher in the MS15 than the MS360. Adolescent drinking resulted in higher dynorphin B levels in the hippocampus and higher met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 levels in the amygdala. Amygdala and hippocampus are involved in addiction processes and changes in these brain areas after adolescent alcohol drinking may have consequences for cognitive function and drug consumption behaviour in adulthood. The study shows that individual behavioural profiling over time in combination with neurobiological investigations provides means for studies of causality between early-life stress, behaviour and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. PMID:24098535

  19. Rearing Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) brood under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Silva, I C; Message, D; Cruz, C D; Campos, L A O; Sousa-Majer, M J

    2009-01-01

    We developed a method for rearing larvae of Africanized bees under laboratory conditions to determine the amount of diet needed during larval development to obtain a worker bee. We started with larvae 18-24 h old, which were transferred to polyethylene cell cups and fed for five days. We found that the amount of diet needed for successful larval development was: 4, 15, 25, 50, and 70 microl during the first to fifth days, respectively. The survival rate to the adult stage was 88.6% when the larvae received the daily amount of diet divided into two feedings, and 80% when they received only one feeding per day. The adult weight obtained in the laboratory, when the larvae received the daily amount of diet in a single dose, did not differ from those that were developed under field conditions (our control). All adults that we obtained in laboratory appeared to be normal. This technique has the potential to facilitate studies on brood pathogens, resistance mechanisms to diseases and also might be useful to test the impacts of transgenic products on honey bee brood. PMID:19551650

  20. Growth and physiological condition of black ducks reared on acidified wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Haramis, G.M.; Chu, D.S.; Bunck, C.M.; Scanes, C.G.

    1987-01-01

    Acid deposition has been identified as one of several possible factors contributing to the decline of some waterfowl populations in North America. In an effort to examine the effects of acidification on black duck (Anas rubripes) recruitment, growth and physiological condition were monitored in ducklings foraging for a 10-day trial (days 10-20 of life) on acidified (pH 5.0) and : circumneutral (pH 6.8) fish-free emergent wetlands. Acidification of these wetlands suppressed phytoplankton and algal growth, and reduced invertebrate biomass. Ducklings maintained on acidified wetlands grew poorly compared with ducklings reared on circumneutral wetlands, as evidenced by lower final body weight and culmen and tarsus length. Plasma growth hormone concentration was elevated and triiodothyronine levels were lower in stunted ducklings, in part substantiating impairment of growth-regulating processes. Ducklings exhibiting poor growth tended to have lower hematocrit, lower plasma protein, glucose, and cholesterol concentrations, and higher uric acid levels, presumably reflecting alterations in metabolism and development due to inanition. These findings suggest that acid deposition may lower food production in wetlands and ultimately impair duckling growth, condition, and survival.

  1. Genetic and environmental mediation between measures of personality and family environment in twins reared together.

    PubMed

    Kandler, Christian; Riemann, Rainer; Kämpfe, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the etiology of the relationship between personality traits and retrospectively recalled family environment. The data of 226 identical and 168 fraternal twin pairs reared together from the Jena twin study of social attitudes were available. Personality traits were measured using the self- and peer report versions of the German NEO-personality inventory-revised. A German version of Blocks Environmental Questionnaire was applied to measure two broad dimensions of the family environment retrospectively: support and organization. We could replicate earlier findings that retrospective reports of these family environment dimensions were in part genetically influenced. A total of 66% of the genetic variance in support and 24% in organization could be accounted for by heritable variance in self-rated personality. That was replicated by using peer reports of personality, 41% explained genetic variance in support and 17% in organization. Environmental mediations were negligible. This indicates that the relationship between personality and retrospectively recalled family environment is largely genetically mediated.

  2. Rearing conditions and domestication background determine regulation of hippocampal cell proliferation and survival in adulthood-laboratory CD1 and C57Bl/6 mice versus wild house mice.

    PubMed

    Schaefers, A T U

    2013-01-01

    Brain development is sensitive to an individual's interaction with its environment. Deprivation of natural environmental stimulation especially in the phase after weaning has long-lasting consequences on neuroplasticity. However, previous findings concerning the effects of rearing environment on adult hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis in rodents remain contradictory. To address the question, whether the variability of hippocampal plasticity in response to environmental conditions is a unique feature at least in mice, the present study examined the effects of social and physical deprivation during brain development on hippocampal cell production and survival in adults of three mouse strains (Mus musculus) with different domestication background: outbred CD1, inbred C57Bl/6 and the F2-descendants of wild-caught house mice. Wheel running increased cell proliferation rates in the dentate gyrus of CD1 and C57Bl/6 mice reared under socially and physically deprived conditions, but not from enriched conditions. In wild house mice, neither the rearing conditions nor the wheel-running challenge did affect proliferative activity. This indicates, on the one hand, that wild house mice are more robust in their regulation of hippocampal cell proliferation against environmental influences and, on the other hand, that domestication and rearing background of laboratory animals impact neuroplastic potentials and responsiveness to external stimuli in adulthood.

  3. Oxidative Stress in Early Life: Associations with Sex, Rearing Conditions, and Parental Physiological Traits in Nestling Pied Flycatchers.

    PubMed

    López-Arrabé, Jimena; Cantarero, Alejandro; Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Palma, Antonio; Moreno, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Conditions experienced during juvenile development can affect the fitness of an organism. During early life, oxidative stress levels can be particularly high as a result of the increased metabolism and the relatively immature antioxidant system of the individual, and this may have medium- and long-term fitness consequences. Here we explore variation in levels of oxidative stress measured during early life in relation to sex, rearing conditions (hatching date and brood size), and parental condition and levels of oxidative markers in a wild population of the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) followed for 2 yr. A marker of total antioxidant status (TAS) in plasma and total levels of glutathione (GSH) in red blood cells, as well as a marker of oxidative damage in plasma lipids (malondialdehyde [MDA]), were assessed simultaneously. Our results show that nestling total GSH levels were associated with parental oxidative status, correlating negatively with maternal MDA and positively with total GSH levels of both parents, with a high estimated heritability. This suggests that parental physiology and genes could be determinants for endogenous components of the antioxidant system of the offspring. Moreover, we found that total GSH levels were higher in female than in male nestlings and that hatching date was positively associated with antioxidant defenses (higher TAS and total GSH levels). These results suggest that different components of oxidative balance are related to a variety of environmental and intrinsic--including parental--influencing factors. Future experimental studies must disentangle the relative contribution of each of these on nestling oxidative status and how the resulting oxidative stress at early phases shape adult phenotype and fitness.

  4. Animal performance and meat characteristics in steers reared in intensive conditions fed with different vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Castro, T; Cabezas, A; De la Fuente, J; Isabel, B; Manso, T; Jimeno, V

    2016-03-01

    Enhancing the quality of beef meat is an important goal in terms of improving both the nutritional value for the consumer and the commercial value for producers. The aim of this work was to study the effects of different vegetable oil supplements on growth performance, carcass quality and meat quality in beef steers reared under intensive conditions. A total of 240 Blonde D' Aquitaine steers (average BW=293.7±38.88 kg) were grouped into 24 batches (10 steers/batch) and were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments (eight batches per treatment), each supplemented with either 4% hydrogenated palm oil (PALM) or fatty acids (FAs) from olive oil (OLI) or soybean oil (SOY). No differences in growth performance or carcass quality were observed. For the meat quality analysis, a steer was randomly selected from each batch and the 6th rib on the left half of the carcass was dissected. PALM meat had the highest percentage of 16:0 (P<0.05) and the lowest n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio (P<0.05), OLI had the highest content of t11-18:1 (P<0.01) and c9,t11-18:2 (P<0.05) and SOY showed the lowest value of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (P<0.001), the highest percentage of PUFA (P<0.01) and a lower index of atherogenicity (P=0.07) than PALM. No significant differences in the sensory characteristics of the meat were noted. However, the results of the principal component analysis of meat characteristics enabled meat from those steers that consumed fatty acids from olive oil to be differentiated from that of steers that consumed soybean oil.

  5. Inhibition of anandamide hydrolysis dampens the neuroendocrine response to stress in neonatal rats subjected to suboptimal rearing conditions.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Ryan Joseph; Verlezza, Silvanna; Gray, Jennifer Megan; Hill, Matthew Nicholas; Walker, Claire-Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress during early development can exert profound effects on the maturation of the neuroendocrine stress axis. The endocannabinoid (ECB) system has recently surfaced as a fundamental component of the neuroendocrine stress response; however, the effect of early-life stress on neonatal ECB signaling and the capacity to which ECB enhancement may modulate neonatal stress responses is relatively unknown. The present study assessed whether exposure to early-life stress in the form of limited access to nesting/bedding material (LB) from postnatal (PND) day 2 to 9 alters neuroendocrine activity and hypothalamic ECB content in neonatal rats challenged with a novel immobilization stressor. Furthermore, we examined whether inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for the degradation of anandamide (AEA) affects neuroendocrine responses in PND10 pups as a function of rearing conditions. Neonatal rats showed a robust increase in corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) secretion in response to immobilization stress, which was significantly blunted in pups reared in LB conditions. Accordingly, LB pups exhibited reduced stress-induced Fos immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, with no significant differences in hypothalamic ECB content. Administration of the FAAH inhibitor URB597 (0.3 mg/kg, ip) 90 min prior to immobilization stress significantly dampened stress-induced CORT release, but only in pups reared in LB conditions. These results suggest that rearing in restricted bedding conditions dampens the neuroendocrine response to stress, while augmenting AEA mitigates stress-induced alterations in glucocorticoid secretion preferentially in pups subjected to early-life stress.

  6. Genetic and environmental contributions to population group differences on the Raven's Progressive Matrices estimated from twins reared together and apart.

    PubMed

    Rushton, J Philippe; Bons, Trudy Ann; Vernon, Philip A; Cvorović, Jelena

    2007-07-22

    We carried out two studies to test the hypothesis that genetic and environmental influences explain population group differences in general mental ability just as they do individual differences within a group. We estimated the heritability and environmentality of scores on the diagrammatic puzzles of the Raven's Coloured and/or Standard Progressive Matrices (CPM/SPM) from two independent twin samples and correlated these estimates with group differences on the same items. In Study 1, 199 pairs of 5- to 7-year-old monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins reared together provided estimates of heritability and environmentality for 36 puzzles from the CPM. These estimates correlated with the differences between the twins and 94 Serbian Roma (both rs=0.32; Ns=36; ps<0.05). In Study 2, 152 pairs of adult MZ and DZ twins reared apart provided estimates of heritability and environmentality for 58 puzzles from the SPM. These estimates correlated with the differences among 11 diverse samples including (i) the reared-apart twins, (ii) another sample of Serbian Roma, and (iii) East Asian, White, South Asian, Coloured and Black high school and university students in South Africa. In 55 comparisons, group differences were more pronounced on the more heritable and on the more environmental items (mean rs=0.40 and 0.47, respectively; Ns=58; ps<0.05). After controlling for measurement reliability and variance in item pass rates, the heritabilities still correlated with the group differences, although the environmentalities did not. Puzzles found relatively difficult (or easy) by the twins were those found relatively difficult (or easy) by the others (mean r=0.87). These results suggest that population group differences are part of the normal variation expected within a universal human cognition. PMID:17504738

  7. Different effects of an extended photoperiod treatment on growth, gonadal function, and condition of hair coats in Thoroughbred yearlings reared under different climate conditions

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Tsuyoshi; MIZUKAMI, Hirotoshi; NAMBO, Yasuo; ISHIMARU, Mutsuki; MIYATA, Kenji; AKIYAMA, Kentaro; KOROSUE, Kenji; NAITO, Hiroshi; NAGAOKA, Kentaro; WATANABE, Gen; TAYA, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT One- to two-year-old Thoroughbred colts and fillies being reared in Miyazaki (warm climate) and Hidaka (cold climate), Japan, were administered extended photoperiod (EP) treatment between December 20 and the following April 10, and its effect on growth, endocrine changes, gonadal activation, and hair coat condition was investigated. In colts reared in Miyazaki, no effect of EP treatment was noted on the growth indices, including body weight (BW), height at withers (HW), girth, and cannon circumference (CC), whereas the BWs and CCs of fillies were significantly higher in the EP treatment group than the control. In Hidaka, the BWs and HWs of colts and HWs of fillies were significantly higher in the EP treatment group. Gonadal activation characterized by an increase in circulating hormone concentrations was earlier in the EP treatment group for fillies reared in Miyazaki [luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone (P4), and estradiol-17β (E2)] and in colts (LH, testosterone, and E2) and fillies (LH, FSH, P4, and E2) reared in Hidaka. Regardless of sex and climate, prolactin was significantly higher in the EP treatment group, whereas insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) was not. Initial ovulation occurred before April in more of the EP treatment group than the control regardless of the climate. Molting of the hair coat, examined in March, was advanced in the EP treatment group regardless of sex and climate. These results suggest that EP treatment may promote growth and gonadal activation in fillies reared in Miyazaki and in colts and fillies reared in Hidaka and that the effect may be mediated by prolactin. PMID:26858576

  8. The Effect of Temperature and Laboratory Rearing Conditions on the Development of Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae).

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Noelia I; Visciarelli, Elena C; Centeno, Néstor D

    2016-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the life cycle of Dermestes maculatus and to establish the total developmental time and the developmental time of immature stages, in relation with six different temperatures. We also analyzed the variations in size, morphology, and other indicators of temporal variation during life cycle of D. maculatus, in relation with temperature. One hundred larvae were selected per experiment, reared individually. The remaining larvae were reared to evaluate and establish temporal variations among the instars (length, cephalic width, and dry weight). In all trials, survivorship was greater than 50% and seven larval instars were found. Data of the average developmental time of immature stages and of the total cycle, at different temperatures, are provided. This is of relevance when estimating particularly, a minimum PMI. No relation between morphometric parameters and temperature was found, suggesting that other random factors may have been involved. Thus, this indicates that the method of isomegalen diagrams could not be used for calculating PMI. PMID:26477981

  9. Environmental Conditioning of Skeletal Anomalies Typology and Frequency in Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata L., 1758) Juveniles

    PubMed Central

    Prestinicola, Loredana; Boglione, Clara; Makridis, Pavlos; Spanò, Attilio; Rimatori, Valentina; Palamara, Elisa; Scardi, Michele; Cataudella, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, 981 reared juveniles of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were analysed, 721 of which were from a commercial hatchery located in Northern Italy (Venice, Italy) and 260 from the Hellenic Center for Marine Research (Crete, Greece). These individuals were from 4 different egg batches, for a total of 10 different lots. Each egg batch was split into two lots after hatching, and reared with two different methodologies: intensive and semi-intensive. All fish were subjected to processing for skeletal anomaly and meristic count analysis. The aims involved: (1) quantitatively and qualitatively analyzing whether differences in skeletal elements arise between siblings and, if so, what they are; (2) investigating if any skeletal bone tissue/ossification is specifically affected by changing environmental rearing conditions; and (3) contributing to the identification of the best practices for gilthead seabream larval rearing in order to lower the deformity rates, without selections. The results obtained in this study highlighted that: i) in all the semi-intensive lots, the bones having intramembranous ossification showed a consistently lower incidence of anomalies; ii) the same clear pattern was not observed in the skeletal elements whose ossification process requires a cartilaginous precursor. It is thus possible to ameliorate the morphological quality (by reducing the incidence of severe skeletal anomalies and the variability in meristic counts of dermal bones) of reared seabream juveniles by lowering the stocking densities (maximum 16 larvae/L) and increasing the volume of the hatchery rearing tanks (minimum 40 m3). Feeding larvae with a wide variety of live (wild) preys seems further to improve juvenile skeletal quality. Additionally, analysis of the morphological quality of juveniles reared under two different semi-intensive conditions, Mesocosm and Large Volumes, highlighted a somewhat greater capacity of Large Volumes to significantly augment the gap with

  10. Environmental conditioning of skeletal anomalies typology and frequency in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L., 1758) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Prestinicola, Loredana; Boglione, Clara; Makridis, Pavlos; Spanò, Attilio; Rimatori, Valentina; Palamara, Elisa; Scardi, Michele; Cataudella, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, 981 reared juveniles of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were analysed, 721 of which were from a commercial hatchery located in Northern Italy (Venice, Italy) and 260 from the Hellenic Center for Marine Research (Crete, Greece). These individuals were from 4 different egg batches, for a total of 10 different lots. Each egg batch was split into two lots after hatching, and reared with two different methodologies: intensive and semi-intensive. All fish were subjected to processing for skeletal anomaly and meristic count analysis. The aims involved: (1) quantitatively and qualitatively analyzing whether differences in skeletal elements arise between siblings and, if so, what they are; (2) investigating if any skeletal bone tissue/ossification is specifically affected by changing environmental rearing conditions; and (3) contributing to the identification of the best practices for gilthead seabream larval rearing in order to lower the deformity rates, without selections. The results obtained in this study highlighted that: i) in all the semi-intensive lots, the bones having intramembranous ossification showed a consistently lower incidence of anomalies; ii) the same clear pattern was not observed in the skeletal elements whose ossification process requires a cartilaginous precursor. It is thus possible to ameliorate the morphological quality (by reducing the incidence of severe skeletal anomalies and the variability in meristic counts of dermal bones) of reared seabream juveniles by lowering the stocking densities (maximum 16 larvae/L) and increasing the volume of the hatchery rearing tanks (minimum 40 m(3)). Feeding larvae with a wide variety of live (wild) preys seems further to improve juvenile skeletal quality. Additionally, analysis of the morphological quality of juveniles reared under two different semi-intensive conditions, Mesocosm and Large Volumes, highlighted a somewhat greater capacity of Large Volumes to significantly augment the gap with

  11. Hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during early ovarian development and under dense rearing condition.

    PubMed

    Hou, Zhi-Shuai; Wen, Hai-Shen; Li, Ji-Fang; He, Feng; Li, Yun; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2016-09-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis of female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during early ovarian development and under high rearing density. Trouts were sampled from 240 (ovarian stage II) to 540 (ovarian stage IV) days following hatching (DFH) as control group (Ctrl, 4.6-31.1kg/m(3)) to determine HPG axis during early ovarian development. Trouts from the same batch of fertilized eggs were reared in two higher densities during 240-540 DFH as stocking density 1 and 2 (SD1, 6.6-40.6kg/m(3); SD2, 8.6-49.3kg/m(3)) to elucidate effects of high density on reproductive parameters. Dopamine, E2 (estradiol), 17α,20β-P (17α,20β-dihydroxy4-pregnen-3-one) and P4 (progesterone) were evaluated by radioimmunoassay or ELISA. mRNA expression of hypothalamic gnrh-1, -2 (gonadotropin-releasing hormone-1, -2), pituitary gonadotropins (fsh/lh, follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone) and their cognate receptors (fshr/lhr) in ovaries were examined by qRT-PCR. Our findings demonstrated mRNA expression of hypothalamic sgnrh-1, pituitary fsh and ovarian fshr increased in early ovarian development (360 DFH). Serum 17α,20β-P and pituitary lh mRNA expression first increased when trouts were in ovarian stage III (420 DFH). Ovaries were at different stages when reared in different densities. Long-term high density treatment (over 31.7kg/m(3)) resulted in decreased hypothalamic sgnrh-1, pituitary fsh, ovarian fshr, serum E2, and increased hypothalamus gnrh-2 and serum dopamine during vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting HPG of rainbow trout might be retarded under dense rearing condition.

  12. Hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during early ovarian development and under dense rearing condition.

    PubMed

    Hou, Zhi-Shuai; Wen, Hai-Shen; Li, Ji-Fang; He, Feng; Li, Yun; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2016-09-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis of female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during early ovarian development and under high rearing density. Trouts were sampled from 240 (ovarian stage II) to 540 (ovarian stage IV) days following hatching (DFH) as control group (Ctrl, 4.6-31.1kg/m(3)) to determine HPG axis during early ovarian development. Trouts from the same batch of fertilized eggs were reared in two higher densities during 240-540 DFH as stocking density 1 and 2 (SD1, 6.6-40.6kg/m(3); SD2, 8.6-49.3kg/m(3)) to elucidate effects of high density on reproductive parameters. Dopamine, E2 (estradiol), 17α,20β-P (17α,20β-dihydroxy4-pregnen-3-one) and P4 (progesterone) were evaluated by radioimmunoassay or ELISA. mRNA expression of hypothalamic gnrh-1, -2 (gonadotropin-releasing hormone-1, -2), pituitary gonadotropins (fsh/lh, follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone) and their cognate receptors (fshr/lhr) in ovaries were examined by qRT-PCR. Our findings demonstrated mRNA expression of hypothalamic sgnrh-1, pituitary fsh and ovarian fshr increased in early ovarian development (360 DFH). Serum 17α,20β-P and pituitary lh mRNA expression first increased when trouts were in ovarian stage III (420 DFH). Ovaries were at different stages when reared in different densities. Long-term high density treatment (over 31.7kg/m(3)) resulted in decreased hypothalamic sgnrh-1, pituitary fsh, ovarian fshr, serum E2, and increased hypothalamus gnrh-2 and serum dopamine during vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting HPG of rainbow trout might be retarded under dense rearing condition. PMID:27401261

  13. Do Environmental Similarities Explain the Similarity in Intelligence of Identical Twins Reared Apart?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Taylor (1980) claims to show that the similarity in IQ between monozygotic twins reared apart found in prior studies is due to similarity in their environments. A reanalysis using Taylor's classification of environments but an alternative IQ measure shows that his findings do not constructively replicate. (Author/RD)

  14. Effect of less intensive rearing conditions on litter characteristics, growth performance, carcase injuries and meat quality of broilers.

    PubMed

    Meluzzi, A; Fabbri, C; Folegatti, E; Sirri, F

    2008-09-01

    1. The objective was to compare the effect of two litter types (wheat straw and wood shavings) and two different rearing conditions (Treated and Control) on welfare indicators, broiler performance, carcase injuries, particularly hock and foot pad dermatitis (FPD), litter characteristics and meat quality. 2. Treated conditions were characterised by a low stocking density (11 birds/m(2)), short photoperiod (16 h light: 8 h dark) and a large amount of litter (3 to 4.5 kg/m(2), respectively, for wheat straw or wood shavings). Control conditions were a high stocking density (14 birds/m(2)), long photoperiod (23 h light:1 h dark) and small amount of litter (2.3 to 3 kg/m(2), respectively, for wheat straw or wood shavings). In addition, the effects of two widely used litter materials, wheat straw and wood shavings, were investigated. 3. The combined effects of lower stocking density, greater amount of litter material and a photoperiod similar to the natural one, reduced the occurrence of FPD in Treated groups keeping the FPD score under the European threshold. 4. Improved rearing conditions led to faster growth rate associated with inferior feed efficiency, whereas litter type exerted negligible effects on broiler performance. 5. Litter moisture content, nitrogen and ammonia released by the litter were lower in Treated groups than Control groups. The use of wood shavings resulted in lower moisture and nitrogen concentrations in the litter.

  15. Effects of fiber inclusion on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of piglets reared under optimal or poor hygienic conditions.

    PubMed

    Berrocoso, J D; Menoyo, D; Guzmán, P; Saldaña, B; Cámara, L; Mateos, G G

    2015-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of inclusion of additional fiber in the Phase I diet on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in piglets reared under "optimal" or "poor" hygienic conditions. In both experiments, the design was completely randomized with a control diet that contained 2.2% crude fiber and 8 additional isonutritive diets that included 2.5 or 5.0% of sugar beet pulp (SBP), straw, oat hulls (OH), or wheat middlings (WHM). Preplanned polynomial contrasts were used to study the effects of 1) fiber inclusion (control diet vs. average of the 8 fiber-containing diets), 2) source of fiber, 3) level of fiber, and 4) interaction between source and level of fiber. In Exp. 1 (clean barn), fiber inclusion increased ( < 0.01) the incidence of postweaning diarrhea (PWD) and reduced ( < 0.05) feed efficiency and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of all nutrients except that of CP, which was not affected. Piglet performance was not affected by source or level of dietary fiber. The ATTD of all nutrients decreased ( < 0.05) as the level of fiber increased and was lower in pigs fed straw or OH than in pigs fed SBP or WHM. The apparent ileal digestibility of GE and DM decreased ( < 0.05) with fiber inclusion, a reduction that was more pronounced ( < 0.05) with straw or SBP than with OH inclusion, with WHM inclusion being intermediate. Fiber inclusion did not affect villous height to crypt depth ratio of the ileum mucosa. The inclusion of 5% of a fiber source increased and counts in the cecum ( < 0.001) but the to ratio was not affected. In Exp. 2 (dirty barn), fiber inclusion did not affect piglet performance but tended to increase PWD ( = 0.07). Also, fiber inclusion reduced ( < 0.05) the ATTD of all dietary components except that of CP, which was not affected. Source and level of fiber did not affect ATTD of nutrients except for DM, which was greater for pigs fed SBP than for pigs fed straw ( < 0.05). In conclusion, in the current

  16. Breeding and rearing of the two striped cardinalfish, Apogon quadrifasciatus (Cuvier, 1828) in captive condition.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Ravichandran; Vijayanand, Packyaraj; Vagelli, Alejandro Alex; Murugan, Arumugam; Shanker, Selvaraju; Rajagopal, Santhanam; Balasubramanian, Thangavel

    2013-03-01

    The present study describes captive breeding, reproductive behavior and larval/juvenile rearing of Apogon quadrifasciatus. Spawning occurred 25 days after stocking in the breeding tank. Clutch size varied from 2500 to 3100. The males incubated the eggs, the incubation period was approximately five days at a mean temperature of 29 °C. The average total length of the newly hatched larvae was 2.6mm with an average mouth gape of 160 μm. Two experiments were conducted to determine the most suitable food items for the larvae. In the first (planktonic phase, day 1-13) larvae fed with copepod nauplli showed the highest survival (33%). In the second experiment (settlement phase, 14-26 days, copepod, Artemia sp. and Cyclop-Eeze), also showed that copepods were the preferred feed by the post hatching larvae. After 26 days, post hatching larvae were fed a diet that followed a protocol designed in accordance to the mouth size. Culture was maintained up to six months, and juveniles attained a maximum total length of 46.3 mm and a weight of about 3500 mg. Captive breeding and rearing of A. quadrifasciatus can help in restoring the wild populations impacted by local trawling activities as well as to supply this species to the ornamental fish trade, in a sustainable way.

  17. Spawning of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and rearing of veligers under laboratory conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1992-01-01

    The spawning cycle of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is amenable to laboratory manipulations. Techniques are presented that can be used to initiate spawning and rear veligers from fertilized egg to settlement stage. Spawning can be induced in sexually mature mussels by temperature flucuations or by the addition of ripe gametes. Embryonic survival is excellent until the straight-hinge stage when the first wave of mortality occurs, usually due to improper food. The second critical stage of development occurs just prior to settlement when mortality increases again. Veliger mortality averaged over 90% from egg to settlement. The results indicate that obtaining large numbers of veligers for laboratory experiments to be conducted year-round is difficult.

  18. Exposure to Increased Environmental Complexity during Rearing Reduces Fearfulness and Increases Use of Three-Dimensional Space in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Nordgreen, Janicke; Rodenburg, T Bas; Tahamtani, Fernanda M; Popova, Anastasija; Janczak, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of the rearing environment is important for behavioral development and fearfulness. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that laying hens reared in a complex aviary system with exposure to mild intermittent stressors would be less fearful, less sensitive to stress, and would use elevated areas of the pen more often as adults than hens reared in a barren cage environment. Laying hens (N = 160) were housed in the same rearing house; half of the birds (n = 80) in an aviary and the other half (n = 80) in cages. At 16 weeks of age, the birds were transported to the experimental facilities. Their behavior was recorded at 19 and 23 weeks of age and analyzed by analysis of variance on individual scores for a fearfulness-related principal component generated using principal component analysis. The results indicate that aviary-reared birds have lower levels of fearfulness compared with cage-reared birds both at 19 weeks and at 23 weeks of age. When comparing the response induced by initial exposure to a novel object at 19 and 23 weeks of age, more aviary-reared birds tended to fly up at 19 weeks compared to the cage-reared birds, indicating a tendency toward a more active behavioral response in the aviary-reared birds than in cage-reared birds. There was no difference between treatments in the flight response at 23 weeks. The groups did not differ in defecation frequency or the concentration of fecal corticosterone metabolites at either age. At 19 weeks, observation of the spatial distribution in the home pens indicated that more aviary-reared birds spent time on the low perch, the elevated platform, and the upper perch, compared to the cage-reared birds. However, at 23 weeks of age, these differences were no longer detected. The results of this study support the hypothesis that increased environmental complexity during rearing reduces fearfulness of adult laying hens. PMID:26973843

  19. Exposure to Increased Environmental Complexity during Rearing Reduces Fearfulness and Increases Use of Three-Dimensional Space in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Brantsæter, Margrethe; Nordgreen, Janicke; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Popova, Anastasija; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of the rearing environment is important for behavioral development and fearfulness. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that laying hens reared in a complex aviary system with exposure to mild intermittent stressors would be less fearful, less sensitive to stress, and would use elevated areas of the pen more often as adults than hens reared in a barren cage environment. Laying hens (N = 160) were housed in the same rearing house; half of the birds (n = 80) in an aviary and the other half (n = 80) in cages. At 16 weeks of age, the birds were transported to the experimental facilities. Their behavior was recorded at 19 and 23 weeks of age and analyzed by analysis of variance on individual scores for a fearfulness-related principal component generated using principal component analysis. The results indicate that aviary-reared birds have lower levels of fearfulness compared with cage-reared birds both at 19 weeks and at 23 weeks of age. When comparing the response induced by initial exposure to a novel object at 19 and 23 weeks of age, more aviary-reared birds tended to fly up at 19 weeks compared to the cage-reared birds, indicating a tendency toward a more active behavioral response in the aviary-reared birds than in cage-reared birds. There was no difference between treatments in the flight response at 23 weeks. The groups did not differ in defecation frequency or the concentration of fecal corticosterone metabolites at either age. At 19 weeks, observation of the spatial distribution in the home pens indicated that more aviary-reared birds spent time on the low perch, the elevated platform, and the upper perch, compared to the cage-reared birds. However, at 23 weeks of age, these differences were no longer detected. The results of this study support the hypothesis that increased environmental complexity during rearing reduces fearfulness of adult laying hens. PMID:26973843

  20. Environmental variability in the early rearing environment generates behaviourally flexible cod: implications for rehabilitating wild populations.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Victoria A; Salvanes, Anne G V

    2005-06-01

    The release of hatchery-reared fishes for restoring threatened and endangered populations is one of the most controversial issues in applied ecology. A central issue has been to determine whether releases cause extinction of local wild populations. This may arise either through domesticated or non-local fishes hybridizing with wild fishes, or through inappropriate behavioural interactions; for example, many hatchery fishes show exaggerated aggressive and competitive behaviour and out-compete wild counterparts. The impact of the impoverished hatchery environment in shaping behaviour is only now receiving attention. Attempts to counteract hatchery-related behavioural deficiencies have utilized intensive training programmes shortly before the fishes are released. However, we show here that simple exposure to variable spatial and foraging cues in the standard hatchery environment generates fishes with enhanced behavioural traits that are probably associated with improved survival in the wild. It appears that fishes need to experience a varying and changeable environment to learn and develop flexible behaviour. Using variable hatchery rearing environments to generate suitable phenotypes in combination with a knowledge of appropriate local genotypes, rehabilitation of wild fishes is likely to succeed, where to date it has largely failed.

  1. Rearing conditions and habitat use of white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis) in the northeastern Pacific based on otolith isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romo-Curiel, Alfonsina E.; Herzka, Sharon Z.; Sepulveda, Chugey A.; Pérez-Brunius, Paula; Aalbers, Scott A.

    2016-03-01

    White seabass, Atractoscion nobilis, is an important coastal resource throughout both California and Baja California, but whether this species comprises a single or multiple subpopulations in the northeastern Pacific is not known. The aim of this study was to infer larval rearing habitats and population structure of white seabass by sampling adults from three regions spanning a latitudinal temperature gradient and a distance of over 1000 km, and analyzing the isotopic composition (δ18O and δ13C) of otolith aragonite corresponding to the larval, juvenile and adult stages. Otolith cores revealed high isotopic variability and no significant differences among regions, suggesting overlapping rearing conditions during the larval stage, the potential for long distance dispersal or migration or selective mortality of larvae at higher temperatures. Back-calculated temperatures of aragonite precipitation derived using regional salinity-δw relationships and local salinity estimates also did not differ significantly. However, there were significant differences between the δ18O values of the first seasonal growth ring of age 0 fish as well as back-calculated aragonite precipitation temperatures, suggesting the presence of two potentially discrete subpopulations divided by Punta Eugenia (27°N) along the central Baja California peninsula. These findings are consistent with regional oceanographic patterns and are critical for understanding white seabass population structure, and provide information needed for the implementation of appropriate management strategies.

  2. Annulus formation on scales of four species of coregonids reared under artificial conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogman, Walter J.

    1968-01-01

    Scales from known-age coregonids reared in the laboratory were examined to determine when annuli formed and to learn possible factors of their formation. Scales were taken monthly from marked fish for periods up to 21 months. Scales were also examined from fish that died and from preserved specimens of young-of-the-year for each species. Two marks formed on almost all scales each calender year. The stronger formed during March-April and the weaker in October-November. Both marks had all the usual characteristics of an annulus but the spring mark was considered the annulus and the fall mark an accessory check. The annulus formed during a period of constant temperatures and of little change in growth or increasing growth. The accessory check formed during a period of declining temperatures (1-5 degrees F, or 0.6-2.8 degrees C, per month) and of little change in growth or declining growth. Most fish grew throughout the winter; the only exceptions were one bloater (Coregonus hoyi) and several of the largest lake whitefish (C. clupeaformis). Fish were always given all the food they would eat to eliminate availability of food as a factor of mark formation. The temperature of the water during the winter (50 ±. 0.3 F; 10.0 ±. 0.2 C) did not arrest metabolic activity. The growth rate was related more closely to day length than to other variables examined.

  3. The influence of cage conditioning on the performance and behavior of Japanese flounder reared for stock enhancement: Burying, feeding, and threat response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Michelle L.; Masuda, Reiji; Yamashita, Yoh

    2014-01-01

    Flatfish reared for stock enhancement often exhibit irregular behavioral patterns compared with wild conspecifics. These “deficits”, mostly attributed to the unnatural characteristics of the hatchery environment, are assumed to translate to increased predation risk. Initially releasing fish in predator-free conditioning cages may help flatfish adjust to the wild environment, establish burial skills, begin pigment change, recover from transport stress, and experience natural (live) food sources before full release into the wild. However, the impact of cage conditioning on the performance and behavior of flatfish has yet to be fully assessed. We conducted video trials with 10-cm, hatchery-reared Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, in sand-bottomed aquaria to assess four treatments of flounder: (1) reared fish cage conditioned for 7 d in the shallow coast, (2) reared fish directly from hatchery tanks, (3) wild fish, and (4) reared fish released directly from hatchery tanks into the wild and then recaptured after 6 d at large. Burying ability, predation, and threat response to a model predator were examined. Wild fish buried most, followed by cage conditioned, and released-then-recaptured and non-conditioned (directly from tank) fish. Wild and conditioned fish revealed much lower variation in total movement duration, which corresponded with lower levels and variation in prey vertical movement. Fish of all condition types exhibited a lower number of attacks and off-bottom swimming events, and a lower movement duration when the model predator was in motion versus when it was still. This study is the first to evaluate the behavioral mechanisms of hatchery-reared flatfish that have been cage-conditioned or released-then-recaptured. In addition, we provide evidence that cage conditioning can enhance the performance of released flatfish.

  4. Environmental effects on thermoregulation and breathing patterns during early postnatal development in hand-reared lambs.

    PubMed

    Symonds, M E; Andrews, D C; Buss, D S; Clarke, L; Darby, C J; Johnson, P; Lomax, M A

    1995-09-01

    This study examines the effect of hand-rearing developing lambs in a warm (WR; 25 degrees C) or cool (CR; 10-15 degrees C) ambient temperature on the control of thermoregulation and breathing patterns, when maintained at a fixed level of nutrition over the first month of postnatal life. Measurements were made during non-rapid eye movement sleep whilst lambs were maintained for at least 1 h at warm (28-19 degrees C) and cold (14-5 degrees C) ambient temperatures at 1, 7, 14 and 30 days of age. All lambs were able to maintain normal body temperature, but oxygen consumption was higher in CR lambs at 14 and 30 days of age. At 1 day of age shivering was rarely observed in any lambs, but at 7 and 14 days of age more WR than CR lambs responded to cold exposure via shivering. Plasma concentrations of triiodothyronine were higher at 7 and 14 days of age in CR lambs. Breathing frequencies were similar in WR and CR lambs, and from 7 days of age the incidence of expiratory laryngeal braking was higher in warm compared with cold study temperatures. By 30 days of age the recruitment of this mechanism was greater in CR lambs. Mean growth rate was slower over the first week of postnatal life in CR compared with WR lambs. This difference decreased over the first month of life, as growth rate increased from 83 to 130 g day-1 in the CR group but remained constant at approximately 150 g day-1 in the WR lambs. Total weight of the lungs and heart, but not the liver, were lower at 1 month but not at 1 week of postnatal life in CR lambs. It is concluded that a modest decrease in the ambient temperature in which postnatal lambs are reared, when on a fixed feed intake, alters lung size, the recruitment of laryngeal braking and the control of body temperature.

  5. Effects of rearing conditions, geographical origin, and selection on larval diapause in the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed

    Wijayaratne, Leanage K W; Fields, Paul G

    2012-01-01

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a serious insect pest of stored products, and its late-instar larvae diapause as pre-pupae. Diapause induction in P. interpunctella was investigated for four populations obtained from Modesto, California, U.S.A.; Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; and two locations from Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Insects were reared at 25° C and 16:8 L:D for 9 days. The larvae were then either continuously maintained under those conditions or transferred to 25° C 8:16 L:D, 20° C 16:8 L:D, or 20° C 8:16 L:D, and the percent diapause was recorded. In the experiment with four populations, the highest diapause frequency was observed at 20° C 8:16 L:D. The two Winnipeg populations had significantly higher frequency of diapause than the California populations, indicating the increased frequency of diapause in populations from higher latitudes. In a second experiment, the Vancouver population was selected for diapause. Larvae were reared at 25° C 16:8 L:D for 9 days, then placed at 20° C 8:16 L:D for the rest of their development, and percent diapause was determined. Eggs laid by moths that completed diapause in this first (parental) generation were used to obtain a second generation (F1), and the experiment was repeated as in the first generation. Selection increased the frequency of diapause to 91%, compared to 26% in the unselected population, after selecting over two generations. The narrow sense heritability of selection in P. interpunctella was 0.39 in the first selection, and 0.82 in the second. This study has shown that both low temperature and short photoperiod are required to induce diapause in North American populations of P. interpunctella, and that selection can increase diapause in a few generations.

  6. Effects of Rearing Conditions, Geographical Origin, and Selection on Larval Diapause in the Indianmeal Moth, Plodia interpunctella

    PubMed Central

    Wijayaratne, Leanage K. W.; Fields, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a serious insect pest of stored products, and its late-instar larvae diapause as pre-pupae. Diapause induction in P. interpunctella was investigated for four populations obtained from Modesto, California, U.S.A.; Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; and two locations from Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Insects were reared at 25° C and 16:8 L:D for 9 days. The larvae were then either continuously maintained under those conditions or transferred to 25° C 8:16 L:D, 20° C 16:8 L:D, or 20° C 8:16 L:D, and the percent diapause was recorded. In the experiment with four populations, the highest diapause frequency was observed at 20° C 8:16 L:D. The two Winnipeg populations had significantly higher frequency of diapause than the California populations, indicating the increased frequency of diapause in populations from higher latitudes. In a second experiment, the Vancouver population was selected for diapause. Larvae were reared at 25° C 16:8 L:D for 9 days, then placed at 20° C 8:16 L:D for the rest of their development, and percent diapause was determined. Eggs laid by moths that completed diapause in this first (parental) generation were used to obtain a second generation (F1), and the experiment was repeated as in the first generation. Selection increased the frequency of diapause to 91%, compared to 26% in the unselected population, after selecting over two generations. The narrow sense heritability of selection in P. interpunctella was 0.39 in the first selection, and 0.82 in the second. This study has shown that both low temperature and short photoperiod are required to induce diapause in North American populations of P. interpunctella, and that selection can increase diapause in a few generations. PMID:23451807

  7. Predicting Family Poverty and Other Disadvantaged Conditions for Child Rearing from Childhood Aggression and Social Withdrawal: A 30-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serbin, Lisa A.; Temcheff, Caroline E.; Cooperman, Jessica M.; Stack, Dale M.; Ledingham, Jane; Schwartzman, Alex E.

    2011-01-01

    This 30-year longitudinal study examined pathways from problematic childhood behavior patterns to future disadvantaged conditions for family environment and child rearing in adulthood. Participants were mothers (n = 328) and fathers (n = 222) with lower income backgrounds participating in the ongoing Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project. Structural…

  8. The effect of dietary alterations during rearing on feather condition in broiler breeder females.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, K L H; Widowski, T; Leeson, S; Sandilands, V; Arnone, A; Torrey, S

    2014-07-01

    In commercial production, broiler breeders are severely feed restricted to maintain healthy BW. This restriction can induce stereotypic behavior, including feather pecking, which has negative welfare implications for both the victim and performer. It has been suggested that the problem may be symptomatic of chronic hunger or the frustration of feeding motivation. In this study, we determined whether feather condition, as an indirect measure of feather pecking, could be improved via dietary manipulation. Six dietary treatments were tested, each with 5 replicate pens of 9 to 12 birds. Control diets (C) were fed on a daily or skip-a-day (SAD) basis. Alternative diets included soybean hulls as a bulking ingredient and calcium propionate (CaP) as an appetite suppressant of either a feed grade (F) or purified (P) quality. Both alternative diets were fed on either a daily or SAD basis. Five or 6 birds were randomly chosen from each pen and feather scored at 10, 14, 20, 26, and 36 wk of age. Six body parts (neck, back, wings, legs, vent area, tail) were given a score from 0 to 5 (0 = no feather damage, and 5 ≥ 50% feather loss with tissue damage). Scores were summed for each bird and averaged for each pen. Data were analyzed with room and feeding frequency as main factors and diet as the subfactor with repeated measures. There was an interaction between diet and time (P < 0.01) with the feather condition of the C birds worsening more quickly in comparison with the F and P birds. There was an interaction between feeding frequency and time (P = 0.015), with SAD-fed birds scoring better than daily-fed birds at 20, 26, and 36 wk. This interaction could indicate that SAD feeding increased satiety after the birds became accustomed to the schedule. Because feather condition was better with the alternative diets, this may indicate a reduction in stereotyped feather pecking with these diets. This suggests that the alternative diets increase satiety compared with the control diets.

  9. Lactating performance, water and feed consumption of rabbit does reared under a Mediterranean summer circadian cycle of temperature v. comfort temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Bakr, M H; Tusell, L; Rafel, O; Terré, M; Sánchez, J P; Piles, M

    2015-07-01

    The general aim of this research was to study the effect of high ambient temperature on the performance of does during lactation, specifically the following factors: average daily feed (ADFI) and water (ADWI) intakes, daily milk yield (DMY); milk composition: dry matter (DM), CP and gross energy (GE); doe BW (DW); individual kit weaning weight (IWW) and litter survival rate during lactation (SR). The study was undertaken comparing the performance of two groups of contemporary does reared under the same management, feeding regime and environmental conditions, except the environmental temperature and humidity. A total of 80 females were randomly allocated, at 60 days of age, into two identical and continuous rooms. In one room, the temperature was maintained permanently within the thermo-neutral zone (between 18°C to 22°C); thus, environmental conditions in this room were considered as comfort conditions. In the second room, the environmental temperature pattern simulated the daily temperature cycles that were characteristic of the summer in Mediterranean countries (24°C at 0800 h, increasing up to 29°C until 1100 h; maintenance at 29°C to 31°C for 4 h and decreasing to about 24°C to 26°C around 1700 h until 0800 h of the following day), which were considered as thermal stress conditions. Females followed a semi-intensive reproductive rhythm, first artificial insemination at 4.5 months of age, with subsequent 42-day reproductive cycles. Traits were recorded from a total of 138 lactations. Does were controlled up to the 5th lactation. Data were analyzed using linear and linear mixed models. High ambient temperature led to a lower ADFI (-9.4%), DW (-6.2%) and IWW (-8%), but it did not affect ADWI. No significant difference was found either for DMY, milk composition (DM, CP and GE) and SR during the lactation period. Heat stress was moderate, and does were able to adapt to it behaviorally by decreasing feed intake (to reduce heat production), but also live

  10. Dynamic photosynthesis in different environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Elias; Morales, Alejandro; Harbinson, Jeremy; Kromdijk, Johannes; Heuvelink, Ep; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2015-05-01

    Incident irradiance on plant leaves often fluctuates, causing dynamic photosynthesis. Whereas steady-state photosynthetic responses to environmental factors have been extensively studied, knowledge of dynamic modulation of photosynthesis remains scarce and scattered. This review addresses this discrepancy by summarizing available data and identifying the research questions necessary to advance our understanding of interactions between environmental factors and dynamic behaviour of photosynthesis using a mechanistic framework. Firstly, dynamic photosynthesis is separated into sub-processes related to proton and electron transport, non-photochemical quenching, control of metabolite flux through the Calvin cycle (activation states of Rubisco and RuBP regeneration, and post-illumination metabolite turnover), and control of CO₂ supply to Rubisco (stomatal and mesophyll conductance changes). Secondly, the modulation of dynamic photosynthesis and its sub-processes by environmental factors is described. Increases in ambient CO₂ concentration and temperature (up to ~35°C) enhance rates of photosynthetic induction and decrease its loss, facilitating more efficient dynamic photosynthesis. Depending on the sensitivity of stomatal conductance, dynamic photosynthesis may additionally be modulated by air humidity. Major knowledge gaps exist regarding environmental modulation of loss of photosynthetic induction, dynamic changes in mesophyll conductance, and the extent of limitations imposed by stomatal conductance for different species and environmental conditions. The study of mutants or genetic transformants for specific processes under various environmental conditions could provide significant progress in understanding the control of dynamic photosynthesis.

  11. Environmental Conditions in Kentucky's Penal Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Irving

    1974-01-01

    A state task force was organized to identify health or environmental deficiencies existing in Kentucky penal institutions. Based on information gained through direct observation and inmate questionnaires, the task force concluded that many hazardous and unsanitary conditions existed, and recommended that immediate action be given to these…

  12. An early methamphetamine challenge suppresses the maturation of dopamine fibres in the nucleus accumbens of gerbils: on the significance of rearing conditions.

    PubMed

    Neddens, J; Lesting, J; Dawirs, R R; Teuchert-Noodt, G

    2002-02-01

    The effect of a single early methamphetamine (MA) challenge on postnatal maturation of the nucleus accumbens (NAC) was studied. Therefore, male gerbils received a single dose of MA (50 mg/kg, i.p.) on postnatal day 14. At the age of postnatal day 90, dopamine fibres were stained immunocytochemically and innervation density was determined in several test fields along the rostrocaudal extent of both core and shell of the NAC. Since we already know that the differential environment can alter ontogeny of dopamine innervation in the prefrontal cortex of gerbils, in the present study we investigated whether probable drug effects may be influenced by rearing conditions. For that purpose, animals were bred and reared either isolated in standard laboratory cages or grouped in an object-filled environment. The results showed that a single early MA challenge significantly alters maturation of dopamine fibre innervation in both subregions of the NAC. In seminaturally reared gerbils the drug challenge caused dopamine fibre densities which were about 54% below those of saline-treated controls in both the shell and core. However, in animals from restricted rearing this MA-induced effect was more pronounced in the core (-43%) but not significant in the shell (-14%). In conclusion, an early MA challenge caused a significant restraint of adult dopamine fibre density developing in the NAC postnatally. Additionally, rearing conditions significantly interfered with drug-induced alterations in maturation of dopaminergic innervation pattern of the NAC. The present results are discussed with recent findings on MA-induced impairment of prefrontal dopamine innervation and further reactive morphogenetic effects caused by the drug. In this respect, functional interactions between the prefrontal cortex and NAC are specifically considered.

  13. The effects of environmental enrichment and beak-trimming during the rearing period on subsequent feather damage due to feather-pecking in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hartcher, K M; Tran, K T N; Wilkinson, S J; Hemsworth, P H; Thomson, P C; Cronin, G M

    2015-05-01

    This experiment investigated effects of environmental enrichment and beak-trimming during the rearing period on behavior in rearing and plumage damage later in life. Treatments were applied in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Half of the birds were beak-trimmed at 1 d of age using an infra-red laser. A follow-up light-trim was performed at 11 wk of age with a hot blade. Environmental enrichment consisted of pecking strings, whole oats in the litter, and greater litter depth. Sixteen pens of 50 ISA Brown laying hens were used. Four pullets were selected from each pen as focal birds and observed in their home pens between 3 and 14 wk of age. Plumage damage was scored at the end of the experiment in wk 43. Beak-trimmed birds performed less ground-pecking (P = 0.003), less severe feather-pecking (P = 0.021) and more gentle feather-pecking (P = 0.018) than their non-trimmed counterparts during the rearing period. These birds also exhibited less feather damage in wk 43 (P < 0.001). The results indicate that gentle feather-pecking during rearing is not related to plumage damage when older. Additionally, higher rates of ground-pecking and severe feather-pecking during rearing may be predictive of plumage damage later in life. There was no effect of enrichment on plumage damage. It was concluded that while there was no effect on enrichment, beak-trimming appeared to be effective in reducing plumage damage in wk 43.

  14. Artificially reared mice exhibit anxiety-like behavior in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hidemi; Harauma, Akiko; Kato, Maki; Ootomo, Yuki; Hatanaka, Erisa; Moriguchi, Toru

    2016-07-29

    It is important to establish experimental animal techniques that are applicable to the newborn and infant phases for nutrition and pharmacological studies. Breeding technology using the artificial suckling method without breast milk is very effective for the study of newborn nutrition. Using this method, we separated newborn mice from dams within 48 h of birth and provided them with artificial milk. We evaluated mouse anxiety levels after early postnatal maternal separation. Artificially reared mice were subjected to elevated plus-maze tests to assess emotional behavior at 9 weeks of age. Artificially reared mice showed a significantly lower frequency of entries and dipping into the open arms of the maze compared with dam-reared mice. This result indicates that the anxiety level of artificially reared mice was higher than that of dam-reared mice. Moreover, the concentration of monoamines in the brain was determined after the behavioral experiment. The hippocampal norepinephrine, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the artificially reared mice were significantly higher than those of the dam-reared mice. These results suggest that maternal-offspring interactions are extremely important for the emotional development of newborn infants during the lactation period. In future studies, it is necessary to consider the environmental factors and conditions that minimize the influence of artificial rearing on emotional behavior.

  15. Artificially reared mice exhibit anxiety-like behavior in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Hidemi; Harauma, Akiko; Kato, Maki; Ootomo, Yuki; Hatanaka, Erisa; Moriguchi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    It is important to establish experimental animal techniques that are applicable to the newborn and infant phases for nutrition and pharmacological studies. Breeding technology using the artificial suckling method without breast milk is very effective for the study of newborn nutrition. Using this method, we separated newborn mice from dams within 48 h of birth and provided them with artificial milk. We evaluated mouse anxiety levels after early postnatal maternal separation. Artificially reared mice were subjected to elevated plus-maze tests to assess emotional behavior at 9 weeks of age. Artificially reared mice showed a significantly lower frequency of entries and dipping into the open arms of the maze compared with dam-reared mice. This result indicates that the anxiety level of artificially reared mice was higher than that of dam-reared mice. Moreover, the concentration of monoamines in the brain was determined after the behavioral experiment. The hippocampal norepinephrine, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the artificially reared mice were significantly higher than those of the dam-reared mice. These results suggest that maternal-offspring interactions are extremely important for the emotional development of newborn infants during the lactation period. In future studies, it is necessary to consider the environmental factors and conditions that minimize the influence of artificial rearing on emotional behavior. PMID:26948536

  16. NOVELTY DETECTION UNDER CHANGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    H. SOHN; K. WORDER; C. R. FARRAR

    2001-04-01

    The primary objective of novelty detection is to examine a system's dynamic response to determine if the system significantly deviates from an initial baseline condition. In reality, the system is often subject to changing environmental and operation conditions that affect its dynamic characteristics. Such variations include changes in loading, boundary conditions, temperature, and moisture. Most damage diagnosis techniques, however, generally neglect the effects of these changing ambient conditions. Here, a novelty detection technique is developed explicitly taking into account these natural variations of the system in order to minimize false positive indications of true system changes. Auto-associative neural networks are employed to discriminate system changes of interest such as structural deterioration and damage from the natural variations of the system.

  17. Physiological and biochemical changes during the larval development of a brachyuran crab reared under constant conditions in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anger, K.; Harms, J.; Püschel, C.; Seeger, B.

    1989-06-01

    Larvae of the spider crab Hyas araneus were reared in the laboratory at constant conditions (12°C; 32‰S), and their feeding rate ( F), oxygen consumption ( R), nitrogen excretion ( U), and growth were measured in regular intervals of time during development from hatching to metamorphosis. Growth was measured as dry weight ( W), carbon ( C), nitrogen ( N), hydrogen ( H) protein, and lipid. All these physiological and biochemical traits revealed significant changes both from instar to instar and during individual larval moult cycles. Average F was low in the zoea I, reached a maximum in the zoea II, and decreased again in the megalopa. In the zoeal instars, it showed a bell-shaped pattern, with a maximum in the middle (zoea I) or during the first half of the moult cycle (zoea II). Maximum F in the megalopa was observed still earlier, during postmoult. Respiration ( R) increased in the zoeal instars as a linear function of time, whereas it showed a sinusoidal pattern in the megalopa. These findings on variation in F and R during larval development confirm results obtained in previous studies on H. araneus and other decapod species. Excretion ( U) was measured for the first time with a high temporal resolution in crab larvae. It showed in all three larval instars a bell-shaped variation pattern, with a maximum near the middle of the moult cycle, and significantly increasing average values from instar to instar. The atomic O/N ratio followed an inverse pattern, suggesting a maximum utilization of protein as a metabolic substrate during intermoult. Growth data from the present study and from a number of previous studies were compiled, showing consistency of growth patterns, but a considerable degree of variability between larvae from different hatches reared under identical conditions. The data show the following consistent tendencies: during the first part of each larval moult cycle (in postmoult, partly in intermoult), lipids are accumulated at a higher rate than

  18. The effects of method of castration, rearing condition and diet on sensory quality of pork assessed by a trained panel.

    PubMed

    Pauly, Carine; Spring-Staehli, Peter; O'Doherty, John V; Kragten, Silvia Ampuero; Dubois, Sébastien; Messadène, Jessica; Bee, Giuseppe

    2010-10-01

    Beside surgical castration possible alternatives helping to reduce the incidence of boar taint in cooked pork are rearing conditions, immunocastration and feeding strategies for entire males known to lower the skatole levels. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of these alternatives on the sensory acceptability of pork. In experiment 1, carcasses from barrows, entire males (EM) and entire males fed raw potato starch (EM+) 7d before slaughter were selected based on the androstenone (0.05), boar odour and flavour scores were greater (P<0.05) in EM+ than barrows. In experiment 2, scores for boar odour and flavour were lower (P<0.05) in pork from barrows and IC than EMP, with intermediate values for EMG. In conclusion, we observed a discrepancy between the known boar taint compounds androstenone and skatole and sensory acceptability, which indicates that other factors influenced the perception of boar taint. Thus, surgical castration with or without anesthesia or immunocastration are still the safest methods to avoid boar taint. PMID:20580494

  19. Effects of cocaine combined with a social cue on conditioned place preference and nucleus accumbens monoamines after isolation rearing in rats

    PubMed Central

    Grotewold, Susan K.; Wall, Vanessa L.; Goodell, Dayton J.; Hayter, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Social interaction during drug exposure can potentiate cocaine reward. Isolation rearing (ISO) during adolescence increases social interaction and may amplify this potentiation. Objectives The objectives of this study are to determine whether ISO alters conditioned place preference (CPP) for cocaine when combined with a social cue and to determine whether ISO alters the effects of cocaine when combined with social cue on nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS) dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT). Methods Male and female rats were either ISO or group (GRP) reared for 4 weeks during adolescence. CPP was performed using a low dose of cocaine (2 mg/kg or saline) with or without exposure to a novel same-sex conspecific during conditioning. In vivo microdialysis was performed using the same parameters. Results ISO rats engaged in more social and aggressive behaviors during conditioning relative to GRP. Cocaine reduced social and aggressive behaviors in all rats. CPP was not influenced by rearing condition. Cocaine produced significant CPP, and a social cue produced CPP only in males. In contrast, the interaction of cocaine and a social cue on NAcS DA and 5-HT differed depending upon rearing condition. In isolates, cocaine-induced DA was attenuated, while cocaine plus a social cue produced potentiated DA and 5-HT. Conclusions Exposure to a low dose of cocaine in the presence of a social cue produced additive effects on CPP while producing synergistic effects on DA and 5-HT in the NAcS of ISO rats. The aversive effects of this compound stimulus may negate the rewarding effects in isolates. PMID:24553577

  20. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  1. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  2. Effects of hatchery rearing on Florida largemouth bass Micropterus floridanus resource allocation and performance under semi-natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Garlock, T M; Monk, C T; Lorenzen, K; Matthews, M D; St Mary, C M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the growth, activity, metabolism and post-release survival of three groups of Florida largemouth bass Micropterus floridanus: wild-caught fish, hatchery fish reared according to standard practice (hatchery standard) and hatchery fish reared under reduced and unpredictable food provisioning (hatchery manipulated). Hatchery-standard fish differed from wild-caught fish in all measured variables, including survival in semi-natural ponds. Hatchery-standard and hatchery-manipulated fish showed higher activity levels, faster growth and lower standard metabolic rates than wild-caught fish in the hatchery. Fish reared under the manipulated feeding regime showed increased metabolic rates and increased post-release growth, similar to wild-caught fish. Their activity levels and post-release survival, however, remained similar to those of hatchery-standard fish. Activity was negatively correlated with post-release survival and failure of the feed manipulation to reduce activity may have contributed to its failure to improve post-release survival. Activity and post-release survival may be influenced by characteristics of the rearing environment other than the feeding regime, such as stock density or water flow rates. PMID:25257181

  3. Cross-taxon congruence and environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Diversity patterns of different taxa typically covary in space, a phenomenon called cross-taxon congruence. This pattern has been explained by the effect of one taxon diversity on taxon diversity, shared biogeographic histories of different taxa, and/or common responses to environmental conditions. A meta-analysis of the association between environment and diversity patterns found that in 83 out of 85 studies, more than 60% of the spatial variability in species richness was related to variables representing energy, water or their interaction. The role of the environment determining taxa diversity patterns leads us to hypothesize that this would explain the observed cross-taxon congruence. However, recent analyses reported the persistence of cross-taxon congruence when environmental effect was statistically removed. Here we evaluate this hypothesis, analyzing the cross-taxon congruence between birds and mammals in the Brazilian Cerrado, and assess the environmental role on the spatial covariation in diversity patterns. Results We found a positive association between avian and mammal richness and a positive latitudinal trend for both groups in the Brazilian Cerrado. Regression analyses indicated an effect of latitude, PET, and mean temperature over both biological groups. In addition, we show that NDVI was only associated with avian diversity; while the annual relative humidity, was only correlated with mammal diversity. We determined the environmental effects on diversity in a path analysis that accounted for 73% and 76% of the spatial variation in avian and mammal richness. However, an association between avian and mammal diversity remains significant. Indeed, the importance of this link between bird and mammal diversity was also supported by a significant association between birds and mammal spatial autoregressive model residuals. Conclusion Our study corroborates the main role of environmental conditions on diversity patterns, but suggests that other

  4. Artificial rearing.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Hector D; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2008-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure disrupts development, leading to a range of effects referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASDs include physical, central nervous system, and behavioral alterations. Animal model systems are used to study the relationship between alcohol-related central nervous system damage and behavioral alterations, risk factors for FASD, mechanisms of alcohol-induced damage, as well as treatments and interventions. When using a rodent model, it is important to recognize that the timing of brain development relative to birth differs between humans and rodents. Thus, to model alcohol exposure during the third trimester equivalent, rats must be exposed during early postnatal development (postnatal days 4-9). Artificial rearing is one experimental paradigm that is used to expose neonatal rats to alcohol during this period of brain development. Neonatal rat pups are housed in an artificial rearing environment and automatically fed a milk diet substitute via an intragastric cannula to ensure adequate growth during the treatment period. Alcohol is delivered in the milk diet. This chapter provides a description of the methods needed for this administrative technique, including preparation of the artificial rearing environment, gastrostomy surgery, and care of artificially reared rat pups.

  5. Biological and genetic characteristics of Glyptotendipes tokunagai (Diptera: Chironomidae) on the basis of successive rearing of forty-two generations over seven years under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Baek, Min Jeong; Yoon, Tae Joong; Kang, Hyo Jeong; Bae, Yeon Jae

    2014-10-01

    Members of the nonbiting midge family Chironomidae have been used worldwide as water-quality indicators or toxicity test organisms. The purpose of this study was to establish the chironomid Glyptotendipes tokunagai Sasa as a new test species by conducting successive rearing under laboratory conditions. We monitored biological and genetic aspects of >42 successive generations over 7 yr, and also compared the development of the 39th generation with the fourth generation under five constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C. We observed that the number of eggs in an egg mass and the adult body sizes decreased rapidly in the early generations, and thereafter tended to stabilize from the fifth generation to the 42nd generation. In all generations, the mean hatching rate was >75%. Males were predominant in the early generations, but the sex ratio increased to 0.5 (ranged 0.24-0.61) in later generations. The genetic divergence of the reared generations, analyzed by using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene, decreased from 0.0049 to 0.0004 as the generations progressed. In comparison with the fourth generation, the mortality and developmental time of the 39th generation were generally greater, and the adult body sizes were generally smaller. The estimated low developmental threshold temperatures of eggs, male larvae to male adults, and female larvae to female adults were 9.6, 11.3, and 9.7°C, respectively. The optimal rearing temperature was determined to be 25°C. This is the first record of domesticated rearing of a wild chironomid species under laboratory conditions for >7 yr.

  6. Simulating protein folding in different environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Homouz, Dirar

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have become an invaluable tool in investigating the dynamics of protein folding. However, most computational studies of protein folding assume dilute aqueous simulation conditions in order to reduce the complexity of the system under study and enhance the efficiency. Nowadays, it is evident that environmental conditions encountered in vivo (or even in vitro) play a major role in regulating the dynamics of protein folding especially when one considers the highly condensed environment in the cellular cytoplasm. In order to factor in these conditions, we can utilize the high efficiency of well-designed low resolution (coarse-grained) simulation models to reduce the complexity of these added protein-milieu interactions involving different time and length scales. The goal of this chapter is to describe some recently developed coarse-grained simulation techniques that are specifically designed to go beyond traditional aqueous solvent conditions. The chapter also gives the reader a flavor of the things that we can study using such "smart" low resolution models.

  7. Development, survival, body weight, longevity, and reproductive potential of Oemena hirta (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) under different rearing conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiao; Shi, Guanglu; Song, Deping; Rogers, David J; Davis, Lorraine K; Chen, Xiong

    2002-06-01

    Oemona hirta (F.) is a New Zealand native longicorn beetle, whose larvae bore into the wood of branches and stems of living trees and vines, causing serious damage. To explore effective methods for maintaining laboratory colonies and biology of immature stages of this species we evaluated four laboratory rearing methods with both natural and artificial diets and compared biological parameters of laboratory colonies with those of field-collected insects. On an artificial diet, approximately 40% of neonate and 70% of autumn- and 11% of winter-collected larvae reached adulthood. Neonate larvae could not complete their development in cut poplar (Populus nigra variety italica Koehne) twigs; however, when twigs were standing in water >46% of neonate larvae survived to adulthood. Mean larval development time ranged from approximately150 to almost 300 d, depending on rearing methods. Mean pupal stage ranged from 15 to 19 d. Adult females were significantly heavier than males. Although adult females from field-collected twigs and reared on the artificial diet had similar mean body weight, which was significantly greater than that of other rearing colonies, the potential fecundity was the highest in the former (83.1 +/- 29.4 eggs) and the lowest in the latter (33.5 +/- 9.1 eggs). In all laboratory-reared and field-collected insects, the total number of eggs produced (eggs laid + eggs that remained in dead female body) by females was positively correlated with their body weight. When larvae fed on the artificial diet, there was no positive correlation between the number of eggs successfully laid and female body weight. However, when larvae lived on natural food, a positive correlation was found. In laboratory colonies, mean longevity of females (36 to 52 d) was slightly greater than that of males (30 to 50 d) without significant difference between sexes but in the adults from field-collected twigs, males (52 d) lived significantly longer than females (33 d). In terms of time

  8. Effects of rearing conditions on reproduction of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Gould, Juli R; Ayer, Tracy; Fraser, Ivich

    2011-04-01

    Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) can be successfully reared on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), larvae feeding in chambers drilled in small ash twigs that are wrapped with floral tape. Females maintained in groups with males for one week can receive enough sperm for production of female progeny throughout their lives. Volatiles released by emerald ash borer adults feeding on ash foliage increased parasitoid fecundity over ash foliage alone or no stimulus. The temperature at which the parasitoids were reared ranged from 20 to 25 degrees C in a daily cycle; however, raising the daily maximum temperature to 28 degrees C did not affect parasitoid longevity or fecundity. Adult females lived between 12 and 127 d, with an average of 60.8 +/- 4.5 d. Males lived slightly longer, with an average of 66 +/- 4.5 d. The first clutch of eggs was laid when the female was between 2 and 42 d old, with the average preoviposition period lasting 11.4 +/- 1.4 or 19.5 +/- 2.0 d in 2007 and 2009 trials, respectively. A higher proportion of the emerald ash borer larvae were feeding and thus attractive to parasitoids in the 2009 trial, and female S. agrili laid an average of 9.5 +/- 1.0 clutches containing 5.4 +/- 0.2 eggs, for an average of 51.2 eggs per female. Approximately three quarters of the progeny were female. The number of eggs per clutch was significantly greater when deposited on larger emerald ash borer larvae, further highlighting the need for quality larvae in rearing. Chilling S. agrili pupae at 10 degrees C to stockpile them for summer release was not successful; chilling resulted in lower survival and lower fecundity of emerging progeny. Female S. agrili proved capable of attacking emerald ash borer larvae through even the thickest bark of an ash tree that was 30-cm diameter at breast height. Even emerald ash borer larvae that were creating overwintering chambers in the outer sapwood of the tree were successfully

  9. Environmental conditions and reproductive health outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental exposures range across multiple domains to affect human health. In an effort to learn how environmental factors combine to contribute to health outcomes we constructed a multiple environmental domain index (MEDI) for use in health research. We used principal compone...

  10. Parasitism in early life: environmental conditions shape within-brood variation in responses to infection

    PubMed Central

    Granroth-Wilding, Hanna M V; Burthe, Sarah J; Lewis, Sue; Reed, Thomas E; Herborn, Katherine A; Newell, Mark A; Takahashi, Emi A; Daunt, Francis; Cunningham, Emma J A

    2014-01-01

    Parasites play key ecological and evolutionary roles through the costs they impose on their host. In wild populations, the effect of parasitism is likely to vary considerably with environmental conditions, which may affect the availability of resources to hosts for defense. However, the interaction between parasitism and prevailing conditions is rarely quantified. In addition to environmental variation acting on hosts, individuals are likely to vary in their response to parasitism, and the combined effect of both may increase heterogeneity in host responses. Offspring hierarchies, established by parents in response to uncertain rearing conditions, may be an important source of variation between individuals. Here, we use experimental antiparasite treatment across 5 years of variable conditions to test how annual population productivity (a proxy for environmental conditions) and parasitism interact to affect growth and survival of different brood members in juvenile European shags (Phalacrocorax aristotelis). In control broods, last-hatched chicks had more plastic growth rates, growing faster in more productive years. Older siblings grew at a similar rate in all years. Treatment removed the effect of environment on last-hatched chicks, such that all siblings in treated broods grew at a similar rate across environmental conditions. There were no differences in nematode burden between years or siblings, suggesting that variation in responses arose from intrinsic differences between chicks. Whole-brood growth rate was not affected by treatment, indicating that within-brood differences were driven by a change in resource allocation between siblings rather than a change in overall parental provisioning. We show that gastrointestinal parasites can be a key component of offspring's developmental environment. Our results also demonstrate the value of considering prevailing conditions for our understanding of parasite effects on host life-history traits. Establishing how

  11. Parasitism in early life: environmental conditions shape within-brood variation in responses to infection.

    PubMed

    Granroth-Wilding, Hanna M V; Burthe, Sarah J; Lewis, Sue; Reed, Thomas E; Herborn, Katherine A; Newell, Mark A; Takahashi, Emi A; Daunt, Francis; Cunningham, Emma J A

    2014-09-01

    Parasites play key ecological and evolutionary roles through the costs they impose on their host. In wild populations, the effect of parasitism is likely to vary considerably with environmental conditions, which may affect the availability of resources to hosts for defense. However, the interaction between parasitism and prevailing conditions is rarely quantified. In addition to environmental variation acting on hosts, individuals are likely to vary in their response to parasitism, and the combined effect of both may increase heterogeneity in host responses. Offspring hierarchies, established by parents in response to uncertain rearing conditions, may be an important source of variation between individuals. Here, we use experimental antiparasite treatment across 5 years of variable conditions to test how annual population productivity (a proxy for environmental conditions) and parasitism interact to affect growth and survival of different brood members in juvenile European shags (Phalacrocorax aristotelis). In control broods, last-hatched chicks had more plastic growth rates, growing faster in more productive years. Older siblings grew at a similar rate in all years. Treatment removed the effect of environment on last-hatched chicks, such that all siblings in treated broods grew at a similar rate across environmental conditions. There were no differences in nematode burden between years or siblings, suggesting that variation in responses arose from intrinsic differences between chicks. Whole-brood growth rate was not affected by treatment, indicating that within-brood differences were driven by a change in resource allocation between siblings rather than a change in overall parental provisioning. We show that gastrointestinal parasites can be a key component of offspring's developmental environment. Our results also demonstrate the value of considering prevailing conditions for our understanding of parasite effects on host life-history traits. Establishing how

  12. [Guidelines on asthma in extreme environmental conditions].

    PubMed

    Drobnic, Franchek; Borderías Clau, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is a highly prevalent chronic disease which, if not properly controlled, can limit the patient's activities and lifestyle. In recent decades, owing to the diffusion of educational materials, the application of clinical guidelines and, most importantly, the availability of effective pharmacological treatment, most patients with asthma are now able to lead normal lives. Significant social changes have also taken place during the same period, including more widespread pursuit of sporting activities and tourism. As a result of these changes, individuals with asthma can now participate in certain activities that were inconceivable for these patients only a few years ago, including winter sports, underwater activities, air flight, and travel to remote places with unusual environmental conditions (deserts, high mountain environments, and tropical regions). In spite of the publication of several studies on this subject, our understanding of the effects of these situations on patients with asthma is still limited. The Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) has decided to publish these recommendations based on the available evidence and expert opinion in order to provide information on this topic to both doctors and patients and to avert potentially dangerous situations that could endanger the lives of these patients.

  13. Effect of early rearing conditions on alcohol drinking and 5-HT1A receptor function in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Advani, Tushar; Hensler, Julie G; Koek, Wouter

    2007-10-01

    We have evaluated in C57BL/6J mice the effect of maternal separation and post-weaning social isolation on ethanol intake, and on serotonin1A (5-HT1A) receptor function at the level of receptor-G protein interaction in the hippocampus and dorsal raphe nucleus. From postnatal days 2-14, litters were separated from the mother for 15 min (Handled) or for 180 min (Maternal separation). After weaning, pups were housed in pairs or in social isolation. At 2 months of age, ethanol intake and preference in mice were assessed using the two-bottle choice paradigm. Maternal separation increased ethanol preference in female mice that were subsequently housed in isolation. By contrast, post-weaning isolation increased ethanol preference and consumption in male mice regardless of pre-weaning rearing conditions. The increased ethanol preference and intake were limited to a 5% (v/v) concentration of ethanol. Our data suggest that adolescent mice are susceptible to the effects of post-weaning social isolation as shown by increased ethanol preference and consumption. Using quantitative autoradiography, 5-HT1A receptor number and function were determined by the binding of [3H]WAY-100635, and by [35S]GTPgammaS binding stimulated by the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT, respectively. The binding experiments were done at approximately 3 months after the end of the two-bottle choice test in an attempt to minimize direct effects of ethanol drinking on 5-HT1A receptor function and number. 5-HT1A receptor-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding in the dorsal raphe nucleus was increased in animals reared after weaning in isolation vs. in pairs, regardless of gender or pre-weaning rearing conditions. Our data suggest that there are long-term neurochemical consequences of social isolation of adolescent mice, specifically increased 5-HT1A receptor function in the dorsal raphe nucleus.

  14. Variation in early-life telomere dynamics in a long-lived bird: links to environmental conditions and survival

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Hannah; Bolton, Mark; Monaghan, Pat

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Conditions experienced during early life can have profound consequences for both short- and long-term fitness. Variation in the natal environment has been shown to influence survival and reproductive performance of entire cohorts in wild vertebrate populations. Telomere dynamics potentially provide a link between the early environment and long-term fitness outcomes, yet we know little about how the environment can influence telomere dynamics in early life. We found that environmental conditions during growth have an important influence on early-life telomere length (TL) and attrition in nestlings of a long-lived bird, the European storm petrel Hydrobates pelagicus. Nestlings reared under unfavourable environmental conditions experienced significantly greater telomere loss during postnatal development compared with nestlings reared under more favourable natal conditions, which displayed a negligible change in TL. There was, however, no significant difference in pre-fledging TL between cohorts. The results suggest that early-life telomere dynamics could contribute to the marked differences in life-history traits that can arise among cohorts reared under different environmental conditions. Early-life TL was also found to be a significant predictor of survival during the nestling phase, providing further evidence for a link between variation in TL and individual fitness. To what extent the relationship between early-life TL and mortality during the nestling phase is a consequence of genetic, parental and environmental factors is currently unknown, but it is an interesting area for future research. Accelerated telomere attrition under unfavourable conditions, as observed in this study, might play a role in mediating the effects of the early-life environment on later-life performance. PMID:25617465

  15. Variation in early-life telomere dynamics in a long-lived bird: links to environmental conditions and survival.

    PubMed

    Watson, Hannah; Bolton, Mark; Monaghan, Pat

    2015-03-01

    Conditions experienced during early life can have profound consequences for both short- and long-term fitness. Variation in the natal environment has been shown to influence survival and reproductive performance of entire cohorts in wild vertebrate populations. Telomere dynamics potentially provide a link between the early environment and long-term fitness outcomes, yet we know little about how the environment can influence telomere dynamics in early life. We found that environmental conditions during growth have an important influence on early-life telomere length (TL) and attrition in nestlings of a long-lived bird, the European storm petrel Hydrobates pelagicus. Nestlings reared under unfavourable environmental conditions experienced significantly greater telomere loss during postnatal development compared with nestlings reared under more favourable natal conditions, which displayed a negligible change in TL. There was, however, no significant difference in pre-fledging TL between cohorts. The results suggest that early-life telomere dynamics could contribute to the marked differences in life-history traits that can arise among cohorts reared under different environmental conditions. Early-life TL was also found to be a significant predictor of survival during the nestling phase, providing further evidence for a link between variation in TL and individual fitness. To what extent the relationship between early-life TL and mortality during the nestling phase is a consequence of genetic, parental and environmental factors is currently unknown, but it is an interesting area for future research. Accelerated telomere attrition under unfavourable conditions, as observed in this study, might play a role in mediating the effects of the early-life environment on later-life performance.

  16. Variation in early-life telomere dynamics in a long-lived bird: links to environmental conditions and survival.

    PubMed

    Watson, Hannah; Bolton, Mark; Monaghan, Pat

    2015-03-01

    Conditions experienced during early life can have profound consequences for both short- and long-term fitness. Variation in the natal environment has been shown to influence survival and reproductive performance of entire cohorts in wild vertebrate populations. Telomere dynamics potentially provide a link between the early environment and long-term fitness outcomes, yet we know little about how the environment can influence telomere dynamics in early life. We found that environmental conditions during growth have an important influence on early-life telomere length (TL) and attrition in nestlings of a long-lived bird, the European storm petrel Hydrobates pelagicus. Nestlings reared under unfavourable environmental conditions experienced significantly greater telomere loss during postnatal development compared with nestlings reared under more favourable natal conditions, which displayed a negligible change in TL. There was, however, no significant difference in pre-fledging TL between cohorts. The results suggest that early-life telomere dynamics could contribute to the marked differences in life-history traits that can arise among cohorts reared under different environmental conditions. Early-life TL was also found to be a significant predictor of survival during the nestling phase, providing further evidence for a link between variation in TL and individual fitness. To what extent the relationship between early-life TL and mortality during the nestling phase is a consequence of genetic, parental and environmental factors is currently unknown, but it is an interesting area for future research. Accelerated telomere attrition under unfavourable conditions, as observed in this study, might play a role in mediating the effects of the early-life environment on later-life performance. PMID:25617465

  17. Enhancing the stability and ecological safety of mass-reared transgenic strains for field release by redundant conditional lethality systems.

    PubMed

    Handler, Alfred M

    2016-04-01

    The genetic manipulation of agriculturally important insects now allows the development of genetic sexing and male sterility systems for more highly efficient biologically-based population control programs, most notably the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), for both plant and animal insect pests. Tetracycline-suppressible (Tet-off) conditional lethal systems may function together so that transgenic strains will be viable and fertile on a tetracycline-containing diet, but female-lethal and male sterile in tetracycline-free conditions. This would allow their most efficacious use in a unified system for sterile male-only production for SIT. A critical consideration for the field release of such transgenic insect strains, however, is a determination of the frequency and genetic basis of lethality revertant survival. This will provide knowledge essential to evaluating the genetic stability of the lethality system, its environmental safety, and provide the basis for modifications ensuring optimal efficacy. For Tet-off lethal survival determinations, development of large-scale screening protocols should also allow the testing of these modifications, and test the ability of other conditional lethal systems to fully suppress propagation of rare Tet-off survivors. If a dominant temperature sensitive (DTS) pupal lethality system proves efficient for secondary lethality in Drosophila, it may provide the safeguard needed to support the release of sexing/sterility strains, and potentially, the release of unisex lethality strains as a form of genetic male sterility. Should the DTS Prosβ2(1) mutation prove effective for redundant lethality, its high level of structural and functional conservation should allow host-specific cognates to be created for a wide range of insect species.

  18. Crops Models for Varying Environmental Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Cavazzoni, James; Keas, Paul

    2001-01-01

    New variable environment Modified Energy Cascade (MEC) crop models were developed for all the Advanced Life Support (ALS) candidate crops and implemented in SIMULINK. The MEC models are based on the Volk, Bugbee, and Wheeler Energy Cascade (EC) model and are derived from more recent Top-Level Energy Cascade (TLEC) models. The MEC models simulate crop plant responses to day-to-day changes in photosynthetic photon flux, photoperiod, carbon dioxide level, temperature, and relative humidity. The original EC model allows changes in light energy but uses a less accurate linear approximation. The simulation outputs of the new MEC models for constant nominal environmental conditions are very similar to those of earlier EC models that use parameters produced by the TLEC models. There are a few differences. The new MEC models allow setting the time for seed emergence, have realistic exponential canopy growth, and have corrected harvest dates for potato and tomato. The new MEC models indicate that the maximum edible biomass per meter squared per day is produced at the maximum allowed carbon dioxide level, the nominal temperatures, and the maximum light input. Reducing the carbon dioxide level from the maximum to the minimum allowed in the model reduces crop production significantly. Increasing temperature decreases production more than it decreases the time to harvest, so productivity in edible biomass per meter squared per day is greater at nominal than maximum temperatures, The productivity in edible biomass per meter squared per day is greatest at the maximum light energy input allowed in the model, but the edible biomass produced per light energy input unit is lower than at nominal light levels. Reducing light levels increases light and power use efficiency. The MEC models suggest we can adjust the light energy day-to- day to accommodate power shortages or Lise excess power while monitoring and controlling edible biomass production.

  19. A non-social and isolate rearing condition induces an irreversible shift toward continued fights in the male fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, Tamako; Ichikawa, Yoko; Matsushima, Toshiya

    2004-07-01

    Effects of rearing conditions were examined in the development of agonistic behaviors in the male fighting fish. In group-I (highly social), fish were communally reared. In group-II (highly social and isolate), fish were individually housed and exposed to the group-I fish through transparent walls until the sexual maturity (from 6 to 12 weeks post-hatch). In group-III (social and isolate), individually housed fish were similarly exposed to other fish within the group. In group-IV (non-social and isolate), individually housed fish were further visually isolated. Agonisitc behaviors were compared among males of the groups-II, -III, and -IV in their fights against the group-I male. The group-IV males showed significantly higher rate of wins than the groups-II and -III males, without differences in the incidence of agonistic behaviors (butt-or-bite, chase, and gill-cover erect) before the termination of the mutual fights. Increased incidence of agonistic behaviors was found after the termination (particularly in the unilateral chase), suggesting that the group-IV males continued to fight even after the opponent male displayed a submission. The aggression was also enhanced in the group-II, when they were thereafter reared in a social isolation after the sexual maturation; a critical period was thus not found. The enhanced aggression was not reversed in the group-IV, when they were thereafter exposed to social stimuli; shift to the continued fights was irreversible. Possible fitness gain of the enhanced aggression was discussed in terms of the adjustability to altered biological resources.

  20. A non-social and isolate rearing condition induces an irreversible shift toward continued fights in the male fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, Tamako; Ichikawa, Yoko; Matsushima, Toshiya

    2004-07-01

    Effects of rearing conditions were examined in the development of agonistic behaviors in the male fighting fish. In group-I (highly social), fish were communally reared. In group-II (highly social and isolate), fish were individually housed and exposed to the group-I fish through transparent walls until the sexual maturity (from 6 to 12 weeks post-hatch). In group-III (social and isolate), individually housed fish were similarly exposed to other fish within the group. In group-IV (non-social and isolate), individually housed fish were further visually isolated. Agonisitc behaviors were compared among males of the groups-II, -III, and -IV in their fights against the group-I male. The group-IV males showed significantly higher rate of wins than the groups-II and -III males, without differences in the incidence of agonistic behaviors (butt-or-bite, chase, and gill-cover erect) before the termination of the mutual fights. Increased incidence of agonistic behaviors was found after the termination (particularly in the unilateral chase), suggesting that the group-IV males continued to fight even after the opponent male displayed a submission. The aggression was also enhanced in the group-II, when they were thereafter reared in a social isolation after the sexual maturation; a critical period was thus not found. The enhanced aggression was not reversed in the group-IV, when they were thereafter exposed to social stimuli; shift to the continued fights was irreversible. Possible fitness gain of the enhanced aggression was discussed in terms of the adjustability to altered biological resources. PMID:15277715

  1. Improving mating performance of mass-reared sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through changes in adult holding conditions: demography and mating competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Liedo, P.; Salgado, S.; Oropeza, A.; Toledo, J.

    2007-03-15

    Mass rearing conditions affect the mating behavior of Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). We evaluated the effect of slight changes in the adult holding conditions of adult flies maintained for egg production on their mating performance. Colonization was initiated from wild flies collected as larvae from infested coffee berries (Coffea arabica L.). When pupae were close to adult emergence, they were randomly divided into 3 groups and the emerging adults were reared under the following conditions: (1) Metapa System (MS, control), consisting of 70 x 45 x 15 cm aluminum frame, mesh covered cages, with a density of 2,200 flies per cage and a 1:1 initial sex ratio; (2) Insert System (IS), with the same type of cage, and the same fly density and sex ratio as in the MS treatment, but containing twelve Plexiglas pieces (23 x 8.5 cm) to provide additional horizontal surface areas inside the cage; and (3) Sex-ratio System (SS), same as IS, but in this case the initial male: female ratio was 4:1. Three d later, newly emerged females were introduced, so the ratio became 3:1 and on the 6th d another group of newly emerged females was added to provide a 2:1 final sex ratio, at which the final density reached 1,675 flies per cage. The eggs collected from each of the 3 treatments were reared independently following standard procedures and the adults were held under the same experimental conditions. This process was repeated for over 10 to 13 generations (1 year). The experiment was repeated 3 times in 3 consecutive years, starting each replicate with a new collection of wild flies. Life tables were constructed for each treatment at the parental, 3rd, 6th, and 9th generations. Standard quality control parameters (pupation at 24 h, pupal weight, adult emergence, and flight ability), were estimated for each treatment every third generation in the third year. For the last generation each year, mating competitiveness was evaluated in field cage tests

  2. Mineral losses during extreme environmental conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Minerals are nutrients that are conserved by the body. During exposure to environmental stimuli, such as heat and/or exercise, the excretion of minerals, macro (Na, K, Ca, Mg) and micro (Cu, Fe, Zn), occurs through the body surface in the form of cellular desquamation and sweat, as well as in the u...

  3. Environmental enrichment during rearing alters corticosterone levels, thymocyte numbers, and aggression in female BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Eric K; Avery, Anne C; Vandewoude, Sue

    2012-01-01

    The goal of environmental enrichment for laboratory animals is to improve welfare, but some enrichment practices may affect research in unintended ways or even be harmful to the animals themselves. We previously found that mice raised at a commercial vendor then given multiple enrichment devices upon arrival at our facilities experienced thymic atrophy and greater variation in measured parameters than did their unenriched counterparts, suggesting that enrichment conditions affected corticosteroid expression in mice. The current study verified and expanded these results, examining 120 female BALB/c mice raised with or without nesting material at a commercial vendor (n = 60 per group) and allocated (n = 20 per group) to receive no enrichment, nesting material, or 'superenrichment' on arrival at our facilities. Nesting material provided prior to weaning was associated with higher levels of urinary corticosteroid, whereas superenrichment and nesting material during the adult period both led to increased thymic atrophy. Paradoxically, mice that never received enrichment, despite having the lowest corticosterone levels and least thymic atrophy, had increased tail wounds resulting from aggressive interactions. Therefore, enrichment devices that are as seemingly innocuous as nesting material, even if only provided in the preweaning period, may lead to significant, lasting changes in behavioral, physical, or immunologic measures with the potential to alter research outcomes.

  4. Brachiopods recording environmental conditions and biomineralisation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, Maggie; MacDonald, John M.; Fitzer, Susan C.; John, Cedric M.

    2016-04-01

    For around 550 million years, organisms have been exerting biological control on biomineral formation, generating elegant functional biomineral structures from basic components such as calcium phosphate in the case of vertebrate skeletons; silica or calcium carbonate in invertebrate shells and corals. In the marine realm, environmental information on the world's oceans is entrapped within the composition of calcium carbonate biomineral structures such as the shells of molluscs or brachiopods. Here, conventional stable and clumped isotopes of calcium carbonate of brachiopod shells are explored in the context of biological control. The aim is to ensure the correct interpretation of environmental data and to consider the possibility of extracting information on the mechanisms of biomineralisation processes from the data stored in the fossil record.

  5. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

    PubMed

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG (P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased (P < 0.05) in the birds fed with diets including VC and OR (in a single or combined form), compared to those fed the basal diet. ADFI was not significantly influenced by dietary oregano essential oil and vitamin C (P > 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA (P < 0.05) compared with other groups. An increase in the serum concentrations of vitamin C were seen in broiler chicks supplemented with vitamin C. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

  6. Single and combined effects of vitamin C and oregano essential oil in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazi, Shahab; Amjadian, Tahere; Norouzi, Shokufeh

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding vitamin C (VC), oregano essential oil (OR), or their combination in diet, on growth performance, and blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress (HS) condition (38 °C). One-day-old 240 male broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, six replicates of ten birds each. The birds were fed with either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with either 200 mg L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet, 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet, or 200 mg L-ascorbic acid plus 250 mg of oregano essential oil/kg of diet. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained for 42 days of age and at the end of the experiment (day 42); birds were bled to determine some blood parameters and weighted for final body weight (BW). Feeding birds with diets supplemented with oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a single or combined form increased ADG ( P > 0.05). Also BW increased and feed efficiency decreased ( P < 0.05) in the birds fed with diets including VC and OR (in a single or combined form), compared to those fed the basal diet. ADFI was not significantly influenced by dietary oregano essential oil and vitamin C ( P > 0.05). Supplemental oregano essential oil and vitamin C in a combined form decreased the serum concentration of corticosterone, triglycerides, glucose, and MDA ( P < 0.05) compared with other groups. An increase in the serum concentrations of vitamin C were seen in broiler chicks supplemented with vitamin C. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined oregano essential oil and vitamin C could have beneficial effects on some blood parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress condition.

  7. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Idaho Department of Fish and Game Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2000-10-12

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE), is proposing to fund the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon Program (IDFG Program). The IDFG Program is a small-scale research and production initiative designed to increase numbers of three weak but recoverable populations of spring/summer chinook salmon in the Salmon River drainage. This would increase numbers of spring/summer chinook salmon within the Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU), and reduce population fragmentation within the ESU. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1301) evaluating the proposed IDFG Program. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, as defined within the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  8. The effects of different levels of Chlorella microalgae on blood biochemical parameters and trace mineral concentrations of laying hens reared under heat stress condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi kor, Nasroallah; Akbari, Mohsen; Olfati, Ali

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different supplementation levels of Chlorella microalgae on serum metabolites and the plasma content of minerals in laying hens reared under heat stress condition (27.5-36.7 °C, variable). A total number of 378 (40 weeks of age, with mean body weight of 1390 ± 120 g) were randomly allocated to six treatments with seven replicates. The birds were randomly assigned to 6 treatments (C, T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5) with 7 replicate cages of 9 birds. C. microalgae at the rates of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm with water were offered to groups T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, while group C served as a control. At 71 days of trial, blood samples (14 samples per treatment) were taken for measuring serum metabolites and at 72 days for plasma mineral analysis. The results of this experiment showed that the supplementation of 200-500 ppm C. microalgae decreased the serum content of cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL ( P < 0.05) whereas HDL content increased ( P < 0.05) in the hens supplemented with C. microalgae (300 or 400 and 500 ppm). C. microalgae at rates of 300-500 ppm caused a marked ( P < 0.05) increase in the plasma content of manganese or iodine and selenium but other minerals were not statistically different among treatments. Overall, from the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that supplementation of C. microalgae at high rates was beneficial on blood parameters of laying hens reared under heat stress.

  9. The effects of different levels of Chlorella microalgae on blood biochemical parameters and trace mineral concentrations of laying hens reared under heat stress condition.

    PubMed

    Moradi kor, Nasroallah; Akbari, Mohsen; Olfati, Ali

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different supplementation levels of Chlorella microalgae on serum metabolites and the plasma content of minerals in laying hens reared under heat stress condition (27.5-36.7 °C, variable). A total number of 378 (40 weeks of age, with mean body weight of 1390 ± 120 g) were randomly allocated to six treatments with seven replicates. The birds were randomly assigned to 6 treatments (C, T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5) with 7 replicate cages of 9 birds. C. microalgae at the rates of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm with water were offered to groups T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, while group C served as a control. At 71 days of trial, blood samples (14 samples per treatment) were taken for measuring serum metabolites and at 72 days for plasma mineral analysis. The results of this experiment showed that the supplementation of 200-500 ppm C. microalgae decreased the serum content of cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL (P < 0.05) whereas HDL content increased (P < 0.05) in the hens supplemented with C. microalgae (300 or 400 and 500 ppm). C. microalgae at rates of 300-500 ppm caused a marked (P < 0.05) increase in the plasma content of manganese or iodine and selenium but other minerals were not statistically different among treatments. Overall, from the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that supplementation of C. microalgae at high rates was beneficial on blood parameters of laying hens reared under heat stress. PMID:26431701

  10. Lunar Polar Environmental Testing: Regolith Simulant Conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhenz, Julie Elise

    2014-01-01

    As ISRU system development approaches flight fidelity, there is a need to test hardware in relevant environments. Extensive laboratory and field testing have involved relevant soil (lunar regolith simulants), but the current design iterations necessitate relevant pressure and temperature conditions. Including significant quantities of lunar regolith simulant in a thermal vacuum chamber poses unique challenges. These include facility operational challenges (dust tolerant hardware) and difficulty maintaining a pre-prepared soil state during pump down (consolidation state, moisture retention).For ISRU purposes, the regolith at the lunar poles will be of most interest due to the elevated water content. To test at polar conditions, the regolith simulant must be doped with water to an appropriate percentage and then chilled to cryogenic temperatures while exposed to vacuum conditions. A 1m tall, 28cm diameter bin of simulant was developed for testing these simulant preparation and drilling operations. The bin itself was wrapped with liquid nitrogen cooling loops (100K) so that the simulant bed reached an average temperature of 140K at vacuum. Post-test sampling was used to determine desiccation of the bed due to vacuum exposure. Depth dependent moisture data is presented from frozen and thawed soil samples.Following simulant only evacuation tests, drill hardware was incorporated into the vacuum chamber to test auguring techniques in the frozen soil at thermal vacuum conditions. The focus of this testing was to produce cuttings piles for a newly developed spectrometer to evaluate. This instrument, which is part of the RESOLVE program science hardware, detects water signatures from surface regolith. The drill performance, behavior of simulant during drilling, and characteristics of the cuttings piles will be offered.

  11. Enhancing the stability and ecological safety of mass-reared transgenic strains for field release by redundant conditional lethality systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advances in the genetic manipulation of agriculturally important insects now allows the development of genetic sexing and male sterility systems for more highly efficient biologically-based population control programs, most notably SIT, in fruit pests throughout the world. Potentially, these condit...

  12. Rear shape in 3 dimensions summarized by principal component analysis is a good predictor of body condition score in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fischer, A; Luginbühl, T; Delattre, L; Delouard, J M; Faverdin, P

    2015-07-01

    Body condition is an indirect estimation of the level of body reserves, and its variation reflects cumulative variation in energy balance. It interacts with reproductive and health performance, which are important to consider in dairy production but not easy to monitor. The commonly used body condition score (BCS) is time consuming, subjective, and not very sensitive. The aim was therefore to develop and validate a method assessing BCS with 3-dimensional (3D) surfaces of the cow's rear. A camera captured 3D shapes 2 m from the floor in a weigh station at the milking parlor exit. The BCS was scored by 3 experts on the same day as 3D imaging. Four anatomical landmarks had to be identified manually on each 3D surface to define a space centered on the cow's rear. A set of 57 3D surfaces from 56 Holstein dairy cows was selected to cover a large BCS range (from 0.5 to 4.75 on a 0 to 5 scale) to calibrate 3D surfaces on BCS. After performing a principal component analysis on this data set, multiple linear regression was fitted on the coordinates of these surfaces in the principal components' space to assess BCS. The validation was performed on 2 external data sets: one with cows used for calibration, but at a different lactation stage, and one with cows not used for calibration. Additionally, 6 cows were scanned once and their surfaces processed 8 times each for repeatability and then these cows were scanned 8 times each the same day for reproducibility. The selected model showed perfect calibration and a good but weaker validation (root mean square error=0.31 for the data set with cows used for calibration; 0.32 for the data set with cows not used for calibration). Assessing BCS with 3D surfaces was 3 times more repeatable (standard error=0.075 versus 0.210 for BCS) and 2.8 times more reproducible than manually scored BCS (standard error=0.103 versus 0.280 for BCS). The prediction error was similar for both validation data sets, indicating that the method is not less

  13. ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLIER ORGANIC TRANSFORMATIONS ON MINERAL SUPPORTS UNDER NONTRADITIONAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic organic reactions performed under non-traditional conditions are gaining popularity primarily to circumvent the growing environmental concerns. A solvent-free approach that involves microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) either in presence of a catalyst o...

  14. Flexible DCP interface. [environmental sensor and signal conditioning interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T.; Schimmelpfenning, H.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A user of an ERTS data collection system (DCS) must supply the sensors and signal-conditioning interface. The electronic interface must be compatible with the NASA-furnished data collection platform. A universal signal-conditioning system for use with a wide range of environmental sensors is described. The interface is environmentally and electronically compatible with the DCP and has operated satisfactorily for a complete winter wheat growing season in Kansas.

  15. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at King Salmon, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is conducting preliminary environmental assessments at most of its present or former facilities in Alaska. Information about environmental conditions at King Salmon, Alaska are presented in this report. This report gives an overview of the geology, hydro- logy, and climate of the King Salmon area and describes general geohydrologic conditions. A thick alluvial aquifer underlies King Salmon and both ground water and surface water are plentiful in the area.

  16. Maternal presence and rearing condition affect responses to a live predator in kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni arenae).

    PubMed

    Yoerg, S I; Shier, D M

    1997-12-01

    Experiment 1 compared the responses of wild-caught adult and captive-born adult and juvenile kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni arenae) to a live snake. Wild-caught adult rats were less active and monitored the snake more than during a control condition; captive-born juvenile rats did not behave differently during snake and control tests. Snake-naive adult rats behaved more like the wild-caught adult rats, but not on all measures. In Experiment 2, pups were tested at 25 and 50 days of age in 4 conditions: no-snake control, alone with the snake, with a sibling and the snake, and with the mother and the snake. Pups did not behave differently during control and snake tests, but during tests with the mother, pups faced the snake less and followed the mother. Younger pups were more often near the mother than a sibling and followed the mother more when the snake was present. Development of defensive behavior may depend on both predator experience and maternal influence.

  17. Affluence and objective environmental conditions: Evidence of differences in environmental concern in metropolitan Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Guedes, Gilvan; do Carmo, Roberto Luiz

    2016-01-01

    In an age of climate change, researchers need to form a deepened understanding of the determinants of environmental concern, particularly in countries of emerging economies. This paper provides a region-specific investigation of the impact of socio-economic status (SES) and objective environmental conditions on environmental concern in urban Brazil. We make use of data that were collected from personal interviews of individuals living in the metropolitan areas of Baixada Santista and Campinas, in the larger São Paulo area. Results from multilevel regression models indicate that wealthier households are more environmentally concerned, as suggested by affluence and post-materialist hypotheses. However, we also observe that increasing environmental concern correlates with a decline in objective environmental conditions. Interactions between objective environmental conditions and SES reveal some intriguing relationships: Among poorer individuals, a decline in environmental conditions increases environmental concern as suggested by the objective problems hypothesis, while for the wealthy, a decline in environmental conditions is associated with lower levels of environmental concern.

  18. Affluence and objective environmental conditions: Evidence of differences in environmental concern in metropolitan Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Guedes, Gilvan; do Carmo, Roberto Luiz

    2016-01-01

    In an age of climate change, researchers need to form a deepened understanding of the determinants of environmental concern, particularly in countries of emerging economies. This paper provides a region-specific investigation of the impact of socio-economic status (SES) and objective environmental conditions on environmental concern in urban Brazil. We make use of data that were collected from personal interviews of individuals living in the metropolitan areas of Baixada Santista and Campinas, in the larger São Paulo area. Results from multilevel regression models indicate that wealthier households are more environmentally concerned, as suggested by affluence and post-materialist hypotheses. However, we also observe that increasing environmental concern correlates with a decline in objective environmental conditions. Interactions between objective environmental conditions and SES reveal some intriguing relationships: Among poorer individuals, a decline in environmental conditions increases environmental concern as suggested by the objective problems hypothesis, while for the wealthy, a decline in environmental conditions is associated with lower levels of environmental concern. PMID:27594931

  19. Differential effects of origin and salinity rearing conditions on growth of glass eels of the American eel Anguilla rostrata: implications for stocking programmes.

    PubMed

    Côté, C L; Castonguay, M; Verreault, G; Bernatchez, L

    2009-06-01

    In this study, growth patterns were monitored in controlled fresh and brackish water (BW) conditions for 7 months during Anguilla rostrata glass eel and elver stages. Null hypotheses tested were that there is no significant difference in growth between glass eels (1) collected from two geographic regions typified by different sex ratios, (2) reared in fresh and BW and (3) due to origin x salinity interactions. It was found that young A. rostrata from Mira River (MR, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Canada, an area where both males and females occur) grew faster than those from Grande-Rivière-Blanche (Québec, Canada, an area where population are highly skewed towards females; 99-100%). Anguilla rostrata from both origins also grew faster in BW, although there was a trend for origin x salinity interactions whereby this effect was more pronounced for fish from the MR. The results support the hypothesis that salinity can influence growth patterns, as possibly can quantitative genetic differences between A. rostrata glass eels from different origins. Possible explanations for these patterns and potential consequences for sex determination and translocation programmes are discussed.

  20. Phaeobacter and Ruegeria species of the Roseobacter clade colonize separate niches in a Danish Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)-rearing farm and antagonize Vibrio anguillarum under different growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Porsby, Cisse Hedegaard; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Gram, Lone

    2008-12-01

    Members of the Roseobacter clade colonize a Spanish turbot larval unit, and one isolate (Phaeobacter strain 27-4) is capable of disease suppression in in vivo challenge trials. Here, we demonstrate that roseobacters with antagonistic activity against Vibrio anguillarum also colonize a Danish turbot larval farm that relies on a very different water source (the Danish fiord Limfjorden as opposed to the Galician Atlantic Ocean). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and gyrase B gene sequences revealed that different species colonized different niches in the larval unit. Phaeobacter inhibens- and Phaeobacter gallaeciensis-like strains were primarily found in the production sites, whereas strains identified as Ruegeria mobilis or Ruegeria pelagia were found only in the algal cultures. Phaeobacter spp. were more inhibitory against the general microbiota from the Danish turbot larval unit than were the Ruegeria spp. Phaeobacter spp. produced tropodithietic acid (TDA) and brown pigment and antagonized V. anguillarum when grown under shaking (200 rpm) and stagnant (0 rpm) conditions, whereas Ruegeria spp. behaved similarly to Phaeobacter strain 27-4 and expressed these three phenotypes only during stagnant growth. Both genera attached to an inert surface and grew in multicellular rosettes after stagnant growth, whereas shaking conditions led to single cells with low attachment capacity. Bacteria from the Roseobacter clade appear to be universal colonizers of marine larval rearing units, and since the Danish Phaeobacter spp. displayed antibacterial activity under a broader range of growth conditions than did Phaeobacter strain 27-4, these organisms may hold greater promise as fish probiotic organisms.

  1. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and peppermint essential oil on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted using 240 female day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium picolinate (CrPic), peppermint essential oil (P.mint), or their combination on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of female broiler chicks raised under heat stress conditions (HS, 23.9 to 38 °C cycling). Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained from 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment (day 42), birds were bled to determine some blood biochemical parameters and weighed for final body weight (BW). ADFI, ADG, and BW were not influenced significantly by dietary CrPic and P.mint ( P > 0.05). A significant interaction between dietary CrPic and P.mint on FCR ( P = 0.012) was detected. FCR significantly decreased in chicks fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint compared with the CrPic group. Significant interaction between dietary P.mint and CrPic on serum concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and albumin were observed ( P < 0.05), but the other measured blood biochemical parameters were not statistically affected by dietary treatments ( P > 0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides were decreased ( P < 0.05) in broilers fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint. Plasma chromium (Cr) content increased significantly ( P < 0.05) in birds fed the CrPic-included diet compared with the control group ( P < 0.05). From the results of the present experiment it can be concluded that dietary supplementation with combined P.mint and CrPic could have beneficial effects on some blood biochemical parameters of female chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

  2. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and peppermint essential oil on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted using 240 female day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium picolinate (CrPic), peppermint essential oil (P.mint), or their combination on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of female broiler chicks raised under heat stress conditions (HS, 23.9 to 38 °C cycling). Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained from 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment (day 42), birds were bled to determine some blood biochemical parameters and weighed for final body weight (BW). ADFI, ADG, and BW were not influenced significantly by dietary CrPic and P.mint (P>0.05). A significant interaction between dietary CrPic and P.mint on FCR (P=0.012) was detected. FCR significantly decreased in chicks fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint compared with the CrPic group. Significant interaction between dietary P.mint and CrPic on serum concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and albumin were observed (P<0.05), but the other measured blood biochemical parameters were not statistically affected by dietary treatments (P>0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides were decreased (P<0.05) in broilers fed the diet including both CrPic and P.mint. Plasma chromium (Cr) content increased significantly (P<0.05) in birds fed the CrPic-included diet compared with the control group (P<0.05). From the results of the present experiment it can be concluded that dietary supplementation with combined P.mint and CrPic could have beneficial effects on some blood biochemical parameters of female chicks reared under heat stress conditions.

  3. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Native Ducks and Commercial Meat-type Ducks Raised under Same Feeding and Rearing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kwon, H J; Choo, Y K; Choi, Y I; Kim, E J; Kim, H K; Heo, K N; Choi, H C; Lee, S K; Kim, C J; Kim, B G; Kang, C W; An, B K

    2014-11-01

    This study was conducted to compare carcass characteristics and physico-chemical meat quality in two different genotype ducks raised under identical feeding and rearing conditions. A total of ninety 1-d-old Korean native ducks (KND, n = 45) and commercial meat-type ducks (Grimaud, n = 45) were fed same experimental diets during 56 d and 42 d, respectively to obtain similar slaughter weights. The experimental diet for starter period contained 20% crude protein (CP) and 2,900 kcal nitrogen corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn)/kg of diet and that for grower period contained 17% CP and 3,050 TMEn/kg of diet. Average daily gain and feed efficiency of KND were inferior to those of commercial meat-type ducks (p<0.05). Carcass weight was not different between two genetically different ducks, but carcass yield of KND was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of commercial meat-type ducks. There were no significant differences in cooking loss and pH of breast meat between two genetically different ducks, but water holding capacity of KND was significantly higher than that of commercial meat-type ducks. The linoleic acid and total polyunsaturated fatty acid of breast meat from KND were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the corresponding part from commercial meat-type ducks. Significant differences were detected in water holding capacity and the content of linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid, which were significantly higher in KND, whereas growth performance tended to be superior in commercial ducks. At the market weight, the meat from KND was judged to have better qualities with regard to higher water holding capacity and greater content of polyunsaturated fatty acid compare with meat from commercial meat-type duck.

  4. 10 CFR 50.36b - Environmental conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... nuclear power reactor facility for which the certification of permanent cessation of operations required... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental conditions. 50.36b Section 50.36b Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Applications...

  5. 10 CFR 50.36b - Environmental conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... nuclear power reactor facility for which the certification of permanent cessation of operations required... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental conditions. 50.36b Section 50.36b Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Applications...

  6. 10 CFR 50.36b - Environmental conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... nuclear power reactor facility for which the certification of permanent cessation of operations required... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental conditions. 50.36b Section 50.36b Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Applications...

  7. 10 CFR 50.36b - Environmental conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nuclear power reactor facility for which the certification of permanent cessation of operations required... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental conditions. 50.36b Section 50.36b Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Applications...

  8. 10 CFR 50.36b - Environmental conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... nuclear power reactor facility for which the certification of permanent cessation of operations required... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental conditions. 50.36b Section 50.36b Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Applications...

  9. Ceramic production during changing environmental/climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestreich, Daniela B.; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.

    2015-04-01

    Ceramics, with regard to their status as largely everlasting everyday object as well as on the basis of their chronological sensitivity, reflect despite their simplicity the technological level of a culture and therefore also, directly or indirectly, the adaptability of a culture with respect to environmental and/or climatic changes. For that reason the question arises, if it is possible to identify changes in production techniques and raw material sources for ceramic production, as a response to environmental change, e.g. climate change. This paper will present results of a research about Paracas Culture (800 - 200 BC), southern Peru. Through several investigations (e.g. Schittek et al., 2014; Eitel and Mächtle, 2009) it is well known that during Paracas period changes in climate and environmental conditions take place. As a consequence, settlement patterns shifted several times through the various stages of Paracas time. Ceramics from three different sites (Jauranga, Cutamalla, Collanco) and temporal phases of the Paracas period are detailed archaeometric, geochemical and mineralogical characterized, e.g. Raman spectroscopy, XRD, and ICP-MS analyses. The aim of this research is to resolve potential differences in the chemical composition of the Paracas ceramics in space and time and to compare the data with the data sets of pre-Columbian environmental conditions. Thus influences of changing environmental conditions on human societies and their cultural conditions will be discussed. References Eitel, B. and Mächtle, B. 2009. Man and Environment in the eastern Atacama Desert (Southern Peru): Holocene climate changes and their impact on pre-Columbian cultures. In: Reindel, M. & Wagner, G. A. (eds.) New Technologies for Archaeology. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. Schittek, K., Mächtle, B., Schäbitz, F., Forbriger, M., Wennrich, V., Reindel, M., and Eitel, B.. Holocene environmental changes in the highlands of the southern Peruvian Andes (14° S) and their

  10. Adverse environmental conditions influence age-related innate immune responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    May, Linda; van den Biggelaar, Anita HJ; van Bodegom, David; Meij, Hans J; de Craen, Anton JM; Amankwa, Joseph; Frölich, Marijke; Kuningas, Maris; Westendorp, Rudi GJ

    2009-01-01

    Background- The innate immune system plays an important role in the recognition and induction of protective responses against infectious pathogens, whilst there is increasing evidence for a role in mediating chronic inflammatory diseases at older age. Despite indications that environmental conditions can influence the senescence process of the adaptive immune system, it is not known whether the same holds true for the innate immune system. Therefore we studied whether age-related innate immune responses are similar or differ between populations living under very diverse environmental conditions. Methods- We compared cross-sectional age-related changes in ex vivo innate cytokine responses in a population living under affluent conditions in the Netherlands (age 20–68 years old, n = 304) and a population living under adverse environmental conditions in Ghana (age 23–95 years old, n = 562). Results- We found a significant decrease in LPS-induced Interleukin (IL)-10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) production with age in the Dutch population. In Ghana a similar age-related decline in IL-10 responses to LPS, as well as to zymosan, or LPS plus zymosan, was observed. TNF production, however, did not show an age-associated decline, but increased significantly with age in response to co-stimulation with LPS and zymosan. Conclusion- We conclude that the decline in innate cytokine responses is an intrinsic ageing phenomenon, while pathogen exposure and/or selective survival drive pro-inflammatory responses under adverse living conditions. PMID:19480711

  11. Environmental Conditions for Space Flight Hardware: A Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannette; Lee, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    Interest in generalization of the physical environment experienced by NASA hardware from the natural Earth environment (on the launch pad), man-made environment on Earth (storage acceptance an d qualification testing), the launch environment, and the space environment, is ed to find commonality among our hardware in an effort to reduce cost and complexity. NASA is entering a period of increase in its number of planetary missions and it is important to understand how our qualification requirements will evolve with and track these new environments. Environmental conditions are described for NASA projects in several ways for the different periods of the mission life cycle. At the beginning, the mission manager defines survivability requirements based on the mission length, orbit, launch date, launch vehicle, and other factors . such as the use of reactor engines. Margins are then applied to these values (temperature extremes, vibration extremes, radiation tolerances, etc,) and a new set of conditions is generalized for design requirements. Mission assurance documents will then assign an additional margin for reliability, and a third set of values is provided for during testing. A fourth set of environmental condition values may evolve intermittently from heritage hardware that has been tested to a level beyond the actual mission requirement. These various sets of environment figures can make it quite confusing and difficult to capture common hardware environmental requirements. Environmental requirement information can be found in a wide variety of places. The most obvious is with the individual projects. We can easily get answers to questions about temperature extremes being used and radiation tolerance goals, but it is more difficult to map the answers to the process that created these requirements: for design, for qualification, and for actual environment with no margin applied. Not everyone assigned to a NASA project may have that kind of insight, as many have

  12. Biological responses to environmental heterogeneity under future ocean conditions.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Philip W; Cornwall, Christopher E; Davison, Andrew; Doney, Scott C; Fourquez, Marion; Hurd, Catriona L; Lima, Ivan D; McMinn, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Organisms are projected to face unprecedented rates of change in future ocean conditions due to anthropogenic climate-change. At present, marine life encounters a wide range of environmental heterogeneity from natural fluctuations to mean climate change. Manipulation studies suggest that biota from more variable marine environments have more phenotypic plasticity to tolerate environmental heterogeneity. Here, we consider current strategies employed by a range of representative organisms across various habitats - from short-lived phytoplankton to long-lived corals - in response to environmental heterogeneity. We then discuss how, if and when organismal responses (acclimate/migrate/adapt) may be altered by shifts in the magnitude of the mean climate-change signal relative to that for natural fluctuations projected for coming decades. The findings from both novel climate-change modelling simulations and prior biological manipulation studies, in which natural fluctuations are superimposed on those of mean change, provide valuable insights into organismal responses to environmental heterogeneity. Manipulations reveal that different experimental outcomes are evident between climate-change treatments which include natural fluctuations vs. those which do not. Modelling simulations project that the magnitude of climate variability, along with mean climate change, will increase in coming decades, and hence environmental heterogeneity will increase, illustrating the need for more realistic biological manipulation experiments that include natural fluctuations. However, simulations also strongly suggest that the timescales over which the mean climate-change signature will become dominant, relative to natural fluctuations, will vary for individual properties, being most rapid for CO2 (~10 years from present day) to 4 decades for nutrients. We conclude that the strategies used by biota to respond to shifts in environmental heterogeneity may be complex, as they will have to

  13. Rearing environment affects development of the immune system in neonates.

    PubMed

    Inman, C F; Haverson, K; Konstantinov, S R; Jones, P H; Harris, C; Smidt, H; Miller, B; Bailey, M; Stokes, C

    2010-06-01

    Early-life exposure to appropriate microbial flora drives expansion and development of an efficient immune system. Aberrant development results in increased likelihood of allergic disease or increased susceptibility to infection. Thus, factors affecting microbial colonization may also affect the direction of immune responses in later life. There is a need for a manipulable animal model of environmental influences on the development of microbiota and the immune system during early life. We assessed the effects of rearing under low- (farm, sow) and high-hygiene (isolator, milk formula) conditions on intestinal microbiota and immune development in neonatal piglets, because they can be removed from the mother in the first 24 h for rearing under controlled conditions and, due to placental structure, neither antibody nor antigen is transferred in utero. Microbiota in both groups was similar between 2 and 5 days. However, by 12-28 days, piglets reared on the mother had more diverse flora than siblings reared in isolators. Dendritic cells accumulated in the intestinal mucosa in both groups, but more rapidly in isolator piglets. Importantly, the minority of 2-5-day-old farm piglets whose microbiota resembled that of an older (12-28-day-old) pig also accumulated dendritic cells earlier than the other farm-reared piglets. Consistent with dendritic cell control of T cell function, the effects on T cells occurred at later time-points, and mucosal T cells from high-hygiene, isolator pigs made less interleukin (IL)-4 while systemic T cells made more IL-2. Neonatal piglets may be a valuable model for studies of the effects of interaction between microbiota and immune development on allergy.

  14. Dependence of Cumulus Anvil Radiative Properties on Environmental Conditions in the Tropical West Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ye, B.; DelGenio, A. D.

    1999-01-01

    Areally extensive, optically thick anvil clouds associated with mesoscale convective clusters dominate the shortwave cloud forcing in the tropics and provide longwave forcing comparable to that of thin cirrus. Changes in the cover and optical thickness of tropical anvils as climate warms can regulate the sign of cloud feedback. As a prelude to the study of MMCR data from the ARM TWP sites, we analyze ISCCP-derived radiative characteristics of anvils observed in the tropical west Pacific during the TOGA-COARE IOP. Anvils with radius greater than 100 km were identified and tracked from inception to decay using the Machado-Rossow algorithm. Corresponding environmental conditions just prior to the start of the convectove event were diagnosed using the Lin-Johnson objective analysis product. Small clusters (100-200 km radius) are observed to have a broad range of optical thicknesses (10-50), while intermediate optical thickness clusters are observed to range in size from 100 km to almost 1000 km. Large-size clusters appear to be favored by strong pre-storm large scale upward motion throughout the troposphere, moist low-to-midlevel relative humidities, environments with slightly higher CAPE than those for smaller clusters, and strong front-to-rear flow. Optically thick anvils are favored in situations of strong low-level moisture convergence and strong upper-level shear.

  15. Interacting effects of translocation, artificial propagation, and environmental conditions on the marine survival of Chinook salmon from the Columbia River, Washington, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Holsman, Kirstin K; Scheuerell, Mark D; Buhle, Eric; Emmett, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Captive rearing and translocation are often used concurrently for species conservation, yet the effects of these practices can interact and lead to unintended outcomes that may undermine species' recovery efforts. Controls in translocation or artificial-propagation programs are uncommon; thus, there have been few studies on the interacting effects of these actions and environmental conditions on survival. The Columbia River basin, which drains 668,000 km(2) of the western United States and Canada, has an extensive network of hydroelectric and other dams, which impede and slow migration of anadromous Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and can increase mortality rates. To mitigate for hydrosystem-induced mortality during juvenile downriver migration, tens of millions of hatchery fish are released each year and a subset of wild- and hatchery-origin juveniles are translocated downstream beyond the hydropower system. We considered how the results of these practices interact with marine environmental conditions to affect the marine survival of Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha). We analyzed data from more than 1 million individually tagged fish from 1998 through 2006 to evaluate the probability of an individual fish returning as an adult relative to its rearing (hatchery vs. wild) and translocation histories (translocated vs. in-river migrating fish that traveled downriver through the hydropower system) and a suite of environmental variables. Except during select periods of very low river flow, marine survival of wild translocated fish was approximately two-thirds less than survival of wild in-river migrating fish. For hatchery fish, however, survival was roughly two times higher for translocated fish than for in-river migrants. Competition and predator aggregation negatively affected marine survival, and the magnitude of survival depended on rearing and translocation histories and biological and physical conditions encountered during their first few weeks of residence in

  16. Environmental conditions influence tissue regeneration rates in scleractinian corals.

    PubMed

    Sabine, Alexis M; Smith, Tyler B; Williams, Dana E; Brandt, Marilyn E

    2015-06-15

    Natural and anthropogenic factors may influence corals' ability to recover from partial mortality. To examine how environmental conditions affect lesion healing, we assessed several water quality parameters and tissue regeneration rates in corals at six reefs around St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. We hypothesized that sites closer to developed areas would have poor water quality due to proximity to anthropogenic stresses, which would impede tissue regeneration. We found that water flow and turbidity most strongly influenced lesion recovery rates. The most impacted site, with high turbidity and low flow, recovered almost three times slower than the least impacted site, with low turbidity, high flow, and low levels of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results illustrate that in addition to lesion-specific factors known to affect tissue regeneration, environmental conditions can also control corals' healing rates. Resource managers can use this information to protect low-flow, turbid nearshore reefs by minimizing sources of anthropogenic stress.

  17. Gene expression changes in the olfactory bulb of mice induced by exposure to diesel exhaust are dependent on animal rearing environment.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Satoshi; Hori, Hiroshi; Umezawa, Masakazu; Kubota, Natsuko; Niki, Rikio; Yanagita, Shinya; Takeda, Ken

    2013-01-01

    There is an emerging concern that particulate air pollution increases the risk of cranial nerve disease onset. Small nanoparticles, mainly derived from diesel exhaust particles reach the olfactory bulb by their nasal depositions. It has been reported that diesel exhaust inhalation causes inflammation of the olfactory bulb and other brain regions. However, these toxicological studies have not evaluated animal rearing environment. We hypothesized that rearing environment can change mice phenotypes and thus might alter toxicological study results. In this study, we exposed mice to diesel exhaust inhalation at 90 µg/m(3), 8 hours/day, for 28 consecutive days after rearing in a standard cage or environmental enrichment conditions. Microarray analysis found that expression levels of 112 genes were changed by diesel exhaust inhalation. Functional analysis using Gene Ontology revealed that the dysregulated genes were involved in inflammation and immune response. This result was supported by pathway analysis. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed 10 genes. Interestingly, background gene expression of the olfactory bulb of mice reared in a standard cage environment was changed by diesel exhaust inhalation, whereas there was no significant effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression levels of mice reared with environmental enrichment. The results indicate for the first time that the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression of the olfactory bulb was influenced by rearing environment. Rearing environment, such as environmental enrichment, may be an important contributive factor to causation in evaluating still undefined toxic environmental substances such as diesel exhaust.

  18. Modelling mould growth under suboptimal environmental conditions and inoculum size.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Daiana; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, Vicente; Marín, Sonia

    2010-10-01

    Predictive models can be a tool to develop strategies to prevent mould development and consequently mycotoxin production. The aims of this work were to assess the impact of a) high/low levels of inoculum and b) optimal/suboptimal environmental conditions on fungal responses based on both kinetic and probabilistic models. Different levels of spore suspensions of Aspergillus carbonarius and Penicillium expansum were prepared and inoculated centrally with a needlepoint load on malt extract agar (MEA) with 50 replicates. While optimum conditions led to a colony diameter increase which followed Baranyi's function, suboptimal conditions led to different grow functions. In general, growth rate (mu) and lag phase (lambda) were normally distributed. Specifically, the growth rate (mu) showed similar distributions under optimal growth conditions, regardless of the inoculum level, while suboptimal a(w) and temperature conditions led to higher kurtosis distributions, mainly when the inoculum levels were low. Regarding lambda, more skewed distributions were observed, mainly when the inoculum levels were low. Probability models were not much affected by the inoculum size. Lower probabilities of growth were in general predicted under marginal conditions at a given time for both strains. The slopes of the probability curves were smaller under suboptimal growth conditions due to wider distributions. Results showed that a low inoculum level and suboptimal conditions lead to high variability of the estimated growth parameters and growth probability.

  19. Can environmental conditions experienced in early life influence future generations?

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Tim; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of early developmental conditions for performance in later life are now subjected to convergent interest from many different biological sub-disciplines. However, striking data, largely from the biomedical literature, show that environmental effects experienced even before conception can be transmissible to subsequent generations. Here, we review the growing evidence from natural systems for these cross-generational effects of early life conditions, showing that they can be generated by diverse environmental stressors, affect offspring in many ways and can be transmitted directly or indirectly by both parental lines for several generations. In doing so, we emphasize why early life might be so sensitive to the transmission of environmentally induced effects across generations. We also summarize recent theoretical advancements within the field of developmental plasticity, and discuss how parents might assemble different ‘internal’ and ‘external’ cues, even from the earliest stages of life, to instruct their investment decisions in offspring. In doing so, we provide a preliminary framework within the context of adaptive plasticity for understanding inter-generational phenomena that arise from early life conditions. PMID:24807254

  20. Protection of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria exposed to simulated Mars environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Felipe; Mateo-Martí, Eva; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martín-Gago, Jose; Amils, Ricardo

    2010-10-01

    Current surface conditions (strong oxidative atmosphere, UV radiation, low temperatures and xeric conditions) on Mars are considered extremely challenging for life. The question is whether there are any features on Mars that could exert a protective effect against the sterilizing conditions detected on its surface. Potential habitability in the subsurface would increase if the overlaying material played a protective role. With the aim of evaluating this possibility we studied the viability of two microorganisms under different conditions in a Mars simulation chamber. An acidophilic chemolithotroph isolated from Río Tinto belonging to the Acidithiobacillus genus and Deinococcus radiodurans, a radiation resistant microorganism, were exposed to simulated Mars conditions under the protection of a layer of ferric oxides and hydroxides, a Mars regolith analogue. Samples of these microorganisms were exposed to UV radiation in Mars atmospheric conditions at different time intervals under the protection of 2 and 5 mm layers of oxidized iron minerals. Viability was evaluated by inoculation on fresh media and characterization of their growth cultures. Here we report the survival capability of both bacteria to simulated Mars environmental conditions.

  1. The effect and role of environmental conditions on magnetosome synthesis.

    PubMed

    Moisescu, Cristina; Ardelean, Ioan I; Benning, Liane G

    2014-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are considered the model species for the controlled biomineralization of magnetic Fe oxide (magnetite, Fe3O4) or Fe sulfide (greigite, Fe3S4) nanocrystals in living organisms. In MTB, magnetic minerals form as membrane-bound, single-magnetic domain crystals known as magnetosomes and the synthesis of magnetosomes by MTB is a highly controlled process at the genetic level. Magnetosome crystals reveal highest purity and highest quality magnetic properties and are therefore increasingly sought after as novel nanoparticulate biomaterials for industrial and medical applications. In addition, "magnetofossils," have been used as both past terrestrial and potential Martian life biosignature. However, until recently, the general belief was that the morphology of mature magnetite crystals formed by MTB was largely unaffected by environmental conditions. Here we review a series of studies that showed how changes in environmental factors such as temperature, pH, external Fe concentration, external magnetic fields, static or dynamic fluid conditions, and nutrient availability or concentrations can all affect the biomineralization of magnetite magnetosomes in MTB. The resulting variations in magnetic nanocrystals characteristics can have consequence both for their commercial value but also for their use as indicators for ancient life. In this paper we will review the recent findings regarding the influence of variable chemical and physical environmental control factors on the synthesis of magnetosome by MTB, and address the role of MTB in the global biogeochemical cycling of iron. PMID:24575087

  2. The effect and role of environmental conditions on magnetosome synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Moisescu, Cristina; Ardelean, Ioan I.; Benning, Liane G.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are considered the model species for the controlled biomineralization of magnetic Fe oxide (magnetite, Fe3O4) or Fe sulfide (greigite, Fe3S4) nanocrystals in living organisms. In MTB, magnetic minerals form as membrane-bound, single-magnetic domain crystals known as magnetosomes and the synthesis of magnetosomes by MTB is a highly controlled process at the genetic level. Magnetosome crystals reveal highest purity and highest quality magnetic properties and are therefore increasingly sought after as novel nanoparticulate biomaterials for industrial and medical applications. In addition, “magnetofossils,” have been used as both past terrestrial and potential Martian life biosignature. However, until recently, the general belief was that the morphology of mature magnetite crystals formed by MTB was largely unaffected by environmental conditions. Here we review a series of studies that showed how changes in environmental factors such as temperature, pH, external Fe concentration, external magnetic fields, static or dynamic fluid conditions, and nutrient availability or concentrations can all affect the biomineralization of magnetite magnetosomes in MTB. The resulting variations in magnetic nanocrystals characteristics can have consequence both for their commercial value but also for their use as indicators for ancient life. In this paper we will review the recent findings regarding the influence of variable chemical and physical environmental control factors on the synthesis of magnetosome by MTB, and address the role of MTB in the global biogeochemical cycling of iron. PMID:24575087

  3. Odors eliciting fear: a conditioning approach to Idiopathic Environmental Intolerances.

    PubMed

    Leer, Arne; Smeets, Monique A M; Bulsing, Patricia J; van den Hout, Marcel A

    2011-06-01

    Patients suffering from Idiopathic Environmental Intolerances (IEI) report health symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, which are triggered by harmless odors and therefore medically unexplainable. In line with previous research that predominantly points towards psychological explanations, the present study tests the hypothesis that IEI symptoms result from learning via classical conditioning of odors to fear. A differential conditioning paradigm was employed. Hedonically different odors were compared on ease of fear acquisition. Conditioned stimuli (CSs) were Dimethyl Sulfide (unpleasant) and peach (pleasant). The unconditioned stimulus (US) was an electrical shock. During acquisition one odor (CS+) was followed by shock, while the other odor (CS-) was not. Next, fear extinction was tested by presenting both CS+ and CS- without US. Electrodermal response, odor evaluation, and sniffing behavior were monitored. Results showed successful fear conditioning irrespective of hedonic character as evidenced by electrodermal response. Acquired fear did not extinguish. There was no evidence of evaluative conditioning taking place, as CS evaluation did not change during fear acquisition. Early avoidance of the CS+, as deduced from odor inhalation measures, was demonstrated, but did not sustain during the entire acquisition phase. This study suggests that a fear conditioning account of IEI is only partially satisfactory.

  4. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at Dillingham, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palcsak, Betty B.; Dorava, Joseph M.

    1994-01-01

    The remote city of Dillingham is at the northern end of Bristol Bay in southwestern Alaska. The hydrology of the area is strongly affected by the mild maritime climate and local geologic conditions. Dillingham residents obtain drinking water from both deep and shallow aquifers composed of gravels and sands and separated by layers of clay underlying the community. Alternative sources of drinking water are limited to the development of new wells because surface-water sources are of inadequate quantity or quality or are located at too great a distance from the population. The Federal Aviation Administration owns or operates airway support facilities in Dillingham and wishes to consider the severity of contamination and the current environmental setting when they evaluate options for compliance with environmental regulations at their facilities. This report describes the climate. vegetation, geology, soils, ground-water and surface-water hydrology, and flood potential of the areas surrounding the Federal Aviation Administration facilities near Dillingham.

  5. Ecological Conditions Favoring Budding in Colonial Organisms under Environmental Disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Nakamaru, Mayuko; Takada, Takenori; Ohtsuki, Akiko; Suzuki, Sayaki U.; Miura, Kanan; Tsuji, Kazuki

    2014-01-01

    Dispersal is a topic of great interest in ecology. Many organisms adopt one of two distinct dispersal tactics at reproduction: the production of small offspring that can disperse over long distances (such as seeds and spawned eggs), or budding. The latter is observed in some colonial organisms, such as clonal plants, corals and ants, in which (super)organisms split their body into components of relatively large size that disperse to a short distance. Contrary to the common dispersal viewpoint, short-dispersal colonial organisms often flourish even in environments with frequent disturbances. In this paper, we investigate the conditions that favor budding over long-distance dispersal of small offspring, focusing on the life history of the colony growth and the colony division ratio. These conditions are the relatively high mortality of very small colonies, logistic growth, the ability of dispersers to peacefully seek and settle unoccupied spaces, and small spatial scale of environmental disturbance. If these conditions hold, budding is advantageous even when environmental disturbance is frequent. These results suggest that the demography or life history of the colony underlies the behaviors of the colonial organisms. PMID:24621824

  6. Impaired visual memory in rats reared in isolation is reversed by D-cycloserine in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Strømme Johannesen, Tone; Myhrer, Trond

    2002-02-15

    Previous studies have shown that environmental factors can influence cholinergic and glutamatergic activity in the developing brain, and that the variations in neurochemistry are accompanied by behavioral changes in later life. Rats reared in isolated, social, or enriched environments were tested with a visual discrimination task in adulthood. The results show that saline-treated rats reared in isolation exhibited impaired retention of the discrimination task compared to rats raised in social or enriched environments. However, systemic administration of the NMDA receptor agonist, D-cycloserine (3 mg/kg), restored normal memory function in cognitively impoverished rats. Acquisition of the task was not affected by the rearing conditions. D-Cycloserine is considered to be an efficient cognitive enhancer probably able to compensate for assumed loss of NMDA receptors during isolated rearing. PMID:11864642

  7. Assessing environmental conditions of Antarctic footpaths to support management decisions.

    PubMed

    Tejedo, Pablo; Benayas, Javier; Cajiao, Daniela; Albertos, Belén; Lara, Francisco; Pertierra, Luis R; Andrés-Abellán, Manuela; Wic, Consuelo; Luciáñez, Maria José; Enríquez, Natalia; Justel, Ana; Reck, Günther K

    2016-07-15

    Thousands of tourists visit certain Antarctic sites each year, generating a wide variety of environmental impacts. Scientific knowledge of human activities and their impacts can help in the effective design of management measures and impact mitigation. We present a case study from Barrientos Island in which a management measure was originally put in place with the goal of minimizing environmental impacts but resulted in new undesired impacts. Two alternative footpaths used by tourist groups were compared. Both affected extensive moss carpets that cover the middle part of the island and that are very vulnerable to trampling. The first path has been used by tourists and scientists since over a decade and is a marked route that is clearly visible. The second one was created more recently. Several physical and biological indicators were measured in order to assess the environmental conditions for both paths. Some physical variables related to human impact were lower for the first path (e.g. soil penetration resistance and secondary treads), while other biochemical and microbiological variables were higher for the second path (e.g. β-glucosidase and phosphatase activities, soil respiration). Moss communities located along the new path were also more diverse and sensitive to trampling. Soil biota (Collembola) was also more abundant and richer. These data indicate that the decision to adopt the second path did not lead to the reduction of environmental impacts as this path runs over a more vulnerable area with more outstanding biological features (e.g. microbiota activity, flora and soil fauna diversity). In addition, the adoption of a new route effectively doubles the human footprint on the island. We propose using only the original path that is less vulnerable to the impacts of trampling. Finally from this process, we identify several key issues that may be taken into account when carrying out impact assessment and environmental management decision-making in the

  8. Assessing environmental conditions of Antarctic footpaths to support management decisions.

    PubMed

    Tejedo, Pablo; Benayas, Javier; Cajiao, Daniela; Albertos, Belén; Lara, Francisco; Pertierra, Luis R; Andrés-Abellán, Manuela; Wic, Consuelo; Luciáñez, Maria José; Enríquez, Natalia; Justel, Ana; Reck, Günther K

    2016-07-15

    Thousands of tourists visit certain Antarctic sites each year, generating a wide variety of environmental impacts. Scientific knowledge of human activities and their impacts can help in the effective design of management measures and impact mitigation. We present a case study from Barrientos Island in which a management measure was originally put in place with the goal of minimizing environmental impacts but resulted in new undesired impacts. Two alternative footpaths used by tourist groups were compared. Both affected extensive moss carpets that cover the middle part of the island and that are very vulnerable to trampling. The first path has been used by tourists and scientists since over a decade and is a marked route that is clearly visible. The second one was created more recently. Several physical and biological indicators were measured in order to assess the environmental conditions for both paths. Some physical variables related to human impact were lower for the first path (e.g. soil penetration resistance and secondary treads), while other biochemical and microbiological variables were higher for the second path (e.g. β-glucosidase and phosphatase activities, soil respiration). Moss communities located along the new path were also more diverse and sensitive to trampling. Soil biota (Collembola) was also more abundant and richer. These data indicate that the decision to adopt the second path did not lead to the reduction of environmental impacts as this path runs over a more vulnerable area with more outstanding biological features (e.g. microbiota activity, flora and soil fauna diversity). In addition, the adoption of a new route effectively doubles the human footprint on the island. We propose using only the original path that is less vulnerable to the impacts of trampling. Finally from this process, we identify several key issues that may be taken into account when carrying out impact assessment and environmental management decision-making in the

  9. Environmental conditions and Puumala virus transmission in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Linard, Catherine; Tersago, Katrien; Leirs, Herwig; Lambin, Eric F

    2007-01-01

    Background Non-vector-borne zoonoses such as Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) can be transmitted directly, by physical contact between infected and susceptible hosts, or indirectly, with the environment as an intermediate. The objective of this study is to better understand the causal link between environmental features and PUUV prevalence in bank vole population in Belgium, and hence with transmission risk to humans. Our hypothesis was that environmental conditions controlling the direct and indirect transmission paths differ, such that the risk of transmission to humans is not only determined by host abundance. We explored the relationship between, on one hand, environmental variables and, on the other hand, host abundance, PUUV prevalence in the host, and human cases of nephropathia epidemica (NE). Statistical analyses were carried out on 17 field sites situated in Belgian broadleaf forests. Results Linear regressions showed that landscape attributes, particularly landscape configuration, influence the abundance of hosts in broadleaf forests. Based on logistic regressions, we show that PUUV prevalence among bank voles is more linked to variables favouring the survival of the virus in the environment, and thus the indirect transmission: low winter temperatures are strongly linked to prevalence among bank voles, and high soil moisture is linked to the number of NE cases among humans. The transmission risk to humans therefore depends on the efficiency of the indirect transmission path. Human risk behaviours, such as the propensity for people to go in forest areas that best support the virus, also influence the number of human cases. Conclusion The transmission risk to humans of non-vector-borne zoonoses such as PUUV depends on a combination of various environmental factors. To understand the complex causal pathways between the environment and disease risk, one should distinguish between environmental factors related to the abundance of hosts such as land

  10. Rearing in Seawater Mesocosms Improves the Spawning Performance of Growth Hormone Transgenic and Wild-Type Coho Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Leggatt, Rosalind A.; Hollo, Tanya; Vandersteen, Wendy E.; McFarlane, Kassandra; Goh, Benjamin; Prevost, Joelle; Devlin, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenes can significantly accelerate growth rates in fish and cause associated alterations to their physiology and behaviour. Concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish, should they enter natural ecosystems. In particular, whether they can reproduce and generate viable offspring under natural conditions is poorly understood. In previous studies, GH transgenic salmon grown under contained culture conditions had lower spawning behaviour and reproductive success relative to wild-type fish reared in nature. However, wild-type salmon cultured in equal conditions also had limited reproductive success. As such, whether decreased reproductive success of GH transgenic salmon is due to the action of the transgene or to secondary effects of culture (or a combination) has not been fully ascertained. Hence, salmon were reared in large (350,000 L), semi-natural, seawater tanks (termed mesocosms) designed to minimize effects of standard laboratory culture conditions, and the reproductive success of wild-type and GH transgenic coho salmon from mesocosms were compared with that of wild-type fish from nature. Mesocosm rearing partially restored spawning behaviour and success of wild-type fish relative to culture rearing, but remained lower overall than those reared in nature. GH transgenic salmon reared in the mesocosm had similar spawning behaviour and success as wild-type fish reared in the mesocosm when in full competition and without competition, but had lower success in male-only competition experiments. There was evidence of genotype×environmental interactions on spawning success, so that spawning success of transgenic fish, should they escape to natural systems in early life, cannot be predicted with low uncertainty. Under the present conditions, we found no evidence to support enhanced mating capabilities of GH transgenic coho salmon compared to wild-type salmon. However, it is clear that GH transgenic salmon are

  11. Strigolactones as mediators of plant growth responses to environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Koltai, Hinanit; Kapulnik, Yoram

    2011-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) have been recently identified as a new group of plant hormones or their derivatives thereof, shown to play a role in plant development. Evolutionary forces have driven the development of mechanisms in plants that allow adaptive adjustments to a variety of different habitats by employing plasticity in shoot and root growth and development. The ability of SLs to regulate both shoot and root development suggests a role in the plant's response to its growth environment. To play this role, SL pathways need to be responsive to plant growth conditions, and affect plant growth toward increased adaptive adjustment. Here, the effects of SLs on shoot and root development are presented, and possible feedback loops between SLs and two environmental cues, light and nutrient status, are discussed; these might suggest a role for SLs in plants' adaptive adjustment to growth conditions.

  12. Long-term sensitization and environmental conditioning in terrestrial snails.

    PubMed

    Balaban, P; Bravarenko, N

    1993-01-01

    The hypothesis that a long-term increase of behavioural responses in snails (over a period of days) might be due to environmental conditioning was examined. Training consisted of delivering electric shocks non-contingently with test stimuli twice per day for 5 days to freely moving snails on a ball floating in water. After training, a significant difference in amplitude of a withdrawal reaction to tactile test stimulation appeared between shocked and control snails. Responses were significantly facilitated in shocked animals for up to 12 days after training, but only if the animals were tested in the environment used for training. Testing of the same groups of animals crawling freely on the glass lid of a tank in which they lived between experimental sessions revealed no difference in responses to the same stimuli between shocked and control snails. Injection of the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, which selectively impairs serotonergic cells, eliminated the differences between shocked and control animals. Changing the pH of the water in which the ball floated, by addition of citric acid, led to a significant selective increase of responsiveness in snails sensitized in this environment relative to the responsiveness of the same snails with normal water in the tank. The results suggest that the long-term sensitization of withdrawal reactions observed is at least in part a manifestation of an associative process, namely environmental conditioning.

  13. Interaction of rearing environment and reproductive tactic on gene expression profiles in Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aubin-Horth, N.; Letcher, B.H.; Hofmann, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Organisms that share the same genotype can develop into divergent phenotypes, depending on environmental conditions. In Atlantic salmon, young males of the same age can be found either as sneakers or immature males that are future anadromous fish. Just as the organism-level phenotype varies between divergent male developmental trajectories, brain gene expression is expected to vary as well. We hypothesized that rearing environment can also have an important effect on gene expression in the brain and possibly interact with the reproductive tactic adopted. We tested this hypothesis by comparing brain gene expression profiles of the two male tactics in fish from the same population that were reared in either a natural stream or under laboratory conditions. We found that expression of certain genes was affected by rearing environment only, while others varied between male reproductive tactics independent of rearing environment. Finally, more than half of all genes that showed variable expression varied between the two male tactics only in one environment. Thus, in these fish, very different molecular pathways can give rise to similar macro-phenotypes depending on rearing environment. This result gives important insights into the molecular underpinnings of developmental plasticity in relationship to the environment. ?? 2005 The American Genetic Association.

  14. Robust vehicle detection for highway surveillance via rear-view monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneyama, Akio; Yeh, Chia-Hung; Kuo, C.-C. J.

    2003-11-01

    Vision-based highway monitoring systems play an important role in transportation management and services owing to their powerful ability to extract a variety of information. Detection accuracy of vision-based systems is however sensitive to environmental factors such as lighting, shadow and weather conditions, and it is still a challenging problem to maintain detection robustness at all time. In this research, we present a novel method to enhance detection and tracking accuracy at the nighttime based on rear-view monitoring. In the meanwhile, a method is proposed to improve the background detection and extraction, which usually serves as the first step to moving object region detection. Finally, the effectiveness of the rear-view technique will be analyzed. We compare the tracking accuracy between the front-view and the rear-view techniques, and show that the proposed system can achieve higher detection accuracy at nighttime.

  15. Multimodal cues improve prey localization under complex environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rhebergen, F.; Taylor, R. C.; Ryan, M. J.; Page, R. A.; Halfwerk, W.

    2015-01-01

    Predators often eavesdrop on sexual displays of their prey. These displays can provide multimodal cues that aid predators, but the benefits in attending to them should depend on the environmental sensory conditions under which they forage. We assessed whether bats hunting for frogs use multimodal cues to locate their prey and whether their use varies with ambient conditions. We used a robotic set-up mimicking the sexual display of a male túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus) to test prey assessment by fringe-lipped bats (Trachops cirrhosus). These predatory bats primarily use sound of the frog's call to find their prey, but the bats also use echolocation cues returning from the frog's dynamically moving vocal sac. In the first experiment, we show that multimodal cues affect attack behaviour: bats made narrower flank attack angles on multimodal trials compared with unimodal trials during which they could only rely on the sound of the frog. In the second experiment, we explored the bat's use of prey cues in an acoustically more complex environment. Túngara frogs often form mixed-species choruses with other frogs, including the hourglass frog (Dendropsophus ebraccatus). Using a multi-speaker set-up, we tested bat approaches and attacks on the robofrog under three different levels of acoustic complexity: no calling D. ebraccatus males, two calling D. ebraccatus males and five D. ebraccatus males. We found that bats are more directional in their approach to the robofrog when more D. ebraccatus males were calling. Thus, bats seemed to benefit more from multimodal cues when confronted with increased levels of acoustic complexity in their foraging environments. Our data have important consequences for our understanding of the evolution of multimodal sexual displays as they reveal how environmental conditions can alter the natural selection pressures acting on them. PMID:26336176

  16. Multimodal cues improve prey localization under complex environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Rhebergen, F; Taylor, R C; Ryan, M J; Page, R A; Halfwerk, W

    2015-09-01

    Predators often eavesdrop on sexual displays of their prey. These displays can provide multimodal cues that aid predators, but the benefits in attending to them should depend on the environmental sensory conditions under which they forage. We assessed whether bats hunting for frogs use multimodal cues to locate their prey and whether their use varies with ambient conditions. We used a robotic set-up mimicking the sexual display of a male túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus) to test prey assessment by fringe-lipped bats (Trachops cirrhosus). These predatory bats primarily use sound of the frog's call to find their prey, but the bats also use echolocation cues returning from the frog's dynamically moving vocal sac. In the first experiment, we show that multimodal cues affect attack behaviour: bats made narrower flank attack angles on multimodal trials compared with unimodal trials during which they could only rely on the sound of the frog. In the second experiment, we explored the bat's use of prey cues in an acoustically more complex environment. Túngara frogs often form mixed-species choruses with other frogs, including the hourglass frog (Dendropsophus ebraccatus). Using a multi-speaker set-up, we tested bat approaches and attacks on the robofrog under three different levels of acoustic complexity: no calling D. ebraccatus males, two calling D. ebraccatus males and five D. ebraccatus males. We found that bats are more directional in their approach to the robofrog when more D. ebraccatus males were calling. Thus, bats seemed to benefit more from multimodal cues when confronted with increased levels of acoustic complexity in their foraging environments. Our data have important consequences for our understanding of the evolution of multimodal sexual displays as they reveal how environmental conditions can alter the natural selection pressures acting on them. PMID:26336176

  17. Individuals Maintain Similar Rates of Protein Synthesis over Time on the Same Plane of Nutrition under Controlled Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Ian D.; Owen, Stewart F.; Watt, Peter W.; Houlihan, Dominic F.

    2016-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in animal performance drive individual fitness under variable environmental conditions and provide the framework through which natural selection can operate. Underlying this concept is the assumption that individuals will display consistent levels of performance in fitness-related traits and interest has focused on individual variation and broad sense repeatability in a range of behavioural and physiological traits. Despite playing a central role in maintenance and growth, and with considerable inter-individual variation documented, broad sense repeatability in rates of protein synthesis has not been assessed. In this study we show for the first time that juvenile flounder Platichthys flesus reared under controlled environmental conditions on the same plane of nutrition for 46 days maintain consistent whole-animal absolute rates of protein synthesis (As). By feeding meals containing 15N-labelled protein and using a stochastic end-point model, two non-terminal measures of protein synthesis were made 32 days apart (d14 and d46). As values (mass-corrected to a standard mass of 12 g) showed 2- to 3-fold variation between individuals on d14 and d46 but individuals showed similar As values on both days with a broad sense repeatability estimate of 0.684 indicating significant consistency in physiological performance under controlled experimental conditions. The use of non-terminal methodologies in studies of animal ecophysiology to make repeat measures of physiological performance enables known individuals to be tracked across changing conditions. Adopting this approach, repeat measures of protein synthesis under controlled conditions will allow individual ontogenetic changes in protein metabolism to be assessed to better understand the ageing process and to determine individual physiological adaptive capacity, and associated energetic costs of adaptation, to global environmental change. PMID:27018996

  18. Individuals Maintain Similar Rates of Protein Synthesis over Time on the Same Plane of Nutrition under Controlled Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Ian D; Owen, Stewart F; Watt, Peter W; Houlihan, Dominic F

    2016-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in animal performance drive individual fitness under variable environmental conditions and provide the framework through which natural selection can operate. Underlying this concept is the assumption that individuals will display consistent levels of performance in fitness-related traits and interest has focused on individual variation and broad sense repeatability in a range of behavioural and physiological traits. Despite playing a central role in maintenance and growth, and with considerable inter-individual variation documented, broad sense repeatability in rates of protein synthesis has not been assessed. In this study we show for the first time that juvenile flounder Platichthys flesus reared under controlled environmental conditions on the same plane of nutrition for 46 days maintain consistent whole-animal absolute rates of protein synthesis (As). By feeding meals containing 15N-labelled protein and using a stochastic end-point model, two non-terminal measures of protein synthesis were made 32 days apart (d14 and d46). As values (mass-corrected to a standard mass of 12 g) showed 2- to 3-fold variation between individuals on d14 and d46 but individuals showed similar As values on both days with a broad sense repeatability estimate of 0.684 indicating significant consistency in physiological performance under controlled experimental conditions. The use of non-terminal methodologies in studies of animal ecophysiology to make repeat measures of physiological performance enables known individuals to be tracked across changing conditions. Adopting this approach, repeat measures of protein synthesis under controlled conditions will allow individual ontogenetic changes in protein metabolism to be assessed to better understand the ageing process and to determine individual physiological adaptive capacity, and associated energetic costs of adaptation, to global environmental change. PMID:27018996

  19. Environmental factors affecting indole metabolism under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, E L; Francis, A J; Bollag, J M

    1988-01-01

    The influence of physiological and environmental factors on the accumulation of oxindole during anaerobic indole metabolism was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under methanogenic conditions, indole was temporarily converted to oxindole in stoichiometric amounts in media inoculated with three freshwater sediments and an organic soil. In media inoculated with methanogenic sewage sludge, the modest amounts of oxindole detected at 35 degrees C reached higher concentrations and persisted longer when the incubation temperature was decreased from 35 to 15 degrees C. Also, decreasing the concentration of sewage sludge used as an inoculum from 50 to 1% caused an increase in the accumulation of oxindole from 10 to 75% of the indole added. Under denitrifying conditions, regardless of the concentration or source of the inoculum, oxindole appeared in trace amounts but did not accumulate during indole metabolism. In addition, denitrifying consortia which previously metabolized indole degraded oxindole with no lag period. Our data suggest that oxindole accumulation under methanogenic, but not under denitrifying conditions is caused by differences between relative rates of oxindole production and destruction. PMID:3345080

  20. Environmental conditions experienced during the tadpole stage alter post-metamorphic glucocorticoid response to stress in an amphibian.

    PubMed

    Crespi, Erica J; Warne, Robin W

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to adverse environmental conditions during early development can shape life-history traits and have lasting effects on physiological function in later life. Although findings within the biomedical literature have shown that environmentally induced elevations in glucocorticoids (GCs) during critical developmental windows can cause persistent carry-over effects (i.e., developmental programming), little is known about whether such effects of GCs can be generalized to wildlife species. Using wood frogs as a study species, we conducted an experiment with a split-plot design to assess the short-term and the long-term physiological consequences of availability of food, hydroperiod length (i.e., pond drying), and the interaction between these two environmental conditions. In outdoor experimental ponds, we reared tadpoles in chronically high or low-food conditions, and tadpoles from each pond experienced either high water until metamorphosis or a reduction in water volume during late developmental stages (after Gosner stage 38). After metamorphosis, animals were housed individually and fed ad libitum for 10 weeks, and growth rate, fat content, and resting and acute stress-induced GC levels were measured. We found that tadpoles experiencing low availability of food and reduced water volume had elevated GC levels, reduced mass, and body condition as they approached metamorphosis. At 10 weeks after metamorphosis, we found that these two conditions also had persistent interactive effects on post-metamorphic allocation of resources to growth, energy storage, and responsiveness of GCs to a novel stressor. Of individuals that experienced reduced water volume, only those that experienced high food as tadpoles were able to catch up to individuals that did not experience reduced water volume in terms of body mass, femur length, and body condition, and they allocated more resources to fat storage. By contrast, 10-week old frogs with low-food and that experienced low water

  1. Spatial structuring of an evolving life-history strategy under altered environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Hegg, Jens C; Kennedy, Brian P; Chittaro, Paul M; Zabel, Richard W

    2013-08-01

    Human disturbances to ecosystems have created challenges to populations worldwide, forcing them to respond phenotypically in ways that increase their fitness under current conditions. One approach to examining population responses to disturbance in species with complex life histories is to study species that exhibit spatial patterns in their phenotypic response across populations or demes. In this study, we investigate a threatened population of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River of Idaho, in which a significant fraction of the juvenile population have been shown to exhibit a yearling out-migration strategy which had not previously been thought to exist. It has been suggested that dam-related environmental changes may have altered the selective pressures experienced by out-migrating fall chinook, driving evolution of a later and more selectively advantageous migration strategy. Using isotopic analysis of otoliths from returning adult spawners, we reconstructed the locations of individual fish at three major juvenile life stages to determine if the representation of the yearling life history was geographically structured within the population. We reconstructed juvenile locations for natal, rearing and overwintering life stages in each of the major spawning areas in the basin. Our results indicate that the yearling life-history strategy is predominantly represented within one of the main spawning regions, the Clearwater River, rather than being distributed throughout the basin. Previous studies have shown the Clearwater River to have cooler temperatures, later hatch dates, and later outmigration of juveniles, indicating a link between environment and expression of the yearling life history. Our data suggest that this new yearling life history may be disproportionally represented in returning adult spawners, indicating selection for this life history within the population.

  2. K, U, and Th behavior in Martian environmental conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolotov, M. YU.; Krot, T. V.; Moroz, L. V.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of K, U, and Th content determination from orbit and in situ allows consideration of those elements as geochemical indicators in the planetary studies. In the case of Mars the unambiguous interpretations of such data in terms of igneous rocks are remarkably constrained by the widespread rock alteration and the existence of exogenic deposits. Besides, the terrestrial experience indicates that K, U, and Th contents could be used as indicators of environmental geochemical processes. Thus the determination of K, U, and Th contents in the Martian surface materials could provide the indirect data on the conditions of some exogenic geological processes. The speculations on the K, U, and Th behavior in the Martian environments show that aeolian and aqueous processes leads to the preferential accumulation of K, U, and Th in fine dust material. The separation of K, U, and Th on Mars is smaller in scale to that on Earth.

  3. Environmental behavior of profenofos under paddy field conditions.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Fan, Mingtao; Liu, Xianjin

    2010-06-01

    The environmental behavior of 40% profenofos EC under paddy field conditions was studied. After application of 40% profenofos EC at 900 g a.i./ha level, the initial deposits of profenofos on rice plant, soil and water were found to be 32.700, 0.224 and 3.854 mg/kg respectively. Half-lives (t(1/2)) of profenofos on those substrates were observed to be 5.47, 3.75 and 3.42 days respectively. The residue levels of profenofos on rice straw, soil and rice grain were significantly affected by the dosage and frequency applied. The obtained results might help to recommend the suitable dose and calculate the safety period of profenofos application. PMID:20437027

  4. Leaching of metals from cement under simulated environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huixia; Wei, Fang; Tang, Jingchun; Giesy, John P

    2016-03-15

    Leaching of metals from cement under various environmental conditions was measured to evaluate their environmental safety. A cement product containing clinker, which was produced from cement kiln co-processing of hazardous wastes, was solidified and leaching of metals was characterized using the 8-period test. Concentrations and speciation of metals in cements were determined. Effects of ambient environment and particle size on leachability of metals and mineralogical phases of cement mortars were evaluated by use of XRD and SEM. Results indicated that metals in cements were leachable in various media in descending order of: sea water, groundwater and acid rain. Cr, Ni, As, Co and V were leached by simulated sea water, while Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn, Sb and Tl were not leached in simulated sea water, groundwater or acid rain. When exposed to simulated acid rain or groundwater, amounts of Cr, Ni, As and V leached was inversely proportional to particle size of cement mortar. According to the one-dimensional diffusion equation, Cr was most leachable and the cumulative leached mass was predicted to be 9.6 mg kg(-1) after 20 years. Results of this study are useful in predicting releases of metals from cement products containing ash and clinkers cement kiln co-processing of hazardous wastes, so that they can be safely applied in the environment.

  5. Leaching of metals from cement under simulated environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huixia; Wei, Fang; Tang, Jingchun; Giesy, John P

    2016-03-15

    Leaching of metals from cement under various environmental conditions was measured to evaluate their environmental safety. A cement product containing clinker, which was produced from cement kiln co-processing of hazardous wastes, was solidified and leaching of metals was characterized using the 8-period test. Concentrations and speciation of metals in cements were determined. Effects of ambient environment and particle size on leachability of metals and mineralogical phases of cement mortars were evaluated by use of XRD and SEM. Results indicated that metals in cements were leachable in various media in descending order of: sea water, groundwater and acid rain. Cr, Ni, As, Co and V were leached by simulated sea water, while Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn, Sb and Tl were not leached in simulated sea water, groundwater or acid rain. When exposed to simulated acid rain or groundwater, amounts of Cr, Ni, As and V leached was inversely proportional to particle size of cement mortar. According to the one-dimensional diffusion equation, Cr was most leachable and the cumulative leached mass was predicted to be 9.6 mg kg(-1) after 20 years. Results of this study are useful in predicting releases of metals from cement products containing ash and clinkers cement kiln co-processing of hazardous wastes, so that they can be safely applied in the environment. PMID:26802528

  6. The community conditioning hypothesis and its application to environmental toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, R.A.; Landis, W.G.; Matthews, G.B.

    1996-04-01

    In this paper the authors present the community conditions hypothesis, ecological communities retain information bout events in their history. This hypothesis, which was derived from the concept of nonequilibrium community ecology, was developed as a framework for understanding the persistence of dose-related responses in multispecies toxicity tests. The authors present data from three standardized aquatic microcosm (SAM) toxicity tests using the water-soluble fractions from turbine fuels (Jet-A, JP-4, and JP-8). In all three tests, the toxicants depressed the Daphnia populations for several weeks, which resulted in algal blooms in the dosed microcosms due to lower predation rates. These effects were short-lived, and by the second and third months of the experiments, the Daphnia populations appeared to have recovered. However, multivariate analysis of the data released dose/response differences that reappeared during the later part of the tests, often due to differences in other consumers (rotifers, ostracods, ciliates), or algae that are not normally consumed (filamentous green algae and bluegreen algae). The findings are consistent with ecological theories that describe communities as the unique production of their etiologies. The implications of this to environmental toxicology are that almost all environmental events leave lasting effects, whether or not they have observed them.

  7. Single and combined effects of peppermint and thyme essential oils on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding peppermint essential oil (PEO), thyme essential oil (TEO), or their combination to diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-lite laying hens. Significant interactions between PEO and TEO on FCR, EP, and EM were observed ( P < 0.05). The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased ( P < 0.05) in the hens fed the diets supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. Also, increased EW and FI were observed in the laying hens fed the diet added by PEO compared to the birds fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between PEO and TEO on the serum level of cholesterol, shell thickness, and Hough unit of egg ( P < 0.05), so that serum content of cholesterol decreased, but egg shell thickness and Hough unit increased in the hens fed the diet supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined form of PEO and TEO could have beneficial effects on performance parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  8. Single and combined effects of zinc and cinnamon essential oil in diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torki, Mehran; Akbari, Mohsen; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding zinc (Zn), cinnamon essential oil (Ci), or their combination in diet on productive performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (8.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens. Significant interactions between Ci and Zn on FCR, EW, EP, or EM were observed ( P < 0.05). The EP, EM, and EW increased, whereas FCR decreased ( P < 0.05) in the hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (as single or combined form) compared to those fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between Ci and Zn on the serum level of glucose and triglycerides as well as plasma concentration of zinc ( P < 0.05), so that serum content of glucose and triglyceride decreased and the plasma content of zinc increased in the hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (together) compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by the combined form of Ci and Zn could have beneficial effects on performance and blood parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  9. Single and combined effects of zinc and cinnamon essential oil in diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition.

    PubMed

    Torki, Mehran; Akbari, Mohsen; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding zinc (Zn), cinnamon essential oil (Ci), or their combination in diet on productive performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (8.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens. Significant interactions between Ci and Zn on FCR, EW, EP, or EM were observed (P < 0.05). The EP, EM, and EW increased, whereas FCR decreased (P < 0.05) in the hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (as single or combined form) compared to those fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between Ci and Zn on the serum level of glucose and triglycerides as well as plasma concentration of zinc (P < 0.05), so that serum content of glucose and triglyceride decreased and the plasma content of zinc increased in the hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (together) compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by the combined form of Ci and Zn could have beneficial effects on performance and blood parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  10. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Fistarol, Giovana O; Coutinho, Felipe H; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E M; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A B; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Amado Filho, Gilberto M; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E; Thompson, Cristiane C; Salomon, Paulo S; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km(2). In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay's degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay's water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  11. Evaluating Microbial Indicators of Environmental Condition in Oregon Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennington, Alan T.; Harding, Anna K.; Hendricks, Charles W.; Campbell, Heidi M. K.

    2001-12-01

    Traditional bacterial indicators used in public health to assess water quality and the Biolog® system were evaluated to compare their response to biological, chemical, and physical habitat indicators of stream condition both within the state of Oregon and among ecoregion aggregates (Coast Range, Willamette Valley, Cascades, and eastern Oregon). Forty-three randomly selected Oregon river sites were sampled during the summer in 1997 and 1998. The public health indicators included heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC) and Escherichia coli (EC). Statewide, HPC correlated strongly with physical habitat (elevation, riparian complexity, % canopy presence, and indices of agriculture, pavement, road, pasture, and total disturbance) and chemistry (pH, dissolved O2, specific conductance, acid-neutralizing capacity, dissolved organic carbon, total N, total P, SiO2, and SO4). FC and EC were significantly correlated generally with the river chemistry indicators. TC bacteria significantly correlated with riparian complexity, road disturbance, dissolved O2, and SiO2 and FC. Analyzing the sites by ecoregion, eastern Oregon was characterized by high HPC, FC, EC, nutrient loads, and indices of human disturbance, whereas the Cascades ecoregion had correspondingly low counts of these indicators. The Coast Range and Willamette Valley presented inconsistent indicator patterns that are more difficult to characterize. Attempts to distinguish between ecoregions with the Biolog system were not successful, nor did a statistical pattern emerge between the first five principle components and the other environmental indicators. Our research suggests that some traditional public health microbial indicators may be useful in measuring the environmental condition of lotic systems.

  12. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    PubMed Central

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  13. Changes in body composition during breeding: Reproductive strategies of three species of seabirds under poor environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Shoshanah R; Edwards, Darryl B; Ringrose, Julian; Elliott, Kyle H; Weber, Jean-Michel; Gaston, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    Seabirds differ dramatically in life history traits and breeding strategies. For example, gulls have short incubation shifts (several hours) and high metabolic rates, auks have medium-length incubation shifts (12-24h) and high metabolic rates, and petrels have long incubation shifts (days) and low metabolic rates. How these different strategies affect the dynamics of body components is poorly known. We compared body, organ and lipid mass changes among three different seabirds (gull: black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla; auk: thick-billed murre Uria lomvia; petrel: northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis) at Prince Leopold Island, Nunavut, Canada during 2002 (a year with low reproductive success and poor chick growth across all three species). This study is among the first to compare mass and lipid dynamics among different species foraging in the same food web and at similar trophic levels during the same breeding season (same environmental conditions). In fulmars and murres, most of decreases in body mass reflected decreases in lipid mass while in kittiwakes the increase in body mass reflected an increase in lean mass, especially the muscle. The species with the longest fasting endurance (incubation shift length) had the highest percent body lipids during incubation (fulmars: 13.3%, murres: 7.3%, kittiwakes: 6.9%), the highest variability in body lipids, tended to regulate body mass primarily through lipid stores and tended to regulate exercise and digestive organs separately. In contrast, in the species with the highest metabolic rate, all organ systems were adjusted similarly and in relation to body mass, and in a similar manner between incubation (stress due to heavy ice conditions) and chick-rearing (lower stress due to ice-free conditions). In high metabolic rate species, we suggest that organ size varies in response to environmental stress. We conclude that the organ dynamics of seabirds are set by a combination of key life history traits (like incubation shift

  14. 40 CFR 86.1312-2007 - Filter stabilization and microbalance workstation environmental conditions, microbalance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... workstation environmental conditions, microbalance specifications, and particulate matter filter handling and... Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1312-2007 Filter stabilization and microbalance workstation environmental conditions, microbalance specifications, and particulate matter filter handling and...

  15. Environmental Conditions Determine the Course and Outcome of Phytoplankton Chytridiomycosis.

    PubMed

    Rohrlack, Thomas; Haande, Sigrid; Molversmyr, Åge; Kyle, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    Chytrid fungi are highly potent parasites of phytoplankton. They are thought to force phytoplankton organisms into an evolutionary arms race with high population diversity as the outcome. The underlying selection regime is known as Red Queen dynamics. However, our study suggests a more complex picture for chytrid parasitism in the cyanobacterium Planktothrix. Laboratory experiments identified a "cold thermal refuge", inside which Planktothrix can grow without chytrid infection. A field study in two Norwegian lakes underlined the ecological significance of this finding. The study utilized sediment DNA as a biological archive in combination with existing monitoring data. In one lake, temperature and light conditions forced Planktothrix outside the thermal refuge for most of the growing season. This probably resulted in Red Queen dynamics as suggested by a high parasitic pressure exerted by chytrids, an increase in Planktothrix genotype diversity over time, and a correlation between Planktothrix genotype diversity and duration of bloom events. In the second lake, a colder climate allowed Planktothrix to largely stay inside the thermal refuge. The parasitic pressure exerted by chytrids and Planktothrix genotype diversity remained low, indicating that Planktothrix successfully evaded the Red Queen dynamics. Episodic Planktothrix blooms were observed during spring and autumn circulation, in the metalimnion or under the ice. Interestingly, both lakes were dominated by the same or related Planktothrix genotypes. Taken together, our data suggest that, depending on environmental conditions, chytrid parasitism can impose distinct selection regimes on conspecific phytoplankton populations with similar genotype composition, causing these populations to behave and perhaps to evolve differently. PMID:26714010

  16. [Individual adaptation strategy under extreme environmental conditions in humans].

    PubMed

    Soroko, S I; Aldasheva, A A

    2012-01-01

    Starting from the researches of I.M. Sechenov, I.P. Pavlov, A.A. Uchtomskii, the Russian psychophysiological school considers adaptation in connection with the biological and social origin of a man as the integrated, coordinated and self-controlled human organism's reaction to maintain the vital functions in the constantly changing environmental conditions. On the base of well-known systemic-dynamic methodology and scrutinizing the issue of man and environment interaction V.I. Medvedev added to the theory of man's adaptation the activity paradigm that enable to uncover the distinctive features of professional activities in various environment conditions. The theoretical and practical investigations based on the activity methodology gave the opportunity to find out the new principles of interaction between man and environment and on the strategy of adaptive behavior. From this investigations one could see that the main characteristic of interaction "man-environment" is that man represents proactive side, man simulate different adaptation strategies using both genetically-fixed and acquired mechanisms of adaptive behavior. PMID:23393785

  17. Precedence-effect-induced enhancement of prepulse inhibition in socially reared but not isolation-reared rats.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi; Li, Jingyu; Wu, Xihong; Li, Liang

    2009-03-01

    Attention to a prepulse presented shortly before a startling stimulus enhances prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle in normal people, but not in schizophrenics. Fear conditioning for the prepulse enhances PPI in socially reared, but not isolation-reared, rats. In humans, selective attention to acoustic signals against masking can be facilitated by precedence-effect-induced perceived spatial separation between the signal and the masker. This study investigated whether perceived spatial separation between a prepulse and a noise masker enhances PPI in socially reared rats and isolation-reared rats. The results show that both PPI and conditioning-induced PPI enhancement were larger in socially reared rats than in isolation-reared rats. More important, in socially reared, but not isolation-reared, rats, a further PPI enhancement was induced by precedence-effect-induced perceived separation between a prepulse and a masker only after the prepulse became fear conditioned. Thus, perceived separation facilitates normal rats' attention to a conditioned prepulse and enhances PPI. Isolation rearing impairs rats' ability to attend to ecologically significant acoustic events. PMID:19246326

  18. Epistatic interactions among metabolic genes depend upon environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Jagdishchandra Joshi, Chintan; Prasad, Ashok

    2014-10-01

    When the effect of the state of one gene is dependent on the state of another gene in more than an additive or a neutral way, the phenomenon is termed epistasis. In particular, positive epistasis signifies that the impact of the double deletion is less severe than the neutral combination, while negative epistasis signifies that the double deletion is more severe. Epistatic interactions between genes affect the fitness landscape of an organism in its environment and are believed to be important for the evolution of sex and the evolution of recombination. Here we use large-scale computational metabolic models of microorganisms to study epistasis computationally using Flux Balance Analysis (FBA). We study what the effects of the environment are on epistatic interactions between metabolic genes in three different microorganisms: the model bacterium E. coli, the cyanobacteria Synechocystis PCC6803 and the model green algae, C. reinhardtii. Prior studies have shown that under standard laboratory conditions epistatic interactions between metabolic genes are dominated by positive epistasis. We show here that epistatic interactions depend strongly upon environmental conditions, i.e. the source of carbon, the carbon/oxygen ratio, and for photosynthetic organisms, the intensity of light. By a comparative analysis of flux distributions under different conditions, we show that whether epistatic interactions are positive or negative depends upon the topology of the carbon flow between the reactions affected by the pair of genes being considered. Thus complex metabolic networks can show epistasis even without explicit interactions between genes, and the direction and the scale of epistasis are dependent on network flows. Our results suggest that the path of evolutionary adaptation in fluctuating environments is likely to be very history dependent because of the strong effect of the environment on epistasis. PMID:25018101

  19. Hamilton's Store, rear view, with storage building in rear, restaurant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hamilton's Store, rear view, with storage building in rear, restaurant to left, officer's row in distance, view southeast - Mammoth Hot Springs-Fort Yellowstone, Grand Loop Road, Mammoth, Park County, WY

  20. FACILITY 710, NORTHWEST AND REAR SIDES, SHOWING WINGS IN REAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 710, NORTHWEST AND REAR SIDES, SHOWING WINGS IN REAR, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Corner-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Bragg & Grime Streets near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Changes in phosphorus smoke chemistry with environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, K.M.; Ligotke, M.W.; Garland, T.R.; Van Voris, P.; Schirmer, R.E.

    1985-09-01

    Physical and chemical characteristics of two phosphorus aerosols were measured under a limited number of environmental conditions. The exposures and measurements were performed in a wind tunnel under various humidities, wind speeds and, to a limited extent, aerosol ages. Temperature, another important environmental variable that may influence the chemical form of the aerosols, was not studied in this research program. Steady-state aerosols generated by combustion of red phosphorus/butyl rubber (RP/BR) and white phosphorus (WP) were suspended in a closed-loop wind tunnel to simulate the continuous-generation of these obscurants at Army field training sites. Measured aerosol characteristics were found to differ significantly from characteristics predicted by simple phosphoric acid models previously thought to represent the chemical form of the suspended particles. As many as 28 individual phosphorus species were detected in aerosol samples. The distribution of linear and cyclic phosphorus species in the sampled aerosol was observed to vary significantly for changes in both aerosol age (0 to 60 min) and relative humidity (<5% to 90%). Hydrolysis toward phosphate occurred as the aerosol aged, and the rate of change was slower for higher humidities. More high-order phosphorus species appeared to be formed during aerosol generation at low relative humidities than at high humidity, as revealed by measurements near the combustion zone. Steady-state aerosols showed decreasing conversion to phosphate with increasing humidity. The highly speciated aerosols hydrolyzed to phosphate in less than 18 hr after deposition onto dry surfaces. Other aerosol characteristics such as mass concentration, water and phosphorus content of the particles, and particle size distribution were also measured.

  2. Evaluation of Diesel Exhaust Continuous Monitors in Controlled Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang Ho; Patton, Allison P.; Zhang, Andrew; Fanac, Zhi-Hua (Tina); Weisel, Clifford P.; Lioy, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) contains a variety of toxic air pollutants, including diesel particulate matter (DPM) and gaseous contaminants (e.g., carbon monoxide (CO)). DPM is dominated by fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine particles (UFP), and can be representatively determined by its thermal-optical refractory as elemental carbon (EC) or light-absorbing characteristics as black carbon (BC). The currently accepted reference method for sampling and analysis of occupational exposure to DPM is the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 5040. However, this method cannot provide in-situ short-term measurements of DPM. Thus, real-time monitors are gaining attention to better examine DE exposures in occupational settings. However, real-time monitors are subject to changing environmental conditions. Field measurements have reported interferences in optical sensors and subsequent real-time readings, under conditions of high humidity and abrupt temperature changes. To begin dealing with these issues, we completed a controlled study to evaluate five real-time monitors: Airtec real-time DPM/EC Monitor, TSI SidePak Personal Aerosol Monitor AM510 (PM2.5), TSI Condensation Particle Counter 3007, microAeth AE51 BC Aethalometer, and Langan T15n CO Measurer. Tests were conducted under different temperatures (55, 70, and 80 °F), relative humidity (10, 40, and 80%), and DPM concentrations (50 and 200 µg/m3) in a controlled exposure facility. The 2-hour averaged EC measurements from the Airtec instrument showed relatively good agreement with NIOSH Method 5040 (R2=0.84; slope=1.17±0.06; N=27) and reported ~17% higher EC concentrations than the NIOSH reference method. Temperature, relative humidity, and DPM levels did not significantly affect relative differences in 2-hour averaged EC concentrations obtained by the Airtec instrument versus the NIOSH method (p<0.05). Multiple linear regression analyses, based on 1-min averaged data, suggested combined effects of up to 5

  3. Toward Communal Child Rearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Rosalind M.

    1973-01-01

    Social work's preoccupation with the preservation of the nuclear family has blinded it to the necessity of finding new ways to care for children. This myopia has impeded recognition of the forces in American life that are bringing social change and new forms of child rearing. This article describes some of these phenomena and concludes that…

  4. Single Fathers Rearing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greif, Geoffrey L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes single fathers rearing children alone following divorce (N=1,136). Findings revealed four primary reasons for the divorce and four broad situations in which the fathers obtained custody. These latter situations often are affected by the mother's desire to relinquish custody. (NRB)

  5. Identification of mouse retinal genes differentially regulated by dim and bright cyclic light rearing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hu; Frank, Mark Barton; Dozmorov, Igor; Cao, Wei; Cadwell, Craig; Knowlton, Nick; Centola, Michael; Anderson, Robert E

    2005-05-01

    Bright cyclic light rearing protects BALB/c mice from light-induced photoreceptor apoptosis compared to dim cyclic light rearing. We used a microarray approach to search for putative neuroprotection genes that were up- or down-regulated under these environmental conditions. Retinal protection by bright cyclic rearing was determined by quantitative histology and DNA fragmentation analysis. Total RNA was isolated from 5-week-old mice raised in bright (400 lux) or dim (5 lux) cyclic light and prepared for analysis on microarrays produced using a 70-mer oligonucleotide library that represented 16,463 mouse genes. Genes of interest were identified using statistically robust bioinformatics analysis methods that were developed in-house. Changes in some genes were confirmed with quantitative real time PCR. We found that 952 genes were up- or down-regulated by bright cyclic light rearing compared to dim cyclic light rearing. One hundred and eighty-four of them, having >/=2-fold differences, were grouped into 13 categories, and selected for further consideration. Eleven up-regulated and two down-regulated genes were confirmed by semi-quantitative PCR. Five neuroprotection-associated genes were up-regulated by bright cyclic light rearing as confirmed by real-time PCR. The human orthologue chromosomal location of 22 differentially expressed genes map to known retinal degeneration loci. Using PathwayAssist software, we modeled the pathway networks of up- and down-regulated genes that are functionally related to the retina. We identified retinal genes that are differentially regulated by environmental light history. Those that directly affect cell processes such as survival, apoptosis, and transcription are likely play a pivotal role in the regulation of retinal neuroprotection against light-induced photoreceptor apoptosis.

  6. Biodegradation of a Light NAPL under Varying Soil Environmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, B. K.; Hassanizadeh, S. M.; Kleingeld, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    To see the impact of different soil environmental conditions on LNAPL biodegradation, a series of batch, microcosm, column and 2-D tank experiments under controlled conditions have been planned. Microcosms along with batch experiments have been designed for five different moisture contents ranging from residual to saturated, and under varying temperature condition. The batches are being used for two saturated soils containing toluene. For the unsaturated cases, fifteen microcosms are designed to mimic natural conditions more closely. The microcosms consist of a transparent outer column and an air permeable, but watertight, inner tube comprised of toluene phobic material. The space between the outer column and the inner porous tube is filled with a soil having a particular moisture content with a known amount of toluene. The inner porous tube is filled with air at atmospheric pressure, providing sufficient oxygen for the degradation of considered light NAPL. A special sampling mechanism has been fabricated to enable airtight soil sampling. Four columns have been designed for studying the impact of water table fluctuation on the LNAPL fate and transport in variably-saturated soil. Water table in two columns will be static and remaining two will be subjected to a fluctuation. Finally a 2-D tank setup, made of a steel box and a glass cover, has been refurbished for bioremediation process of LNAPL from start to finish. The main body is constructed of one piece of 1.5 mm thick stainless steel formed into a box with inner dimensions of 200cm-long x 94cm-high x 4cm-deep. The front cover is made of glass wall having 19-mm thickness. The soil is going to be packed between the two walls. The groundwater will be flowing horizontally from left to right and the water table level in the tank will be controlled by two end chambers. The chambers are separated from the soil by a fine meshed stainless steel sheet. The spatial and the temporal distributions of the LNAPL and its

  7. Surface monitoring measurements of materials on environmental change conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornari, Vivi; Bernikola, Eirini; Bellendorf, Paul; Bertolin, Chiara; Camuffo, Dario; Kotova, Lola; Jacobs, Daniela; Zarnic, Roko; Rajcic, Vlatka; Leissner, Johanna

    2013-05-01

    Climate Change is one of the most critical global challenges of our time and the burdened cultural heritage of Europe is particularly vulnerable to be left unprotected. Climate for Culture2 project exploits the damage impact of climate change on cultural heritage at regional scale. In this paper the progress of the study with in situ measurements and investigations at cultural heritage sites throughout Europe combined with laboratory simulations is described. Cultural works of art are susceptible to deterioration with environmental changes causing imperceptibly slow but steady accumulation of damaging effects directly impacted on structural integrity. Laser holographic interference method is employed to provide remote non destructive field-wise detection of the structural differences occurred as climate responses. The first results from climate simulation of South East Europe (Crete) are presented. A full study in regards to the four climate regions of Europe is foreseen to provide values for development of a precise and integrated model of thermographic building simulations for evaluation of impact of climate change. Development of a third generation user interface software optimised portable metrology system (DHSPI II) is designed to record in custom intervals the surface of materials witnessing reactions under simulated climatic conditions both onfield and in laboratory. The climate conditions refer to real data-loggers readings representing characteristic historical building in selected climate zones. New generation impact sensors termed Glass Sensors and Free Water Sensors are employed in the monitoring procedure to cross-correlate climate data with deformation data. In this paper results from the combined methodology are additionally presented.

  8. Environmental Conditions Determine the Course and Outcome of Phytoplankton Chytridiomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Haande, Sigrid; Molversmyr, Åge

    2015-01-01

    Chytrid fungi are highly potent parasites of phytoplankton. They are thought to force phytoplankton organisms into an evolutionary arms race with high population diversity as the outcome. The underlying selection regime is known as Red Queen dynamics. However, our study suggests a more complex picture for chytrid parasitism in the cyanobacterium Planktothrix. Laboratory experiments identified a “cold thermal refuge”, inside which Planktothrix can grow without chytrid infection. A field study in two Norwegian lakes underlined the ecological significance of this finding. The study utilized sediment DNA as a biological archive in combination with existing monitoring data. In one lake, temperature and light conditions forced Planktothrix outside the thermal refuge for most of the growing season. This probably resulted in Red Queen dynamics as suggested by a high parasitic pressure exerted by chytrids, an increase in Planktothrix genotype diversity over time, and a correlation between Planktothrix genotype diversity and duration of bloom events. In the second lake, a colder climate allowed Planktothrix to largely stay inside the thermal refuge. The parasitic pressure exerted by chytrids and Planktothrix genotype diversity remained low, indicating that Planktothrix successfully evaded the Red Queen dynamics. Episodic Planktothrix blooms were observed during spring and autumn circulation, in the metalimnion or under the ice. Interestingly, both lakes were dominated by the same or related Planktothrix genotypes. Taken together, our data suggest that, depending on environmental conditions, chytrid parasitism can impose distinct selection regimes on conspecific phytoplankton populations with similar genotype composition, causing these populations to behave and perhaps to evolve differently. PMID:26714010

  9. Age at menarche: the influence of environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, E.; Shalev, C.; Dalal, I.; Sod-Moriah, U. A.

    1988-03-01

    Age at menarche was studied by the recollection method in two groups of Causasian Jewish high school girls, inhabitants of two towns in Israel, Safad and Elat. The two towns differ mainly in climatic conditions. The age at menarche was found to be significantly lower ( P<0.02) in the hot town of Elat than in the temperate town of Safad: 13.30±1.21 and 13.58±0.9 years, respectively (mean ±SD). A significant association was found between the age at menarche and the town in which the girls lived. Accordingly, in the hot town of Elat, the percentage of girls who had their first menstrual cycle by the age of 12 years and earlier, was more than double that of the girls in Safad (17.9% and 7.1%, respectively). It is concluded that the environmental temperature, with or without any possible interaction of humidity, is probably responsible for the tendency for an earlier onset of menarche in girls living in the hot town of Elat.

  10. Severe local convective storms in Bangladesh: Part II.: Environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Yusuke; Hayashi, Taiichi; Dewan, Ashraf Mahmmood; Akter, Fatima

    2010-03-01

    This paper examines the environmental conditions of severe local convective storms during the pre-monsoon season (from March to May) in Bangladesh. We compared composite soundings on severe local convective storm days (SLCSD) with those on non-severe local convective storm days (NSLCSD) using rawinsonde data at 06 Bangladesh Standard Time (BST) in Dhaka (90.3°E and 23.7°N). Temperatures are rising in the lower layer and falling in the middle layer, and the amount of water vapor is significantly increasing in the lowest layer with southerly wind intensified on SLCSD compared with NSLCSD. This situation produces great thermal instability in the atmosphere on SLCSD. Convective parameters on SLCSD are computed with the rawinsonde data at 06 BST in Dhaka and compared with those on NSLCSD. The comparison shows that while most convective parameters related to thermal instability can discriminate between SLCSD and NSLCSD with statistical significance, no convective parameters related to the vertical wind shear can distinguish between the two categories. We evaluated the forecast skill of the convective parameters using Heidke Skill Score (HSS). The evaluation shows that the HSS for the Lifted Index and Precipitable Water are better among all parameters and have great forecast ability.

  11. Anxiety-like and exploratory behaviors of isolation-reared mice in the staircase test.

    PubMed

    Ago, Yukio; Takahashi, Keiko; Nakamura, Shigeo; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Baba, Akemichi; Matsuda, Toshio

    2007-06-01

    The behavior of isolation-reared mice has not yet been studied in the staircase test. The present study examined the effects of anxiolytic or anxiogenic agents and isolation rearing on the behavior of ddY (outbred) strain mice in the staircase test. Diazepam and phenobarbital increased the number of steps climbed, but did not affect rearing behavior in group-reared mice. FG-7142, a benzodiazepine inverse agonist, significantly increased the number of rearing with no changes in the number of steps climbed in group-reared mice. Methamphetamine increased the number of steps climbed and decreased the number of rearing in group-reared mice. Although isolation-reared mice showed hyperactivity, there was no difference in locomotor activity for the test period of 3 min between isolation- and group-reared mice. Under these conditions, isolation rearing increased the numbers of steps climbed and rearing compared to group-reared controls. Microanalysis of locomotor patterns of group-reared mice in the staircase test showed that anxiolytic drugs increased the number of climbing to the top step of the staircase and methamphetamine increased the number of climbing to the first to third step. These results suggest that isolation rearing causes an anxiety-like state with increased exploratory behavior in mice.

  12. Impact of Environmental Conditions on the Survival of Cryptosporidium and Giardia on Environmental Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Alum, Absar; Absar, Isra M.; Asaad, Hamas; Rubino, Joseph R.; Ijaz, M. Khalid

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the impact of environmental conditions on the survival of intestinal parasites on environmental surfaces commonly implicated in the transmission of these parasites. The study was performed by incubating Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts on environmentally relevant surfaces such as brushed stainless steel, formica, ceramic, fabric, and skin. Parallel experiments were conducted using clean and soiled coupons incubated under three temperatures. The die-off coefficient rates (K) were calculated using first-order exponential formula. For both parasites, the fastest die-off was recorded on fabric, followed by ceramic, formica, skin, and steel. Die-off rates were directly correlated to the incubation temperatures and surface porosity. The presence of organic matter enhanced the survivability of the resting stages of test parasites. The decay rates calculated in this study can be used in models for public health decision-making process and highlights the mitigation role of hand hygiene agents in their prevention and control. PMID:25045350

  13. Impact of the Use of β-Lactam Antimicrobials on the Emergence of Escherichia coli Isolates Resistant to Cephalosporins under Standard Pig-Rearing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cameron-Veas, Karla; Solà-Ginés, Marc; Moreno, Miguel A.; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the treatments with ceftiofur and amoxicillin are risk factors for the emergence of cephalosporin resistant (CR) E. coli in a pig farm during the rearing period. One hundred 7-day-old piglets were divided into two groups, a control (n = 50) group and a group parenterally treated with ceftiofur (n = 50). During the fattening period, both groups were subdivided in two. A second treatment with amoxicillin was administered in feed to two of the four groups, as follows: group 1 (untreated, n = 20), group 2 (treated with amoxicillin, n = 26), group 3 (treated with ceftiofur, n = 20), and group 4 (treated with ceftiofur and amoxicillin, n = 26). During treatment with ceftiofur, fecal samples were collected before treatment (day 0) and at days 2, 7, 14, 21, and 42 posttreatment, whereas with amoxicillin, the sampling was extended 73 days posttreatment. CR E. coli bacteria were selected on MacConkey agar with ceftriaxone (1 mg/liter). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), MICs of 14 antimicrobials, the presence of cephalosporin resistance genes, and replicon typing of plasmids were analyzed. Both treatments generated an increase in the prevalence of CR E. coli, which was statistically significant in the treated groups. Resistance diminished after treatment. A total of 47 CR E. coli isolates were recovered during the study period; of these, 15 contained blaCTX-M-1, 10 contained blaCTX-M-14, 4 contained blaCTX-M-9, 2 contained blaCTX-M-15, and 5 contained blaSHV-12. The treatment with ceftiofur and amoxicillin was associated with the emergence of CR E. coli during the course of the treatment. However, by the time of finishing, CR E. coli bacteria were not recovered from the animals. PMID:25548055

  14. Expression profile of six stress-related genes and productive performances of fast and slow growing broiler strains reared under heat stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rimoldi, Simona; Lasagna, Emiliano; Sarti, Francesca Maria; Marelli, Stefano Paolo; Cozzi, Maria Cristina; Bernardini, Giovanni; Terova, Genciana

    2015-01-01

    High temperature is one of the prominent environmental factors causing economic losses to the poultry industry as it negatively affects growth and production performance in broiler chickens. We used One Step TaqMan real time RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) technology to study the effects of chronic heat stress on the expression of genes codifying for the antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), as well as for heat shock protein (HSP) 70, HSP90, glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), and caspase 6 (CASP6) in the liver of two different broiler genetic strains: Red JA Cou Nu Hubbard (CN) and Ross 508 Aviagen (RO). CN is a naked neck slow growing broiler intended for the free range and/or organic markets, whereas RO is selected for fast growing. We also analysed the effect of chronic heat stress on productive performances, and plasma corticosterone levels as well as the association between transcriptomic response and specific SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in each genetic strain of broiler chickens. RO and CN broilers, 4 weeks of age, were maintained for 4 weeks at either 34 °C or 22 °C. The results demonstrated that there was a genotype and a temperature main effect on the broilers' growth from the 4th to the 8th week of age, but the interaction effect between genotype and temperature resulted not statistically significant. By considering the genotype effect, fast growing broilers (RO) grew more than the slow growing ones (CN), whereas by considering the temperature effect, broilers in unheated conditions grew more than the heat stressed ones. Corticosterone levels increased significantly in the blood of heat stressed broilers, due to the activation of the HPA (hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis). Carcass yield at slaughter was of similar values in the 4 cohorts (genotype/temperature combinations or treatment groups), ranging from 86.5 to 88.6%, whereas carcass weight was negatively influenced

  15. Expression profile of six stress-related genes and productive performances of fast and slow growing broiler strains reared under heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Rimoldi, Simona; Lasagna, Emiliano; Sarti, Francesca Maria; Marelli, Stefano Paolo; Cozzi, Maria Cristina; Bernardini, Giovanni; Terova, Genciana

    2015-12-01

    High temperature is one of the prominent environmental factors causing economic losses to the poultry industry as it negatively affects growth and production performance in broiler chickens. We used One Step TaqMan real time RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) technology to study the effects of chronic heat stress on the expression of genes codifying for the antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), as well as for heat shock protein (HSP) 70, HSP90, glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), and caspase 6 (CASP6) in the liver of two different broiler genetic strains: Red JA Cou Nu Hubbard (CN) and Ross 508 Aviagen (RO). CN is a naked neck slow growing broiler intended for the free range and/or organic markets, whereas RO is selected for fast growing. We also analysed the effect of chronic heat stress on productive performances, and plasma corticosterone levels as well as the association between transcriptomic response and specific SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in each genetic strain of broiler chickens. RO and CN broilers, 4 weeks of age, were maintained for 4 weeks at either 34 °C or 22 °C. The results demonstrated that there was a genotype and a temperature main effect on the broilers' growth from the 4th to the 8th week of age, but the interaction effect between genotype and temperature resulted not statistically significant. By considering the genotype effect, fast growing broilers (RO) grew more than the slow growing ones (CN), whereas by considering the temperature effect, broilers in unheated conditions grew more than the heat stressed ones. Corticosterone levels increased significantly in the blood of heat stressed broilers, due to the activation of the HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis). Carcass yield at slaughter was of similar values in the 4 cohorts (genotype/temperature combinations or treatment groups), ranging from 86.5 to 88.6%, whereas carcass weight was negatively influenced by

  16. 14 CFR 23.369 - Rear lift truss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rear lift truss. 23.369 Section 23.369 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... lift truss. (a) If a rear lift truss is used, it must be designed to withstand conditions of...

  17. 14 CFR 23.369 - Rear lift truss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rear lift truss. 23.369 Section 23.369 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... lift truss. (a) If a rear lift truss is used, it must be designed to withstand conditions of...

  18. 14 CFR 23.369 - Rear lift truss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rear lift truss. 23.369 Section 23.369 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... lift truss. (a) If a rear lift truss is used, it must be designed to withstand conditions of...

  19. Prediction of glass durability as a function of environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C M

    1988-01-01

    A thermodynamic model of glass durability is applied to natural, ancient, and nuclear waste glasses. The durabilities of over 150 different natural and man-made glasses, including actual ancient Roman and Islamic glasses (Jalame ca. 350 AD, Nishapur 10-11th century AD and Gorgon 9-11th century AD), are compared. Glass durability is a function of the thermodynamic hydration free energy, ..delta..G/sub hyd/, which can be calculated from glass composition and solution pH. The durability of the most durable nuclear waste glasses examined was /approximately/10/sup 6/ years. The least durable waste glass formulations were comparable in durability to the most durable simulated medieval window glasses of /approximately/10/sup 3/ years. In this manner, the durability of nuclear waste glasses has been interpolated to be /approximately/10/sup 6/ years and no less than 10/sup 3/ years. Hydration thermodynamics have been shown to be applicable to the dissolution of glass in various natural environments. Groundwater-glass interactions relative to geologic disposal of nuclear waste, hydration rind dating of obsidians, andor other archeological studies can be modeled, e.g., the relative durabilities of six simulated medieval window glasses have been correctly predicted for both laboratory (one month) and burial (5 years) experiments. Effects of solution pH on glass dissolution has been determined experimentally for the 150 different glasses and can be predicted theoretically by hydration thermodynamics. The effects of solution redox on dissolution of glass matrix elements such as SI and B have shown to be minimal. The combined effects of solution pH and Eh have been described and unified by construction of thermodynamically calculated Pourbaix (pH-Eh) diagrams for glass dissolution. The Pourbaix diagrams have been quantified to describe glass dissolution as a function of environmental conditions by use of the data derived from hydration thermodynamics. 56 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Race, Social and Environmental Conditions, and Health Behaviors in Men.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Roland J; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Griffith, Derek M; Bruce, Marino A; Coa, Kisha; Bell, Caryn N; Young, Jessica; Bowie, Janice V; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Although understanding race differences in health behaviors among men is an important step in reducing disparities in leading causes of death in the United States, progress has been stifled when using national data because of the confounding of race, socioeconomic status, and residential segregation. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of disparities in health behaviors among African American and white men in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore, which was conducted in a racially integrated neighborhood of Baltimore to data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey. After adjusting for age, marital status, insurance, income, educational attainment, poor or fair health, and obesity status, African American men in National Health Interview Survey had greater odds of being physically inactive (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 129-1.69), reduced odds of being a current smoker (OR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.90), and reduced odds of being a current drinker (OR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.50-0.67). In the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore sample, African American and white men had similar odds of being physically inactive (OR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.50-1.24), being a current smoker (OR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.60-1.23), or being a current drinker (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.81-2.21). Because race disparities in these health behaviors were ameliorated in the sample where African American and white men were living under similar social, environmental, and socioeconomic status conditions, these findings suggest that social environment may be an important determinant of health behaviors among African American and white men. Public health interventions and health promotion strategies should consider the social environment when seeking to better understand men's health disparities. PMID:26291190

  1. Effects of Environmental Conditions on an Urban Wetland's Methane Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naor Azrieli, L.; Morin, T. H.; Bohrer, G.; Schafer, K. V.; Brooker, M.; Mitsch, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    Methane emissions from wetlands are the largest natural source of uncertainty in the global methane (CH4) budget. Wetlands are highly productive ecosystems with a large carbon sequestration potential. While wetlands are a net sink for carbon dioxide, they also release methane, a potent greenhouse gas. To effectively develop wetland management techniques, it is important to properly calculate the carbon budget of wetlands by understand the driving factors of methane fluxes. We constructed an eddy flux covariance system in the Olentangy River Wetland Research Park, a series of created and restored wetland in Columbus Ohio. Through the use of high frequency open path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) sensors, we have continuously monitored the methane fluxes associated with the wetland since May 2011. To account for the heterogeneous landscape surrounding the tower, a footprint analysis was used to isolate data originating from within the wetland. Continuous measurements of the meteorological and environmental conditions at the wetlands coinciding with the flux measurements allow the interactions between methane fluxes and the climate and ecological forcing to be studied. The wintertime daily cycle of methane peaks around midday indicating a typical diurnal pattern in cold months. In the summer, the peak shifts to earlier in the day and also includes a daily peak occurring at approximately 10 AM. We believe this peak is associated with the onset of photosynthesis in Typha latifolia flushing methane from the plant's air filled tissue. Correlations with methane fluxes include latent heat flux, soil temperature, and incoming radiation. The connection to radiation may be further evidence of plant activity as a driver of methane fluxes. Higher methane fluxes corresponding with higher soil temperature indicates that warmer days stimulate the methanogenic consortium. Further analysis will focus on separating the methane fluxes into emissions from different terrain types within

  2. Race, Social and Environmental Conditions, and Health Behaviors in Men

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Roland J.; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Griffith, Derek M.; Bruce, Marino A.; Coa, Kisha; Bell, Caryn N.; Young, Jessica; Bowie, Janice V.; LaVeist, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Although understanding race differences in health behaviors among men is an important step in reducing disparities in leading causes of death in the United States, progress has been stifled when using national data because of the confounding of race, socioeconomic status (SES), and residential segregation. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of disparities in health behaviors among African American and White men in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore (EHDIC-SWB) which was conducted in a racially a racially-integrated neighborhood of Baltimore to data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). After adjusting for age, marital status, insurance, income, educational attainment, poor or fair health, and obesity status, African American men in NHIS had greater odds of being physically inactive (odds ratio [OR] =1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 129, 1.69), reduced odds of being a current smoker (OR= 0.77, 95% CI 0.65, 0.90), and reduced odds of being a current drinker (OR= 0.58, 95% CI 0.50, 0.67). In the EHDIC-SWB sample, African American and white men had similar odds of being physically inactive (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.50, 1.24), being a current smoker (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.60, 1.23), or being a current drinker (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 0.81, 2.21). Because race disparities in these health behaviors were ameliorated in the sample where African American and white men were living under similar social, environmental and SES conditions, these findings suggest that social environment may be an important determinant of health behaviors among African American and White men. Public health interventions and health promotion strategies should consider the social environment when seeking to better understand men’s health disparities. PMID:26291190

  3. 33 CFR 148.710 - What environmental conditions must be satisfied?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What environmental conditions... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: GENERAL Environmental Review Criteria for Deepwater Ports § 148.710 What environmental conditions must be satisfied? (a) MARAD may issue a license...

  4. Pathfinder Rear Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's rear rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken at the end of Sol 2 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). This ramp was later used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. Areas of a lander petal and deflated airbag are visible at left. The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine that the rear ramp was the one to use for rover deployment. At upper right is the rock dubbed 'Barnacle Bill,' which Sojourner will later study.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  5. Influence of the rearing system on yolk corticosterone concentration in captive Greater Rheas (Rhea americana).

    PubMed

    Della Costa, Natalia S; Marin, Raul H; Busso, Juan M; Hansen, Cristian; Navarro, Joaquín L; Martella, Mónica B

    2016-05-01

    Many environmental conditions elevate plasma corticosterone in laying birds, leading to elevated hormone accumulation in the egg. We investigated whether maternal yolk corticosterone levels in Greater Rheas differ between fresh eggs collected from an intensive (IRS) and a semi-extensive (SRS) rearing system. After HPLC validation, yolk corticosterone was measured using a corticosterone (125) I radio-immunoassay kit. Results (mean ± SE) showed that eggs collected from the IRS exhibited a significantly higher corticosterone concentration than eggs from SRS (89.88 ± 8.93 vs. 45.41 ± 5.48 ng/g yolk, respectively). Our findings suggest that rearing conditions under an intensive scheme (e.g., small pens with bare ground, no direct foraging and handling) might be perceived as more stressful for Greater Rhea females than semi-extensive rearing conditions (e.g., low animal density distributed in extensive areas and direct foraging), which would result in the transfer of higher yolk corticosterone levels. A better understanding of environmental conditions and female traits that affect yolk corticosterone deposition provides a background for future studies concerning the roles of maternal corticosterone on offspring development. Zoo Biol. 35:246-250, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26928950

  6. Use of glacier river-fed estuary channels by juvenile coho salmon: transitional or rearing habitats?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoem Neher, Tammy D.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Walker, Coowe M.; Baird, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Estuaries are among the most productive ecosystems in the world and provide important rearing environments for a variety of fish species. Though generally considered important transitional habitats for smolting salmon, little is known about the role that estuaries serve for rearing and the environmental conditions important for salmon. We illustrate how juvenile coho salmonOncorhynchus kisutch use a glacial river-fed estuary based on examination of spatial and seasonal variability in patterns of abundance, fish size, age structure, condition, and local habitat use. Fish abundance was greater in deeper channels with cooler and less variable temperatures, and these habitats were consistently occupied throughout the season. Variability in channel depth and water temperature was negatively associated with fish abundance. Fish size was negatively related to site distance from the upper extent of the tidal influence, while fish condition did not relate to channel location within the estuary ecotone. Our work demonstrates the potential this glacially-fed estuary serves as both transitional and rearing habitat for juvenile coho salmon during smolt emigration to the ocean, and patterns of fish distribution within the estuary correspond to environmental conditions.

  7. OVERALL MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FOR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM SMALL WATER POOLS UNDER SIMULATED INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small chamber tests were conducted to experimentally determine the overall mass transfer coefficient for pollutant emissions from still water under simulated indoor-residential or occupational-environmental conditions. Fourteen tests were conducted in small environmental chambers...

  8. Environmental parameters conditioning microbially induced mineralization under the experimental model conditions.

    PubMed

    Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation is one of the biomineralization types closely dependent on the parameters of the microenvironment. Minerals are precipitated as a product of environmental and bacterial cell interactions, however, this system has very little control via microorganisms. The aim of research was to determine the influence of abiotic factors (pH, temperature, agitation speed of bacterial culture and calcium ion source) on the mineralization induced by Arthrobacter sulfureus, Bacillus muralis and B. atrophaeus strains under the standard laboratory conditions. Because of the key role of urease in biomineralization, processes occurring in environments with and without the urea were compared. For this purpose, cultivation of bacteria (A. sulfureus, B. muralis and B. atrophaeus) was carried out in B4 liquid medium for 5 days with various environmental parameters (pH 6-9; temperature 25-44°C; speed of agitation 0-180 rpm, different calcium sources). It was noticed that the pH and the speed of agitation clearly affect the amount of the calcium carbonate that formed. Our observations suggest that the highest precipitation rate takes place in alkaline pH between 8-9, with shaking at 180 rpms. Among studied sources of calcium ions (calcium acetate, calcium chloride and calcium nitrate), calcium acetate demonstrated the strongest potential in the biomineralization process. Moreover, work presented here demonstrates that the correlation between cultivation temperature and biomineralization process cannot be clearly evaluated. The morphology and size of calcium carbonate minerals was strain-specific, although affected by the presence of urea in the surrounding solution. PMID:26894236

  9. Differential Rearing Alters Forced Swim Test Behavior, Fluoxetine Efficacy, and Post-Test Weight Gain in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Arndt, David L; Peterson, Christy J; Cain, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors play a key role in the etiology of depression. The rodent forced swim test (FST) is commonly used as a preclinical model of depression, with increases in escape-directed behavior reflecting antidepressant effects, and increases in immobility reflecting behavioral despair. Environmental enrichment leads to serotonergic alterations in rats, but it is unknown whether these alterations may influence the efficacy of common antidepressants. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were reared in enriched (EC), standard (SC), or isolated (IC) conditions. Following the rearing period, fluoxetine (10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 23.5 hrs, 5 hrs, and 1 hr before locomotor and FST measures. Following locomotor testing and FST exposure, rats were weighed to assess fluoxetine-, FST-, and environmental condition-induced moderations in weight gain. Results revealed an antidepressant effect of environmental enrichment and a depressant effect of isolation. Regardless of significant fluoxetine effects on locomotor activity, fluoxetine generally decreased swimming and increased immobility in all three environmental conditions, with IC-fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) rats and EC-fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) rats swimming less than vehicle counterparts. Subchronic 20 mg/kg fluoxetine also induced significant weight loss, and differential rearing appeared to moderate weight gain following FST stress. These results suggest that differential rearing has the ability to alter FST behaviors, fluoxetine efficacy, and post-stressor well-being. Moreover, 20 mg/kg fluoxetine, administered subchronically, may lead to atypical effects of those commonly observed in the FST, highlighting the importance and impact of both environmental condition and dosing regimen in common animal models of depression.

  10. BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES AS INDICATORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION IN THREE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological, physical, and chemical data were collected from surficial sediments of Lakes Ontario, Michigan, and Superior to examine benthic macroinvertebrate community structure as an indicator of environmental condition.

  11. Effects of Individual Pre-Fledging Traits and Environmental Conditions on Return Patterns in Juvenile King Penguins

    PubMed Central

    Saraux, Claire; Viblanc, Vincent A.; Hanuise, Nicolas; Le Maho, Yvon; Le Bohec, Céline

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of early life stages in individuals' life history and population dynamics, very few studies have focused on the constraints to which these juvenile traits are subjected. Based on 10 years of automatic monitoring of over 2500 individuals, we present the first study on the effects of environmental conditions and individual pre-fledging traits on the post-fledging return of non-banded king penguins to their natal colony. Juvenile king penguins returned exclusively within one of the three austral summers following their departure. A key finding is that return rates (range 68–87%) were much higher than previously assumed for this species, importantly meaning that juvenile survival is very close to that of adults. Such high figures suggest little juvenile dispersal, and selection occurring mostly prior to fledging in king penguins. Pre-fledging conditions had a strong quadratic impact on juvenile return rates. As expected, cohorts reared under very unfavourable years (as inferred by the breeding success of the colony) exhibited low return rates but surprisingly, so did those fledged under very favourable conditions. Juvenile sojourns away from the colony were shorter under warm conditions and subsequent return rates higher, suggesting a positive effect of climate warming. The longer the post-fledging trip (1, 2 or 3 years), the earlier in the summer birds returned to their natal colony and the longer they stayed before leaving for the winter journey. The presence of juveniles in the colony was more than twice the duration required for moulting purposes, yet none attempted breeding in the year of their first return. Juvenile presence in the colony may be important for acquiring knowledge on the social and physical colonial environment and may play an important part in the learning process of mating behaviour. Further studies are required to investigate its potential implications on other life-history traits such as recruitment age. PMID:21687715

  12. Effects of individual pre-fledging traits and environmental conditions on return patterns in juvenile king penguins.

    PubMed

    Saraux, Claire; Viblanc, Vincent A; Hanuise, Nicolas; Le Maho, Yvon; Le Bohec, Céline

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of early life stages in individuals' life history and population dynamics, very few studies have focused on the constraints to which these juvenile traits are subjected. Based on 10 years of automatic monitoring of over 2500 individuals, we present the first study on the effects of environmental conditions and individual pre-fledging traits on the post-fledging return of non-banded king penguins to their natal colony. Juvenile king penguins returned exclusively within one of the three austral summers following their departure. A key finding is that return rates (range 68-87%) were much higher than previously assumed for this species, importantly meaning that juvenile survival is very close to that of adults. Such high figures suggest little juvenile dispersal, and selection occurring mostly prior to fledging in king penguins. Pre-fledging conditions had a strong quadratic impact on juvenile return rates. As expected, cohorts reared under very unfavourable years (as inferred by the breeding success of the colony) exhibited low return rates but surprisingly, so did those fledged under very favourable conditions. Juvenile sojourns away from the colony were shorter under warm conditions and subsequent return rates higher, suggesting a positive effect of climate warming. The longer the post-fledging trip (1, 2 or 3 years), the earlier in the summer birds returned to their natal colony and the longer they stayed before leaving for the winter journey. The presence of juveniles in the colony was more than twice the duration required for moulting purposes, yet none attempted breeding in the year of their first return. Juvenile presence in the colony may be important for acquiring knowledge on the social and physical colonial environment and may play an important part in the learning process of mating behaviour. Further studies are required to investigate its potential implications on other life-history traits such as recruitment age.

  13. Perceiving environmental properties from motion information: Minimal conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proffitt, Dennis R.; Kaiser, Mary K.

    1989-01-01

    The status of motion as a minimal information source for perceiving the environmental properties of surface segregation, three-dimensional (3-D) form, displacement, and dynamics is discussed. The selection of these particular properties was motivated by a desire to present research on perceiving properties that span the range of dimensional complexity.

  14. [Non-industrial labor, internal conditions and repetitive strain injury: a case study in a shellfish-rearing community on Maré Island, State of Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Pena, Paulo Gilvane Lopes; Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares de; Cardim, Adryanna

    2011-08-01

    Non-industrial labor is still widespread in Brazil. An appropriate approach ought to consider different social specificities from those of salaried-work relations. The scope was to examine non-industrial work practices, specifically those of extractive shellfishing, and their relation to health conditions in a small-scale fishing community. It focused on the cadences and time contingencies, as well as other working conditions, related to the development of ailments such as repetitive strain injury -RSI. A qualitative-ethnographic study was conducted between 2005 and 2007 in a community of 800 inhabitants, located on Maré Island in the state of Bahia. In a population consisting of fishing households, thirty families were interviewed, observed at work and - in cases of suspected RSI -referred to a specialized health service. The seriousness of the working conditions became evident, especially with respect to RSI. By way of illustration, an average frequency of 10,200 repetitive movements per hour were verified in extractive shellfishing, while the official Brazilian norm (NR17) for a keyboarder establishes a maximum of 8,000 movements per hour. This suggests that women shellfishers ought to be included in repetitive strain injury risk groups.

  15. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at Saint Marys, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakanishi, Allan S.; Dorava, Joseph M.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) owns or operates airway support facilities near Saint Marys along the Yukon River in west-central Alaska. The FAA is evaluating the severity of environmental contamination and options for remediation of environmental contamination at their facilities. Saint Marys is on a flood plain near the continence of the Yukon and Andreafsky Rivers and has long cold winters and short summers. Residents obtain their drinking water from an infiltration gallery fed by a creek near the village. Surface spills and disposal of hazardous materials combined with potential flooding may affect the quality of the surface and ground water. Alternative drinking-water sources are available, but would likely cost more than existing supplies to develop.

  16. Common lung conditions: environmental pollutants and lung disease.

    PubMed

    Delzell, John E

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants can have short- and long-term effects on lung health. Sources of air pollution include gases (eg, carbon monoxide, ozone) and particulate matter (eg, soot, dust). In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency regulates air pollution. Elevated ozone concentrations are associated with increases in lung-related hospitalizations and mortality. Elevated particulate matter pollution increases the risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality. Occupations with high exposures to pollutants (eg, heavy construction work, truck driving, auto mechanics) pose higher risk of chronic obstructive lung disease. Some industrial settings (eg, agriculture, sawmills, meat packing plants) also are associated with higher risks from pollutants. The Environmental Protection Agency issues an air quality index for cities and regions in the United States. The upper levels on the index are associated with increases in asthma-related emergency department visits and hospitalizations. Damp and moldy housing might make asthma symptoms worse; individuals from lower socioeconomic groups who live in lower quality housing are particularly at risk. Other household exposures that can have negative effects on lung health include radon, nanoparticles, and biomass fuels. PMID:23767420

  17. 37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear of powerhouse and car barn, showing the turntable and tracks used to move cars in and out of the building's repair and storage area. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF 527 BIRCH CIRCLE ON LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Assessing the Relationship between Socioeconomic Conditions and Urban Environmental Quality in Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Fobil, Julius; May, Juergen; Kraemer, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on health inequalities is widely known, but there is still poor understanding of the precise relationship between area-based socioeconomic conditions and neighborhood environmental quality. This study aimed to investigate the socioeconomic conditions which predict urban neighbourhood environmental quality. The results showed wide variation in levels of association between the socioeconomic variables and environmental conditions, with strong evidence of a real difference in environmental quality across the five socioeconomic classes with respect to total waste generation (p < 0.001), waste collection rate (p < 0.001), sewer disposal rate (p < 0.001), non-sewer disposal (p < 0.003), the proportion of households using public toilets (p = 0.005). Socioeconomic conditions are therefore important drivers of change in environmental quality and urban environmental interventions aimed at infectious disease prevention and control if they should be effective could benefit from simultaneous implementation with other social interventions. PMID:20195437

  20. 78 FR 43963 - Sixty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 135, Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Sixty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 135, Environmental Conditions... public of the Sixty-Second meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 135, Environmental Conditions and...

  1. The effects of rearing environment and chronic methylphenidate administration on behavior and dopamine receptors in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Gill, Kathryn E; Beveridge, Thomas J R; Smith, Hilary R; Porrino, Linda J

    2013-08-21

    Rearing young rodents in socially isolated or environmentally enriched conditions has been shown to affect numerous components of the dopamine system as well as behavior. Methylphenidate (MPH), a commonly used dopaminergic agent, may affect animals differently based on rearing environment. Here we examined the interaction between environment and chronic MPH treatment at clinically relevant doses, administered via osmotic minipump. Young Sprague Dawley rats (PND 21) were assigned to environmentally enriched, pair-housed, or socially isolated rearing conditions, and treated with either 0, 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg/day MPH for 3 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, animals were tested for locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. The densities of D1-like and D2-like receptors were measured in the striatum using in vitro receptor autoradiography. Locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior were increased in isolated animals compared to pair-housed and enriched animals. The density of D1-like receptors was greater in isolated animals, but there were no differences between groups in D2-like receptor density. Finally, there were no effects of MPH administration on any reported measure. This study provides evidence for an effect of early rearing environment on the dopamine system and behavior, and also suggests that MPH administration may not have long-term consequences.

  2. Establishment of a Rearing System of the Extremotolerant Tardigrade Ramazzottius varieornatus: A New Model Animal for Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikawa, Daiki D.; Kunieda, Takekazu; Abe, Wataru; Watanabe, Masahiko; Nakahara, Yuichi; Yukuhiro, Fumiko; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Wada, Seiichi; Funayama, Tomoo; Katagiri, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Higashi, Seigo

    2008-06-01

    Studies on the ability of multicellular organisms to tolerate specific environmental extremes are relatively rare compared to those of unicellular microorganisms in extreme environments. Tardigrades are extremotolerant animals that can enter an ametabolic dry state called anhydrobiosis and have high tolerance to a variety of extreme environmental conditions, particularly while in anhydrobiosis. Although tardigrades have been expected to be a potential model animal for astrobiological studies due to their excellent anhydrobiotic and extremotolerant abilities, few studies of tolerance with cultured tardigrades have been reported, possibly due to the absence of a model species that can be easily maintained under rearing conditions. We report the successful rearing of the herbivorous tardigrade, Ramazzottius varieornatus, by supplying the green alga Chlorella vulgaris as food. The life span was 35 ± 16.4 d, deposited eggs required 5.7 ± 1.1 d to hatch, and animals began to deposit eggs 9 d after hatching. The reared individuals of this species had an anhydrobiotic capacity throughout their life cycle in egg, juvenile, and adult stages. Furthermore, the reared adults in an anhydrobiotic state were tolerant of temperatures of 90°C and -196°C, and exposure to 99.8% acetonitrile or irradiation with 4000 Gy 4He ions. Based on their life history traits and tolerance to extreme stresses, R. varieornatus may be a suitable model for astrobiological studies of multicellular organisms.

  3. Establishment of a rearing system of the extremotolerant tardigrade Ramazzottius varieornatus: a new model animal for astrobiology.

    PubMed

    Horikawa, Daiki D; Kunieda, Takekazu; Abe, Wataru; Watanabe, Masahiko; Nakahara, Yuichi; Yukuhiro, Fumiko; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Wada, Seiichi; Funayama, Tomoo; Katagiri, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Higashi, Seigo; Okuda, Takashi

    2008-06-01

    Studies on the ability of multicellular organisms to tolerate specific environmental extremes are relatively rare compared to those of unicellular microorganisms in extreme environments. Tardigrades are extremotolerant animals that can enter an ametabolic dry state called anhydrobiosis and have high tolerance to a variety of extreme environmental conditions, particularly while in anhydrobiosis. Although tardigrades have been expected to be a potential model animal for astrobiological studies due to their excellent anhydrobiotic and extremotolerant abilities, few studies of tolerance with cultured tardigrades have been reported, possibly due to the absence of a model species that can be easily maintained under rearing conditions. We report the successful rearing of the herbivorous tardigrade, Ramazzottius varieornatus, by supplying the green alga Chlorella vulgaris as food. The life span was 35 +/- 16.4 d, deposited eggs required 5.7 +/- 1.1 d to hatch, and animals began to deposit eggs 9 d after hatching. The reared individuals of this species had an anhydrobiotic capacity throughout their life cycle in egg, juvenile, and adult stages. Furthermore, the reared adults in an anhydrobiotic state were tolerant of temperatures of 90 degrees C and -196 degrees C, and exposure to 99.8% acetonitrile or irradiation with 4000 Gy (4)He ions. Based on their life history traits and tolerance to extreme stresses, R. varieornatus may be a suitable model for astrobiological studies of multicellular organisms.

  4. The effect of front-to-rear propeller spacing on the interaction noise at cruise conditions of a model counterrotation propeller having a reduced diameter aft propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Gordon, Eliott B.; Jeracki, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of forward-to-aft propeller spacing on the interaction noise of a counterrotation propeller with reduced aft diameter was measured at cruise conditions. In general, the tones at 100 percent speed decreased from close to nominal spacing as expected from a wake decay model. However, when the spacing was further increased to the far position, the noise did not decrease as expected and in some cases increased. The behavior at the far spacing was attributed to changing forward propeller performance, which produced larger wakes. The results of this experiment indicate that simple wake decay model is sufficient to describe the behavior of the interaction noise only if the aerodynamic coupling of the two propellers does not change with spacing. If significant coupling occurs such that the loading of the forward propeller is altered, the interaction noise does not necessarily decrease with larger forward-to-aft propeller spacing.

  5. Enhanced biodegradation of methoxychlor in soil under sequential environmental conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, S; Lancione, R L; Sewall, A E

    1982-01-01

    Ring-U-[14C]methoxychlor [1,1-bis(p-methoxyphenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane] was incubated in soil under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Primary degradation of methoxychlor occurred under anaerobic conditions, but not under aerobic conditions, after 3 months of incubation. Analysis of soil extracts, using gas chromatography, demonstrated that only 10% of the compound remained at initial concentrations of 10 and 100 ppm (wt/wt) of methoxychlor. Evidence is presented that a dechlorination reaction was responsible for primary degradation of methoxychlor. Analysis of soils treated with 100 ppm of methoxychlor in the presence of 2% HgCl2 showed that 100% of the compound remained after 3 months, indicating that degradation in the unpoisoned flasks was biologically mediated. Methanogenic organisms, however, are probably not involved, as strong inhibition of methane production was observed in all soils treated with methoxychlor. During the 3-month incubation period, little or no evaluation of 14CO2 or 14CH4 occurred under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Cometabolic processes may be responsible for the extensive molecular changes which occurred with methoxychlor because the rate of its disappearance from soil was observed to level off after exhaustion of soil organic matter. After this incubation period, soils previously incubated under anaerobic conditions were converted to aerobic conditions. The rates of 14CO2 evolution from soils exposed to anaerobic and aerobic sequences of environments ranged from 10- to 70-fold greater than that observed for soils exposed solely to an aerobic environment. PMID:7125645

  6. Response to dietary supplementation of L-glutamine and L-glutamate in broiler chickens reared at different stocking densities under hot, humid tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, M; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; O'Reilly, E L; Eckersall, P D; Anna, A A; Kumari, S; Abdullah, F F J

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether supplementing AminoGut (a commercial dietary supplement containing a mixture of l-glutamine and l-glutamic acid) to broiler chickens stocked at 2 different densities affected performance, physiological stress responses, foot pad dermatitis incidence, and intestinal morphology and microflora. A randomized design in a factorial arrangement with 4 diets [basal diet, basal diet + 0.5% AminoGut from d 1 to 21, basal diet + 0.5% AminoGut from d 1 to 42, and basal diet + virginiamycin (0.02%) for d 1 to 42] and 2 stocking densities [0.100 m(2)/bird (23 birds/pen; LD) or 0.067 m(2)/bird (35 birds/pen; HD)]. Results showed that villi length and crypt depth were not changed by different dietary treatments. However, birds in the HD group had smaller villi (P = 0.03) compared with those of the LD group. Regardless of diet, HD consistently increased the serum concentrations of ceruloplasmin, α-1 acid glycoprotein, ovotransferin, and corticosterone (P = 0.0007), and elevated heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (0.0005). Neither AminoGut supplementation nor stocking density affected cecal microflora counts. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, dietary supplementation of AminoGut, irrespective of stocking density, had no beneficial effect on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and physiological adaptive responses of broiler chickens raised under hot and humid tropical conditions. However, AminoGut supplementation from d 1 to 42 was beneficial in reducing mortality rate. Also, the increased serum concentrations of a wide range of acute phase proteins together with elevated corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio suggested that high stocking density induced an acute phase response either indirectly as a result of increased incidence of inflammatory diseases such as foot pad dermatitis or possibly as a direct physiological response to the stress of high stocking density.

  7. Effects of dietary selenium and vitamin E on immune response and biological blood parameters of broilers reared under thermoneutral or heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Habibian, Mahmood; Ghazi, Shahab; Moeini, Mohammad Mehdi; Abdolmohammadi, Alireza

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted using 360 broiler chickens to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (0, 125 and 250 mg/kg), selenium (Se, 0, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg), or their different combinations on immune response and blood biological parameters of broilers raised under either thermoneutral (TN, 23.9 °C constant) or heat stress (HS, 23.9 to 37 °C cycling) conditions. Humoral immunity was assessed by intravenous injection of 7% sheep red blood cell (SRBC) followed by evaluation of serum for antibody titers in primary and secondary responses. Heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio also determined as an indicator of stress. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment, birds were bled for determination of some biological parameters. There was a significant reduction in body weight and feed intake, but the feed conversion ratio increased when the birds were exposed to HS (P<0.05). Body weight and feed intake were not influenced significantly by dietary vitamin E and Se (P>0.05), whereas feed conversion was improved significantly by 125 mg/kg vitamin E (P<0.05). The liver and lymphoid organ weights as well as IgM and IgG, antibody titers for primary and secondary antibody responses to SRBC were reduced significantly under HS (P<0.05). Heat stress also resulted in a significant increase in H/L ratio (P<0.05). Dietary vitamin E resulted in improvement of primary and secondary antibody responses both in TN and HS broilers (P<0.05). The HS birds also showed an improved antibody titer in secondary response with high concentration of Se (P<0.05). Vitamin E and Se had interactive effects on anti-SRBC titers; however, no consistent differences were found between dietary levels during the study. The H/L ratio decreased by feeding vitamin E at both levels either under HS or TN conditions (P < 0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were increased but serum HDL-cholesterol decreased in HS broilers (P<0.05).

  8. Effects of dietary selenium and vitamin E on immune response and biological blood parameters of broilers reared under thermoneutral or heat stress conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibian, Mahmood; Ghazi, Shahab; Moeini, Mohammad Mehdi; Abdolmohammadi, Alireza

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted using 360 broiler chickens to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (0, 125 and 250 mg/kg), selenium (Se, 0, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg), or their different combinations on immune response and blood biological parameters of broilers raised under either thermoneutral (TN, 23.9 °C constant) or heat stress (HS, 23.9 to 37 °C cycling) conditions. Humoral immunity was assessed by intravenous injection of 7 % sheep red blood cell (SRBC) followed by evaluation of serum for antibody titers in primary and secondary responses. Heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio also determined as an indicator of stress. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment, birds were bled for determination of some biological parameters. There was a significant reduction in body weight and feed intake, but the feed conversion ratio increased when the birds were exposed to HS ( P < 0.05). Body weight and feed intake were not influenced significantly by dietary vitamin E and Se ( P > 0.05), whereas feed conversion was improved significantly by 125 mg/kg vitamin E ( P < 0.05). The liver and lymphoid organ weights as well as IgM and IgG, antibody titers for primary and secondary antibody responses to SRBC were reduced significantly under HS ( P < 0.05). Heat stress also resulted in a significant increase in H/L ratio ( P < 0.05). Dietary vitamin E resulted in improvement of primary and secondary antibody responses both in TN and HS broilers ( P < 0.05). The HS birds also showed an improved antibody titer in secondary response with high concentration of Se ( P < 0.05). Vitamin E and Se had interactive effects on anti-SRBC titers; however, no consistent differences were found between dietary levels during the study. The H/L ratio decreased by feeding vitamin E at both levels either under HS or TN conditions ( P < 0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were increased but serum HDL-cholesterol decreased in HS broilers ( P < 0.05).

  9. Fluctuating asymmetry and condition in golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) reared in sublethal concentrations of isopropyl methylphosphonic acid.

    PubMed

    Green, Chris C; Lochmann, Steve E

    2006-01-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA; small, random differences between the left and right sides of a bilateral character) has been related to embryological stress during development. Some populations exhibit positive relations between FA and exposure to toxicants during development. The United States has agreed to demilitarize chemical warfare agents in accordance with the Chemical Weapons Convention Treaty. Isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA), the main hydrolysis product of sarin, could be introduced accidentally into the environment during demilitarization. The present study examined the use of FA as a biomarker of developmental stress caused by sublethal exposures to IMPA. A suite of morphometric and meristic traits were measured in two fish species exposed to IMPA. Significant differences were found in composite FA among groups of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) exposed to sublethal concentrations of IMPA during development. No differences were found in composite FA among groups of golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) exposed to IMPA. No relation was found between individual relative condition and FA in channel catfish or golden shiner.

  10. [Resting metabolic rate, stress, testosterone, and induced immune response in "spring" and "fall" males of Campbell dwarf hamsters. Rearing under the long day conditions].

    PubMed

    Rogovin, K A; Bushuev, A V; Khrushchova, A M; Vasil'eva, N Iu

    2013-01-01

    We have studied morphological and physiological traits of even-young males of Campbell dwarf hamsters (Phodopus campbelli Thomas, 1905) born at the end of summer ("fall males") and at the end of winter ("spring males") in a vivarium with constant 14-hour day length (14D:10N). After removal from parental cages at the age of one month, males were kept in isolation under the same light conditions. The results obained signify the statistical difference between "fall" and "spring" males in resting metabolic rate, morphological traits associated with sexual activity, some endocrine and immunologic characteristics. Spring males had higher resting metabolic rate, higher body mass in the middle of experiment, bigger testes, seminal vesicles, higher concentration of testosterone in blood and more intensive T-cell immune response to the intracutaneous injection of phytohemagglutinin. They did not differ significantly in basal level of blood cortisole and antibodies production in response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) antigen challenge, but possessed lower adrenocortical response to the social stressor and adrenocorticotropic hormone. GLM analysis showed that cortisol level in blood after 10 min encounter of males in the open arena, and resting metabolic rate were the only factors significantly influenced humoral immune response to SRBC. When intensity of T-cell immune response was considered as dependent variable, season turned out to be the only factor in the final model that caused a significant effect.

  11. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at Galena, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakanishi, Allan S.; Dorava, Joseph M.

    1994-01-01

    The remote Native village of Galena along the Yukon River in west-central Alaska has long cold winters and short summers that affects the hydrology of the area. The Federal Aviation Administration owns or operates airport support facilities in Galena and wishes to consider the subsistence lifestyle of the residents and the quality of the current environment when evaluating options for remediation of environmental contamination at these facilities. Galena is located on the flood plain of the Yukon River and obtains its drinking water from a shallow aquifer located in the thick alluvium underlying the village. Surface spills and disposal of hazardous materials combined with annual flooding of the Yukon River may affect the quality of the ground water. Alternative drinking-water sources are available but at significantly greater cost than existing supplies.

  12. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at Fort Yukon, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakanishi, Allan S.; Dorava, Joseph M.

    1994-01-01

    The village of Fort Yukon along the Yukon River in east-central Alaska has long cold winters and short summers. The Federal Aviation Administration operates and supports some airport facilities in Fort Yukon and is evaluating the severity of environmental contamination and options for remediation of such contamination at their facilites. Fort Yukon is located on the flood plain of the Yukon River and obtains its drinking water from a shallow aquifer located in the thick alluvium underlying the village. Surface spills and disposal of hazardous materials combined with annual flooding of the Yukon River may affect the quality of the ground water. Alternative drinking-water sources are available from local surface-water bodies or from presently unidentified confined aquifers.

  13. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at Moses Point, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, J.M.; Ayres, R.P.; Sisco, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration facility at Moses Point is located at the mouth of the Kwiniuk River on the Seward Peninsula in northwestern Alaska. This area has long cold winters and short summers which affect the hydrology of the area. The Federal Aviation Administration owns or operates airport support facilities at the Moses Point site and wishes to consider the subsistence lifestyles of area residents and the quality of the current environment when evaluating options for remediation of environmental contamination at their facilities. Currently no operating wells are in the area, but the vulnerability of the aquifer and other alternative water supplies are being evaluated because the Federal Aviation Administration has a potential liability for the storage and use of hazardous materials in the area.

  14. Environmental overview and hydrogeologic conditions at Aniak, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The remote Native village of Aniak, on the flood plain of the Kuskokwim River in southwestern Alaska, has long cold winters and short summers that affect both the hydrology of the area and the lifestyle of the residents. Aniak obtains its drinking water from a shallow aquifer in the thick alluvium underlying the village. Surface spills and disposal of hazardous materials combined with annual flooding of the Kuskokwim River may affect the quality of the ground water. Alternative drinking water sources are available but at significantly greater cost than existing supplies. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) owns or operates airport support facilities in Aniak. The subsistence lifestyle of the villagers and the quality of the current environment must be taken into consideration when the FAA evaluates options for remediation of environmental contamination at these facilities. This report describes the ground- and surface-water hydrology, geology, climate, vegetation, soils, and flood potential of the areas surrounding the FAA sites.

  15. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at Tanana, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakanishi, Allan S.; Dorava, Joseph M.

    1994-01-01

    The remote Native village of Tanana along the Yukon River in west-central Alaska has long cold winters and short summers. The Federal Aviation Administration owns or operates airway support facilities near Tanana and wishes to consider the subsistence lifestyle of the residents and the quality of the current environment when evaluating the severity of environmental contamination at these facilities. Tanana is located on the flood plain of the Yukon River and obtains its drinking water from a shallow aquifer located in thick alluvium underlying the village. Surface spills and disposal of hazardous materials combined with annual flooding of the Yukon River may affect the quality of the ground water. Alternative drinking-water sources are available, but may cost more than existing supplies.

  16. Environmental embrittlement of iron aluminides under cyclic loading conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Castagna, A.; Alven, D.A.; Stoloff, N.S.

    1995-08-01

    The tensile and fatigue crack growth behavior in air in hydrogen and in oxygen of an Fe-Al-Cr-Zr alloy is described. The results are compared to data for FA-129. A detailed analysis of frequency effects on fatigue crack growth rates of FA-129, tested in the B2 condition, shows that dislocation transport of hydrogen from the surface is the rate limiting step in fatigue crack growth.

  17. Environmental condition assessment of US military installations using GIS based spatial multi-criteria decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Singer, Steve; Wang, Guangxing; Howard, Heidi; Anderson, Alan

    2012-08-01

    Environment functions in various aspects including soil and water conservation, biodiversity and habitats, and landscape aesthetics. Comprehensive assessment of environmental condition is thus a great challenge. The issues include how to assess individual environmental components such as landscape aesthetics and integrate them into an indicator that can comprehensively quantify environmental condition. In this study, a geographic information systems based spatial multi-criteria decision analysis was used to integrate environmental variables and create the indicator. This approach was applied to Fort Riley Military installation in which land condition and its dynamics due to military training activities were assessed. The indicator was derived by integrating soil erosion, water quality, landscape fragmentation, landscape aesthetics, and noise based on the weights from the experts by assessing and ranking the environmental variables in terms of their importance. The results showed that landscape level indicator well quantified the overall environmental condition and its dynamics, while the indicator at level of patch that is defined as a homogeneous area that is different from its surroundings detailed the spatiotemporal variability of environmental condition. The environmental condition was mostly determined by soil erosion, then landscape fragmentation, water quality, landscape aesthetics, and noise. Overall, environmental condition at both landscape and patch levels greatly varied depending on the degree of ground and canopy disturbance and their spatial patterns due to military training activities and being related to slope. It was also determined the environment itself could be recovered quickly once military training was halt or reduced. Thus, this study provided an effective tool for the army land managers to monitor environmental dynamics and plan military training activities. Its limitation lies at that the obtained values of the indicator vary and are

  18. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at Barrow, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    To assist the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in evaluating the potential effects of environmental contamination at their facility in Barrow, Alaska, a general assessment was made of the hydrologic system is the vicinity of the installation. The City of Barrow is located approximately 16 kilometers southwest of Point Barrow, the northernmost point in Alaska, and therefore lies within the region of continuous permafrost. Migration of surface or shallow- subsurface chemical releases in this environ- ment would be largely restricted by near-surface permafrost to surface water and the upper, suprapermafrost zone of the subsurface. In the arctic climate and tundra terrain of the Barrow area, this shallow environment has a limited capacity to attenuate the effects of either physical disturbances or chemical contamination and is therefore highly susceptible to degradation. Esatkuat Lagoon, the present drink- ing water supply for the City of Barrow, is located approximately 2 kilometers from the FAA facility. This lagoon is the only practical source of drinking water available to the City of Barrow because alternative sources of water in the area are (1) frozen throughout most of the year, (2) insufficient in volume, (3) of poor quality, or (4) too costly to develop and distribute.

  19. Estimating environmental conditions of carbonate crystal fan formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, K. D.; Fischer, W. W.

    2010-12-01

    The sedimentary record reveals that the large-scale aspects of carbonate deposition have remained unchanged over > 3.4 Ga of Earth History. This reflects long term commonalities in the sources of DIC and alkalinity to seawater and the processes that generate and fill accommodation in sedimentary basins. Despite this stability, the record also reveals important first order changes in the nature of carbonate precipitation through time; this is documented in the decreasing abundance of sea floor carbonate precipitation. For example, carbonate crystal fans (large bladed crystals formed at the sediment-water interface, thought to be originally composed of aragonite) have a distinct distribution in time. They are common on Archean and Paleoproterozoic carbonate platforms and become rare by Neoproterozoic time, only reappearing during several unusual intervals (e.g. P-T mass extinction) in Phanerozoic basins. This has been interpreted as evidence for a decline in carbonate saturation through time. This pattern of distribution presents a fundamental problem. Despite being bathed in waters that are strongly supersaturated, direct precipitation of carbonate-bearing minerals on the sea floor is exceedingly rare in modern shallow tropical ocean basins. In order to examine this problem we examined processes controlling both the chemistry and physics of the sediment-water interface that could promote precipitation. Using a mathematical model to depict the influence of organic delivery and different microbial respiratory metabolisms on the carbonate chemistry within the shallow sediments, two non-unique chemical conditions emerge that indicate precipitation can be thermodynamically favorable on the seafloor from seawater with similar chemistry to today’s oceans. In agreement with modern porewater data, our results suggest that an important component inhibiting seafloor cementation is aerobic respiration in the shallow sediments. In addition to the chemical conditions of the

  20. Corrosion behavior of carbon steels under tuff repository environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    McCright, R.D.; Weiss, H.

    1984-10-01

    Carbon steels may be used for borehole liners in a potential high-level nuclear waste repository in tuff in Nevada. Borehole liners are needed to facilitate emplacement of the waste packages and to facilitate retrieval of the packages, if required. Corrosion rates of low carbon structural steels AISI 1020 and ASTM A-36 were determined in J-13 well water and in saturated steam at 100{sup 0}C. Tests were conducted in air-sparged J-13 water to attain more oxidizing conditions representative of irradiated aqueous environments. A limited number of irradiation corrosion and stress corrosion tests were performed. Chromium-molybdenum alloy steels and cast irons were also tested. These materials showed lower general corrosion but were susceptible to stress corrosion cracking when welded. 4 references, 4 tables.

  1. Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks in Mauritania and Related Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Caminade, Cyril; Ndione, Jacques A.; Diallo, Mawlouth; MacLeod, Dave A.; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Dia, Ibrahima; Morse, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Four large outbreaks of Rift Valley Fever (RVF) occurred in Mauritania in 1998, 2003, 2010 and 2012 which caused lots of animal and several human deaths. We investigated rainfall and vegetation conditions that might have impacted on RVF transmission over the affected regions. Our results corroborate that RVF transmission generally occurs during the months of September and October in Mauritania, similarly to Senegal. The four outbreaks were preceded by a rainless period lasting at least a week followed by heavy precipitation that took place during the second half of the rainy season. First human infections were generally reported three to five weeks later. By bridging the gap between meteorological forecasting centers and veterinary services, an early warning system might be developed in Senegal and Mauritania to warn decision makers and health services about the upcoming RVF risk. PMID:24413703

  2. Moose body mass variation revisited: disentangling effects of environmental conditions and genetics.

    PubMed

    Herfindal, Ivar; Haanes, Hallvard; Solberg, Erling J; Røed, Knut H; Høgda, Kjell Arild; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2014-02-01

    Large-scale geographical variation in phenotypic traits within species is often correlated to local environmental conditions and population density. Such phenotypic variation has recently been shown to also be influenced by genetic structuring of populations. In ungulates, large-scale geographical variation in phenotypic traits, such as body mass, has been related to environmental conditions and population density, but little is known about the genetic influences. Research on the genetic structure of moose suggests two distinct genetic lineages in Norway, structured along a north-south gradient. This corresponds with many environmental gradients, thus genetic structuring provides an additional factor affecting geographical phenotypic variation in Norwegian moose. We investigated if genetic structure explained geographical variation in body mass in Norwegian moose while accounting for environmental conditions, age and sex, and if it captured some of the variance in body mass that previously was attributed to environmental factors. Genetic structuring of moose was the most important variable in explaining the geographic variation in body mass within age and sex classes. Several environmental variables also had strong explanatory power, related to habitat diversity, environmental seasonality and winter harshness. The results suggest that environmental conditions, landscape characteristics, and genetic structure should be evaluated together when explaining large-scale patterns in phenotypic characters or life history traits. However, to better understand the role of genetic and environmental effects on phenotypic traits in moose, an extended individual-based study of variation in fitness-related characters is needed, preferably in an area of convergence between different genetic lineages.

  3. Vibration-based structural health monitoring using adaptive statistical method under varying environmental condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Seung-Seop; Jung, Hyung-Jo

    2014-03-01

    It is well known that the dynamic properties of a structure such as natural frequencies depend not only on damage but also on environmental condition (e.g., temperature). The variation in dynamic characteristics of a structure due to environmental condition may mask damage of the structure. Without taking the change of environmental condition into account, false-positive or false-negative damage diagnosis may occur so that structural health monitoring becomes unreliable. In order to address this problem, an approach to construct a regression model based on structural responses considering environmental factors has been usually used by many researchers. The key to success of this approach is the formulation between the input and output variables of the regression model to take into account the environmental variations. However, it is quite challenging to determine proper environmental variables and measurement locations in advance for fully representing the relationship between the structural responses and the environmental variations. One alternative (i.e., novelty detection) is to remove the variations caused by environmental factors from the structural responses by using multivariate statistical analysis (e.g., principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis, etc.). The success of this method is deeply depending on the accuracy of the description of normal condition. Generally, there is no prior information on normal condition during data acquisition, so that the normal condition is determined by subjective perspective with human-intervention. The proposed method is a novel adaptive multivariate statistical analysis for monitoring of structural damage detection under environmental change. One advantage of this method is the ability of a generative learning to capture the intrinsic characteristics of the normal condition. The proposed method is tested on numerically simulated data for a range of noise in measurement under environmental variation. A comparative

  4. Relationships among fisheries exploitation, environmental conditions, and ecological indicators across a series of marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Caihong; Large, Scott; Knight, Ben; Richardson, Anthony J.; Bundy, Alida; Reygondeau, Gabriel; Boldt, Jennifer; van der Meeren, Gro I.; Torres, Maria A.; Sobrino, Ignacio; Auber, Arnaud; Travers-Trolet, Morgane; Piroddi, Chiara; Diallo, Ibrahima; Jouffre, Didier; Mendes, Hugo; Borges, Maria Fatima; Lynam, Christopher P.; Coll, Marta; Shannon, Lynne J.; Shin, Yunne-Jai

    2015-08-01

    Understanding how external pressures impact ecosystem structure and functioning is essential for ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management. We quantified the relative effects of fisheries exploitation and environmental conditions on ecological indicators derived from two different data sources, fisheries catch data (catch-based) and fisheries independent survey data (survey-based) for 12 marine ecosystems using a partial least squares path modeling approach (PLS-PM). We linked these ecological indicators to the total biomass of the ecosystem. Although the effects of exploitation and environmental conditions differed across the ecosystems, some general results can be drawn from the comparative approach. Interestingly, the PLS-PM analyses showed that survey-based indicators were less tightly associated with each other than the catch-based ones. The analyses also showed that the effects of environmental conditions on the ecological indicators were predominantly significant, and tended to be negative, suggesting that in the recent period, indicators accounted for changes in environmental conditions and the changes were more likely to be adverse. Total biomass was associated with fisheries exploitation and environmental conditions; however its association with the ecological indicators was weak across the ecosystems. Knowledge of the relative influence of exploitation and environmental pressures on the dynamics within exploited ecosystems will help us to move towards ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management. PLS-PM proved to be a useful approach to quantify the relative effects of fisheries exploitation and environmental conditions and suggest it could be used more widely in fisheries oceanography.

  5. Environmental and behavioral conditions of bathing among elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Yuji; Ohnaka, Tadakatsu; Tochihara, Yutaka; Nagai, Yumiko; Ito, Hiromitsu; Yoshitake, Shiro

    2007-03-01

    This study investigated the bathing conditions of elderly Japanese, and sought to find factors relating to regional differences in death rates from bathtub accidents. A questionnaire survey was carried out in 11 areas of Japan. Questionnaires including questions regarding the length of time since houses had been built, types of facilities, and subjects' indoor thermal sensations and behavior while bathing were distributed to detached houses in each area twice, once in summer and once in winter. Completed questionnaires were collected from approximately 160 elderly people over 65 years old. Information regarding thermal sensations of rooms in winter revealed that a prefabricated bath and insulating window glass eased the cold in the bathroom. Unexpectedly, more subjects in the southern region than in the northern region reported being cold or a little cold while bathing in winter. In the present study, thermal sensations and behaviors while bathing seemed to be more affected by facilities and the location of houses than by the sex and age of the subjects. PMID:17435371

  6. Sustainable Environmental Education: Conditions and Characteristics Needed for a Successfully Integrated Program in Public Elementary Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieckenberg, Cara Rae

    This case study investigated what conditions and characteristics contributed to a successful environmental education program within elementary schools of a school district where environmental education was the mandate. While research does exist on practical application of environmental education within schools, little if any literature has been written or research conducted on schools actually implementing environmental education to study what contributes to the successful implementation of the program. To study this issue, 24 participants from a Midwestern school district were interviewed, six of whom were principals of each of the six elementary schools included in the study. All participants were identified as champions of environmental education integration within their buildings due to leadership positions held focused on environmental education. Analysis of the data collected via interviews revealed findings that hindered the implementation of environmental education, findings that facilitated the implementation of environmental education, and findings that indicated an environmental education-focused culture existed within the schools. Conditions and characteristics found to contribute to the success of these school's environmental education programs include: professional development opportunities, administrative support, peer leadership opportunities and guidance, passion with the content and for the environment, comfort and confidence with the content, ease of activities and events that contribute to the culture and student success. Keywords: environmental education, integration, leadership, teachers as leaders.

  7. Water Retention of Extremophiles and Martian Soil Simulants Under Close to Martian Environmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jänchen, J.; Bauermeister, A.; Feyh, N.; deVera, J.-P.

    2012-05-01

    We report data about interaction of moisture with soil simulants and extremophiles under Martian environmental conditions contributing on atmosphere/surface modelling and on effects determining the water inventory of the upper soil layer of Mars.

  8. ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLIER ORGANIC TRANSFORMATIONS ON MINERAL SUPPORTS UNDER NON-TRADITIONAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic organic reactions performed under non-traditional conditions are gaining popularity primarily to circumvent the growing environmental concerns. A solvent-free approach that involves microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) either in presence of a catalyst o...

  9. Environmental Conditions in Northern Gulf of Mexico Estuaries: Before and After the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    EPA Science Inventory

    When conducting an environmental assessment to determine the ecological effects of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), baseline environmental data is essential to establish ecosystem condition prior to the incident. EPA’s National Coastal Assessment...

  10. Neglected Buildings, Damaged Health: A "Snapshot" of New York City Public School Environmental Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocates for Children of New York, Inc., Long Island City.

    Survey results are presented from 65 parents, students over 12 years, teachers, and other school employees using 39 different schools about environmental conditions in New York City public schools. It shows the results of years of neglect of infrastructure for children and reveals disturbing new information about the environmental health of school…

  11. Using a Physical Education Environmental Survey to Identify Areas of Concern and Improve Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Grant; Hulbert, George

    2007-01-01

    School environmental conditions can impact learning in physical educational classes. It is important for schools to control environmental health hazards, not only to promote a conducive school learning environment, but to also reduce associated health risks. To help physical education leaders determine the quality of physical education facilities…

  12. Flexible DCP interface. [signal conditioning system for use with Kansas environmental sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T. (Principal Investigator); Schimmelpfenning, H.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A user of an ERTS data collection system must supply the sensors and signal conditioning interface. The electronic interface must be compatible with the NASA-furnished data collection platform (DCP). A universal signal conditioning system for use with a wide range of environmental sensors is described. The interface is environmentally and electronically compatible with the DCP and has operated satisfactorily for a complete winter wheat growing season in Kansas.

  13. Standardized seawater rearing of chinook salmon smolts to evaluate hatchery practices showed low statistical power

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmisano, Aldo N.; Elder, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    We examined, under standardized conditions, seawater survival of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha at the smolt stage to evaluate the experimental hatchery practices applied to their rearing. The experimental rearing practices included rearing fish at different densities; attempting to control bacterial kidney disease with broodstock segregation, erythromycin injection, and an experimental diet; rearing fish on different water sources; and freeze branding the fish. After application of experimental rearing practices in hatcheries, smolts were transported to a rearing facility for about 2-3 months of seawater rearing. Of 16 experiments, 4 yielded statistically significant differences in seawater survival. In general we found that high variability among replicates, plus the low numbers of replicates available, resulted in low statistical power. We recommend including four or five replicates and using ?? = 0.10 in 1-tailed tests of hatchery experiments to try to increase the statistical power to 0.80.

  14. Regulation of free corticosterone and CBG capacity under different environmental conditions in altricial nestlings.

    PubMed

    Almasi, Bettina; Roulin, Alexandre; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Breuner, Creagh W; Jenni, Lukas

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of circulating glucocorticoids is regulated in response to environmental and endogenous conditions. Total circulating corticosterone, the main glucocorticoid in birds, consists of a fraction which is bound to corticosterone-binding globulins (CBG) and a free fraction. There is increasing evidence that the environment modulates free corticosterone levels through varying the concentration of CBG, but experimental evidence is lacking. To test the hypothesis that the regulation of chronic stress in response to endogenous and environmental conditions involves variation in both corticosterone release and CBG capacity, we performed an experiment with barn owl (Tyto alba) nestlings in two different years with pronounced differences in environmental conditions and in nestlings experimentally fed ad libitum. In half of the individuals we implanted a corticosterone-releasing pellet to artificially increase corticosterone levels and in the other half we implanted a placebo pellet. We then repeatedly collected blood samples to measure the change in total and free corticosterone levels as well as CBG capacity. The increase in circulating total corticosterone after artificial corticosterone administration varied with environmental conditions and with the food regime of the nestlings. The highest total corticosterone levels were found in nestlings growing up in poor environmental conditions and the lowest in ad libitum fed nestlings. CBG was highest in the year with poor environmental conditions, so that, contrary to total corticosterone, free corticosterone levels were low under poor environmental conditions. When nestlings were fed ad libitum total corticosterone, CBG and free corticosterone did not increase when administering corticosterone. These results suggest that depending on the individual history an animal experienced during development the HPA-axis is regulated differently. PMID:19467233

  15. Effects of Hatchery Rearing on the Structure and Function of Salmonid Mechanosensory Systems.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew D; Sisneros, Joseph A; Jurasin, Tyler; Coffin, Allison B

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews recent studies on the effects of hatchery rearing on the auditory and lateral line systems of salmonid fishes. Major conclusions are that (1) hatchery-reared juveniles exhibit abnormal lateral line morphology (relative to wild-origin conspecifics), suggesting that the hatchery environment affects lateral line structure, perhaps due to differences in the hydrodynamic conditions of hatcheries versus natural rearing environments, and (2) hatchery-reared salmonids have a high proportion of abnormal otoliths, a condition associated with reduced auditory sensitivity and suggestive of inner ear dysfunction. PMID:26610951

  16. Performance on the Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment across controlled environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Haran, F Jay; Dretsch, Michael N; Bleiberg, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Neurocognitive assessment tools (NCAT) are commonly used to screen for changes in cognitive functioning following a mild traumatic brain injury and to assist with a return to duty decision. As such, it is critical to determine if performance on the Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment (DANA) is adversely affected by operationally-relevant field environments. Differences in DANA performance between a thermoneutral environment and three simulated operationally-relevant field environments across the thermal stress continuum were calculated for 16 healthy U.S. Navy service members. Practice effects associated with brief test-retest intervals were calculated within each environmental condition. There were no significant differences between the simulated environmental conditions suggesting that performance on the DANA Brief is not impacted by thermal stress. Additionally, there were no significant differences in performance within each simulated environmental condition associated with repeated administrations. PMID:27182844

  17. Migratory management and environmental conditions affect lifespan and oxidative stress in honey bees

    PubMed Central

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Huang, Ming H.; Strand, Micheline K.; Rueppell, Olav; Tarpy, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Most pollination in large-scale agriculture is dependent on managed colonies of a single species, the honey bee Apis mellifera. More than 1 million hives are transported to California each year just to pollinate the almonds, and bees are trucked across the country for various cropping systems. Concerns have been raised about whether such “migratory management” causes bees undue stress; however to date there have been no longer-term studies rigorously addressing whether migratory management is detrimental to bee health. To address this issue, we conducted field experiments comparing bees from commercial and experimental migratory beekeeping operations to those from stationary colonies to quantify effects on lifespan, colony health and productivity, and levels of oxidative damage for individual bees. We detected a significant decrease in lifespan of migratory adult bees relative to stationary bees. We also found that migration affected oxidative stress levels in honey bees, but that food scarcity had an even larger impact; some detrimental effects of migration may be alleviated by a greater abundance of forage. In addition, rearing conditions affect levels of oxidative damage incurred as adults. This is the first comprehensive study on impacts of migratory management on the health and oxidative stress of honey bees. PMID:27554200

  18. Migratory management and environmental conditions affect lifespan and oxidative stress in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Huang, Ming H; Strand, Micheline K; Rueppell, Olav; Tarpy, David R

    2016-01-01

    Most pollination in large-scale agriculture is dependent on managed colonies of a single species, the honey bee Apis mellifera. More than 1 million hives are transported to California each year just to pollinate the almonds, and bees are trucked across the country for various cropping systems. Concerns have been raised about whether such "migratory management" causes bees undue stress; however to date there have been no longer-term studies rigorously addressing whether migratory management is detrimental to bee health. To address this issue, we conducted field experiments comparing bees from commercial and experimental migratory beekeeping operations to those from stationary colonies to quantify effects on lifespan, colony health and productivity, and levels of oxidative damage for individual bees. We detected a significant decrease in lifespan of migratory adult bees relative to stationary bees. We also found that migration affected oxidative stress levels in honey bees, but that food scarcity had an even larger impact; some detrimental effects of migration may be alleviated by a greater abundance of forage. In addition, rearing conditions affect levels of oxidative damage incurred as adults. This is the first comprehensive study on impacts of migratory management on the health and oxidative stress of honey bees. PMID:27554200

  19. Migratory management and environmental conditions affect lifespan and oxidative stress in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Huang, Ming H; Strand, Micheline K; Rueppell, Olav; Tarpy, David R

    2016-01-01

    Most pollination in large-scale agriculture is dependent on managed colonies of a single species, the honey bee Apis mellifera. More than 1 million hives are transported to California each year just to pollinate the almonds, and bees are trucked across the country for various cropping systems. Concerns have been raised about whether such "migratory management" causes bees undue stress; however to date there have been no longer-term studies rigorously addressing whether migratory management is detrimental to bee health. To address this issue, we conducted field experiments comparing bees from commercial and experimental migratory beekeeping operations to those from stationary colonies to quantify effects on lifespan, colony health and productivity, and levels of oxidative damage for individual bees. We detected a significant decrease in lifespan of migratory adult bees relative to stationary bees. We also found that migration affected oxidative stress levels in honey bees, but that food scarcity had an even larger impact; some detrimental effects of migration may be alleviated by a greater abundance of forage. In addition, rearing conditions affect levels of oxidative damage incurred as adults. This is the first comprehensive study on impacts of migratory management on the health and oxidative stress of honey bees.

  20. Aquacultured Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Possess a Large Core Intestinal Microbiota That Is Resistant to Variation in Diet and Rearing Density

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Sandi; Waldrop, Thomas; Summerfelt, Steven; Davidson, John; Barrows, Frederic; Kenney, P. Brett; Welch, Timothy; Wiens, Gregory D.; Snekvik, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    As global aquaculture fish production continues to expand, an improved understanding of how environmental factors interact in fish health and production is needed. Significant advances have been made toward economical alternatives to costly fishmeal-based diets, such as grain-based formulations, and toward defining the effect of rearing density on fish health and production. Little research, however, has examined the effects of fishmeal- and grain-based diets in combination with alterations in rearing density. Moreover, it is unknown whether interactions between rearing density and diet impact the composition of the fish intestinal microbiota, which might in turn impact fish health and production. We fed aquacultured adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fishmeal- or grain-based diets, reared them under high- or low-density conditions for 10 months in a single aquaculture facility, and evaluated individual fish growth, production, fin indices, and intestinal microbiota composition using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that the intestinal microbiotas were dominated by a shared core microbiota consisting of 52 bacterial lineages observed across all individuals, diets, and rearing densities. Variations in diet and rearing density resulted in only minor changes in intestinal microbiota composition despite significant effects of these variables on fish growth, performance, fillet quality, and welfare. Significant interactions between diet and rearing density were observed only in evaluations of fin indices and the relative abundance of the bacterial genus Staphylococcus. These results demonstrate that aquacultured rainbow trout can achieve remarkable consistency in intestinal microbiota composition and suggest the possibility of developing novel aquaculture strategies without overtly altering intestinal microbiota composition. PMID:23770898

  1. Environmental performance of wastewater reuse systems: impact of system boundaries and external conditions.

    PubMed

    Baresel, Christian; Dalgren, Lena; Almemark, Mats; Lazic, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater reclamation will be a significant part of future water management and the environmental assessment of various treatment systems to reuse wastewater has become an important research field. The secondary treatment process and sludge handling on-site are, especially, electricity demanding processes due to aeration, pumping, mixing, dewatering, etc. used for operation and are being identified as the main contributor for many environmental impacts. This study discusses how the environmental performance of reuse treatment systems may be influenced by surrounding conditions. This article illustrates and discusses the importance of factors commonly treated as externalities and as such not being included in optimization strategies of reuse systems, but that are necessary to environmentally assess wastewater reclamation systems. This is illustrated by two up-stream and downstream processes; electricity supply and the use of sludge as fertilizer commonly practiced in regions considered for wastewater reclamation. The study shows that external conditions can have a larger impact on the overall environmental performance of reuse treatment systems than internal optimizations could compensate for. These results imply that a more holistic environmental assessment of reuse schemes could provide less environmental impacts as externalities could be included in measures to reduce the overall impacts. PMID:27003080

  2. Environmental Condition and its Impact on Landscape Description by Salient Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleimani, S.; Malek, M. R.; Soleimani, Z.; Arabsheibani, R.

    2015-12-01

    Describing a landscape means making link between concepts of visible features and people's perception. Most landscape description methods underline salient entities which are a key trigger for wayfinding problems and tourism management. Searching for a better understanding of landscape descriptions implies to explore and identify the main visual properties that differentiate between landscapes depending on both human cognition and environmental condition. Furthermore, this environmental condition affects the credibility of data produced by people, particularly when using Volunteered Geographical Information systems which brings forward a huge amount of information. Then this paper proposes an approach to emerge patterns by which describing landscape in general and choosing salient objects in particular have been influenced.

  3. Resistance of Microorganisms to Extreme Environmental Conditions and Its Contribution to Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampelotto, Pabulo Henrique

    2010-06-01

    In the last decades, substantial changes have occurred regarding what scientists consider the limits of habitable environmental conditions. For every extreme environmental condition investigated, a variety of microorganisms have shown that not only can they tolerate these conditions, but that they also often require these extreme conditions for survival. Microbes can return to life even after hundreds of millions of years. Furthermore, a variety of studies demonstrate that microorganisms can survive under extreme conditions, such as ultracentrifugation, hypervelocity, shock pressure, high temperature variations, vacuums, and different ultraviolet and ionizing radiation intensities, which simulate the conditions that microbes could experience during the ejection from one planet, the journey through space, as well as the impact in another planet. With these discoveries, our knowledge about the biosphere has grown and the putative boundaries of life have expanded. The present work examines the recent discoveries and the principal advances concerning the resistance of microorganisms to extreme environmental conditions, and analyzes its contributions to the development of the main themes of astrobiology: the origins of life, the search for extraterrestrial life, and the dispersion of life in the Universe.

  4. Development and Leaf Consumption by Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Leaves of Agroenergy Crops.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, M F; Nava, D E; Geissler, L O; Melo, M; Garcia, M S; Krüger, R

    2013-12-01

    Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest that threatens more than 24 species of crop plants including those used for biodiesel production such as Ricinus communis (castor bean), Jatropha curcas (Barbados nut), and Aleurites fordii (tung oil tree). The development and leaf consumption by S. cosmioides reared on leaves of these three species were studied under controlled laboratory conditions. The egg-to-adult development time of S. cosmioides was shortest when reared on castor bean leaves and longest when reared on tung oil tree leaves. Larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves had seven instars, whereas those reared on tung oil tree leaves had eight. Females originating from larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves showed greater fecundity than did females originating from larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves. Insects fed on castor bean leaves had shorter life spans than those fed on tung oil tree and Barbados nut leaves although the oviposition period did not differ significantly. The intrinsic and finite rates of increase were highest for females reared on castor bean leaves. Total leaf consumption was highest for larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves and lowest for those reared on Barbados nut leaves. We conclude that castor bean is a more appropriate host plant for the development of S. cosmioides than are Barbados nut and tung oil tree.

  5. Responses of Organic Phosphorus Fractionation to Environmental Conditions and Lake Evolution.

    PubMed

    Lü, Changwei; Wang, Bing; He, Jiang; Vogt, Rolf D; Zhou, Bin; Guan, Rui; Zuo, Le; Wang, Weiying; Xie, Zhilei; Wang, Jinghua; Yan, Daohao

    2016-05-17

    Geochemical fractionation is used to assess the significance of environmental factors on organic phosphorus (OP) pools in sediments. Labile, moderately labile, and nonlabile OP pools in the sediments from Lake Hulun, Inner Mongolia, were fractionated, and their responses to environmental conditions and lake evolution were investigated based on the spatial and vertical distribution of OP fractionations. In light of the recalcitrant characteristics of organic matter (OM) in different environmental conditions, the pH presents significant negative effects on the amount of labile OP, while water depth shows an important role in regulating the distribution between the moderately labile and nonlabile OP pools. A latitudinal zonation in the distribution of OP pools in surface sediments from different lakes was apparent with this zonation likely linked to the gradient effects of climate and anthropogenic activities on OM decomposition and thereby on the sediments capacity to hold phosphorus. These results show that OM plays a role in governing the impacts of weather and environmental factors on OP fractionation in aquatic environments. This work suggests that OP pools in the sediment core could be used as an archive for environmental conditions and lake evolution. PMID:27104794

  6. The "Rear View Mirror" Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, James R.

    1987-01-01

    The new interactive videodisk systems with augmented audio capabilities have great potential for improving the teaching of foreign languages. At present that potential is unfulfilled because the profession is following a "rear view mirror" approach to media use: first, to fixate current practice; second, to distribute it broadly; and last, to…

  7. Child Rearing on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sam; And Others

    During the second year of a 3-year study involving 112 Iowa farm families, mothers of children aged 4 to 10 years old expressed expectations of independence, responsibility, and hard work from their children during home interviews. The importance of the parent-child relationship together with the lack of sufficient child-rearing research on rural…

  8. Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

    This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

  9. Environmental heterogeneity influences the reliability of secondary sexual traits as condition indicators.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Pablo; Martinez-Padilla, J; Mougeot, F; Leckie, F; Redpath, S M

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown positive associations between ornaments and condition, as predicted by indicator models of sexual selection. However, this idea is continuously challenged by opposite results, which reveal our lack of full understanding of how sexual selection works. Environmental heterogeneity may explain such inconsistencies, but valid field tests of this idea are currently lacking. We first analysed the relationship between condition and ornament expression from nine populations over 7 years in a wild bird, the red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus. We then manipulated male aggressiveness at the population level by means of testosterone implants in a replicated field experiment. We found that the relationship between condition and ornamentation varied greatly between environments and became stronger when environmental conditions (ECs) were worse or when aggressiveness in the population was experimentally increased. Some ornaments may therefore reliably advertise a better condition only in adverse ECs. Considering environmental heterogeneity can help reconcile conflicting findings regarding the reliability of ornaments as indicators of condition and will help our understanding of sexual selection processes. PMID:22022806

  10. Applications of remote sensing for the evaluation of Adriatic Sea environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Vitiello, F.; Borfecchia, F.; De Cecco, L.; Martini, S.

    1997-08-01

    The paper shows the remote sensing activities that ENEA is carrying out for the evaluation of Adriatic Sea environmental conditions and their modifications over the last fifteen years. The activities were requested by the Italian Research Ministry to gain knowledge of the circulation model of the Adriatic Sea and to understand what caused algae blooms in some of the last years. The Adriatic Sea is a high environmental risk sea, because its depth is low and a strong pollutant charge is coming into the sea from the Po river and from many other rivers of the NE coast of Italy. Processing of satellite images has covered the period from 1980 up to now and has allowed the reconstruction of modifications of the environmental conditions of the sea. The paper shows the first results obtained by remote sensing images processing that will be utilized for the database of the Adriatic Sea.

  11. 40 CFR 86.1312-2007 - Filter stabilization and microbalance workstation environmental conditions, microbalance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for filter buoyancy in air. For the uncorrected tare weight of a filter, this calculated value is the... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Filter stabilization and microbalance workstation environmental conditions, microbalance specifications, and particulate matter filter handling...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1312-2007 - Filter stabilization and microbalance workstation environmental conditions, microbalance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for filter buoyancy in air. For the uncorrected tare weight of a filter, this calculated value is the... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filter stabilization and microbalance workstation environmental conditions, microbalance specifications, and particulate matter filter handling...

  13. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to simulate the impact of an ambient heat load on the power requirements of the vehicle's air conditioning compressor while operating on a specific driving cycle. The environmental facility control... heat load are: (A) Metal halide; (B) Quartz halogen with dichroic mirrors; and (C) Sodium iodide....

  14. Dietary CDP-Choline Supplementation Prevents Memory Impairment Caused by Impoverished Environmental Conditions in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teather, Lisa A.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors previously showed that dietary cytidine (5')-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) supplementation could protect against the development of memory deficits in aging rats. In the present study, younger rats exposed to impoverished environmental conditions and manifesting hippocampal-dependent memory impairments similar to those observed in the…

  15. Association between Markers of Classroom Environmental Conditions and Teachers' Respiratory Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claudio, Luz; Rivera, Glory A.; Ramirez, Olivia F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have assessed health in schoolchildren. Less is known about the environmental and occupational health of teachers. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of teachers was conducted in 24 randomly selected public elementary schools. Questionnaire included sociodemographic information, healthcare, school conditions, and health…

  16. EVALUATION OF SEVERAL ASSESSMENT METHODS AS INDICATORS OF ESTUARINE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Researchers from U.S. EPA's Gulf Ecology Division have conducted a multi-year evaluation of the environmental condition of near-coastal areas affected by different types of stressors. Areas of study have included coastal rivers, transportation canals, residential canals and estua...

  17. Engineered nanomaterial transformation under oxidative environmental conditions: Development of an in vitro biomimetic assay

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Kevin M.; Mangham, Andrew N.; Bierman, Matthew J.; Jin, Song; Hamers, Robert J.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2013-01-01

    Once released into the environment, engineered nanomaterials may be transformed by microbially mediated redox processes altering their toxicity and fate. Little information currently exists on engineered nanomaterial transformation under environmentally relevant conditions. Here, we report the development of an in vitro biomimetic assay for investigation of nanomaterial transformation under simulated oxidative environmental conditions. The assay is based on the extracellular hydroquinone-driven Fenton’s reaction used by lignolytic fungi. We demonstrate the utility of the assay using CdSecore/ZnSshell quantum dots (QDs) functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol). QD transformation was assessed by UV-Visible spectroscopy, inductively-coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). QDs were readily degraded under simulated oxidative environmental conditions: the ZnS shell eroded and cadmium was released from the QD core. TEM, electron diffraction analysis and EDX of transformed QDs revealed formation of amorphous Se aggregates. The biomimetic hydroquinone-driven Fenton’s reaction degraded QDs to a larger extent than did H2O2 and classical Fenton’s reagent (H2O2 + Fe2+). This assay provides a new method to characterize transformations of nanoscale materials expected to occur under oxidative environmental conditions. PMID:19350941

  18. Ebola Virus RNA Stability in Human Blood and Urine in West Africa's Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Janvier, Frédéric; Delaune, Deborah; Poyot, Thomas; Valade, Eric; Mérens, Audrey; Rollin, Pierre E; Foissaud, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated RNA stability of Ebola virus in EDTA blood and urine samples collected from infected patients and stored in West Africa's environmental conditions. In blood, RNA was stable for at least 18 days when initial cycle threshold values were <30, but in urine, RNA degradation occurred more quickly.

  19. Environmental Control System Installer/Servicer (Residential Air Conditioning Mechanic). V-TECS Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Calvin F.; Benson, Robert T.

    This guide provides job relevant tasks, performance objectives, performance guides, resources, learning activitites, evaluation standards, and achievement testing in the occupation of environmental control system installer/servicer (residential air conditioning mechanic). It is designed to be used with any chosen teaching method. The course…

  20. Purification, storage, and pathogenicity assay of rice false smut fungus under controlled environmental conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice false smut, caused by Ustilaginoidea virens, is serious disease that affects grain yield and quality. In the present study, a method to purify, store, and evaluate pathogenicity of U. virens under controlled environmental conditions was developed. Yellow chlamydospores were collected from fresh...

  1. Environmental consequences of impact cratering events as a function of ambient conditions on Earth.

    PubMed

    Kring, David A

    2003-01-01

    The end of the Mesozoic Era is defined by a dramatic floral and faunal turnover that has been linked with the Chicxulub impact event, thus leading to the realization that impact cratering can affect both the geologic and biologic evolution of Earth. However, the environmental consequences of an impact event and any subsequent biological effects rely on several factors, including the ambient environmental conditions and the extant ecosystem structures at the time of impact. Some of the severest environmental perturbations of the Chicxulub impact event would not have been significant in some periods of Earth history. Consequently, the environmental and biological effects of an impact event must be evaluated in the context in which it occurs.

  2. Structure and properties of silk from the African wild silkmoth Gonometa postica reared indoors.

    PubMed

    Teshome, Addis; Raina, S K; Vollrath, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    African wild silkmoth, Gonometa postica Walker (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), were reared indoors in order to examine the influence of rearing conditions on the structure and properties of silk cocoon shells and degummed fibers by using a scanning electron microscope, an Instron tensile tester, and a thermogravimetric analyzer. The cocoons reared indoors showed inferior quality in weight, length, width, and cocoon shell ratio compared to cocoons reared outdoors. There were no differences in cocoon shell and fiber surfaces and cross sectional structures. Cocoon shells were covered with calcium oxalate crystals with few visible fibers on their surface. Degummed fibers were smooth with minimum unfractured surfaces and globular to triangular cross sections. Indoor-reared cocoon shells had a significantly higher breaking strain, while the breaking stress was higher for cocoons reared outdoors. Fibers from indoor cocoons had a significantly higher breaking stress while outdoor fibers had higher breaking strain. Thermogravimetric analysis curves showed two main thermal reactions revealing the dehydration of water molecules and ir-reversible decomposition of the crystallites in both cocoons and fibers reared indoors and outdoors. Cocoon shells underwent additional peaks of decomposition with increased temperature. The total weight loss was higher for cocoon shells and degummed fibers from indoors. Rearing conditions (temperature and relative humidity), feeding method used, changes in total life span, days to molting, and spinning might have influenced the variation in the properties observed.The ecological and commercial significances of indoor rearing of G. posticaare discussed.

  3. Structure and Properties of Silk from the African Wild Silkmoth Gonometa postica Reared Indoors

    PubMed Central

    Teshome, Addis; Raina, S. K.; Vollrath, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    African wild silkmoth, Gonometa postica Walker (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), were reared indoors in order to examine the influence of rearing conditions on the structure and properties of silk cocoon shells and degummed fibers by using a scanning electron microscope, an Instron tensile tester, and a thermogravimetric analyzer. The cocoons reared indoors showed inferior quality in weight, length, width, and cocoon shell ratio compared to cocoons reared outdoors. There were no differences in cocoon shell and fiber surfaces and cross sectional structures. Cocoon shells were covered with calcium oxalate crystals with few visible fibers on their surface. Degummed fibers were smooth with minimum unfractured surfaces and globular to triangular cross sections. Indoor-reared cocoon shells had a significantly higher breaking strain, while the breaking stress was higher for cocoons reared outdoors. Fibers from indoor cocoons had a significantly higher breaking stress while outdoor fibers had higher breaking strain. Thermogravimetric analysis curves showed two main thermal reactions revealing the dehydration of water molecules and irreversible decomposition of the crystallites in both cocoons and fibers reared indoors and outdoors. Cocoon shells underwent additional peaks of decomposition with increased temperature. The total weight loss was higher for cocoon shells and degummed fibers from indoors. Rearing conditions (temperature and relative humidity), feeding method used, changes in total life span, days to molting, and spinning might have influenced the variation in the properties observed. The ecological and commercial significances of indoor rearing of G. postica are discussed. PMID:25373183

  4. Metals in tissues of seabass and seabream reared in sites with oxic and anoxic substrata and risk assessment for consumers.

    PubMed

    Kalantzi, I; Pergantis, S A; Black, K D; Shimmield, T M; Papageorgiou, N; Tsapakis, M; Karakassis, I

    2016-03-01

    Twenty-eight metals and elements were measured in the muscle, liver, gills, bone and intestine of farmed seabass and gilthead seabream from four Mediterranean fish farms. The influence of fish species and the effect of environmental conditions on the metal accumulation in fish tissues was investigated. Most concentrations were lower in muscle and higher in liver and bone than in other body tissues. Seabass accumulates more elements in its tissues than seabream. Fish reared in coarse, oxic sites accumulate more elements with higher concentrations in muscle, bone and intestine and with lower concentrations in liver and gills than fish reared in silty, anoxic sites. This may be attributed to feed type and sediment properties. According to the metal pollution index, hazard quotient, selenium health benefit values, carcinogenic risk of arsenic, maximum safe consumption and the permitted limits, the consumption of both farmed species should be considered as safe for human health.

  5. Metals in tissues of seabass and seabream reared in sites with oxic and anoxic substrata and risk assessment for consumers.

    PubMed

    Kalantzi, I; Pergantis, S A; Black, K D; Shimmield, T M; Papageorgiou, N; Tsapakis, M; Karakassis, I

    2016-03-01

    Twenty-eight metals and elements were measured in the muscle, liver, gills, bone and intestine of farmed seabass and gilthead seabream from four Mediterranean fish farms. The influence of fish species and the effect of environmental conditions on the metal accumulation in fish tissues was investigated. Most concentrations were lower in muscle and higher in liver and bone than in other body tissues. Seabass accumulates more elements in its tissues than seabream. Fish reared in coarse, oxic sites accumulate more elements with higher concentrations in muscle, bone and intestine and with lower concentrations in liver and gills than fish reared in silty, anoxic sites. This may be attributed to feed type and sediment properties. According to the metal pollution index, hazard quotient, selenium health benefit values, carcinogenic risk of arsenic, maximum safe consumption and the permitted limits, the consumption of both farmed species should be considered as safe for human health. PMID:26471605

  6. Partitioning the Relative Importance of Phylogeny and Environmental Conditions on Phytoplankton Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Aaron W E; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Essential fatty acids (EFA), which are primarily generated by phytoplankton, limit growth and reproduction in diverse heterotrophs. The biochemical composition of phytoplankton is well-known to be governed both by phylogeny and environmental conditions. Nutrients, light, salinity, and temperature all affect both phytoplankton growth and fatty acid composition. However, the relative importance of taxonomy and environment on algal fatty acid content has yet to be comparatively quantified, thus inhibiting predictions of changes to phytoplankton food quality in response to global environmental change. We compiled 1145 published marine and freshwater phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, consisting of 208 species from six major taxonomic groups, cultured in a wide range of environmental conditions, and used a multivariate distance-based linear model to quantify the total variation explained by each variable. Our results show that taxonomic group accounts for 3-4 times more variation in phytoplankton fatty acids than the most important growth condition variables. The results underscore that environmental conditions clearly affect phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, but also show that conditions account for relatively low variation compared to phylogeny. This suggests that the underlying mechanism determining basal food quality in aquatic habitats is primarily phytoplankton community composition, and allows for prediction of environmental-scale EFA dynamics based on phytoplankton community data. We used the compiled dataset to calculate seasonal dynamics of long-chain EFA (LCEFA; ≥C20 ɷ-3 and ɷ-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid) concentrations and ɷ-3:ɷ-6 EFA ratios in Lake Washington using a multi-decadal phytoplankton community time series. These analyses quantify temporal dynamics of algal-derived LCEFA and food quality in a freshwater ecosystem that has undergone large community changes as a result of shifting resource management practices, highlighting diatoms

  7. Partitioning the Relative Importance of Phylogeny and Environmental Conditions on Phytoplankton Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Essential fatty acids (EFA), which are primarily generated by phytoplankton, limit growth and reproduction in diverse heterotrophs. The biochemical composition of phytoplankton is well-known to be governed both by phylogeny and environmental conditions. Nutrients, light, salinity, and temperature all affect both phytoplankton growth and fatty acid composition. However, the relative importance of taxonomy and environment on algal fatty acid content has yet to be comparatively quantified, thus inhibiting predictions of changes to phytoplankton food quality in response to global environmental change. We compiled 1145 published marine and freshwater phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, consisting of 208 species from six major taxonomic groups, cultured in a wide range of environmental conditions, and used a multivariate distance-based linear model to quantify the total variation explained by each variable. Our results show that taxonomic group accounts for 3-4 times more variation in phytoplankton fatty acids than the most important growth condition variables. The results underscore that environmental conditions clearly affect phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, but also show that conditions account for relatively low variation compared to phylogeny. This suggests that the underlying mechanism determining basal food quality in aquatic habitats is primarily phytoplankton community composition, and allows for prediction of environmental-scale EFA dynamics based on phytoplankton community data. We used the compiled dataset to calculate seasonal dynamics of long-chain EFA (LCEFA; ≥C20 ɷ-3 and ɷ-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid) concentrations and ɷ-3:ɷ-6 EFA ratios in Lake Washington using a multi-decadal phytoplankton community time series. These analyses quantify temporal dynamics of algal-derived LCEFA and food quality in a freshwater ecosystem that has undergone large community changes as a result of shifting resource management practices, highlighting diatoms

  8. THE EFFECTS OF THREE DIFFERENT REAR KNEE ANGLES ON KINEMATICS IN THE SPRINT START

    PubMed Central

    Bertucco, M.; Zancanaro, C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the rear knee angle range in the set position that allows sprinters to reach greater propulsion on the rear block during the sprint start. Eleven university-track team sprinters performed the sprint start using three rear knee angle conditions: 90°, 115° and 135°. A motion capture system consisting of 8 digital cameras (250 Hz) was used to record kinematic parameters at the starting block phase and the acceleration phase. The following variables were considered: horizontal velocity of the centre of mass (COM), COM height, block time, pushing time on the rear block, percentage of pushing time on the rear block, force impulse, push-off angle and length of the first two strides. The main results show that first, horizontal block velocity is significantly greater at 90° vs 115° and 135° rear knee angle (p<0.05 and p<0.001 respectively) at block clearance and the first two strides; second, during the pushing phase, the percentage of pushing time of the rear leg is significantly greater at 90° vs 135° rear knee angle (p<0.01). No significant difference was found for block time among the conditions. These results indicate that block velocity is the main kinematic parameter affected by rear knee angle during the starting block phase and acceleration phase. Furthermore, the 90° rear knee angle allows for a better push-off of the rear leg than larger angles at the set position. The findings of this study provide some direction and useful practical advice in defining an efficient rear leg biomechanical configuration at the set position. PMID:25177099

  9. Gnotobiotic pigs-derivation and rearing.

    PubMed

    Miniats, O P; Jol, D

    1978-10-01

    The procurement, rearing, nutrition and microbiological monitoring of gnotobiotic pigs and a method for conditioning of primary, colostrum-deprived, specific pathogen free pigs is described. As compared to the established hysterectomy and closed hysterotomy methods for the derivation of gnotobiotic piglets an alternative approach, open caesarian section with the sow maintained under general halothane-nitrous oxide anaesthesia and the introduction of each fetus into the sterile isolator via a liquid germicidal trap, was found to be more efficient and equally successful in providing viable and microbiologically sterile piglets. Two sterile commercially available milk diets, a special formula for orphan animals and condensed cow's milk, when the latter was supplemented with injectable vitamin E, selenium and iron, proved adequate for satisfactory health of the animals. Two types of pelleted starter rations, sterilized by 4.5 megarads of gamma irradiation, provided adequately for the nutritional needs of older gnotobiotic pigs. Results of microbiological monitoring indicated that the surgical and rearing methods employed were capable of preventing contamination of the animals with bacteria, mycoplasma, yeasts, molds, protozoa and helminths but probably could not exclude occasional vertically transmitted viral infections. Exposure of the animals for four weeks to selected strains of lactobacilli, fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli did not result in visible disease while they were maintained in isolators and conditioned them for transfer into a conventional microbial environment.

  10. Gnotobiotic pigs-derivation and rearing.

    PubMed Central

    Miniats, O P; Jol, D

    1978-01-01

    The procurement, rearing, nutrition and microbiological monitoring of gnotobiotic pigs and a method for conditioning of primary, colostrum-deprived, specific pathogen free pigs is described. As compared to the established hysterectomy and closed hysterotomy methods for the derivation of gnotobiotic piglets an alternative approach, open caesarian section with the sow maintained under general halothane-nitrous oxide anaesthesia and the introduction of each fetus into the sterile isolator via a liquid germicidal trap, was found to be more efficient and equally successful in providing viable and microbiologically sterile piglets. Two sterile commercially available milk diets, a special formula for orphan animals and condensed cow's milk, when the latter was supplemented with injectable vitamin E, selenium and iron, proved adequate for satisfactory health of the animals. Two types of pelleted starter rations, sterilized by 4.5 megarads of gamma irradiation, provided adequately for the nutritional needs of older gnotobiotic pigs. Results of microbiological monitoring indicated that the surgical and rearing methods employed were capable of preventing contamination of the animals with bacteria, mycoplasma, yeasts, molds, protozoa and helminths but probably could not exclude occasional vertically transmitted viral infections. Exposure of the animals for four weeks to selected strains of lactobacilli, fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli did not result in visible disease while they were maintained in isolators and conditioned them for transfer into a conventional microbial environment. PMID:154359

  11. The effects of environmental enrichment on nicotine condition place preference in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ewin, Sarah E; Kangiser, Megan M; Stairs, Dustin J

    2015-10-01

    Environmental enrichment has previously been shown to alter sensitivity to psychostimulants and opiates in various preclinical models. However, little research has been conducted studying the effects of environmental enrichment on the more commonly abused drug, nicotine. The current study raised male rats in either enriched conditions (EC) or isolated conditions (IC) and tested the animals' sensitivity to acquisition, extinction and reinstatement of nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP). Using a 3-chamber CPP apparatus, male Sprague-Dawley rats were conditioned with 1 of 3 doses of nicotine (0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 mg/kg) or saline on alternating days across 8 conditioning trials, followed by a test day for a nicotine-induced CPP response. Next, the animals had 5 extinction sessions followed by a nicotine-primed reinstatement session. EC rats displayed nicotine CPP at all 3 doses, whereas IC rats failed to show significant nicotine CPP relative to saline controls. EC rats also showed extinction of the nicotine-induced CPP response by the fifth extinction session for all 3 nicotine doses tested. However, only the 2 highest doses of the nicotine prime reinstated a CPP response in EC rats relative to saline controls. Taken together, these findings suggest that environmental enrichment may increase sensitivity to the rewarding effects of nicotine.

  12. Examples of landscape indicators for assessing environmental conditions and problems in urban and suburban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin-Duque, J. F.; Godfrey, A.; Diez, A.; Cleaves, E.; Pedraza, J.; Sanz, M.A.; Carrasco, R.M.; Bodoque, J.; Brebbia, C.A.; Martin-Duque, J.F.; Wadhwa, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    Geo-indicators can help to assess environmental conditions in city urban and suburban areas. Those indicators should be meaningful for understanding environmental changes. From examples of Spanish and American cities, geo-indicators for assessing environmental conditions and changes in urban and suburban areas are proposed. The paper explore two types of geo-indicators. The first type presents general information that can be used to indicate the presence of a broad array of geologic conditions, either favouring or limiting various kinds of uses of the land. The second type of geo-indicator is the one most commonly used, and as a group most easily understood; these are site and problem specific and they are generally used after a problem is identified. Among them, watershed processes, seismicity and physiographic diversity are explained in more detail. A second dimension that is considered when discussing geo-indicators is the issue of scale. Broad scale investigations, covering extensive areas are only efficient at cataloguing general conditions common to much of the area or some outstanding feature within the area. This type of information is best used for policy type decisions. Detailed scale investigations can provide information about local conditions, but are not efficient at cataloguing vast areas. Information gathered at the detailed level is necessary for project design and construction.

  13. Effects of rearing density and raceway conformation on growth, food conversion, and survival of juvenile spring chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ewing, R.D.; Sheahan, J.E.; Lewis, M.A.; Palmisano, Aldo N.

    2000-01-01

    Four brood years of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were reared in conventional and baffled raceways at various rearing densities and loads at Willamette Hatchery, Oregon. A period of rapid linear growth occurred from August to November, but there was little or no growth from November to March when the fish were released. Both fall and winter growth rates were inversely related to rearing density. Final weight and length were also inversely related to rearing density. No significant relationship between load and any growth variable was observed. Fish reared at lower densities in conventional raceways tended to develop bimodal length distributions in winter and early spring. Fish reared in conventional raceways showed significantly larger growth rates and final lengths and weights than those reared in baffled raceways. Food conversions and average delivery times for feed were significantly greater in baffled than in conventional raceways. No significant relationships were observed between either rearing density or load and condition factor, food conversion, or mortality. Mortality was not significantly different between the two raceway types. When fish were transported to seawater for further rearing, there were no significant relationships between mortality in seawater and rearing density or load, but fish reared in baffled raceways had significantly higher mortality than those reared in conventional raceways.

  14. Effect of environmental conditions on the fatty acid fingerprint of microbial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryukov, Mikhail; Dippold, Michaela; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    Lipid biomarkers, especially phospholipids, are routinely used to characterize microbial community structure in environmental samples. Interpretations of these fingerprints mainly depend on rare results of pure cultures which were cultivated under standardized batch conditions. However, membrane lipids (e.g. phopholipid biomarker) build up the interface between microorganisms and their environment and consequently are prone to be adapted according to the environmental conditions. We cultivated several bacteria, isolated from soil (gram-positive and gram-negative) under various conditions e.g. C supply and temperature regimes. Effect of growth conditions on phospholipids fatty acid (PLFA) as well as neutral lipid fatty acids (NLFA) and glycolipid fatty acids (GLFA) was investigated by conventional method of extraction and derivatization, followed by assessments with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, phospholipids were measured as intact molecules by ultra high performance liquid chromatography - quadrupole - time of flight mass spectrometer (UHPLC-Q-ToF) to further assess the composition of headgroups with fatty acids residues and their response on changing environmental conditions. PLFA fingerprints revealed a strong effect of growth stage, C supply and temperature e.g. decrease of temperature increased the amount of branched and/or unsaturated fatty acids to maintain the membrane fluidity. This strongly changes the ratio of specific to unspecific fatty acids depending on environmental conditions. Therefore, amounts of specific fatty acids cannot be used to assess biomass of a functional microbial group in soil. Intracellular neutral lipids depended less on environmental conditions reflecting a more stable biomarker group but also showed less specific fatty acids then PLFA. Therefore, combination of several lipid classes is suggested as more powerful tool to assess amounts and functionality of environmental microbial communities. Further

  15. Environmental modification of gillraker number in coregonine fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Thomas N.

    1998-01-01

    Gillraker number, one of the most important taxonomic characters in the Coregoninae, has been considered genetically determined and not environmentally modifiable. However, laboratory-reared progeny of Coregonus alpenae, C. artedi, C. clupeaformis, C. hoyi, C. kiyi, C. zenithicus, and Prosopium cylindraceum generally had fewer gillrakers than the wild parents from which eggs were taken for hatching and rearing. Of 19 experimental groups hatched and reared between 1957 and 1996, only progeny from C. alpenae, C. zenithicus, and one group of C. clupeaformis had gillraker counts similar to their parents. All other groups had three to six gillrakers less than their wild parents. Most species were hatched and reared under similar conditions including similar temperatures, except for three groups of C. hoyi and several groups of C. clupeaformis and C. artedi. Incubation of C. hoyi eggs at 2°, 4°, and 8° C produced fish with five to six fewer gillrakers on average than their wild parental source in Lake Michigan. Warmer rearing temperatures produced higher gillraker counts in C. clupeaformis, and perhaps the discrepancies observed between wild and laboratory-reared fish in these experiments resulted from colder rearing temperatures in the laboratory than those experienced by wild fish.

  16. Commercial catch rates of the clam Spisula solida reflect local environmental coastal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, V.; Leitão, F.

    2014-02-01

    The effect of environmental variables and fishing pressure (explanatory variables were lagged 1 year) on commercial catch rates of the clam Spisula solida was studied on an annual basis over a 21 year period in three areas off the Portuguese coast (the Northwest, the Southwest and the South) between 1989 and 2009. Each area showed distinct environmental (oceanographic and hydrological) characteristics. Different sensitivities of S. solida fishing grounds to environmental variables were found among the study areas. On the Northwest coast, the combined effect of NAO indices and sea surface temperature had a positive effect on S. solida fisheries, particularly during the spawning season. On the Southwest coast, the variation of S. solida catches was negatively associated with wind magnitude and positively related with South-Southeast winds. Winter river discharges and summer sea surface temperature negatively affected S. solida catches on the South coast. Fishing effort also affected S. solida catch rates in the South. However, “extreme” changes in environmental conditions were the main drivers of short-term variations in catch rates. These results indicate that variations of S. solida catches strongly reflect a regional signature of local climatic features off the coast. Information on local environmental conditions should therefore be used for the purpose of identifying management actions to ensure long-term sustainability of S. solida fisheries.

  17. Unravelling environmental conditions during the Holocene in the Dead Sea region using multiple archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambeau, Claire; van Leeuwen, Jacqueline; van der Knaap, Pim; Gobet, Erika

    2016-04-01

    For the most arid parts of the Southern Levant (roughly corresponding to modern Jordan, Israel and Palestine), environmental reconstructions are impeded by the limited number of archives, and the frequent contradictions between individual palaeoenvironmental records. The Southern Levant is characterised by steep climate gradients; local conditions presently range from arid to dry Mediterranean, with limits that may have fluctuated during the Holocene. This further complicates the determination of site-specific past environmental conditions. Understanding past climate and environmental evolution through time, at a local level, is however crucial to compare these with societal evolution during the Holocene, which features major cultural developments such as cereal cultivation, animal domestication, water management, as well as times of preferential settlement growth or site abandonment. This contribution proposes to examine the different archives available for the Dead Sea region, paying special attention to the most recent pollen data obtained from the area. It will particularly critically compare local to regional-scale information, and try to decipher the main evolutions of environmental conditions during the Holocene in arid and semi-arid Southern Levant.

  18. How environmental conditions affect canopy leaf-level photosynthesis in four deciduous tree species

    SciTech Connect

    Bassow, S.L.; Bazzaz, F.A.

    1998-12-01

    Species composition of temperate forests vary with successional age and seems likely to change in response to significant global climate change. Because photosynthesis rates in co-occurring tree species can differ in their sensitivity to environmental conditions, these changes in species composition are likely to alter the carbon dynamics of temperate forests. To help improve their understanding of such atmosphere-biosphere interactions, the authors explored changes in leaf-level photosynthesis in a 60--70 yr old temperate mixed-deciduous forest in Petersham, Massachusetts (USA). Diurnally and seasonally varying environmental conditions differentially influenced in situ leaf-level photosynthesis rates in the canopies of four mature temperate deciduous tree species: red oak (Quercus rubra), red maple (Acer rubrum), white birch (Betula papyrifera), and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). The authors measured in situ photosynthesis at two heights within the canopies through a diurnal time course on 7 d over two growing seasons. They simultaneously measured a suite of environmental conditions surrounding the leaf at the time of each measurement. The authors used path analysis to examine the influence of environmental factors on in situ photosynthesis in the tree canopies.

  19. Assessment of the environmental conditions of the Sarno river basin (south Italy): a stream sediment approach.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Stefano; Iavazzo, Pietro; Adamo, Paola; Lima, Annamaria; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2013-06-01

    The Sarno river basin covers an area of 500 km(2) collecting the waters of Solofrana and Cavaiola tributaries. Originally it manly represents a source of livelihood for inhabitants by fishing and transporting goods; currently, the Sarno river, still partially used for irrigation, is affected by an extreme environmental degradation as a result of uncontrolled outflow of industrial waste. Within the framework of a wider geochemical prospecting project aiming at characterizing the whole territory of the Campania region, 89 stream sediment samples with a sampling density of 1 sample per 5 km(2) were collected in the river basin and analyzed by means of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in order to assess the environmental conditions at a regional scale. A GIS-aided technique, based on both the actual distribution of potentially harmful elements and their regional background values, was used to generate the maps of the contamination factors and of the contamination degrees for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn. Furthermore, a factor analysis was performed to assess the nature and the extent of contamination sources for the river sediments. Results showed that the Sarno river basin could be divided in two "environmental status" units: one, low contaminated, corresponding to the hilly and mountain areas, and the second, from moderately to very highly contaminated, corresponding to the economically developed areas of the valley floor characterized by a high population density. This work was developed within a project that aims to investigate the relationships between environmental pollution and human health by analyzing environmental media (stream sediments, water, soil and vegetation) together with human hair of resident population. In this context, the spatial correlation between the extremely compromised environmental conditions of developed areas and the incidence rate of liver cancer in the same area was also explored posing the need of a careful costs

  20. An adaptive ant colony optimization framework for scheduling environmental flow management alternatives under varied environmental water availability conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szemis, J. M.; Maier, H. R.; Dandy, G. C.

    2014-10-01

    Human water use is increasing and, as such, water for the environment is limited and needs to be managed efficiently. One method for achieving this is the scheduling of environmental flow management alternatives (EFMAs) (e.g., releases, wetland regulators), with these schedules generally developed over a number of years. However, the availability of environmental water changes annually as a result of natural variability (e.g., drought, wet years). To incorporate this variation and schedule EFMAs in a operational setting, a previously formulated multiobjective optimization approach for EFMA schedule development used for long-term planning has been modified and incorporated into an adaptive framework. As part of this approach, optimal schedules are updated at regular intervals during the planning horizon based on environmental water allocation forecasts, which are obtained using artificial neural networks. In addition, the changes between current and updated schedules can be minimized to reduce any disruptions to long-term planning. The utility of the approach is assessed by applying it to an 89km section of the River Murray in South Australia. Results indicate that the approach is beneficial under a range of hydrological conditions and an improved ecological response is obtained in a operational setting compared with previous long-term approaches. Also, it successfully produces trade-offs between the number of disruptions to schedules and the ecological response, with results suggesting that ecological response increases with minimal alterations required to existing schedules. Overall, the results indicate that the information obtained using the proposed approach potentially aides managers in the efficient management of environmental water.

  1. Incorporating temporal heterogeneity in environmental conditions into a somatic growth model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzul, Maria C.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Korman, Josh; Yard, Michael D.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating environmental effects on fish growth can be challenging because environmental conditions may vary at relatively fine temporal scales compared to sampling occasions. Here we develop a Bayesian state-space growth model to evaluate effects of monthly environmental data on growth of fish that are observed less frequently (e.g., from mark-recapture data where time between captures can range from months to years). We assess effects of temperature, turbidity duration, food availability, flow variability, and trout abundance on subadult humpback chub (Gila cypha) growth in two rivers, the Colorado River (CR) and the Little Colorado River (LCR), and we use out-of-sample prediction to rank competing models. Environmental covariates explained a high proportion of the variation in growth in both rivers; however, the best growth models were river-specific and included either positive temperature and turbidity duration effects (CR) or positive temperature and food availability effects (LCR). Our approach to analyzing environmental controls on growth should be applicable in other systems where environmental data vary over relatively short time scales compared to animal observations.

  2. Oil Recovery from Water under Environmentally Relevant Conditions Using Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mirshahghassemi, Seyyedali; Lead, Jamie R

    2015-10-01

    Large oil spills and oily wastewater discharges from ships and industrial activities can have serious impacts on the environment with potentially major economic impacts. Current oil remediation techniques are inefficient and may have deleterious environmental consequences. However, nanotechnology offers a new route to potentially remediate oil pollution. In this study, a cheap and facile hydrothermal method was developed to synthesize polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated magnetite nanoparticles to separate a reference MC252 oil from oil-water mixture under environmentally relevant conditions. Fluorescence and Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy results showed near 100% oil removal from oil-water mixture in the ultrapure water under optimum condition. Based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data, approximately 100% of lower molecular mass alkanes (C9-C21) were removed within 10 min of magnetic separation and by increasing the separation time to 40 min, greater than 67% of C22-25 alkanes were removed. Moreover, nanoparticles removed near 100% oil from synthetic seawater solutions in the presence and absence of fulvic acid showing excellent oil removal capacity of the nanoparticles under different conditions. Results show that these nanoparticles can be utilized to remove oil over a short time with a high removal efficiency under environmentally relevant conditions.

  3. Oil Recovery from Water under Environmentally Relevant Conditions Using Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mirshahghassemi, Seyyedali; Lead, Jamie R

    2015-10-01

    Large oil spills and oily wastewater discharges from ships and industrial activities can have serious impacts on the environment with potentially major economic impacts. Current oil remediation techniques are inefficient and may have deleterious environmental consequences. However, nanotechnology offers a new route to potentially remediate oil pollution. In this study, a cheap and facile hydrothermal method was developed to synthesize polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated magnetite nanoparticles to separate a reference MC252 oil from oil-water mixture under environmentally relevant conditions. Fluorescence and Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy results showed near 100% oil removal from oil-water mixture in the ultrapure water under optimum condition. Based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data, approximately 100% of lower molecular mass alkanes (C9-C21) were removed within 10 min of magnetic separation and by increasing the separation time to 40 min, greater than 67% of C22-25 alkanes were removed. Moreover, nanoparticles removed near 100% oil from synthetic seawater solutions in the presence and absence of fulvic acid showing excellent oil removal capacity of the nanoparticles under different conditions. Results show that these nanoparticles can be utilized to remove oil over a short time with a high removal efficiency under environmentally relevant conditions. PMID:26358198

  4. Evolution of robust circadian clocks in Drosophila melanogaster populations reared in constant dark for over 330 generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindey, Radhika; Varma, Vishwanath; Nikhil, K. L.; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Robustness is considered to be an important feature of biological systems which may evolve when the functionality of a trait is associated with higher fitness across multiple environmental conditions. Thus, the ability to maintain stable biological phenotypes across environments is thought to be of adaptive value. Previously, we have reported higher intrinsic activity levels (activity levels of free-running rhythm in constant darkness) and power of rhythm (as assessed by amplitude of the periodogram) in Drosophila melanogaster populations (stocks) reared in constant darkness (DD stocks) as compared to those reared in constant light (LL stocks) and 12:12-h light-dark cycles (LD stocks) for over 19 years (˜330 generations). In the current study, we intended to examine whether the enhanced levels of activity observed in DD stocks persist under various environments such as photoperiods, ambient temperatures, non-24-h light-dark (LD) cycles, and semi-natural conditions (SN). We found that DD stocks largely retain their phenotype of enhanced activity levels across most of the above-mentioned environments suggesting the evolution of robust circadian clocks in DD stocks. Furthermore, we compared the peak activity levels of the three stocks across different environmental conditions relative to their peaks in constant darkness and found that the change in peak activity levels upon entrainment was not significantly different across the three stocks for any of the examined environmental conditions. This suggests that the enhancement of activity levels in DD stocks is not due to differential sensitivity to environment. Thus, these results suggest that rearing in constant darkness (DD) leads to evolution of robust circadian clocks suggesting a possible adaptive value of possessing such rhythms under constant dark environments.

  5. Evolution of robust circadian clocks in Drosophila melanogaster populations reared in constant dark for over 330 generations.

    PubMed

    Shindey, Radhika; Varma, Vishwanath; Nikhil, K L; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Robustness is considered to be an important feature of biological systems which may evolve when the functionality of a trait is associated with higher fitness across multiple environmental conditions. Thus, the ability to maintain stable biological phenotypes across environments is thought to be of adaptive value. Previously, we have reported higher intrinsic activity levels (activity levels of free-running rhythm in constant darkness) and power of rhythm (as assessed by amplitude of the periodogram) in Drosophila melanogaster populations (stocks) reared in constant darkness (DD stocks) as compared to those reared in constant light (LL stocks) and 12:12-h light-dark cycles (LD stocks) for over 19 years (∼330 generations). In the current study, we intended to examine whether the enhanced levels of activity observed in DD stocks persist under various environments such as photoperiods, ambient temperatures, non-24-h light-dark (LD) cycles, and semi-natural conditions (SN). We found that DD stocks largely retain their phenotype of enhanced activity levels across most of the above-mentioned environments suggesting the evolution of robust circadian clocks in DD stocks. Furthermore, we compared the peak activity levels of the three stocks across different environmental conditions relative to their peaks in constant darkness and found that the change in peak activity levels upon entrainment was not significantly different across the three stocks for any of the examined environmental conditions. This suggests that the enhancement of activity levels in DD stocks is not due to differential sensitivity to environment. Thus, these results suggest that rearing in constant darkness (DD) leads to evolution of robust circadian clocks suggesting a possible adaptive value of possessing such rhythms under constant dark environments. PMID:27585442

  6. Environmental conditions associated with bat white-nose syndrome in the north-eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flory, Abigail R.; Kumar, Sunil; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    2. By 2010, the fungus G. destructans was detected in new areas of North America far from the area it was first observed, as well as in eight European bat species in different countries, yet mortality was not observed in many of these new areas of North America or in any part of Europe. This could be because of the differences in the fungus, rates of disease progression and/or in life-history or physiological traits of the affected bat species between different regions. Infection of bats by G. destructans without associated mortality might also suggest that certain environmental conditions might have to co-occur with fungal infection to cause mortality. 3. We tested the environmental conditions hypothesis using Maxent to map and model landscape surface conditions associated with WNS mortality. This approach was unique in that we modelled possible requisite environmental conditions for disease mortality and not simply the presence of the causative agent. 4. The top predictors of WNS mortality were land use/land cover types, mean air temperature of wettest quarter, elevation, frequency of precipitation and annual temperature range. Model results suggest that WNS mortality is most likely to occur in landscapes that are higher in elevation and topographically heterogeneous, drier and colder during winter, and more seasonally variable than surrounding landscapes. 5. Synthesis and applications. This study mapped the most likely environmental surface conditions associated with bat mortality owing to WNS in the north-eastern United Sates; maps can be used for selection of priority monitoring sites. Our results provide a starting point from which to investigate and predict the potential spread and population impacts of this catastrophic emerging disease.

  7. Social effects on foraging behavior and success depend on local environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Harry H; Carter, Alecia J; Ashford, Alexandra; Rowcliffe, J Marcus; Cowlishaw, Guy

    2015-01-01

    In social groups, individuals' dominance rank, social bonds, and kinship with other group members have been shown to influence their foraging behavior. However, there is growing evidence that the particular effects of these social traits may also depend on local environmental conditions. We investigated this by comparing the foraging behavior of wild chacma baboons, Papio ursinus, under natural conditions and in a field experiment where food was spatially clumped. Data were collected from 55 animals across two troops over a 5-month period, including over 900 agonistic foraging interactions and over 600 food patch visits in each condition. In both conditions, low-ranked individuals received more agonism, but this only translated into reduced foraging performances for low-ranked individuals in the high-competition experimental conditions. Our results suggest one possible reason for this pattern may be low-ranked individuals strategically investing social effort to negotiate foraging tolerance, but the rank-offsetting effect of this investment being overwhelmed in the higher-competition experimental environment. Our results also suggest that individuals may use imbalances in their social bonds to negotiate tolerance from others under a wider range of environmental conditions, but utilize the overall strength of their social bonds in more extreme environments where feeding competition is more intense. These findings highlight that behavioral tactics such as the strategic investment of social effort may allow foragers to mitigate the costs of low rank, but that the effectiveness of these tactics is likely to be limited in certain environments. PMID:25691973

  8. Environmental conditions and transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli: a physiological integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Antonio, Agustino; Salgado, Heladia; Gama-Castro, Socorro; Gutiérrez-Ríos, Rosa María; Jiménez-Jacinto, Verónica; Collado-Vides, Julio

    2003-12-30

    Bacteria develop a number of devices for sensing, responding, and adapting to different environmental conditions. Understanding within a genomic perspective how the transcriptional machinery of bacteria is modulated, as a response for changing conditions, is a major challenge for biologists. Knowledge of which genes are turned on or turned off under specific conditions is essential for our understanding of cell behavior. In this study we describe how the information pertaining to gene expression and associated growth conditions (even with very little knowledge of the associated regulatory mechanisms) is gathered from the literature and incorporated into RegulonDB, a database on transcriptional regulation and operon organization in E. coli. The link between growth conditions, signal transduction, and transcriptional regulation is modeled in the database in a simple format that highlights biological relevant information. As far as we know, there is no other database that explicitly clarifies the effect of environmental conditions on gene transcription. We discuss how this knowledge constitutes a benchmark that will impact future research aimed at integration of regulatory responses in the cell; for instance, analysis of microarrays, predicting culture behavior in biotechnological processes, and comprehension of dynamics of regulatory networks. This integrated knowledge will contribute to the future goal of modeling the behavior of E. coli as an entire cell. The RegulonDB database can be accessed on the web at the URL: http://www.cifn.unam.mx/Computational_Biology/regulondb/. PMID:14708114

  9. 4. General view of the N elevation, showing the rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. General view of the N elevation, showing the rear of the main block and the courtyard between the E & W wings; looking S. Note structure 73, an air-conditioning unit, in the end of the courtyard. (Ceronie) - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 62, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  10. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, William R.; Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.

    1987-12-01

    The 1987 field season was the third and final year fox the rearing and release of juvenile upriver bright chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at off-station sites. Disease problems in the hatchery where fish for the study were spawned and hatched resulted in the movement of trials to Drano Lake, a backwater located near river km 261, 105 km downstream of Rock Creek and 205 km downstream of Social Security Pond, the two off-station rearing sites where studies were completed in 1984--86. Fish in fed treatments were successfully reared in pens during March, April, and May and were released in the third week of May at a mean size of about 4,5 g (l00/lb). Growth and physiological development of fish reared In Drano Lake were only slightly faster than observed in hatchery controls over much of the rearing period. However, during the final two weeks of rearing, ATPase activities and growth of the fish reared in pens increased, and at release the fed treatments tested in Drano Lake were significantly larger, and physiological development was significantly ahead of hatchery controls. The health and condition of fed fish in Drano Lake remained good throughout the study and survival was high (>99%) in all treatments; no pathogens were detected in any of the groups. However, infectious hematopoietic necrosis was diagnosed among upriver brights being reared in the hatchery; the latter group was destroyed on May 21. Unfed fish grew poorly throughout the rearing period with little or no detectable growth in the two higher density treatments and mean growth of less than 0.3 g in the lower density. Survival of fish reared at the higher density was poor, while survival in the two lower density treatments was much better. Densities tested in pen rearing trials have been much lower than the maximum recommended in terms of available rearing spare. However, during periods of limited water exchange the highest density tested so fax (4.13 kg/ma) would be above the recommended

  11. Effects of varying environmental conditions on vegetation response to ozone exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Zaleski, R.T.; Triemer, L.R.

    1995-12-31

    Developing an exposure-effects model for plant response to ozone exposure is a complex process. It is known that ozone must enter the plant through the stomata for an effect to occur. Therefore, ozone uptake is related not only to ambient ozone concentrations, but also to environmental factors which control stomatal movement. In addition, cellular factors within the plant can mitigate ozone impact and ultimately control plant response. This paper presents a review of the scientific literature on plant responses (e.g. visible foliar injury, reductions in growth or yield) to ozone exposures under varying environmental conditions known to affect stomatal aperture. The results of this effort show the importance of considering key environmental factors when developing exposure-effects models.

  12. Status report on assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for LWR extended service conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, S.; Soppet, W. K.; Majumdar, S.; Natesan, K.

    2014-07-09

    This report provides an update on an earlier assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for light water reactor (LWR) materials under extended service conditions. This report is a deliverable in September 2013, under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue in the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program. The overall objective of this LWRS project is to assess the degradation by environmentally assisted cracking/fatigue of LWR materials, such as various alloy base metals and their welds used in reactor coolant system piping. This effort is to support the U.S. Department of Energy LWRS program for developing tools to predict the aging/failure mechanism and to correspondingly predict the remaining life of LWR components for anticipated 60-80 year operation.

  13. Extent of fungal growth on fiberglass duct liners with and without biocides under challenging environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Samimi, Behzad S; Ross, Kristen

    2003-03-01

    Eight brands of fiberglass duct liners, including three that contained biocides, were exposed to challenging environmental conditions that would promote fungal growth. Twenty-four rectangular sheet metal ducts in three groups of eight ducts per group were lined with the eight selected liners. Each group of ducts was exposed to one of the three test conditions within an environmental chamber for a period of 15 days. These conditions were a) 75 percent RH, b) 75 percent RH plus water spray, c) 75 percent RH plus dry nutrient, and d) 75 percent RH plus water plus nutrient. Viable spores of Aspergillus niger were aerosolized into each duct as seed. On the 16th day, air and surface samples for fungal spores were collected from inside ducts. The results of air sampling using N6 sampler and visual inspection indicated that two out of three biocide-containing liners, Permacote and Toughgard, inhibited fungal growth but only under condition A. The third biocide-containing liner, Aeroflex Plus, was effective even when it was wet (conditions A and B). All three biocide-containing liners failed to inhibit fungal growth under conditions C and D. Among the five other types of liners that did not contain biocides, ATCO Flex with a smooth Mylar coating was more preferable, exhibiting lower fungal activity during conditions A, B, and C. All liners failed under condition D when nutrient and water were added together. Surface sampling using adhesive tape failed to produce representative results, apparently due to rough/porous surface of duct liners. It was concluded that duct liners with biocide treatment could be less promoting to microbial growth under high humidity as long as their surfaces remain clean and water-free. A liner with an impermeable and smooth surface seems to be less subject to microbial growth under most conditions than biocide-containing liners having porous and/or rough surfaces. PMID:12573965

  14. Effects of environmental conditions on aerobic degradation of a commercial naphthenic acid.

    PubMed

    Kinley, Ciera M; Gaspari, Daniel P; McQueen, Andrew D; Rodgers, John H; Castle, James W; Friesen, Vanessa; Haakensen, Monique

    2016-10-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are problematic constituents in energy-derived waters, and aerobic degradation may provide a strategy for mitigating risks to aquatic organisms. The overall objective of this study was to determine the influence of concentrations of N (as ammonia) and P (as phosphate), and DO, as well as pH and temperatures on degradation of a commercial NA in bench-scale reactors. Commercial NAs provided replicable compounds necessary to compare influences of environmental conditions on degradation. NAs were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Microbial diversity and relative abundance were measured in treatments as explanatory parameters for potential effects of environmental conditions on microbial populations to support analytically measured NA degradation. Environmental conditions that positively influenced degradation rates of Fluka NAs included nutrients (C:N 10:1-500:1, C:P 100:1-5000:1), DO (4.76-8.43 mg L(-1)), pH (6-8), and temperature (5-25 °C). Approximately 50% removal of 61 ± 8 mg L(-1) was achieved in less than 2 d after NA introduction, achieving the method detection limit (5 mg L(-1)) by day 6 of the experiment in treatments with a C:N:P ratio of 100:10:1, DO > 8 mg L(-1), pH ∼8-9, and temperatures >23 °C. Microbial diversity was lowest in lower temperature treatments (6-16 °C), which may have resulted in observed slower NA degradation. Based on results from this study, when macro- and micronutrients were available, DO, pH, and temperature (within environmentally relevant ranges) influenced rates of aerobic degradation of Fluka NAs. This study could serve as a model for systematically evaluating environmental factors that influence NA degradation in field scenarios.

  15. Microbial Forensics: Predicting Phenotypic Characteristics and Environmental Conditions from Large-Scale Gene Expression Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minseung; Zorraquino, Violeta; Tagkopoulos, Ilias

    2015-01-01

    A tantalizing question in cellular physiology is whether the cellular state and environmental conditions can be inferred by the expression signature of an organism. To investigate this relationship, we created an extensive normalized gene expression compendium for the bacterium Escherichia coli that was further enriched with meta-information through an iterative learning procedure. We then constructed an ensemble method to predict environmental and cellular state, including strain, growth phase, medium, oxygen level, antibiotic and carbon source presence. Results show that gene expression is an excellent predictor of environmental structure, with multi-class ensemble models achieving balanced accuracy between 70.0% (±3.5%) to 98.3% (±2.3%) for the various characteristics. Interestingly, this performance can be significantly boosted when environmental and strain characteristics are simultaneously considered, as a composite classifier that captures the inter-dependencies of three characteristics (medium, phase and strain) achieved 10.6% (±1.0%) higher performance than any individual models. Contrary to expectations, only 59% of the top informative genes were also identified as differentially expressed under the respective conditions. Functional analysis of the respective genetic signatures implicates a wide spectrum of Gene Ontology terms and KEGG pathways with condition-specific information content, including iron transport, transferases, and enterobactin synthesis. Further experimental phenotypic-to-genotypic mapping that we conducted for knock-out mutants argues for the information content of top-ranked genes. This work demonstrates the degree at which genome-scale transcriptional information can be predictive of latent, heterogeneous and seemingly disparate phenotypic and environmental characteristics, with far-reaching applications. PMID:25774498

  16. Microbial forensics: predicting phenotypic characteristics and environmental conditions from large-scale gene expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minseung; Zorraquino, Violeta; Tagkopoulos, Ilias

    2015-03-01

    A tantalizing question in cellular physiology is whether the cellular state and environmental conditions can be inferred by the expression signature of an organism. To investigate this relationship, we created an extensive normalized gene expression compendium for the bacterium Escherichia coli that was further enriched with meta-information through an iterative learning procedure. We then constructed an ensemble method to predict environmental and cellular state, including strain, growth phase, medium, oxygen level, antibiotic and carbon source presence. Results show that gene expression is an excellent predictor of environmental structure, with multi-class ensemble models achieving balanced accuracy between 70.0% (±3.5%) to 98.3% (±2.3%) for the various characteristics. Interestingly, this performance can be significantly boosted when environmental and strain characteristics are simultaneously considered, as a composite classifier that captures the inter-dependencies of three characteristics (medium, phase and strain) achieved 10.6% (±1.0%) higher performance than any individual models. Contrary to expectations, only 59% of the top informative genes were also identified as differentially expressed under the respective conditions. Functional analysis of the respective genetic signatures implicates a wide spectrum of Gene Ontology terms and KEGG pathways with condition-specific information content, including iron transport, transferases, and enterobactin synthesis. Further experimental phenotypic-to-genotypic mapping that we conducted for knock-out mutants argues for the information content of top-ranked genes. This work demonstrates the degree at which genome-scale transcriptional information can be predictive of latent, heterogeneous and seemingly disparate phenotypic and environmental characteristics, with far-reaching applications.

  17. The ammonium excretion of the shore crab, carcinus maenas, in relation to environmental osmotic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaargaren, D. H.

    Ammonia concentrations were measured in blood and external media of shore crabs, Carcinus maenas, acclimated to 6 different salinities at high (20° C) and low (4° C) temperatures. It is seen that environmental osmotic conditions (temperature and salinity) have a major influence on NH 4+ formation and thus on protein (amino acid) catabolism. Blood ammonia concentrations appear to be strongly stabilized, independent of environmental osmotic conditions, ranging between 0.25 and 0.55 mmol·l -1. At normal, low environmental NH 4+ concentrations blood NH 4+ is strongly hyper-ionic compared to external concentrations; at high environmental NH 4+ concentrations (even when artificially raised to 2.5 mmol·l -1), blood NH 4+ is strongly hypo-ionic. Regulation of the blood NH 4+ concentrations takes place by a variable efflux of NH 4+; at high environmental NH 4+ concentrations (> 0.28 mmol · l -1), in addition to a high NH 4+ efflux, stabilization of the blood NH 4+ concentrations is effectuated by the formation of urea. Ammonia efflux to the surrounding water is highly dependent to the osmotic conditions of the environment: viz. positively related to temperature and inversely related to external salinity, with relatively stable value near the isosmotic salinity. Related to the strong variations in ammonia efflux, external NH 4+ concentrations in a closed volume of water are highly variable. In the course of time very high values develop in media of low salinity at high temperature. A close connection between NH 4+ excretion and extracellular ion regulation is indicated.

  18. Immune activity, body condition and human-associated environmental impacts in a wild marine mammal.

    PubMed

    Brock, Patrick M; Hall, Ailsa J; Goodman, Simon J; Cruz, Marilyn; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2013-01-01

    Within individuals, immunity may compete with other life history traits for resources, such as energy and protein, and the damage caused by immunopathology can sometimes outweigh the protective benefits that immune responses confer. However, our understanding of the costs of immunity in the wild and how they relate to the myriad energetic demands on free-ranging organisms is limited. The endangered Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) is threatened simultaneously by disease from domestic animals and rapid changes in food availability driven by unpredictable environmental variation. We made use of this unique ecology to investigate the relationship between changes in immune activity and changes in body condition. We found that during the first three months of life, changes in antibody concentration were negatively correlated with changes in mass per unit length, skinfold thickness and serum albumin concentration, but only in a sea lion colony exposed to anthropogenic environmental impacts. It has previously been shown that changes in antibody concentration during early Galapagos sea lion development were higher in a colony exposed to anthropogenic environmental impacts than in a control colony. This study allows for the possibility that these relatively large changes in antibody concentration are associated with negative impacts on fitness through an effect on body condition. Our findings suggest that energy availability and the degree of plasticity in immune investment may influence disease risk in natural populations synergistically, through a trade-off between investment in immunity and resistance to starvation. The relative benefits of such investments may change quickly and unpredictably, which allows for the possibility that individuals fine-tune their investment strategies in response to changes in environmental conditions. In addition, our results suggest that anthropogenic environmental impacts may impose subtle energetic costs on individuals, which

  19. Effects of environmental conditions on aerobic degradation of a commercial naphthenic acid.

    PubMed

    Kinley, Ciera M; Gaspari, Daniel P; McQueen, Andrew D; Rodgers, John H; Castle, James W; Friesen, Vanessa; Haakensen, Monique

    2016-10-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are problematic constituents in energy-derived waters, and aerobic degradation may provide a strategy for mitigating risks to aquatic organisms. The overall objective of this study was to determine the influence of concentrations of N (as ammonia) and P (as phosphate), and DO, as well as pH and temperatures on degradation of a commercial NA in bench-scale reactors. Commercial NAs provided replicable compounds necessary to compare influences of environmental conditions on degradation. NAs were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Microbial diversity and relative abundance were measured in treatments as explanatory parameters for potential effects of environmental conditions on microbial populations to support analytically measured NA degradation. Environmental conditions that positively influenced degradation rates of Fluka NAs included nutrients (C:N 10:1-500:1, C:P 100:1-5000:1), DO (4.76-8.43 mg L(-1)), pH (6-8), and temperature (5-25 °C). Approximately 50% removal of 61 ± 8 mg L(-1) was achieved in less than 2 d after NA introduction, achieving the method detection limit (5 mg L(-1)) by day 6 of the experiment in treatments with a C:N:P ratio of 100:10:1, DO > 8 mg L(-1), pH ∼8-9, and temperatures >23 °C. Microbial diversity was lowest in lower temperature treatments (6-16 °C), which may have resulted in observed slower NA degradation. Based on results from this study, when macro- and micronutrients were available, DO, pH, and temperature (within environmentally relevant ranges) influenced rates of aerobic degradation of Fluka NAs. This study could serve as a model for systematically evaluating environmental factors that influence NA degradation in field scenarios. PMID:27459161

  20. Variability in oxidative degradation of charcoal: Influence of production conditions and environmental exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascough, P. L.; Bird, M. I.; Francis, S. M.; Thornton, B.; Midwood, A. J.; Scott, A. C.; Apperley, D.

    2011-05-01

    Charcoal is a key component of the Black Carbon (BC) continuum, where BC is characterized as a recalcitrant, fire-derived, polyaromatic material. Charcoal is an important source of palaeoenvironmental data, and of great interest as a potential carbon sink, due to its high apparent environmental stability. However, at least some forms of charcoal are clearly susceptible to environmental alteration and degradation over relatively short timescales. Although these processes have importance for the role of charcoal in global biogeochemistry, they remain poorly understood. Here we present results of an investigation into the susceptibility of a range of charcoal samples to oxidative degradation in acidified potassium dichromate. The study examines both freshly-produced charcoal, and charcoal exposed to environmental conditions for up to 50,000 years. We compare the proportion of carbon present in different forms between the samples, specifically with respect to the relative chemical resistance of these forms. This was undertaken in order to improve understanding of the post-depositional diagenetic changes affecting charcoal within environmental deposits. A wide range in chemical compositions are apparent both within and between the sample groups. In freshly-produced charcoal, material produced at 300 °C contains carbon with more labile forms than charcoal produced at ⩾400 °C, signifying a key chemical change over the 300-400 °C temperature range. Charcoal exposed to environmental depositional conditions is frequently composed of a highly carboxylated aromatic structure and contains a range of carbon fractions of varying oxidative resistance. These findings suggest that a significant number of the environmental charcoals have undergone post-depositional diagenetic alteration. Further, the data highlight the potential for the use of controlled progressive oxidative degradation as a method to characterize chemical differences between individual charcoal samples.

  1. Investigating the genetic architecture of conditional strategies using the environmental threshold model.

    PubMed

    Buzatto, Bruno A; Buoro, Mathieu; Hazel, Wade N; Tomkins, Joseph L

    2015-12-22

    The threshold expression of dichotomous phenotypes that are environmentally cued or induced comprise the vast majority of phenotypic dimorphisms in colour, morphology, behaviour and life history. Modelled as conditional strategies under the framework of evolutionary game theory, the quantitative genetic basis of these traits is a challenge to estimate. The challenge exists firstly because the phenotypic expression of the trait is dichotomous and secondly because the apparent environmental cue is separate from the biological signal pathway that induces the switch between phenotypes. It is the cryptic variation underlying the translation of cue to phenotype that we address here. With a 'half-sib common environment' and a 'family-level split environment' experiment, we examine the environmental and genetic influences that underlie male dimorphism in the earwig Forficula auricularia. From the conceptual framework of the latent environmental threshold (LET) model, we use pedigree information to dissect the genetic architecture of the threshold expression of forceps length. We investigate for the first time the strength of the correlation between observable and cryptic 'proximate' cues. Furthermore, in support of the environmental threshold model, we found no evidence for a genetic correlation between cue and the threshold between phenotypes. Our results show strong correlations between observable and proximate cues and less genetic variation for thresholds than previous studies have suggested. We discuss the importance of generating better estimates of the genetic variation for thresholds when investigating the genetic architecture and heritability of threshold traits. By investigating genetic architecture by means of the LET model, our study supports several key evolutionary ideas related to conditional strategies and improves our understanding of environmentally cued decisions. PMID:26674955

  2. Environmental Conditions Influence Allometric Patterns in the Blow Fly, Chrysomya albiceps

    PubMed Central

    Horenstein, M Battán; Peretti, Av

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study variations in allometry of body characters in females and males of two populations of blow flies, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), under different environmental conditions to establish patterns of morphological variation. Body size of both males and females in the experimental population was significantly higher than in the individuals of the natural population, indicating an important influence of food on body size. All genitalic and non-genitalic characters in males and females of the two populations showed a trend towards negative allometry rather than isometry. Allometric patterns were modified in both sexes and between populations. The data show generally larger allometric slopes in females than in males. We confirmed that the environmental conditions have an important effect on allometric patterns and body size. PMID:22224467

  3. Environmental and mental conditions predicting the experience of involuntary musical imagery: An experience sampling method study.

    PubMed

    Floridou, Georgia A; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    An experience sampling method (ESM) study on 40 volunteers was conducted to explore the environmental factors and psychological conditions related to involuntary musical imagery (INMI) in everyday life. Participants reported 6 times per day for one week on their INMI experiences, relevant contextual information and associated environmental conditions. The resulting data was modeled with Bayesian networks and led to insights into the interplay of factors related to INMI experiences. The activity that a person is engaged was found to play an important role in the experience of mind wandering, which in turn enables the experience of INMI. INMI occurrence is independent of the time of the day while the INMI trigger affects the subjective evaluation of the INMI experience. The results are compared to findings from earlier studies based on retrospective surveys and questionnaires and highlight the advantage of ESM techniques in research on spontaneous experiences like INMI. PMID:25800098

  4. Environmental sanitation conditions and health impact: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Heller, Léo; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; Antunes, Carlos Mauricio de Figueiredo

    2003-01-01

    This epidemiological investigation examines the impact of several environmental sanitation conditions and hygiene practices on diarrhea occurrence among children under five years of age living in an urban area. The case-control design was employed; 997 cases and 999 controls were included in the investigation. Cases were defined as children with diarrhea and controls were randomly selected among children under five years of age. After logistic regression adjustment, the following variables were found to be significantly associated with diarrhea: washing and purifying fruit and vegetables; presence of wastewater in the street; refuse storage, collection and disposal; domestic water reservoir conditions; feces disposal from swaddles; presence of vectors in the house and flooding in the lot. The estimates of the relative risks reached values up to 2.87. The present study revealed the feasibility of developing and implementing an adequate model to establish intervention priorities in the field of environmental sanitation. PMID:12715062

  5. Environmental sanitation conditions and health impact: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Heller, Léo; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; Antunes, Carlos Mauricio de Figueiredo

    2003-01-01

    This epidemiological investigation examines the impact of several environmental sanitation conditions and hygiene practices on diarrhea occurrence among children under five years of age living in an urban area. The case-control design was employed; 997 cases and 999 controls were included in the investigation. Cases were defined as children with diarrhea and controls were randomly selected among children under five years of age. After logistic regression adjustment, the following variables were found to be significantly associated with diarrhea: washing and purifying fruit and vegetables; presence of wastewater in the street; refuse storage, collection and disposal; domestic water reservoir conditions; feces disposal from swaddles; presence of vectors in the house and flooding in the lot. The estimates of the relative risks reached values up to 2.87. The present study revealed the feasibility of developing and implementing an adequate model to establish intervention priorities in the field of environmental sanitation.

  6. Creep and Environmental Durability of EBC/CMCs Under Imposed Thermal Gradient Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, Matthew; Morscher, Gregory N.; Zhu, Dongming

    2013-01-01

    Interest in SiC fiber-reinforced SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) environmental barrier coating (EBC) systems for use in high temperature structural applications has prompted the need for characterization of material strength and creep performance under complex aerospace turbine engine environments. Stress-rupture tests have been performed on SiC/SiC composites systems, with varying fiber types and coating schemes to demonstrate material behavior under isothermal conditions. Further testing was conducted under exposure to thermal stress gradients to determine the effect on creep resistance and material durability. In order to understand the associated damage mechanisms, emphasis is placed on experimental techniques as well as implementation of non-destructive evaluation; including electrical resistivity monitoring. The influence of environmental and loading conditions on life-limiting material properties is shown.

  7. The hidden function of photosynthesis: a sensing system for environmental conditions that regulates plant acclimation responses.

    PubMed

    Pfannschmidt, Thomas; Yang, Chunhong

    2012-06-01

    Plants convert light energy from the sun into chemical energy by photosynthesis. Since they are sessile, they have to deal with a wide range of conditions in their immediate environment. Many abiotic and biotic parameters exhibit considerable fluctuations which can have detrimental effects especially on the efficiency of photosynthetic light harvesting. During evolution, plants, therefore, evolved a number of acclimation processes which help them to adapt photosynthesis to such environmental changes. This includes protective mechanisms such as excess energy dissipation and processes supporting energy redistribution, e.g. state transitions or photosystem stoichiometry adjustment. Intriguingly, all these responses are triggered by photosynthesis itself via the interplay of its light reaction and the Calvin-Benson cycle with the residing environmental condition. Thus, besides its primary function in harnessing and converting light energy, photosynthesis acts as a sensing system for environmental changes that controls molecular acclimation responses which adapt the photosynthetic function to the environmental change. Important signalling parameters directly or indirectly affected by the environment are the pH gradient across the thylakoid membrane and the redox states of components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and/or electron end acceptors coupled to it. Recent advances demonstrate that these signals control post-translational modifications of the photosynthetic protein complexes and also affect plastid and nuclear gene expression machineries as well as metabolic pathways providing a regulatory framework for an integrated response of the plant to the environment at all cellular levels.

  8. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations on the Nanoscale Kinetic Friction in Ambient Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Gueye, Birahima; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yujuan; Chen, Yunfei

    2015-07-01

    The liquid lubrication, thermolubricity and dynamic lubricity due to mechanical oscillations are investigated with an atomic force microscope in ambient environmental conditions with different relative humidity (RH) levels. Experimental results demonstrate that high humidity at low-temperature regime enhances the liquid lubricity while at high-temperature regime it hinders the effect of the thermolubricity due to the formation of liquid bridges. Friction response to the dynamic lubricity in both high- and low-temperature regimes keeps the same trends, namely the friction force decreases with increasing the amplitude of the applied vibration on the tip regardless of the RH levels. An interesting finding is that for the dynamic lubricity at high temperature, high-humidity condition leads to the friction forces higher than that at low-humidity condition while at low temperature the opposite trend is observed. An extended two-dimensional dynamic model accounting for the RH is proposed to interpret the frictional mechanism in ambient conditions.

  9. Design of a leaching test framework for coal fly ash accounting for environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Zandi, Mohammad; Russell, Nigel V

    2007-08-01

    Fly ash from coal combustion contains trace elements which, on disposal or utilisation, may leach out, and therefore be a potential environmental hazard. Environmental conditions have a great impact on the mobility of fly ash constituents as well as the physical and chemical properties of the fly ash. Existing standard leaching methods have been shown to be inadequate by not representing possible disposal or utilisation scenarios. These tests are often criticised on the grounds that the results estimated are not reliable as they are not able to be extrapolated to the application scenario. In order to simulate leaching behaviour of fly ash in different environmental conditions and to reduce deviation between measurements in the fields and the laboratories, it is vital to study sensitivity of the fly ash constituents of interest to major factors controlling leachability. pH, liquid-to-solid ratio, leaching time, leachant type and redox potential are parameters affecting stability of elements in the fly ash. Sensitivity of trace elements to pH and liquid to solid ratio (as two major overriding factors) has been examined. Elements have been classified on the basis of their leaching behaviour under different conditions. Results from this study have been used to identify leaching mechanisms. Also the fly ash has been examined under different standard batch leaching tests in order to evaluate and to compare these tests. A Leaching Test Framework has been devised for assessing the stability of trace elements from fly ashes in different environments. This Framework assists in designing more realistic batch leaching tests appropriate to field conditions and can support the development of regulations and protocols for the management and disposal of coal combustion by-products or other solid wastes of environmental concern.

  10. Fitness consequences of environmental conditions at different life stages in a long-lived vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Douhard, Mathieu; Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Capron, Gilles; Delorme, Daniel; Klein, François; Duncan, Patrick; Loe, Leif Egil; Bonenfant, Christophe

    2014-06-22

    The predictive adaptive response (PAR) hypothesis proposes that animals adjust their physiology and developmental trajectory during early life in anticipation of their future environments. Accordingly, when environmental conditions in early life match environmental conditions during adulthood, individual fitness should be greater. Here, we test this hypothesis in a long-lived mammal, the roe deer, using data from two contrasting populations, intensively monitored for more than 35 years. In the highly productive site, the fitness of female roe deer increased with the quality of environment during adulthood and, contrary to predictions of PAR, individuals born in good conditions always outperformed those born under poor conditions. In the resource-limited site, the fitness of female roe deer born in poor years was better than those born in good conditions in poor years when the animals were adult, but not in good years. Although consistent with predictions of PAR, we showed that this pattern is likely to be a consequence of increased viability selection during the juvenile stage for animals born in poor years. While PARs are often advanced in evolutionary medicine, our findings suggest that detailed biological processes should be investigated before drawing conclusions about the existence of this phenomenon.

  11. Fitness consequences of environmental conditions at different life stages in a long-lived vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Douhard, Mathieu; Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Capron, Gilles; Delorme, Daniel; Klein, François; Duncan, Patrick; Loe, Leif Egil; Bonenfant, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The predictive adaptive response (PAR) hypothesis proposes that animals adjust their physiology and developmental trajectory during early life in anticipation of their future environments. Accordingly, when environmental conditions in early life match environmental conditions during adulthood, individual fitness should be greater. Here, we test this hypothesis in a long-lived mammal, the roe deer, using data from two contrasting populations, intensively monitored for more than 35 years. In the highly productive site, the fitness of female roe deer increased with the quality of environment during adulthood and, contrary to predictions of PAR, individuals born in good conditions always outperformed those born under poor conditions. In the resource-limited site, the fitness of female roe deer born in poor years was better than those born in good conditions in poor years when the animals were adult, but not in good years. Although consistent with predictions of PAR, we showed that this pattern is likely to be a consequence of increased viability selection during the juvenile stage for animals born in poor years. While PARs are often advanced in evolutionary medicine, our findings suggest that detailed biological processes should be investigated before drawing conclusions about the existence of this phenomenon. PMID:24789898

  12. Interactions of NADP-reducing enzymes across varying environmental conditions: a model of biological complexity.

    PubMed

    Rzezniczak, Teresa Z; Merritt, Thomas J S

    2012-12-01

    Interactions across biological networks are often quantified under a single set of conditions; however, cellular behaviors are dynamic and interactions can be expected to change in response to molecular context and environment. To determine the consistency of network interactions, we examined the enzyme network responsible for the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) to NADPH across three different conditions: oxidative stress, starvation, and desiccation. Synthetic, activity-variant alleles were used in Drosophila melanogaster for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6pd), cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase (Idh), and cytosolic malic enzyme (Men) along with seven different genetic backgrounds to lend biological relevance to the data. The responses of the NADP-reducing enzymes and two downstream phenotypes (lipid and glycogen concentration) were compared between the control and stress conditions. In general, responses in NADP-reducing enzymes were greater under conditions of oxidative stress, likely due to an increased demand for NADPH. Interactions between the enzymes were altered by environmental stress in directions and magnitudes that are consistent with differential contributions of the different enzymes to the NADPH pool: the contributions of G6PD and IDH seem to be accentuated by oxidative stress, and MEN by starvation. Overall, we find that biological network interactions are strongly influenced by environmental conditions, underscoring the importance of examining networks as dynamic entities.

  13. Heteroaggregation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles with model natural colloids under environmentally relevant conditions.

    PubMed

    Praetorius, Antonia; Labille, Jérôme; Scheringer, Martin; Thill, Antoine; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Bottero, Jean-Yves

    2014-09-16

    The heteroaggregation of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) with natural colloids (NCs), which are ubiquitous in natural surface waters, is a crucial process affecting the environmental transport and fate of ENPs. Attachment efficiencies for heteroaggregation, α hetero, are required as input parameters in environmental fate models to predict ENP concentrations and contribute to ENP risk assessment. Here, we present a novel method for determining α hetero values by using a combination of laser diffraction measurements and aggregation modeling based on the Smoluchowski equation. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs, 15 nm) were used to demonstrate this new approach together with larger silicon dioxide particles (SiO2, 0.5 μm) representing NCs. Heteroaggregation experiments were performed at different environmentally relevant solution conditions. At pH 5 the TiO2 NPs and the SiO2 particles are of opposite charge, resulting in α hetero values close to 1. At pH 8, where all particles are negatively charged, α hetero was strongly affected by the solution conditions, with α hetero ranging from <0.001 at low ionic strength to 1 at conditions with high NaCl or CaCl2 concentrations. The presence of humic acid stabilized the system against heteroaggregation.

  14. Effects of surface condition on aqueous corrosion and environmental embrittlement of iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Perrin, R.L.; Buchanan, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    Effects of retained high-temperature surface oxides, produced during thermomechanical processing and/or heat treatment, on the aqueous-corrosion and environmental-embrittlement characteristics of Fe{sub 3}Al-based iron aluminides (FA-84, FA-129 and FAL-Mo), a FeAl-based iron aluminide (FA-385), and a disordered low-aluminum Fe-Al alloy (FAPY) were evaluated. All tests were conducted at room temperature in a mild acid-chloride solution. In cyclic-anodic-polarization testing for aqueous-corrosion behavior, the surface conditions examined were: as-received (i.e., with the retained high-temperature oxides), mechanically cleaned and chemically cleaned. For all materials, the polarization tests showed the critical pitting potentials to be significantly lower in the as-received condition than in the mechanically-cleaned and chemically-cleaned conditions. These results indicate detrimental effects of the retained high-temperature oxides in terms of increased susceptibilities to localized corrosion. In 200-hour U-bend stress-corrosion-cracking tests for environmental-embrittlement behavior, conducted at open-circuit corrosion potentials and at a hydrogen-charging potential of {minus}1500 mV (SHE), the above materials (except FA-385) were examined with retained oxides and with mechanically cleaned surfaces. At the open-circuit corrosion potentials, none of the materials in either surface condition underwent cracking. At the hydrogen-charging potential, none of the materials with retained oxides underwent cracking, but FA-84, FA-129 and FAL-Mo in the mechanically cleaned condition did undergo cracking. These results suggest beneficial effects of the retained high-temperature oxides in terms of increased resistance to environmental hydrogen embrittlement.

  15. Role of phenotypic plasticity and population differentiation in adaptation to novel environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Volis, Sergei; Ormanbekova, Danara; Yermekbayev, Kanat

    2015-01-01

    Species can adapt to new environmental conditions either through individual phenotypic plasticity, intraspecific genetic differentiation in adaptive traits, or both. Wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, an annual grass with major distribution in Eastern Mediterranean region, is predicted to experience in the near future, as a result of global climate change, conditions more arid than in any part of the current species distribution. To understand the role of the above two means of adaptation, and the effect of population range position, we analyzed reaction norms, extent of plasticity, and phenotypic selection across two experimental environments of high and low water availability in two core and two peripheral populations of this species. We studied 12 quantitative traits, but focused primarily on the onset of reproduction and maternal investment, which are traits that are closely related to fitness and presumably involved in local adaptation in the studied species. We hypothesized that the population showing superior performance under novel environmental conditions will either be genetically differentiated in quantitative traits or exhibit higher phenotypic plasticity than the less successful populations. We found the core population K to be the most plastic in all three trait categories (phenology, reproductive traits, and fitness) and most successful among populations studied, in both experimental environments; at the same time, the core K population was clearly genetically differentiated from the two edge populations. Our results suggest that (1) two means of successful adaptation to new environmental conditions, phenotypic plasticity and adaptive genetic differentiation, are not mutually exclusive ways of achieving high adaptive ability; and (2) colonists from some core populations can be more successful in establishing beyond the current species range than colonists from the range extreme periphery with conditions seemingly closest to those in the new

  16. Role of phenotypic plasticity and population differentiation in adaptation to novel environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Volis, Sergei; Ormanbekova, Danara; Yermekbayev, Kanat

    2015-09-01

    Species can adapt to new environmental conditions either through individual phenotypic plasticity, intraspecific genetic differentiation in adaptive traits, or both. Wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, an annual grass with major distribution in Eastern Mediterranean region, is predicted to experience in the near future, as a result of global climate change, conditions more arid than in any part of the current species distribution. To understand the role of the above two means of adaptation, and the effect of population range position, we analyzed reaction norms, extent of plasticity, and phenotypic selection across two experimental environments of high and low water availability in two core and two peripheral populations of this species. We studied 12 quantitative traits, but focused primarily on the onset of reproduction and maternal investment, which are traits that are closely related to fitness and presumably involved in local adaptation in the studied species. We hypothesized that the population showing superior performance under novel environmental conditions will either be genetically differentiated in quantitative traits or exhibit higher phenotypic plasticity than the less successful populations. We found the core population K to be the most plastic in all three trait categories (phenology, reproductive traits, and fitness) and most successful among populations studied, in both experimental environments; at the same time, the core K population was clearly genetically differentiated from the two edge populations. Our results suggest that (1) two means of successful adaptation to new environmental conditions, phenotypic plasticity and adaptive genetic differentiation, are not mutually exclusive ways of achieving high adaptive ability; and (2) colonists from some core populations can be more successful in establishing beyond the current species range than colonists from the range extreme periphery with conditions seemingly closest to those in the new

  17. Degradation of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole and their transformation products under controlled environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Poirier-Larabie, S; Segura, P A; Gagnon, C

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of the aquatic environment by pharmaceuticals via urban effluents is well known. Several classes of drugs have been identified in waterways surrounding these effluents in the last 15years. To better understand the fate of pharmaceuticals in ecosystems, degradation processes need to be investigated and transformation products must be identified. Thus, this study presents the first comparative study between three different natural environmental conditions: photolysis and biodegradation in aerobic and anaerobic conditions both in the dark of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole, two common drugs present in significant amounts in impacted surface waters. Results indicated that degradation kinetics differed depending on the process and the type of drug and the observed transformation products also differed among these exposure conditions. Diclofenac was nearly degraded by photolysis after 4days, while its concentration only decreased by 42% after 57days of exposure to bacteria in aerobic media and barely 1% in anaerobic media. For sulfamethoxazole, 84% of the initial concentration was still present after 11days of exposure to light, while biodegradation decreased its concentration by 33% after 58days of exposure under aerobic conditions and 5% after 70days of anaerobic exposure. In addition, several transformation products were observed and persisted over time while others degraded in turn. For diclofenac, chlorine atoms were lost primarily in the photolysis, while a redox reaction was promoted by biodegradation under aerobic conditions. For sulfamethoxazole, isomerization was favored by photolysis while a redox reaction was also favored by the biodegradation under aerobic conditions. To summarize this study points out the occurrence of different transformation products under variable degradation conditions and demonstrates that specific functional groups are involved in the tested natural attenuation processes. Given the complexity of environmental samples

  18. Is ragweed pollen allergenicity governed by environmental conditions during plant growth and flowering?

    PubMed Central

    Ghiani, Alessandra; Ciappetta, Silvia; Gentili, Rodolfo; Asero, Riccardo; Citterio, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Pollen allergenicity is one of the main factors influencing the prevalence and/or severity of allergic diseases. However, how genotype and environment contribute to ragweed pollen allergenicity has still to be established. To throw some light on the factors governing allergenicity, in this work 180 ragweed plants from three Regions (Canada, France, Italy) were grown in both controlled (constant) and standard environmental conditions (seasonal changes in temperature, relative humidity and light). Pollen from single plants was characterized for its allergenic potency and for the underlying regulation mechanisms by studying the qualitative and quantitative variations of the main isoforms of the major ragweed allergen Amb a 1. Results showed a statistically higher variability in allergenicity of pollen from standard conditions than from controlled conditions growing plants. This variability was due to differences among single plants, regardless of their origin, and was not ascribed to differences in the expression and IgE reactivity of individual Amb a 1 isoforms but rather to quantitative differences involving all the studied isoforms. It suggests that the allergenic potency of ragweed pollen and thus the severity of ragweed pollinosis mainly depends on environmental conditions during plant growth and flowering, which regulate the total Amb a 1 content. PMID:27457754

  19. Considerations of Environmentally Relevant Test Conditions for Improved Evaluation of Ecological Hazards of Engineered Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Holden, Patricia A; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Klaessig, Fred; Turco, Ronald F; Mortimer, Monika; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A; Avery, David; Barceló, Damià; Behra, Renata; Cohen, Yoram; Deydier-Stephan, Laurence; Ferguson, P Lee; Fernandes, Teresa F; Herr Harthorn, Barbara; Henderson, W Matthew; Hoke, Robert A; Hristozov, Danail; Johnston, John M; Kane, Agnes B; Kapustka, Larry; Keller, Arturo A; Lenihan, Hunter S; Lovell, Wess; Murphy, Catherine J; Nisbet, Roger M; Petersen, Elijah J; Salinas, Edward R; Scheringer, Martin; Sharma, Monita; Speed, David E; Sultan, Yasir; Westerhoff, Paul; White, Jason C; Wiesner, Mark R; Wong, Eva M; Xing, Baoshan; Steele Horan, Meghan; Godwin, Hilary A; Nel, André E

    2016-06-21

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly entering the environment with uncertain consequences including potential ecological effects. Various research communities view differently whether ecotoxicological testing of ENMs should be conducted using environmentally relevant concentrations-where observing outcomes is difficult-versus higher ENM doses, where responses are observable. What exposure conditions are typically used in assessing ENM hazards to populations? What conditions are used to test ecosystem-scale hazards? What is known regarding actual ENMs in the environment, via measurements or modeling simulations? How should exposure conditions, ENM transformation, dose, and body burden be used in interpreting biological and computational findings for assessing risks? These questions were addressed in the context of this critical review. As a result, three main recommendations emerged. First, researchers should improve ecotoxicology of ENMs by choosing test end points, duration, and study conditions-including ENM test concentrations-that align with realistic exposure scenarios. Second, testing should proceed via tiers with iterative feedback that informs experiments at other levels of biological organization. Finally, environmental realism in ENM hazard assessments should involve greater coordination among ENM quantitative analysts, exposure modelers, and ecotoxicologists, across government, industry, and academia.

  20. Is ragweed pollen allergenicity governed by environmental conditions during plant growth and flowering?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiani, Alessandra; Ciappetta, Silvia; Gentili, Rodolfo; Asero, Riccardo; Citterio, Sandra

    2016-07-01

    Pollen allergenicity is one of the main factors influencing the prevalence and/or severity of allergic diseases. However, how genotype and environment contribute to ragweed pollen allergenicity has still to be established. To throw some light on the factors governing allergenicity, in this work 180 ragweed plants from three Regions (Canada, France, Italy) were grown in both controlled (constant) and standard environmental conditions (seasonal changes in temperature, relative humidity and light). Pollen from single plants was characterized for its allergenic potency and for the underlying regulation mechanisms by studying the qualitative and quantitative variations of the main isoforms of the major ragweed allergen Amb a 1. Results showed a statistically higher variability in allergenicity of pollen from standard conditions than from controlled conditions growing plants. This variability was due to differences among single plants, regardless of their origin, and was not ascribed to differences in the expression and IgE reactivity of individual Amb a 1 isoforms but rather to quantitative differences involving all the studied isoforms. It suggests that the allergenic potency of ragweed pollen and thus the severity of ragweed pollinosis mainly depends on environmental conditions during plant growth and flowering, which regulate the total Amb a 1 content.

  1. Considerations of Environmentally Relevant Test Conditions for Improved Evaluation of Ecological Hazards of Engineered Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Holden, Patricia A; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Klaessig, Fred; Turco, Ronald F; Mortimer, Monika; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A; Avery, David; Barceló, Damià; Behra, Renata; Cohen, Yoram; Deydier-Stephan, Laurence; Ferguson, P Lee; Fernandes, Teresa F; Herr Harthorn, Barbara; Henderson, W Matthew; Hoke, Robert A; Hristozov, Danail; Johnston, John M; Kane, Agnes B; Kapustka, Larry; Keller, Arturo A; Lenihan, Hunter S; Lovell, Wess; Murphy, Catherine J; Nisbet, Roger M; Petersen, Elijah J; Salinas, Edward R; Scheringer, Martin; Sharma, Monita; Speed, David E; Sultan, Yasir; Westerhoff, Paul; White, Jason C; Wiesner, Mark R; Wong, Eva M; Xing, Baoshan; Steele Horan, Meghan; Godwin, Hilary A; Nel, André E

    2016-06-21

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly entering the environment with uncertain consequences including potential ecological effects. Various research communities view differently whether ecotoxicological testing of ENMs should be conducted using environmentally relevant concentrations-where observing outcomes is difficult-versus higher ENM doses, where responses are observable. What exposure conditions are typically used in assessing ENM hazards to populations? What conditions are used to test ecosystem-scale hazards? What is known regarding actual ENMs in the environment, via measurements or modeling simulations? How should exposure conditions, ENM transformation, dose, and body burden be used in interpreting biological and computational findings for assessing risks? These questions were addressed in the context of this critical review. As a result, three main recommendations emerged. First, researchers should improve ecotoxicology of ENMs by choosing test end points, duration, and study conditions-including ENM test concentrations-that align with realistic exposure scenarios. Second, testing should proceed via tiers with iterative feedback that informs experiments at other levels of biological organization. Finally, environmental realism in ENM hazard assessments should involve greater coordination among ENM quantitative analysts, exposure modelers, and ecotoxicologists, across government, industry, and academia. PMID:27177237

  2. Digestible Lysine Requirements of Male Broilers From 14 to 28 Days of Age Subjected to Different Environmental Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary amino acid requirements are influenced by environmental conditions. Two experiments examined growth responses of Ross × Ross TP 16 male broilers fed diets varying in digestible (dig) Lys concentrations from 14 to 28 d of age under different environmental conditions. Experiment 1 was conduc...

  3. Dietary Lysine Responses of Male Broilers From 14 to 28 Days of Age Subjected to Different Environmental Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary amino acid requirements are influenced by environmental conditions. Two experiments examined growth responses of Ross × Ross TP 16 male broilers fed diets varying in digestible (dig) Lys concentrations from 14 to 28 days of age under different environmental conditions. Experiment 1 was condu...

  4. Temperature seasonality during fry out-migration influences the survival of hatchery-reared chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta.

    PubMed

    Morita, K; Nakashima, A

    2015-10-01

    Among years, fry-to-adult survival of hatchery-reared chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta was positively correlated with the length (in days) of the fry out-migration period with temperatures suitable for migration. Furthermore, survival decreased with increasing difference in mean temperature between May and June. Thus, prolonged out-migration periods increased the probability of survival from fry to adult, lending support to the hypothesis that long migration periods decrease the risk of mortality (bet-hedging), and increase the probability of migration when environmental conditions in fresh water and the ocean are suitable (match-mismatch).

  5. DEGRADATION OF FIBERBOARD IN MODEL 9975 PACKAGE FOLLOWING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONING FIRST INTERIM REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W; Stephen Harris, S

    2007-06-13

    Fiberboard material, used in the 9975 shipping package, has been tested for thermal, mechanical and physical properties following environmental conditioning for periods up to 64 weeks. The environments are either representative or bounding of KAMS storage conditions, in order to provide prediction of long-term performance of the 9975 package in KAMS. This report summarizes the data and analysis performed to date. These data show degradation of some properties in some of the environments, but samples have not degraded beyond identified minimum KAMS requirements. Statistical analysis of the data collected to date support the development of a model to predict a service life in KAMS. Further model development and lifetime predictions will be made following additional conditioning and testing in accordance with the task technical plan.

  6. Remodeling of Bacterial RNA Polymerase Supramolecular Complex in Response to Environmental Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Seema; Xiong, Yijia; Mayer, M. Uljana; Squier, Thomas C.

    2007-03-20

    Directed binding of RNA polymerase to distinct promoter elements controls transcription and promotes adaptive responses to changing environmental conditions. To identify proteins that modulate transcription, we have expressed a tagged alpha-subunit of RNA polymerase in Shewanella oneidensis under controlled growth conditions, isolated the protein complex using newly developed multiuse affinity probes, and used LC-MS/MS to identify proteins in the complex. Complementary fluorescence correlation spectroscopy measurements were used to determine the average size of the RNA polymerase complex in cellular lysates. We find that RNA polymerase exists as a large supramolecular complex with an apparent mass in excess of 1.4 MDa, whose protein composition substantially changes in response to growth conditions. Enzymes that copurify with RNA polymerase include those associated with tRNA processing, nucleotide metabolism, and energy biosynthesis, which we propose to be necessary for optimal transcriptional rates.

  7. Rearing and foraging affects bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Newbold, Lindsay K; Oliver, Anna E; Cuthbertson, Leah; Walkington, Sarah E; Gweon, Hyun S; Heard, Matthew S; van der Gast, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    Bumblebees are ecologically and economically important as pollinators of crop and wild plants, especially in temperate systems. Species, such as the buff-tailed bumblebee (Bombus terrestris), are reared commercially to pollinate high-value crops. Their highly specific gut microbiota, characterized by low diversity, may affect nutrition and immunity and are likely to be important for fitness and colony health. However, little is known about how environmental factors affect bacterial community structure. We analysed the gut microbiota from three groups of worker bumblebees (B. terrestris) from distinct colonies that varied in rearing and foraging characteristics: commercially reared with restricted foraging (RR); commercially reared with outside foraging (RF); and wild-caught workers (W). Contrary to previous studies, which indicate that bacterial communities are highly conserved across workers, we found that RF individuals had an intermediate community structure compared with RR and W types. Further, this was shaped by differences in the abundances of common operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and the diversity of rare OTUs present, which we propose results from an increase in the variety of carbohydrates obtained through foraging. PMID:25994560

  8. Rearing and foraging affects bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Newbold, Lindsay K; Oliver, Anna E; Cuthbertson, Leah; Walkington, Sarah E; Gweon, Hyun S; Heard, Matthew S; van der Gast, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    Bumblebees are ecologically and economically important as pollinators of crop and wild plants, especially in temperate systems. Species, such as the buff-tailed bumblebee (Bombus terrestris), are reared commercially to pollinate high-value crops. Their highly specific gut microbiota, characterized by low diversity, may affect nutrition and immunity and are likely to be important for fitness and colony health. However, little is known about how environmental factors affect bacterial community structure. We analysed the gut microbiota from three groups of worker bumblebees (B. terrestris) from distinct colonies that varied in rearing and foraging characteristics: commercially reared with restricted foraging (RR); commercially reared with outside foraging (RF); and wild-caught workers (W). Contrary to previous studies, which indicate that bacterial communities are highly conserved across workers, we found that RF individuals had an intermediate community structure compared with RR and W types. Further, this was shaped by differences in the abundances of common operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and the diversity of rare OTUs present, which we propose results from an increase in the variety of carbohydrates obtained through foraging.

  9. Environmental effects and individual body condition drive seasonal fecundity of rabbits: identifying acute and lagged processes.

    PubMed

    Wells, Konstans; O'Hara, Robert B; Cooke, Brian D; Mutze, Greg J; Prowse, Thomas A A; Fordham, Damien A

    2016-07-01

    The reproduction of many species is determined by seasonally-driven resource supply. But it is difficult to quantify whether the fecundity is sensitive to short- or long-term exposure to environmental conditions such as rainfall that drive resource supply. Using 25 years of data on individual fecundity of European female rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus, from semiarid Australia, we investigate the role of individual body condition, rainfall and temperature as drivers of seasonal and long-term and population-level changes in fecundity (breeding probability, ovulation rate, embryo survival). We built distributed lag models in a hierarchical Bayesian framework to account for both immediate and time-lagged effects of climate and other environmental drivers, and possible shifts in reproduction over consecutive seasons. We show that rainfall during summer, when rabbits typically breed only rarely, increased breeding probability immediately and with time lags of up to 10 weeks. However, an earlier onset of the yearly breeding period did not result in more overall reproductive output. Better body condition was associated with an earlier onset of breeding and higher embryo survival. Breeding probability in the main breeding season declined with increased breeding activity in the preceding season and only individuals in good body condition were able to breed late in the season. Higher temperatures reduce breeding success across seasons. We conclude that a better understanding of seasonal dynamics and plasticity (and their interplay) in reproduction will provide crucial insights into how lagomorphs are likely to respond and potentially adapt to the influence of future climate and other environmental change. PMID:27028444

  10. Clothing insulation and temperature, layer and mass of clothing under comfortable environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the microclimate temperature and clothing insulation (Icl) under comfortable environmental conditions. In total, 20 subjects (13 women, 7 men) took part in this study. Four environmental temperatures were chosen: 14°C (to represent March/April), 25°C (May/June), 29°C (July/August), and 23°C (September/October). Wind speed (0.14ms-1) and humidity (45%) were held constant. Clothing microclimate temperatures were measured at the chest (Tchest) and on the interscapular region (Tscapular). Clothing temperature of the innermost layer (Tinnermost) was measured on this layer 30 mm above the centre of the left breast. Subjects were free to choose the clothing that offered them thermal comfort under each environmental condition. We found the following results. 1) All clothing factors except the number of lower clothing layers (Llower), showed differences between the different environmental conditions (P<0.05). The ranges of Tchest were 31.6 to 33.5°C and 32.2 to 33.4°C in Tscapular. The range of Tinnermost was 28.6 to 32.0°C. The range of the upper clothing layers (Lupper) and total clothing mass (Mtotal) was 1.1 to 3.2 layers and 473 to 1659 g respectively. The range of Icl was 0.78 to 2.10 clo. 2) Post hoc analyses showed that analysis of Tinnermost produced the same results as for that of Icl. Likewise, the analysis of Lupper produced the same result as the analysis of the number of total layers (Ltotal) within an outfit. 3) Air temperature (ta) had positive relationships with Tchest and Tscapular and with Tinnermost but had inverse correlations with Icl, Mtotal, Lupper and Ltotal. Tchest, Tscapular, and Tinnermost increased as ta rose. 4) Icl had inverse relationships with Tchest and Tinnermost, but positive relationships with Mtotal, Lupper and Ltotal. Icl could be estimated by Mtotal, Lupper, and Tscapular using a multivariate linear regression model. 5) Lupper had positive relationships with Icl

  11. Clothing insulation and temperature, layer and mass of clothing under comfortable environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Kwon, JuYoun; Choi, Jeongwha

    2013-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the microclimate temperature and clothing insulation (Icl) under comfortable environmental conditions. In total, 20 subjects (13 women, 7 men) took part in this study. Four environmental temperatures were chosen: 14°C (to represent March/April), 25°C (May/June), 29°C (July/August), and 23°C (September/October). Wind speed (0.14ms-1) and humidity (45%) were held constant. Clothing microclimate temperatures were measured at the chest (Tchest) and on the interscapular region (Tscapular). Clothing temperature of the innermost layer (Tinnermost) was measured on this layer 30 mm above the centre of the left breast. Subjects were free to choose the clothing that offered them thermal comfort under each environmental condition. We found the following results. 1) All clothing factors except the number of lower clothing layers (Llower), showed differences between the different environmental conditions (P<0.05). The ranges of Tchest were 31.6 to 33.5°C and 32.2 to 33.4°C in Tscapular. The range of Tinnermost was 28.6 to 32.0°C. The range of the upper clothing layers (Lupper) and total clothing mass (Mtotal) was 1.1 to 3.2 layers and 473 to 1659 g respectively. The range of Icl was 0.78 to 2.10 clo. 2) Post hoc analyses showed that analysis of Tinnermost produced the same results as for that of Icl. Likewise, the analysis of Lupper produced the same result as the analysis of the number of total layers (Ltotal) within an outfit. 3) Air temperature (ta) had positive relationships with Tchest and Tscapular and with Tinnermost but had inverse correlations with Icl, Mtotal, Lupper and Ltotal. Tchest, Tscapular, and Tinnermost increased as ta rose. 4) Icl had inverse relationships with Tchest and Tinnermost, but positive relationships with Mtotal, Lupper and Ltotal. Icl could be estimated by Mtotal, Lupper, and Tscapular using a multivariate linear regression model. 5) Lupper had positive relationships with Icl

  12. Photoacclimation supports environmental tolerance of a sponge to turbid low-light conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggerstaff, A.; Smith, D. J.; Jompa, J.; Bell, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Changes to coral reefs are occurring worldwide, often resulting in declining environmental quality which can be in the form of higher sedimentation rates and increased turbidity. While environmental acclimation to turbid and low-light conditions has been extensively studied in corals, far less is known about other phototrophic reef invertebrates. The photosynthetic cyanobacteria containing sponge Lamellodysidea herbacea is one of the most abundant sponges in the Wakatobi Marine National Park (WMNP, Indonesia), and its abundance is greatest at highly disturbed, turbid sites. This study investigated photoacclimation of L. herbacea symbionts to turbid reef sites using in situ PAM fluorometry combined with shading and transplant experiments at environmental extremes of light availability for this species. We found in situ photoacclimation of L. herbacea to both shallow, clear, high-light environments and deep, turbid, low-light environments. Shading experiments provide some evidence that L. herbacea are dependent on nutrition from their photosymbionts as significant tissue loss was seen in shaded sponges. Symbionts within surviving shaded tissue showed evidence of photoacclimation. Lamellodysidea herbacea transplanted from high- to low-light conditions appeared to have photoacclimated within 5 d with no significant effect of the lowered light level on survival. This ability of L. herbacea to photoacclimate to rapid and extreme changes in light availability may be one of the factors contributing to their survival on more turbid reef sites in the WMNP. Our study highlights the ability of some sponge species to acclimate to changes in light levels as a result of increased turbidity.

  13. Identifying the Environmental Conditions Favouring West Nile Virus Outbreaks in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Markus; Rosà, Roberto; Marini, Giovanni; Chadwick, Elizabeth; Neteler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is a globally important mosquito borne virus, with significant implications for human and animal health. The emergence and spread of new lineages, and increased pathogenicity, is the cause of escalating public health concern. Pinpointing the environmental conditions that favour WNV circulation and transmission to humans is challenging, due both to the complexity of its biological cycle, and the under-diagnosis and reporting of epidemiological data. Here, we used remote sensing and GIS to enable collation of multiple types of environmental data over a continental spatial scale, in order to model annual West Nile Fever (WNF) incidence across Europe and neighbouring countries. Multi-model selection and inference were used to gain a consensus from multiple linear mixed models. Climate and landscape were key predictors of WNF outbreaks (specifically, high precipitation in late winter/early spring, high summer temperatures, summer drought, occurrence of irrigated croplands and highly fragmented forests). Identification of the environmental conditions associated with WNF outbreaks is key to enabling public health bodies to properly focus surveillance and mitigation of West Nile virus impact, but more work needs to be done to enable accurate predictions of WNF risk. PMID:25803814

  14. From laboratory to environmental conditions: a new approach for chemical's biodegradability assessment.

    PubMed

    François, Brillet; Armand, Maul; Marie-José, Durand; Thouand, Gérald

    2016-09-01

    With thousands of organic chemicals released every day into our environment, Europe and other continents are confronted with increased risk of health and environmental problems. Even if a strict regulation such as REgistration, Authorization and restriction of CHemicals (REACH) is imposed and followed by industry to ensure that they prove the harmlessness of their substances, not all testing procedures are designed to cope with the complexity of the environment. This is especially true for the evaluation of persistence through biodegradability assessment guidelines. Our new approach has been to adapt "in the lab" biodegradability assessment to the environmental conditions and model the probability for a biodegradation test to be positive in the form of a logistic function of both the temperature and the viable cell density. Here, a proof of this new concept is proposed with the establishment of tri-dimensional biodegradability profiles of six chemicals (sodium benzoate, 4-nitrophenol, diethylene glycol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, atrazine, and glyphosate) between 4 to 30 °C and 10(4) to 10(8) cells ml(-1) as can be found in environmental compartments in time and space. The results show a significant increase of the predictive power of existing screening lab-scale tests designed for soluble substances. This strategy can be complementary to those current testing strategies with the creation of new indicators to quantify environmental persistence using lab-scale tests. PMID:27312897

  15. Experimental evidence of population differences in reproductive investment conditional on environmental stochasticity.

    PubMed

    Gauthey, Zoé; Panserat, Stéphane; Elosegi, Arturo; Herman, Alexandre; Tentelier, Cédric; Labonne, Jacques

    2016-01-15

    Environmental stochasticity is expected to shape life histories of species, wherein organisms subjected to strong environmental variation should display adaptive response by being able to tune their reproductive investment. For riverine ecosystems, climate models forecast an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme events such as floods and droughts. The speed and the mechanisms by which organisms may adapt their reproductive investment are therefore of primary importance to understand how species will cope with such radical environmental changes. In the present study, we sampled spawners from two different populations of wild brown trout, originating from two environments with contrasting levels of flow stochasticity. We placed them in sympatry within an experimental channel during reproductive season. In one modality, water flow was maintained constant, whereas in another modality, water flow was highly variable. Reproductive investment of all individuals was monitored using weight and energetic plasma metabolite variation throughout the reproductive season. Only the populations originating from the most variable environment showed a plastic response to experimental manipulation of water flow, the females being able to reduce their weight variation (from 19.2% to 13.1%) and metabolites variations (from 84.2% to 18.6% for triglycerides for instance) under variable flow conditions. These results imply that mechanisms to cope with environmental stochasticity can differ between populations of the same species, where some populations can be plastic whereas other cannot.

  16. Ectomycorrhizal fungal traits reflect environmental conditions along a coastal California edaphic gradient.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Holly V; Peay, Kabir G; Fukami, Tadashi

    2014-03-01

    Multispecies mutualisms, such as the association between trees and ectomycorrhizal fungi, are often shaped by environmental context. Here, we explored the functional mechanisms underlying this environmental filtering. Using a single population of Pinus muricata (Bishop pine) growing along a strong edaphic gradient, we examined how environmental stress affected ectomycorrhizal fungi. The gradient spans c. 400000 years of soil age, and reduced nutrient availability and increased water stress dwarf trees on older sites. Fungal community composition shifted with nutrient and water availability and with the stature of the P. muricata host trees. Not only did pygmy trees host a taxonomically different fungal subset as compared to nonpygmy trees, but associated fungal communities also differed in life history strategies: trees in more stressful conditions hosted fungi with more carbon-intensive foraging strategies. Our results indicate a link between environmental controls of host nutritional status and turnover in the ectomycorrhizal fungal community. The transition to more energy-intensive strategies under nutrient stress may allow for close recycling of recalcitrant nutrient pools within the root zone and facilitate transport of nutrients and water over long distances. These results highlight the value of life history data to understanding the mechanistic underpinnings of species distributions.

  17. Using a Novel Wireless-Networked Decentralized Control Scheme under Unpredictable Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chung-Liang; Huang, Yi-Ming; Hong, Guo-Fong

    2015-01-01

    The direction of sunshine or the installation sites of environmental control facilities in the greenhouse result in different temperature and humidity levels in the various zones of the greenhouse, and thus, the production quality of crop is inconsistent. This study proposed a wireless-networked decentralized fuzzy control scheme to regulate the environmental parameters of various culture zones within a greenhouse. The proposed scheme can create different environmental conditions for cultivating different crops in various zones and achieve diversification or standardization of crop production. A star-type wireless sensor network is utilized to communicate with each sensing node, actuator node, and control node in various zones within the greenhouse. The fuzzy rule-based inference system is used to regulate the environmental parameters for temperature and humidity based on real-time data of plant growth response provided by a growth stage selector. The growth stage selector defines the control ranges of temperature and humidity of the various culture zones according to the leaf area of the plant, the number of leaves, and the cumulative amount of light. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is stable and robust and provides basis for future greenhouse applications. PMID:26569264

  18. Using a Novel Wireless-Networked Decentralized Control Scheme under Unpredictable Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chung-Liang; Huang, Yi-Ming; Hong, Guo-Fong

    2015-01-01

    The direction of sunshine or the installation sites of environmental control facilities in the greenhouse result in different temperature and humidity levels in the various zones of the greenhouse, and thus, the production quality of crop is inconsistent. This study proposed a wireless-networked decentralized fuzzy control scheme to regulate the environmental parameters of various culture zones within a greenhouse. The proposed scheme can create different environmental conditions for cultivating different crops in various zones and achieve diversification or standardization of crop production. A star-type wireless sensor network is utilized to communicate with each sensing node, actuator node, and control node in various zones within the greenhouse. The fuzzy rule-based inference system is used to regulate the environmental parameters for temperature and humidity based on real-time data of plant growth response provided by a growth stage selector. The growth stage selector defines the control ranges of temperature and humidity of the various culture zones according to the leaf area of the plant, the number of leaves, and the cumulative amount of light. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is stable and robust and provides basis for future greenhouse applications. PMID:26569264

  19. Eider females form non-kin brood-rearing coalitions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ost, M.; Vitikainen, E.; Waldeck, P.; Sundstrom, L.; Lindstrom, K.; Hollmen, Tuula E.; Franson, J.C.; Kilpi, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    Kin selection is a powerful tool for understanding cooperation among individuals, yet its role as the sole explanation of cooperative societies has recently been challenged on empirical grounds. These studies suggest that direct benefits of cooperation are often overlooked, and that partner choice may be a widespread mechanism of cooperation. Female eider ducks (Somateria mollissima) may rear broods alone, or they may pool their broods and share brood-rearing. Females are philopatric, and it has been suggested that colonies may largely consist of related females, which could promote interactions among relatives. Alternatively, shared brood care could be random with respect to relatedness, either because brood amalgamations are accidental and nonadaptive, or through group augmentation, assuming that the fitness of all group members increases with group size. We tested these alternatives by measuring the relatedness of co-tending eider females in enduring coalitions with microsatellite markers. Females formed enduring brood-rearing coalitions with each other at random with respect to relatedness. However, based on previous data, partner choice is nonrandom and dependent on female body condition. We discuss potential mechanisms underlying eider communal brood-rearing decisions, which may be driven by the specific ecological conditions under which sociality has evolved in this species.

  20. Spawning and rearing Atlantic menhaden

    SciTech Connect

    Hettler, W.F.

    1981-04-01

    Two-year-old Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) held in the laboratory at ambient temperatures and salinities for more than 1 year, were induced to spawn by injecting first human chorionic gonadotropin and then carp pituitary powder. Spawning took place at temperatures of 16 to 20/sup 0/C in a 2100-L indoor tank modified to recover the buoyant fertilized eggs. Larvae were reared to the juvenile stage on a diet of cultured rotifers (Brachionus plicatilus), sieved wild zooplankton (64 to 500 ..mu..m), brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii, and powdered trout food.

  1. Useful model organisms, indicators, or both? Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) reflecting environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Koivula, Matti J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Classic studies have successfully linked single-species abundances, life-history traits, assemblage structures and biomass of carabid beetles to past and present, human-caused environmental impacts and variation in ‘natural’ conditions. This evidence has led many to suggest carabids to function as ‘indicators’ − a term that bears multiple meanings. Here, a conservation-oriented definition for an indicator is used, carabid indicator potential from seven views is evaluated, and ways to proceed in indicator research are discussed. (1) Carabid species richness poorly indicates the richness and abundance of other taxa, which underlines the importance of using multiple taxa in environmental assessments. The ability of assemblage indices and specialist or functional-group abundances to reflect rare species and habitats should be examined in detail. (2) Experimental evidence suggests that carabids may potentially serve as keystone indicators. (3) Carabids are sensitive to human-altered abiotic conditions, such as pesticide use in agro-ecosystems and heavy metal contamination of soils. Carabids might thus reflect ecological sustainability and ‘ecosystem health’. (4) Carabid assemblages host abundant species characteristic of particular habitat types or successional stages, which makes them promising dominance indicators. (5) Carabids reflect variation in ‘natural’ conditions, but vegetation and structural features are more commonly adopted as condition indicators. Carabids nevertheless provide yet another, equally accurate, view on the structure of the environment. (6) Carabids may function as early-warning signalers, as suggested by recent studies linking climate and carabid distributions. (7) Carabids reflect natural and human-caused disturbances and management, but the usefulness of these responses for conservation purposes requires further research. In summary, European carabids appear useful model organisms and possibly indicators because

  2. Useful model organisms, indicators, or both? Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) reflecting environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Koivula, Matti J

    2011-01-01

    Classic studies have successfully linked single-species abundances, life-history traits, assemblage structures and biomass of carabid beetles to past and present, human-caused environmental impacts and variation in 'natural' conditions. This evidence has led many to suggest carabids to function as 'indicators' - a term that bears multiple meanings. Here, a conservation-oriented definition for an indicator is used, carabid indicator potential from seven views is evaluated, and ways to proceed in indicator research are discussed. (1) Carabid species richness poorly indicates the richness and abundance of other taxa, which underlines the importance of using multiple taxa in environmental assessments. The ability of assemblage indices and specialist or functional-group abundances to reflect rare species and habitats should be examined in detail. (2) Experimental evidence suggests that carabids may potentially serve as keystone indicators. (3) Carabids are sensitive to human-altered abiotic conditions, such as pesticide use in agro-ecosystems and heavy metal contamination of soils. Carabids might thus reflect ecological sustainability and 'ecosystem health'. (4) Carabid assemblages host abundant species characteristic of particular habitat types or successional stages, which makes them promising dominance indicators. (5) Carabids reflect variation in 'natural' conditions, but vegetation and structural features are more commonly adopted as condition indicators. Carabids nevertheless provide yet another, equally accurate, view on the structure of the environment. (6) Carabids may function as early-warning signalers, as suggested by recent studies linking climate and carabid distributions. (7) Carabids reflect natural and human-caused disturbances and management, but the usefulness of these responses for conservation purposes requires further research. In summary, European carabids appear useful model organisms and possibly indicators because they are diverse

  3. Influence of high gravity process conditions on the environmental impact of ethanol production from wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Matty; Tillman, Anne-Marie; Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-12-01

    Biofuel production processes at high gravity are currently under development. Most of these processes however use sugars or first generation feedstocks as substrate. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the production of bio-ethanol at high gravity conditions from a second generation feedstock, namely, wheat straw. The LCA used lab results of a set of 36 process configurations in which dry matter content, enzyme preparation and loading, and process strategy were varied. The LCA results show that higher dry matter content leads to a higher environmental impact of the ethanol production, but this can be compensated by reducing the impact of enzyme production and use, and by polyethylene glycol addition at high dry matter content. The results also show that the renewable and non-renewable energy use resulting from the different process configurations ultimately determine their environmental impact. PMID:25299491

  4. Influence of high gravity process conditions on the environmental impact of ethanol production from wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Matty; Tillman, Anne-Marie; Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-12-01

    Biofuel production processes at high gravity are currently under development. Most of these processes however use sugars or first generation feedstocks as substrate. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the production of bio-ethanol at high gravity conditions from a second generation feedstock, namely, wheat straw. The LCA used lab results of a set of 36 process configurations in which dry matter content, enzyme preparation and loading, and process strategy were varied. The LCA results show that higher dry matter content leads to a higher environmental impact of the ethanol production, but this can be compensated by reducing the impact of enzyme production and use, and by polyethylene glycol addition at high dry matter content. The results also show that the renewable and non-renewable energy use resulting from the different process configurations ultimately determine their environmental impact.

  5. Interaction between host genotype and environmental conditions affects bacterial density in Wolbachia symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Mouton, Laurence; Henri, Hélène; Charif, Delphine; Boulétreau, Michel; Vavre, Fabrice

    2007-04-22

    Regulation of microbial population density is a necessity in stable symbiotic interactions. In Wolbachia symbiosis, both bacterial and host genotypes are involved in density regulation, but environmental factors may also affect bacterial population density. Here, we studied the interaction between three strains of Wolbachia in two divergent homozygous lines of the wasp Leptopilina heterotoma at two different temperatures. Wolbachia density varied between the two host genotypes at only one temperature. Moreover, at this temperature, reciprocal-cross F1 insects displayed identical Wolbachia densities, which were intermediate between the densities in the two parental lines. While these findings confirm that the host genotype plays an important role in Wolbachia density, they also highlight its interaction with environmental conditions, making possible the evolution of local adaptations for the regulation of Wolbachia density. PMID:17251124

  6. Water retention of selected microorganisms and Martian soil simulants under close to Martian environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jänchen, J.; Bauermeister, A.; Feyh, N.; de Vera, J.-P.; Rettberg, P.; Flemming, H.-C.; Szewzyk, U.

    2014-08-01

    Based on the latest knowledge about microorganisms resistant towards extreme conditions on Earth and results of new complex models on the development of the Martian atmosphere we quantitatively examined the water-bearing properties of selected extremophiles and simulated Martian regolith components and their interaction with water vapor under close to Martian environmental conditions. Three different species of microorganisms have been chosen and prepared for our study: Deinococcus geothermalis, Leptothrix sp. OT_B_406, and Xanthoria elegans. Further, two mineral mixtures representing the early and the late Martian surface as well as montmorillonite as a single component of phyllosilicatic minerals, typical for the Noachian period on Mars, were selected. The thermal mass loss of the minerals and bacteria-samples was measured by thermoanalysis. The hydration and dehydration properties were determined under close to Martian environmental conditions by sorption isotherm measurements using a McBain-Bakr quartz spring balance. It was possible to determine the total water content of the materials as well as the reversibly bound water fraction as function of the atmospheres humidity by means of these methods. Our results are important for the evaluation of future space mission outcomes including astrobiological aspects and can support the modeling of the atmosphere/surface interaction by showing the influence on the water inventory of the upper most layer of the Martian surface.

  7. Genomic sweep and potential genetic rescue during limiting environmental conditions in an isolated wolf population.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jennifer R; Vucetich, Leah M; Hedrick, Philip W; Peterson, Rolf O; Vucetich, John A

    2011-11-22

    Genetic rescue, in which the introduction of one or more unrelated individuals into an inbred population results in the reduction of detrimental genetic effects and an increase in one or more vital rates, is a potentially important management tool for mitigating adverse effects of inbreeding. We used molecular techniques to document the consequences of a male wolf (Canis lupus) that immigrated, on its own, across Lake Superior ice to the small, inbred wolf population in Isle Royale National Park. The immigrant's fitness so exceeded that of native wolves that within 2.5 generations, he was related to every individual in the population and his ancestry constituted 56 per cent of the population, resulting in a selective sweep of the total genome. In other words, all the male ancestry (50% of the total ancestry) descended from this immigrant, plus 6 per cent owing to the success of some of his inbred offspring. The immigration event occurred in an environment where space was limiting (i.e. packs occupied all available territories) and during a time when environmental conditions had deteriorated (i.e. wolves' prey declined). These conditions probably explain why the immigration event did not obviously improve the population's demography (e.g. increased population numbers or growth rate). Our results show that the beneficial effects of gene flow may be substantial and quickly manifest, short-lived under some circumstances, and how the demographic benefits of genetic rescue might be masked by environmental conditions. PMID:21450731

  8. Variation among species in proteomic sulphur content is related to environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Bragg, Jason G; Thomas, Dominique; Baudouin-Cornu, Peggy

    2006-05-22

    The elemental composition of proteins influences the quantities of different elements required by organisms. Here, we considered variation in the sulphur content of whole proteomes among 19 Archaea, 122 Eubacteria and 10 eukaryotes whose genomes have been fully sequenced. We found that different species vary greatly in the sulphur content of their proteins, and that average sulphur content of proteomes and genome base composition are related. Forces contributing to variation in proteomic sulphur content appear to operate quite uniformly across the proteins of different species. In particular, the sulphur content of orthologous proteins was frequently correlated with mean proteomic sulphur contents. Among prokaryotes, proteomic sulphur content tended to be greater in anaerobes, relative to non-anaerobes. Thermophiles tended to have lower proteomic sulphur content than non-thermophiles, consistent with the thermolability of cysteine and methionine residues. This work suggests that persistent environmental growth conditions can influence the evolution of elemental composition of whole proteomes in a manner that may have important implications for the amount of sulphur used by living organisms to build proteins. It extends previous studies that demonstrated links between transient changes in environmental conditions and the elemental composition of subsets of proteins expressed under these conditions.

  9. Effects of environmental conditions to which nails are exposed on DNA analysis of them.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Akinori; Moriya, Fumio; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki

    2003-03-01

    To investigate the feasibility of DNA analysis of nails taken from human remains after environmental exposure, we tested the quantity and quality of DNA that could be recovered from nails exposed to various conditions. We first investigated whether there is an inter- or intra-subject difference in the DNA content of nails using nails obtained from 333 volunteers. DNA content did not significantly differ between males and females, or between young and elderly groups. In addition, no statistically significant differences were observed among nail samples obtained from each finger of the same person. Then thumbnails of five volunteers were left in dried soil, wet soil, river water, sea water, distilled water or air for 3 months. Each nail sample was tested monthly for sex chromosome-specific repeats, ABO genotype, STRs (TH01, TPOX, CSF1PO, FES and vWA loci), and D1S80 locus. These markers were correctly detected from nails after 1 month, irrespective of environmental conditions. Thereafter, the detection rates were decreased to various degrees, except for nails left in air. The detection of longer DNA markers tended to be more difficult than the detection of shorter markers. Nails were more fragile in wet soil than in any other condition. However, nonspecific PCR products were not observed in any nail sample. Our results reconfirmed the usefulness of the nail as a specimen for forensic DNA analysis.

  10. Evaluation of natural colonisation of cementitious materials: effect of bioreceptivity and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Manso, Sandra; Calvo-Torras, María Ángeles; De Belie, Nele; Segura, Ignacio; Aguado, Antonio

    2015-04-15

    Incorporation of living organisms, such as photosynthetic organisms, on the structure envelope has become a priority in the area of architecture and construction due to aesthetical, economic and ecological advantages. Important research efforts are made to achieve further improvements, such as for the development of cementitious materials with an enhanced bioreceptivity to stimulate biological growth. Previously, the study of the bioreceptivity of cementitious materials has been carried out mainly under laboratory conditions although field-scale experiments may present different results. This work aims at analysing the colonisation of cementitious materials with different levels of bioreceptivity by placing them in three different environmental conditions. Specimens did not present visual colonisation, which indicates that environmental conditions have a greater impact than intrinsic properties of the material at this stage. Therefore, it appears that in addition to an optimized bioreceptivity of the concrete (i.e., composition, porosity and roughness), extra measures are indispensable for a rapid development of biological growth on concrete surfaces. An analysis of the colonisation in terms of genus and quantity of the most representative microorganisms found on the specimens for each location was carried out and related to weather conditions, such as monthly average temperature and total precipitation, and air quality in terms of NOx, SO2, CO and O3. OPC-based specimens presented a higher colonisation regarding both biodiversity and quantity. However, results obtained in a previous experimental programme under laboratory conditions suggested a higher suitability of Magnesium Phosphate Cement-based (MPC-based) specimens for algal growth. Consequently, carefully considering the environment and the relationships between the different organisms present in an environment is vital for successfully using a cementitious material as a substrate for biological growth. PMID

  11. Thermal Cyclic Behavior of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings Investigated Under High-Heat-Flux Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBC's) have been developed to protect silicon-carbide- (SiC) based ceramic components in gas turbine engines from high-temperature environmental attack. With continuously increasing demands for significantly higher engine operating temperature, future EBC systems must be designed for both thermal and environmental protection of the engine components in combustion gases. In particular, the thermal barrier functions of EBC's become a necessity for reducing the engine-component thermal loads and chemical reaction rates, thus maintaining the required mechanical properties and durability of these components. Advances in the development of thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TBC's and EBC's, respectively) will directly impact the successful use of ceramic components in advanced engines. To develop high-performance coating systems, researchers must establish advanced test approaches. In this study, a laser high-heat-flux technique was employed to investigate the thermal cyclic behavior of TBC's and EBC's on SiC-reinforced SiC ceramic matrix composite substrates (SiC/SiC) under high thermal gradient and thermal cycling conditions. Because the laser heat flux test approach can monitor the coating's real-time thermal conductivity variations at high temperature, the coating thermal insulation performance, sintering, and delamination can all be obtained during thermal cycling tests. Plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2-8 wt% Y2O3) thermal barrier and barium strontium aluminosilicate-based environmental barrier coatings (BSAS/BSAS+mullite/Si) on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites were investigated in this study. These coatings were laser tested in air under thermal gradients (the surface and interface temperatures were approximately 1482 and 1300 C, respectively). Some coating specimens were also subject to alternating furnace cycling (in a 90-percent water vapor environment at 1300 C) and laser thermal gradient cycling tests

  12. Evaluating GIS for establishing and monitoring environmental conditions of oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeil, R.W.; Ellis, J.W.

    1995-04-01

    Good management of an oil field and compliance with ever-increasing environmental regulations is enhanced by technologies that improve a company`s understanding of field/production facilities and environmental conditions that have occurred to both through time. In Nigeria, Kazakhstan, Indonesia, and offshore Cabinda, remote sensing, computer-aided drafting (CAD) and Global Positioning System (GPF) technologies have effectively been used by Chevron to provide accurate maps of facilities and to better understand environmental conditions. Together these proven technologies have provided a solid and cost-effective base for planning field operation, verifying well and seismic locations, and locating sampling sites. The end product of these technologies is often locations, and locating sampling sites. The end product of these technologies is often cartographic-quality hardcopy images and maps for use in the office and field. Chevron has been evaluating the capability of Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to integrate images, maps, and tabular data into a useful database that can help managers and workers better evaluate conditions in an oil field, plan new facilities, and monitor/predict trends (for example, of air emissions, groundwater, soil chemistry, subsidence, etc.). Remote sensing, CAD (if formatted properly), and GPS data can be integrated to establish the spatial or cartographic base of the GIS. A major obstacle to establishing a sophisticated GIS for an overseas operation is the initial cost of data collection and conversion from legacy data base management systems and hardcopy to appropriate digital format. However, Chevron routinely uses GIS for oil spill modeling and is now using GIS in the field for integrating GPS data with field observations and programs.

  13. Responses of five Mediterranean halophytes to seasonal changes in environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Gil, Ricardo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Boscaiu, Monica; Lidón, Antonio; Wankhade, Shantanu; Sánchez, Héctor; Llinares, Josep; Vicente, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    In their natural habitats, different mechanisms may contribute to the tolerance of halophytes to high soil salinity and other abiotic stresses, but their relative contribution and ecological relevance, for a given species, remain largely unknown. We studied the responses to changing environmental conditions of five halophytes (Sarcocornia fruticosa, Inula crithmoides, Plantago crassifolia, Juncus maritimus and J. acutus) in a Mediterranean salt marsh, from summer 2009 to autumn 2010. A principal component analysis was used to correlate soil and climatic data with changes in the plants' contents of chemical markers associated with stress responses: ions, osmolytes, malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of oxidative stress) and antioxidant systems. Stress tolerance in S. fruticosa, I. crithmoides and P. crassifolia (all succulent dicots) seemed to depend mostly on the transport of ions to aerial parts and the biosynthesis of specific osmolytes, whereas both Juncus species (monocots) were able to avoid accumulation of toxic ions, maintaining relatively high K(+)/Na(+) ratios. For the most salt-tolerant taxa (S. fruticosa and I. crithmoides), seasonal variations of Na(+), Cl(-), K(+) and glycine betaine, their major osmolyte, did not correlate with environmental parameters associated with salt or water stress, suggesting that their tolerance mechanisms are constitutive and relatively independent of external conditions, although they could be mediated by changes in the subcellular compartmentalization of ions and compatible osmolytes. Proline levels were too low in all the species to possibly have any effect on osmotic adjustment. However-except for P. crassifolia-proline may play a role in stress tolerance based on its 'osmoprotectant' functions. No correlation was observed between the degree of environmental stress and the levels of MDA or enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, indicating that the investigated halophytes are not subjected to oxidative stress under natural

  14. Responses of five Mediterranean halophytes to seasonal changes in environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Ricardo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Boscaiu, Monica; Lidón, Antonio; Wankhade, Shantanu; Sánchez, Héctor; Llinares, Josep; Vicente, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    In their natural habitats, different mechanisms may contribute to the tolerance of halophytes to high soil salinity and other abiotic stresses, but their relative contribution and ecological relevance, for a given species, remain largely unknown. We studied the responses to changing environmental conditions of five halophytes (Sarcocornia fruticosa, Inula crithmoides, Plantago crassifolia, Juncus maritimus and J. acutus) in a Mediterranean salt marsh, from summer 2009 to autumn 2010. A principal component analysis was used to correlate soil and climatic data with changes in the plants' contents of chemical markers associated with stress responses: ions, osmolytes, malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of oxidative stress) and antioxidant systems. Stress tolerance in S. fruticosa, I. crithmoides and P. crassifolia (all succulent dicots) seemed to depend mostly on the transport of ions to aerial parts and the biosynthesis of specific osmolytes, whereas both Juncus species (monocots) were able to avoid accumulation of toxic ions, maintaining relatively high K+/Na+ ratios. For the most salt-tolerant taxa (S. fruticosa and I. crithmoides), seasonal variations of Na+, Cl−, K+ and glycine betaine, their major osmolyte, did not correlate with environmental parameters associated with salt or water stress, suggesting that their tolerance mechanisms are constitutive and relatively independent of external conditions, although they could be mediated by changes in the subcellular compartmentalization of ions and compatible osmolytes. Proline levels were too low in all the species to possibly have any effect on osmotic adjustment. However—except for P. crassifolia—proline may play a role in stress tolerance based on its ‘osmoprotectant’ functions. No correlation was observed between the degree of environmental stress and the levels of MDA or enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, indicating that the investigated halophytes are not subjected to oxidative stress under natural

  15. Responses of five Mediterranean halophytes to seasonal changes in environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Gil, Ricardo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Boscaiu, Monica; Lidón, Antonio; Wankhade, Shantanu; Sánchez, Héctor; Llinares, Josep; Vicente, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    In their natural habitats, different mechanisms may contribute to the tolerance of halophytes to high soil salinity and other abiotic stresses, but their relative contribution and ecological relevance, for a given species, remain largely unknown. We studied the responses to changing environmental conditions of five halophytes (Sarcocornia fruticosa, Inula crithmoides, Plantago crassifolia, Juncus maritimus and J. acutus) in a Mediterranean salt marsh, from summer 2009 to autumn 2010. A principal component analysis was used to correlate soil and climatic data with changes in the plants' contents of chemical markers associated with stress responses: ions, osmolytes, malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of oxidative stress) and antioxidant systems. Stress tolerance in S. fruticosa, I. crithmoides and P. crassifolia (all succulent dicots) seemed to depend mostly on the transport of ions to aerial parts and the biosynthesis of specific osmolytes, whereas both Juncus species (monocots) were able to avoid accumulation of toxic ions, maintaining relatively high K(+)/Na(+) ratios. For the most salt-tolerant taxa (S. fruticosa and I. crithmoides), seasonal variations of Na(+), Cl(-), K(+) and glycine betaine, their major osmolyte, did not correlate with environmental parameters associated with salt or water stress, suggesting that their tolerance mechanisms are constitutive and relatively independent of external conditions, although they could be mediated by changes in the subcellular compartmentalization of ions and compatible osmolytes. Proline levels were too low in all the species to possibly have any effect on osmotic adjustment. However-except for P. crassifolia-proline may play a role in stress tolerance based on its 'osmoprotectant' functions. No correlation was observed between the degree of environmental stress and the levels of MDA or enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, indicating that the investigated halophytes are not subjected to oxidative stress under natural

  16. In vitro biocontrol analysis of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler under different environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Sempere, F; Santamarina, M P

    2007-03-01

    The species Trichoderma harzianum was analyzed as possible biocontrol agent of Alternaria alternata under different environmental conditions (water activity and temperature). The strains were analyzed macroscopically to obtain the Index of Dominance. The analysis was completed using two microscopic techniques. T. harzianum showed dominance on contact over A. alternata at all testing temperatures and water activities tested except at 0.95 a(w) and 15 degrees C, at which T. harzianum inhibited A. alternata at a distance. Biocontrol was governed by different mechanisms such as competition for space and nutrients, mycoparasitism, and possible antibiosis. Temperature and water activity significantly influenced fungal growth rate. PMID:17356789

  17. Effect of environmental conditions on biological decolorization of textile dyestuff by C. versicolor.

    PubMed

    Kapdan; Kargia; McMullan; Marchant

    2000-03-01

    Effects of environmental conditions such as pH, media composition, carbon and nitrogen sources, TOC/N ratio, and dyestuff concentrations on decolorization of reactive phytalocyanin type textile dyestuff Everzol Turquoise Blue G by white rot fungi, Coriolus versicolor 20) or low nitrogen concentration was essential for effective decolorization of the dyestuff. Dyestuff concentration should be lower than 500 mg/l for complete decolorization. Only partial decolorization was observed for dyestuff concentrations above 500 mg/l. Adsorption of the dyestuff on surfaces of the fungi was insignificant (<20%).

  18. Small Scale Solar Cooling Unit in Climate Conditions of Latvia: Environmental and Economical Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaunzems, Dzintars; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2010-01-01

    The paper contributes to the analyses from the environmental and economical point of view of small scale solar cooling system in climate conditions of Latvia. Cost analyses show that buildings with a higher cooling load and full load hours have lower costs. For high internal gains, cooling costs are around 1,7 €/kWh and 2,5 €/kWh for buildings with lower internal gains. Despite the fact that solar cooling systems have significant potential to reduce CO2 emissions due to a reduction of electricity consumption, the economic feasibility and attractiveness of solar cooling system is still low.

  19. Note: Electrical resolution during conductive atomic force microscopy measurements under different environmental conditions and contact forces

    SciTech Connect

    Lanza, M.; Porti, M.; Nafria, M.; Aymerich, X.; Whittaker, E.; Hamilton, B.

    2010-10-15

    Conductive atomic force microscopy experiments on gate dielectrics in air, nitrogen, and UHV have been compared to evaluate the impact of the environment on topography and electrical measurements. In current images, an increase of the lateral resolution and a reduction of the conductivity were observed in N{sub 2} and, especially, in UHV (where current depends also on the contact force). Both effects were related to the reduction/elimination of the water layer between the tip and the sample in N{sub 2}/UHV. Therefore, since current measurements are very sensitive to environmental conditions, these factors must be taken into consideration when comparisons between several experiments are performed.

  20. Physical performance and environmental conditions: 2014 World Soccer Cup and 2016 Summer Olympics in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Veneroso, Christiano E; Ramos, Guilherme P; Mendes, Thiago T; Silami-Garcia, Emerson

    2015-01-01

    This editorial is for the special issue "Temperature sciences in Brazil" of the journal Temperature. It focuses on the physical performance and environmental conditions during the 2014 World Cup and the coming 2016 Summer Olympics. It emphasizes that a hot and humid environment imposes a great challenge to the human thermoregulation system, can lead to performance decrements, and increases the risk of developing hyperthermia. Adequate hydration, acclimatization, and body cooling strategies are effective interventions to minimize the risks associated with exercise in the heat.

  1. A correlational analysis of the effects of changing environmental conditions on the NR atomic hydrogen maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dragonette, Richard A.; Suter, Joseph J.

    1992-01-01

    An extensive statistical analysis has been undertaken to determine if a correlation exists between changes in an NR atomic hydrogen maser's frequency offset and changes in environmental conditions. Correlation analyses have been performed comparing barometric pressure, humidity, and temperature with maser frequency offset as a function of time for periods ranging from 5.5 to 17 days. Semipartial correlation coefficients as large as -0.9 have been found between barometric pressure and maser frequency offset. Correlation between maser frequency offset and humidity was small compared to barometric pressure and unpredictable. Analysis of temperature data indicates that in the most current design, temperature does not significantly affect maser frequency offset.

  2. Physical performance and environmental conditions: 2014 World Soccer Cup and 2016 Summer Olympics in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Veneroso, Christiano E; Ramos, Guilherme P; Mendes, Thiago T; Silami-Garcia, Emerson

    2015-01-01

    This editorial is for the special issue "Temperature sciences in Brazil" of the journal Temperature. It focuses on the physical performance and environmental conditions during the 2014 World Cup and the coming 2016 Summer Olympics. It emphasizes that a hot and humid environment imposes a great challenge to the human thermoregulation system, can lead to performance decrements, and increases the risk of developing hyperthermia. Adequate hydration, acclimatization, and body cooling strategies are effective interventions to minimize the risks associated with exercise in the heat. PMID:27227058

  3. Physiological and genetic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanin biosynthesis mutants under chronic adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Misyura, Maksym; Colasanti, Joseph; Rothstein, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanin production is a characteristic response of flowering plants to unfavourable environmental conditions. The potential roles of flavonoids and anthocyanins in plant growth were investigated by growing Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanin production mutants (transparent testa) under limiting nitrogen and high light conditions. Inability to produce kaempferol or subsequent intermediate compounds by some transparent testa lines was correlated with less biomass accumulation in mature plants compared with wild-type control plants under all growth conditions tested. However, under both limiting nitrogen and high light chronic stress conditions, mutant lines defective in later steps of the anthocyanin production pathway produced the same or more biomass than wild-type plants. No difference in senescence between transparent testa and wild-type plants was found using chlorophyll catabolism and SAG12 expression measurements, and no mutants were impaired in the ability to remobilize nutrients from the vegetative to reproductive tissues. Moreover, the absence of anthocyanin and/or upstream flavonoids does not affect the ability of plants to respond to limiting nitrogen by reducing photosynthetic capacity. These results support a role for kaempferol and quercetin accumulation in normal plant growth and development. Further, the absence of anthocyanins has no effect on plant growth under the chronic stress conditions tested.

  4. Physiological and genetic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanin biosynthesis mutants under chronic adverse environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rothstein, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanin production is a characteristic response of flowering plants to unfavourable environmental conditions. The potential roles of flavonoids and anthocyanins in plant growth were investigated by growing Arabidopsis thaliana anthocyanin production mutants (transparent testa) under limiting nitrogen and high light conditions. Inability to produce kaempferol or subsequent intermediate compounds by some transparent testa lines was correlated with less biomass accumulation in mature plants compared with wild-type control plants under all growth conditions tested. However, under both limiting nitrogen and high light chronic stress conditions, mutant lines defective in later steps of the anthocyanin production pathway produced the same or more biomass than wild-type plants. No difference in senescence between transparent testa and wild-type plants was found using chlorophyll catabolism and SAG12 expression measurements, and no mutants were impaired in the ability to remobilize nutrients from the vegetative to reproductive tissues. Moreover, the absence of anthocyanin and/or upstream flavonoids does not affect the ability of plants to respond to limiting nitrogen by reducing photosynthetic capacity. These results support a role for kaempferol and quercetin accumulation in normal plant growth and development. Further, the absence of anthocyanins has no effect on plant growth under the chronic stress conditions tested. PMID:23162120

  5. Portuguese native Artemia parthenogenetica resisting invasion by Artemia franciscana - Assessing reproductive parameters under different environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Pedro M.; Hontoria, Francisco; Vieira, Natividade; Bio, Ana

    2014-05-01

    There is widespread interest in the conservation of native Artemia biodiversity. In Portugal, only two known populations of native Artemia remain: one in the Rio Maior salina, the other in the Aveiro salina complex, both of the diploid Artemia parthenogenetica species. All other Portuguese hypersaline environments where Artemia can be found have been invaded by Artemia franciscana, which has eradicated the native strains. Invasiveness and resilience of, respectively, exotic and indigenous species are thought to depend on strain-specific traits and adaptation to local conditions. This work evaluates the reproductive performance of the two Portuguese native strains and the invasive species exposed to different salinities, temperatures, photoperiods and food supplies. Reproduction periods, quantity and quality of offspring varied significantly, depending on both the Artemia strain and environmental conditions. A. parthenogenetica from Rio Maior reproduced better than A. franciscana at high salinity (150) and low food supply, which may reflect an adaptation to its biotope that aids its resistance to invasion. But A. parthenogenetica form Aveiro performed much worse than its invasive competitor, under most of the conditions tested. It is unlikely that A. franciscana has not been introduced in this salina by chance alone. Other biological traits of the local A. parthenogenetica or adaptation to unstudied local factors (e.g. pollution) are probably responsible for this strain's survival. Further knowledge on specific local conditions and trait-specific tolerances to biotic and abiotic conditions are needed to understand (non-)invasion patterns and preserve the remaining native populations.

  6. Susceptibility of broiler chickens to hemorrhages in muscles: the effect of stock and rearing temperature regimen.

    PubMed

    Kranen, R W; Scheele, C W; Veerkamp, C H; Lambooy, E; van Kuppevelt, T H; Veerkamp, J H

    1998-02-01

    In this study, the effect of genetic constitution (stock) and rearing temperature on the occurrence of hemorrhages in thighs and breasts of water bath stunned broilers was investigated. Particular attention was given to the relation between the susceptibility for hemorrhages, body composition, and adaptations in blood variables induced by low rearing temperatures. A factorial experiment was performed with five parental stocks, differing with respect to growth rate, feed conversion, and body composition, and two temperature regimens (thermoneutral and below the zone of thermoneutrality). Hemorrhage scores in thighs were dependent on rearing temperature, not on stock, and were highest in broilers reared at low temperatures. In all stocks, high scores in the thighs were accompanied by an increased carbon dioxide pressure and bicarbonate and triiodothyronine concentration of the venous blood, and by an increased relative heart weight, hematocrit, and blood loss at slaughter. Hemorrhage scores in breasts were dependent on stock, confounded with day of scoring. An effect of rearing temperature was present only for the leanest, slow-growing stock having the lowest feed conversion ratio at thermoneutral rearing conditions. Scores in breasts were related neither to body composition nor to metabolic and hemodynamic adaptations to low rearing temperatures. It is concluded that high hemorrhage scores in thighs are related to hemodynamic and metabolic adaptations to an increased need for energy and oxygen caused by low rearing temperatures. Hemorrhage scores are not related to stock-dependent differences. PMID:9495502

  7. A Review of the McMorran Diet for Rearing Lepidoptera Species With Addition of a Further 39 Species.

    PubMed

    Hervet, V A D; Laird, R A; Floate, K D

    2016-01-01

    Research on cutworms led us to explore the use of the McMorran diet to rear lepidopteran species, mainly Noctuidae, under laboratory conditions. We documented the development of 103 lepidopteran species, including 39 species not previously reported in the literature, to be reared on this diet. Given its low cost, ease of preparation, and wide species' acceptance, this diet provides a powerful tool for facilitating Lepidoptera and other insects rearing and research in the laboratory. PMID:26851296

  8. Nonlinear Dielectric Properties of Yeast Cells Cultured in Different Environmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawanishi, Gomon; Fukuda, Naoki; Muraji, Masafumi

    The harmonics of the electric current through yeast suspensions, the nonlinear dielectric properties of yeast cells, have particular patterns according to the biological activity of the cells and the measurement of these patterns is a technique for determining the activity of living cells. The concentration of glucose and oxygen in yeast culture medium influences the manifestation of fermentation or respiration of yeast cells. Measurements were made with yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cultured aerobically and anaerobically in sufficient glucose concentration, aerobic fermentation and anaerobic fermentation, and aerobically in limited glucose concentration, respiration. The results showed that the harmonics were barely apparent for yeast cells in aerobic fermentation and respiratory; however, cells in the anaerobic fermentation displayed substantial third and fifth harmonics. We can say that environmental condition affects the yeast cells' nonlinear properties, from another viewpoint, the measurements of the nonlinear properties are available to determine the activity of yeast cells adjusted to the conditions of their cultivation.

  9. Metabolic and Environmental Conditions Determine Nuclear Genomic Instability in Budding Yeast Lacking Mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Dirick, Léon; Bendris, Walid; Loubiere, Vincent; Gostan, Thierry; Gueydon, Elisabeth; Schwob, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunctions are an internal cause of nuclear genome instability. Because mitochondria are key regulators of cellular metabolism, we have investigated a potential link between external growth conditions and nuclear chromosome instability in cells with mitochondrial defects. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we found that cells lacking mitochondrial DNA (rho0 cells) have a unique feature, with nuclear chromosome instability that occurs in nondividing cells and strongly fluctuates depending on the cellular environment. Calorie restriction, lower growth temperatures, growth at alkaline pH, antioxidants (NAC, Tiron), or presence of nearby wild-type cells all efficiently stabilize nuclear genomes of rho0 cells, whereas high glucose and ethanol boost instability. In contrast, other respiratory mutants that still possess mitochondrial DNA (RHO+) keep fairly constant instability rates under the same growth conditions, like wild-type or other RHO+ controls. Our data identify mitochondrial defects as an important driver of nuclear genome instability influenced by environmental factors. PMID:24374640

  10. Bioaccumulation markers and biochemical responses in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) raised under different environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Greco, Luna; Serrano, Roque; Blanes, Miguel A; Serrano, Elena; Capri, Ettore

    2010-01-01

    Site- and season-specific biochemical responses and bioaccumulations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analysed in tissues from sea bass raised under four different environmental conditions and sampled in April and July. Samples were analysed for condition factor (CF), liver somatic index (LSI), glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, and glycogen and lactate contents. Results showed the presence of PCBs and DDTs, with site- and season-specific variations in its concentrations. CFs did not differ significantly, while LSIs in samples from two of the four sites decreased between April and July. GST activities were lower in samples with higher concentrations of PCBs and DDTs. Lactate and glycogen contents were influenced to a greater extent by the season than by levels of contamination. The study demonstrated that farming methods could play a crucial role in both health status and bioaccumulation of OC compounds in farmed sea bass.

  11. 75 FR 68663 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Rear Impact Guards; Rear Impact Protection; Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... passenger vehicle impacts the rear of a ] tractor-trailer. The primary findings are the following: Data from... occupants when rear-ending a tractor-trailer subsequent to the implementation of Safety Standards 223 and... passenger vehicle rear-ends a tractor- trailer--neither in terms of total number of fatalities,...

  12. The impact of environmental conditions on Campylobacter jejuni survival in broiler faeces and litter

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Shaun; Meade, Joseph; Gibbons, James; McGill, Kevina; Bolton, Declan; Whyte, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial food-borne pathogen within the European Union, and poultry meat is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans. However, there is limited knowledge about how this organism persists in broiler litter and faeces. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a number of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and oxygen, on Campylobacter survival in both broiler litter and faeces. Materials and methods Used litter was collected from a Campylobacter-negative broiler house after final depopulation and fresh faeces were collected from transport crates. Samples were confirmed as Campylobacter negative according to modified ISO methods for veterinary samples. Both sample matrices were inoculated with 9 log10 CFU/ml C. jejuni and incubated under high (≥85%) and low (≤70%) relative humidity conditions at three different temperatures (20°C, 25°C, and 30°C) under both aerobic and microaerophilic atmospheres. Inoculated litter samples were then tested for Campylobacter concentrations at time zero and every 2 hours for 12 hours, while faecal samples were examined at time zero and every 24 hours for 120 hours. A two-tailed t-test assuming unequal variance was used to compare mean Campylobacter concentrations in samples under the various temperature, humidity, and atmospheric conditions. Results and discussion C. jejuni survived significantly longer (P≤0.01) in faeces, with a minimum survival time of 48 hours, compared with 4 hours in used broiler litter. C. jejuni survival was significantly enhanced at 20°C in all environmental conditions in both sample matrices tested compared with survival at 25°C and 30°C. In general, survival was greater in microaerophilic compared with aerobic conditions in both sample matrices. Humidity, at the levels examined, did not appear to significantly impact C. jejuni survival in any sample matrix. The persistence of Campylobacter in broiler litter

  13. [Role of micro-organisms in adapting plants to environmental stress conditions].

    PubMed

    Hirt, Heribert

    2012-01-01

    Due to their sessile nature, plants have always been confronted to various abiotic and biotic stresses in their immediate environment. As a consequence, the survival of plants depended on their ability to adjust rapidly their physiology, development and growth to escape or mitigate the impacts of stress. All plants are known to perceive and respond to stress signals such as drought, heat, salinity, attacks by herbivores and pathogens. Some biochemical processes are common to all plant stress responses including the production of certain stress proteins and metabolites, as well as the modification of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism. Although there has been extensive research in the plant stress response field, it is not yet known which factors are responsible for conferring to some plant species the capacity to colonize extreme habitats. Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of plant stress physiology, the contribution of the plant-associated microbial community in the soil, commonly called the rhizosphere, has only recently received enhanced attention. Recent studies showed that some plant species in natural habitats require microbial associations for stress tolerance and survival. Since plants have colonized land, they have evolved mechanisms to respond to changing environmental conditions and settle in extreme habitats. Although many plants lack the adaptive capability to adapt to stress conditions, the ability of a variety of plants to adapt to stress conditions appears to depend on the association with microbes, raising a number of questions: can all plants improve stress tolerance when associated with their appropriate microbial partners? Did we miss identifying the right partners for a given plant species or variety? What distinguishes the microbes and plants that are adapted to extreme environmental conditions from those living in temperate zones? Answers to these questions are likely to revolutionize plant biology

  14. The first "space" vegetables have been grown in the "SVET" greenhouse using controlled environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, T. N.; Bercovich, Yu. A.; Mashinskiy, A. L.; Meleshko, G. I.

    The paper describes the "SVET" project—a new generation of space greenhouse with small dimensions. Through the use of a minicomputer, "SVET" is fully capable of automatically operating and controlling environmental systems for higher plant growth. A number of preliminary studies have shown the radish and cabbage to be potentially important crops for CELSS (Closed Environmental Life Support System). The "SVET" space greenhouse was mounted on the "CRYSTAL" technological module docked to the Mir orbital space station on 10 June 1990. Soviet cosmonauts Balandin and Solovyov started the first experiments with the greenhouse on 15 June 1990. Preliminary results of seed cultivation over an initial 54-day period in "SVET" are presented. Morphometrical characteristics of plants brought back to Earth are given. Alteration in plant characteristics, such as growth and developmental changes, or morphological contents were noted. A crop of radish plants was harvested under microgravity conditions. Characteristics of plant environmental control parameters and an estimation of functional properties of control and regulation systems of the "SVET" greenhouse in space flight as received via telemetry data is reported.

  15. Robust ultrasonic damage detection under complex environmental conditions using singular value decomposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Harley, Joel B; Bergés, Mario; Greve, David W; Oppenheim, Irving J

    2015-04-01

    Guided wave ultrasonics is an attractive monitoring technique for damage diagnosis in large-scale plate and pipe structures. Damage can be detected by comparing incoming records with baseline records collected on intact structure. However, during long-term monitoring, environmental and operational conditions often vary significantly and produce large changes in the ultrasonic signals, thereby challenging the baseline comparison based damage detection. Researchers developed temperature compensation methods to eliminate the effects of temperature variation, but they have limitations in practical implementations. In this paper, we develop a robust damage detection method based on singular value decomposition (SVD). We show that the orthogonality of singular vectors ensures that the effect of damage and that of environmental and operational variations are separated into different singular vectors. We report on our field ultrasonic monitoring of a 273.05 mm outer diameter pipe segment, which belongs to a hot water piping system in continuous operation. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method on experimental pitch-catch records collected during seven months. We show that our method accurately detects the presence of a mass scatterer, and is robust to the environmental and operational variations exhibited in the practical system. PMID:25600118

  16. Experiment 8: Environmental Conditions in the ASTROCULTURE(trademark) Plant Chamber During the USML-2 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bula, R. J.; Zhou, Weijia; Yetka, R. A.; Draeger, N. A.

    1998-01-01

    Conducting plant research to assess the impact of microgravity on plant growth and development requires a plant chamber that has the capability to control other environmental parameters involved in plant growth and development. The environmental control in a space-based plant chamber must be equivalent to that available in such facilities used for terrestrial plant research. Additionally, plants are very sensitive to a number of atmospheric gaseous materials. Thus, the atmosphere of a plant chamber must be isolated from the space vehicle atmosphere, and the plant growth unit should have the capability to remove any such deleterious materials that may impact plant growth and development. The Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), University of Wisconsin-Madison, has developed a totally enclosed controlled environment plant growth unit. The flight unit was used to support the ASTROCULTURE(TM) experiment conducted during the USML-2 mission. The experiment had two major objectives: 1) Provide further validation of the flight unit to control the experiment-defined environmental parameters in the plant chamber, and 2) support a plant experiment to assess the capability of potato plant material to produce tubers in microgravity. This paper describes the temperature, humidity, and carbon dioxide conditions of the plant chamber during the mission, from launch to landing. Another paper will present the plant response data.

  17. 5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. 1890 first rear addition; partial north rear elevation of c. 1900 side ell addition; and north rear and west side elevation of final rear addition of c. 1940. - Vaughn Chevrolet Building, 101-109 East Main Street, Monongahela, Washington County, PA

  18. The Role of Abiotic Environmental Conditions and Herbivory in Shaping Bacterial Community Composition in Floral Nectar

    PubMed Central

    Samuni-Blank, Michal; Izhaki, Ido; Laviad, Sivan; Bar-Massada, Avi; Gerchman, Yoram; Halpern, Malka

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the processes that drive community assembly has long been a central theme in ecology. For microorganisms, a traditional prevailing hypothesis states that “everything is everywhere, but the environment selects”. Although the bacterial community in floral nectar may be affected by both atmosphere (air-borne bacteria) and animals as dispersal vectors, the environmental and geographic factors that shape microbial communities in floral nectar are unknown. We studied culturable bacterial communities in Asphodelus aestivus floral nectar and in its typical herbivorous bug Capsodes infuscatus, along an aridity gradient. Bacteria were sampled from floral nectar and bugs at four sites, spanning a geographical range of 200 km from Mediterranean to semi-arid conditions, under open and bagged flower treatments. In agreement with the niche assembly hypothesis, the differences in bacterial community compositions were explained by differences in abiotic environmental conditions. These results suggest that microbial model systems are useful for addressing macro-ecological questions. In addition, similar bacterial communities were found in the nectar and on the surface of the bugs that were documented visiting the flowers. These similarities imply that floral nectar bacteria dispersal is shaped not only by air borne bacteria and nectar consumers as previously reported, but also by visiting vectors like the mirid bugs. PMID:24922317

  19. Physico-chemical characterization of steel slag. Study of its behavior under simulated environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Carla; Díaz, Mario; Villa-García, María A

    2010-07-15

    The chemical and mineralogical composition of steel slag produced in two ArcelorMittal steel plants located in the North of Spain, as well as the study of the influence of simulated environmental conditions on the properties of the slag stored in disposal areas, was carried out by elemental chemical analysis, XRF, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy with EDS analyzer. Spectroscopic characterization of the slag was also performed by using FTIR spectroscopy. Due to the potential uses of the slag as low cost adsorbent for water treatment and pollutants removal, its detailed textural characterization was carried out by nitrogen adsorption-desorption at 77 K and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The results show that the slag is a crystalline heterogeneous material whose main components are iron oxides, calcium (magnesium) compounds (hydroxide, oxide, silicates, and carbonate), elemental iron, and quartz. The slags are porous materials with specific surface area of 11 m(2)g(-1), containing both mesopores and macropores. Slag exposure to simulated environmental conditions lead to the formation of carbonate phases. Carbonation reduces the leaching of alkaline earth elements as well as the release of the harmful trace elements Cr (VI) and V. Steel slags with high contents of portlandite and calcium silicates are potential raw materials for CO(2) long-term storage. PMID:20568743

  20. Effects of steady-state noise and temperature conditions on environmental perception and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Pellerin, N; Candas, V

    2004-04-01

    The combined effects of noise and temperature on environmental perception and acceptability were studied on 18 lightly clothed subjects (0.6 clo), individually exposed for 2 h in a climatic chamber. Three homogeneous climatic conditions were chosen (air temperature at 18, 24 or 30 degrees C, air velocity =0.1 m/s). For each of them, three different noise levels were continuously maintained (35, 60, 75 dBA, recorded fan noise). The 18 subjects were divided into three groups and each group experienced only one single thermal condition, at each level of noise, during three different experimental sessions. Subjective answers about perception and comfort were obtained at t = 30 and 120 min. Main results indicate that acoustic perception decreases when thermal environment is far from thermoneutrality. Although the combined effects of noise and temperature did not influence the physiological data, our results show that whatever the ambient temperature, thermal unpleasantness is higher when noise level increases. Finally, equivalence between acoustic and thermal sensations is proposed for short-term exposure (1 degree C = 2.6 dBA) and for steady state (1 degrees C = 2.9 dBA). In conclusion, this study strongly suggests that interactions between environmental components do exist, right from perceptual level, and might explain some combined effects on cognitive performance.

  1. A review on the effects of environmental conditions on growth and toxin production of Ostreopsis ovata.

    PubMed

    Pistocchi, R; Pezzolesi, L; Guerrini, F; Vanucci, S; Dell'aversano, C; Fattorusso, E

    2011-03-01

    Since the end of the 1990s the occurrence of blooms of the benthic dinoflagellates Ostreopsis spp. is spreading in many tropical and temperate regions worldwide, sometimes causing benthonic biocenosis suffering and occasional human distress. Ostreopsis ovata has been found to produce palytoxin-like compounds, a class of highly potent toxins. As general, the highest abundances of Ostreopsis spp. are recorded during warmer periods characterized by high temperature, salinity, and water column stability. Moreover, as these cells are easily resuspended in the water column, the role of hydrodynamism in the blooms development and decline has been highlighted. The environmental conditions appear, therefore, to be one of the main factors determining the proliferation of these species as testified by several field surveys. Laboratory studies on the effect of environmental parameters on growth and toxicity of O. ovata are rather scarce. With regard to the effects of temperature, culture results indicate that different strains blooming along Italian coasts displayed different optima, in accordance to blooming periods, and that higher toxin levels correlated with best growth conditions. Additionally, in relation to an Adriatic strain, cell growth positively correlated with the increase in salinity, while toxicity was lowest at the highest salinity value (i.e. 40). For the same strain, both nitrogen and phosphorus limitation determined a decrease in cell toxicity showing different behaviour with respect to many other toxic dinoflagellates. PMID:20920514

  2. Manipulating individual state during migration provides evidence for carry-over effects modulated by environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Legagneux, Pierre; Fast, Peter L F; Gauthier, Gilles; Bêty, Joël

    2012-03-01

    Despite observational evidence of carry-over effects (COEs, events occurring in one season that produce residual effects on individuals the following seasons), to our knowledge no experimental studies have been carried out to explore how COEs might affect reproductive output. We simulated an environmental perturbation affecting spring-staging migrants to investigate COEs in greater snow geese (Anser caerulescens atlanticus). During three consecutive years, 2037 females captured during spring staging (approx. 3000 km south of their Arctic breeding grounds) were maintained in captivity (with or without access to food) for 0-4 days. Duration of captivity (but not food treatment) negatively affected reproductive success, probably through stress response. Reproductive success was reduced by 45-71% in 2 years, but not in a third year with unusually favourable breeding conditions. This unprecedented manipulation indicates that COEs can have a strong effect on individual reproductive success in long-distance migrants, but that this effect can be partly compensated for by good environmental conditions on the breeding ground. PMID:21865256

  3. Species traits and environmental conditions govern the relationship between biodiversity effects across trophic levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spooner, D.E.; Vaughn, C.C.; Galbraith, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Changing environments can have divergent effects on biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships at alternating trophic levels. Freshwater mussels fertilize stream foodwebs through nutrient excretion, and mussel species-specific excretion rates depend on environmental conditions. We asked how differences in mussel diversity in varying environments influence the dynamics between primary producers and consumers. We conducted field experiments manipulating mussel richness under summer (low flow, high temperature) and fall (moderate flow and temperature) conditions, measured nutrient limitation, algal biomass and grazing chironomid abundance, and analyzed the data with non-transgressive overyielding and tripartite biodiversity partitioning analyses. Algal biomass and chironomid abundance were best explained by trait-independent complementarity among mussel species, but the relationship between biodiversity effects across trophic levels (algae and grazers) depended on seasonal differences in mussel species' trait expression (nutrient excretion and activity level). Both species identity and overall diversity effects were related to the magnitude of nutrient limitation. Our results demonstrate that biodiversity of a resource-provisioning (nutrients and habitat) group of species influences foodweb dynamics and that understanding species traits and environmental context are important for interpreting biodiversity experiments. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Physico-chemical characterization of steel slag. Study of its behavior under simulated environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Carla; Díaz, Mario; Villa-García, María A

    2010-07-15

    The chemical and mineralogical composition of steel slag produced in two ArcelorMittal steel plants located in the North of Spain, as well as the study of the influence of simulated environmental conditions on the properties of the slag stored in disposal areas, was carried out by elemental chemical analysis, XRF, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy with EDS analyzer. Spectroscopic characterization of the slag was also performed by using FTIR spectroscopy. Due to the potential uses of the slag as low cost adsorbent for water treatment and pollutants removal, its detailed textural characterization was carried out by nitrogen adsorption-desorption at 77 K and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The results show that the slag is a crystalline heterogeneous material whose main components are iron oxides, calcium (magnesium) compounds (hydroxide, oxide, silicates, and carbonate), elemental iron, and quartz. The slags are porous materials with specific surface area of 11 m(2)g(-1), containing both mesopores and macropores. Slag exposure to simulated environmental conditions lead to the formation of carbonate phases. Carbonation reduces the leaching of alkaline earth elements as well as the release of the harmful trace elements Cr (VI) and V. Steel slags with high contents of portlandite and calcium silicates are potential raw materials for CO(2) long-term storage.

  5. Iodine isotopes species fingerprinting environmental conditions in surface water along the northeastern Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    He, Peng; Hou, Xiaolin; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran; Yi, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations and species of iodine isotopes (127I and 129I) provide vital information about iodine geochemistry, environmental conditions and water masses exchange in oceans. Despite extensive investigations of anthropogenic 129I in the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, concentrations of the isotope in the Atlantic Ocean are, however, still unknown. We here present first data on 129I and 127I, and their species (iodide and iodate) in surface water transect along the northeastern Atlantic between 30° and 50°N. The results show iodate as the predominant species in the analyzed marine waters for both 127I and 129I. Despite the rather constant ratios of 127I−/127IO3−, the 129I−/129IO3− values reveal variations that apparently response to sources, environmental conditions and residence time. These findings provide a new tracer approach that will strongly enhance the application of anthropogenic 129I in ocean environments and impact on climate at the ocean boundary layer. PMID:24284916

  6. Using magnetically responsive tea waste to remove lead in waters under environmentally relevant conditions.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Siang Yee; Choi, Siwon; Dien, Vivian; Sow-Peh, Yoke Keow; Qi, Genggeng; Hatton, T Alan; Doyle, Patrick S; Thio, Beng Joo Reginald

    2013-01-01

    We report the use of a simple yet highly effective magnetite-waste tea composite to remove lead(II) (Pb(2+)) ions from water. Magnetite-waste tea composites were dispersed in four different types of water-deionized (DI), artificial rainwater, artificial groundwater and artificial freshwater-that mimic actual environmental conditions. The water samples had varying initial concentrations (0.16-5.55 ppm) of Pb(2+) ions and were mixed with the magnetite-waste tea composite for at least 24 hours to allow adsorption of the Pb(2+) ions to reach equilibrium. The magnetite-waste tea composites were stable in all the water samples for at least 3 months and could be easily removed from the aqueous media via the use of permanent magnets. We detected no significant leaching of iron (Fe) ions into the water from the magnetite-waste tea composites. The percentage of Pb adsorbed onto the magnetite-waste tea composite ranged from ∼70% to 100%; the composites were as effective as activated carbon (AC) in removing the Pb(2+) ions from water, depending on the initial Pb concentration. Our prepared magnetite-waste tea composites show promise as a green, inexpensive and highly effective sorbent for removal of Pb in water under environmentally realistic conditions.

  7. Environmental and Geometrical Conditions to Sustain Crevice Corrosion in Alloy 22

    SciTech Connect

    Carranza, R M; Rodr?guez, M A; Rebak, R B

    2006-11-10

    Alloy 22 (N06022) is highly resistant to localized corrosion. Under aggressive environmental conditions Alloy 22 may be susceptible to crevice corrosion in hot chloride (Cl{sup -}) solutions. The objective of the present work was to explore the environmental and geometrical conditions for crevice corrosion to occur. Electrochemical tests were performed using PCA and prismatic mill annealed Alloy 22 specimens in chloride solutions. Crevice corrosion current density was found to be a function of applied potential. i{sub CREV} values ranged from 40 {micro}A/cm{sup 2} to 20 mA/cm{sup 2}. Such low values of current density explained the absence of pitting corrosion in Alloy 22 at any potential. Decreasing of the effective diffusion distance in a propagating crevice is thought to cause crevice corrosion stifling or repassivation after long anodic polarization. Crevice corrosion breakdown potential is expected to decrease with potential scan rate, approaching repassivation potential for low scan rates. The lowest corrosion potential of Alloy 22 in hydrochloric acid solutions at which active corrosion exists was proposed as the lowest possible repassivation potential for crevice corrosion.

  8. Environmental conditions associated with lesions in introduced free-ranging sheep in Hawai‘i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, Jenny G.; Duncan, Colleen G.; Spraker, Terry R.; Schuler, Bridget A.; Hess, Steven C.; Faford, Jonathan K.J.; Sin, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife species which have been translocated between temperate and tropical regions of the world provide unique opportunities to understand how disease processes may be affected by environmental conditions. European mouflon sheep (Ovis gmelini musimon) from the Mediterranean Islands were introduced to the Hawaiian Islands for sport hunting beginning in 1954 and were subsequently hybridized with feral domestic sheep (O. aries), which had been introduced in 1793. Three isolated mouflon populations have become established in the Hawaiian Islands but diseases in these populations have been little studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare gross and histologic lesions in respiratory, renal, and hepatic systems of free-ranging sheep in two isolated volcanic environments on Hawai‘i Island. Tissue and fecal samples were collected in conjunction with population reductions during February 2011. We found gross or histologic evidence of lungworm infection in 44/49 sheep from Mauna Loa which were exposed to gaseous emissions from Kīlauea Volcano. In contrast, only 7/50 sheep from Mauna Kea had lesions consistent with lungworm, but Mauna Kea sheep had significantly more upper respiratory tract inflammation and hyperplasia consistent with chronic antigenic stimulation, possibly associated with exposure to fine airborne particulates during extended drought conditions. We hypothesize that gasses from Kīlauea Volcano contributed to severity of respiratory disease principally associated with chronic lungworm infections at Mauna Loa; however, there were numerous other potentially confounding environmental factors and interactions that merit further investigation.

  9. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1999-2003 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, Desmond J.

    2003-02-25

    salmon. After release, hatchery-reared fish are inefficient foragers and are often found with empty stomachs or stomachs filled with indigestible debris (Miller 1953, Hochachka 1961, Reimers 1963, Sosiak et al. 1979, Myers 1980, O'Grady 1983, Johnsen and Ugedal 1986). Their social behavior also differs, with hatchery-reared fish congregating at higher densities, being more aggressive, and displaying less territory fidelity than wild-reared fish (Fenderson et al. 1968, Bachman 1984, Swain and Riddell 1990). In the natural environment this results in hatchery-reared fish spending more time in high-risk aggressive behavior and less time in beneficial foraging behavior than their wild-reared counterparts. Hatchery-reared fish are also more surface oriented than wild-reared salmonids (Mason et al. 1967, Sosiak 1978). This increases their risk of being attacked by avian predators, such as kingfishers (Ceryle spp.), which search for fish near the surface. Although some of the differences between wild and hatchery-reared fish are innate (Reisenbichler and McIntyre 1977, Swain and Riddell 1990), many are conditioned and can be modified by altering the hatchery rearing environment. NATURES studies are aimed at developing a more natural salmon culture environment to prevent the development of these unnatural attributes in hatchery-reared fish. NATURES fish culture practices are already producing salmon with up to about 50% higher in-stream survival than conventionally-reared fish (Maynard et al. 1996b). When these techniques are incorporated into production releases, they should also translate into increased smolt-to-adult survival. Conservation and supplementation programs can use NATURES-reared salmonids to rebuild stocks currently listed as endangered and threatened into healthy self-sustaining runs more rapidly than traditional programs. Traditional production programs can also use high-survival NATURES-reared fish to reduce their impact on wild populations, while still meeting

  10. Remotely Sensed Environmental Conditions and Malaria Mortality in Three Malaria Endemic Regions in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Ahlm, Clas; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in malaria endemic countries. The malaria mosquito vectors depend on environmental conditions, such as temperature and rainfall, for reproduction and survival. To investigate the potential for weather driven early warning systems to prevent disease occurrence, the disease relationship to weather conditions need to be carefully investigated. Where meteorological observations are scarce, satellite derived products provide new opportunities to study the disease patterns depending on remotely sensed variables. In this study, we explored the lagged association of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NVDI), day Land Surface Temperature (LST) and precipitation on malaria mortality in three areas in Western Kenya. Methodology and Findings The lagged effect of each environmental variable on weekly malaria mortality was modeled using a Distributed Lag Non Linear Modeling approach. For each variable we constructed a natural spline basis with 3 degrees of freedom for both the lag dimension and the variable. Lag periods up to 12 weeks were considered. The effect of day LST varied between the areas with longer lags. In all the three areas, malaria mortality was associated with precipitation. The risk increased with increasing weekly total precipitation above 20 mm and peaking at 80 mm. The NDVI threshold for increased mortality risk was between 0.3 and 0.4 at shorter lags. Conclusion This study identified lag patterns and association of remote- sensing environmental factors and malaria mortality in three malaria endemic regions in Western Kenya. Our results show that rainfall has the most consistent predictive pattern to malaria transmission in the endemic study area. Results highlight a potential for development of locally based early warning forecasts that could potentially reduce the disease burden by enabling timely control actions. PMID:27115874

  11. The transcriptomic responses of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, to environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Robert W; Mancia, Annalaura; Beal, Marion; Veloso, Artur; Rathburn, Charles; Blair, Anne; Holland, A F; Warr, G W; Didinato, Guy; Sokolova, Inna M; Wirth, Edward F; Duffy, Edward; Sanger, Denise

    2011-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which organisms adapt to environmental conditions is a fundamental question for ecology and evolution. In this study, we evaluate changes in gene expression of a marine mollusc, the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, associated with the physico-chemical conditions and the levels of metals and other contaminants in their environment. The results indicate that transcript signatures can effectively disentangle the complex interactive gene expression responses to the environment and are also capable of disentangling the complex dynamic effects of environmental factors on gene expression. In this context, the mapping of environment to gene and gene to environment is reciprocal and mutually reinforcing. In general, the response of transcripts to the environment is driven by major factors known to affect oyster physiology such as temperature, pH, salinity, and dissolved oxygen, with pollutant levels playing a relatively small role, at least within the range of concentrations found in the studied oyster habitats. Further, the two environmental factors that dominate these effects (temperature and pH) interact in a dynamic and nonlinear fashion to impact gene expression. Transcriptomic data obtained in our study provide insights into the mechanisms of physiological responses to temperature and pH in oysters that are consistent with the known effects of these factors on physiological functions of ectotherms and indicate important linkages between transcriptomics and physiological outcomes. Should these linkages hold in further studies and in other organisms, they may provide a novel integrated approach for assessing the impacts of climate change, ocean acidification and anthropogenic contaminants on aquatic organisms via relatively inexpensive microarray platforms.

  12. Functional traits of selected mangrove species in Brazil as biological indicators of different environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira; Souza, Iara; Có, Walter Luiz Oliveira; Rodella, Roberto Antônio; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Milanez, Camilla Rozindo

    2014-04-01

    Ecological studies on phenotypic plasticity illustrate the relevance of this phenomenon in nature. Conditions of biota reflect environmental changes, highlighting the adaptability of resident species that can be used as bioindicators of such changes. We report the morpho-anatomical plasticity of leaves of Avicennia schaueriana Stapf & Leechm. ex Moldenke, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F.Gaertn. and Rhizophora mangle L., evaluated in three estuaries (Vitória bay, Santa Cruz and Itaúnas River; state of Espírito Santo, Brazil), considering five areas of mangrove ecosystems with diverse environmental issues. Two sampling sites are part of the Ecological Station Lameirão Island in Vitória bay, close to a harbor. A third sampling site in Cariacica (Vitória bay) is inside the Vitória harbor and also is influenced by domestic sewage. The fourth studied area (Santa Cruz) is part of Piraquê Mangrove Ecological Reservation, while the fifth (Itaúnas River) is a small mangrove, with sandy sediment and greater photosynthetically active radiation, also not strongly influenced by anthropic activity. Results pointed out the morpho-anatomical plasticity in studied species, showing that A. schaueriana and L. racemosa might be considered the most appropriate bioindicators to indicate different settings and environmental conditions. Particularly, the dry mass per leaf area (LMA) of A. schaueriana was the main biomarker measured. In our study, LMA of A. schaueriana was positively correlated with salinity (Spearman 0.71), Mn content (0.81) and pH (0.82) but negatively correlated with phosphorus content (-0.63). Thus, the evaluation of modification in LMA of A. schaueriana pointed out changes among five studied sites, suggesting its use to reflect changes in the environment, which could be also useful in the future to evaluate the climate change. PMID:24496023

  13. Functional traits of selected mangrove species in Brazil as biological indicators of different environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira; Souza, Iara; Có, Walter Luiz Oliveira; Rodella, Roberto Antônio; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Milanez, Camilla Rozindo

    2014-04-01

    Ecological studies on phenotypic plasticity illustrate the relevance of this phenomenon in nature. Conditions of biota reflect environmental changes, highlighting the adaptability of resident species that can be used as bioindicators of such changes. We report the morpho-anatomical plasticity of leaves of Avicennia schaueriana Stapf & Leechm. ex Moldenke, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F.Gaertn. and Rhizophora mangle L., evaluated in three estuaries (Vitória bay, Santa Cruz and Itaúnas River; state of Espírito Santo, Brazil), considering five areas of mangrove ecosystems with diverse environmental issues. Two sampling sites are part of the Ecological Station Lameirão Island in Vitória bay, close to a harbor. A third sampling site in Cariacica (Vitória bay) is inside the Vitória harbor and also is influenced by domestic sewage. The fourth studied area (Santa Cruz) is part of Piraquê Mangrove Ecological Reservation, while the fifth (Itaúnas River) is a small mangrove, with sandy sediment and greater photosynthetically active radiation, also not strongly influenced by anthropic activity. Results pointed out the morpho-anatomical plasticity in studied species, showing that A. schaueriana and L. racemosa might be considered the most appropriate bioindicators to indicate different settings and environmental conditions. Particularly, the dry mass per leaf area (LMA) of A. schaueriana was the main biomarker measured. In our study, LMA of A. schaueriana was positively correlated with salinity (Spearman 0.71), Mn content (0.81) and pH (0.82) but negatively correlated with phosphorus content (-0.63). Thus, the evaluation of modification in LMA of A. schaueriana pointed out changes among five studied sites, suggesting its use to reflect changes in the environment, which could be also useful in the future to evaluate the climate change.

  14. Child-Rearing Practices: Symposium I C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phisalaphong, Wanpen; And Others

    Studies of child-rearing practices among Thai, Indonesian, and Indian families are reported in two abstracts and one full paper. The Indonesian study (by Siti Rahayu Haditono) explored achievement motivation, parents' educational level, and child-rearing practices among members of four Javanese occupational groups: farmers, traders, civil…

  15. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  16. Variation in the Early Marine Survival and Behavior of Natural and Hatchery-Reared Hood Canal Steelhead

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Megan; Berejikian, Barry A.; Tezak, Eugene P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Hatchery-induced selection and direct effects of the culture environment can both cause captively bred fish populations to survive at low rates and behave unnaturally in the wild. New approaches to fish rearing in conservation hatcheries seek to reduce hatchery-induced selection, maintain genetic resources, and improve the survival of released fish. Methodology/Principal Findings This study used acoustic telemetry to compare three years of early marine survival estimates for two wild steelhead populations to survival of two populations raised at two different conservation hatcheries located within the Hood Canal watershed. Steelhead smolts from one conservation hatchery survived with probabilities similar to the two wild populations (freshwater: 95.8–96.9%, early marine: 10.0–15.9%), while smolts from the other conservation hatchery exhibited reduced freshwater and early marine survival (freshwater: 50.2–58.7%, early marine: 2.6–5.1%). Freshwater and marine travel rates did not differ significantly between wild and hatchery individuals from the same stock, though hatchery smolts did display reduced migration ranges within Hood Canal. Between-hatchery differences in rearing density and vessel geometry likely affected survival and behavior after release and contributed to greater variation between hatcheries than between wild populations. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that hatchery-reared smolts can achieve early marine survival rates similar to wild smolt survival rates, and that migration performance of hatchery-reared steelhead can vary substantially depending on the environmental conditions and practices employed during captivity. PMID:23185393

  17. Differential early rearing environments can accentuate or attenuate the responses to stress in male C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Parfitt, David B; Levin, Jennifer K; Saltstein, Katherine P; Klayman, Andrea S; Greer, Laura M; Helmreich, Dana L

    2004-07-30

    This study investigated the effects of neonatal handling and maternal separation on the development of anxiety behavior and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of C57BL/6 mice. We hypothesized short periods of neonatal handling would diminish anxiety and secretion of corticosterone, while longer periods of maternal separation would elevate anxiety and plasma corticosterone compared to a nonhandled group. Mice were bred and reared as follows. After birth, each litter was assigned to one of four groups: mother and pups removed from the home cage for 10 min (group 1) or 180 min a day (group 2); mother only removed from home cage 180 min a day (group 3); and no handling until weaning (group 4). All separation occurred on the first 10 days of life. Juvenile males that experienced 10 min of separation/day exhibited decreased anxiety behavior compared to all other mice. A second group of litters were bred and reared according to groups 1, 2, and 4 as described above. Upon adulthood, anxiety behavior was assessed in males, and the corticosterone response to an acoustic stressor was quantified. No effect of differential rearing was observed on behavior, but there was a marked effect on plasma corticosterone secretion between the groups. Adult male mice neonatally handled for 10 min/day exhibited a blunted corticosterone response, and mice that experienced 180 min of maternal separation exhibited a prolonged corticosterone response to the acoustic stimulus compared to the nonhandled group. These results demonstrate the development of the mouse's hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis can be modified by neonatal rearing conditions, and suggest that the mouse could be a viable animal model to determine the genetic-environmental interactions governing brain development.

  18. The importance of environmental conditions in reflectance spectroscopy of laboratory analogs for Mars surface materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J.; Murchie, S.; Pratt, S.; Mustard, J.; Pieters, C.

    1993-01-01

    Reflectance spectra are presented here for a variety of particulate, ferric-containing analogs to Martian soil (Fe(3+)-doped smectites and palagonites) to facilitate interpretation of remotely acquired spectra. The analog spectra were measured under differing environmental conditions to evaluate the influence of exposure history on water content and absorption features due to H2O in these samples. Each of these materials contains structural OH bonded to metal cations, adsorbed H2O, and bound H2O (either in a glass, structural site, or bound to a cation). Previous experiments involving a variety of Mars analogs have shown that the 3 micron H2O band in spectra of palagonites is more resistant to drying than the 3 micron H2O band in spectra of montmorillonites. Other experiments have shown that spectra of ferrihydrite and montmorillonites doped with ferric sulfate also contain sufficient bound H2O to retain a strong 3 micron band under dry conditions. Once the effects of the environment on bound water in clays, oxides, and salts are better understood, the hydration bands measured via reflectance spectroscopy can be used to gain information about the chemical composition and moisture content of real soil systems. Such information would be especially useful in interpreting observations of Mars where subtle spatial variations in the strengths of metal-OH and H2O absorptions have been observed in telescopic and ISM spectra. We measured bidirectional reflectance spectra of several Mars soil analogs under controlled environmental conditions to assess the effects of moisture content on the metal-OH and H2O absorptions. The samples analyzed include chemically altered montmorillonites, ferrihydrite. and palagonites from Hawaii and Iceland. Procedures for preparation of the cation-exchanged montmorillonites, ferric-salt doped montmorillonites, and ferric oxyhydroxides are described in detail elsewhere.

  19. The ecophysiology of sulfur isotope fractionation by sulfate reducing bacteria in response to variable environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leavitt, W.; Bradley, A. S.; Johnston, D. T.; Pereira, I. A. C.; Venceslau, S.; Wallace, C.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reducers (MSR) drive the Earth's biogeochemical sulfur cycle. At the heart of this energy metabolism is a cascade of redox transformations coupling organic carbon and/or hydrogen oxidation to the dissimilatory reduction of sulfate to sulfide. The sulfide produced is depleted in the heavier isotopes of sulfur relative to sulfate. The magnitude of discrimination (fractionation) depends on: i) the cell-specific sulfate reduction rate (csSRR, Kaplan & Rittenberg (1964) Can. J. Microbio.; Chambers et al. (1975) Can. J. Microbio; Sim et al. (2011) GCA; Leavitt et al. (2013) PNAS), ii) the ambient sulfate concentration (Harrison & Thode (1958) Research; Habicht et al. (2002) Science; Bradley et al. in review), iii) both sulfate and electron donor availability, or iv) an intrinsic physiological limitation (e.g. cellular division rate). When neither sulfate nor electron donor limits csSRR a more complex function relates the magnitude of isotope fractionation to cell physiology and environmental conditions. In recent and on-going work we have examined the importance of enzyme-specific fractionation factors, as well as the influence of electron donor or electron acceptor availability under carefully controlled culture conditions (e.g. Leavitt et al. (2013) PNAS). In light of recent advances in MSR genetics and biochemistry we utilize well-characterized mutant strains, along with a continuous-culture methodology (Leavitt et al. (2013) PNAS) to further probe the fractionation capacity of this metabolism under controlled physiological conditions. We present our latest findings on the magnitude of S and D/H isotope fractionation in both wild type and mutant strains. We will discuss these in light of recent theoretical advances (Wing & Halevy (2014) PNAS), examining the mode and relevance of MSR isotope fractionation in the laboratory to modern and ancient environmental settings, particularly anoxic marine sediments.

  20. Can environmental conditions trigger cyanobacterial surfaces and following carbonate formation: implication for biomineralization and biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulo, C.; Dittrich, M.; Zhu, T.

    2015-12-01

    In this presentation we will give an overview what kind of the factors may trigger carbonate formations at the cell surfaces under a variety of environmental conditions. As examples, we will present the results from our recent studies on formation of calcium carbonates, dolomites and bio-cements. The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the Synechococcuscell envelope are recognized key players in the nucleation of carbonates in marine and freshwater environments. Yet, little is known about a nutrient contents control over the molecular composition of Synechococcus cell envelope, and consequently, biomineralization. In the first study, we investigated how a variation of the phosphorus (P) in the growth media can lead to changes in the surface reactivity of the cells and impact their ability to form carbonates. The objective of the second study is to gain insights into the spatial distribution of cyanobacterial EPS and dolomite from different sediment layers of Khor Al-Adaid sabkha (Qatar). Here, we characterized microbial mats on molecular level in respect of organic and inorganic components using in-situ 2D Raman spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) were used. Additionally, 2D chemical maps of sediment layers documented spectral characterizations of minerals and organic matter of microbial origins at high spatial resolution. Finally, we will show the results from the experiments with auto-phototrophic cyanobacteria Gloeocapsa PCC73106, which habitat on the monument surfaces, towards its application for bio-concrete, a product of microbial carbonate precipitation. We studied the biomineralization in biofilm forming Gloeocapsa PCC73106 on the concrete surface as a pre-requirement for microbial carbonate precipitation. Biomineralization on the concrete surface by live cells and killed cells were compared with that under the abiotic condition. Our experiments allow us to conclude that environmental conditions play a significant role in the control of

  1. Thermal comfort indices of female Murrah buffaloes reared in the Eastern Amazon.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jamile Andréa Rodrigues; de Araújo, Airton Alencar; Lourenço Júnior, José de Brito; dos Santos, Núbia de Fátima Alves; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto; de Oliveira, Raimundo Parente

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to develop new and more specific thermal comfort indices for buffaloes reared in the Amazon region. Twenty female Murrah buffaloes were studied for a year. The animals were fed in pasture with drinking water and mineral supplementation ad libitum. The following parameters were measured twice a week in the morning (7 AM) and afternoon (1 PM): air temperature (AT), relative air humidity (RH), dew point temperature (DPT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), black globe temperature (BGT), rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR), and body surface temperature (BST). The temperature and humidity index (THI), globe temperature and humidity index (GTHI), Benezra's comfort index (BTCI), and Ibéria's heat tolerance index (IHTI) were calculated so they could be compared to the new indices. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out using the canonical correlation model, and all indices were correlated with the physiological and climatic variables. Three pairs of indices (general, effective, and practical) were determined comprising the buffalo comfort climatic condition index (BCCCI) and the buffalo environmental comfort index (BECI). The indices were validated and a great agreement was found among the BCCCIs (general, effective, and practical), with 98.3 % between general and effective a.nd 92.6 % between general and practical. A significant correlation (P < 0.01) was found between the new indices and the physiological and climatic variables, which indicated that these may be used in pairs to diagnose thermal stress in buffaloes reared in the Amazon.

  2. Thermal comfort indices of female Murrah buffaloes reared in the Eastern Amazon.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jamile Andréa Rodrigues; de Araújo, Airton Alencar; Lourenço Júnior, José de Brito; dos Santos, Núbia de Fátima Alves; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto; de Oliveira, Raimundo Parente

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to develop new and more specific thermal comfort indices for buffaloes reared in the Amazon region. Twenty female Murrah buffaloes were studied for a year. The animals were fed in pasture with drinking water and mineral supplementation ad libitum. The following parameters were measured twice a week in the morning (7 AM) and afternoon (1 PM): air temperature (AT), relative air humidity (RH), dew point temperature (DPT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), black globe temperature (BGT), rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR), and body surface temperature (BST). The temperature and humidity index (THI), globe temperature and humidity index (GTHI), Benezra's comfort index (BTCI), and Ibéria's heat tolerance index (IHTI) were calculated so they could be compared to the new indices. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out using the canonical correlation model, and all indices were correlated with the physiological and climatic variables. Three pairs of indices (general, effective, and practical) were determined comprising the buffalo comfort climatic condition index (BCCCI) and the buffalo environmental comfort index (BECI). The indices were validated and a great agreement was found among the BCCCIs (general, effective, and practical), with 98.3 % between general and effective a.nd 92.6 % between general and practical. A significant correlation (P < 0.01) was found between the new indices and the physiological and climatic variables, which indicated that these may be used in pairs to diagnose thermal stress in buffaloes reared in the Amazon. PMID:26041385

  3. Thermal comfort indices of female Murrah buffaloes reared in the Eastern Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Jamile Andréa Rodrigues; de Araújo, Airton Alencar; Lourenço Júnior, José de Brito; dos Santos, Núbia de Fátima Alves; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto; de Oliveira, Raimundo Parente

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to develop new and more specific thermal comfort indices for buffaloes reared in the Amazon region. Twenty female Murrah buffaloes were studied for a year. The animals were fed in pasture with drinking water and mineral supplementation ad libitum. The following parameters were measured twice a week in the morning (7 AM) and afternoon (1 PM): air temperature (AT), relative air humidity (RH), dew point temperature (DPT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), black globe temperature (BGT), rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR), and body surface temperature (BST). The temperature and humidity index (THI), globe temperature and humidity index (GTHI), Benezra's comfort index (BTCI), and Ibéria's heat tolerance index (IHTI) were calculated so they could be compared to the new indices. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out using the canonical correlation model, and all indices were correlated with the physiological and climatic variables. Three pairs of indices (general, effective, and practical) were determined comprising the buffalo comfort climatic condition index (BCCCI) and the buffalo environmental comfort index (BECI). The indices were validated and a great agreement was found among the BCCCIs (general, effective, and practical), with 98.3 % between general and effective a.nd 92.6 % between general and practical. A significant correlation ( P < 0.01) was found between the new indices and the physiological and climatic variables, which indicated that these may be used in pairs to diagnose thermal stress in buffaloes reared in the Amazon.

  4. Ethanol and cocaine: environmental place conditioning, stereotypy, and synergism in planarians.

    PubMed

    Tallarida, Christopher S; Bires, Kristopher; Avershal, Jacob; Tallarida, Ronald J; Seo, Stephanie; Rawls, Scott M

    2014-09-01

    More than 90% of individuals who use cocaine also report concurrent ethanol use, but only a few studies, all conducted with vertebrates, have investigated pharmacodynamic interactions between ethanol and cocaine. Planaria, a type of flatworm often considered to have the simplest 'brain,' is an invertebrate species especially amenable to the quantification of drug-induced behavioral responses and identification of conserved responses. Here, we investigated stereotypical and environmental place conditioning (EPC) effects of ethanol administered alone and in combination with cocaine. Planarians displayed concentration-related increases in C-shaped movements following exposure to ethanol (0.01-1%) (maximal effect: 9.9±1.1 C-shapes/5 min at 0.5%) or cocaine (0.1-5 mM) (maximal effect: 42.8±4.1 C-shapes/5 min at 5 mM). For combined administration, cocaine (0.1-5 mM) was tested with submaximal ethanol concentrations (0.01, 0.1%); the observed effect for the combination was enhanced compared to its predicted effect, indicating synergism for the interaction. The synergy with ethanol was specific for cocaine, as related experiments revealed that combinations of ethanol and nicotine did not result in synergy. For EPC experiments, ethanol (0.0001-1%) concentration-dependently increased EPC, with significant environmental shifts detected at 0.01 and 1%. Cocaine (0.001-1 μM) produced an inverted U-shaped concentration-effect curve, with a significant environmental shift observed at 0.01 μM. For combined exposure, variable cocaine concentrations (0.001-1 μM) were administered with a statistically ineffective concentration of ethanol (0.0001%). For each concentration of cocaine, the environmental shift was enhanced by ethanol, with significance detected at 1 μM. Cocaethylene, a metabolite of cocaine and ethanol, also produced C-shapes and EPC. Lidocaine (0.001-10 μM), an anesthetic and analog of cocaine, did not produce EPC or C-shaped movements. Evidence from planarians

  5. Ethanol and cocaine: environmental place conditioning, stereotypy and synergism in planarians

    PubMed Central

    Tallarida, Christopher S.; Bires, Kristopher; Avershal, Jacob; Tallarida, Ronald J.; Seo, Stephanie; Rawls, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    More than 90% of individuals who use cocaine also report concurrent ethanol use, but only a few studies, all conducted with vertebrates, have investigated pharmacodynamic interactions between ethanol and cocaine. Planaria, a type of flatworm often considered to have the simplest ‘brain’, is an invertebrate species especially amenable to the quantification of drug-induced behavioral responses and identification of conserved responses. Here, we investigated stereotypical and environmental place conditioning (EPC) effects of ethanol administered alone and in combination with cocaine. Planarians displayed concentration-related increases in C-shape movements following exposure to ethanol (0.01 – 1%) (maximal effect: 9.9 ± 1.1 C-shapes/5 min at 0.5%) or cocaine (0.1 – 5 mM) (maximal effect: 42.8 ± 4.1 C-shapes/5 min at 5 mM). For combined administration, cocaine (0.1 – 5 mM) were tested with submaximal ethanol concentrations (0.01, 0,1%), the observed effect for the combination was enhanced compared to its predicted effect, indicating synergism for the interaction. The synergy with ethanol was specific for cocaine, as related experiments revealed that combinations of ethanol and nicotine did not result in synergy. For EPC experiments, ethanol (0.0001 – 1%) concentration-dependently increased EPC, with significant environmental shifts detected at 0.01 and 1%. Cocaine (0.001 – 1 μM) produced an inverted U-shaped concentration-effect curve, with a significant environmental shift observed at 0.01 μM. For combined exposure, variable cocaine concentrations (0.001 – 1 μM) were administered with a statistically ineffective concentration of ethanol (0.0001%). For each concentration of cocaine, the environmental shift was enhanced by ethanol, with significance detected at 1 μM. Cocaethylene, a metabolite of cocaine and ethanol, also produced C-shapes and EPC. Lidocaine (0.001 – 10 μM), an anesthetic and analog of cocaine, did not produce EPC or C

  6. Ethanol and cocaine: environmental place conditioning, stereotypy, and synergism in planarians.

    PubMed

    Tallarida, Christopher S; Bires, Kristopher; Avershal, Jacob; Tallarida, Ronald J; Seo, Stephanie; Rawls, Scott M

    2014-09-01

    More than 90% of individuals who use cocaine also report concurrent ethanol use, but only a few studies, all conducted with vertebrates, have investigated pharmacodynamic interactions between ethanol and cocaine. Planaria, a type of flatworm often considered to have the simplest 'brain,' is an invertebrate species especially amenable to the quantification of drug-induced behavioral responses and identification of conserved responses. Here, we investigated stereotypical and environmental place conditioning (EPC) effects of ethanol administered alone and in combination with cocaine. Planarians displayed concentration-related increases in C-shaped movements following exposure to ethanol (0.01-1%) (maximal effect: 9.9±1.1 C-shapes/5 min at 0.5%) or cocaine (0.1-5 mM) (maximal effect: 42.8±4.1 C-shapes/5 min at 5 mM). For combined administration, cocaine (0.1-5 mM) was tested with submaximal ethanol concentrations (0.01, 0.1%); the observed effect for the combination was enhanced compared to its predicted effect, indicating synergism for the interaction. The synergy with ethanol was specific for cocaine, as related experiments revealed that combinations of ethanol and nicotine did not result in synergy. For EPC experiments, ethanol (0.0001-1%) concentration-dependently increased EPC, with significant environmental shifts detected at 0.01 and 1%. Cocaine (0.001-1 μM) produced an inverted U-shaped concentration-effect curve, with a significant environmental shift observed at 0.01 μM. For combined exposure, variable cocaine concentrations (0.001-1 μM) were administered with a statistically ineffective concentration of ethanol (0.0001%). For each concentration of cocaine, the environmental shift was enhanced by ethanol, with significance detected at 1 μM. Cocaethylene, a metabolite of cocaine and ethanol, also produced C-shapes and EPC. Lidocaine (0.001-10 μM), an anesthetic and analog of cocaine, did not produce EPC or C-shaped movements. Evidence from planarians

  7. Relationship between environmental conditions and rates of coastal erosion in Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, K. R.; Anderson, R. S.; Overeem, I.; Wobus, C. W.; Clow, G. D.; Urban, F. E.; LeWinter, A. L.; Stanton, T. P.

    2012-12-01

    Rates of coastal cliff erosion are a function of the geometry and substrate of the coast; storm frequency, duration, magnitude, and wave field; and regional sediment sources. In the Arctic, the duration of sea ice-free conditions limits the time over which coastal erosion can occur, and sea water temperature modulates erosion rates where ice content of coastal bluffs is high. Predicting how coastal erosion rates in this environment will respond to future climate change requires that we first understand modern coastal erosion rates. Arctic coastlines are responding rapidly to climate change. Remotely sensed observations of coastline position indicate that the mean annual erosion rate along a 60-km reach of Alaska's Beaufort Sea coast, characterized by high ice content and small grain size, doubled from 7 m yr-1 for the period 1955-1979 to 14 m yr-1 for 2002-2007. Over the last 30 years the duration of the open water season expanded from ˜45 days to ˜95 days, increasing exposure of permafrost bluffs to seawater by a factor of 2.5. Time-lapse photography indicates that coastal erosion in this environment is a halting process: most significant erosion occurs during storm events in which local water level is elevated by surge, during which instantaneous submarine erosion rates can reach 1-2 m/day. In contrast, at times of low water, or when sea ice is present, erosion rates are negligible. We employ a 1D coastal cross-section numerical model of the erosion of ice-rich permafrost bluffs to explore the sensitivity of the system to environmental drivers. Our model captures the geometry and style of coastal erosion observed near Drew Point, Alaska, including insertion of a melt-notch, topple of ice-wedge-bounded blocks, and subsequent degradation of these blocks. Using consistent rules, we test our model against the temporal pattern of coastal erosion over two periods: the recent past (~30 years), and a short (~2 week) period in summer 2010. Environmental conditions used

  8. Antecedent growth conditions alter retention of environmental Escherichia coli isolates in transiently wetted porous media.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hsiao-Hui; Morrow, Jayne B; Grasso, Domenico; Vinopal, Robert T; Dechesne, Arnaud; Smets, Barth F

    2008-12-15

    The physical transport of Escherichia coli in terrestrial environments may require control to prevent its dissemination from potential high-density sources, such as confined animal feedlot operations. Biobarriers, wherein convective flows carrying pathogens pass through a porous matrix with high retentive capacity, may present one such approach. Eight environmental E. coli isolates were selected to conduct operational retention tests (ORT) with potential biobarrier materials Pyrax or dolomite, or silica glass as control. The conditions in the ORT were chosen to simulate conditioning by manure solutes, a pulse application of a bacterial load followed by rainfall infiltration, and natural drainage. Removal was limited, and likely caused by the relatively high velocities during drainage, and the conditioning of otherwise favorable adhesion sites. Flagella-mediated motility showed the strongest correlation to biobarrier retention. Significant variability was observed across the E. coli isolates, but consistently higher retention was observed for cells with external versus intestinal pregrowth histories. E. coli O157:H7 was retained the least with all examined matrices, while E. coli K-12 displayed moderate retention and may not serve as representative model strain. Pyrax is a good candidate biobarrier material given its superior removal ability across the tested E. coli strains. PMID:19174909

  9. Evaluating environmental joint extremes for the offshore industry using the conditional extremes model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewans, Kevin; Jonathan, Philip

    2014-02-01

    Understanding extreme ocean environments and their interaction with fixed and floating structures is critical for the design of offshore and coastal facilities. The joint effect of various ocean variables on extreme responses of offshore structures is fundamental in determining the design loads. For example, it is known that mean values of wave periods tend to increase with increasing storm intensity, and a floating system responds in a complex way to both variables. Specification of joint extremes in design criteria has often been somewhat ad hoc, being based on fairly arbitrary combinations of extremes of variables estimated independently. Such approaches are even outlined in design guidelines. Mathematically more consistent estimates of the joint occurrence of extreme environmental variables fall into two camps in the offshore industry - response-based and response-independent. Both are outlined here, with emphasis on response-independent methods, particularly those based on the conditional extremes model recently introduced by (Heffernan and Tawn, 2004), which has a solid theoretical motivation. We illustrate an application of the conditional extremes model to joint estimation of extreme storm peak significant wave height and peak period at a northern North Sea location, incorporating storm direction as a model covariate. We also discuss joint estimation of extreme current profiles with depth off the North West Shelf of Australia. Methods such as the conditional extremes model provide valuable additions to the metocean engineer's toolkit.

  10. Quorum-regulated biofilms enhance the development of conditionally viable, environmental Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Kamruzzaman, M; Udden, S M Nashir; Cameron, D Ewen; Calderwood, Stephen B; Nair, G Balakrish; Mekalanos, John J; Faruque, Shah M

    2010-01-26

    The factors that enhance the waterborne spread of bacterial epidemics and sustain the pathogens in nature are unclear. The epidemic diarrheal disease cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae spreads through water contaminated with the pathogen. However, the bacteria exist in water mostly as clumps of cells, which resist cultivation by standard techniques but revive into fully virulent form in the intestinal milieu. These conditionally viable environmental cells (CVEC), alternatively called viable but nonculturable cells, presumably play a crucial role in cholera epidemiology. However, the precise mechanism causing the transition of V. cholerae to the CVEC form and this form's significance in the biology of the pathogen are unknown. Here we show that this process involves biofilm formation that is dependent on quorum sensing, a regulatory response that is controlled by cell density. V. cholerae strains carrying mutations in genes required for quorum sensing and biofilm formation displayed altered CVEC formation in environmental water following intestinal infections. Analysis of naturally occurring V. cholerae CVEC showed that organisms that adopt this quiescent physiological state typically exist as clumps of cells that comprise a single clone closely related to isolates causing the most recent local cholera epidemic. These results support a model of cholera transmission in which in vivo-formed biofilms convert to CVEC upon the introduction of cholera stools into environmental water. Our data further suggest that a temporary loss of quorum sensing due to dilution of extracellular autoinducers confers a selective advantage to communities of V. cholerae by blocking quorum-mediated regulatory responses that would break down biofilms and thus interfere with CVEC formation.

  11. Environmental baseline conditions for impact assessment of unconventional gas exploitation: the G-Baseline project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Mayer, Berhard; Millot, Romain; Parker, Beth L.; Gaucher, Eric; Clarkson, Christopher R.; Cherry, John A.; Humez, Pauline; Cahill, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    A major scientific challenge and an indispensible prerequisite for environmental impact assessment in the context of unconventional gas development is the determination of the baseline conditions against which potential environmental impacts on shallow freshwater resources can be accurately and quantitatively tested. Groundwater and surface water resources overlying the low-permeability hydrocarbon host rocks containing shale gas may be impacted to different extents by naturally occurring saline fluids and by natural gas emanations. Baseline assessments in areas of previous conventional hydrocarbon production may also reveal anthropogenic impacts from these activities not related to unconventional gas development. Once unconventional gas exploitation has started, the baseline may be irrevocably lost by the intricate superposition of geogenic and potential anthropogenic contamination by stray gas, formation waters and chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing. The objective of the Franco-Canadian NSERC-ANR project G-Baseline is to develop an innovative and comprehensive methodology of geochemical and isotopic characterization of the environmental baseline for water and gas samples from all three essential zones: (1) the production zone, including flowback waters, (2) the intermediate zone comprised of overlying formations, and (3) shallow aquifers and surface water systems where contamination may result from diverse natural or human impacts. The outcome will be the establishment of a methodology based on innovative tracer and monitoring techniques, including traditional and non-traditional isotopes (C, H, O, S, B, Sr, Cl, Br, N, U, Li, Cu, Zn, CSIA...) for detecting, quantifying and modeling of potential leakage of stray gas and of saline formation water mixed with flowback fluids into fresh groundwater resources and surface waters taking into account the pathways and mechanisms of fluid and gas migration. Here we present an outline of the project as well as first

  12. Nanosized titanium dioxide influences copper-induced toxicity during aging as a function of environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeldt, Ricki R; Seitz, Frank; Haigis, Ann-Cathrin; Höger, Johanna; Zubrod, Jochen P; Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco

    2016-07-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 -NPs) adsorb co-occurring heavy metals in surface waters, modulating their toxicity for freshwater invertebrates. The processes triggering this interaction may be influenced by several environmental parameters; however, their relative importance remains unclear. The present study assessed the implications of aging on the joint acute toxicity of copper (Cu) and TiO2 -NPs for Daphnia magna over a duration of up to 72 h. The influences of aging duration as well as ionic strength, pH, and presence of different qualities of organic matter during aging were assessed. The results indicated that the presence of TiO2 -NPs often reduced the Cu-induced toxicity for daphnids after aging (albeit with varying extent), which was displayed by up to 3-fold higher EC50 (50% effective concentration) values compared to the absence of TiO2 -NPs. Moreover, the Cu speciation, influenced by the ionic composition and the pH as well as the presence of organic additives in the medium, strongly modulated the processes during aging, with partly limited implications of the aging duration on the ecotoxicological response of D. magna. Nonetheless, the present study underpins the potential of TiO2 -NPs to modify toxicity induced by heavy metals in freshwater ecosystems under various environmental conditions. This pattern, however, needs further verification using heavy metal ions with differing properties in combination with further environmental factors, such as ultraviolet irradiation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1766-1774. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26640248

  13. Environmental conditions impacting juvenile Chinook salmon growth off central California: An ecosystem model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiechter, J.; Huff, D. D.; Martin, B. T.; Jackson, D. W.; Edwards, C. A.; Rose, K. A.; Curchitser, E. N.; Hedstrom, K. S.; Lindley, S. T.; Wells, B. K.

    2015-04-01

    A fully coupled ecosystem model is used to identify the effects of environmental conditions and upwelling variability on growth of juvenile Chinook salmon in central California coastal waters. The ecosystem model framework consists of an ocean circulation submodel, a biogeochemical submodel, and an individual-based submodel for salmon. Simulation results indicate that years favorable for juvenile salmon growth off central California are characterized by particularly intense early season upwelling (i.e., March through May), leading to enhanced krill concentrations during summer near the location of ocean entry (i.e., Gulf of the Farallones). Seasonally averaged growth rates in the model are generally consistent with observed values and suggest that juvenile salmon emigrating later in the season (i.e., late May and June) achieve higher weight gains during their first 90 days of ocean residency.

  14. Changes in fatty acid and hydrocarbon composition of zooplankton assemblages related to environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in zooplankton fatty acid and hydrocarbon patterns are described in relation to changes in environmental conditions and species composition. The regulation of zooplankton abundance by sea nettle-ctenophore interaction was examined in a small Rhode Island coastal pond. Sea nettles were nettles were able to eliminate ctenophores from the pond and subsequently zooplankton abundance increased. During one increase in zooplankton abundance, it was found that polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased while monounsaturated fatty acids increased. It was concluded that this shift in biochemical pattern was due to food limitation. In addition, zooplankton fatty acids were used in multivariate discriminant analysis to classify whether zooplankton were from coastal or estuarine environments. Zooplankton from coastal environments were characterized by higher monounsaturate fatty acids. Zooplankton hydrocarbon composition was affected by species composition and by pollution inputs. The presence of Calanus finmarchicus was detected by increased levels of pristane.

  15. Effect of environmental conditions on the erosional resistance of cohesive sediment deposits in sewers.

    PubMed

    Tai, S J; Marion, A; Camuffo, G

    2003-01-01

    The potential to adjust sewer network operation in order to control the level of transported sediment in sewage so as to enhance the performance of end-of-pipe treatment works is now being investigated. However for this to become a practical management option there is a need to be able to understand the processes which control the movement of sediments that are found in many combined sewers. Crucial to this understanding is an ability to predict how sediments from in-sewer deposits, are released by the action of vigorous flows. This paper reports on a laboratory investigation that aimed to investigate the effect that the environmental conditions during deposit formation can have on the ability of fine-grained organic sediment within in-sewer deposits to resist erosion and subsequent release into transport.

  16. Genetic and environmental conditions that increase longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans decrease metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Van Voorhies, W A; Ward, S

    1999-09-28

    Mutations that increase the longevity of the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans could define genes involved in a process specific for aging. Alternatively, these mutations could reduce animal metabolic rate and increase longevity as a consequence. In ectotherms, longevity is often negatively correlated with metabolic rate. Consistent with these observations, environmental conditions that reduce the metabolic rate of C. elegans also extend longevity. We found that the metabolic rate of long-lived C. elegans mutants is reduced compared with that of wild-type worms and that a genetic suppressor that restored normal longevity to long-lived mutants restored normal metabolic rate. Thus, the increased longevity of some long-lived C. elegans mutants may be a consequence of a reduction in their metabolic rate, rather than an alteration of a genetic pathway that leads to enhanced longevity while maintaining normal physiology. The actual mechanism responsible for the inverse correlation between metabolic rate and longevity remains unknown.

  17. [Risk factors for children's population health in stressed environmental conditions of lead pollition].

    PubMed

    Baidaulet, I O; Namazbaeva, Z I; Dasybayeva, G N; Bazeluk, L T; Sabirov, Zh V; Kusainova, D S

    2013-01-01

    Adverse environmental conditions in Shymkent significantly increase the risk of accumulation of lead in the bodies of the children of the third generation of the population residing in the contaminated areas, cause deteriorations of antioxidant defense in the respiratory system, greatly decline barrier-protective properties of cellular systems of the local immunity, disturb the process of hematopoiesis. Performed statistical analysis of the data permitted to identify a correlation relationship between the accumulation of lead in the soil and the change in the functional activity of the cells of buccal cheek epithelium, catalase activity in expired breath condensate. Haematological signs of lead poisoning include not only the number of reticulocytes, but also the correction (RPI) for the alteration with allowances made for the maturation of reticulocytes in peripheral blood circulation as early criterion for toxic anemia.

  18. Effects of environmental conditions on xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase production by Candida guilliermondii.

    PubMed

    Sene, L; Vitolo, M; Felipe, M G; Silva, S S

    2000-01-01

    The effects of environmental conditions, namely initial pH (2.5-7.0) and temperature (25 and 35 degrees C), on xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase levels, as well as on xylitol production, were evaluated. Although the fermentative parameter values increased with an increase in pH and temperature (the maximum Yp/s and Qp were 0.75 g/g and 0.95 g/[L.h], respectively, both attained at pH 6.0, 35 degrees C), the highest xylose reductase activities (nearly 900 IU/mg of protein) were observed at an initial pH varying from 4.0 to 6.0. Xylitol dehydrogenase was favored by an increase in both initial pH and temperature of the medium. The highest xylitol dehydrogenase specific activity was attained at pH 6.5 and 35 degrees C (577 IU/mg of protein). PMID:10849803

  19. Quantifying Preferences and Responsiveness of Marine Zooplankton to Changing Environmental Conditions using Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Merten, Christoph A.; Arendt, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Global environmental change significantly affects marine species composition. However, analyzing the impact of these changes on marine zooplankton communities was so far mostly limited to assessing lethal doses through mortality assays and hence did not allow a direct assessment of the preferred conditions, or preferendum. Here, we use a microfluidic device to characterize individual behavior of actively swimming zooplankton, and to quantitatively determine their ecological preferendum. For the annelid zooplankton model Platynereis dumerilii we observe a broader pH preferendum than for the copepod Euterpina acutifrons, and reveal previously unrecognized sub-populations with different pH preferenda. For Platynereis, the minimum concentration difference required to elicit a response (responsiveness) is ~1 μM for H+ and ~13.7 mM for NaCl. Furthermore, using laser ablations we show that olfactomedin-expressing sensory cells mediate chemical responsiveness in the Platynereis foregut. Taken together, our microfluidic approach allows precise assessment and functional understanding of environmental perception on planktonic behaviour. PMID:26517120

  20. Bacterial assisted degradation of chlorpyrifos: The key role of environmental conditions, trace metals and organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Saira; Hashmi, Imran; Khan, Sher Jamal

    2016-03-01

    Wastewater from pesticide industries, agricultural or surface runoff containing pesticides and their residues has adverse environmental impacts. Present study demonstrates effect of petrochemicals and trace metals on chlorpyrifos (CP) biotransformation often released in wastewater of agrochemical industry. Biodegradation was investigated using bacterial strain Pseudomonas kilonensis SRK1 isolated from wastewater spiked with CP. Optimal environmental conditions for CP removal were CFU (306 × 10(6)), pH (8); initial CP concentration (150 mg/L) and glucose as additional carbon source. Among various organic solvents (petrochemicals) used in this study toluene has stimulatory effect on CP degradation process using SRK1, contrary to this benzene and phenol negatively inhibited degradation process. Application of metal ions (Cu (II), Fe (II) Zn (II) at low concentration (1 mg/L) took part in biochemical reaction and positively stimulated CP degradation process. Metal ions at high concentrations have inhibitory effect on degradation process. A first order growth model was shown to fit the data. It could be concluded that both type and concentration of metal ions and petrochemicals can affect CP degradation process.

  1. Food for thought: Conditions for discourse reflection in the light of environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Runhaar, Hens; Runhaar, Piety R.; Oegema, Tammo

    2010-11-15

    People tend to take notice of what is happening around them selectively. Discourses-frames through which actors give meaning to aspects of the world-act as built-in filters that distinguish relevant from irrelevant data. Use of knowledge generated by environmental assessments (EAs) in decision-making may be understood from this perspective. Environmental knowledge that is inconsistent with dominant discourses runs the risk of being ignored. Discourses on the value of EA as a tool for decision-making may have a similar effect. Stimulating decision-makers and stakeholders to critically reflect on and reconsider their discourses in the light of EAs-also known as frame reflection or policy learning-may enhance the probability that these assessments and the knowledge that they generate impact upon decision-making. Up to now little has been written about how discourse reflection in the context of EA can be promoted. Valuable inputs are fragmented over different bodies of literature. In this paper we draw from these bodies to identify favourable conditions for discourse reflection.

  2. Adsorption of a Protein Monolayer via Hydrophobic Interactions Prevents Nanoparticle Aggregation under Harsh Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez-Medina, Sergio; Blankenburg, Jan; Olson, Jana; Landes, Christy F.; Link, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    We find that citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles aggregate and precipitate in saline solutions below the NaCl concentration of many bodily fluids and blood plasma. Our experiments indicate that this is due to complexation of the citrate anions with Na+ cations in solution. A dramatically enhanced colloidal stability is achieved when bovine serum albumin is adsorbed to the gold nanoparticle surface, completely preventing nanoparticle aggregation under harsh environmental conditions where the NaCl concentration is well beyond the isotonic point. Furthermore, we explore the mechanism of the formation of this albumin ‘corona’ and find that monolayer protein adsorption is most likely ruled by hydrophobic interactions. As for many nanotechnology-based biomedical and environmental applications, particle aggregation and sedimentation are undesirable and could substantially increase the risk of toxicological side-effects, the formation of the BSA corona presented here provides a low-cost bio-compatible strategy for nanoparticle stabilization and transport in highly ionic environments. PMID:23914342

  3. The Impact of Different Environmental Conditions on Cognitive Function: A Focused Review

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lee; Watkins, Samuel L.; Marshall, Hannah; Dascombe, Ben J.; Foster, Josh

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive function defines performance in objective tasks that require conscious mental effort. Extreme environments, namely heat, hypoxia, and cold can all alter human cognitive function due to a variety of psychological and/or biological processes. The aims of this Focused Review were to discuss; (1) the current state of knowledge on the effects of heat, hypoxic and cold stress on cognitive function, (2) the potential mechanisms underpinning these alterations, and (3) plausible interventions that may maintain cognitive function upon exposure to each of these environmental stressors. The available evidence suggests that the effects of heat, hypoxia, and cold stress on cognitive function are both task and severity dependent. Complex tasks are particularly vulnerable to extreme heat stress, whereas both simple and complex task performance appear to be vulnerable at even at moderate altitudes. Cold stress also appears to negatively impact both simple and complex task performance, however, the research in this area is sparse in comparison to heat and hypoxia. In summary, this focused review provides updated knowledge regarding the effects of extreme environmental stressors on cognitive function and their biological underpinnings. Tyrosine supplementation may help individuals maintain cognitive function in very hot, hypoxic, and/or cold conditions. However, more research is needed to clarify these and other postulated interventions. PMID:26779029

  4. Evidence for the role of environmental agents in the initiation or progression of autoimmune conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Powell, J J; Van de Water, J; Gershwin, M E

    1999-01-01

    The concordance of autoimmune disease among identical twins is virtually always less than 50% and often in the 25-40% range. This observation, as well as epidemic clustering of some autoimmune diseases following xenobiotic exposure, reinforces the thesis that autoimmune disease is secondary to both genetic and environmental factors. Because nonliving agents do not have genomes, disease characteristics involving nonliving xenobiotics are primarily secondary to host phenotype and function. In addition, because of individual genetic susceptibilities based not only on major histocompatibility complex differences but also on differences in toxin metabolism, lifestyles, and exposure rates, individuals will react differently to the same chemicals. With these comments in mind it is important to note that there have been associations of a number of xenobiotics with human autoimmune disease, including mercury, iodine, vinyl chloride, canavanine, organic solvents, silica, l-tryptophan, particulates, ultraviolet radiation, and ozone. In addition, there is discussion in the literature that raises the possibility that xenobiotics may also exacerbate an existing autoimmune disease. In this article we discuss these issues and, in particular, the evidence for the role of environmental agents in the initiation or progression of autoimmune conditions. With the worldwide deterioration of the environment, this is a particularly important subject for human health. PMID:10970167

  5. Quantifying Preferences and Responsiveness of Marine Zooplankton to Changing Environmental Conditions using Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Nirupama; Simakov, Oleg; Merten, Christoph A; Arendt, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Global environmental change significantly affects marine species composition. However, analyzing the impact of these changes on marine zooplankton communities was so far mostly limited to assessing lethal doses through mortality assays and hence did not allow a direct assessment of the preferred conditions, or preferendum. Here, we use a microfluidic device to characterize individual behavior of actively swimming zooplankton, and to quantitatively determine their ecological preferendum. For the annelid zooplankton model Platynereis dumerilii we observe a broader pH preferendum than for the copepod Euterpina acutifrons, and reveal previously unrecognized sub-populations with different pH preferenda. For Platynereis, the minimum concentration difference required to elicit a response (responsiveness) is ~1 μM for H+ and ~13.7 mM for NaCl. Furthermore, using laser ablations we show that olfactomedin-expressing sensory cells mediate chemical responsiveness in the Platynereis foregut. Taken together, our microfluidic approach allows precise assessment and functional understanding of environmental perception on planktonic behaviour. PMID:26517120

  6. Effects of sawdust thickness on the growth performance, environmental condition, and welfare quality of yellow broilers.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dan; He, Jiao; Lu, Jian; Wang, Qiang; Chang, Lingling; Shi, Shou Rong; Bing, Tong Hai

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of litter thickness on growth performance, immune status, environmental condition, and welfare quality in yellow broilers. In total, 1,800 one-day-old Suqin yellow broilers were raised for 21 d. On d 22, 1,600 birds of similar BW (404±12 g) were randomly selected and placed into 20 indoor pens (8 birds/m2, 10 m2/pen). These birds were assigned to a litter treatment of 4, 8, 12, and 16 cm. Each treatment was repeated in five pens. The results showed that a thicker litter was related to increased BW, daily weight gain, and daily feed intake (P<0.001). Feed conversion ratio and mortality were unaffected by litter thickness (P=0.320, P=0.353, respectively). Absolute and relative liver weights showed a significant linear response to increasing litter thickness (P=0.01, P=0.001, respectively). The litter moisture content, air ammonia, and CO2 content decreased, whereas the air dust content increased with increasing litter thickness (P<0.001, P=0.017, P=0.033, P<0.001, respectively). Litter thickness had no effect on gait, plumage damage, hock burn or breast skin crusting (P = 0.076, P=0.964, P=0.131, P=0.401, respectively). Plumage cleanliness, foot pad dermatitis, hock swelling and breast blister varied significantly with litter thickness (P=0.027, P=0.011, P=0.014, P=0.042, respectively). The results of this study suggest that an increasing litter thickness has a beneficial effect on the growth performance, environmental condition and welfare of birds. PMID:25577790

  7. The phycobilisome, a light-harvesting complex responsive to environmental conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, A R; Schaefer, M R; Chiang, G G; Collier, J L

    1993-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms can acclimate to their environment by changing many cellular processes, including the biosynthesis of the photosynthetic apparatus. In this article we discuss the phycobilisome, the light-harvesting apparatus of cyanobacteria and red algae. Unlike most light-harvesting antenna complexes, the phycobilisome is not an integral membrane complex but is attached to the surface of the photosynthetic membranes. It is composed of both the pigmented phycobiliproteins and the nonpigmented linker polypeptides; the former are important for absorbing light energy, while the latter are important for stability and assembly of the complex. The composition of the phycobilisome is very sensitive to a number of different environmental factors. Some of the filamentous cyanobacteria can alter the composition of the phycobilisome in response to the prevalent wavelengths of light in the environment. This process, called complementary chromatic adaptation, allows these organisms to efficiently utilize available light energy to drive photosynthetic electron transport and CO2 fixation. Under conditions of macronutrient limitation, many cyanobacteria degrade their phycobilisomes in a rapid and orderly fashion. Since the phycobilisome is an abundant component of the cell, its degradation may provide a substantial amount of nitrogen to nitrogen-limited cells. Furthermore, degradation of the phycobilisome during nutrient-limited growth may prevent photodamage that would occur if the cells were to absorb light under conditions of metabolic arrest. The interplay of various environmental parameters in determining the number of phycobilisomes and their structural characteristics and the ways in which these parameters control phycobilisome biosynthesis are fertile areas for investigation. PMID:8246846

  8. Revegetation processes and environmental conditions in abandoned peat production fields in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orru, M.; Orru, H.

    2009-04-01

    As a result of peat extraction, peat production has been finished in Estonia at different times in 154 peat production areas and 9,500 ha (~1% of peatlands) are abandoned, although the peat reserves are not exhausted yet; besides, several areas are not properly recultivated. In addition 12,000 ha of fens (oligotrophic peat layers) are drained and used as grasslands. If the abandoned and non-recultivated peat production areas are not vegetated, their CO2 emission is considerable and peat mineralises in such areas. The aim of the study was to find out specific ecological and geological factors, which affect recovering of peatlands and influence the recultivation. During the revision the amount and quality of the remained reserves, as well as the state of water regime, drainage network and revegetation was assessed in all 154 abandoned peat production areas. The study showed that the state of them is very variable. Some of them are covered with forest, prevailingly with birches at former drainage ditches, later supplemented by pine trees. In the others predominate grasses among plants, and various species of moss (Cladonia rei, Bryum caespiticum, Sphagnum ripariuma, Sphagnum squarrosum) occur as well. Besides, some abandoned areas are completely overgrown with cotton grass. Open abandoned peat areas, which are not covered by vegetation, are much rarer. We found out, that water regime among the factors plays most important role. Moreover abandoned peat production fields, where the environmental conditions have changed - are appropriate for growth of several moss species, which cannot inhabit the areas already occupied by other species. The most interesting discovers were: second growing site of Polia elongata in West-Estonia and Ephemerum serratum, last found in Estonia in the middle of the 19th century, was identified in central Estonia. Also Campylopus introflexus, what was unknown in Estonia. However, the changes in environmental conditions influence the peat layers

  9. Female Weddell seals show flexible strategies of colony attendance related to varying environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Chambert, Thierry; Rotella, Jay J; Garrott, Robert A

    2015-02-01

    Many animal life cycles involve movements among different habitats to fulfill varying resource demands. There are inherent costs associated with such movements, and the decision to leave or stay at a given location ought to be motivated by the benefits associated with potential target habitats. Because movement patterns, especially those associated with reproduction, can have important implications for the success (survival, reproduction) of individual animals, and therefore a population's dynamics, it is important to identify and understand their sources of variation (environmental and individual). Here, using a mark-recapture, multistate modeling approach, we investigated a set of a priori hypotheses regarding sources and patterns of variation in breeding-colony attendance for Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) females on sabbatical from pup production. For such females, colony attendance might be motivated by predation avoidance and positive social interactions related to reproduction, but some costs, such as reduced foraging opportunities or aggressive interactions with conspecifics, might also exist. We expected these benefits and costs to vary with a female's condition and the environment. Results revealed that the probability of being absent from colonies was higher (1) in years when the extent of local sea ice was larger, (2) for the youngest and oldest individuals, and (3) for females with less reproductive experience. We also found substantial levels of residual individual heterogeneity in these rates. Based on our a priori predictions, we postulate that the decision to attend breeding colonies or not is directly influenced by an individual's physiological condition, as well as by the ice-covered distance to good foraging areas, availability of predator-free haul-out sites, and the level of negative interactions with conspecifics inside colonies. Our results support the idea that in iteroparous species, and colonial animals in particular, seasonal and

  10. Toward an integrated understanding of perceived biodiversity values and environmental conditions in a national park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Riper, Carena J.; Kyle, Gerard T.; Sherrouse, Ben C.; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Sutton, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    In spatial planning and management of protected areas, increased priority is being given to research that integrates social and ecological data. However, public viewpoints of the benefits provided by ecosystems are not easily quantified and often implicitly folded into natural resource management decisions. Drawing on a spatially explicit participatory mapping exercise and a Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES) analysis tool, the present study empirically examined and integrated social values for ecosystem services and environmental conditions within Channel Islands National Park, California. Specifically, a social value indicator of perceived biodiversity was examined using on-site survey data collected from a sample of people who visited the park. This information was modeled alongside eight environmental conditions including faunal species richness for six taxa, vegetation density, categories of marine and terrestrial land cover, and distance to features relevant for decision-makers. Results showed that biodiversity value points assigned to places by the pooled sample of respondents were widely and unevenly mapped, which reflected the belief that biodiversity was embodied to varying degrees by multiple locations in the park. Models generated for two survey subgroups defined by their self-reported knowledge of the Channels Islands revealed distinct spatial patterns of these perceived values. Specifically, respondents with high knowledge valued large spaces that were publicly inaccessible and unlikely to contain on-ground biodiversity, whereas respondents with low knowledge valued places that were experienced first-hand. Accessibility and infrastructure were also important considerations for anticipating how and where people valued the protected land and seascapes of Channel Islands National Park.

  11. Female Weddell seals show flexible strategies of colony attendance related to varying environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Chambert, Thierry; Rotella, Jay J; Garrott, Robert A

    2015-02-01

    Many animal life cycles involve movements among different habitats to fulfill varying resource demands. There are inherent costs associated with such movements, and the decision to leave or stay at a given location ought to be motivated by the benefits associated with potential target habitats. Because movement patterns, especially those associated with reproduction, can have important implications for the success (survival, reproduction) of individual animals, and therefore a population's dynamics, it is important to identify and understand their sources of variation (environmental and individual). Here, using a mark-recapture, multistate modeling approach, we investigated a set of a priori hypotheses regarding sources and patterns of variation in breeding-colony attendance for Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) females on sabbatical from pup production. For such females, colony attendance might be motivated by predation avoidance and positive social interactions related to reproduction, but some costs, such as reduced foraging opportunities or aggressive interactions with conspecifics, might also exist. We expected these benefits and costs to vary with a female's condition and the environment. Results revealed that the probability of being absent from colonies was higher (1) in years when the extent of local sea ice was larger, (2) for the youngest and oldest individuals, and (3) for females with less reproductive experience. We also found substantial levels of residual individual heterogeneity in these rates. Based on our a priori predictions, we postulate that the decision to attend breeding colonies or not is directly influenced by an individual's physiological condition, as well as by the ice-covered distance to good foraging areas, availability of predator-free haul-out sites, and the level of negative interactions with conspecifics inside colonies. Our results support the idea that in iteroparous species, and colonial animals in particular, seasonal and

  12. Testing the Sensitivity of Extratropical Cyclones to Variations in Environmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierney, G.; Booth, J. F.; Posselt, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Extratropical cyclones are a main driver of mid-latitude weather conditions, continually interacting with their synoptic and mesoscale environment. These systems are a product of the cyclogenetic environment in which they develop, and their associated circulation, latent heating, and radiative heating in turn exert significant influence on the near and far-field dynamic and thermodynamic state. With the projected warming to our climate system, the environments in which mid-latitude cyclones develop are changing, as are the controlling influences on storm characteristics: temperature, moisture content, jet strength, and baroclinicity. Feedbacks between changes in the initial environment and changes in extratropical cyclone properties represent a challenge to our ability to characterize the effects of changes in climate on the winds and rainfall produced by these storms. In this presentation, we consider how extratropical cyclones might respond to simultaneous changes in multiple environmental factors. We utilize an idealized version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), allowing for systematic control of environmental conditions. We perform a comprehensive ensemble analysis by tracking the variations in extratropical cyclone properties as a function of the changes in the surrounding environment, with the aim of identifying key controls on cyclone characteristics. We consider the socially relevant impacts of changes in dynamics and precipitation, as well as considering the climatologically relevant impacts of changes in cloud and radiative properties. We identify and implement tunable variables best approximating changes in temperature, moisture content, jet strength, and baroclinicity. Examining the effects of each variable with single-variable sensitivity tests, we document the effect of each variable alone, before filling out a multivariate parameter space by combining variations of two or more variables. In reviewing the multivariate results, we

  13. XPS study of nitrogen dioxide adsorption on metal oxide particle surfaces under different environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Jayaweera, Pradeep M; Grassian, Vicki H

    2009-10-01

    The adsorption of nitrogen dioxide on gamma aluminium oxide (gamma-Al(2)O(3)) and alpha iron oxide (alpha-Fe(2)O(3)) particle surfaces under various conditions of relative humidity, presence of molecular oxygen and UV light has been investigated. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to monitor the different surface species that form under these environmental conditions. Adsorption of NO(2) on aluminum oxide particle surfaces results primarily in the formation of surface nitrate, NO(3)(-) with an oxidation state of +5, as indicated by a peak with binding energy of 407.3 eV in the N1s region. An additional minority species, sensitive to the presence of relative humidity and molecular oxygen, is also observed in the N1s region with lower binding energy of 405.9 eV. This peak is assigned to a surface species in the +4 oxidation state. When irradiated with UV light, other species form on the surface. These surface-bound photochemical products all have lower binding energy, between 400 and 402 eV, indicating reduced nitrogen species in the range of N oxidations states spanning +1 to -1. Co-adsorbed water decreases the amount of these reduced surface-bound products while the presence of molecular oxygen completely suppresses the formation of all reduced nitrogen species on aluminum oxide particle surfaces. For NO(2) on iron oxide particle surfaces, photoreduction is enhanced relative to gamma-Al(2)O(3) and surface bound photoreduced species are observed under all environmental conditions. Complementing the experimental data, N1s core electron binding energies (CEBEs) were calculated using DFT for a number of nitrogen-containing species in the gas phase and adsorbed on an Al(8)O(12) cluster. A range of CEBEs is calculated for various nitrogen species in different adsorption modes and oxidation states. These calculated values are discussed in light of the peaks observed in the XPS N1s region and the possible species that form following NO(2) adsorption and

  14. Biocontrol agents promote growth of potato pathogens, depending on environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Cray, Jonathan A; Connor, Mairéad C; Stevenson, Andrew; Houghton, Jonathan D R; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Cooke, Louise R; Hallsworth, John E

    2016-05-01

    There is a pressing need to understand and optimize biological control so as to avoid over-reliance on the synthetic chemical pesticides that can damage environmental and human health. This study focused on interactions between a novel biocontrol-strain, Bacillus sp. JC12GB43, and potato-pathogenic Phytophthora and Fusarium species. In assays carried out in vitro and on the potato tuber, the bacterium was capable of near-complete inhibition of pathogens. This Bacillus was sufficiently xerotolerant (water activity limit for growth = 0.928) to out-perform Phytophthora infestans (~0.960) and challenge Fusarium coeruleum (~0.847) and Fusarium sambucinum (~0.860) towards the lower limits of their growth windows. Under some conditions, however, strain JC12GB43 stimulated proliferation of the pathogens: for instance, Fusarium coeruleum growth-rate was increased under chaotropic conditions in vitro (132 mM urea) by >100% and on tubers (2-M glycerol) by up to 570%. Culture-based assays involving macromolecule-stabilizing (kosmotropic) compatible solutes provided proof-of-principle that the Bacillus may provide kosmotropic metabolites to the plant pathogen under conditions that destabilize macromolecular systems of the fungal cell. Whilst unprecedented, this finding is consistent with earlier reports that fungi can utilize metabolites derived from bacterial cells. Unless the antimicrobial activities of candidate biocontrol strains are assayed over a full range of field-relevant parameters, biocontrol agents may promote plant pathogen infections and thereby reduce crop yields. These findings indicate that biocontrol activity, therefore, ought to be regarded as a mode-of-behaviour (dependent on prevailing conditions) rather than an inherent property of a bacterial strain. PMID:26880001

  15. Biocontrol agents promote growth of potato pathogens, depending on environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Cray, Jonathan A; Connor, Mairéad C; Stevenson, Andrew; Houghton, Jonathan D R; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Cooke, Louise R; Hallsworth, John E

    2016-05-01

    There is a pressing need to understand and optimize biological control so as to avoid over-reliance on the synthetic chemical pesticides that can damage environmental and human health. This study focused on interactions between a novel biocontrol-strain, Bacillus sp. JC12GB43, and potato-pathogenic Phytophthora and Fusarium species. In assays carried out in vitro and on the potato tuber, the bacterium was capable of near-complete inhibition of pathogens. This Bacillus was sufficiently xerotolerant (water activity limit for growth = 0.928) to out-perform Phytophthora infestans (~0.960) and challenge Fusarium coeruleum (~0.847) and Fusarium sambucinum (~0.860) towards the lower limits of their growth windows. Under some conditions, however, strain JC12GB43 stimulated proliferation of the pathogens: for instance, Fusarium coeruleum growth-rate was increased under chaotropic conditions in vitro (132 mM urea) by >100% and on tubers (2-M glycerol) by up to 570%. Culture-based assays involving macromolecule-stabilizing (kosmotropic) compatible solutes provided proof-of-principle that the Bacillus may provide kosmotropic metabolites to the plant pathogen under conditions that destabilize macromolecular systems of the fungal cell. Whilst unprecedented, this finding is consistent with earlier reports that fungi can utilize metabolites derived from bacterial cells. Unless the antimicrobial activities of candidate biocontrol strains are assayed over a full range of field-relevant parameters, biocontrol agents may promote plant pathogen infections and thereby reduce crop yields. These findings indicate that biocontrol activity, therefore, ought to be regarded as a mode-of-behaviour (dependent on prevailing conditions) rather than an inherent property of a bacterial strain.

  16. Dynamics of Rear Stagnant Cap formation at the surface of spherical bubbles rising in surfactant solutions at large Reynolds numbers under conditions of small Marangoni number and slow sorption kinetics.

    PubMed

    Dukhin, S S; Kovalchuk, V I; Gochev, G G; Lotfi, M; Krzan, M; Malysa, K; Miller, R

    2015-08-01

    On the surface of bubbles rising in a surfactant solution the adsorption process proceeds and leads to the formation of a so called Rear Stagnant Cap (RSC). The larger this RSC is the stronger is the retardation of the rising velocity. The theory of a steady RSC and steady retarded rising velocity, which sets in after a transient stage, has been generally accepted. However, a non-steady process of bubble rising starting from the initial zero velocity represents an important portion of the trajectory of rising, characterized by a local velocity profile (LVP). As there is no theory of RSC growth for large Reynolds numbers Re » 1 so far, the interpretation of LVPs measured in this regime was impossible. It turned out, that an analytical theory for a quasi-steady growth of RSC is possible for small Marangoni numbers Ma « 1, i.e. when the RSC is almost completely compressed, which means a uniform surface concentration Γ(θ)=Γ(∞) within the RSC. Hence, the RSC angle ψ(t) is obtained as a function of the adsorption isotherm parameters and time t. From the steady velocity v(st)(ψ), the dependence of non-steady velocity on time is obtained by employing v(st)[ψ(t)] via a quasi-steady approximation. The measurement of LVP creates a promising new opportunity for investigation of the RSC dynamics and adsorption kinetics. While adsorption and desorption happen at the same localization in the classical methods, in rising bubble experiments desorption occurs mainly within RSC while adsorption on the mobile part of the bubble surface. The desorption flux from RSC is proportional to αΓ(∞), while it is usually αΓ. The adsorption flux at the mobile surface above RSC can be assumed proportional to βC0, while it is usually βC0(1-Γ/Γ(∞)). These simplifications may become favorable in investigations of the adsorption kinetics for larger molecules, in particular for globular proteins, which essentially stay at an interface once adsorbed.

  17. Dynamics of Rear Stagnant Cap formation at the surface of spherical bubbles rising in surfactant solutions at large Reynolds numbers under conditions of small Marangoni number and slow sorption kinetics.

    PubMed

    Dukhin, S S; Kovalchuk, V I; Gochev, G G; Lotfi, M; Krzan, M; Malysa, K; Miller, R

    2015-08-01

    On the surface of bubbles rising in a surfactant solution the adsorption process proceeds and leads to the formation of a so called Rear Stagnant Cap (RSC). The larger this RSC is the stronger is the retardation of the rising velocity. The theory of a steady RSC and steady retarded rising velocity, which sets in after a transient stage, has been generally accepted. However, a non-steady process of bubble rising starting from the initial zero velocity represents an important portion of the trajectory of rising, characterized by a local velocity profile (LVP). As there is no theory of RSC growth for large Reynolds numbers Re » 1 so far, the interpretation of LVPs measured in this regime was impossible. It turned out, that an analytical theory for a quasi-steady growth of RSC is possible for small Marangoni numbers Ma « 1, i.e. when the RSC is almost completely compressed, which means a uniform surface concentration Γ(θ)=Γ(∞) within the RSC. Hence, the RSC angle ψ(t) is obtained as a function of the adsorption isotherm parameters and time t. From the steady velocity v(st)(ψ), the dependence of non-steady velocity on time is obtained by employing v(st)[ψ(t)] via a quasi-steady approximation. The measurement of LVP creates a promising new opportunity for investigation of the RSC dynamics and adsorption kinetics. While adsorption and desorption happen at the same localization in the classical methods, in rising bubble experiments desorption occurs mainly within RSC while adsorption on the mobile part of the bubble surface. The desorption flux from RSC is proportional to αΓ(∞), while it is usually αΓ. The adsorption flux at the mobile surface above RSC can be assumed proportional to βC0, while it is usually βC0(1-Γ/Γ(∞)). These simplifications may become favorable in investigations of the adsorption kinetics for larger molecules, in particular for globular proteins, which essentially stay at an interface once adsorbed. PMID:25455807

  18. Rate constants and mechanisms for the crystallization of Al nano-goethite under environmentally relevant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazilevskaya, Ekaterina; Archibald, Douglas D.; Martínez, Carmen Enid

    2012-07-01

    Mobile inorganic and organic nanocolloidal particles originate-from and interact-with bulk solid phases in soil and sediment environments, and as such, they contribute to the dynamic properties of environmental systems. In particular, ferrihydrite and (nano)goethite are the most abundant of nanocolloidal Fe oxy(hydr)oxides in these environments. We therefore investigated the ferrihydrite to goethite phase transformation using experimental reaction conditions that mimicked environmental conditions where the formation of nanocolloidal Fe oxy(hydr)oxides may occur: slow titration of dilute solutions to pH 5 at 25 °C with and without 2 mol% Al. Subsequently, the rate constants from 54-d nano-goethite aging/crystallization experiments at 50 °C were determined using aliquots pulled for vibrational spectroscopy (including multivariate curve resolution, MCR, analyses of infrared spectra) and synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (XRD). We also present a mechanistic model that accounts for the nano-goethite crystallization observed by the aforementioned techniques, and particle structural characteristics observed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In contrast to the common assumption that metastable ferrihydrite precipitates first, before it transforms to goethite, the presence of characteristic infrared bands in freshly synthesized nanoparticle suspensions indicate goethite can precipitate directly from solution under environmentally relevant conditions: low Fe concentration, ambient temperature, and pH maintained at 5. However, the presence of 2 mol% Al prevented direct goethite precipitation. Rate constants obtained by fitting the contributions from the MCR-derived goethite-like component to the OH-stretching region were (7.4 ± 1.1) × 10-7 s-1 for 0% Al and (4.2 ± 0.4) × 10-7 s-1 for 2 mol% Al suspensions. Rate constants derived from intensities of OH-bending infrared vibrations (795 and 895 cm-1) showed similar values

  19. Migration path annotation: cross-continental study of migration-flight response to environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Mandel, James T; Bohrer, Gil; Winkler, David W; Barber, David R; Houston, C Stuart; Bildstein, Keith L

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the movements of animals is pivotal for understanding their ecology and predicting their survival in the face of rapid global changes to climate, land use, and habitats, thus facilitating more effective habitat management. Migration by flying animals is an extreme form of movement that may be especially influenced by weather. With satellite telemetry studies, and the growing availability of information about the Earth's weather and land surface conditions, many data are collected that can advance our understanding about the mechanisms that shape migrations. We present the track annotation approach for movement data analysis using information about weather from the North American Reanalysis data set, a publicly available, regional, high-resolution model-observation hybrid product, and about topography, from a publicly available high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM). As a case study, we present the analysis of the response to environmental conditions in three contrasting populations of Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) across North America, tracked with a three-dimensional GPS-based sensor. Two populations in the east and west coasts of the United States responded similarly to weather, indicating use of both slope and thermal soaring. Continental-interior, "Plains populations," exhibited a different migratory pattern primarily indicative of thermal soaring. These differences help us understand the constraints and behaviors of soaring migrants. The track annotation approach allowed large-scale comparative study of movement in an important migratory species, and will enable similar studies at local to global scales.

  20. The effect of environmental conditions on the ability of a constructed wetland to disinfect municipal wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Zdragas, A; Zalidis, G C; Takavakoglou, V; Katsavouni, S; Anastasiadis, E T; Eskridge, K; Panoras, A

    2002-04-01

    Constructed wetlands are widely used all over the world for the treatment of municipal wastewaters, which are characterized by high concentrations of pathogens. The objectives of this study were (1) to study the effect of solar radiation and temperature on the ability of a constructed wetland to reduce the concentration of total coliforms (TC), and (2) to evaluate the relationship between the presence of Salmonella spp. in the outflow and the concentration of TC. The results of this study showed that under Mediterranean environmental conditions, the percentage reduction in coliforms was lower during winter compared to all other seasons. Maximum removal of coliforms was achieved under conditions of high solar radiation and temperature. In addition, solar radiation was found to play a greater role in coliform die-off at low temperatures than at high temperatures. Finally, it was found that the probability of Salmonella spp. appearance in the outflow of the wetland was related to the concentration of TC. The increase in coliform bacteria in the effluents also increased the chances of Salmonella appearance. The risk of Salmonella spp. appearance in the outflow is minimized when the concentration of TC is below 10(2)/100 mL.

  1. Environmental conditions of the Laptev Sea region in the late postglacial time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidina, O. D.

    2016-01-01

    The comparison between the first results of comprehensive micropaleontological analysis (pollen, spores, foraminifera, and ostracods) and those of radiocarbon dating (AMS14C) for the sediments of the eastern inner shelf of the Laptev Sea (the core collected from depth of 37 m) indicates that considerable changes in natural conditions in the sea and on land coincide in time and refer to the time period of 1500-1700 years B.P. This period is characterized by changes in microfossils: appearance of thermophilic pollen and planktonic foraminifera and increase in total number of benthic foraminifera and ostracods. Intense warming and humidification of the climate reconstructed for this 200-year period promoted the expansion of large-shrub tundra. Summer air temperatures were lower than that in the peak mid-Holocene climatic optimum by 2°-3°C, but 1°C higher than the present-day temperature. An estuary freshwater basin developed: it was strongly affected by river discharge, but North Atlantic waters also intensely penetrated here in short-term intervals. In general, the studied microfossil complex reflects the relatively stable environmental conditions and decrease in seawater salinity in the eastern part of the Laptev Sea shelf during the last 2300 years.

  2. Evaluation of the 1996 NRC beef model under western Canadian environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Block, H C; McKinnon, J J; Mustafa, A F; Christensen, D A

    2001-01-01

    Two feedlot trials were conducted to evaluate the 1996 NRC beef model under western Canadian conditions. In the first trial, 144 Charolais- (304.6 +/- 16.3 kg) and 144 Hereford- (295.1 +/- 20.8 kg) cross steers were used, whereas the second trial used 88 Angus- (289.7 +/- 15.0 kg), 88 Charolais- (299.8 +/- 17.9 kg), and 88 Hereford- (291.1 +/- 20.9 kg) cross steers. Diets were based on barley silage, rolled barley grain, canola meal, and cereal straw and were analyzed according to the 1996 NRC methodologies. Animal performance and environmental data were collected for 24 pens of steers per trial for the backgrounding and finishing periods. Levels 1 and 2 of the 1996 NRC model were used to generate predictions of DMI and ADG for each pen. Results showed that actual finishing DMI was accurately predicted for Trial 1 and for the combined trials but not for Trial 2. Predicted ADG was lower (P < 0.05) than actual ADG for all feeding periods except Level 1 of the Trial 1 finishing period. All ADG residuals were significant (P < 0.05), indicating inaccurate prediction of ADG in all feeding periods. The 1996 NRC model consistently predicted that protein was not limiting gain. Further investigations and model refinement regarding animal energy requirements under cold weather conditions and effects of limit feeding are required to increase the accuracy of the 1996 NRC model in predicting animal performance. PMID:11204711

  3. Towards generalised reference condition models for environmental assessment: a case study on rivers in Atlantic Canada.

    PubMed

    Armanini, D G; Monk, W A; Carter, L; Cote, D; Baird, D J

    2013-08-01

    Evaluation of the ecological status of river sites in Canada is supported by building models using the reference condition approach. However, geography, data scarcity and inter-operability constraints have frustrated attempts to monitor national-scale status and trends. This issue is particularly true in Atlantic Canada, where no ecological assessment system is currently available. Here, we present a reference condition model based on the River Invertebrate Prediction and Classification System approach with regional-scale applicability. To achieve this, we used biological monitoring data collected from wadeable streams across Atlantic Canada together with freely available, nationally consistent geographic information system (GIS) environmental data layers. For the first time, we demonstrated that it is possible to use data generated from different studies, even when collected using different sampling methods, to generate a robust predictive model. This model was successfully generated and tested using GIS-based rather than local habitat variables and showed improved performance when compared to a null model. In addition, ecological quality ratio data derived from the model responded to observed stressors in a test dataset. Implications for future large-scale implementation of river biomonitoring using a standardised approach with global application are presented. PMID:23250724

  4. Benefits of environmental conditions for growing coriander in Banat Region, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Acimovic, Milica; Oljaca, Snezana; Jacimovic, G